WorldWideScience

Sample records for mass companion 2m1207

  1. A spectral differential characterization of low-mass companions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubchik Y.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a new approach with which the dynamical mass of low-mass companions around cool stars can be found. In order to discover companions to late-type stars the stellar spectrum is removed. For this we substract two spectra obtained at different orbital phases from each other in order to discover the companion spectrum in the difference spectrum in which the companion lines appear twice (positive and negative signal. The resulting radial velocity difference of these two signals provides the true mass of the companion. For our test case GJ1046, an M2V dwarf with a low-mass companion that most likely is a brown dwarf we select the CO line region in the K-band. We show that the dynamical mass of a faint companion to an M dwarf can be determined using our spectral differential technique. Only if the companion rotates rapidly and has a small radial velocity amplitude due to a high mass, does blending occur for all lines so that our approach fails. In addition to determining the companion mass, we restore the single companion spectrum from the difference spectrum using singular value decomposition.

  2. Searching For Low-mass Companions Of Cepheids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remage Evans, Nancy; Bond, H.; Schaefer, G.; Karovska, M.; Mason, B.; DePasquale, J.; Pillitteri, I.; Guinan, E.; Engle, S.

    2011-05-01

    The role played by binary and multiple stars in star formation is receiving a great deal of attention, both theoretically and observationally. Two questions under discussion are how wide physical companions can be and how frequently massive stars have low mass companions. An important new observational tool is the development of high resolution imaging, both from space and from the ground (Adaptive Optics and interferometry). We are conducting a snapshot survey of the nearest Cepheids using the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). The aim is to discover possible resolved low mass companions. Results from this survey will be discussed, including images of Eta Aql. X-ray luminosity can confirm or refute that putative low mass companions are young enough to be physical companions. This project tests the reality of both wide and low mass companions of these intermediate-mass stars.

  3. Low-Mass Stars and Their Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montet, Benjamin Tyler

    In this thesis, I present seven studies aimed towards better understanding the demographics and physical properties of M dwarfs and their companions. These studies focus in turn on planetary, brown dwarf, and stellar companions to M dwarfs. I begin with an analysis of radial velocity and transit timing analyses of multi-transiting planetary systems, finding that if both signals are measured to sufficiently high precision the stellar and planetary masses can be measured to a high precision, eliminating a need for stellar models which may have systematic errors. I then combine long-term radial velocity monitoring and a direct imaging campaign to measure the occurrence rate of giant planets around M dwarfs. I find that 6.5 +/- 3.0% of M dwarfs host a Jupiter mass or larger planet within 20 AU, with a strong dependence on stellar metallicity. I then present two papers analyzing the LHS 6343 system, which contains a widely separated M dwarf binary (AB). Star A hosts a transiting brown dwarf (LHS 6343 C) with a 12.7 day period. By combining radial velocity data with transit photometry, I am able to measure the mass and radius of the brown dwarf to 2% precision, the most precise measurement of a brown dwarf to date. I then analyze four secondary eclipses of the LHS 6343 AC system as observed by Spitzer in order to measure the luminosity of the brown dwarf in both Spitzer bandpasses. I find the brown dwarf is consistent with theoretical models of an 1100 K T dwarf at an age of 5 Gyr and empirical observations of field T5-6 dwarfs with temperatures of 1070 +/- 130 K. This is the first non-inflated brown dwarf with a measured mass, radius, and multi-band photometry, making it an ideal test of evolutionary models of field brown dwarfs. Next, I present the results of an astrometric and radial velocity campaign to measure the orbit and masses of both stars in the GJ 3305 AB system, an M+M binary comoving with 51 Eridani, a more massive star with a directly imaged planetary

  4. LOW-MASS VISUAL COMPANIONS TO NEARBY G-DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    A complete census of wide visual companions to nearby G-dwarf stars can be achieved by selecting candidates from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) Point-Source Catalog and checking their status by second-epoch imaging. Such data are obtained for 124 candidates with separations up to 20'', 47 of which are shown to be new physical low-mass stellar companions. A list of visual binaries with G-dwarf primaries is produced by combining newly found companions with historical data. Maximum likelihood analysis leads to a companion frequency of 0.13 ± 0.015 per decade of separation. The mass ratio is distributed almost uniformly, with a power-law index between -0.4 and 0. The remaining uncertainty in the index is related to modeling of the companion detection threshold in 2MASS. These findings are confirmed by an alternative analysis of wider companions in 2MASS, removing the contamination by background stars statistically. Extension of this work will lead to a complete detection of visual companions-a necessary step toward reaching unbiased multiplicity statistics over the full range of orbital periods and, eventually, understanding the origin of multiple systems.

  5. Searching for Low-mass Companions of Cepheids, Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remage Evans, Nancy; Tingle, E.; Bond, H. E.; Schaefer, G. H.; Mason, B.; Karovska, M.; Wolk, S.; Pillitteri, I.; DePasquale, J.; Guinan, E.; Engle, S.

    2012-01-01

    The formation of a binary/multiple system is an effective way to manipulate angular momentum during the star-formation process. The properties of binary systems (separations and mass ratios) are thus the ``fingerprints" of the process. Low mass companions are the most difficult to identify particularly for massive stars. We are conducting a snapshot survey of the nearest Cepheids (5 Msun stars) using the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) to discover possible resolved low mass companions. The color-magnitude combination is the first approach to identifying probable physical companions. The distributions of mass and separation for these stars will be discussed. Financial suppoet was provided by Hubble grant GO-12215.01-A and the Chandra X-ray Center NASA contract NAS8-03060.

  6. BINARY FORMATION MECHANISMS: CONSTRAINTS FROM THE COMPANION MASS RATIO DISTRIBUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reggiani, Maddalena M.; Meyer, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    We present a statistical comparison of the mass ratio distribution of companions, as observed in different multiplicity surveys, to the most recent estimate of the single-object mass function. The main goal of our analysis is to test whether or not the observed companion mass ratio distribution (CMRD) as a function of primary star mass and star formation environment is consistent with having been drawn from the field star initial mass function (IMF). We consider samples of companions for M dwarfs, solar-type stars, and intermediate-mass stars, both in the field as well as clusters or associations, and compare them with populations of binaries generated by random pairing from the assumed IMF for a fixed primary mass. With regard to the field we can reject the hypothesis that the CMRD was drawn from the IMF for different primary mass ranges: the observed CMRDs show a larger number of equal-mass systems than predicted by the IMF. This is in agreement with fragmentation theories of binary formation. For the open clusters α Persei and the Pleiades we also reject the IMF random-pairing hypothesis. Concerning young star-forming regions, currently we can rule out a connection between the CMRD and the field IMF in Taurus but not in Chamaeleon I. Larger and different samples are needed to better constrain the result as a function of the environment. We also consider other companion mass functions and we compare them with observations. Moreover the CMRD both in the field and clusters or associations appears to be independent of separation in the range covered by the observations. Combining therefore the CMRDs of M (1-2400 AU) and G (28-1590 AU) primaries in the field and intermediate-mass primary binaries in Sco OB2 (29-1612 AU) for mass ratios, q = M 2 /M 1 , from 0.2 to 1, we find that the best chi-square fit follows a power law dN/dq∝q β , with β = -0.50 ± 0.29, consistent with previous results. Finally, we note that the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test gives a ∼1

  7. THE MASS DISTRIBUTION OF COMPANIONS TO LOW-MASS WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, Jeff J.; Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Agüeros, Marcel A.

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the masses of companions to single-line spectroscopic binary stars is (in general) not possible because of the unknown orbital plane inclination. Even when the mass of the visible star can be measured, only a lower limit can be placed on the mass of the unseen companion. However, since these inclination angles should be isotropically distributed, for a large enough, unbiased sample, the companion mass distribution can be deconvolved from the distribution of observables. In this work, we construct a hierarchical probabilistic model to infer properties of unseen companion stars given observations of the orbital period and projected radial velocity of the primary star. We apply this model to three mock samples of low-mass white dwarfs (LMWDs; M ≲ 0.45 M ☉ ) and a sample of post-common-envelope binaries. We use a mixture of two Gaussians to model the WD and neutron star (NS) companion mass distributions. Our model successfully recovers the initial parameters of these test data sets. We then apply our model to 55 WDs in the extremely low-mass (ELM) WD Survey. Our maximum a posteriori model for the WD companion population has a mean mass μ WD = 0.74 M ☉ , with a standard deviation σ WD = 0.24 M ☉ . Our model constrains the NS companion fraction f NS to be <16% at 68% confidence. We make samples from the posterior distribution publicly available so that future observational efforts may compute the NS probability for newly discovered LMWDs

  8. Chandra Observation of Polaris: Census of Low-mass Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Guinan, Edward; Engle, Scott; Wolk, Scott J.; Schlegel, Eric; Mason, Brian D.; Karovska, Margarita; Spitzbart, Bradley

    2010-05-01

    We have observed Cepheid Polaris (α UMi A: F7 Ib [Aa] + F6 V [Ab]) with Chandra ACIS-I for 10 ks. An X-ray source was found at the location of Polaris with log LX = 28.89 erg s-1 (0.3-8 keV) and kT = 0.6 keV. A spectrum this soft could come from either the supergiant or the dwarf, as shown by comparable coronal stars. Two resolved low-mass visual companions, "C" and "D," are not physical members of the system based on the lack of X-rays (indicating an age older than the Cepheid) and inconsistent proper motions. Polaris B is not an X-ray source, consistent with its early F spectral type, and probably does not have a lower mass companion itself. A possible more distant member is identified, and an additional less plausible one. This provides a complete census of companions out to 0.1 pc covering a mass ratio range of an order of magnitude and a ΔV of nearly 15 mag. Based on observations made with the NASA Chandra Satellite.

  9. CHANDRA OBSERVATION OF POLARIS: CENSUS OF LOW-MASS COMPANIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remage Evans, Nancy; Wolk, Scott J.; Karovska, Margarita; Spitzbart, Bradley; Guinan, Edward; Engle, Scott; Schlegel, Eric; Mason, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    We have observed Cepheid Polaris (α UMi A: F7 Ib [Aa] + F6 V [Ab]) with Chandra ACIS-I for 10 ks. An X-ray source was found at the location of Polaris with log L X = 28.89 erg s -1 (0.3-8 keV) and kT = 0.6 keV. A spectrum this soft could come from either the supergiant or the dwarf, as shown by comparable coronal stars. Two resolved low-mass visual companions, 'C' and 'D', are not physical members of the system based on the lack of X-rays (indicating an age older than the Cepheid) and inconsistent proper motions. Polaris B is not an X-ray source, consistent with its early F spectral type, and probably does not have a lower mass companion itself. A possible more distant member is identified, and an additional less plausible one. This provides a complete census of companions out to 0.1 pc covering a mass ratio range of an order of magnitude and a ΔV of nearly 15 mag.

  10. THE MASS DISTRIBUTION OF COMPANIONS TO LOW-MASS WHITE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Jeff J.; Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Agüeros, Marcel A. [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 W 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2014-12-20

    Measuring the masses of companions to single-line spectroscopic binary stars is (in general) not possible because of the unknown orbital plane inclination. Even when the mass of the visible star can be measured, only a lower limit can be placed on the mass of the unseen companion. However, since these inclination angles should be isotropically distributed, for a large enough, unbiased sample, the companion mass distribution can be deconvolved from the distribution of observables. In this work, we construct a hierarchical probabilistic model to infer properties of unseen companion stars given observations of the orbital period and projected radial velocity of the primary star. We apply this model to three mock samples of low-mass white dwarfs (LMWDs; M ≲ 0.45 M {sub ☉}) and a sample of post-common-envelope binaries. We use a mixture of two Gaussians to model the WD and neutron star (NS) companion mass distributions. Our model successfully recovers the initial parameters of these test data sets. We then apply our model to 55 WDs in the extremely low-mass (ELM) WD Survey. Our maximum a posteriori model for the WD companion population has a mean mass μ{sub WD} = 0.74 M {sub ☉}, with a standard deviation σ{sub WD} = 0.24 M {sub ☉}. Our model constrains the NS companion fraction f {sub NS} to be <16% at 68% confidence. We make samples from the posterior distribution publicly available so that future observational efforts may compute the NS probability for newly discovered LMWDs.

  11. The convective noise floor for the spectroscopic detection of low mass companions to solar type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, D.; Espenak, F.; Jennings, D. E.; Brault, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    The threshold mass for the unambiguous spectroscopic detection of low mass companions to solar type stars is defined here as the time when the maximum acceleration in the stellar radial velocity due to the Doppler reflex of the companion exceeds the apparent acceleration produced by changes in convection. An apparent acceleration of 11 m/s/yr in integrated sunlight was measured using near infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy. This drift in the apparent solar velocity is attributed to a lessening in the magnetic inhibition of granular convection as solar minimum approaches. The threshold mass for spectroscopic detection of companions to a one solar mass star is estimated at below one Jupiter mass.

  12. FRIENDS OF HOT JUPITERS. III. AN INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC SEARCH FOR LOW-MASS STELLAR COMPANIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piskorz, Danielle; Knutson, Heather A.; Ngo, Henry; Batygin, Konstantin [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Muirhead, Philip S. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA (United States); Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, South Bend, IN (United States); Hinkley, Sasha [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Exeter (United Kingdom); Morton, Timothy D., E-mail: dpiskorz@gps.caltech.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Surveys of nearby field stars indicate that stellar binaries are common, yet little is known about the effects that these companions may have on planet formation and evolution. The Friends of Hot Jupiters project uses three complementary techniques to search for stellar companions to known planet-hosting stars: radial velocity monitoring, adaptive optics imaging, and near-infrared spectroscopy. In this paper, we examine high-resolution K band infrared spectra of fifty stars hosting gas giant planets on short-period orbits. We use spectral fitting to search for blended lines due to the presence of cool stellar companions in the spectra of our target stars, where we are sensitive to companions with temperatures between 3500 and 5000 K and projected separations less than 100 AU in most systems. We identify eight systems with candidate low-mass companions, including one companion that was independently detected in our AO imaging survey. For systems with radial velocity accelerations, a spectroscopic non-detection rules out scenarios involving a stellar companion in a high inclination orbit. We use these data to place an upper limit on the stellar binary fraction at small projected separations, and show that the observed population of candidate companions is consistent with that of field stars and also with the population of wide-separation companions detected in our previous AO survey. We find no evidence that spectroscopic stellar companions are preferentially located in systems with short-period gas giant planets on eccentric and/or misaligned orbits.

  13. FRIENDS OF HOT JUPITERS. III. AN INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC SEARCH FOR LOW-MASS STELLAR COMPANIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piskorz, Danielle; Knutson, Heather A.; Ngo, Henry; Batygin, Konstantin; Muirhead, Philip S.; Crepp, Justin R.; Hinkley, Sasha; Morton, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    Surveys of nearby field stars indicate that stellar binaries are common, yet little is known about the effects that these companions may have on planet formation and evolution. The Friends of Hot Jupiters project uses three complementary techniques to search for stellar companions to known planet-hosting stars: radial velocity monitoring, adaptive optics imaging, and near-infrared spectroscopy. In this paper, we examine high-resolution K band infrared spectra of fifty stars hosting gas giant planets on short-period orbits. We use spectral fitting to search for blended lines due to the presence of cool stellar companions in the spectra of our target stars, where we are sensitive to companions with temperatures between 3500 and 5000 K and projected separations less than 100 AU in most systems. We identify eight systems with candidate low-mass companions, including one companion that was independently detected in our AO imaging survey. For systems with radial velocity accelerations, a spectroscopic non-detection rules out scenarios involving a stellar companion in a high inclination orbit. We use these data to place an upper limit on the stellar binary fraction at small projected separations, and show that the observed population of candidate companions is consistent with that of field stars and also with the population of wide-separation companions detected in our previous AO survey. We find no evidence that spectroscopic stellar companions are preferentially located in systems with short-period gas giant planets on eccentric and/or misaligned orbits

  14. Emission - line theoretical profiles for Wolf- Rayet stars with low-mass companions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antokhin, I.I.

    1986-01-01

    Profiles of the resonant line λ 765 A and the subordinate line λ 4058 of N4 have been calculated for a binary system medel consisting of the Wolf-Rayet star and the low-mass companion (possibly, a relativistic object) by means of Sobolev approximation. The equations of statistical equilibrium have been solved for the first 32 levels of N4. Two cases have been considered: 1) detached zone of N5 surrounding the Wolf-Rayet star and the companion; 2) common zone of N5. The criteria for detection of presence of a companion in line profile observations have been formulated

  15. The BDNYC database of low-mass stars, brown dwarfs, and planetary mass companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Kelle; Rodriguez, David; Filippazzo, Joseph; Gonzales, Eileen; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Rice, Emily; BDNYC

    2018-01-01

    We present a web-interface to a database of low-mass stars, brown dwarfs, and planetary mass companions. Users can send SELECT SQL queries to the database, perform searches by coordinates or name, check the database inventory on specified objects, and even plot spectra interactively. The initial version of this database contains information for 198 objects and version 2 will contain over 1000 objects. The database currently includes photometric data from 2MASS, WISE, and Spitzer and version 2 will include a significant portion of the publicly available optical and NIR spectra for brown dwarfs. The database is maintained and curated by the BDNYC research group and we welcome contributions from other researchers via GitHub.

  16. New Clues to the Mysterious Origin of Wide-Separation Planetary-Mass Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Marta

    2018-01-01

    Over the past decade, direct imaging searches for young gas giant planets have revealed a new population of young planetary-mass companions with extremely wide orbital separations (>50 AU) and masses near or at the deuterium-burning limit. These companions pose significant challenges to standard formation models, including core accretion, disk instability, and turbulent fragmentation. In my talk I will discuss new results from high-contrast imaging and high-resolution infrared spectroscopy of a sample of directly imaged wide-separation companions that can be used to directly test these three competing formation mechanisms. First, I use high-contrast imaging to strongly discount scattering as a hypothesis for the origin of wide-separation companions. Second, I measure rotation rates of a subset of these companions using their near-IR spectra, and place the first constraints on the angular momentum evolution of young planetary-mass objects. Finally, I explore the ability of high-resolution spectroscopy to constrain the atmospheric C/O ratios of these companions, providing a complementary test of competing formation scenarios.

  17. EVOLUTIONARY TRAJECTORIES OF ULTRACOMPACT 'BLACK WIDOW' PULSARS WITH VERY LOW MASS COMPANIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benvenuto, O. G.; De Vito, M. A. [Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata and Instituto de Astrofisica de La Plata (IALP), CCT-CONICET-UNLP, Paseo del Bosque S/N (B1900FWA), La Plata (Argentina); Horvath, J. E., E-mail: obenvenu@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: adevito@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: foton@astro.iag.usp.br [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, R. do Matao 1226 (05508-090), Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-10

    The existence of millisecond pulsars with planet-mass companions in close orbits is challenging from the stellar evolution point of view. We calculate in detail the evolution of binary systems self-consistently, including mass transfer, evaporation, and irradiation of the donor by X-ray feedback, demonstrating the existence of a new evolutionary path leading to short periods and compact donors as required by the observations of PSR J1719-1438. We also point out the alternative of an exotic nature of the companion planet-mass star.

  18. A RADIO SEARCH FOR PULSAR COMPANIONS TO SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY LOW-MASS WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agueeros, Marcel A.; Camilo, Fernando; Silvestri, Nicole M.; Anderson, Scott F.; Kleinman, S. J.; Liebert, James W.

    2009-01-01

    We have conducted a search for pulsar companions to 15 low-mass white dwarfs (LMWDs; M sun ) at 820 MHz with the NRAO Green Bank Telescope (GBT). These LMWDs were spectroscopically identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), and do not show the photometric excess or spectroscopic signature associated with a companion in their discovery data. However, LMWDs are believed to evolve in binary systems and to have either a more massive white dwarf (WD) or a neutron star (NS) as a companion. Indeed, evolutionary models of low-mass X-ray binaries, the precursors of millisecond pulsars (MSPs), produce significant numbers of LMWDs, suggesting that the SDSS LMWDs may have NS companions. No convincing pulsar signal is detected in our data. This is consistent with the findings of van Leeuwen et al., who conducted a GBT search for radio pulsations at 340 MHz from unseen companions to eight SDSS WDs (five are still considered LMWDs; the three others are now classified as 'ordinary' WDs). We discuss the constraints our nondetections place on the probability P MSP that the companion to a given LMWD is a radio pulsar in the context of the luminosity and acceleration limits of our search; we find that P MSP +4 -2 %.

  19. Discovery of a wide planetary-mass companion to the young M3 star GU PSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naud, Marie-Eve; Artigau, Étienne; Malo, Lison; Albert, Loïc; Doyon, René; Lafrenière, David; Gagné, Jonathan; Boucher, Anne [Département de physique and Observatoire du Mont-Mégantic, Université de Montréal, Montréal H3C 3J7 (Canada); Saumon, Didier [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Morley, Caroline V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Allard, France; Homeier, Derek [Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon, UMR 5574 CNRS, Université de Lyon, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 Allée d' Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Beichman, Charles A.; Gelino, Christopher R., E-mail: naud@astro.umontreal.ca [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    We present the discovery of a comoving planetary-mass companion ∼42'' (∼2000 AU) from a young M3 star, GU Psc, a likely member of the young AB Doradus Moving Group (ABDMG). The companion was first identified via its distinctively red i – z color (>3.5) through a survey made with Gemini-S/GMOS. Follow-up Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/WIRCam near-infrared (NIR) imaging, Gemini-N/GNIRS NIR spectroscopy and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry indicate a spectral type of T3.5 ± 1 and reveal signs of low gravity which we attribute to youth. Keck/Adaptive Optics NIR observations did not resolve the companion as a binary. A comparison with atmosphere models indicates T {sub eff} = 1000-1100 K and log g = 4.5-5.0. Based on evolution models, this temperature corresponds to a mass of 9-13 M {sub Jup} for the age of ABDMG (70-130 Myr). The relatively well-constrained age of this companion and its very large angular separation to its host star will allow its thorough characterization and will make it a valuable comparison for planetary-mass companions that will be uncovered by forthcoming planet-finder instruments such as Gemini Planet Imager and SPHERE 9.

  20. VERY LOW MASS STELLAR AND SUBSTELLAR COMPANIONS TO SOLAR-LIKE STARS FROM MARVELS. IV. A CANDIDATE BROWN DWARF OR LOW-MASS STELLAR COMPANION TO HIP 67526

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Peng; Ge Jian; De Lee, Nathan; Fleming, Scott W.; Lee, Brian L.; Ma Bo; Wang, Ji [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, P.O. Box 112055, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Cargile, Phillip; Hebb, Leslie; Stassun, Keivan G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.; Ferreira, Leticia D. [Observatorio do Valongo, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ladeira do Pedro Antonio, 43, CEP: 20080-090, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Esposito, Massimiliano; Femenia, Bruno; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jonay I. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/Via Lactea S/N, E-38200 La Laguna (Spain); Gaudi, B. Scott [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Ghezzi, Luan [Laboratorio Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia (LIneA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400 (Brazil); Wisniewski, John P. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Agol, Eric, E-mail: jpaty@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); and others

    2013-09-15

    We report the discovery of a candidate brown dwarf (BD) or a very low mass stellar companion (MARVELS-5b) to the star HIP 67526 from the Multi-object Apache point observatory Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS). The radial velocity curve for this object contains 31 epochs spread over 2.5 yr. Our Keplerian fit, using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach, reveals that the companion has an orbital period of 90.2695{sup +0.0188}{sub -0.0187} days, an eccentricity of 0.4375 {+-} 0.0040, and a semi-amplitude of 2948.14{sup +16.65}{sub -16.55} m s{sup -1}. Using additional high-resolution spectroscopy, we find the host star has an effective temperature T{sub eff} = 6004 {+-} 34 K, a surface gravity log g (cgs) =4.55 {+-} 0.17, and a metallicity [Fe/H] =+0.04 {+-} 0.06. The stellar mass and radius determined through the empirical relationship of Torres et al. yields 1.10 {+-} 0.09 M{sub Sun} and 0.92 {+-} 0.19 R{sub Sun }. The minimum mass of MARVELS-5b is 65.0 {+-} 2.9M{sub Jup}, indicating that it is likely to be either a BD or a very low mass star, thus occupying a relatively sparsely populated region of the mass function of companions to solar-type stars. The distance to this system is 101 {+-} 10 pc from the astrometric measurements of Hipparcos. No stellar tertiary is detected in the high-contrast images taken by either FastCam lucky imaging or Keck adaptive optics imaging, ruling out any star with mass greater than 0.2 M{sub Sun} at a separation larger than 40 AU.

  1. Inferring the Composition of Super-Jupiter Mass Companions of Pulsars with Radio Line Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Alak; Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: akr@tifr.res.in, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute of Theory and Computation, Center for Astrophysics, Harvard University 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-02-10

    We propose using radio line spectroscopy to detect molecular absorption lines (such as OH at 1.6–1.7 GHz) before and after the total eclipse of black widow and other short orbital period binary pulsars with low-mass companions. The companion in such a binary may be ablated away by energetic particles and high-energy radiation produced by the pulsar wind. The observations will probe the eclipsing wind being ablated by the pulsar and constrain the nature of the companion and its surroundings. Maser emission from the interstellar medium stimulated by a pulsar beam might also be detected from the intrabinary medium. The short temporal resolution allowed by the millisecond pulsars can probe this medium with the high angular resolution of the pulsar beam.

  2. DISCOVERY OF A LOW-MASS COMPANION TO THE SOLAR-TYPE STAR TYC 2534-698-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, Stephen R.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Cochran, William D.; Street, Rachel A.; Henry, Gregory W.; Williamson, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    Brown dwarfs and low-mass stellar companions are interesting objects to study since they occupy the mass region between deuterium and hydrogen burning. We report here the serendipitous discovery of a low-mass companion in an eccentric orbit around a solar-type main-sequence star. The stellar primary, TYC 2534-698-1, is a G2V star that was monitored both spectroscopically and photometrically over the course of several months. Radial velocity observations indicate a minimum mass of 0.037 M sun and an orbital period of ∼103 days for the companion. Photometry outside of the transit window shows the star to be stable to within ∼6 millimags. The semimajor axis of the orbit places the companion in the 'brown dwarf desert' and we discuss potential follow-up observations that could constrain the mass of the companion.

  3. A mass transfer origin for blue stragglers in NGC 188 as revealed by half-solar-mass companions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Aaron M; Mathieu, Robert D

    2011-10-19

    In open star clusters, where all members formed at about the same time, blue straggler stars are typically observed to be brighter and bluer than hydrogen-burning main-sequence stars, and therefore should already have evolved into giant stars and stellar remnants. Correlations between blue straggler frequency and cluster binary star fraction, core mass and radial position suggest that mass transfer or mergers in binary stars dominates the production of blue stragglers in open clusters. Analytic models, detailed observations and sophisticated N-body simulations, however, argue in favour of stellar collisions. Here we report that the blue stragglers in long-period binaries in the old (7 × 10(9)-year) open cluster NGC 188 have companions with masses of about half a solar mass, with a surprisingly narrow mass distribution. This conclusively rules out a collisional origin, as the collision hypothesis predicts a companion mass distribution with significantly higher masses. Mergers in hierarchical triple stars are marginally permitted by the data, but the observations do not favour this hypothesis. The data are highly consistent with a mass transfer origin for the long-period blue straggler binaries in NGC 188, in which the companions would be white dwarfs of about half a solar mass.

  4. NO NEUTRON STAR COMPANION TO THE LOWEST MASS SDSS WHITE DWARF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agueeros, Marcel A.; Camilo, Fernando; Heinke, Craig; Kilic, Mukremin; Anderson, Scott F.; Silvestri, Nicole M.; Freire, Paulo; Kleinman, Scot J.; Liebert, James W.

    2009-01-01

    SDSS J091709.55+463821.8 (hereafter J0917+4638) is the lowest surface gravity white dwarf (WD) currently known, with log g = 5.55 ± 0.05 (M ∼ 0.17 M sun ). Such low-mass white dwarfs (LMWDs) are believed to originate in binaries that evolve into WD/WD or WD/neutron star (NS) systems. An optical search for J0917+4638's companion showed that it must be a compact object with a mass ≥0.28 M sun . Here we report on Green Bank Telescope 820 MHz and XMM-Newton X-ray observations of J0917+4638 intended to uncover a potential NS companion to the LMWD. No convincing pulsar signal is detected in our radio data. Our X-ray observation also failed to detect X-ray emission from J0917+4638's companion, while we would have detected any of the millisecond radio pulsars in 47 Tuc. We conclude that the companion is almost certainly another WD.

  5. THE SEARCH FOR PLANETARY MASS COMPANIONS TO FIELD BROWN DWARFS WITH HST/NICMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumpf, M. B.; Brandner, W.; Joergens, V.; Henning, Th.; Bouy, H.; Koehler, R.; Kasper, M.

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a high-resolution spectral differential imaging survey of 12 nearby, relatively young field L dwarfs (≤1 Gyr) carried out with the Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS to search for planetary mass companions at small physical separations from their host. The survey resolved two brown dwarf binaries: the L dwarf system Kelu-1 AB and the newly discovered L/T transition system 2MASS 031059+164815 AB. For both systems, common proper motion has already been confirmed in follow-up observations which have been published elsewhere. The derived separations of the binaries are smaller than 6 AU and consistent with previous brown dwarf binary statistics. Their mass ratios of q ≥ 0.8 confirm the preference for equal-mass systems similar to a large number of other surveys. Furthermore, we found tentative evidence for a companion to the L4 dwarf 2MASSW 033703-175807, straddling the brown dwarf/planetary mass boundary and revealing an uncommonly low-mass ratio system (q ∼ 0.2) compared to the vast majority of previously found brown dwarf binaries. With a derived minimum mass of 10-15 M Jup a planetary nature of the secondary cannot be ruled out yet. However, it seems more likely to be a very low mass brown dwarf secondary at the border of the spectral T/Y transition regime, primarily due to its similarities to recently found very cool T dwarfs. This would make it one of the closest resolved brown dwarf binaries (0.''087 ± 0.''015, corresponding to 2.52 ± 0.44 AU at a distance of 29 pc) with the coolest (T eff ∼ 600-630 K) and least massive companion to any L or T dwarf.

  6. THE PALOMAR/KECK ADAPTIVE OPTICS SURVEY OF YOUNG SOLAR ANALOGS: EVIDENCE FOR A UNIVERSAL COMPANION MASS FUNCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metchev, Stanimir A.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.

    2009-01-01

    We present results from an adaptive optics survey for substellar and stellar companions to Sun-like stars. The survey targeted 266 F5-K5 stars in the 3 Myr-3 Gyr age range with distances of 10-190 pc. Results from the survey include the discovery of two brown dwarf companions (HD 49197B and HD 203030B), 24 new stellar binaries, and a triple system. We infer that the frequency of 0.012-0.072 M sun brown dwarfs in 28-1590 AU orbits around young solar analogs is 3.2 +3.1 -2.7 % (2σ limits). The result demonstrates that the deficiency of substellar companions at wide orbital separations from Sun-like stars is less pronounced than in the radial velocity 'brown dwarf desert'. We infer that the mass distribution of companions in 28-1590 AU orbits around solar-mass stars follows a continuous dN/dM 2 ∝ M -0.4 2 relation over the 0.01-1.0 M sun secondary mass range. While this functional form is similar to that for isolated objects less than 0.1 M sun , over the entire 0.01-1.0 M sun range, the mass functions of companions and of isolated objects differ significantly. Based on this conclusion and on similar results from other direct imaging and radial velocity companion surveys in the literature, we argue that the companion mass function follows the same universal form over the entire range between 0 and 1590 AU in orbital semimajor axis and ∼ 0.01-20 M sun in companion mass. In this context, the relative dearth of substellar versus stellar secondaries at all orbital separations arises naturally from the inferred form of the companion mass function.

  7. The κ Andromedae system: new constraints on the companion mass, system age, and further multiplicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkley, Sasha; David, Trevor; Hillenbrand, Lynne A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Pueyo, Laurent [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Faherty, Jacqueline K. [Department of Astronomy, Universidad de Chile Cerro Calan, Las Condes (Chile); Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Brenner, Douglas; Veicht, Aaron; Nilsson, Ricky [Astrophysics Department, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Mamajek, Eric E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0171 (United States); Kraus, Adam L. [Harvard-Smithsonian CfA, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02140 (United States); Rice, Emily L. [Department of Engineering Science and Physics, College of Staten Island, City University of New York, Staten Island, NY 10314 (United States); Ireland, Michael J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Vasisht, Gautam; Cady, Eric; Roberts, Jennifer E. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Zimmerman, Neil [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Parry, Ian R. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Beichman, Charles [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dekany, Richard [Caltech Optical Observatories, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); and others

    2013-12-20

    κ Andromedae is a B9IVn star at 52 pc for which a faint substellar companion separated by 55 ± 2 AU was recently announced. In this work, we present the first spectrum of the companion, 'κ And B,' using the Project 1640 high-contrast imaging platform. Comparison of our low-resolution YJH-band spectra to empirical brown dwarf spectra suggests an early-L spectral type. Fitting synthetic spectra from PHOENIX model atmospheres to our observed spectrum allows us to constrain the effective temperature to ∼2000 K as well as place constraints on the companion surface gravity. Further, we use previously reported log(g) and T {sub eff} measurements of the host star to argue that the κ And system has an isochronal age of 220 ± 100 Myr, older than the 30 Myr age reported previously. This interpretation of an older age is corroborated by the photometric properties of κ And B, which appear to be marginally inconsistent with other 10-100 Myr low-gravity L-dwarfs for the spectral type range we derive. In addition, we use Keck aperture masking interferometry combined with published radial velocity measurements to rule out the existence of any tight stellar companions to κ And A that might be responsible for the system's overluminosity. Further, we show that luminosity enhancements due to a nearly 'pole-on' viewing angle coupled with extremely rapid rotation is unlikely. κ And A is thus consistent with its slightly evolved luminosity class (IV), and we propose here that κ And, with a revised age of 220 ± 100 Myr, is an interloper to the 30 Myr Columba association with which it was previously associated. The photometric and spectroscopic evidence for κ And B combined with our reassessment of the system age implies a substellar companion mass of 50{sub −13}{sup +16} M {sub Jup}, consistent with a brown dwarf rather than a planetary-mass companion.

  8. Deriving the true mass of an unresolved Brown Dwarf companion to an M-Dwarf with AO aided astrometry*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kürster M.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available From radial velocity (RV detections alone one does not get all orbital parameters needed to derive the true mass of a non-transiting, unresolved substellar companion to a star. Additional astrometric measurements are needed to calculate the inclination and the longitude of the ascending node. Until today only few true substellar companion masses have been determined by this method with the HST fine guidance sensor [1, 2]. We aim to derive the true mass of a brown dwarf candidate companion to an early M 2.5V dwarf with groundbased high-resolution astrometry aided by adaptive optics. We found this unique brown dwarf desert object, whose distance to the host star is only 0.42 AU, in our UVES precision RV survey of M dwarfs, inferring a minimum companion mass of 27 Jupiter masses [3]. Combining the data with HIPPARCOS astrometry, we found a probability of only 2.9% that the companion is stellar. We therefore observed the host star together with a reference star within a monitoring program with VLT/NACO to derive the true mass of the companion and establish its nature (brown dwarf vs. star. Simultaneous observations of a reference field in a globular cluster are performed to determine the stability of the adaptive optics (AO plus detector system and check its suitability for such high-precision astrometric measurements over several epochs which are needed to find and analyse extrasolar planet systems.

  9. Using White Dwarf Companions of Blue Stragglers to Constrain Mass Transfer Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosnell, Natalie M.; Leiner, Emily; Geller, Aaron M.; Knigge, Christian; Mathieu, Robert D.; Sills, Alison; Leigh, Nathan

    2018-06-01

    Complete membership studies of old open clusters reveal that 25% of the evolved stars follow pathways in stellar evolution that are impacted by binary evolution. Recent studies show that the majority of blue straggler stars, traditionally defined to be stars brighter and bluer than the corresponding main sequence turnoff, are formed through mass transfer from a giant star onto a main sequence companion, resulting in a white dwarf in a binary system with a blue straggler. We will present constraints on the histories and mass transfer efficiencies for two blue straggler-white dwarf binaries in open cluster NGC 188. The constraints are a result of measuring white dwarf cooling temperatures and surface gravities with HST COS far-ultraviolet spectroscopy. This information sets both the timeline for mass transfer and the stellar masses in the pre-mass transfer binary, allowing us to constrain aspects of the mass transfer physics. One system is formed through Case C mass transfer, leaving a CO-core white dwarf, and provides an interesting test case for mass transfer from an asymptotic giant branch star in an eccentric system. The other system formed through Case B mass transfer, leaving a He-core white dwarf, and challenges our current understanding of the expected regimes for stable mass transfer from red giant branch stars.

  10. Spectroscopic confirmation of young planetary-mass companions on wide orbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowler, Brendan P. [California Institute of Technology, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Liu, Michael C.; Mann, Andrew W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai' i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Kraus, Adam L., E-mail: bpbowler@caltech.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA. (United States)

    2014-03-20

    We present moderate-resolution (R ∼ 4000-5000) near-infrared integral field spectroscopy of the young (1-5 Myr) 6-14 M {sub Jup} companions ROXs 42B b and FW Tau b obtained with Keck/OSIRIS and Gemini-North/NIFS. The spectrum of ROXs 42B b exhibits clear signs of low surface gravity common to young L dwarfs, confirming its extreme youth, cool temperature, and low mass. Overall, it closely resembles the free-floating 4-7 M {sub Jup} L-type Taurus member 2MASS J04373705+2331080. The companion to FW Tau AB is more enigmatic. Our optical and near-infrared spectra show strong evidence of outflow activity and disk accretion in the form of line emission from [S II], [O I], Hα, Ca II, [Fe II], Paβ, and H{sub 2}. The molecular hydrogen emission is spatially resolved as a single lobe that stretches ≈0.''1 (15 AU). Although the extended emission is not kinematically resolved in our data, its morphology resembles shock-excited H{sub 2} jets primarily seen in young Class 0 and Class I sources. The near-infrared continuum of FW Tau b is mostly flat and lacks the deep absorption features expected for a cool, late-type object. This may be a result of accretion-induced veiling, especially in light of its strong and sustained Hα emission (EW(Hα) ≳ 290 Å). Alternatively, FW Tau b may be a slightly warmer (M5-M8) accreting low-mass star or brown dwarf (0.03-0.15 M {sub ☉}) with an edge-on disk. Regardless, its young evolutionary stage is in stark contrast to its Class III host FW Tau AB, indicating a more rapid disk clearing timescale for the host binary system than for its wide companion. Finally, we present near-infrared spectra of the young (∼2-10 Myr) low-mass (12-15 M {sub Jup}) companions GSC 6214-210 B and SR 12 C and find they best resemble low-gravity M9.5 and M9 substellar templates.

  11. SUBSTELLAR-MASS COMPANIONS TO THE K-GIANTS HD 240237, BD +48 738, AND HD 96127

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gettel, S.; Wolszczan, A.; Niedzielski, A.; Nowak, G.; Adamów, M.; Zieliński, P.; Maciejewski, G.

    2012-01-01

    We present the discovery of substellar-mass companions to three giant stars by the ongoing Penn State-Toruń Planet Search conducted with the 9.2 m Hobby-Eberly Telescope. The most massive of the three stars, K2-giant HD 240237, has a 5.3 M J minimum mass companion orbiting the star at a 746 day period. The K0-giant BD +48 738 is orbited by a ≥0.91 M J planet which has a period of 393 days and shows a nonlinear, long-term radial velocity (RV) trend that indicates a presence of another, more distant companion, which may have a substellar mass or be a low-mass star. The K2-giant HD 96127 has a ≥4.0 M J mass companion in a 647 day orbit around the star. The two K2-giants exhibit a significant RV noise that complicates the detection of low-amplitude, periodic variations in the data. If the noise component of the observed RV variations is due to solar-type oscillations, we show, using all the published data for the substellar companions to giants, that its amplitude is anti-correlated with stellar metallicity.

  12. DISCOVERY OF A LOW-MASS COMPANION TO A METAL-RICH F STAR WITH THE MARVELS PILOT PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, Scott W.; Ge Jian; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Lee, Brian; Cuong Nguyen, Duy; Morehead, Robert C.; Wan Xiaoke; Zhao Bo; Liu Jian; Guo Pengcheng; Kane, Stephen R.; Eastman, Jason D.; Siverd, Robert J.; Scott Gaudi, B.; Niedzielski, Andrzej; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Stassun, Keivan G.; Gary, Bruce; Wolszczan, Alex; Barnes, Rory

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of a low-mass companion orbiting the metal-rich, main sequence F star TYC 2949-00557-1 during the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS) pilot project. The host star has an effective temperature T eff = 6135 ± 40 K, logg = 4.4 ± 0.1, and [Fe/H] = 0.32 ± 0.01, indicating a mass of M = 1.25 ± 0.09 M sun and R = 1.15 ± 0.15 R sun . The companion has an orbital period of 5.69449 ± 0.00023 days and straddles the hydrogen burning limit with a minimum mass of 64 M J , and thus may be an example of the rare class of brown dwarfs orbiting at distances comparable to those of 'Hot Jupiters'. We present relative photometry that demonstrates that the host star is photometrically stable at the few millimagnitude level on time scales of hours to years, and rules out transits for a companion of radius ∼>0.8 R J at the 95% confidence level. Tidal analysis of the system suggests that the star and companion are likely in a double synchronous state where both rotational and orbital synchronization have been achieved. This is the first low-mass companion detected with a multi-object, dispersed, fixed-delay interferometer.

  13. THE CHARA ARRAY ANGULAR DIAMETER OF HR 8799 FAVORS PLANETARY MASSES FOR ITS IMAGED COMPANIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baines, Ellyn K.; White, Russel J.; Jones, Jeremy; Boyajian, Tabetha; McAlister, Harold A.; Ten Brummelaar, Theo A.; Turner, Nils H.; Sturmann, Judit; Sturmann, Laszlo; Goldfinger, P. J.; Farrington, Christopher D.; Riedel, Adric R.; Huber, Daniel; Ireland, Michael; Von Braun, Kaspar; Ridgway, Stephen T.

    2012-01-01

    HR 8799 is an hF0 mA5 γ Doradus-, λ Bootis-, Vega-type star best known for hosting four directly imaged candidate planetary companions. Using the CHARA Array interferometer, we measure HR 8799's limb-darkened angular diameter to be 0.342 ± 0.008 mas (an error of only 2%). By combining our measurement with the star's parallax and photometry from the literature, we greatly improve upon previous estimates of its fundamental parameters, including stellar radius (1.44 ± 0.06 R ☉ ), effective temperature (7193 ± 87 K, consistent with F0), luminosity (5.05 ± 0.29 L ☉ ), and the extent of the habitable zone (HZ; 1.62-3.32 AU). These improved stellar properties permit much more precise comparisons with stellar evolutionary models, from which a mass and age can be determined, once the metallicity of the star is known. Considering the observational properties of other λ Bootis stars and the indirect evidence for youth of HR 8799, we argue that the internal abundance, and what we refer to as the effective abundance, is most likely near solar. Finally, using the Yonsei-Yale evolutionary models with uniformly scaled solar-like abundances, we estimate HR 8799's mass and age considering two possibilities: 1.516 +0.038 –0.024 M ☉ and 33 +7 –13.2 Myr if the star is contracting toward the zero-age main sequence or 1.513 +0.023 –0.024 M ☉ and 90 +381 –50 Myr if it is expanding from it. This improved estimate of HR 8799's age with realistic uncertainties provides the best constraints to date on the masses of its orbiting companions, and strongly suggests they are indeed planets. They nevertheless all appear to orbit well outside the HZ of this young star.

  14. DETECTION OF WHITE DWARF COMPANIONS TO BLUE STRAGGLERS IN THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 188: DIRECT EVIDENCE FOR RECENT MASS TRANSFER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosnell, Natalie M.; Mathieu, Robert D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 475 N. Charter St., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Geller, Aaron M. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Sills, Alison [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Leigh, Nathan [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, CCIS 4-183, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada); Knigge, Christian, E-mail: gosnell@astro.wisc.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton, SO17 IBJ (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-01

    Several possible formation pathways for blue straggler stars have been developed recently, but no one pathway has yet been observationally confirmed for a specific blue straggler. Here we report the first findings from a Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys/Solar Blind Channel far-UV photometric program to search for white dwarf companions to blue straggler stars. We find three hot and young white dwarf companions to blue straggler stars in the 7 Gyr open cluster NGC 188, indicating that mass transfer in these systems ended less than 300 Myr ago. These companions are direct and secure observational evidence that these blue straggler stars were formed through mass transfer in binary stars. Their existence in a well-studied cluster environment allows for observational constraints of both the current binary system and the progenitor binary system, mapping the entire mass transfer history.

  15. 2MASS J11151597+1937266: A Young, Dusty, Isolated, Planetary-mass Object with a Potential Wide Stellar Companion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theissen, Christopher A.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella C.; Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin K.; Gagné, Jonathan; Schmidt, Sarah J.; West, Andrew A.

    2018-01-01

    We present 2MASS J11151597+1937266, a recently identified low-surface-gravity L dwarf, classified as an L2γ based on Sloan Digital Sky Survey optical spectroscopy. We confirm this spectral type with near-infrared spectroscopy, which provides further evidence that 2MASS J11151597+1937266 is a low-surface-gravity L dwarf. This object also shows significant excess mid-infrared flux, indicative of circumstellar material; and its strong Hα emission (EWHα = 560 ± 82 Å) is an indicator of enhanced magnetic activity or weak accretion. Comparison of its spectral energy distribution to model photospheres yields an effective temperature of {1724}-38+184 {{K}}. We also provide a revised distance estimate of 37 ± 6 pc using a spectral type–luminosity relationship for low-surface-gravity objects. The three-dimensional galactic velocities and positions of 2MASS J11151597+1937266 do not match any known young association or moving group. Assuming a probable age in the range of 5–45 Myr, the model-dependent estimated mass of this object is between 7 and 21 M Jup, making it a potentially isolated planetary-mass object. We also identify a candidate co-moving, young stellar companion, 2MASS J11131089+2110086.

  16. VERY LOW MASS STELLAR AND SUBSTELLAR COMPANIONS TO SOLAR-LIKE STARS FROM MARVELS. I. A LOW-MASS RATIO STELLAR COMPANION TO TYC 4110-01037-1 IN A 79 DAY ORBIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisniewski, John P.; Agol, Eric; Barnes, Rory; Ge, Jian; De Lee, Nathan; Fleming, Scott W.; Lee, Brian L.; Chang, Liang; Crepp, Justin R.; Eastman, Jason; Gaudi, B. Scott; Esposito, Massimiliano; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jonay I.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Ghezzi, Luan; Da Costa, Luiz N.; Porto De Mello, G. F.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Cargile, Phillip; Bizyaev, Dmitry

    2012-01-01

    TYC 4110-01037-1 has a low-mass stellar companion, whose small mass ratio and short orbital period are atypical among binary systems with solar-like (T eff ∼ ☉ and radius of 0.99 ± 0.18 R ☉ . We analyze 32 radial velocity (RV) measurements from the SDSS-III MARVELS survey as well as 6 supporting RV measurements from the SARG spectrograph on the 3.6 m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo telescope obtained over a period of ∼2 years. The best Keplerian orbital fit parameters were found to have a period of 78.994 ± 0.012 days, an eccentricity of 0.1095 ± 0.0023, and a semi-amplitude of 4199 ± 11 m s –1 . We determine the minimum companion mass (if sin i = 1) to be 97.7 ± 5.8 M Jup . The system's companion to host star mass ratio, ≥0.087 ± 0.003, places it at the lowest end of observed values for short period stellar companions to solar-like (T eff ∼< 6000 K) stars. One possible way to create such a system would be if a triple-component stellar multiple broke up into a short period, low q binary during the cluster dispersal phase of its lifetime. A candidate tertiary body has been identified in the system via single-epoch, high contrast imagery. If this object is confirmed to be comoving, we estimate it would be a dM4 star. We present these results in the context of our larger-scale effort to constrain the statistics of low-mass stellar and brown dwarf companions to FGK-type stars via the MARVELS survey.

  17. SEARCHING FOR SCATTERERS: HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING OF YOUNG STARS HOSTING WIDE-SEPARATION PLANETARY-MASS COMPANIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Marta L.; Mawet, Dimitri [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bowler, Brendan P.; Kraus, Adam L. [McDonald Observatory and Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Knutson, Heather A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hinkley, Sasha [University of Exeter, Physics Department, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Nielsen, Eric L.; Blunt, Sarah C. [SETI Institute, Carl Sagan Center, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)

    2016-08-20

    We have conducted an angular differential imaging survey with NIRC2 at Keck in search of close-in substellar companions to a sample of seven systems with confirmed planetary-mass companions (PMCs) on wide orbits (>50 au). These wide-separation PMCs pose significant challenges to all three possible formation mechanisms: core accretion plus scattering, disk instability, and turbulent fragmentation. We explore the possibility that these companions formed closer in and were scattered out to their present-day locations by searching for other massive bodies at smaller separations. The typical sensitivity for this survey is Δ K ∼ 12.5 at 1″. We identify eight candidate companions, whose masses would reach as low as one Jupiter mass if gravitationally bound. From our multi-epoch astrometry we determine that seven of these are conclusively background objects, while the eighth near DH Tau is ambiguous and requires additional monitoring. We rule out the presence of >7 M {sub Jup} bodies in these systems down to 15–50 au that could be responsible for scattering. This result combined with the totality of evidence suggests that dynamical scattering is unlikely to have produced this population of PMCs. We detect orbital motion from the companions ROXs 42B b and ROXs 12 b, and from this determine 95% upper limits on the companions’ eccentricities of 0.58 and 0.83 respectively. Finally, we find that the 95% upper limit on the occurrence rate of additional planets with masses between 5 and 15 M {sub Jup} outside of 40 au in systems with PMCs is 54%.

  18. SEARCHING FOR SCATTERERS: HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING OF YOUNG STARS HOSTING WIDE-SEPARATION PLANETARY-MASS COMPANIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, Marta L.; Mawet, Dimitri; Bowler, Brendan P.; Kraus, Adam L.; Knutson, Heather A.; Hinkley, Sasha; Nielsen, Eric L.; Blunt, Sarah C.

    2016-01-01

    We have conducted an angular differential imaging survey with NIRC2 at Keck in search of close-in substellar companions to a sample of seven systems with confirmed planetary-mass companions (PMCs) on wide orbits (>50 au). These wide-separation PMCs pose significant challenges to all three possible formation mechanisms: core accretion plus scattering, disk instability, and turbulent fragmentation. We explore the possibility that these companions formed closer in and were scattered out to their present-day locations by searching for other massive bodies at smaller separations. The typical sensitivity for this survey is Δ K ∼ 12.5 at 1″. We identify eight candidate companions, whose masses would reach as low as one Jupiter mass if gravitationally bound. From our multi-epoch astrometry we determine that seven of these are conclusively background objects, while the eighth near DH Tau is ambiguous and requires additional monitoring. We rule out the presence of >7 M Jup bodies in these systems down to 15–50 au that could be responsible for scattering. This result combined with the totality of evidence suggests that dynamical scattering is unlikely to have produced this population of PMCs. We detect orbital motion from the companions ROXs 42B b and ROXs 12 b, and from this determine 95% upper limits on the companions’ eccentricities of 0.58 and 0.83 respectively. Finally, we find that the 95% upper limit on the occurrence rate of additional planets with masses between 5 and 15 M Jup outside of 40 au in systems with PMCs is 54%.

  19. Statistics of Low-Mass Companions to Stars: Implications for Their Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Black, D. C.

    2001-01-01

    One of the more significant results from observational astronomy over the past few years has been the detection, primarily via radial velocity studies, of low-mass companions (LMCs) to solar-like stars. The commonly held interpretation of these is that the majority are "extrasolar planets" whereas the rest are brown dwarfs, the distinction made on the basis of apparent discontinuity in the distribution of M sin i for LMCs as revealed by a histogram. We report here results from statistical analysis of M sin i, as well as of the orbital elements data for available LMCs, to rest the assertion that the LMCs population is heterogeneous. The outcome is mixed. Solely on the basis of the distribution of M sin i a heterogeneous model is preferable. Overall, we find that a definitive statement asserting that LMCs population is heterogeneous is, at present, unjustified. In addition we compare statistics of LMCs with a comparable sample of stellar binaries. We find a remarkable statistical similarity between these two populations. This similarity coupled with marked populational dissimilarity between LMCs and acknowledged planets motivates us to suggest a common origin hypothesis for LMCs and stellar binaries as an alternative to the prevailing interpretation. We discuss merits of such a hypothesis and indicate a possible scenario for the formation of LMCs.

  20. THE STRUCTURE OF SPIRAL SHOCKS EXCITED BY PLANETARY-MASS COMPANIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Zhaohuan; Stone, James M.; Rafikov, Roman R.; Dong, Ruobing

    2015-01-01

    Direct imaging observations have revealed spiral structures in protoplanetary disks. Previous studies have suggested that planet-induced spiral arms cannot explain some of these spiral patterns, due to the large pitch angle and high contrast of the spiral arms in observations. We have carried out three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamical simulations to study spiral wakes/shocks excited by young planets. We find that, in contrast with linear theory, the pitch angle of spiral arms does depend on the planet mass, which can be explained by the nonlinear density wave theory. A secondary (or even a tertiary) spiral arm, especially for inner arms, is also excited by a massive planet. With a more massive planet in the disk, the excited spiral arms have larger pitch angle and the separation between the primary and secondary arms in the azimuthal direction is also larger. We also find that although the arms in the outer disk do not exhibit much vertical motion, the inner arms have significant vertical motion, which boosts the density perturbation at the disk atmosphere. Combining hydrodynamical models with Monte-Carlo radiative transfer calculations, we find that the inner spiral arms are considerably more prominent in synthetic near-IR images using full 3D hydrodynamical models than images based on two-dimensional models assuming vertical hydrostatic equilibrium, indicating the need to model observations with full 3D hydrodynamics. Overall, companion-induced spiral arms not only pinpoint the companion’s position but also provide three independent ways (pitch angle, separation between two arms, and contrast of arms) to constrain the companion’s mass

  1. THE STRUCTURE OF SPIRAL SHOCKS EXCITED BY PLANETARY-MASS COMPANIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Zhaohuan; Stone, James M.; Rafikov, Roman R. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, 4 Ivy Lane, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Dong, Ruobing, E-mail: zhzhu@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: rdong2013@berkeley.edu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-11-10

    Direct imaging observations have revealed spiral structures in protoplanetary disks. Previous studies have suggested that planet-induced spiral arms cannot explain some of these spiral patterns, due to the large pitch angle and high contrast of the spiral arms in observations. We have carried out three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamical simulations to study spiral wakes/shocks excited by young planets. We find that, in contrast with linear theory, the pitch angle of spiral arms does depend on the planet mass, which can be explained by the nonlinear density wave theory. A secondary (or even a tertiary) spiral arm, especially for inner arms, is also excited by a massive planet. With a more massive planet in the disk, the excited spiral arms have larger pitch angle and the separation between the primary and secondary arms in the azimuthal direction is also larger. We also find that although the arms in the outer disk do not exhibit much vertical motion, the inner arms have significant vertical motion, which boosts the density perturbation at the disk atmosphere. Combining hydrodynamical models with Monte-Carlo radiative transfer calculations, we find that the inner spiral arms are considerably more prominent in synthetic near-IR images using full 3D hydrodynamical models than images based on two-dimensional models assuming vertical hydrostatic equilibrium, indicating the need to model observations with full 3D hydrodynamics. Overall, companion-induced spiral arms not only pinpoint the companion’s position but also provide three independent ways (pitch angle, separation between two arms, and contrast of arms) to constrain the companion’s mass.

  2. NEW EXTINCTION AND MASS ESTIMATES FROM OPTICAL PHOTOMETRY OF THE VERY LOW MASS BROWN DWARF COMPANION CT CHAMAELEONTIS B WITH THE MAGELLAN AO SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ya-Lin; Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared R.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Follette, Katherine B.; Bailey, Vanessa; Rodigas, Timothy J.; Hinz, Philip [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Barman, Travis S. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Puglisi, Alfio; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa, E-mail: yalinwu@email.arizona.edu [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2015-03-01

    We used the Magellan adaptive optics system and its VisAO CCD camera to image the young low mass brown dwarf companion CT Chamaeleontis B for the first time at visible wavelengths. We detect it at r', i', z', and Y{sub S}. With our new photometry and T {sub eff} ∼ 2500 K derived from the shape of its K-band spectrum, we find that CT Cha B has A{sub V} = 3.4 ± 1.1 mag, and a mass of 14-24 M{sub J} according to the DUSTY evolutionary tracks and its 1-5 Myr age. The overluminosity of our r' detection indicates that the companion has significant Hα emission and a mass accretion rate ∼6 × 10{sup –10} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, similar to some substellar companions. Proper motion analysis shows that another point source within 2'' of CT Cha A is not physical. This paper demonstrates how visible wavelength adaptive optics photometry (r', i', z', Y{sub S}) allows for a better estimate of extinction, luminosity, and mass accretion rate of young substellar companions.

  3. The Demographics and Properties of Wide-Orbit, Planetary-Mass Companions from PSF Fitting of Spitzer/IRAC Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Raquel; Kraus, Adam L.

    2017-06-01

    Over the past decade, a growing population of planetary-mass companions ( 100 AU) from their host stars, challenging existing models of both star and planet formation. It is unclear whether these systems represent the low-mass extreme of stellar binary formation or the high-mass and wide-orbit extreme of planet formation theories, as various proposed formation pathways inadequately explain the physical and orbital aspects of these systems. Even so, determining which scenario best reproduces the observed characteristics of the PMCs will come once a statistically robust sample of directly-imaged PMCs are found and studied.We are developing an automated pipeline to search for wide-orbit PMCs to young stars in Spitzer/IRAC images. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is the backbone of our novel point spread function (PSF) subtraction routine that efficiently creates and subtracts χ2-minimizing instrumental PSFs, simultaneously measuring astrometry and infrared photometry of these systems across the four IRAC channels (3.6 μm, 4.5 μm, 5.8 μm, and 8 μm). In this work, we present the results of a Spitzer/IRAC archival imaging study of 11 young, low-mass (0.044-0.88 M⊙ K3.5-M7.5) stars known to have faint, low-mass companions in 3 nearby star-forming regions (Chameleon, Taurus, and Upper Scorpius). We characterize the systems found to have low-mass companions with non-zero [I1] - [I4] colors, potentially signifying the presence of a circum(sub?)stellar disk. Plans for future pipeline improvements and paths forward will also be discussed. Once this computational foundation is optimized, the stage is set to quickly scour the nearby star-forming regions already imaged by Spitzer, identify potential candidates for further characterization with ground- or space-based telescopes, and increase the number of widely-separated PMCs known.

  4. Discovery of the Accretion-Powered Millisecond Pulsar SWIFT 51756.9-2508 with a Low-Mass Companion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimm, H.A.; Markwardt, C.B.; Deloye, C.J.; Romano, P.; Chakrabarty, S.; Campana. S.; Cummings, J.C.; Galloway, D.K.; Gehrels, N.; Hartman, J.M.; hide

    2007-01-01

    We report on the discovery by the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer of the eighth known transient accretion-powered millisecond pulsar: SWIFT J1756.9-2508, as part of routine observations with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope hard X-ray transient monitor. The pulsar was subsequently observed by both the X-Ray Telescope on Swift and the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array. It has a spin frequency of 182 Hz (5.5 ms) and an orbital period of 54.7 minutes. The minimum companion mass is between 0.0067 and 0.0086 Solar Mass, depending on the mass of the neutron star, and the upper limit on the mass is 0.030 Solar Mass (95% confidence level). Such a low mass is inconsistent with brown dwarf models. and comparison with white dwarf models suggests that the companion is a He-dominated donor whose thermal cooling has been at least modestly slowed by irradiation from the accretion flux. No X-ray bursts. dips, eclipses or quasi-periodic oscillations were detected. The current outburst lasted approx. 13 days and no earlier outbursts were found in archival data.

  5. Looking for the Coldest Atmospheres: a Search for Planetary Mass Companions around T and Y Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanive, Clemence

    2017-08-01

    We propose to obtain WFC3/IR imaging of the very coolest brown dwarfs (T planetary-mass companions to these objects. Companions discovered by this program would likely be analogues of the 250 K brown dwarf WISE 0855 and would provide vital benchmark objects for theoretical models, closing the gap in mass and temperature between brown dwarfs and planets. Finding such an object as a member of a binary system would be even more valuable as it would allow for the measurement of dynamical masses. We recently placed the first constraints to date on the binary frequency for brown dwarfs with spectral types >T8. This program will triple our current sample size, a requirement in order to confirm our current results and compare substellar binary properties for various spectral type and age populations. The WFC3/IR plate will allow us to probe near equal-mass binaries down to separations of 0.2 (2-3 AU for the typical distances of our targets). True cool companions should show strong absorption around 1.4 um as a result of the deep water absorption band observed at that wavelength in substellar spectra. We therefore propose observations in the WFC3 F127M and F139M filters which will allow us to robustly identify bona fide candidates and distinguish them from background stars based on this spectral feature. Most of our targets lack suitable NGS AO guide stars or LGS AO tip-tilt stars to be observed with ground-based telescopes, and the 1.4 um water band is often unobservable from the ground due to telluric water absorption. WFC3 on HST is thus the only instrument suitable for these observations.

  6. PLANETS AROUND LOW-MASS STARS (PALMS). V. AGE-DATING LOW-MASS COMPANIONS TO MEMBERS AND INTERLOPERS OF YOUNG MOVING GROUPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Montet, Benjamin T.; Riddle, Reed [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Flagg, Laura [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W. Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Liu, Michael C.; Howard, Andrew W.; Aller, Kimberly M.; Best, William M. J.; Kotson, Michael C.; Baranec, Christoph [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Schlieder, Joshua E. [NASA Postdoctoral Program Fellow, NASA Ames Research Center, MS-245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Mann, Andrew W.; Dupuy, Trent J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, TX (United States); Hinkley, Sasha [Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, EX4 4QL Exeter (United Kingdom); Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Johnson, John Asher [Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Weinberger, Alycia J. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Rd NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Allers, Katelyn N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837 (United States); Herczeg, Gregory J., E-mail: bpbowler@caltech.edu [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Hai Dian Qu, Beijing 100871 (China); and others

    2015-06-10

    We present optical and near-infrared adaptive optics (AO) imaging and spectroscopy of 13 ultracool (>M6) companions to late-type stars (K7–M4.5), most of which have recently been identified as candidate members of nearby young moving groups (YMGs; 8–120 Myr) in the literature. Three of these are new companions identified in our AO imaging survey, and two others are confirmed to be comoving with their host stars for the first time. The inferred masses of the companions (∼10–100 M{sub Jup}) are highly sensitive to the ages of the primary stars; therefore we critically examine the kinematic and spectroscopic properties of each system to distinguish bona fide YMG members from old field interlopers. The new M7 substellar companion 2MASS J02155892–0929121 C (40–60 M{sub Jup}) shows clear spectroscopic signs of low gravity and, hence, youth. The primary, possibly a member of the ∼40 Myr Tuc-Hor moving group, is visually resolved into three components, making it a young low-mass quadruple system in a compact (≲100 AU) configuration. In addition, Li i λ6708 absorption in the intermediate-gravity M7.5 companion 2MASS J15594729+4403595 B provides unambiguous evidence that it is young (≲200 Myr) and resides below the hydrogen-burning limit. Three new close-separation (<1″) companions (2MASS J06475229–2523304 B, PYC J11519+0731 B, and GJ 4378 Ab) orbit stars previously reported as candidate YMG members, but instead are likely old (≳1 Gyr) tidally locked spectroscopic binaries without convincing kinematic associations with any known moving group. The high rate of false positives in the form of old active stars with YMG-like kinematics underscores the importance of radial velocity and parallax measurements to validate candidate young stars identified via proper motion and activity selection alone. Finally, we spectroscopically confirm the cool temperature and substellar nature of HD 23514 B, a recently discovered M8 benchmark brown dwarf orbiting the

  7. PLANETS AROUND LOW-MASS STARS (PALMS). V. AGE-DATING LOW-MASS COMPANIONS TO MEMBERS AND INTERLOPERS OF YOUNG MOVING GROUPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Montet, Benjamin T.; Riddle, Reed; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Flagg, Laura; Liu, Michael C.; Howard, Andrew W.; Aller, Kimberly M.; Best, William M. J.; Kotson, Michael C.; Baranec, Christoph; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Mann, Andrew W.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Hinkley, Sasha; Crepp, Justin R.; Johnson, John Asher; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Allers, Katelyn N.; Herczeg, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    We present optical and near-infrared adaptive optics (AO) imaging and spectroscopy of 13 ultracool (>M6) companions to late-type stars (K7–M4.5), most of which have recently been identified as candidate members of nearby young moving groups (YMGs; 8–120 Myr) in the literature. Three of these are new companions identified in our AO imaging survey, and two others are confirmed to be comoving with their host stars for the first time. The inferred masses of the companions (∼10–100 M Jup ) are highly sensitive to the ages of the primary stars; therefore we critically examine the kinematic and spectroscopic properties of each system to distinguish bona fide YMG members from old field interlopers. The new M7 substellar companion 2MASS J02155892–0929121 C (40–60 M Jup ) shows clear spectroscopic signs of low gravity and, hence, youth. The primary, possibly a member of the ∼40 Myr Tuc-Hor moving group, is visually resolved into three components, making it a young low-mass quadruple system in a compact (≲100 AU) configuration. In addition, Li i λ6708 absorption in the intermediate-gravity M7.5 companion 2MASS J15594729+4403595 B provides unambiguous evidence that it is young (≲200 Myr) and resides below the hydrogen-burning limit. Three new close-separation (<1″) companions (2MASS J06475229–2523304 B, PYC J11519+0731 B, and GJ 4378 Ab) orbit stars previously reported as candidate YMG members, but instead are likely old (≳1 Gyr) tidally locked spectroscopic binaries without convincing kinematic associations with any known moving group. The high rate of false positives in the form of old active stars with YMG-like kinematics underscores the importance of radial velocity and parallax measurements to validate candidate young stars identified via proper motion and activity selection alone. Finally, we spectroscopically confirm the cool temperature and substellar nature of HD 23514 B, a recently discovered M8 benchmark brown dwarf orbiting the dustiest

  8. A LIKELY CLOSE-IN LOW-MASS STELLAR COMPANION TO THE TRANSITIONAL DISK STAR HD 142527

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biller, Beth; Benisty, Myriam; Chauvin, Gael; Olofsson, Johan; Pott, Jörg-Uwe; Müller, André; Bonnefoy, Mickaël; Henning, Thomas; Lacour, Sylvestre; Thebault, Philippe; Juhász, Attila; Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Tuthill, Peter; Crida, Aurelien

    2012-01-01

    With the uniquely high contrast within 0.''1 (Δmag(L') = 5-6.5 mag) available using Sparse Aperture Masking with NACO at Very Large Telescope, we detected asymmetry in the flux from the Herbig Fe star HD 142527 with a barycenter emission situated at a projected separation of 88 ± 5 mas (12.8 ± 1.5 AU at 145 pc) and flux ratios in H, K, and L' of 0.016 ± 0.007, 0.012 ± 0.008, and 0.0086 ± 0.0011, respectively (3σ errors), relative to the primary star and disk. After extensive closure-phase modeling, we interpret this detection as a close-in, low-mass stellar companion with an estimated mass of ∼0.1-0.4 M ☉ . HD 142527 has a complex disk structure, with an inner gap imaged in both the near and mid-IR as well as a spiral feature in the outer disk in the near-IR. This newly detected low-mass stellar companion may provide a critical explanation of the observed disk structure.

  9. High-Contrast 3.8 Micron Imaging of the Brown Dwarf/Planet-Mass Companion to GJ 758

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Thayne M.; Bailey, Vanessa; Fabrycky, Daniel; Murray-Clay, Ruth; Rodigas, Timothy; Hinz, Phil

    2011-01-01

    We present L' band (3.8 Micron) MMT/Clio high-contrast imaging data for the nearby star GJ 758, which was recently reported by Thalmann et al. (2009) to have one - possibly two - faint comoving companions (GJ 7588 and "C", respectively). GJ 758B is detected in two distinct datasets. Additionally, we report a \\textit{possible} detection of the object identified by Thalmann et al as "GJ 758C" in our more sensitive dataset, though it is likely a residual speckle. However, if it is the same object as that reported by Thalmann et al. it cannot be a companion in a bound orbit. GJ 7588 has a H-L' color redder than nearly all known L-T8 dwarfs. 8ased on comparisons with the COND evolutionary models, GJ 7588 has Te approx. 560 K (+150 K, -90 K) and a mass ranging from approx.10-20 Mj if it is approx.1 Gyr old to approx. 25-40 Mj if it is 8.7 Gyr old. GJ 7588 is likely in a highly eccentric orbit, e approx. 0.73 (+0.12,-0.21), with a semimajor axis of approx. 44 AU (+32 AU, -14 AU). Though GJ 7588 is sometimes discussed within the context of exoplanet direct imaging, its mass is likely greater than the deuterium-burning limit and its formation may resemble that of binary stars rather than that of jovian-mass planets.

  10. SPECKLE IMAGING EXCLUDES LOW-MASS COMPANIONS ORBITING THE EXOPLANET HOST STAR TRAPPIST-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, Steve B.; Scott, Nicholas J. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Everett, Mark E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Horch, Elliott P. [Department of Physics, Southern Connecticut State University, 501 Crescent Street, New Haven, CT, 06515 (United States); Winters, Jennifer G. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA, 02138 (United States); Hirsch, Lea [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, 510 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA, 94720 (United States); Nusdeo, Dan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 5060, Atlanta, GA 30302 (United States)

    2016-09-20

    We have obtained the highest-resolution images available of TRAPPIST-1 using the Gemini-South telescope and our speckle imaging camera. Observing at 692 and 883 nm, we reached the diffraction limit of the telescope providing a best resolution of 27 mas or, at the distance of TRAPPIST-1, a spatial resolution of 0.32 au. Our imaging of the star extends from 0.32 to 14.5 au. We show that to a high confidence level, we can exclude all possible stellar and brown dwarf companions, indicating that TRAPPIST-1 is a single star.

  11. SPECKLE IMAGING EXCLUDES LOW-MASS COMPANIONS ORBITING THE EXOPLANET HOST STAR TRAPPIST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, Steve B.; Scott, Nicholas J.; Everett, Mark E.; Horch, Elliott P.; Winters, Jennifer G.; Hirsch, Lea; Nusdeo, Dan

    2016-01-01

    We have obtained the highest-resolution images available of TRAPPIST-1 using the Gemini-South telescope and our speckle imaging camera. Observing at 692 and 883 nm, we reached the diffraction limit of the telescope providing a best resolution of 27 mas or, at the distance of TRAPPIST-1, a spatial resolution of 0.32 au. Our imaging of the star extends from 0.32 to 14.5 au. We show that to a high confidence level, we can exclude all possible stellar and brown dwarf companions, indicating that TRAPPIST-1 is a single star.

  12. PLANETS AROUND LOW-MASS STARS. III. A YOUNG DUSTY L DWARF COMPANION AT THE DEUTERIUM-BURNING LIMIT ,

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Liu, Michael C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai' i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Shkolnik, Evgenya L. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Dupuy, Trent J., E-mail: bpbowler@ifa.hawaii.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    We report the discovery of an L-type companion to the young M3.5V star 2MASS J01225093-2439505 at a projected separation of 1.''45 ( Almost-Equal-To 52 AU) as part of our adaptive optics imaging search for extrasolar giant planets around young low-mass stars. 2MASS 0122-2439 B has very red near-infrared colors similar to the HR 8799 planets and the reddest known young/dusty L dwarfs in the field. Moderate-resolution (R Almost-Equal-To 3800) 1.5-2.4 {mu}m spectroscopy reveals a near-infrared spectral type of L4-L6 and an angular H-band shape, confirming its cool temperature and young age. The kinematics of 2MASS 0122-2439 AB are marginally consistent with members of the {approx}120 Myr AB Dor young moving group based on the photometric distance to the primary (36 {+-} 4 pc) and our radial velocity measurement of 2MASS 0122-2439 A from Keck/HIRES. We adopt the AB Dor group age for the system, but the high energy emission, lack of Li I {lambda}6707 absorption, and spectral shape of 2MASS 0122-2439 B suggest a range of {approx}10-120 Myr is possible. The age and luminosity of 2MASS 0122-2439 B fall in a strip where ''hot-start'' evolutionary model mass tracks overlap as a result of deuterium burning. Several known substellar companions also fall in this region (2MASS J0103-5515 ABb, AB Pic b, {kappa} And b, G196-3 B, SDSS 2249+0044 B, LP 261-75 B, HD 203030 B, and HN Peg B), but their dual-valued mass predictions have largely been unrecognized. The implied mass of 2MASS 0122-2439 B is Almost-Equal-To 12-13 M{sub Jup} or Almost-Equal-To 22-27 M{sub Jup} if it is an AB Dor member, or possibly as low as 11 M{sub Jup} if the wider age range is adopted. Evolutionary models predict an effective temperature for 2MASS 0122-2439 B that corresponds to spectral types near the L/T transition ( Almost-Equal-To 1300-1500 K) for field objects. However, we find a mid-L near-infrared spectral type, indicating that 2MASS 0122-2439 B represents another case

  13. PLANETS AROUND LOW-MASS STARS. III. A YOUNG DUSTY L DWARF COMPANION AT THE DEUTERIUM-BURNING LIMIT ,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Liu, Michael C.; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Dupuy, Trent J.

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of an L-type companion to the young M3.5V star 2MASS J01225093-2439505 at a projected separation of 1.''45 (≈52 AU) as part of our adaptive optics imaging search for extrasolar giant planets around young low-mass stars. 2MASS 0122-2439 B has very red near-infrared colors similar to the HR 8799 planets and the reddest known young/dusty L dwarfs in the field. Moderate-resolution (R ≈ 3800) 1.5-2.4 μm spectroscopy reveals a near-infrared spectral type of L4-L6 and an angular H-band shape, confirming its cool temperature and young age. The kinematics of 2MASS 0122-2439 AB are marginally consistent with members of the ∼120 Myr AB Dor young moving group based on the photometric distance to the primary (36 ± 4 pc) and our radial velocity measurement of 2MASS 0122-2439 A from Keck/HIRES. We adopt the AB Dor group age for the system, but the high energy emission, lack of Li I λ6707 absorption, and spectral shape of 2MASS 0122-2439 B suggest a range of ∼10-120 Myr is possible. The age and luminosity of 2MASS 0122-2439 B fall in a strip where ''hot-start'' evolutionary model mass tracks overlap as a result of deuterium burning. Several known substellar companions also fall in this region (2MASS J0103-5515 ABb, AB Pic b, κ And b, G196-3 B, SDSS 2249+0044 B, LP 261-75 B, HD 203030 B, and HN Peg B), but their dual-valued mass predictions have largely been unrecognized. The implied mass of 2MASS 0122-2439 B is ≈12-13 M Jup or ≈22-27 M Jup if it is an AB Dor member, or possibly as low as 11 M Jup if the wider age range is adopted. Evolutionary models predict an effective temperature for 2MASS 0122-2439 B that corresponds to spectral types near the L/T transition (≈1300-1500 K) for field objects. However, we find a mid-L near-infrared spectral type, indicating that 2MASS 0122-2439 B represents another case of photospheric dust being retained to cooler temperatures at low surface gravities, as seen in the spectra of young (8-30 Myr

  14. PSYM-WIDE: A Survey for Large-separation Planetary-mass Companions to Late Spectral Type Members of Young Moving Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naud, Marie-Eve; Artigau, Étienne; Doyon, René; Malo, Lison; Gagné, Jonathan; Lafrenière, David; Wolf, Christian; Magnier, Eugene A.

    2017-09-01

    We present the results of a direct imaging survey for very large separation (>100 au), low-mass companions around 95 nearby young K5-L5 stars and brown dwarfs. They are high-likelihood candidates or confirmed members of the young (≲150 Myr) β Pictoris and AB Doradus moving groups (ABDMG) and the TW Hya, Tucana-Horologium, Columba, Carina, and Argus associations. Images in I\\prime and z\\prime filters were obtained with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) on Gemini South to search for companions down to an apparent magnitude of z\\prime ˜ 22-24 at separations ≳20″ from the targets and in the remainder of the wide 5.‧5 × 5.‧5 GMOS field of view. This allowed us to probe the most distant region where planetary-mass companions could be gravitationally bound to the targets. This region was left largely unstudied by past high-contrast imaging surveys, which probed much closer-in separations. This survey led to the discovery of a planetary-mass (9-13 {M}{Jup}) companion at 2000 au from the M3V star GU Psc, a highly probable member of ABDMG. No other substellar companions were identified. These results allowed us to constrain the frequency of distant planetary-mass companions (5-13 {M}{Jup}) to {0.84}-0.66+6.73% (95% confidence) at semimajor axes between 500 and 5000 au around young K5-L5 stars and brown dwarfs. This is consistent with other studies suggesting that gravitationally bound planetary-mass companions at wide separations from low-mass stars are relatively rare.

  15. PLANETS AROUND LOW-MASS STARS (PALMS). II. A LOW-MASS COMPANION TO THE YOUNG M DWARF GJ 3629 SEPARATED BY 0.''2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Liu, Michael C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai' i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Shkolnik, Evgenya L. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W. Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Tamura, Motohide, E-mail: bpbowler@ifa.hawaii.edu [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2012-09-01

    We present the discovery of a 0.''2 companion to the young M dwarf GJ 3629 as part of our high-contrast adaptive optics imaging search for giant planets around low-mass stars with the Keck-II and Subaru telescopes. Two epochs of imaging confirm that the pair is comoving and reveal signs of orbital motion. The primary exhibits saturated X-ray emission which, together with its UV photometry from GALEX, points to an age younger than {approx}300 Myr. At these ages the companion lies below the hydrogen burning limit with a model-dependent mass of 46 {+-} 16 M{sub Jup} based on the system's photometric distance of 22 {+-} 3 pc. Resolved YJHK photometry of the pair indicates a spectral type of M7 {+-} 2 for GJ 3629 B. With a projected separation of 4.4 {+-} 0.6 AU and an estimated orbital period of 21 {+-} 5 yr, GJ 3629 AB is likely to yield a dynamical mass in the next several years, making it one of only a handful of brown dwarfs to have a measured mass and an age constrained from the stellar primary.

  16. Binaries discovered by the SPY survey VI. Discovery of a low mass companion to the hot subluminous planetary nebula central star EGB5-a recently ejected common envelope?

    OpenAIRE

    Geier, S.; Napiwotzki, R.; Heber, U.; Nelemans, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Hot subdwarf B stars (sdBs) in close binary systems are assumed to be formed via common envelope ejection. According to theoretical models, the amount of energy and angular momentum deposited in the common envelope scales with the mass of the companion. That low mass companions near or below the core hydrogen-burning limit are able to trigger the ejection of this envelope is well known. The currently known systems have very short periods $\\simeq0.1-0.3\\,{\\rm d}$. Here we report the discovery ...

  17. The Chara Array Angular Diameter of HR 8799 Favors Planetary Masses for Its Imaged Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    Strömgren uvby magni- tudes, and Two Micron All Sky Survey ( 2MASS ) JHK mag- nitudes, as published in Crawford et al. (1966), Breger (1968), Eggen (1968...2003), and Olsen (1983, 1993, 1994). Table 5 summarizes the adopted magnitudes; the assigned uncertainties for the 2MASS infrared measurements 9 We...Burrows, A., Itoh, Y., et al. 2011, ApJ, 729, 128 Cutri, R. M., Skurtskie, M. F., van Dyk, S., et al. 2003, The IRSA 2MASS All-Sky Point Source

  18. Possible mechanism for mass transfer in X-ray binary systems with OB supergiant companions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alme, M.L.; Wilson, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    We have studied the ''beginning Roche lobe overflow'' phase of mass transfer. We find that before the primary fills its Roche lobe, radiation-driven density waves generated in the atmosphere produce a sufficient mass outflow rate to power a compact X-ray source. In particular, for a model of Cygnus X-1, if the radius of the photosphere is between 82 and 86 percent of the radius of the Roche equipotential, large-amplitude density waves with irregular periods of a few days are observed. These density waves, which are generated by radiation pressure effects, pass through the inner Lagrangian point with velocities approx.100 km s -1 , and can easily provide sufficient material to power the compact X-ray source

  19. SUBSTELLAR-MASS COMPANIONS TO THE K-DWARF BD+14 4559 AND THE K-GIANTS HD 240210 AND BD+20 2457

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedzielski, A.; Nowak, G.; Adamow, M.; Wolszczan, A.

    2009-01-01

    We present the discovery of substellar-mass companions to three stars by the ongoing Penn State-Torun Planet Search conducted with the 9.2 m Hobby-Eberly Telescope. The K2-dwarf, BD+14 4559, has a 1.5 M J minimum mass companion with the orbital period of 269 days and shows a non-linear, long-term radial velocity (RV) trend, which indicates a possible presence of another planet-mass body in the system. The K3-giant, HD 240210, exhibits RV variations that require modeling with multiple orbits, but the available data are not yet sufficient to do it unambiguously. A tentative, one-planet model calls for a 5.2 M J minimum mass planet in a 502 day orbit around the star. The most massive of the three stars, the K2-giant, BD+20 2457, whose estimated mass is 2.8 ± 1.5 M sun , has two companions with the respective minimum masses of 21.4 M J and 12.5 M J and orbital periods of 380 and 622 days. Depending on the unknown inclinations of the orbits, the currently very uncertain mass of the star, and the dynamical properties of the system, it may represent the first detection of two brown dwarf-mass companions orbiting a giant. The existence of such objects will have consequences for the interpretation of the so-called brown dwarf desert known to exist in the case of solar-mass stars.

  20. The mass and radius of the M dwarf companion to GD 448

    OpenAIRE

    Maxted, P. F. L.; Marsh, T. R.; Moran, C.; Dhillon, V. S.; Hilditch, R. W.

    1998-01-01

    We present spectroscopy and photometry of GD 448, a detached white dwarf - M dwarf binary with a period of 2.47h. We find that the NaI 8200A feature is composed of narrow emission lines due to irradiation of the M dwarf by the white dwarf within broad absorption lines that are essentially unaffected by heating. Combined with an improved spectroscopic orbit and gravitational red shift measurement from spectra of the H-alpha line, we are able to derive masses for the white dwarf and M dwarf dir...

  1. Observations and modeling of the companions of short period binary millisecond pulsars: evidence for high-mass neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, Joshua; Halpern, Jules

    2014-01-01

    We present observations of fields containing eight recently discovered binary millisecond pulsars using the telescopes at MDM Observatory. Optical counterparts to four of these systems are detected, one of which, PSR J2214+3000, is a novel detection. Additionally, we present the fully phase-resolved B, V, and R light curves of the optical counterparts to two objects, PSR J1810+1744 and PSR J2215+5135 for which we employ model fitting using the eclipsing light curve (ELC) model of Orosz and Hauschildt to measure the unknown system parameters. For PSR J1810+1744, we find that the system parameters cannot be fit even assuming that 100% of the spin-down luminosity of the pulsar is irradiating the secondary, and so radial velocity measurements of this object will be required for the complete solution. However, PSR J2215+5135 exhibits light curves that are extremely well constrained using the ELC model and we find that the mass of the neutron star is constrained by these and the radio observations to be M NS > 1.75 M ☉ at the 3σ level. We also find a discrepancy between the model temperature and the measured colors of this object, which we interpret as possible evidence for an additional high-temperature source such as a quiescent disk. Given this and the fact that PSR J2215+5135 contains a relatively high mass companion (M c > 0.1 M ☉ ), we propose that similar to the binary pulsar systems PSR J1023+0038 and IGR J18245–2452, the pulsar may transition between accretion- and rotation-powered modes.

  2. A DISK AROUND THE PLANETARY-MASS COMPANION GSC 06214-00210 b: CLUES ABOUT THE FORMATION OF GAS GIANTS ON WIDE ORBITS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Liu, Michael C.; Kraus, Adam L.; Mann, Andrew W.; Ireland, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    We present Keck OSIRIS 1.1-1.8 μm adaptive optics integral field spectroscopy of the planetary-mass companion to GSC 06214-00210, a member of the ∼5 Myr Upper Scorpius OB association. We infer a spectral type of L0 ± 1, and our spectrum exhibits multiple signs of youth. The most notable feature is exceptionally strong Paβ emission (EW = –11.4 ± 0.3 Å), which signals the presence of a circumplanetary accretion disk. The luminosity of GSC 06214-00210 b combined with its age yields a model-dependent mass of 14 ± 2 M Jup , making it the lowest-mass companion to show evidence of a disk. With a projected separation of 320 AU, the formation of GSC 06214-00210 b and other very low mass companions on similarly wide orbits is unclear. One proposed mechanism is formation at close separations followed by planet-planet scattering to much larger orbits. Since that scenario involves a close encounter with another massive body, which is probably destructive to circumplanetary disks, it is unlikely that GSC 06214-00210 b underwent a scattering event in the past. This implies that planet-planet scattering is not solely responsible for the population of gas giants on wide orbits. More generally, the identification of disks around young planetary companions on wide orbits offers a novel method to constrain the formation pathway of these objects, which is otherwise notoriously difficult to do for individual systems. We also refine the spectral type of the primary from M1 to K7 and detect a mild (2σ) excess at 22 μm using Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry.

  3. Companion diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Trøst; Hersom, Maria

    2016-01-01

    of disease mechanisms, things are slowly changing. Within the last few years, we have seen an increasing number of predictive biomarker assays being developed to guide the use of targeted cancer drugs. This type of assay is called companion diagnostics and is developed in parallel to the drug using the drug-diagnostic...... co-development model. The development of companion diagnostics is a relatively new discipline and in this review, different aspects will be discussed including clinical and regulatory issues. Furthermore, examples of drugs, such as the ALK and PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors, that have been approved recently....... Despite having discussed personalized medicine for more than a decade, we still see that most drug prescriptions for severe chronic diseases are largely based on 'trial and error' and not on solid biomarker data. However, with the advance of molecular diagnostics and a subsequent increased understanding...

  4. The Mass of the Candidate Exoplanet Companion to HD 33636 from Hubble Space Telescope Astrometry and High-Precision Radial Velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Jacob L.; McArthur, Barbara E.; Benedict, G. Fritz; Harrison, Thomas E.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Nelan, Edmund; Smith, Verne V.

    2007-08-01

    We have determined a dynamical mass for the companion to HD 33636 that indicates it is a low-mass star instead of an exoplanet. Our result is based on an analysis of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) astrometry and ground-based radial velocity data. We have obtained high-cadence radial velocity measurements spanning 1.3 yr of HD 33636 with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope at McDonald Observatory. We combined these data with previously published velocities to create a data set that spans 9 yr. We used this data set to search for, and place mass limits on, the existence of additional companions in the HD 33636 system. Our high-precision astrometric observations of the system with the HST Fine Guidance Sensor 1r span 1.2 yr. We simultaneously modeled the radial velocity and astrometry data to determine the parallax, proper motion, and perturbation orbit parameters of HD 33636. Our derived parallax, πabs=35.6+/-0.2 mas, agrees within the uncertainties with the Hipparcos value. We find a perturbation period P=2117.3+/-0.8 days, semimajor axis aA=14.2+/-0.2 mas, and system inclination i=4.1deg+/-0.1deg. Assuming the mass of the primary star to be MA=1.02+/-0.03 Msolar, we obtain a companion mass MB=142+/-11 MJup=0.14+/-0.01 Msolar. The much larger true mass of the companion relative to its minimum mass estimated from the spectroscopic orbit parameters (Msini=9.3 MJup) is due to the nearly face-on orbit orientation. This result demonstrates the value of follow-up astrometric observations to determine the true masses of exoplanet candidates detected with the radial velocity method. Based on data obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET). The HST observations were obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. The HET is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, Pennsylvania State University, Stanford

  5. Planet or brown dwarf? Inferring the companion mass in HD 100546 from the wall shape using mid-infrared interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, G.D.; Paardekooper, S.J.; Panic, O.; Dominik, C.; van Boekel, R.; Ratzka, T.

    2013-01-01

    Context. Giant planets form in protoplanetary disks while these disks are still gas-rich, and can reveal their presence through the annular gaps they carve out. HD 100546 is a gas-rich disk with a wide gap between a radius of ~1 and 13 AU, possibly cleared out by a planetary companion or planetary

  6. A THERMAL INFRARED IMAGING STUDY OF VERY LOW MASS, WIDE-SEPARATION BROWN DWARF COMPANIONS TO UPPER SCORPIUS STARS: CONSTRAINING CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Vanessa; Hinz, Philip M.; Su, Kate Y. L.; Hoffmann, William F.; Rieke, George; Rodigas, Timothy; Skemer, Andrew; Vaitheeswaran, Vidhya [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Currie, Thayne [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Esposito, Simone; Pinna, Enrico; Puglisi, Alfio [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Hill, John M. [Large Binocular Telescope Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Jones, Terry [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Kim, Jihun [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, 1630 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Leisenring, Jarron; Meyer, Michael [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule-Zuerich, CH-8093 (Switzerland); Murray-Clay, Ruth; Skrutskie, Michael F. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Harvard University, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Nelson, Matthew J., E-mail: vbailey@as.arizona.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); and others

    2013-04-10

    We present a 3-5 {mu}m LBT/MMT adaptive optics imaging study of three Upper Scorpius stars with brown dwarf (BD) companions with very low masses/mass ratios (M{sub BD} <25 M{sub Jup}; M{sub BD}/M{sub *} Almost-Equal-To 1%-2%) and wide separations (300-700 AU): GSC 06214, 1RXS 1609, and HIP 78530. We combine these new thermal IR data with existing 1-4 {mu}m and 24 {mu}m photometry to constrain the properties of the BDs and identify evidence for circumprimary/circumsecondary disks in these unusual systems. We confirm that GSC 06214B is surrounded by a disk, further showing that this disk produces a broadband IR excess due to small dust near the dust sublimation radius. An unresolved 24 {mu}m excess in the system may be explained by the contribution from this disk. 1RXS 1609B exhibits no 3-4 {mu}m excess, nor does its primary; however, the system as a whole has a modest 24 {mu}m excess, which may come from warm dust around the primary and/or BD. Neither object in the HIP 78530 system exhibits near- to mid-IR excesses. We additionally find that the 1-4 {mu}m colors of HIP 78530B match a spectral type of M3 {+-} 2, inconsistent with the M8 spectral type assigned based on its near-IR spectrum, indicating that it may be a low-mass star rather than a BD. We present new upper limits on additional low-mass companions in the system (<5 M{sub Jup} beyond 175 AU). Finally, we examine the utility of circumsecondary disks as probes of the formation histories of wide BD companions, finding that the presence of a disk may disfavor BD formation near the primary with subsequent outward scattering.

  7. Google+ companion

    CERN Document Server

    Hattersley, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Get the inside scoop on the newest social networking site: Google+ If you think you've seen it all when it comes to social networking sites, you haven't seen Google+ yet! Built from the ground up to be useful to both desktop and mobile users, Google+ offers the same great features as other popular social network sites?yet, Google+ goes one step further by integrating popular Google technologies and introducing exciting new and unique features such as "Circles," "Hang," and "Sparks." Using clear, step-by-step instructions, Google+ Companion helps you master this amazing new social networking te

  8. PLANETS AROUND LOW-MASS STARS (PALMS). I. A SUBSTELLAR COMPANION TO THE YOUNG M DWARF 1RXS J235133.3+312720

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Liu, Michael C.; Cieza, Lucas A.; Kraus, Adam L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai' i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Shkolnik, Evgenya L. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W. Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Dupuy, Trent J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tamura, Motohide, E-mail: bpbowler@ifa.hawaii.edu [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2012-07-10

    We report the discovery of a brown dwarf companion to the young M dwarf 1RXS J235133.3+312720 as part of a high contrast imaging search for planets around nearby young low-mass stars with Keck-II/NIRC2 and Subaru/HiCIAO. The 2.''4 ({approx}120 AU) pair is confirmed to be comoving from two epochs of high-resolution imaging. Follow-up low- and moderate-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy of 1RXS J2351+3127 B with IRTF/SpeX and Keck-II/OSIRIS reveals a spectral type of L0{sup +2}{sub -1}. The M2 primary star 1RXS J2351+3127 A exhibits X-ray and UV activity levels comparable to young moving group members with ages of {approx}10-100 Myr. UVW kinematics based the measured radial velocity of the primary and the system's photometric distance (50 {+-} 10 pc) indicate it is likely a member of the {approx}50-150 Myr AB Dor moving group. The near-infrared spectrum of 1RXS J2351+3127 B does not exhibit obvious signs of youth, but its H-band morphology shows subtle hints of intermediate surface gravity. The spectrum is also an excellent match to the {approx}200 Myr M9 brown dwarf LP 944-20. Assuming an age of 50-150 Myr, evolutionary models imply a mass of 32 {+-} 6 M{sub Jup} for the companion, making 1RXS J2351+3127 B the second lowest-mass member of the AB Dor moving group after the L4 companion CD-35 2722 B and one of the few benchmark brown dwarfs known at young ages.

  9. Operator companion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natalizio, A.; Anderson, J.W.D.; Sills, H.E.

    1988-01-01

    Abundant, cheap computing power has provided industry with a far greater opportunity than was available one or two decades ago to automate industrial processes and to improve the man-machine interface. Exciting innovations in knowledge representation methods arising from artificial intelligence research pave the way for advanced support systems for assisting plant operators. AECL has recognized the importance of knowledge based system technology, particularly expert systems, in the achievement of this objective and also, as a strategic technology to be fully exploited in the next generation of CANDU reactors. Operator Companion, an expert system intended to diagnose plant faults and advise the operator on appropriate restoring or corrective actions, is a major undertaking which is receiving support within the research and engineering groups of AECL

  10. A Semi-analytical Model for Wind-fed Black Hole High-mass X-Ray Binaries: State Transition Triggered by Magnetic Fields from the Companion Star

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaji, Kentaro; Yamada, Shinya; Masai, Kuniaki [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami-Osawa 1-1, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan)

    2017-10-01

    We propose a mechanism of state transition in wind-fed black hole (BH) binaries (high-mass X-ray binaries) such as Cyg X-1 and LMC X-1. Modeling a line-driven stellar wind from the companion by two-dimensional hydrodynamical calculations, we investigate the processes of wind capture by, and accretion onto, the BH. We assume that the wind acceleration is terminated at the He ii ionization front because ions responsible for line-driven acceleration are ionized within the front, i.e., the He iii region. It is found that the mass accretion rate inferred from the luminosity is remarkably smaller than the capture rate. Considering the difference, we construct a model for the state transition based on the accretion flow being controlled by magnetorotational instability. The outer flow is torus-like, and plays an important role to trigger the transition. The model can explain why state transition does occur in Cyg X-1, while not in LMC X-1. Cyg X-1 exhibits a relatively low luminosity, and then the He ii ionization front is located and can move between the companion and BH, depending on its ionizing photon flux. On the other hand, LMC X-1 exhibits too high luminosity for the front to move considerably; the front is too close to the companion atmosphere. The model also predicts that each state of high-soft or low-hard would last fairly long because the luminosity depends weakly on the wind velocity. In the context of the model, the state transition is triggered by a fluctuation of the magnetic field when its amplitude becomes comparable to the field strength in the torus-like outer flow.

  11. PSR J2322-2650 - a low-luminosity millisecond pulsar with a planetary-mass companion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiewak, R.; Bailes, M.; Barr, E. D.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Burgay, M.; Cameron, A. D.; Champion, D. J.; Flynn, C. M. L.; Jameson, A.; Johnston, S.; Keith, M. J.; Kramer, M.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Levin, L.; Lyne, A. G.; Morello, V.; Ng, C.; Possenti, A.; Ravi, V.; Stappers, B. W.; van Straten, W.; Tiburzi, C.

    2018-03-01

    We present the discovery of a binary millisecond pulsar (MSP), PSR J2322-2650, found in the southern section of the High Time Resolution Universe survey. This system contains a 3.5-ms pulsar with a ˜10-3 M⊙ companion in a 7.75-h circular orbit. Follow-up observations at the Parkes and Lovell telescopes have led to precise measurements of the astrometric and spin parameters, including the period derivative, timing parallax, and proper motion. PSR J2322-2650 has a parallax of 4.4 ± 1.2 mas, and is thus at an inferred distance of 230^{+90}_{-50} pc, making this system a candidate for optical studies. We have detected a source of R ≈ 26.4 mag at the radio position in a single R-band observation with the Keck telescope, and this is consistent with the blackbody temperature we would expect from the companion if it fills its Roche lobe. The intrinsic period derivative of PSR J2322-2650 is among the lowest known, 4.4(4) × 10-22 s s-1, implying a low surface magnetic field strength, 4.0(4) × 107 G. Its mean radio flux density of 160 μJy combined with the distance implies that its radio luminosity is the lowest ever measured, 0.008(5) mJy kpc2. The inferred population of these systems in the Galaxy may be very significant, suggesting that this is a common MSP evolutionary path.

  12. Planets around Low-mass Stars (PALMS). I. A Substellar Companion to the Young M Dwarf 1RXS J235133.3+312720

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Liu, Michael C.; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Cieza, Lucas A.; Kraus, Adam L.; Tamura, Motohide

    2012-07-01

    We report the discovery of a brown dwarf companion to the young M dwarf 1RXS J235133.3+312720 as part of a high contrast imaging search for planets around nearby young low-mass stars with Keck-II/NIRC2 and Subaru/HiCIAO. The 2farcs4 (~120 AU) pair is confirmed to be comoving from two epochs of high-resolution imaging. Follow-up low- and moderate-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy of 1RXS J2351+3127 B with IRTF/SpeX and Keck-II/OSIRIS reveals a spectral type of L0+2 -1. The M2 primary star 1RXS J2351+3127 A exhibits X-ray and UV activity levels comparable to young moving group members with ages of ~10-100 Myr. UVW kinematics based the measured radial velocity of the primary and the system's photometric distance (50 ± 10 pc) indicate it is likely a member of the ~50-150 Myr AB Dor moving group. The near-infrared spectrum of 1RXS J2351+3127 B does not exhibit obvious signs of youth, but its H-band morphology shows subtle hints of intermediate surface gravity. The spectrum is also an excellent match to the ~200 Myr M9 brown dwarf LP 944-20. Assuming an age of 50-150 Myr, evolutionary models imply a mass of 32 ± 6 M Jup for the companion, making 1RXS J2351+3127 B the second lowest-mass member of the AB Dor moving group after the L4 companion CD-35 2722 B and one of the few benchmark brown dwarfs known at young ages. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  13. The Magellanic Analog Dwarf Companions and Stellar Halos (MADCASH) Survey: Near-Field Cosmology with Resolved Stellar Populations Around Local Volume LMC Stellar-Mass Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Sand, David J.; Willman, Beth; Brodie, Jean P.; Crnojevic, Denija; Peter, Annika; Price, Paul A.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Spekkens, Kristine; Strader, Jay

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the first results of our observational program to comprehensively map nearly the entire virial volumes of roughly LMC stellar mass galaxies at distances of ~2-4 Mpc. The MADCASH (Magellanic Analog Dwarf Companions And Stellar Halos) survey will deliver the first census of the dwarf satellite populations and stellar halo properties within LMC-like environments in the Local Volume. These will inform our understanding of the recent DES discoveries of dwarf satellites tentatively affiliated with the LMC/SMC system. We will detail our discovery of the faintest known dwarf galaxy satellite of an LMC stellar-mass host beyond the Local Group, based on deep Subaru+HyperSuprimeCam imaging reaching ~2 magnitudes below its TRGB. We will summarize the survey results and status to date, highlighting some challenges encountered and lessons learned as we process the data for this program through a prototype LSST pipeline. Our program will examine whether LMC stellar mass dwarfs have extended stellar halos, allowing us to assess the relative contributions of in-situ stars vs. merger debris to their stellar populations and halo density profiles. We outline the constraints on galaxy formation models that will be provided by our observations of low-mass galaxy halos and their satellites.

  14. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.

    2012-01-01

    masses of the brown dwarf companions are 0.02 ± 0.01 M⊙ and 0.019 ± 0.002 M⊙ for MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172 and MOA-2011-BLG-149, respectively, and both companions are orbiting low-mass M dwarf host stars. More microlensing brown dwarfs are expected to be detected as the number of lensing events...

  15. VERY LOW MASS STELLAR AND SUBSTELLAR COMPANIONS TO SOLAR-LIKE STARS FROM MARVELS. V. A LOW ECCENTRICITY BROWN DWARF FROM THE DRIEST PART OF THE DESERT, MARVELS-6b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Lee, Nathan; Stassun, Keivan G.; Cargile, Phillip [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Ge, Jian; Fleming, Scott W.; Lee, Brian L.; Chang Liang [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States); Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Eastman, Jason; Gaudi, B. Scott [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Esposito, Massimiliano; Femenia, Bruno; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jonay I.; Allende Prieto, Carlos [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Ghezzi, Luan [Observatorio Nacional, Rua Gal. Jose Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400 (Brazil); Wisniewski, John P. [H L Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W Brooks St Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Wood-Vasey, W. Michael [Pittsburgh Particle physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology Center (PITT PACC), Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Agol, Eric; Barnes, Rory [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Bizyaev, Dmitry, E-mail: nathan.delee@vanderbilt.edu [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349-0059 (United States); and others

    2013-06-15

    We describe the discovery of a likely brown dwarf (BD) companion with a minimum mass of 31.7 {+-} 2.0 M{sub Jup} to GSC 03546-01452 from the MARVELS radial velocity survey, which we designate as MARVELS-6b. For reasonable priors, our analysis gives a probability of 72% that MARVELS-6b has a mass below the hydrogen-burning limit of 0.072 M{sub Sun }, and thus it is a high-confidence BD companion. It has a moderately long orbital period of 47.8929{sup +0.0063}{sub -0.0062} days with a low eccentricity of 0.1442{sup +0.0078}{sub -0.0073}, and a semi-amplitude of 1644{sup +12}{sub -13} m s{sup -1}. Moderate resolution spectroscopy of the host star has determined the following parameters: T{sub eff} = 5598 {+-} 63, log g = 4.44 {+-} 0.17, and [Fe/H] = +0.40 {+-} 0.09. Based upon these measurements, GSC 03546-01452 has a probable mass and radius of M{sub *} = 1.11 {+-} 0.11 M{sub Sun} and R{sub *} = 1.06 {+-} 0.23 R{sub Sun} with an age consistent with less than {approx}6 Gyr at a distance of 219 {+-} 21 pc from the Sun. Although MARVELS-6b is not observed to transit, we cannot definitively rule out a transiting configuration based on our observations. There is a visual companion detected with Lucky Imaging at 7.''7 from the host star, but our analysis shows that it is not bound to this system. The minimum mass of MARVELS-6b exists at the minimum of the mass functions for both stars and planets, making this a rare object even compared to other BDs. It also exists in an underdense region in both period/eccentricity and metallicity/eccentricity space.

  16. VERY LOW MASS STELLAR AND SUBSTELLAR COMPANIONS TO SOLAR-LIKE STARS FROM MARVELS. V. A LOW ECCENTRICITY BROWN DWARF FROM THE DRIEST PART OF THE DESERT, MARVELS-6b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lee, Nathan; Stassun, Keivan G.; Cargile, Phillip; Ge, Jian; Fleming, Scott W.; Lee, Brian L.; Chang Liang; Crepp, Justin R.; Eastman, Jason; Gaudi, B. Scott; Esposito, Massimiliano; Femenía, Bruno; González Hernández, Jonay I.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Ghezzi, Luan; Wisniewski, John P.; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael; Agol, Eric; Barnes, Rory; Bizyaev, Dmitry

    2013-01-01

    We describe the discovery of a likely brown dwarf (BD) companion with a minimum mass of 31.7 ± 2.0 M Jup to GSC 03546-01452 from the MARVELS radial velocity survey, which we designate as MARVELS-6b. For reasonable priors, our analysis gives a probability of 72% that MARVELS-6b has a mass below the hydrogen-burning limit of 0.072 M ☉ , and thus it is a high-confidence BD companion. It has a moderately long orbital period of 47.8929 +0.0063 -0.0062 days with a low eccentricity of 0.1442 +0.0078 -0.0073 , and a semi-amplitude of 1644 +12 -13 m s –1 . Moderate resolution spectroscopy of the host star has determined the following parameters: T eff = 5598 ± 63, log g = 4.44 ± 0.17, and [Fe/H] = +0.40 ± 0.09. Based upon these measurements, GSC 03546-01452 has a probable mass and radius of M * = 1.11 ± 0.11 M ☉ and R * = 1.06 ± 0.23 R ☉ with an age consistent with less than ∼6 Gyr at a distance of 219 ± 21 pc from the Sun. Although MARVELS-6b is not observed to transit, we cannot definitively rule out a transiting configuration based on our observations. There is a visual companion detected with Lucky Imaging at 7.''7 from the host star, but our analysis shows that it is not bound to this system. The minimum mass of MARVELS-6b exists at the minimum of the mass functions for both stars and planets, making this a rare object even compared to other BDs. It also exists in an underdense region in both period/eccentricity and metallicity/eccentricity space.

  17. The AECL operator companion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupton, L.R.; Anderson, L.L.; Basso, R.A.J.

    1989-11-01

    As CANDU plants become more complex, and are operated under tighter constraints and for longer periods between outages, plant operations staff will have to absorb more information to correctly and rapidly respond to upsets. A development program is underway at AECL to use expert systems and interactive media tools to assist operations staff of existing and future CANDU plants. The complete system for plant information access and display, on-line advice and diagnosis, and interactive operating procedures is called the Operator Companion. A prototype, consisting of operator consoles, expert systems and simulation modules in a distributed architecture, is currently being developed to demonstrate the concepts of the Operator Companion

  18. A Substellar Companion to Pleiades HII 3441

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Mihoko; Matsuo, Taro; Yamamoto, Kodai; Samland, Matthias; Sudo, Jun; Shibai, Hiroshi; Itoh, Yoichi; Fukagawa, Misato; Sumi, Takhiro; Kudo, Tomoyuki; hide

    2016-01-01

    We find a new substellar companion to the Pleiades member star, Pleiades HII 3441, using the Subaru telescope with adaptive optics. The discovery is made as part of the high-contrast imaging survey to search for planetary-mass and substellar companions in the Pleiades and young moving groups. The companion has a projected separation of 0". 49+/-0". 02 (66+/-2 au) and a mass of 68+/-5M(sub J) based on three observations in the J-, H-, and K(sub s)-bands. The spectral type is estimated to be M7 (approx. 2700 K), and thus no methane absorption is detected in the H band. Our Pleiades observations result in the detection of two substellar companions including one previously reported among 20 observed Pleiades stars, and indicate that the fraction of substellar companions in the Pleiades is about 10.0+26.1 -8.8 %. This is consistent with multiplicity studies of both the Pleiades stars and other open clusters.

  19. Companion Animals. [Information Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Anti-Vivisection Society, Chicago, IL.

    This collection of articles reprinted from other National Anti-Vivisection Society (NAVS) publications was compiled to educate the public on issues of importance to NAVS concerning companion animals. Topics covered include spaying and neutering, animal safety, pet theft, and the use of cats and dogs in research. The article on spaying and…

  20. The physics companion

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer-Cripps, Anthony C

    2014-01-01

    Updated and expanded with new topics, The Physics Companion, 2nd Edition offers a unique and educational approach to learning physics at a level suitable for first-year science students. This new edition expands the presentation to include senior topics, such as statistical mechanics, quantum physics, and nuclear physics.

  1. Evidence for a solar companion star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, R.A.

    1984-08-01

    Periodicity seen in both the mass extinctions and large impact cratering on earth can be explained if one postulates that the sun has a companion star, orbiting in a moderately eccentric orbit with a major axis of 2.8 light-years. No other explanations that have been suggested are compatible with known facts of physics and astronomy. If the companion is a red dwarf star, the most common kind in the galaxy, then no previous astronomical observations would have found it. A search for red objects with large parallax is now underway at Berkeley, and has a good chance of identifying the star in the near future

  2. Evidence for a solar companion star

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, R.A.

    1984-08-01

    Periodicity seen in both the mass extinctions and large impact cratering on earth can be explained if one postulates that the sun has a companion star, orbiting in a moderately eccentric orbit with a major axis of 2.8 light-years. No other explanations that have been suggested are compatible with known facts of physics and astronomy. If the companion is a red dwarf star, the most common kind in the galaxy, then no previous astronomical observations would have found it. A search for red objects with large parallax is now underway at Berkeley, and has a good chance of identifying the star in the near future.

  3. VERY-LOW-MASS STELLAR AND SUBSTELLAR COMPANIONS TO SOLAR-LIKE STARS FROM MARVELS. III. A SHORT-PERIOD BROWN DWARF CANDIDATE AROUND AN ACTIVE G0IV SUBGIANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Bo; Ge Jian; De Lee, Nathan; Fleming, Scott W.; Lee, Brian L.; Wang Ji [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States); Barnes, Rory; Agol, Eric [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Dutra-Ferreira, Leticia; Porto de Mello, G. F. [Observatorio do Valongo, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ladeira do Pedro Antonio, 43, CEP: 20080-090, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Esposito, Massimiliano; Femenia, Bruno; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jonay I. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/Via Lctea S/N, E-38200 La Laguna (Spain); Gaudi, B. Scott [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Ghezzi, Luan [Laboratorio Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia (LIneA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400 (Brazil); Hebb, Leslie; Stassun, Keivan G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Wisniewski, John P. [Homer L Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W Brooks St, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Bizyaev, Dmitry, E-mail: boma@astro.ufl.edu [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349-0059 (United States); and others

    2013-01-01

    We present an eccentric, short-period brown dwarf candidate orbiting the active, slightly evolved subgiant star TYC 2087-00255-1, which has effective temperature T{sub eff} = 5903 {+-} 42 K, surface gravity log (g) = 4.07 {+-} 0.16 (cgs), and metallicity [Fe/H] = -0.23 {+-} 0.07. This candidate was discovered using data from the first two years of the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanets Large-area Survey, which is part of the third phase of Sloan Digital Sky Survey. From our 38 radial velocity measurements spread over a two-year time baseline, we derive a Keplerian orbital fit with semi-amplitude K = 3.571 {+-} 0.041 km s{sup -1}, period P = 9.0090 {+-} 0.0004 days, and eccentricity e = 0.226 {+-} 0.011. Adopting a mass of 1.16 {+-} 0.11 M{sub Sun} for the subgiant host star, we infer that the companion has a minimum mass of 40.0 {+-} 2.5 M{sub Jup}. Assuming an edge-on orbit, the semimajor axis is 0.090 {+-} 0.003 AU. The host star is photometrically variable at the {approx}1% level with a period of {approx}13.16 {+-} 0.01 days, indicating that the host star spin and companion orbit are not synchronized. Through adaptive optics imaging we also found a point source 643 {+-} 10 mas away from TYC 2087-00255-1, which would have a mass of 0.13 M{sub Sun} if it is physically associated with TYC 2087-00255-1 and has the same age. Future proper motion observation should be able to resolve if this tertiary object is physically associated with TYC 2087-00255-1 and make TYC 2087-00255-1 a triple body system. Core Ca II H and K line emission indicate that the host is chromospherically active, at a level that is consistent with the inferred spin period and measured v{sub rot}sin i, but unusual for a subgiant of this T{sub eff}. This activity could be explained by ongoing tidal spin-up of the host star by the companion.

  4. Cloud Atlas: Discovery of Rotational Spectral Modulations in a Low-mass, L-type Brown Dwarf Companion to a Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjavacas, Elena; Apai, Dániel; Zhou, Yifan; Karalidi, Theodora; Lew, Ben W. P.; Schneider, Glenn; Cowan, Nicolas; Metchev, Stan; Miles-Páez, Paulo A.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Radigan, Jacqueline; Bedin, Luigi R.; Lowrance, Patrick J.; Marley, Mark S.

    2018-01-01

    Observations of rotational modulations of brown dwarfs and giant exoplanets allow the characterization of condensate cloud properties. As of now, rotational spectral modulations have only been seen in three L-type brown dwarfs. We report here the discovery of rotational spectral modulations in LP261-75B, an L6-type intermediate surface gravity companion to an M4.5 star. As a part of the Cloud Atlas Treasury program, we acquired time-resolved Wide Field Camera 3 grism spectroscopy (1.1–1.69 μm) of LP261-75B. We find gray spectral variations with the relative amplitude displaying only a weak wavelength dependence and no evidence for lower-amplitude modulations in the 1.4 μm water band than in the adjacent continuum. The likely rotational modulation period is 4.78 ± 0.95 hr, although the rotational phase is not well sampled. The minimum relative amplitude in the white light curve measured over the whole wavelength range is 2.41% ± 0.14%. We report an unusual light curve, which seems to have three peaks approximately evenly distributed in rotational phase. The spectral modulations suggests that the upper atmosphere cloud properties in LP261-75B are similar to two other mid-L dwarfs of typical infrared colors, but differ from that of the extremely red L-dwarf WISE0047.

  5. The circuit designer's companion

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Tim

    1991-01-01

    The Circuit Designer's Companion covers the theoretical aspects and practices in analogue and digital circuit design. Electronic circuit design involves designing a circuit that will fulfill its specified function and designing the same circuit so that every production model of it will fulfill its specified function, and no other undesired and unspecified function.This book is composed of nine chapters and starts with a review of the concept of grounding, wiring, and printed circuits. The subsequent chapters deal with the passive and active components of circuitry design. These topics are foll

  6. COMPANIONS TO NEARBY STARS WITH ASTROMETRIC ACCELERATION. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokovinin, Andrei; Hartung, Markus; Hayward, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    Hipparcos astrometric binaries were observed with the NICI adaptive optics system at Gemini-S, completing the work of Paper I. Among the 65 F, G, and K dwarfs within 67 pc of the Sun studied here, we resolve 18 new subarcsecond companions, remeasure 7 known astrometric pairs, and establish the physical nature of yet another 3 wider companions. The 107 astrometric binaries targeted at Gemini so far have 38 resolved companions with separations under 3''. Modeling shows that bright enough companions with separations on the order of an arcsecond can perturb the Hipparcos astrometry when they are not accounted for in the data reduction. However, the resulting bias of parallax and proper motion is generally below formal errors and such companions cannot produce fake acceleration. This work contributes to the multiplicity statistics of nearby dwarfs by bridging the gap between spectroscopic and visual binaries and by providing estimates of periods and mass ratios for many astrometric binaries.

  7. Very Low-mass Stellar and Substellar Companions to Solar-like Stars from MARVELS. VI. A Giant Planet and a Brown Dwarf Candidate in a Close Binary System HD 87646

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bo; Ge, Jian; Wolszczan, Alex; Muterspaugh, Matthew W.; Lee, Brian; Henry, Gregory W.; Schneider, Donald P.; Martín, Eduardo L.; Niedzielski, Andrzej; Xie, Jiwei; Fleming, Scott W.; Thomas, Neil; Williamson, Michael; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Agol, Eric; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Nicolaci da Costa, Luiz; Jiang, Peng; Martinez Fiorenzano, A. F.; González Hernández, Jonay I.; Guo, Pengcheng; Grieves, Nolan; Li, Rui; Liu, Jane; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Mazeh, Tsevi; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Paegert, Martin; Sithajan, Sirinrat; Stassun, Keivan; Thirupathi, Sivarani; van Eyken, Julian C.; Wan, Xiaoke; Wang, Ji; Wisniewski, John P.; Zhao, Bo; Zucker, Shay

    2016-11-01

    We report the detections of a giant planet (MARVELS-7b) and a brown dwarf (BD) candidate (MARVELS-7c) around the primary star in the close binary system, HD 87646. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first close binary system with more than one substellar circumprimary companion that has been discovered. The detection of this giant planet was accomplished using the first multi-object Doppler instrument (KeckET) at the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) telescope. Subsequent radial velocity observations using the Exoplanet Tracker at the Kitt Peak National Observatory, the High Resolution Spectrograph at the Hobby Eberley telescope, the “Classic” spectrograph at the Automatic Spectroscopic Telescope at the Fairborn Observatory, and MARVELS from SDSS-III confirmed this giant planet discovery and revealed the existence of a long-period BD in this binary. HD 87646 is a close binary with a separation of ˜22 au between the two stars, estimated using the Hipparcos catalog and our newly acquired AO image from PALAO on the 200 inch Hale Telescope at Palomar. The primary star in the binary, HD 87646A, has {T}{eff} = 5770 ± 80 K, log g = 4.1 ± 0.1, and [Fe/H] = -0.17 ± 0.08. The derived minimum masses of the two substellar companions of HD 87646A are 12.4 ± 0.7 {M}{Jup} and 57.0 ± 3.7 {M}{Jup}. The periods are 13.481 ± 0.001 days and 674 ± 4 days and the measured eccentricities are 0.05 ± 0.02 and 0.50 ± 0.02 respectively. Our dynamical simulations show that the system is stable if the binary orbit has a large semimajor axis and a low eccentricity, which can be verified with future astrometry observations.

  8. RETIRED A STARS AND THEIR COMPANIONS. III. COMPARING THE MASS-PERIOD DISTRIBUTIONS OF PLANETS AROUND A-TYPE STARS AND SUN-LIKE STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Johnson, John Asher; Liu, Michael C.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Peek, Kathryn M. G.; Henry, Gregory W.; Fischer, Debra A.; Clubb, Kelsey I.; Reffert, Sabine; Schwab, Christian; Lowe, Thomas B.

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of ∼5 years of Lick Observatory radial velocity measurements targeting a uniform sample of 31 intermediate-mass (IM) subgiants (1.5 ∼ * /M sun ∼ +9 -8 %, which is significantly higher than the 5%-10% frequency observed around solar-mass stars. The median detection threshold for our sample includes minimum masses down to {0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.6, 1.3} M Jup within {0.1, 0.3, 0.6, 1.0, 3.0} AU. To compare the properties of planets around IM stars to those around solar-mass stars we synthesize a population of planets based on the parametric relationship dN ∝ M α P β dlnMdlnP, the observed planet frequency, and the detection limits we derived. We find that the values of α and β for planets around solar-type stars from Cumming et al. fail to reproduce the observed properties of planets in our sample at the 4σ level, even when accounting for the different planet occurrence rates. Thus, the properties of planets around A stars are markedly different than those around Sun-like stars, suggesting that only a small (∼50%) increase in stellar mass has a large influence on the formation and orbital evolution of planets.

  9. BEER ANALYSIS OF KEPLER AND CoRoT LIGHT CURVES. IV. DISCOVERY OF FOUR NEW LOW-MASS WHITE DWARF COMPANIONS IN THE KEPLER DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faigler, S.; Kull, I.; Mazeh, T.; Kiefer, F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Latham, D. W. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bloemen, S. [Department of Astrophysics, IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. BOX 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2015-12-10

    We report the discovery of four short-period eclipsing systems in the Kepler light curves, consisting of an A-star primary and a low-mass white dwarf (WD) secondary (dA+WD)—KIC 4169521, KOI-3818, KIC 2851474, and KIC 9285587. The systems show BEaming, Ellipsoidal and Reflection (BEER) phase modulations together with primary and secondary eclipses. These add to the 6 Kepler and 18 WASP short-period eclipsing dA+WD binaries that were previously known. The light curves, together with follow-up spectroscopic observations, allow us to derive the masses, radii, and effective temperatures of the two components of the four systems. The orbital periods, of 1.17–3.82 days, and WD masses, of 0.19–0.22 M{sub ⊙}, are similar to those of the previously known systems. The WD radii of KOI-3818, KIC 2851474, and KIC 9285587 are 0.026, 0.035, and 0.026 R{sub ⊙}, respectively, the smallest WD radii derived so far for short-period eclipsing dA+WD binaries. These three binaries extend the previously known population to older systems with cooler and smaller WD secondaries. KOI-3818 displays evidence for a fast-rotating primary and a minute but significant eccentricity, ∼1.5 × 10{sup −3}. These features are probably the outcome of the mass-transfer process.

  10. Retired A Stars and Their Companions. III. Comparing the Mass-Period Distributions of Planets Around A-Type Stars and Sun-Like Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Johnson, John Asher; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Henry, Gregory W.; Peek, Kathryn M. G.; Fischer, Debra A.; Clubb, Kelsey I.; Liu, Michael C.; Reffert, Sabine; Schwab, Christian; Lowe, Thomas B.

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of ~5 years of Lick Observatory radial velocity measurements targeting a uniform sample of 31 intermediate-mass (IM) subgiants (1.5 lsim M */M sunlsim 2.0) with the goal of measuring the occurrence rate of Jovian planets around (evolved) A-type stars and comparing the distributions of their orbital and physical characteristics to those of planets around Sun-like stars. We provide updated orbital solutions incorporating new radial velocity measurements for five known planet-hosting stars in our sample; uncertainties in the fitted parameters are assessed using a Markov-Chain Monte Carlo method. The frequency of Jovian planets interior to 3 AU is 26+9 -8%, which is significantly higher than the 5%-10% frequency observed around solar-mass stars. The median detection threshold for our sample includes minimum masses down to {0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.6, 1.3} M Jup within {0.1, 0.3, 0.6, 1.0, 3.0} AU. To compare the properties of planets around IM stars to those around solar-mass stars we synthesize a population of planets based on the parametric relationship dN vprop M α P β dlnMdlnP, the observed planet frequency, and the detection limits we derived. We find that the values of α and β for planets around solar-type stars from Cumming et al. fail to reproduce the observed properties of planets in our sample at the 4σ level, even when accounting for the different planet occurrence rates. Thus, the properties of planets around A stars are markedly different than those around Sun-like stars, suggesting that only a small (~50%) increase in stellar mass has a large influence on the formation and orbital evolution of planets. Based on observations obtained at the Lick Observatory, which is operated by the University of California.

  11. The Kepler-19 System: A Thick-envelope Super-Earth with Two Neptune-mass Companions Characterized Using Radial Velocities and Transit Timing Variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malavolta, Luca; Borsato, Luca; Granata, Valentina; Piotto, Giampaolo; Nascimbeni, Valerio [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Universita’di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Lopez, Eric [SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH93HJ (United Kingdom); Vanderburg, Andrew; Charbonneau, David [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Figueira, Pedro [Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, PT4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Mortier, Annelies; Cameron, Andrew Collier [Centre for Exoplanet Science, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Affer, Laura [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90124 Palermo (Italy); Bonomo, Aldo S. [INAF—Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese (Italy); Bouchy, Francois [Observatoire Astronomique de l’Université de Genève, 51 ch. des Maillettes, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Buchhave, Lars A. [Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Natural History Museum of Denmark and Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Cosentino, Rosario, E-mail: luca.malavolta@unipd.it [INAF—Fundación Galileo Galilei, Rambla José Ana Fernandez Pérez 7, E-38712 Breña Baja (Spain); and others

    2017-05-01

    We report a detailed characterization of the Kepler-19 system. This star was previously known to host a transiting planet with a period of 9.29 days, a radius of 2.2 R {sub ⊕}, and an upper limit on the mass of 20 M {sub ⊕}. The presence of a second, non-transiting planet was inferred from the transit time variations (TTVs) of Kepler-19b over eight quarters of Kepler photometry, although neither the mass nor period could be determined. By combining new TTVs measurements from all the Kepler quarters and 91 high-precision radial velocities obtained with the HARPS-N spectrograph, using dynamical simulations we obtained a mass of 8.4 ± 1.6 M {sub ⊕} for Kepler-19b. From the same data, assuming system coplanarity, we determined an orbital period of 28.7 days and a mass of 13.1 ± 2.7 M {sub ⊕} for Kepler-19c and discovered a Neptune-like planet with a mass of 20.3 ± 3.4 M {sub ⊕} on a 63-day orbit. By comparing dynamical simulations with non-interacting Keplerian orbits, we concluded that neglecting interactions between planets may lead to systematic errors that can hamper the precision in the orbital parameters when the data set spans several years. With a density of 4.32 ± 0.87 g cm{sup −3} (0.78 ± 0.16 ρ {sub ⊕}) Kepler-19b belongs to the group of planets with a rocky core and a significant fraction of volatiles, in opposition to low-density planets characterized only by transit time variations and an increasing number of rocky planets with Earth-like density. Kepler-19 joins the small number of systems that reconcile transit timing variation and radial velocity measurements.

  12. DGNB Building Certification Companion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Renate Skovgaard; Rhodes, Michael K.; Larsen, Tine Steen

    2017-01-01

    for sustainable buildings. The literature describes several barriers of entry preventing actors in the industry from seeking sustainability certifications and prioritizing design methods, supporting sustainability in greater numbers. In the newly developed tool, “DGNB building certification companion: Sustainable......-language, easily digestible summaries of various topics regarding sustainability and the DGNB certification scheme. The identified barriers are described in the tool followed by a solution to overcome them. The tool, tested at multiple stages of development and moulded by many individuals both within and outside...... was that this is a desired product on the market. This new approach is expected to dramatically reduce misunderstandings, conflicts, and mistakes during a sustainable design process, helping the design team plan a project to possibly obtain the highest DGNB score if desired and properly documented....

  13. DGNB BUILDING CERTIFICATION COMPANION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Renate Skovgaard; Rhodes, Michael K.; Larsen, Tine Steen

    2018-01-01

    for sustainable buildings. The literature describes several barriers of entry preventing actors in the industry from seeking sustainability certifications and prioritizing design methods, supporting sustainability in greater numbers. In the newly developed tool, “DGNB building certification companion: Sustainable......-language, easily digestible summaries of various topics regarding sustainability and the DGNB certification scheme. The identified barriers are described in the tool followed by a solution to overcome them. The tool, tested at multiple stages of development and moulded by many individuals both within and outside...... was that this is a desired product on the market. This new approach is expected to dramatically reduce misunderstandings, conflicts, and mistakes during a sustainable design process, helping the design team plan a project to possibly obtain the highest DGNB score if desired and properly documented....

  14. Analysis of the southern pre-contact W UMa binary ZZ Eridani: A 34 year period study yields a possible low-mass companion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samec, R. G. [Faculty Research Associate, Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute, One Pari Drive, Rosman, NC 28772 (United States); Clark, J. D. [Astronomy Group, Physics and Engineering Department, Bob Jones University, 1700 Wade Hampton Boulevard, Greenville, SC 29614 (United States); Hamme, W. Van [Physics Department, Florida International University, 11200 SW 8th Street, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Faulkner, D. R. [University of South Carolina, Lancaster, 476 Hubbard Drive Lancaster, SC 29720 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Complete Bessel BVRI light curves of ZZ Eridani [2MASS J04130109-1044545, HV 6280, NSVS 14888164 α(2000) = 04{sup h}13{sup m}1{sub ·}{sup s}10, δ(2000) = −10°44′54{sub ·}{sup ″}5 (ICRS), V = 13.9-14.4-15.0] are observed and analyzed. The system is a southern pre-contact W UMa binary. Its light curve has the appearance of an Algol (EA) light curve, however, it is made up of dwarf solar-type components with a period of only 0.4521 days. Our 34 year period study yields a sinusoidal fit or an increasing quadratic fit. The sinusoid may indicate that a third body is orbiting the close binary. The lower-limit mass of the third body is near that of the brown dwarf limit (0.095 M α). Also included is an improved ephemeris, a mass ratio search, and a simultaneous BVRI Wilson–Devinney solution.

  15. Imaginary Companions of Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Tracy R.; Sebanc, Anne M.; Hartup, Willard W.

    2000-01-01

    Interviewed mothers to examine the developmental significance of preschoolers' imaginary companions. Found that relationships with invisible companions were described as sociable and friendly, whereas personified objects were usually nurtured. Object personification frequently occurred as a result of acquiring a toy; invisible friends were viewed…

  16. A low-temperature companion to a white dwarf star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becklin, E. E.; Zuckerman, B.

    1988-01-01

    An infrared object located about 120 AU from the white dwarf GD165 has been discovered. With the exception of the possible brown dwarf companion to Giclas 29-38 reported last year, the companion to GD165 is the coolest (2100 K) dwarf star ever reported and, according to some theoretical models, it should be a substellar brown dwarf with a mass between 0.06 and 0.08 solar mass. These results, together with newly discovered low-mass stellar companions to white dwarfs, change the investigation of very low-mass stars from the study of a few chance objects to that of a statistical distribution. In particular, it appears that very low-mass stars and perhaps even brown dwarfs could be quite common in the Galaxy.

  17. Designing Socially Intelligent Virtual Companions

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Han; Shen, Zhiqi; Wu, Qiong; Miao, Chunyan

    2014-01-01

    Virtual companions that interact with users in a socially complex environment require a wide range of social skills. Displaying curiosity is simultaneously a factor to improve a companion's believability and to unobtrusively affect the user's activities over time. Curiosity represents a drive to know new things. It is a major driving force for engaging learners in active learning. Existing research work pays little attention in curiosity. In this paper, we enrich the social skills of a virtua...

  18. Absence of young white dwarf companions to five technetium stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, V.V.; Lambert, D.L.

    1987-10-01

    A search for hot companions to five stars of type MS and S has been carried out using the IUE satellite. No hot companions were detected for the MS stars HR 85, 4647, 6702, and 8062, and the S star HR 8714. Limits on the luminosities of possible white dwarf companions provide lower limits of 2-5x10 to the 8th yr to the ages of any degenerate companions. All five stars exhibit strong Tc I lines, and the presence of technetium, with a half-life of 2.1x10 to the 5th yr, signifies recent nucleosynthesis. The limits on the ages of possible white dwarf companions that are equal to or greater than 1000 half-lives of Tc exclude the possibility that the s-process elemental enhancement seen in these MS and S stars resulted from mass transfer from a more highly evolved companion (as is probably the mechanism by which barium stars are created). These MS and S stars represent a sample of true thermally pulsing asymptotic giant-branch stars. 41 references.

  19. Routledge companion to intelligence studies

    CERN Document Server

    Dover, Robert; Hillebrand, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The Routledge Companion to Intelligence Studies provides a broad overview of the growing field of intelligence studies. The recent growth of interest in intelligence and security studies has led to an increased demand for popular depictions of intelligence and reference works to explain the architecture and underpinnings of intelligence activity. Divided into five comprehensive sections, this Companion provides a strong survey of the cutting-edge research in the field of intelligence studies: Part I: The evolution of intelligence studies; Part II: Abstract approaches to intelligence; Part III: Historical approaches to intelligence; Part IV: Systems of intelligence; Part V: Contemporary challenges. With a broad focus on the origins, practices and nature of intelligence, the book not only addresses classical issues, but also examines topics of recent interest in security studies. The overarching aim is to reveal the rich tapestry of intelligence studies in both a sophisticated and accessible way. This Companion...

  20. NEW BROWN DWARF COMPANIONS TO YOUNG STARS IN SCORPIUS-CENTAURUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janson, Markus [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Jayawardhana, Ray; Bonavita, Mariangela [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Girard, Julien H. [European Southern Observatory, Santiago (Chile); Lafreniere, David [Department of Physics, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Gizis, John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Brandeker, Alexis, E-mail: janson@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-10-10

    We present the discoveries of three faint companions to young stars in the Scorpius-Centaurus region, imaged with the NICI instrument on Gemini South. We have confirmed all three companions through common proper motion tests. Follow-up spectroscopy has confirmed two of them, HIP 65423 B and HIP 65517 B, to be brown dwarfs, while the third, HIP 72099 B, is more likely a very low mass star just above the hydrogen burning limit. The detection of wide companions in the mass range of {approx}40-100 M{sub jup} complements previous work in the same region, reporting detections of similarly wide companions with lower masses, in the range of {approx}10-30 M{sub jup}. Such low masses near the deuterium burning limit have raised the question of whether those objects formed like planets or stars. The existence of intermediate objects as reported here could represent a bridge between lower-mass companions and stellar companions, but in any case demonstrate that mass alone may not provide a clear-cut distinction for the formation of low-mass companions to stars.

  1. Historical Companion to Postcolonial Thought

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      The Companion contains 240 entries written by more than 150 acknowledged scholars of postcolonial history and literature, and covers major events, ideas, movements, and figures in postcolonial histories.  In addition, for each region, there are long survey essays on historiography and women's h...

  2. Search for white dwarf companions of cool stars with peculiar element abundances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm-Vitense, E.

    1984-01-01

    A search for a white dwarf companions of cool stars with peculiar element abundances was undertaken. One additional star the xi Cet, was found with a white dwarf companion. It was found that HR 1016, 56Uma, 16 Ser, have high excitation emission lines which indicate a high temperature object in the system. It is suggested that since these indications for high temperature companions were seen for all nearby Ba stars, it is highly probable that all Ba stars have white dwarf companions, and that the peculiar element abundances seen in the Ba stars are due to mass transfer. Observations, arguments and conclusions are presented. White dwarf companions were not found. Together with the Li and Be abundances and the chromospheric emission line spectra in these stars were studied. No white dwarf companions were seen for subgiant CH stars.

  3. Search for white dwarf companions of cool stars with peculiar element abundances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm-Vitense, E.

    1984-01-01

    A search for a white dwarf companions of cool stars with peculiar element abundances was undertaken. One additional star the xi Cet, was found with a white dwarf companion. It was found that HR 1016, 56Uma, 16 Ser, have high excitation emission lines which indicate a high temperature object in the system. It is suggested that since these indications for high temperature companions were seen for all nearby Ba stars, it is highly probable that all Ba stars have white dwarf companions, and that the peculiar element abundances seen in the Ba stars are due to mass transfer. Observations, arguments and conclusions are presented. White dwarf companions were not found. Together with the Li and Be abundances and the chromospheric emission line spectra in these stars were studied. No white dwarf companions were seen for subgiant CH stars

  4. Evidence for Nemesis: a solar companion star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The evidence that the sun has a companion star ''Nemesis'' responsible for periodic mass extinctions is reviewed. A gaussian ideogram of the rates of family extinctions in the oceans shows periods of 26 and 30 Myr. Analysis of impact cratering on the earth shows a period of either 28.4 or 30 Myr, depending on the crater selection. Models which attempt to explain these periods with either oscillations through the galactic plane, or through the effects of a tenth planet, are seriously flawed. If the periods seen in the data are real (and not a spurious result of a statistical fluctuation) then the ''Nemesis hypothesis'' is the only suggested explanation that has survived close scrutiny. The Nemesis model predicts that the impacts took place during brief storms of several million years duration, perhaps accounting for the ''extended'' nature of the mass extinctions. A search for Nemesis is under way at Berkeley. 18 refs., 4 figs

  5. B-ducted Heating of Black Widow Companions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Nicolas; Romani, Roger W., E-mail: rwr@astro.stanford.edu [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    The companions of evaporating binary pulsars (black widows and related systems) show optical emission suggesting strong heating. In a number of cases, large observed temperatures and asymmetries are inconsistent with direct radiative heating for the observed pulsar spindown power and expected distance. Here we describe a heating model in which the pulsar wind sets up an intrabinary shock (IBS) against the companion wind and magnetic field, and a portion of the shock particles duct along this field to the companion magnetic poles. We show that a variety of heating patterns, and improved fits to the observed light curves, can be obtained at expected pulsar distances and luminosities, at the expense of a handful of model parameters. We test this “IBS-B” model against three well-observed binaries and comment on the implications for system masses.

  6. SUB-STELLAR COMPANIONS AND STELLAR MULTIPLICITY IN THE TAURUS STAR-FORMING REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daemgen, Sebastian; Bonavita, Mariangela; Jayawardhana, Ray; Lafrenière, David; Janson, Markus

    2015-01-01

    We present results from a large, high-spatial-resolution near-infrared imaging search for stellar and sub-stellar companions in the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region. The sample covers 64 stars with masses between those of the most massive Taurus members at ∼3 M ☉ and low-mass stars at ∼0.2 M ☉ . We detected 74 companion candidates, 34 of these reported for the first time. Twenty-five companions are likely physically bound, partly confirmed by follow-up observations. Four candidate companions are likely unrelated field stars. Assuming physical association with their host star, estimated companion masses are as low as ∼2 M Jup . The inferred multiplicity frequency within our sensitivity limits between ∼10-1500 AU is 26.3 −4.9 +6.6 %. Applying a completeness correction, 62% ± 14% of all Taurus stars between 0.7 and 1.4 M ☉ appear to be multiple. Higher order multiples were found in 1.8 −1.5 +4.2 % of the cases, in agreement with previous observations of the field. We estimate a sub-stellar companion frequency of ∼3.5%-8.8% within our sensitivity limits from the discovery of two likely bound and three other tentative very low-mass companions. This frequency appears to be in agreement with what is expected from the tail of the stellar companion mass ratio distribution, suggesting that stellar and brown dwarf companions share the same dominant formation mechanism. Further, we find evidence for possible evolution of binary parameters between two identified sub-populations in Taurus with ages of ∼2 Myr and ∼20 Myr, respectively

  7. SUB-STELLAR COMPANIONS AND STELLAR MULTIPLICITY IN THE TAURUS STAR-FORMING REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daemgen, Sebastian [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5H 3H4 (Canada); Bonavita, Mariangela [The University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Jayawardhana, Ray [Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, Ontario L3T 3R1 (Canada); Lafrenière, David [Department of Physics, University of Montréal, Montréal, QC (Canada); Janson, Markus, E-mail: daemgen@astro.utoronto.ca [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-02-01

    We present results from a large, high-spatial-resolution near-infrared imaging search for stellar and sub-stellar companions in the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region. The sample covers 64 stars with masses between those of the most massive Taurus members at ∼3 M {sub ☉} and low-mass stars at ∼0.2 M {sub ☉}. We detected 74 companion candidates, 34 of these reported for the first time. Twenty-five companions are likely physically bound, partly confirmed by follow-up observations. Four candidate companions are likely unrelated field stars. Assuming physical association with their host star, estimated companion masses are as low as ∼2 M {sub Jup}. The inferred multiplicity frequency within our sensitivity limits between ∼10-1500 AU is 26.3{sub −4.9}{sup +6.6}%. Applying a completeness correction, 62% ± 14% of all Taurus stars between 0.7 and 1.4 M {sub ☉} appear to be multiple. Higher order multiples were found in 1.8{sub −1.5}{sup +4.2}% of the cases, in agreement with previous observations of the field. We estimate a sub-stellar companion frequency of ∼3.5%-8.8% within our sensitivity limits from the discovery of two likely bound and three other tentative very low-mass companions. This frequency appears to be in agreement with what is expected from the tail of the stellar companion mass ratio distribution, suggesting that stellar and brown dwarf companions share the same dominant formation mechanism. Further, we find evidence for possible evolution of binary parameters between two identified sub-populations in Taurus with ages of ∼2 Myr and ∼20 Myr, respectively.

  8. Wide cool and ultracool companions to nearby stars from Pan-STARRS 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deacon, Niall R.; Liu, Michael C.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Aller, Kimberly M.; Best, William M. J.; Bowler, Brendan P.; Burgett, William S.; Chambers, Kenneth C.; Flewelling, H.; Kaiser, Nick; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Morgan, Jeff S.; Tonry, John L.; Dupuy, Trent; Mann, Andrew W.; Redstone, Joshua A.; Draper, Peter W.; Metcalfe, Nigel; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Price, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    We present the discovery of 57 wide (>5'') separation, low-mass (stellar and substellar) companions to stars in the solar neighborhood identified from Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1) data and the spectral classification of 31 previously known companions. Our companions represent a selective subsample of promising candidates and span a range in spectral type of K7-L9 with the addition of one DA white dwarf. These were identified primarily from a dedicated common proper motion search around nearby stars, along with a few as serendipitous discoveries from our Pan-STARRS 1 brown dwarf search. Our discoveries include 23 new L dwarf companions and one known L dwarf not previously identified as a companion. The primary stars around which we searched for companions come from a list of bright stars with well-measured parallaxes and large proper motions from the Hipparcos catalog (8583 stars, mostly A-K dwarfs) and fainter stars from other proper motion catalogs (79170 stars, mostly M dwarfs). We examine the likelihood that our companions are chance alignments between unrelated stars and conclude that this is unlikely for the majority of the objects that we have followed-up spectroscopically. We also examine the entire population of ultracool (>M7) dwarf companions and conclude that while some are loosely bound, most are unlikely to be disrupted over the course of ∼10 Gyr. Our search increases the number of ultracool M dwarf companions wider than 300 AU by 88% and increases the number of L dwarf companions in the same separation range by 82%. Finally, we resolve our new L dwarf companion to HIP 6407 into a tight (0.''13, 7.4 AU) L1+T3 binary, making the system a hierarchical triple. Our search for these key benchmarks against which brown dwarf and exoplanet atmosphere models are tested has yielded the largest number of discoveries to date.

  9. A METAL-RICH LOW-GRAVITY COMPANION TO A MASSIVE MILLISECOND PULSAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, D. L.; Bhalerao, V. B.; Van Kerkwijk, M. H.; Koester, D.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Stovall, K.

    2013-01-01

    Most millisecond pulsars with low-mass companions are in systems with either helium-core white dwarfs or non-degenerate (''black widow'' or ''redback'') stars. A candidate counterpart to PSR J1816+4510 was identified by Kaplan et al. whose properties were suggestive of both types of companions although identical to neither. We have assembled optical spectroscopy of the candidate companion and confirm that it is part of the binary system with a radial velocity amplitude of 343 ± 7 km s –1 , implying a high pulsar mass, M psr sin 3 i = 1.84 ± 0.11 M ☉ , and a companion mass M c sin 3 i = 0.193 ± 0.012 M ☉ , where i is the inclination of the orbit. The companion appears similar to proto-white dwarfs/sdB stars, with a gravity log 10 (g) = 4.9 ± 0.3, and effective temperature 16, 000 ± 500 K. The strongest lines in the spectrum are from hydrogen, but numerous lines from helium, calcium, silicon, and magnesium are present as well, with implied abundances of roughly 10 times solar (relative to hydrogen). As such, while from the spectrum the companion to PSR J1816+4510 is superficially most similar to a low-mass white dwarf, it has much lower gravity, is substantially larger, and shows substantial metals. Furthermore, it is able to produce ionized gas eclipses, which had previously been seen only for low-mass, non-degenerate companions in redback or black widow systems. We discuss the companion in relation to other sources, but find that we understand neither its nature nor its origins. Thus, the system is interesting for understanding unusual stellar products of binary evolution, as well as, independent of its nature, for determining neutron-star masses.

  10. Exploring the brown dwarf desert: new substellar companions from the SDSS-III MARVELS survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieves, Nolan; Ge, Jian; Thomas, Neil; Ma, Bo; Sithajan, Sirinrat; Ghezzi, Luan; Kimock, Ben; Willis, Kevin; De Lee, Nathan; Lee, Brian; Fleming, Scott W.; Agol, Eric; Troup, Nicholas; Paegert, Martin; Schneider, Donald P.; Stassun, Keivan; Varosi, Frank; Zhao, Bo; Jian, Liu; Li, Rui; Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Pan, Kaike; Dutra-Ferreira, Letícia; Lorenzo-Oliveira, Diego; Santiago, Basílio X.; da Costa, Luiz N.; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; del Peloso, E. F.

    2017-06-01

    Planet searches using the radial velocity technique show a paucity of companions to solar-type stars within ˜5 au in the mass range of ˜10-80 MJup. This deficit, known as the brown dwarf desert, currently has no conclusive explanation. New substellar companions in this region help assess the reality of the desert and provide insight to the formation and evolution of these objects. Here, we present 10 new brown dwarf and 2 low-mass stellar companion candidates around solar-type stars from the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-Area Survey (MARVELS) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III. These companions were selected from processed MARVELS data using the latest University of Florida Two Dimensional pipeline, which shows significant improvement and reduction of systematic errors over previous pipelines. The 10 brown dwarf companions range in mass from ˜13 to 76 MJup and have orbital radii of less than 1 au. The two stellar companions have minimum masses of ˜98 and 100 MJup. The host stars of the MARVELS brown dwarf sample have a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = 0.03 ± 0.08 dex. Given our stellar sample we estimate the brown dwarf occurrence rate around solar-type stars with periods less than ˜300 d to be ˜0.56 per cent.

  11. Companion diagnostics: a regulatory perspective from the last 5 years of molecular companion diagnostic approvals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, Donna M; Hu, Yun-Fu; Philip, Reena

    2015-01-01

    Companion diagnostics are essential for the safe and effective use of the corresponding therapeutic products. The US FDA has approved a number of companion diagnostics used to select cancer patients for treatment with contemporaneously approved novel therapeutics. The processes of co-development and co-approval of a therapeutic product and its companion diagnostic have been a learning experience that continues to evolve. Using several companion diagnostics as examples, this article describes the challenges associated with the scientific, clinical and regulatory hurdles faced by FDA and industry alike. Taken together, this discussion is intended to assist manufacturers toward a successful companion diagnostics development plan.

  12. Stars of type MS with evidence of white dwarf companions. [IUE, Main Sequence (MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peery, Benjamin F., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A search for white dwarf companions of MS-type stars was conducted, using IUE. The overendowments of these stars in typical S-process nuclides suggest that they, like the Ba II stars, may owe their peculiar compositions to earlier mass transfer. Short-wavelength IUE spectra show striking emission line variability in HD35155, HD61913, and 4 Ori; HD35155 and 4 Ori show evidence of white dwarf companions.

  13. Three new massive companions in the planet-brown dwarf boundary detected with SOPHIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santerne A.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the detection of three new massive companions to mainsequence stars based on precise radial velocities obtained with the SOPHIE spectrograph, as part of an ongoing programme to search for extrasolar planets. The minimum masses of the detected companions range from around 16 Mjup to around 60 Mjup, and therefore lie at both sides of the boundary between massive extrasolar planets and brown dwarves.

  14. A HST/WFC3 Search for Substellar Companions in the Orion Nebula Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strampelli, Giovanni Maria; Aguilar, Jonathan; Aparicio, Antonio; Piotto, Giampaolo; Pueyo, Laurent; Robberto, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    We present new results relative to the population of substellar binaries in the Orion Nebula Cluster. We reprocessed HST/WFC3 data using an analysis technique developed to detect close companions in the wings of the stellar PSFs, based on the PyKLIP implementation of the KLIP PSF subtraction algorithm. Starting from a sample of ~1200 stars selected over the range J=11-15 mag, we were able to uncover ~80 candidate companions in the magnitude range J=16-23 mag. We use the presence of the 1.4 micron H2O absorption feature in the companion photosphere to discriminate 32 bona-fide substellar candidates from a population of reddened background objects. We derive an estimate of the companion mass assuming a 2Myr isochrone and the reddening of their primary. With 8 stellar companions, 19 brown dwarfs and 5 planetary mass objects, our study provide us with an unbiased sample of companions at the low-mass end of the IMF, probing the transition from binary to planetary systems.

  15. NEW M, L, AND T DWARF COMPANIONS TO NEARBY STARS FROM THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhman, Kevin L.; Loutrel, Nicholas P.; McCurdy, Nicholas S.; Melso, Nicole D.; Star, Kimberly M.; Terrien, Ryan C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Mace, Gregory N.; McLean, Ian S. [UCLA Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Young, Michael D.; Rhode, Katherine L. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, Swain West 319, 727 East Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Davy Kirkpatrick, J., E-mail: kluhman@astro.psu.edu [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    We present 11 candidate late-type companions to nearby stars identified with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). Eight of the candidates are likely to be companions based on their common proper motions with the primaries. The remaining three objects are rejected as companions, one of which is a free-floating T7 dwarf. Spectral types are available for five of the companions, which consist of M2V, M8.5V, L5, T8, and T8. Based on their photometry, the unclassified companions are probably two mid-M dwarfs and one late-M/early-L dwarf. One of the T8 companions, WISE J142320.84+011638.0, has already been reported by Pinfield and coworkers. The other T8 companion, ULAS J095047.28+011734.3, was discovered by Burningham and coworkers through the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope Infrared Deep Sky Survey, but its companionship has not been previously recognized in the literature. The L5 companion, 2MASS J17430860+8526594, is a new member of a class of L dwarfs that exhibit unusually blue near-IR colors. Among the possible mechanisms that have been previously proposed for the peculiar colors of these L dwarfs, low metallicity does not appear to be a viable explanation for 2MASS J17430860+8526594 since our spectrum of the primary suggests that its metallicity is not significantly subsolar.

  16. NEW M, L, AND T DWARF COMPANIONS TO NEARBY STARS FROM THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhman, Kevin L.; Loutrel, Nicholas P.; McCurdy, Nicholas S.; Melso, Nicole D.; Star, Kimberly M.; Terrien, Ryan C.; Mace, Gregory N.; McLean, Ian S.; Young, Michael D.; Rhode, Katherine L.; Davy Kirkpatrick, J.

    2012-01-01

    We present 11 candidate late-type companions to nearby stars identified with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). Eight of the candidates are likely to be companions based on their common proper motions with the primaries. The remaining three objects are rejected as companions, one of which is a free-floating T7 dwarf. Spectral types are available for five of the companions, which consist of M2V, M8.5V, L5, T8, and T8. Based on their photometry, the unclassified companions are probably two mid-M dwarfs and one late-M/early-L dwarf. One of the T8 companions, WISE J142320.84+011638.0, has already been reported by Pinfield and coworkers. The other T8 companion, ULAS J095047.28+011734.3, was discovered by Burningham and coworkers through the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope Infrared Deep Sky Survey, but its companionship has not been previously recognized in the literature. The L5 companion, 2MASS J17430860+8526594, is a new member of a class of L dwarfs that exhibit unusually blue near-IR colors. Among the possible mechanisms that have been previously proposed for the peculiar colors of these L dwarfs, low metallicity does not appear to be a viable explanation for 2MASS J17430860+8526594 since our spectrum of the primary suggests that its metallicity is not significantly subsolar.

  17. An Orbital Stability Study of the Proposed Companions of SW Lyncis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. Hinse

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the dynamical stability of the proposed companions orbiting the Algol type short-period eclipsing binary SW Lyncis (Kim et al. 2010. The two candidate companions are of stellar to substellar nature, and were inferred from timing measurements of the system’s primary and secondary eclipses. We applied well-tested numerical techniques to accurately integrate the orbits of the two companions and to test for chaotic dynamical behavior. We carried out the stability analysis within a systematic parameter survey varying both the geometries and orientation of the orbits of the companions, as well as their masses. In all our numerical integrations we found that the proposed SW Lyn multi-body system is highly unstable on time-scales on the order of 1000 years. Our results cast doubt on the interpretation that the timing variations are caused by two companions. This work demonstrates that a straightforward dynamical analysis can help to test whether a best-fit companion-based model is a physically viable explanation for measured eclipse timing variations. We conclude that dynamical considerations reveal that the proposed SW Lyncis multi-body system most likely does not exist or the companions have significantly different orbital properties from those conjectured in Kim et al. (2010.

  18. WIDE COMPANIONS TO HIPPARCOS STARS WITHIN 67 pc OF THE SUN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokovinin, Andrei; Lépine, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    A catalog of common-proper-motion (CPM) companions to stars within 67 pc of the Sun is constructed based on the SUPERBLINK proper-motion survey. It contains 1392 CPM pairs with angular separations 30'' –1 , and magnitudes and colors of the secondaries consistent with those of dwarfs in the (M V , V – J) diagram. In addition, we list 21 candidate white dwarf CPM companions with separations under 300'', about half of which should be physical. We estimate a 0.31 fraction of pairs with red dwarf companions to be physical systems (about 425 objects), while the rest (mostly wide pairs) are chance alignments. For each candidate companion, the probability of a physical association is evaluated. The distribution of projected separations s of the physical pairs between 2 kAU and 64 kAU follows f(s)∝s –1.5 , which decreases faster than Öpik's law. We find that solar-mass dwarfs have no less than 4.4% ± 0.3% companions with separations larger than 2 kAU, or 3.8% ± 0.3% per decade of orbital separation in the 2-16 kAU range. The distribution of mass ratio of those wide companions is approximately uniform in the 0.1 < q < 1.0 range, although we observe a dip at q ≅ 0.5 which, if confirmed, could be evidence of bimodal distribution of companion masses. New physical CPM companions to two exoplanet host stars are discovered.

  19. WIDE COMPANIONS TO HIPPARCOS STARS WITHIN 67 pc OF THE SUN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokovinin, Andrei [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Lepine, Sebastien, E-mail: atokovinin@ctio.noao.edu, E-mail: lepine@amnh.org [Department of Astrophysics, Division of Physical Sciences, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    A catalog of common-proper-motion (CPM) companions to stars within 67 pc of the Sun is constructed based on the SUPERBLINK proper-motion survey. It contains 1392 CPM pairs with angular separations 30'' < {rho} < 1800'', relative proper motion between the two components less than 25 mas yr{sup -1}, and magnitudes and colors of the secondaries consistent with those of dwarfs in the (M{sub V} , V - J) diagram. In addition, we list 21 candidate white dwarf CPM companions with separations under 300'', about half of which should be physical. We estimate a 0.31 fraction of pairs with red dwarf companions to be physical systems (about 425 objects), while the rest (mostly wide pairs) are chance alignments. For each candidate companion, the probability of a physical association is evaluated. The distribution of projected separations s of the physical pairs between 2 kAU and 64 kAU follows f(s){proportional_to}s {sup -1.5}, which decreases faster than Oepik's law. We find that solar-mass dwarfs have no less than 4.4% {+-} 0.3% companions with separations larger than 2 kAU, or 3.8% {+-} 0.3% per decade of orbital separation in the 2-16 kAU range. The distribution of mass ratio of those wide companions is approximately uniform in the 0.1 < q < 1.0 range, although we observe a dip at q {approx_equal} 0.5 which, if confirmed, could be evidence of bimodal distribution of companion masses. New physical CPM companions to two exoplanet host stars are discovered.

  20. Runaway companions of supernova remnants with Gaia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubert, Douglas; Fraser, Morgan; Evans, N. Wyn

    2018-04-01

    It is expected that most massive stars have companions and thus that some core-collapse supernovae should have a runaway companion. The precise astrometry and photometry provided by Gaia allows for the systematic discovery of these runaway companions. We combine a prior on the properties of runaway stars from binary evolution with data from TGAS and APASS to search for runaway stars within ten nearby supernova remnants. We strongly confirm the existing candidate HD 37424 in S147, propose the Be star BD+50 3188 to be associated with HB 21, and suggest tentative candidates for the Cygnus and Monoceros Loops.

  1. PSR J1755-2550: a young radio pulsar with a massive, compact companion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, C.; Kruckow, M. U.; Tauris, T. M.; Lyne, A. G.; Freire, P. C. C.; Ridolfi, A.; Caiazzo, I.; Heyl, J.; Kramer, M.; Cameron, A. D.; Champion, D. J.; Stappers, B.

    2018-06-01

    Radio pulsars found in binary systems with short orbital periods are usually fast spinning as a consequence of recycling via mass transfer from their companion stars; this process is also thought to decrease the magnetic field of the neutron star being recycled. Here, we report on timing observations of the recently discovered binary PSR J1755-2550 and find that this pulsar is an exception: with a characteristic age of 2.1 Myr, it is relatively young; furthermore, with a spin period of 315 ms and a surface magnetic field strength at its poles of 0.88 × 1012 G, the pulsar shows no sign of having been recycled. Based on its timing and orbital characteristics, the pulsar either has a massive white dwarf (WD) or a neutron star (NS) companion. To distinguish between these two cases, we searched radio observations for a potential recycled pulsar companion and analysed archival optical data for a potential WD companion. Neither work returned conclusive detections. We apply population synthesis modelling and find that both solutions are roughly equally probable. Our population synthesis also predicts a minimum mass of 0.90 M⊙ for the companion star to PSR J1755-2550 and we simulate the systemic runaway velocities for the resulting WDNS systems which may merge and possibly produce Ca-rich supernovae. Whether PSR J1755-2550 hosts a WD or a NS companion star, it is certainly a member of a rare subpopulation of binary radio pulsars.

  2. PSR J1740-3052: a pulsar with a massive companion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stairs, I. H.; Manchester, R. N.; Lyne, A. G.; Kaspi, V. M.; Camilo, F.; Bell, J. F.; D'Amico, N.; Kramer, M.; Crawford, F.; Morris, D. J.; Possenti, A.; McKay, N. P. F.; Lumsden, S. L.; Tacconi-Garman, L. E.; Cannon, R. D.; Hambly, N. C.; Wood, P. R.

    2001-08-01

    We report on the discovery of a binary pulsar, PSR J1740-3052, during the Parkes multibeam survey. Timing observations of the 570-ms pulsar at Jodrell Bank and Parkes show that it is young, with a characteristic age of 350kyr, and is in a 231-d, highly eccentric orbit with a companion whose mass exceeds 11Msolar. An accurate position for the pulsar was obtained using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. Near-infrared 2.2-μm observations made with the telescopes at the Siding Spring observatory reveal a late-type star coincident with the pulsar position. However, we do not believe that this star is the companion of the pulsar, because a typical star of this spectral type and required mass would extend beyond the orbit of the pulsar. Furthermore, the measured advance of periastron of the pulsar suggests a more compact companion, for example, a main-sequence star with radius only a few times that of the Sun. Such a companion is also more consistent with the small dispersion measure variations seen near periastron. Although we cannot conclusively rule out a black hole companion, we believe that the companion is probably an early B star, making the system similar to the binary PSR J0045-7319.

  3. Imaginary Play Companions: Characteristics and Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyan-Masih, V.

    1986-01-01

    Investigates some of the following characteristics associated with young children playing with imaginary play companions (IPCs): intelligence, parental and socioeconomic and educational background, family size, and birth order. Compares these children to those without IPCs. (HOD)

  4. Classical Cepheid luminosities from binary companions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, N.R.

    1991-01-01

    Luminosities for the classical Cepheids Eta Aql, W Sgr, and SU Cas are determined from IUE spectra of their binary companions. Spectral types of the companions are determined from the spectra by comparison with the spectra of standard stars. The absolute magnitude inferred from these spectral types is used to determine the absolute magnitude of the Cepheid, either directly or from the magnitude difference between the two stars. For the temperature range of the companions (A0 V), distinctions of a quarter of a spectral subclass can be made in the comparison between the companions and standard stars. The absolute magnitudes for Eta Aql and W Sgr agree well with the period-luminosity-color relation of Feast and Walker (1987). Random errors are estimated to be 0.3 mag. SU Cas, however, is overluminous for pulsation in the fundamental mode, implying that it is pulsating in an overtone. 58 refs

  5. A companion matrix for 2-D polynomials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudellioua, M.S.

    1995-08-01

    In this paper, a matrix form analogous to the companion matrix which is often encountered in the theory of one dimensional (1-D) linear systems is suggested for a class of polynomials in two indeterminates and real coefficients, here referred to as two dimensional (2-D) polynomials. These polynomials arise in the context of 2-D linear systems theory. Necessary and sufficient conditions are also presented under which a matrix is equivalent to this companion form. (author). 6 refs

  6. A Companion to the Philosophy of Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Jan Kyrre Berg O.; Pedersen, Stig Andur; Hendricks, Vincent F.

    The aim of philosophy of technology is to help us understand technology's complex interrelationships with the environment, society, culture - and with our very existence. A Companion to the Philosophy of Technology is the first comprehensive, authoritative reference source for this burgeoning...... those of the humanities, social studies, natural science, sociology, psychology, and engineering sciences and reflect a diversity of philosophical traditions such as pragmatism, analytical philosophy, and phenomenology. Erudite and authoritative, A Companion to the Philosophy of Technology is a major...

  7. FIRST DIRECT EVIDENCE THAT BARIUM DWARFS HAVE WHITE DWARF COMPANIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R. O.; McGahee, C. E.; Griffin, R. E. M.; Corbally, C. J.

    2011-01-01

    Barium II (Ba) stars are chemically peculiar F-, G-, and K-type objects that show enhanced abundances of s-process elements. Since s-process nucleosynthesis is unlikely to take place in stars prior to the advanced asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stage, the prevailing hypothesis is that each present Ba star was contaminated by an AGB companion which is now a white dwarf (WD). Unless the initial mass ratio of such a binary was fairly close to unity, the receiving star is thus at least as likely to be a dwarf as a giant. So although most known Ba stars appear to be giants, the hypothesis requires that Ba dwarfs be comparably plentiful and moreover that they should all have WD companions. However, despite dedicated searches with the IUE satellite, no WD companions have been directly detected to date among the classical Ba dwarfs, even though some 90% of those stars are spectroscopic binaries, so the contamination hypothesis is therefore presently in some jeopardy. In this paper, we analyze recent deep, near-UV and far-UV Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) exposures of four of the brightest of the class (HD 2454, 15360, 26367, and 221531), together with archived GALEX data for two newly recognized Ba dwarfs: HD 34654 and HD 114520 (which also prove to be spectroscopic binaries). The GALEX observations of the Ba dwarfs as a group show a significant far-UV excess compared to a control sample of normal F-type dwarfs. We suggest that this ensemble far-UV excess constitutes the first direct evidence that Ba dwarfs have WD companions.

  8. On the absence of young white dwarf companions to five technetium stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Verne V.; Lambert, David L.

    1987-01-01

    A search for hot companions to five stars of type MS and S has been carried out using the IUE satellite. No hot companions were detected for the MS stars HR 85, 4647, 6702, and 8062, and the S star HR 8714. Limits on the luminosities of possible white dwarf companions provide lower limits of 2-5x10 to the 8th yr to the ages of any degenerate companions. All five stars exhibit strong Tc I lines, and the presence of technetium, with a half-life of 2.1x10 to the 5th yr, signifies recent nucleosynthesis. The limits on the ages of possible white dwarf companions that are equal to or greater than 1000 half-lives of Tc exclude the possibility that the s-process elemental enhancement seen in these MS and S stars resulted from mass transfer from a more highly evolved companion (as is probably the mechanism by which barium stars are created). These MS and S stars represent a sample of true thermally pulsing asymptotic giant-branch stars.

  9. Microsporidiosis in Vertebrate Companion Exotic Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Vergneau-Grosset

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Veterinarians caring for companion animals may encounter microsporidia in various host species, and diagnosis and treatment of these fungal organisms can be particularly challenging. Fourteen microsporidial species have been reported to infect humans and some of them are zoonotic; however, to date, direct zoonotic transmission is difficult to document versus transit through the digestive tract. In this context, summarizing information available about microsporidiosis of companion exotic animals is relevant due to the proximity of these animals to their owners. Diagnostic modalities and therapeutic challenges are reviewed by taxa. Further studies are needed to better assess risks associated with animal microsporidia for immunosuppressed owners and to improve detection and treatment of infected companion animals.

  10. Close companion to α Ursae Majoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Y.; Morgan, T.H.; Modisette, J.L.

    1977-01-01

    After our recent article on the chromospheric emission features of the Mg II resonance doublet near 2800 A observed in α UMa, Bidelman pointed out to us that this star's close companion is considerably brighter than is stated in the Yale Catalogue of Bright Stars. We have synthesized the Mg II feature for this star from the Mg II observations obtained in other single stars. The results show that the close companion to α UMa is late A in type, in general agreement with the spectroscopic studies. This explains the apparent discrepancy in the Mg II doublet emission strengths between α UMa and β Gem

  11. THE RUNAWAY WHITE DWARF LP400-22 HAS A COMPANION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, Mukremin; Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, S. J.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Swift, B.; Liebert, J.; Agueeros, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    We report the detection of a radial velocity companion to the extremely low-mass white dwarf (WD) LP400-22. The radial velocity of the WD shows variations with a semiamplitude of 119 km s -1 and a 0.98776 day period, which implies a companion mass of M ≥ 0.37 M sun . The optical photometry rules out a main-sequence companion. Thus the invisible companion is another WD or a neutron star. Using proper-motion measurements and the radial velocity of the binary system, we find that it has an unusual Galactic orbit. LP400-22 is moving away from the Galactic center with a velocity of 396 ± 43 km s -1 , which is very difficult to explain by supernova runaway ejection mechanisms. Dynamical interactions with a massive black hole like that in the Galactic center can in principle explain its peculiar velocity, if the progenitor was a triple star system comprised of a close binary and a distant tertiary companion. Until better proper motions become available, we consider LP400-22 to be most likely a halo star with a very unusual orbit.

  12. Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  13. The Wiley Blackwell companion to political geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agnew, J.; Mamadouh, V.; Secor, A.J.; Sharp, J.

    2015-01-01

    The Wiley Blackwell Companion to Political Geography aims to account for the intellectual and worldly developments that have taken place in and around political geography in the last 10 years. Bringing together established names in the field as well as new scholars, it highlights provocative

  14. A Historical Companion to Postcolonial Literatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This is the first reference guide to the political, cultural and economic histories that form the subject-matter of postcolonial literatures written in English. The focus of the Companion is principally on the histories of postcolonial literatures in the Anglophone world - Africa, the Middle East...

  15. Detection of a white dwarf companion to the Hyades stars HD 27483

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm-Vitense, Erika

    1993-01-01

    We observed with IUE a white dwarf (WD) companion to the Hyades F6 V binary stars HD 27483. This system is known to be a close binary of two nearly equal stars with an orbital period of 3.05 days. Our IUE observations revealed the presence of a third star, a white dwarf with an effective temperature of 23,000 +/- 1000 K and a mass of approximately 0.6 solar mass. Its presence in the Hyades cluster with a known age permits me to derive the mass of its progenitor, which must have been about 2.3 solar masses. The presence of the white dwarf in a binary system opens the possibility that some of the envelope material, which was expelled by the WD progenitor, may have been collected by the F6 stars. We may thus be able to study abundance anomalies of the WD progenitor with known mass on the surface of the F6 companions.

  16. Uusi raamatuid : a companion to the history of the book

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Tutvustus: A companion to the history of the book / edited by Simon Eliot and Jonathan Rose. - Malden, MA : Blackwell Pub., 2007. - xvi, 599 lk. : ill. - (Blackwell companions to literature and culture ; 48)

  17. A Population Study of Wide-Separation Brown Dwarf Companions to Main Sequence Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey J.

    2005-01-01

    Increased interest in infrared astronomy has opened the frontier to study cooler objects that shed significant light on the formation of planetary systems. Brown dwarf research provides a wealth of information useful for sorting through a myriad of proposed formation theories. Our study combines observational data from 2MASS with rigorous computer simulations to estimate the true population of long-range (greater than 1000 AU) brown dwarf companions in the solar neighborhood (less than 25 pc from Earth). Expanding on Gizis et al. (2001), we have found the margin of error in previous estimates to be significantly underestimated after we included orbit eccentricity, longitude of pericenter, angle of inclination, field star density, and primary and secondary luminosities as parameters influencing the companion systems in observational studies. We apply our simulation results to current L- and T-dwarf catalogs to provide updated estimates on the frequency of wide-separation brown dwarf companions to main sequence stars.

  18. DISCOVERY OF THE COLDEST IMAGED COMPANION OF A SUN-LIKE STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thalmann, C.; Carson, J.; Goto, M.; Feldt, M.; Henning, T.; Klahr, H.; Mordasini, C.; Janson, M.; McElwain, M.; Egner, S.; Hayano, Y.; Suzuki, R.; Hashimoto, J.; Kandori, R.; Kudo, T.; Kusakabe, N.; Morino, J.-I.; Suto, H.; Tamura, M.; Hodapp, K. W.

    2009-01-01

    We present the discovery of a brown dwarf or possible planet at a projected separation of 1.''9 = 29 AU around the star GJ 758, placing it between the separations at which substellar companions are expected to form by core accretion (∼5 AU) or direct gravitational collapse (typically ∼>100 AU). The object was detected by direct imaging of its thermal glow with Subaru/HiCIAO. At 10-40 times the mass of Jupiter and a temperature of 550-640 K, GJ 758 B constitutes one of the few known T-type companions, and the coldest ever to be imaged in thermal light around a Sun-like star. Its orbit is likely eccentric and of a size comparable to Pluto's orbit, possibly as a result of gravitational scattering or outward migration. A candidate second companion is detected at 1.''2 at one epoch.

  19. Characterizing a New Candidate Benchmark Brown Dwarf Companion in the β Pic Moving Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Caprice; Bowler, Brendan; Liu, Michael C.; Mace, Gregory N.; Sokal, Kimberly R.

    2018-01-01

    Benchmark brown dwarfs are objects that have at least two measured fundamental quantities such as luminosity and age, and therefore can be used to test substellar atmospheric and evolutionary models. Nearby, young, loose associations such as the β Pic moving group represent some of the best regions in which to identify intermediate-age benchmark brown dwarfs due to their well-constrained ages and metallicities. We present a spectroscopic study of a new companion at the hydrogen-burning limit orbiting a low-mass star at a separation of 9″ (650 AU) in the 23 Myr old β Pic moving group. The medium-resolution near-infrared spectrum of this companion from IRTF/SpeX shows clear signs of low surface gravity and yields an index-based spectral type of M6±1 with a VL-G gravity on the Allers & Liu classification system. Currently, there are four known brown dwarf and giant planet companions in the β Pic moving group: HR 7329 B, PZ Tel B, β Pic b, and 51 Eri b. Depending on its exact age and accretion history, this new object may represent the third brown dwarf companion and fifth substellar companion in this association.

  20. A SUBSTELLAR COMMON PROPER-MOTION COMPANION TO THE PLEIAD H II 1348

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geißler, Kerstin; Metchev, Stanimir A.; Pham, Alfonse; Larkin, James E.; McElwain, Michael; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.

    2012-01-01

    We announce the identification of a proper-motion companion to the star H II 1348, a K5 V member of the Pleiades open cluster. The existence of a faint point source 1.''1 away from H II 1348 was previously known from adaptive optics imaging by Bouvier et al. However, because of a high likelihood of background star contamination and in the absence of follow-up astrometry, Bouvier et al. tentatively concluded that the candidate companion was not physically associated with H II 1348. We establish the proper-motion association of the pair from adaptive optics imaging with the Palomar 5 m telescope. Adaptive optics spectroscopy with the integral field spectrograph OSIRIS on the Keck 10 m telescope reveals that the companion has a spectral type of M8 ± 1. According to substellar evolution models, the M8 spectral type resides within the substellar mass regime at the age of the Pleiades. The primary itself is a known double-lined spectroscopic binary, which makes the resolved companion, H II 1348B, the least massive and widest component of this hierarchical triple system and the first substellar companion to a stellar primary in the Pleiades.

  1. Effects of gravitational lensing and companion motion on the binary pulsar timing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafikov, Roman R.; Lai Dong

    2006-01-01

    The measurement of the Shapiro time delay in binary pulsar systems with highly-inclined orbit can be affected both by the motion of the pulsar's companion because of the finite time it takes a photon to cross the binary, and by the gravitational light bending if the orbit is sufficiently edge-on relative to the line of sight. Here we calculate the effect of retardation due to the companion's motion on various time delays in pulsar binaries, including the Shaipro delay, the geometric lensing delay, and the lens-induced delays associated with the pulsar rotation. Our results can be applied to systems so highly inclined that near conjunction gravitational lensing of the pulsar radiation by the companion becomes important (the recently discovered double pulsar system J0737-3039 may exemplify such a system). To the leading order, the effect of retardation is to shift all the delay curves backward in time around the orbit conjunction, without affecting the shape and amplitude of the curves. The time shift is of order the photon orbit crossing time, and ranges from a second to a few minutes for the observed binary pulsar systems. In the double pulsar system J0737-3039, the motion of the companion may also affect the interpretation of the recent correlated interstellar scintillation measurements. Finally, we show that lensing sets an upper limit on the magnitude of the frame-dragging time delay caused by the companion's spin, and makes this delay unobservable in stellar-mass binary pulsar systems

  2. The new Cambridge companion to Shakespeare

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Written by a team of leading international scholars, this Companion is designed to illuminate Shakespeare's works through discussion of the key topics of Shakespeare studies. Twenty-one brand new essays provide lively and authoritative approaches to recent scholarship and criticism for readers keen to expand their knowledge and appreciation of Shakespeare. The book contains stimulating chapters on traditional topics such as Shakespeare's biography and the transmission of his texts. Individual...

  3. SHADOWS OF OUR FORMER COMPANIONS: HOW THE SINGLE-DEGENERATE BINARY TYPE IA SUPERNOVA SCENARIO AFFECTS REMNANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, William J.; Raskin, Cody; Owen, J. Michael [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-038, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2016-12-10

    Here we present three-dimensional high-resolution simulations of Type Ia supernova in the presence of a non-degenerate companion. We find that the presence of a nearby companion leaves a long-lived hole in the supernova ejecta. In particular, we aim to study the long-term evolution of this hole as the supernova ejecta interacts with the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM). Using estimates for the X-ray emission, we find that the hole generated by the companion remains for many centuries after the interaction between the ejecta and the ISM. We also show that the hole is discernible over a wide range of viewing angles and companion masses.

  4. SHADOWS OF OUR FORMER COMPANIONS: HOW THE SINGLE-DEGENERATE BINARY TYPE IA SUPERNOVA SCENARIO AFFECTS REMNANTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, William J.; Raskin, Cody; Owen, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Here we present three-dimensional high-resolution simulations of Type Ia supernova in the presence of a non-degenerate companion. We find that the presence of a nearby companion leaves a long-lived hole in the supernova ejecta. In particular, we aim to study the long-term evolution of this hole as the supernova ejecta interacts with the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM). Using estimates for the X-ray emission, we find that the hole generated by the companion remains for many centuries after the interaction between the ejecta and the ISM. We also show that the hole is discernible over a wide range of viewing angles and companion masses.

  5. Parental Website-Descriptions of Children's Imaginary Companions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine C Jellesma

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Past research shows that imaginary companions are a normal phenomenon in childhood and do not indicate risk for psychopathology. The aim of this study was to see if parents are nevertheless concerned about imaginary companions. Internet-forums were searched in English, German, and Dutch in order to answer this question. Parental messages about present imaginary companions were analysed. Analyses of 89 posts made on a diverse set of internet-forums for parents revealed that half the parents expressed concerns about imaginary companions, especially parents with children older than 4.5 years old. When the imaginary companion was older than the child, parents were more likely to be concerned. Almost all messages were about imaginary companions, which might indicate that parents are less concerned about personified objects. The results signify that parents need more information in order to ensure they know imaginary companions are a normal childhood-experience.

  6. Resolved Companions of Cepheids as Seen by HST and XMM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Bond, Howard E.; Schaefer, Gail; Mason, Brian D.; Tingle, Evan; Karovska, Margarita; Pillitteri, Ignazio; Wolk, Scott J.; Guinan, Edward F.; Engle, Scott G.

    2016-01-01

    We have conducted a survey of 70 classical Cepheids with the Hubble Wide Field Camera3 (WFC3) to identify possible resolved companions. Data cover the range of 0.3" to 20" which typically corresponds to 200 AU to 0.1 pc. At present only possible companions greater than 5" from the Cepheid are discussed, since closer companions require a sophisticated point spread correction for the light of the much brighter Cepheid. We have followed up a subset of the possible resolved companions with XMM observations to determine whether they are young (X-ray active) enough to be physical companions of the Cepheids. We estimate that 4% of the Cepheids have a physical resolved companion, with the widest having a separation of 4000 AU. The one wider young star is in the field of S Nor, but since it is a cluster member, the companion is not assumed to be gravitationally bound to the Cepheid.

  7. A Refined Search for Pulsations in White Dwarf Companions to Millisecond Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Mukremin; Hermes, J. J.; Córsico, A. H.; Kosakowski, Alekzander; Brown, Warren R.; Antoniadis, John; Calcaferro, Leila M.; Gianninas, A.; Althaus, Leandro G.; Green, M. J.

    2018-06-01

    We present optical high-speed photometry of three millisecond pulsars with low-mass (<0.3 M⊙) white dwarf companions, bringing the total number of such systems with follow-up time-series photometry to five. We confirm the detection of pulsations in one system, the white dwarf companion to PSR J1738+0333, and show that the pulsation frequencies and amplitudes are variable over many months. A full asteroseismic analysis for this star is under-constrained, but the mode periods we observe are consistent with expectations for a M⋆ = 0.16 - 0.19M⊙ white dwarf, as suggested from spectroscopy. We also present the empirical boundaries of the instability strip for low-mass white dwarfs based on the full sample of white dwarfs, and discuss the distinction between pulsating low-mass white dwarfs and subdwarf A/F stars.

  8. Accessing Cultural Artifacts Through Digital Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Jensen, Martin Lynge

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study that explores how the introduction of a digital companion agent for a museum exploration game changes children’s engagement with the presented artworks. To this end, a mobile application was developed featuring a monster agent that has eaten the artworks, which...... the children had now to find in the museum. Results show that in comparison to the paper-based version of the exploration game, children engaged in more interactions with the actual cultural artifacts and showed a significantly higher retention rate for details of the involved artworks....

  9. The Photoshop CS4 Companion for Photographers

    CERN Document Server

    Story, Derrick

    2009-01-01

    "Derrick shows that Photoshop can be friendly as well as powerful. In part, he does that by focusing photographers on the essential steps of an efficient workflow. With this guide in hand, you'll quickly learn how to leverage Photoshop CS4's features to organize and improve your pictures."-- John Nack, Principal Product Manager, Adobe Photoshop & BridgeMany photographers -- even the pros -- feel overwhelmed by all the editing options Photoshop provides. The Photoshop CS4 Companion for Photographers pares it down to only the tools you'll need most often, and shows you how to use those tools as

  10. The routledge companion to the new cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Coles, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Just what is Einstein's Theory of Relativity? The Big Bang Theory? Curvature of Spacetime? What do astronomers mean when they talk of a 'flat universe'?This approachable and authoritative guide to the cosmos answers these questions, and more. Taking advantage of the distinctive Companion format, readers can use the extensive, cross-referenced background chapters as a fascinating and accessible introduction to the current state of cosmological knowledge - or, they can use the convenient A-Z body of entries as a quick reference to a wide range of terms and concepts. Entries include topics su

  11. An astrometric search for a stellar companion to the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perlmutter, S.

    1986-01-01

    A companion star within 0.8 pc of the Sun has been postulated to explain a possible 26 Myr periodicity in mass extinctions of species on the Earth. Such a star would already be catalogued in the Yale Bright Star catalogue unless it is fainter than m/sub nu/ = 6.5; this limits the possible stellar types for an unseen companion to red dwarfs, brown dwarfs, or compact objects. Red dwarfs account for about 75% of these possible stars. We describe here the design and development of an astrometric search for a nearby red dwarf companion with a six-month peak-to-peak parallax of ≥2.5 arcseconds. We are measuring the parallax of 2770 candidate faint red stars selected from the Dearborn Observatory catalogue. An automated 30-inch telescope and CCD camera system collect digitized images of the candidate stars, along with a 13' x 16' surrounding field of background stars. Second-epoch images, taken a few months later, are registered to the first epoch images using the background stars as fiducials. An apparent motion, m/sub a/, of the candidate stars is found to a precision of σ/sub m//sub a/ ≅ 0.08 pixel ≅ 0.2 arcseconds for fields with N/sub fiducial/ ≥ 10 fiducial stars visible above the background noise. This precision is sufficient to detect the parallactic motion of a star at 0.8 pc with a two month interval between the observation epochs. Images with fewer fiducial stars above background noise are observed with a longer interval between epochs. If a star is found with high parallactic motion, we will confirm its distance with further parallax measurements, photometry, and spectral studies, and will measure radial velocity and proper motion to establish its orbit. We have demonstrated the search procedure with observations of 41 stars, and have shown that none of these is a nearby star. 37 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Expertise, motivation and teaching in learning companion systems

    OpenAIRE

    Uresti, Jorge Adolfo Ramirez; du Boulay, Benedict

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes work carried out to explore the role of a learning companion as a teachable student of the human student. A LCS for Binary Boolean Algebra has been developed to explore the hypothesis that a learning companion with less expertise than the human student would be beneficial if the student taught it. The system implemented two companions with different expertise and two types of motivational conditions. An empirical evaluation was conducted. Although significant differential...

  13. A MATLAB companion for multivariable calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, Jeffery

    2001-01-01

    Offering a concise collection of MatLab programs and exercises to accompany a third semester course in multivariable calculus, A MatLab Companion for Multivariable Calculus introduces simple numerical procedures such as numerical differentiation, numerical integration and Newton''s method in several variables, thereby allowing students to tackle realistic problems. The many examples show students how to use MatLab effectively and easily in many contexts. Numerous exercises in mathematics and applications areas are presented, graded from routine to more demanding projects requiring some programming. Matlab M-files are provided on the Harcourt/Academic Press web site at http://www.harcourt-ap.com/matlab.html.* Computer-oriented material that complements the essential topics in multivariable calculus* Main ideas presented with examples of computations and graphics displays using MATLAB * Numerous examples of short code in the text, which can be modified for use with the exercises* MATLAB files are used to implem...

  14. Quasars, companion galaxies and Poisson statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, A.

    1982-01-01

    Arp has presented a sample of quasars lying close to the companion galaxies of bright spirals, from which he estimates a value of 10 -17 for the probability that the galaxies and quasars are sited independently on the celestial sphere; Browne, however, has found a simple fallacy in the statistics which accounts for about 10 of the 17 orders of magnitude. Here we draw attention to an obscure part of Arp's calculation which we have been unable to repeat; if it is carried out in what seems to be the most straightforward way, about five more orders may be accounted for. In consequence, it is not clear that the sample contains any evidence damaging to the popular notion that the redshifts of quasars indicate distance through the Hubble Law. (author)

  15. 26 CFR 31.3506-1 - Companion sitting placement services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....3506-1 Companion sitting placement services. (a) Definitions—(1) Companion sitting placement service... agency that places babysitters with individuals who desire babysitting services. X furnishes all the.... B performs the services four days a week in A's home and follows specific instructions given by A...

  16. Various appearances of rib companion shadow mimicking a pathologic condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yo Won; Yoo, Shi Joon; Im, Jung Gil

    1992-01-01

    We have observed that the companion shadow of the upper rib may be misinterpreted as a small pneumothorax or pleural plaque associated with asbestosis. To observe the radiographic characteristics of the normal companion shadow, we analyzed, on the posteroanterior(PA) chest radiographs, the companion shadow of 50 normal cases. Factors such as occurrence on each rib, the sharpness of the margin, the relative position to the rib, the shape and the thickness were observed. Also, we analyzed the displaced pleura of 4 pneumothorax cases to differentiate their findings from the findings of normal companion shadows. On 50 normal chest radiographs, 192 companion shadows were observed on the first to fourth ribs. In 173 of those shadows, the visceral margin of the companion shadow on the second rib simulated pneumothorax more closely than those on any other ribs due to its apical location and thinness. In six of 50 normal cases, the companion shadow in the first or second rib showed an inwardly convex lower margin, mimicking pleural plaque. The companion shadow was suggested on the plain chest radiograph by the following characteristics imultiplicity (47/50), thicker than normal pleura (3/4), persistent on serial films with the same shape and specific location(4/4)

  17. A Be-type star with a black-hole companion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casares, J; Negueruela, I; Ribó, M; Ribas, I; Paredes, J M; Herrero, A; Simón-Díaz, S

    2014-01-16

    Stellar-mass black holes have all been discovered through X-ray emission, which arises from the accretion of gas from their binary companions (this gas is either stripped from low-mass stars or supplied as winds from massive ones). Binary evolution models also predict the existence of black holes accreting from the equatorial envelope of rapidly spinning Be-type stars (stars of the Be type are hot blue irregular variables showing characteristic spectral emission lines of hydrogen). Of the approximately 80 Be X-ray binaries known in the Galaxy, however, only pulsating neutron stars have been found as companions. A black hole was formally allowed as a solution for the companion to the Be star MWC 656 (ref. 5; also known as HD 215227), although that conclusion was based on a single radial velocity curve of the Be star, a mistaken spectral classification and rough estimates of the inclination angle. Here we report observations of an accretion disk line mirroring the orbit of MWC 656. This, together with an improved radial velocity curve of the Be star through fitting sharp Fe II profiles from the equatorial disk, and a refined Be classification (to that of a B1.5-B2 III star), indicates that a black hole of 3.8 to 6.9 solar masses orbits MWC 656, the candidate counterpart of the γ-ray source AGL J2241+4454 (refs 5, 6). The black hole is X-ray quiescent and fed by a radiatively inefficient accretion flow giving a luminosity less than 1.6 × 10(-7) times the Eddington luminosity. This implies that Be binaries with black-hole companions are difficult to detect in conventional X-ray surveys.

  18. Companion Animals, Natural Disasters and the Law: An Australian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven White

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the regulation of companion animal welfare during disasters, with some context provided by two recent major disaster events in Australia. Important general lessons for improved disaster management were identified in subsequent inquiries. However, the interests of companion animals continue to be inadequately addressed. This is because key assumptions underpinning disaster planning for companion animals—the primacy of human interests over animal interests and that individuals will properly address companion animal needs during times of disaster—are open to question. In particular these assumptions fail to recognise the inherent value of companion animals, underestimate the strong bond shared by some owners and their animals and, at the same time, overestimate the capacity of some owners to adequately meet the needs of their animals.

  19. Companion Animals, Natural Disasters and the Law: An Australian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Steven

    2012-08-27

    This article examines the regulation of companion animal welfare during disasters, with some context provided by two recent major disaster events in Australia. Important general lessons for improved disaster management were identified in subsequent inquiries. However, the interests of companion animals continue to be inadequately addressed. This is because key assumptions underpinning disaster planning for companion animals-the primacy of human interests over animal interests and that individuals will properly address companion animal needs during times of disaster-are open to question. In particular these assumptions fail to recognise the inherent value of companion animals, underestimate the strong bond shared by some owners and their animals and, at the same time, overestimate the capacity of some owners to adequately meet the needs of their animals.

  20. The Kepler eclipsing system KIC 5621294 and its substellar companion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Woo; Hong, Kyeongsoo; Hinse, Tobias Cornelius, E-mail: jwlee@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: kshong@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: tchinse@gmail.com [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-01

    We present the physical properties of KIC 5621294, showing light and timing variations from the Kepler photometry. Its light curve displays partial eclipses and the O’Connell effect, with Max II fainter than Max I, which was fitted quite well by applying third-body and spot effects to the system. The results indicate that the eclipsing pair is a classical Algol-type system with parameters of q = 0.22, i = 76.°8, and Δ(T{sub 1}−T{sub 2}) = 4235 K, in which the detached primary component fills about 77% of its limiting lobe. Striking discrepancies exist between the primary and secondary eclipse times obtained with the method of Kwee and van Woerden. These are mainly caused by surface inhomogeneities due to spot activity detected in our light curve synthesis. The 1253 light curve timings from the Wilson–Devinney code were used for a period study. It was found that the orbital period of KIC 5621294 has varied due to periodic variation overlaid on a downward parabola. The sinusoidal variation with a period of 961 days and a semi-amplitude of 22.5 s most likely arises from a light-time effect due to a third component with a mass of M{sub 3}sini{sub 3} = 46.9 M{sub Jup}, which is in good agreement with that calculated from the light curve itself. If its orbital inclination is larger than about 40°, the mass of the circumbinary object would possibly match a brown dwarf. The parabolic variation could not be fully explained by either a mass transfer between the binary components or angular momentum via magnetic braking. It is possible that the parabola may be the only observed part of a period modulation caused by the presence of another companion in a wider orbit.

  1. Close-In Substellar Companions and the Formation of sdB-Type Close Binary Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Y. Zhu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The sdB-type close binaries are believed to have experienced a common-envelope phase and may evolve into cataclysmic binaries (CVs. About 10% of all known sdB binaries are eclipsing binaries consisting of very hot subdwarf primaries and low-mass companions with short orbital periods. The eclipse profiles of these systems are very narrow and deep, which benefits the determination of high precise eclipsing times and makes the detection of small and close-in tertiary bodies possible. Since 2006 we have monitored some sdB-type eclipsing binaries to search for the close-in substellar companions by analyzing the light travel time effect. Here some progresses of the program are reviewed and the formation of sdB-type binary is discussed.

  2. Companions of low-redshift radio-quiet quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, H.K.C.

    1987-01-01

    Using imaging data from a relatively complete subset of low-redshift radio-quiet quasars, the frequency of finding associated companion galaxies of the quasars is determined statistically. With an average completeness limit of M/sub r/ of about -19, it is found that about 40 percent of the quasars have at least one close physical companion within a projected distance of 100 kpc. The percentage of quasars with detected companions is consistent with all quasars in the sample having a companion of luminosity brighter than about -16.5 mag. It is estimated that the frequency of finding close companions to quasars is about six times higher than that expected for field galaxies. This frequency is similar to that found for lower-luminosity Seyfert galaxies. The properties of the companions appear to be uncorrelated with the level of activity in the quasars. This suggests that, for radio-quiet quasars, the companions act mainly as triggers of the activity and are probably not a strong determining factor of the detailed properties of the quasars. 28 references

  3. Diagnostic imaging in companion animal theriogenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root, C.R.; Spaulding, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    Clinical assessment of reproductive problems in companion animals is greatly enhanced by the availability of various imaging modalities. Specifically, survey radiography, contrast radiography, real-time ultrasonography, and ultrasound-guided biopsy and/or aspiration cytology, alone or in various combinations, offer sophisticated methods of extension of the physical examination of the reproductive systems of dogs and cats. In particular, real-time ultrasonography offers invaluable assistance. It is nonionizing, largely noninvasive, rapid, and capable of providing certain dynamic information that is not conveniently available in any other way. Judging from its rapid growth in recent years, it has apparently become an integral part of the complete reproductive assessment of domestic animals. This is not to slight the importance of some of the contrast radiographic procedures that have been developed and refined. Some of them, such as maximum distention retrograde urothrocystography, provide unique information not available with presently routinely used ultrasound techniques. Other imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging, have heretofore provided limited benefit to theriogenology; that will probably change in years to come

  4. Oral delivery of medications to companion animals: palatability considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thombre, Avinash G

    2004-06-23

    There is an increased need for highly palatable solid oral dosage forms for companion animals, which are voluntarily accepted by the dog or cat, either from a feeding bowl or from the outstretched hand of the pet owner. Such dosage forms represent an emerging trend in companion animal formulations with major impact on medical needs such as convenience and compliance, particularly for chronically administered medications, and on marketing needs such as product differentiation. This review focuses on the science of taste, food and flavor preferences of dogs and cats, and palatability testing, in the context of applying these principles to the development of an oral palatable tablet for companion animals.

  5. A SUBSTELLAR COMPANION TO THE DUSTY PLEIADES STAR HD 23514

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, David R.; Zuckerman, B.; Marois, Christian; Macintosh, Bruce; Melis, Carl

    2012-01-01

    With adaptive optics imaging at Keck observatory, we have discovered a substellar companion to the F6 Pleiades star HD 23514, one of the dustiest main-sequence stars known to date (L IR /L * ∼ 2%). This is one of the first brown dwarfs discovered as a companion to a star in the Pleiades. The 0.06 M ☉ late-M secondary has a projected separation of ∼360 AU. The scarcity of substellar companions to stellar primaries in the Pleiades combined with the extremely dusty environment make this a unique system to study.

  6. Companion Cognitive Systems: A Step toward Human-Level AI

    OpenAIRE

    Forbus, Kenneth D.; Hinrichs, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    We are developing Companion Cognitive Systems, a new kind of software that can be effectively treated as a collaborator. Aside from their potential utility, we believe this effort is important because it focuses on three key problems that must be solved to achieve human-level AI: Robust reasoning and learning, interactivity, and longevity. We describe the ideas we are using to develop the first architecture for Companions: analogical processing, grounded in cognitive science for reasoning and...

  7. Promoting childbirth companions in South Africa: a randomised pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Helen

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most women delivering in South African State Maternity Hospitals do not have a childbirth companion; in addition, the quality of care could be better, and at times women are treated inhumanely. We piloted a multi-faceted intervention to encourage uptake of childbirth companions in state hospitals, and hypothesised that lay carers would improve the behaviour of health professionals. Methods We conducted a pilot randomised controlled trial of an intervention to promote childbirth companions in hospital deliveries. We promoted evidence-based information for maternity staff at 10 hospitals through access to the World Health Organization Reproductive Health Library (RHL, computer hardware and training to all ten hospitals. We surveyed 200 women at each site, measuring companionship, and indicators of good obstetric practice and humanity of care. Five hospitals were then randomly allocated to receive an educational intervention to promote childbirth companions, and we surveyed all hospitals again at eight months through a repeat survey of postnatal women. Changes in median values between intervention and control hospitals were examined. Results At baseline, the majority of hospitals did not allow a companion, or access to food or fluids. A third of women were given an episiotomy. Some women were shouted at (17.7%, N = 2085, and a few reported being slapped or struck (4.3%, N = 2080. Despite an initial positive response from staff to the childbirth companion intervention, we detected no difference between intervention and control hospitals in relation to whether a companion was allowed by nursing staff, good obstetric practice or humanity of care. Conclusion The quality and humanity of care in these state hospitals needs to improve. Introducing childbirth companions was more difficult than we anticipated, particularly in under-resourced health care systems with frequent staff changes. We were unable to determine whether the presence

  8. Promoting childbirth companions in South Africa: a randomised pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Heather; Hofmeyr, G Justus; Nikodem, V Cheryl; Smith, Helen; Garner, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Background Most women delivering in South African State Maternity Hospitals do not have a childbirth companion; in addition, the quality of care could be better, and at times women are treated inhumanely. We piloted a multi-faceted intervention to encourage uptake of childbirth companions in state hospitals, and hypothesised that lay carers would improve the behaviour of health professionals. Methods We conducted a pilot randomised controlled trial of an intervention to promote childbirth companions in hospital deliveries. We promoted evidence-based information for maternity staff at 10 hospitals through access to the World Health Organization Reproductive Health Library (RHL), computer hardware and training to all ten hospitals. We surveyed 200 women at each site, measuring companionship, and indicators of good obstetric practice and humanity of care. Five hospitals were then randomly allocated to receive an educational intervention to promote childbirth companions, and we surveyed all hospitals again at eight months through a repeat survey of postnatal women. Changes in median values between intervention and control hospitals were examined. Results At baseline, the majority of hospitals did not allow a companion, or access to food or fluids. A third of women were given an episiotomy. Some women were shouted at (17.7%, N = 2085), and a few reported being slapped or struck (4.3%, N = 2080). Despite an initial positive response from staff to the childbirth companion intervention, we detected no difference between intervention and control hospitals in relation to whether a companion was allowed by nursing staff, good obstetric practice or humanity of care. Conclusion The quality and humanity of care in these state hospitals needs to improve. Introducing childbirth companions was more difficult than we anticipated, particularly in under-resourced health care systems with frequent staff changes. We were unable to determine whether the presence of a lay carer impacted

  9. The current and future state of companion diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Amit; Ressler, Dan; Snyder, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Companion diagnostics are an indispensable part of personalized medicine and will likely continue to rapidly increase in number and application to disease areas. The first companion diagnostics were launched in the 1980s and in the face of significant initial skepticism from drug developers as to whether segmenting a drug’s market through a diagnostic was advisable. The commercial success of drugs such as Herceptin® (trastuzumab) and Gleevec® (imatinib), which both require testing with companion diagnostics before they can be prescribed, has moved the entire companion diagnostic field forward. From an initial start of a handful of oncology drugs with corresponding diagnostics, the field has expanded to include multiple therapeutic areas, and the number of combinations has grown by 12-fold. Based on drugs in clinical trials, the rapid growth will likely continue for the foreseeable future. This expansion of companion diagnostics will also have a global component as markets in Europe will evolve in a similar but not identical pattern as the US. One of the greatest challenges to future growth in companion diagnostics is aligning the incentives of all stakeholders. A major driver of growth will continue to be the economic incentives for drug developers to pair their products with diagnostics. However, diagnostic companies are caught between the conflicting demands of two major stakeholders, pharmaceutical companies on one hand and payers/providers on the other. Regulators are also becoming more demanding in aligning development time lines between drugs and diagnostics. In order to survive and prosper, diagnostic companies will need to think more broadly about companion diagnostics than the historical match between a specific drug and a single diagnostic. They will also have to continue the process of consolidation and global expansion that the industry has already begun. Despite these potential obstacles, companion diagnostics have become one of the hottest areas

  10. EMPIRICAL CONSTRAINTS ON TROJAN COMPANIONS AND ORBITAL ECCENTRICITIES IN 25 TRANSITING EXOPLANETARY SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhusudhan, N.; Winn, Joshua N.

    2009-01-01

    We present a search for Trojan companions to 25 transiting exoplanets. We use the technique of Ford and Gaudi, in which a difference is sought between the observed transit time and the transit time that is calculated by fitting a two-body Keplerian orbit to the radial-velocity data. This technique is sensitive to the imbalance of mass at the L4/L5 points of the planet-star orbit. No companions were detected above 2σ confidence. The median 2σ upper limit is 56 M + , and the most constraining limit is 2.8 M + for the case of GJ 436. A similar survey using forthcoming data from the Kepler satellite mission, along with the radial-velocity data that will be needed to confirm transit candidates, will be sensitive to 10-50 M + Trojan companions in the habitable zones of their parent stars. As a by-product of this study, we present empirical constraints on the eccentricities of the planetary orbits, including those which have previously been assumed to be circular. The limits on eccentricity are of interest for investigations of tidal circularization and for bounding possible systematic errors in the measured planetary radii and the predicted times of secondary eclipses.

  11. A search for a distant companion to the sun with the wide-field infrared survey explorer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhman, K. L.

    2014-01-01

    I have used multi-epoch astrometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer to perform a search for a distant companion to the Sun via its parallactic motion. I have not found an object of this kind down to W2 = 14.5. This limit corresponds to analogs of Saturn and Jupiter at 28,000 and 82,000 AU, respectively, according to models of the Jovian planets by Fortney and coworkers. Models of brown dwarfs by Burrows and coworkers predict fainter fluxes at a given mass for the age of the solar system, producing a closer distance limit of 26,000 AU for a Jupiter-mass brown dwarf. These constraints exclude most combinations of mass and separation at which a solar companion has been suggested to exist by various studies over the years.

  12. QATAR-2: A K DWARF ORBITED BY A TRANSITING HOT JUPITER AND A MORE MASSIVE COMPANION IN AN OUTER ORBIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, Marta L.; Alsubai, Khalid A.; Latham, David W.; Quinn, Samuel N.; Carter, Joshua A.; Berlind, Perry; Brown, Warren R.; Calkins, Michael L.; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Fűrész, Gábor; Stefanik, Robert P.; Torres, Guillermo; Parley, Neil R.; Collier Cameron, Andrew; Horne, Keith D.; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Street, Rachel A.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Jørgensen, Uffe Gråe; West, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery and initial characterization of Qatar-2b, a hot Jupiter transiting a V = 13.3 mag K dwarf in a circular orbit with a short period, P b = 1.34 days. The mass and radius of Qatar-2b are M P = 2.49 M J and R P = 1.14 R J , respectively. Radial-velocity monitoring of Qatar-2 over a span of 153 days revealed the presence of a second companion in an outer orbit. The Systemic Console yielded plausible orbits for the outer companion, with periods on the order of a year and a companion mass of at least several M J . Thus, Qatar-2 joins the short but growing list of systems with a transiting hot Jupiter and an outer companion with a much longer period. This system architecture is in sharp contrast to that found by Kepler for multi-transiting systems, which are dominated by objects smaller than Neptune, usually with tightly spaced orbits that must be nearly coplanar.

  13. New neighbours. III. 21 new companions to nearby dwarfs, discovered with adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuzit, J.-L.; Ségransan, D.; Forveille, T.; Udry, S.; Delfosse, X.; Mayor, M.; Perrier, C.; Hainaut, M.-C.; Roddier, C.; Roddier, F.; Martín, E. L.

    2004-10-01

    We present some results of a CFHT adaptive optics search for companions to nearby dwarfs. We identify 21 new components in solar neighbourhood systems, of which 13 were found while surveying a volume-limited sample of M dwarfs within 12 pc. We are obtaining complete observations for this subsample, to derive unbiased multiplicity statistics for the very-low-mass disk population. Additionally, we resolve for the first time 6 known spectroscopic or astrometric binaries, for a total of 27 newly resolved companions. A significant fraction of the new binaries has favourable parameters for accurate mass determinations. The newly resolved companion of Gl 120.1C was thought to have a spectroscopic minimum mass in the brown-dwarf range (Duquennoy & Mayor \\cite{duquennoy91}), and it contributed to the statistical evidence that a few percent of solar-type stars might have close-in brown-dwarf companions. We find that Gl 120.1C actually is an unrecognised double-lined spectroscopic pair. Its radial-velocity amplitude had therefore been strongly underestimated by Duquennoy & Mayor (\\cite{duquennoy91}), and it does not truly belong to their sample of single-lined systems with minimum spectroscopic mass below the substellar limit. We also present the first direct detection of Gl 494B, an astrometric brown-dwarf candidate. Its luminosity straddles the substellar limit, and it is a brown dwarf if its age is less than ˜300 Myr. A few more years of observations will ascertain its mass and status from first principles. Based on observations made at Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique de France and the University of Hawaii. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The

  14. TWO PLANETARY COMPANIONS AROUND THE K7 DWARF GJ 221: A HOT SUPER-EARTH AND A CANDIDATE IN THE SUB-SATURN DESERT RANGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arriagada, Pamela; Minniti, Dante [Department of Astronomy, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Anglada-Escude, Guillem; Butler, R. Paul [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road NW, Washington, DC 20015-1305 (United States); Crane, Jeffrey D.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Thompson, Ian [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Wende, Sebastian, E-mail: parriaga@astro.puc.cl [Institut fuer Astrophysik, Universitaet Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    We report two low-mass companions orbiting the nearby K7 dwarf GJ 221 that have emerged from reanalyzing 4.4 yr of publicly available HARPS spectra complemented with 2 years of high-precision Doppler measurements with Magellan/PFS. The HARPS measurements alone contain the clear signal of a low-mass companion with a period of 125 days and a minimum mass of 53.2 M{sub Circled-Plus} (GJ 221b), falling in a mass range where very few planet candidates have been found (sub-Saturn desert). The addition of 17 PFS observations allows the confident detection of a second low-mass companion (6.5 M{sub Circled-Plus }) in a hot orbit (3.87 day period, GJ 221c). Spectroscopic and photometric calibrations suggest that GJ 221 is slightly depleted ([Fe/H] {approx} -0.1) compared to the Sun, so the presence of two low-mass companions in the system confirms the trend that slightly reduced stellar metallicity does not prevent the formation of planets in the super-Earth to sub-Saturn mass regime.

  15. Public health risk of antimicrobial resistance transfer from companion animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomba, Constança; Rantala, Merja; Greko, Christina; Baptiste, Keith Edward; Catry, Boudewijn; van Duijkeren, Engeline; Mateus, Ana; Moreno, Miguel A; Pyörälä, Satu; Ružauskas, Modestas; Sanders, Pascal; Teale, Christopher; Threlfall, E John; Kunsagi, Zoltan; Torren-Edo, Jordi; Jukes, Helen; Törneke, Karolina

    2017-04-01

    Antimicrobials are important tools for the therapy of infectious bacterial diseases in companion animals. Loss of efficacy of antimicrobial substances can seriously compromise animal health and welfare. A need for the development of new antimicrobials for the therapy of multiresistant infections, particularly those caused by Gram-negative bacteria, has been acknowledged in human medicine and a future corresponding need in veterinary medicine is expected. A unique aspect related to antimicrobial resistance and risk of resistance transfer in companion animals is their close contact with humans. This creates opportunities for interspecies transmission of resistant bacteria. Yet, the current knowledge of this field is limited and no risk assessment is performed when approving new veterinary antimicrobials. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the use and indications for antimicrobials in companion animals, drug-resistant bacteria of concern among companion animals, risk factors for colonization of companion animals with resistant bacteria and transmission of antimicrobial resistance (bacteria and/or resistance determinants) between animals and humans. The major antimicrobial resistance microbiological hazards originating from companion animals that directly or indirectly may cause adverse health effects in humans are MRSA, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, VRE, ESBL- or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Gram-negative bacteria. In the face of the previously recognized microbiological hazards, a risk assessment tool could be applied in applications for marketing authorization for medicinal products for companion animals. This would allow the approval of new veterinary medicinal antimicrobials for which risk levels are estimated as acceptable for public health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For

  16. Exterior Companions to Hot Jupiters Orbiting Cool Stars Are Coplanar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Juliette C.; Vanderburg, Andrew; Adams, Fred C.; Khain, Tali; Bryan, Marta

    2017-12-01

    The existence of hot Jupiters has challenged theories of planetary formation since the first extrasolar planets were detected. Giant planets are generally believed to form far from their host stars, where volatile materials like water exist in their solid phase, making it easier for giant planet cores to accumulate. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain how giant planets can migrate inward from their birth sites to short-period orbits. One such mechanism, called Kozai-Lidov migration, requires the presence of distant companions in orbits inclined by more than ˜40° with respect to the plane of the hot Jupiter’s orbit. The high occurrence rate of wide companions in hot-Jupiter systems lends support to this theory for migration. However, the exact orbital inclinations of these detected planetary and stellar companions is not known, so it is not clear whether the mutual inclination of these companions is large enough for the Kozai-Lidov process to operate. This paper shows that in systems orbiting cool stars with convective outer layers, the orbits of most wide planetary companions to hot Jupiters must be well aligned with the orbits of the hot Jupiters and the spins of the host stars. For a variety of possible distributions for the inclination of the companion, the width of the distribution must be less than ˜20° to recreate the observations with good fidelity. As a result, the companion orbits are likely well aligned with those of the hot Jupiters, and the Kozai-Lidov mechanism does not enforce migration in these systems.

  17. An unsuccessful search for brown dwarf companions to white dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, Harry L.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a survey to detect excess infrared emission from white dwarf stars which would be attributable to a low mass companion are reviewed. Neither a simple comparison of spectroscopically identified white dwarf stars with the IRAS Point Source Catalog nor the coadding of IRAS survey data resulted in a detection of a brown dwarf. The seven nearest stars where the most stringent limits to the presence of a brown dwarf were obtained are listed, and an effort to detect brown dwarfs in the solar neighborhood is discussed.

  18. Banyan. X. Discovery of a Wide, Low-gravity L-type Companion to a Fast-rotating M3 Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrochers, Marie-Eve; Artigau, Étienne; Gagné, Jonathan; Doyon, René; Malo, Lison; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Lafrenière, David

    2018-01-01

    We report the discovery of a substellar-mass co-moving companion to 2MASS J22501512+2325342, an M3 candidate member of the young (130–200 Myr) AB Doradus Moving Group (ABDMG). This L3 β companion was discovered in a 2MASS search for companions at separations of 3″–18″ from a list of 2812 stars suspected to be young (≲500 Myr) in the literature, and was confirmed with follow-up astrometry and spectroscopy. Evolutionary models yield a companion mass of {30}-4+11 {M}{Jup} at the age of ABDMG. The 2MASS J22501512+2325342 AB system appears to be a spatial outlier to the bulk of ABDMG members, similarly to the young 2MASS J22362452+4751425 AB system. Future searches for young objects around these two systems would make it possible to determine whether they are part of a spatial extension of the known ABDMG distribution. Based on observations obtained at the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  19. [The presence of a companion in the primary care consultation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turabián, J L; Pérez Franco, B

    2015-01-01

    The presence of an adult accompanying the patient in the consulting room is a significant fact that deserves the attention of the physician. Some types of companions and their presence in the consultation have been described and may improve communication, patient management, and participatory decision making, achieving greater patient satisfaction. Consultations with companion are generally longer, and patients accompanied are often elderly, women, less educated, and with poorer physical and mental health. But it is not known exactly what is the significance of a consultation with a companion. It may be a semiological fact to keep in mind for the family diagnosis, or it may be the risks of their presence, the influence of medication, or the importance of the doctors themselves that are the cause of the presence of a companion. Different communication skills must be achieved during the interview with the companion in the consultation, rather than with the patient alone. Copyright © 2014. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  20. DISCOVERY OF A COMPANION CANDIDATE IN THE HD 169142 TRANSITION DISK AND THE POSSIBILITY OF MULTIPLE PLANET FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reggiani, Maddalena; Quanz, Sascha P.; Meyer, Michael R.; Amara, Adam; Avenhaus, Henning; Meru, Farzana; Pueyo, Laurent; Wolff, Schuyler; Absil, Olivier; Anglada, Guillem; Osorio, Mayra; Girard, Julien H.; Mawet, Dimitri; Milli, Julien; Gonzalez, Carlos Carrasco; Graham, James; Torrelles, Jose-Maria

    2014-01-01

    We present L'- and J-band high-contrast observations of HD 169142, obtained with the Very Large Telescope/NACO AGPM vector vortex coronagraph and the Gemini Planet Imager, respectively. A source located at 0.''156 ± 0.''032 north of the host star (P.A. = 7.°4 ± 11.°3) appears in the final reduced L' image. At the distance of the star (∼145 pc), this angular separation corresponds to a physical separation of 22.7 ± 4.7 AU, locating the source within the recently resolved inner cavity of the transition disk. The source has a brightness of L' = 12.2 ± 0.5 mag, whereas it is not detected in the J band (J >13.8 mag). If its L' brightness arose solely from the photosphere of a companion and given the J – L' color constraints, it would correspond to a 28-32 M Jupiter object at the age of the star, according to the COND models. Ongoing accretion activity of the star suggests, however, that gas is left in the inner disk cavity from which the companion could also be accreting. In this case, the object could be lower in mass and its luminosity enhanced by the accretion process and by a circumplanetary disk. A lower-mass object is more consistent with the observed cavity width. Finally, the observations enable us to place an upper limit on the L'-band flux of a second companion candidate orbiting in the disk annular gap at ∼50 AU, as suggested by millimeter observations. If the second companion is also confirmed, HD 169142 might be forming a planetary system, with at least two companions opening gaps and possibly interacting with each other

  1. FRIENDS OF HOT JUPITERS. II. NO CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN HOT-JUPITER SPIN-ORBIT MISALIGNMENT AND THE INCIDENCE OF DIRECTLY IMAGED STELLAR COMPANIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo, Henry; Knutson, Heather A.; Hinkley, Sasha; Batygin, Konstantin [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Crepp, Justin R.; Bechter, Eric B. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN (United States); Howard, Andrew W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States); Johnson, John A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Morton, Timothy D. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Muirhead, Philip S., E-mail: hngo@caltech.edu [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-02-20

    Multi-star systems are common, yet little is known about a stellar companion's influence on the formation and evolution of planetary systems. For instance, stellar companions may have facilitated the inward migration of hot Jupiters toward to their present day positions. Many observed short-period gas giant planets also have orbits that are misaligned with respect to their star's spin axis, which has also been attributed to the presence of a massive outer companion on a non-coplanar orbit. We present the results of a multi-band direct imaging survey using Keck NIRC2 to measure the fraction of short-period gas giant planets found in multi-star systems. Over three years, we completed a survey of 50 targets ('Friends of Hot Jupiters') with 27 targets showing some signature of multi-body interaction (misaligned or eccentric orbits) and 23 targets in a control sample (well-aligned and circular orbits). We report the masses, projected separations, and confirmed common proper motion for the 19 stellar companions found around 17 stars. Correcting for survey incompleteness, we report companion fractions of 48% ± 9%, 47% ± 12%, and 51% ± 13% in our total, misaligned/eccentric, and control samples, respectively. This total stellar companion fraction is 2.8σ larger than the fraction of field stars with companions approximately 50-2000 AU. We observe no correlation between misaligned/eccentric hot Jupiter systems and the incidence of stellar companions. Combining this result with our previous radial velocity survey, we determine that 72% ± 16% of hot Jupiters are part of multi-planet and/or multi-star systems.

  2. KOI 1224: A FOURTH BLOATED HOT WHITE DWARF COMPANION FOUND WITH KEPLER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breton, R. P.; Van Kerkwijk, M. H.; Rappaport, S. A.; Carter, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    We present an analysis and interpretation of the Kepler binary system KOI 1224. This is the fourth binary found with Kepler that consists of a thermally bloated, hot white dwarf in a close orbit with a more or less normal star of spectral class A or F. As we show, KOI 1224 contains a white dwarf with T eff = 14, 700 ± 1000 K, mass = 0.22 ± 0.02 M ☉ , and radius = 0.103 ± 0.002 R ☉ , and an F-star companion of mass 1.59 ± 0.06 M ☉ that is somewhat beyond its terminal-age main sequence. The orbital period is quite short at 2.69802 days. The ingredients that are used in the analysis are the Kepler binary light curve, including the detection of the Doppler boosting effect; the NUV and FUV fluxes from the GALEX images of this object; an estimate of the spectral type of the F-star companion; and evolutionary models of the companion designed to match its effective temperature and mean density. The light curve is modeled with a new code named Icarus which we describe in detail. Its features include the full treatment of orbital phase-resolved spectroscopy, Doppler boosting, irradiation effects, and transits/eclipses, which are particularly suited to irradiated eclipsing binaries. We interpret the KOI 1224 system in terms of its likely evolutionary history. We infer that this type of system, containing a bloated hot white dwarf, is the direct descendant of an Algol-type binary. In spite of this basic understanding of the origin of KOI 1224, we discuss a number of problems associated with producing a system with an orbital period this short.

  3. DISCOVERY OF A GAS-RICH COMPANION TO THE EXTREMELY METAL-POOR GALAXY DDO 68

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, John M.; Alfvin, Erik D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Johnson, Megan; Koribalski, Baerbel [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, NSW 1710, Epping (Australia); McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Bailin, Jeremy [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, P.O. Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0324 (United States); Ford, H. Alyson [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States); Girardi, Léo [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova—INAF, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Hirschauer, Alec S.; Janowiecki, Steven; Salzer, John J.; Van Sistine, Angela [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Elson, E. C. [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Marigo, Paola; Rosenfield, Philip [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia Galileo Galilei, Universitá degli Studi di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Rosenberg, Jessica L. [School of Physics, Astronomy, and Computational Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Venkatesan, Aparna [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of San Francisco, 2130 Fulton Street, San Francisco, CA 94117 (United States); Warren, Steven R., E-mail: jcannon@macalester.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, CSS Bldg., Rm. 1024, Stadium Drive, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    We present H I spectral-line imaging of the extremely metal-poor galaxy DDO 68. This system has a nebular oxygen abundance of only ∼3% Z {sub ☉}, making it one of the most metal-deficient galaxies known in the local volume. Surprisingly, DDO 68 is a relatively massive and luminous galaxy for its metal content, making it a significant outlier in the mass-metallicity and luminosity-metallicity relationships. The origin of such a low oxygen abundance in DDO 68 presents a challenge for models of the chemical evolution of galaxies. One possible solution to this problem is the infall of pristine neutral gas, potentially initiated during a gravitational interaction. Using archival H I spectral-line imaging obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, we have discovered a previously unknown companion of DDO 68. This low-mass (M{sub H} {sub I} = 2.8 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}), recently star-forming (SFR{sub FUV} = 1.4 × 10{sup –3} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, SFR{sub Hα} < 7 × 10{sup –5} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) companion has the same systemic velocity as DDO 68 (V {sub sys} = 506 km s{sup –1}; D = 12.74 ± 0.27 Mpc) and is located at a projected distance of ∼42 kpc. New H I maps obtained with the 100 m Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope provide evidence that DDO 68 and this companion are gravitationally interacting at the present time. Low surface brightness H I gas forms a bridge between these objects.

  4. THE ECLIPSING SYSTEM EP ANDROMEDAE AND ITS CIRCUMBINARY COMPANIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Woo; Hinse, Tobias Cornelius; Park, Jang-Ho, E-mail: jwlee@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: tchinse@gmail.com, E-mail: pooh107162@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    We present new long-term CCD photometry for EP And acquired during the period 2007-2012. The light curves display total eclipses at primary minima and season-to-season light variability. Our synthesis for all available light curves indicates that the eclipsing pair is a W-type overcontact binary with parameters of q = 2.578, i = 83. Degree-Sign 3, {Delta}T = 27 K, f = 28%, and l{sub 3} = 2%-3%. The asymmetric light curves in 2007 were satisfactorily modeled by a cool spot on either of the eclipsing components from a magnetic dynamo. Including our 95 timing measurements, a total of 414 times of minimum light spanning about 82 yr was used for a period study. A detailed analysis of the eclipse timing diagram revealed that the orbital period of EP And has varied as a combination of an upward-opening parabola and two periodic variations, with cycle lengths of P{sub 3} = 44.6 yr and P{sub 4} = 1.834 yr and semi-amplitudes of K{sub 3} = 0.0100 days and K{sub 4} = 0.0039 days, respectively. The observed period increase at a fractional rate of +1.39 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} is in excellent agreement with that calculated from the W-D code and can be plausibly explained by some combination of mass transfer from the primary to the secondary star and angular momentum loss due to magnetic braking. The most reasonable explanation for both cycles is a pair of light-travel-time effects driven by the possible existence of a third and fourth component with projected masses of M{sub 3} = 0.25 M{sub Sun} and M{sub 4} = 0.90 M{sub Sun }. The more massive companion could be revealed using high-resolution spectroscopic data extending over the course of a few years and could also be a binary itself. It is possible that the circumbinary objects may have played an important role in the formation and evolution of the eclipsing pair, which would cause it to have a short initial orbital period and thus evolve into an overcontact configuration by angular momentum loss.

  5. COMPANION ANIMALS SYMPOSIUM: Future aspects and perceptions of companion animal nutrition and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, P; Swanson, K S

    2015-03-01

    Companion animals play an important role in our lives and are now considered to be and treated as family members in a majority of households in the United States. Because of the high number of pets that now exist, an increasingly stronger pet-human bond, and the importance placed on health and longevity, the pet food industry has realized steady growth over the last few decades. Despite past successes and opportunities that exist in the future, there are also challenges that must be considered. This review will present a brief overview of the current pet food industry and address some of the key issues moving forward. In regards to companion animal research, recent advances and future needs in the areas of canine and feline metabolism, aging, clinical disease, and the gut microbiome using molecular and high-throughput assays; chemical, in vitro, and in vivo testing of feed ingredients; and innovative pet food processing methods is discussed. Training the future workforce for the pet food industry is also of great importance. Recent trends on student demographics and their species and careers of interest, changing animal science department curricula, and technology's impact on instruction are provided. Finally, the sustainability of the pet food industry is discussed. Focus was primarily placed on the disconnect that exists between opinions and trends of consumers and the nutrient recommendations for dogs and cats, the desire for increasing use of animal-based and human-grade products, the overfeeding of pets and the pet obesity crisis, and the issues that involve the evaluation of primary vs. secondary products in terms of sustainability. Moving forward, the pet food industry will need to anticipate and address challenges that arise, especially those pertaining to consumer expectations, the regulatory environment, and sustainability. Given the already strong and increasingly dynamic market for pet foods and supplies, an academic environment primed to supply a

  6. A Massive-born Neutron Star with a Massive White Dwarf Companion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cognard, Ismaël; Guillemot, Lucas; Theureau, Gilles [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie de l’Environnement et de l’Espace, Université d’Orléans/CNRS, F-45071 Orléans Cedex 02 (France); Freire, Paulo C. C. [Station de radioastronomie de Nançay, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS/INSU, F-18330 Nançay (France); Tauris, Thomas M.; Wex, Norbert; Graikou, Eleni; Kramer, Michael; Desvignes, Gregory; Lazarus, Patrick [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Stappers, Benjamin; Lyne, Andrew G. [Jodrell Bank Center for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Bassa, Cees [ASTRON, The Netherlands Institute for Radioastronomy, Postbus 2, 7900 AA, Dwingeloo (Netherlands)

    2017-08-01

    We report on the results of a 4 year timing campaign of PSR J2222−0137, a 2.44 day binary pulsar with a massive white dwarf (WD) companion, with the Nançay, Effelsberg, and Lovell radio telescopes. Using the Shapiro delay for this system, we find a pulsar mass m {sub p} = 1.76 ± 0.06 M {sub ⊙} and a WD mass m {sub c} = 1.293 ± 0.025 M {sub ⊙}. We also measure the rate of advance of periastron for this system, which is marginally consistent with the general relativity prediction for these masses. The short lifetime of the massive WD progenitor star led to a rapid X-ray binary phase with little (< 10{sup −2} M {sub ⊙}) mass accretion onto the neutron star; hence, the current pulsar mass is, within uncertainties, its birth mass, which is the largest measured to date. We discuss the discrepancy with previous mass measurements for this system; we conclude that the measurements presented here are likely to be more accurate. Finally, we highlight the usefulness of this system for testing alternative theories of gravity by tightly constraining the presence of dipolar radiation. This is of particular importance for certain aspects of strong-field gravity, like spontaneous scalarization, since the mass of PSR J2222−0137 puts that system into a poorly tested parameter range.

  7. Effects of a calm companion on fear reactions in naive test horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Malmkvist, Jens; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    2008-01-01

    : Minimally handled (n = 36), 2-year-old stallions were used, 18 as subjects and 18 as companions. Companion horses (n = 9) were habituated to an otherwise frightening, standardised test stimulus (calm companions), whereas the rest (n = 9) of the companion horses remained nonhabituated (control companions......). During the test, unique pairs of companion and subject horses were exposed to the test stimulus while heart rate and behavioural responses were registered. Subsequently, subject horses were exposed to the stimulus on their own (post test). Results: Subject horses, paired with a calm companion horse......, showed less fear-related behaviour and lower heart rate responses compared to subject horses with control companions. Results from the post test suggest that the difference between treatment groups remained in the subsequent absence of companion horses. Conclusions and potential relevance: It appears...

  8. Friends of hot Jupiters. I. A radial velocity search for massive, long-period companions to close-in gas giant planets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knutson, Heather A.; Ngo, Henry; Johnson, John Asher [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Fulton, Benjamin J.; Howard, Andrew W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States); Montet, Benjamin T.; Kao, Melodie; Hinkley, Sasha; Morton, Timothy D.; Muirhead, Philip S. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN (United States); Bakos, Gaspar Á. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Batygin, Konstantin, E-mail: hknutson@caltech.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-04-20

    In this paper we search for distant massive companions to known transiting gas giant planets that may have influenced the dynamical evolution of these systems. We present new radial velocity observations for a sample of 51 planets obtained using the Keck HIRES instrument, and find statistically significant accelerations in fifteen systems. Six of these systems have no previously reported accelerations in the published literature: HAT-P-10, HAT-P-22, HAT-P-29, HAT-P-32, WASP-10, and XO-2. We combine our radial velocity fits with Keck NIRC2 adaptive optics (AO) imaging data to place constraints on the allowed masses and orbital periods of the companions responsible for the detected accelerations. The estimated masses of the companions range between 1-500 M {sub Jup}, with orbital semi-major axes typically between 1-75 AU. A significant majority of the companions detected by our survey are constrained to have minimum masses comparable to or larger than those of the transiting planets in these systems, making them candidates for influencing the orbital evolution of the inner gas giant. We estimate a total occurrence rate of 51% ± 10% for companions with masses between 1-13 M {sub Jup} and orbital semi-major axes between 1-20 AU in our sample. We find no statistically significant difference between the frequency of companions to transiting planets with misaligned or eccentric orbits and those with well-aligned, circular orbits. We combine our expanded sample of radial velocity measurements with constraints from transit and secondary eclipse observations to provide improved measurements of the physical and orbital characteristics of all of the planets included in our survey.

  9. ON THE NATURE OF THE TERTIARY COMPANION TO FW TAU: ALMA CO OBSERVATIONS AND SED MODELING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caceres, Claudio; Hardy, Adam; Schreiber, Matthias R.; Cánovas, Héctor [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Universidad de Valparaíso, Av. Gran Bretaña 1111, 2360102 Valparaíso (Chile); Cieza, Lucas A. [Núcleo de Astronomía, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército 441, Santiago (Chile); Williams, Jonathan P. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Hales, Antonio [Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array, Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, 763-0355 Santiago (Chile); Pinte, Christophe [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, CNRS, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Ménard, Francois [UMI-FCA, CNRS/INSU, UMI 3386 (France); Wahhaj, Zahed [European Southern Observatory, Av. Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, 19001 Santiago (Chile)

    2015-06-20

    It is thought that planetary mass companions may form through gravitational disk instabilities or core accretion. Identifying such objects in the process of formation would provide the most direct test for the competing formation theories. One of the most promising candidates for a planetary mass object still in formation is the third object in the FW Tau system. We present here ALMA cycle 1 observations confirming the recently published 1.3 mm detection of a dust disk around this third object and present for the first time a clear detection of a single peak {sup 12}CO (2–1) line, providing direct evidence for the simultaneous existence of a gas disk. We perform radiative transfer modeling of the third object in FW Tau and find that current observations are consistent with either a brown dwarf embedded in an edge-on disk or a planet embedded in a low inclination disk, which is externally irradiated by the binary companion. Further observations with ALMA, aiming for high SNR detections of non-contaminated gas lines, are required to conclusively unveil the nature of the third object in FW Tau.

  10. Confining hot spots in 3C 196 - implications for QSO-companion galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.L.; Broderick, J.J.; Mitchell, K.J.; Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg; NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD)

    1986-01-01

    VLBI observations of the extremely compact hot spot in the northern radio lobe of the QSO 3C 196 reveal the angular size of its smallest substructure to be 0.065 arcsec x 0.045 arcsec or about 300 pc at the redshift distance. The morphology of the hot spot and its orientation relative to the more diffuse radio emission suggest that it is formed by an oblique interaction between the nuclear QSO jet and circum-QSO cloud. The inferred density in this cloud, together with its apparent size, imply that the cloud contains a galactic mass, greater than a billion solar masses of gas. The effect of the jet will be to hasten gravitational collapse of the cloud. If many QSOs such as 3C 196 are formed or found in gas-rich environments, the QSO radio phase may commonly stimulate the metamorphosis of circum-QSO gas to QSO-companion galaxies or it may play a significant part in catalyzing star formation in existing companions. 30 references

  11. Teetering Stars: Resonant Excitation of Stellar Obliquities by Hot and Warm Jupiters with External Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kassandra; Lai, Dong

    2018-04-01

    Stellar spin-orbit misalignments (obliquities) in hot Jupiter systems have been extensively probed in recent years thanks to Rossiter-McLaughlin observations. Such obliquities may reveal clues about hot Jupiter dynamical and migration histories. Common explanations for generating stellar obliquities include high-eccentricity migration, or primordial disk misalignment. This talk investigates another mechanism for producing stellar spin-orbit misalignments in systems hosting a close-in giant planet with an external, inclined planetary companion. Spin-orbit misalignment may be excited due to a secular resonance, occurring when the precession rate of the stellar spin axis (due to the inner orbit) becomes comparable to the precession rate of the inner orbital axis (due to the outer companion). Due to the spin-down of the host star via magnetic braking, this resonance may be achieved at some point during the star's main sequence lifetime for a wide range of giant planet masses and orbital architectures. We focus on both hot Jupiters (with orbital periods less than ten days) and warm Jupiters (with orbital periods around tens of days), and identify the outer perburber properties needed to generate substantial obliquities via resonant excitation, in terms of mass, separation, and inclination. For hot Jupiters, the stellar spin axis is strongly coupled to the orbital axis, and resonant excitation of obliquity requires a close perturber, located within 1-2 AU. For warm Jupiters, the spin and orbital axes are more weakly coupled, and the resonance may be achieved for more distant perturbers (at several to tens of AU). Resonant excitation of the stellar obliquity is accompanied by a decrease in the planets' mutual orbital inclination, and can thus erase high mutual inclinations in two-planet systems. Since many warm Jupiters are known to have outer planetary companions at several AU or beyond, stellar obliquities in warm Jupiter systems may be common, regardless of the

  12. Transmission and epidemiology of zoonotic protozoal diseases of companion animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Kevin J; Petersen, Christine A

    2013-01-01

    Over 77 million dogs and 93 million cats share our households in the United States. Multiple studies have demonstrated the importance of pets in their owners' physical and mental health. Given the large number of companion animals in the United States and the proximity and bond of these animals with their owners, understanding and preventing the diseases that these companions bring with them are of paramount importance. Zoonotic protozoal parasites, including toxoplasmosis, Chagas' disease, babesiosis, giardiasis, and leishmaniasis, can cause insidious infections, with asymptomatic animals being capable of transmitting disease. Giardia and Toxoplasma gondii, endemic to the United States, have high prevalences in companion animals. Leishmania and Trypanosoma cruzi are found regionally within the United States. These diseases have lower prevalences but are significant sources of human disease globally and are expanding their companion animal distribution. Thankfully, healthy individuals in the United States are protected by intact immune systems and bolstered by good nutrition, sanitation, and hygiene. Immunocompromised individuals, including the growing number of obese and/or diabetic people, are at a much higher risk of developing zoonoses. Awareness of these often neglected diseases in all health communities is important for protecting pets and owners. To provide this awareness, this review is focused on zoonotic protozoal mechanisms of virulence, epidemiology, and the transmission of pathogens of consequence to pet owners in the United States.

  13. Murray Pittock, ed., The Edinburgh Companion to Scottish Romanticism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Malzahn

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Murray Pittock, ed., The Edinburgh Companion to Scottish Romanticism. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2011. Pp. 251. ISBN 978-0-7486-3845-1 (hardback. £ 65.00. ISBN 978-0-7486-3846-8 (paperback. £ 21.99.

  14. Massive Star Formation: Accreting from Companion X. Chen1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We report the possible accretion from companion in the mas- sive star forming region (G350.69–0.49). This region seems to be a binary system composed of a diffuse object (possible nebulae or UC HII region) and a Massive Young Stellar Object (MYSO) seen in Spitzer IRAC image. The diffuse object and MYSO ...

  15. Effects of fertilizer types and different companion crops on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted in 2002 and 2003 cropping seasons, at the University of Ibadan Teaching and Research Farm to evaluate the effects of fertilizer types and different companion crops on the performance of sweet potato. The results obtained showed that the growth and yield of sweet potato were ...

  16. The Elgar companion to social economics : Second edition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, John B.; Dolfsma, Wilfred

    2015-01-01

    Social economics is a dynamic and growing field that emphasizes the key roles social values play in the economy and economic life. This second edition of the Elgar Companion to Social Economics revises all chapters from the first edition, and adds important new chapters to reflect the expansion and

  17. Using Tangible Companions for Enhancing Learning English Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi Hsuan; Young, Shelley S.-C.; Jang, Jyh-Shing Roger

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the researchers attempted to extend the concept of learning companions from the virtual world to the real physical environment and made a breakthrough in technique development of tangible learning robots. The aim of this study was to explore an innovative way by combining the speech recognition technology with educational robots in…

  18. Stellar Companions of Exoplanet Host Stars in K2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Rachel; Howell, Steve; Horch, Elliott; Everett, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Stellar multiplicity has significant implications for the detection and characterization of exoplanets. A stellar companion can mimic the signal of a transiting planet or distort the true planetary radii, leading to improper density estimates and over-predicting the occurrence rates of Earth-sized planets. Determining the fraction of exoplanet host stars that are also binaries allows us to better determine planetary characteristics as well as establish the relationship between binarity and planet formation. Using high-resolution speckle imaging to obtain diffraction limited images of K2 planet candidate host stars we detect stellar companions within one arcsec and up to six magnitudes fainter than the host star. By comparing our observed companion fraction to TRILEGAL star count simulations, and using the known detection limits of speckle imaging, we find the binary fraction of K2 planet host stars to be similar to that of Kepler host stars and solar-type field stars. Accounting for stellar companions in exoplanet studies is therefore essential for deriving true stellar and planetary properties as well as maximizing the returns for TESS and future exoplanet missions.

  19. Investigating Valence and Autonomy in Children's Relationships with Imaginary Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnis, Melissa A.; Pierucci, Jillian M.; Gilpin, Ansley Tullos

    2013-01-01

    Little research has explored valence and autonomy in children's imaginary relationships. In the present study, a new interview (modeled after an existing measure for real relationships) was designed to elicit descriptions of both positive and negative interactions with imaginary companions and to provide a measure of relationship valence and…

  20. Companion of choice at birth: factors affecting implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabakian-Khasholian, Tamar; Portela, Anayda

    2017-08-31

    Two recent recommendations made by the World Health Organization confirm the benefits of companion of choice at birth on labour outcomes; however institutional practices and policies do not always support its implementation in different settings around the world. We conducted a review to determine factors that affect implementation of this intervention considering the perspectives and experiences of different stakeholders and other institutional, systemic barriers and facilitators. Forty one published studies were included in this review. Thirty one publications were identified from a 2013 Cochrane review on the effectiveness of companion of choice at birth. We also reviewed 10 qualitative studies conducted alongside the trials or other interventions on labour and birth companionship identified through electronic searches. The SURE (Supporting the Use of Research Evidence) framework was used to guide the thematic analysis of implementation factors. Women and their families expressed appreciation for the continuous presence of a person to provide support during childbirth. Health care providers were concerned about the role of the companion and possible interference with activities in the labour ward. Allocation of resources, organization of care, facility-related constraints and cultural inclinations were identified as implementation barriers. Prior to introducing companion of choice at birth, understanding providers' attitudes and sensitizing them to the evidence is necessary. The commitment of the management of health care facilities is also required to change policies, including allocation of appropriate physical space that respects women's privacy. Implementation research to develop models for different contexts which could be scaled up would be useful, including documentation of factors that affected implementation and how they were addressed. Future research should also focus on documenting the costs related to implementation, and on measuring the impact of

  1. SPECTROSCOPY OF THE INNER COMPANION OF THE PULSAR PSR J0337+1715

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, David L.; Van Kerkwijk, Marten H.; Koester, Detlev; Stairs, Ingrid H.; Ransom, Scott M.; Archibald, Anne M.; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Boyles, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The hierarchical triple system PSR J0337+1715 offers an unprecedented laboratory to study secular evolution of interacting systems and to explore the complicated mass-transfer history that forms millisecond pulsars and helium-core white dwarfs. The latter in particular, however, requires knowledge of the properties of the individual components of the system. Here we present precise optical spectroscopy of the inner companion in the PSR J0337+1715 system. We confirm it as a hot, low-gravity DA white dwarf with T eff = 15, 800 ± 100 K and log 10 (g) = 5.82 ± 0.05. We also measure an inner mass ratio of 0.1364 ± 0.0015, entirely consistent with that inferred from pulsar timing, and a systemic radial velocity of 29.7 ± 0.3 km s –1 . Combined with the mass (0.19751 M ☉ ) determined from pulsar timing, our measurement of the surface gravity implies a radius of 0.091 ± 0.005 R ☉ ; combined further with the effective temperature and extinction, the photometry implies a distance of 1300 ± 80 pc. The high temperature of the companion is somewhat puzzling: with current models, it likely requires a recent period of unstable hydrogen burning, and suggests a surprisingly short lifetime for objects at this phase in their evolution. We discuss the implications of these measurements in the context of understanding the PSR J0337+1715 system, as well as of low-mass white dwarfs in general

  2. PROTOPLANETARY DISK MASSES FROM STARS TO BROWN DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, Subhanjoy; Mortlock, Daniel; Greaves, Jane; Pascucci, Ilaria; Apai, Daniel; Scholz, Aleks; Thompson, Mark; Lodato, Giuseppe; Looper, Dagny

    2013-01-01

    We present SCUBA-2 850 μm observations of seven very low mass stars (VLMS) and brown dwarfs (BDs). Three are in Taurus and four in the TW Hydrae Association (TWA), and all are classical T Tauri (cTT) analogs. We detect two of the three Taurus disks (one only marginally), but none of the TWA ones. For standard grains in cTT disks, our 3σ limits correspond to a dust mass of 1.2 M ⊕ in Taurus and a mere 0.2 M ⊕ in the TWA (3-10× deeper than previous work). We combine our data with other submillimeter/millimeter (sub-mm/mm) surveys of Taurus, ρ Oph, and the TWA to investigate the trends in disk mass and grain growth during the cTT phase. Assuming a gas-to-dust mass ratio of 100:1 and fiducial surface density and temperature profiles guided by current data, we find the following. (1) The minimum disk outer radius required to explain the upper envelope of sub-mm/mm fluxes is ∼100 AU for intermediate-mass stars, solar types, and VLMS, and ∼20 AU for BDs. (2) While the upper envelope of apparent disk masses increases with M * from BDs to VLMS to solar-type stars, no such increase is observed from solar-type to intermediate-mass stars. We propose this is due to enhanced photoevaporation around intermediate stellar masses. (3) Many of the disks around Taurus and ρ Oph intermediate-mass and solar-type stars evince an opacity index of β ∼ 0-1, indicating significant grain growth. Of the only four VLMS/BDs in these regions with multi-wavelength measurements, three are consistent with considerable grain growth, though optically thick disks are not ruled out. (4) For the TWA VLMS (TWA 30A and B), combining our 850 μm fluxes with the known accretion rates and ages suggests substantial grain growth by 10 Myr, comparable to that in the previously studied TWA cTTs Hen 3-600A and TW Hya. The degree of grain growth in the TWA BDs (2M1207A and SSPM1102) remains largely unknown. (5) A Bayesian analysis shows that the apparent disk-to-stellar mass ratio has a roughly

  3. The role of companions in aiding older cancer patients to recall medical information.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Weert, J.C.M. van; Wijngaards-de Meij, L.; Dulmen, S. van; Heeren, T.J.; Bensing, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigates information recall in unaccompanied and accompanied older cancer patients and their companions.Methods: One hundred cancer patients (aged >/=65 years) and 71 companions completed a recall questionnaire after a nursing consultation preceding chemotherapy treatment.

  4. Disease Risk Assessments Involving Companion Animals : an Overview for 15 Selected Pathogens Taking a European Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijks, J M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/151266093; Cito, F; Cunningham, A A; Rantsios, A T; Giovannini, A

    Prioritization of companion animal transmissible diseases was performed by the Companion Animals multisectoriaL interprofessionaL Interdisciplinary Strategic Think tank On zoonoses (CALLISTO) project. The project considered diseases occurring in domesticated species commonly kept as pets, such as

  5. Evolution of the solar system in the presence of a solar companion star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hut, P.

    1986-01-01

    A review is presented of the dynamical implications of a companion star in a wide orbit around the sun, with a semimajor axis of about half a parsec. The motivation behind the hypothesis of a solar companion star is reviewed briefly along with alternative hypotheses, and the general problem of solar system dynamics with a solar companion star is discussed. Four principal questions are posed and answered concerning the consistency of the solar companion theory in providing the required modulation in comet arrival times: (1) What is the expected lifetime of a solar companion? (2) How stable is the orbital period? (3) Does a single perihelion passage of a solar companion perturb enough comets? (4) Do repeated perihelion passages of a solar companion perturb too many comets? Some applications outside the solar system involving wide binaries, interstellar clouds, and dark matter in the Galactic disk are discussed, and the viability of the solar companion theory is critically assessed

  6. Direct imaging of an ultracool substellar companion to the exoplanet host star HD 4113 A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, A.; Ségransan, D.; Peretti, S.; Delisle, J.-B.; Hagelberg, J.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Forveille, T.; Marmier, M.; Udry, S.; Wildi, F.

    2018-06-01

    Using high-contrast imaging with the SPHERE instrument at the Very Large Telescope (VLT), we report the first images of a cold brown dwarf companion to the exoplanet host star HD 4113A. The brown dwarf HD 4113C is part of a complex dynamical system consisting of a giant planet, a stellar host, and a known wide M-dwarf companion. Its separation of 535 ± 3 mas and H-band contrast of 13.35 ± 0.10 mag correspond to a projected separation of 22 AU and an isochronal mass estimate of 36 ± 5 MJ based on COND models. The companion shows strong methane absorption, and through fitting an atmosphere model, we estimate a surface gravity of logg = 5 and an effective temperature of 500-600 K. A comparison of its spectrum with observed T dwarfs indicates a late-T spectral type, with a T9 object providing the best match. By combining the observed astrometry from the imaging data with 27 years of radial velocities, we use orbital fitting to constrain its orbital and physical parameters, as well as update those of the planet HD 4113A b, discovered by previous radial velocity measurements. The data suggest a dynamical mass of 66-4+5 MJ and moderate eccentricity of 0.44-0.07+0.08 for the brown dwarf. This mass estimate appears to contradict the isochronal estimate and that of objects with similar temperatures, which may be caused by the newly detected object being an unresolved binary brown dwarf system or the presence of an additional object in the system. Through dynamical simulations, we show that the planet may undergo strong Lidov-Kozai cycles, raising the possibility that it formed on a quasi-circular orbit and gained its currently observed high eccentricity (e 0.9) through interactions with the brown dwarf. Follow-up observations combining radial velocities, direct imaging, and Gaia astrometry will be crucial to precisely constrain the dynamical mass of the brown dwarf and allow for an in-depth comparison with evolutionary and atmosphere models. Based on observations

  7. K-KIDS: K Dwarfs and Their Companions. First Results from Radial Velocity Survey with CHIRON Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Leonardo; Henry, Todd; Nusdeo, Daniel; Winters, J.; Dincer, Tolga

    2018-01-01

    We present the K-KIDS project, an effort to survey a large sample of K dwarfs and their companions, the KIDS. We are observing a carefully vetted equatorial sample (DEC = -30 to +30) of more than 1000 K dwarfs within 50 pc to make a comprehensive assessment of stellar, substellar and planetary companions with separations of 0.1 to 10,000 AU.The initial sample of 1048 stars has been compiled using astrometric data from Hipparcos and photometric data from Tycho-2 and 2MASS. Four different imaging and spectroscopic surveys are underway. Here we present the strategy and initial results for our high-precision radial velocity survey for the closest companions using the CHIRON spectrograph on the CTIO/SMARTS 1.5m telescope. Individual measurements with CHIRON at R = 80,000 using ThAr wavelength calibration, indicate that for K dwarf radial velocity standards with V = 5.8, 7.0 and 8.0 yield precisions over 6 weeks of observing of 7.4 m/s, 9.8 m/s and 5.7 m/s. In the first two months, a core sample of 42 K dwarfs, including carefully selected calibration systems as well as previously unobserved stars, was observed every few nights to detect the radial velocity signals of close companions. In our calibration stellar systems, we have confirmed the suitability of CHIRON for our studies, by having found periodic radial velocity perturbations consistent with hot Jupiter and stellar companions previously detected. This set forms the foundation of our one-year survey of 100 K dwarfs with magnitudes as faint as V = 11.5, for which we should detect companions with masses as low as Jupiter.In light of the promising performance and efficiency of the CHIRON spectrograph for a long-term radial velocity survey, we have expanded our initial sample using Gaia Data Release 1 to 1824 K dwarfs within 50 pc. Ultimately, the combination of all four surveys will provide an unprecedented portrait of K dwarfs and their kids.This effort has been supported by the NSF through grant AST-1517413, and

  8. THE EFFECTS OF CLOSE COMPANIONS (AND ROTATION) ON THE MAGNETIC ACTIVITY OF M DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, Dylan P.; West, Andrew A.; Dhital, Saurav; Fuchs, Miriam; Garcés, Ane; Catalán, Silvia; Silvestri, Nicole M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of close white dwarf and M dwarf (WD+dM) binary systems and examine the effect that a close companion has on the magnetic field generation in M dwarfs. We use a base sample of 1602 white dwarf main-sequence binaries from Rebassa-Mansergas et al. to develop a set of color cuts in GALEX, SDSS, UKIDSS, and 2MASS color space. Then using the SDSS Data Release 8 spectroscopic database, we construct a sample of 1756 WD+dM high-quality pairs from our color cuts and previous catalogs. We separate the individual WD and dM from each spectrum using an iterative technique that compares the WD and dM components to best-fit templates. Using the absolute height above the Galactic plane as a proxy for age, and the Hα emission line as an indicator for magnetic activity, we investigate the age-activity relation for our sample for spectral types ≤ M7. Our results show that early-type M dwarfs (≤M4) in close binary systems are more likely to be active and have longer activity lifetimes compared to their field counterparts. However, at a spectral type of M5 (just past the onset of full convection in M dwarfs), the activity fraction and lifetimes of WD+dM binary systems become more comparable to that of the field M dwarfs. One of the implications of having a close binary companion is presumed to be increased stellar rotation through disk disruption, tidal effects, or angular momentum exchange. Thus, we interpret the similarity in activity behavior between late-type dMs in WD+dM pairs and late-type field dMs to be due to a decrease in sensitivity in close binary companions (or stellar rotation), which has implications for the nature of magnetic activity in fully convective stars. Using the WD components of the pairs, we find WD cooling ages to use as an additional constraint on the age-activity relation for our sample. We find that, on average, active early-type dMs tend to be younger and that active late-type dMs span a much broader age regime making them

  9. Encouraging Student Reflection and Articulation Using a Learning Companion: A Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Bradley; Linton, Frank; Gaimari, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Our 1998 paper "Encouraging Student Reflection and Articulation using a Learning Companion" (Goodman et al. 1998) was a stepping stone in the progression of learning companions for intelligent tutoring systems (ITS). A simulated learning companion, acting as a peer in an intelligent tutoring environment ensures the availability of a…

  10. Characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from Austrian companion animals and horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginders, Maximilian; Leschnik, Michael; Künzel, Frank; Kampner, Doris; Mikula, Claudia; Steindl, Georg; Eichhorn, Inga; Feßler, Andrea T; Schwarz, Stefan; Spergser, Joachim; Loncaric, Igor

    2017-11-14

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the genetic relatedness and the antimicrobial resistance profiles of a collection of Austrian Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from companion animals and horses. A total of 12 non-repetitive isolates presumptively identified as S. pneumoniae were obtained during routinely diagnostic activities between March 2009 and January 2017. Isolates were confirmed as S. pneumoniae by bile solubility and optochin susceptibility testing, matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and sequence analysis of a part recA and the 16S rRNA genes. Isolates were further characterized by pneumolysin polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genotyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed and resistance genes were detected by specific PCR assays. All isolates were serotyped. Four sequence types (ST) (ST36, ST3546, ST6934 and ST6937) and four serotypes (3, 19A, 19F and 23F) were detected. Two isolates from twelve displayed a multidrug-resistance pheno- and genotype. This study represents the first comprehensive investigation on characteristics of S. pneumoniae isolates recovered from Austrian companion animals and horses. The obtained results indicate that common human sero- (23F) and sequence type (ST36) implicated in causing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) may circulate in dogs. Isolates obtained from other examined animals seem to be host-adapted.

  11. Kepler-424 b: A 'lonely' hot Jupiter that found A companion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endl, Michael; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Barclay, Thomas; Huber, Daniel; Havel, Mathieu; Howell, Steve B.; Quintana, Elisa; Isaacson, Howard; Buchhave, Lars A.; Brugamyer, Erik; Robertson, Paul; Cochran, William D.; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Lucas, Phillip; Fischer, Debra; Ciardi, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Hot Jupiter systems provide unique observational constraints for migration models in multiple systems and binaries. We report on the discovery of the Kepler-424 (KOI-214) two-planet system, which consists of a transiting hot Jupiter (Kepler-424b) in a 3.31 day orbit accompanied by a more massive outer companion in an eccentric (e = 0.3) 223 day orbit. The outer giant planet, Kepler-424c, is not detected transiting the host star. The masses of both planets and the orbital parameters for the second planet were determined using precise radial velocity (RV) measurements from the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) and its High Resolution Spectrograph (HRS). In stark contrast to smaller planets, hot Jupiters are predominantly found to be lacking any nearby additional planets; they appear to be l onely . This might be a consequence of these systems having a highly dynamical past. The Kepler-424 planetary system has a hot Jupiter in a multiple system, similar to υ Andromedae. We also present our results for Kepler-422 (KOI-22), Kepler-77 (KOI-127), Kepler-43 (KOI-135), and Kepler-423 (KOI-183). These results are based on spectroscopic data collected with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), the Keck 1 telescope, and HET. For all systems, we rule out false positives based on various follow-up observations, confirming the planetary nature of these companions. We performed a comparison with planetary evolutionary models which indicate that these five hot Jupiters have heavy element contents between 20 and 120 M ⊕ .

  12. Polarized Light Imaging of the HD 142527 Transition Disk with the Gemini Planet Imager: Dust around the Close-in Companion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodigas, Timothy J.; Follette, Katherine B.; Weinberger, Alycia; Close, Laird; Hines, Dean C.

    2014-08-01

    When giant planets form, they grow by accreting gas and dust. HD 142527 is a young star that offers a scaled-up view of this process. It has a broad, asymmetric ring of gas and dust beyond ~100 AU and a wide inner gap. Within the gap, a low-mass stellar companion orbits the primary star at just ~12 AU, and both the primary and secondary are accreting gas. In an attempt to directly detect the dusty counterpart to this accreted gas, we have observed HD 142527 with the Gemini Planet Imager in polarized light at Y band (0.95-1.14 μm). We clearly detect the companion in total intensity and show that its position and photometry are generally consistent with the expected values. We also detect a point source in polarized light that may be spatially separated by ~ a few AU from the location of the companion in total intensity. This suggests that dust is likely falling onto or orbiting the companion. Given the possible contribution of scattered light from this dust to previously reported photometry of the companion, the current mass limits should be viewed as upper limits only. If the dust near the companion is eventually confirmed to be spatially separated, this system would resemble a scaled-up version of the young planetary system inside the gap of the transition disk around LkCa 15. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministrio da Cincia, Tecnologia e Inovao (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologa e Innovacin Productiva (Argentina).

  13. Towards a Sociological Understanding of Robots as Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oost, Ellen; Reed, Darren

    While Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) have, in the past, primarily mediated or facilitated emotional bonding between humans, contemporary robot technologies are increasingly making the bond between human and robots the core issue. Thinking of robots as companions is not only a development that opens up huge potential for new applications, it also raises social and ethical issues. In this paper we will argue that current conceptions of human-robot companionship are primarily rooted in cognitive psychological traditions and provide important, yet limited understanding of the companion relationship. Elaborating on a sociological perspective on the appropriation of new technology, we will argue for a richer understanding of companionship that takes the situatedness (in location, network and time) of the use-context into account.

  14. Implementation of a companion diagnostic in the clinical laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mancini, Irene; Pinzani, Pamela; Simi, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    A companion diagnostic test provides information that is essential for the safe and effective use of a corresponding therapeutic product as indicated in the drug instructions. The implementation of a companion diagnostic follows the rules of a molecular test for somatic mutations in a routine...... clinical laboratory environment and needs guidance on practical aspects, including the choice of the proper analytical method and the procedures for internal and external quality controls. Selection of the appropriate assay for detection of genetic alterations depends on several factors: the type...... on restrictions of the method used. In relation to these aspects herein we report an opinion paper of the Working Group Personalized Laboratory Medicine jointly constituted by the European Federation of Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) and by the European Society of Pharmacogenomics and Theranostics (ESPT) using...

  15. A 1.05 M{sub ☉} companion to PSR J2222–0137: The coolest known white dwarf?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, David L. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 1900 East Kenwood Boulevard, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Boyles, Jason; McLaughlin, Maura A.; Lorimer, Duncan R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, White Hall, Box 6315, Morgantown, WV 26506-6315 (United States); Dunlap, Bart H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); Tendulkar, Shriharsh P. [Space Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Deller, Adam T. [ASTRON, P.O. Box 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Ransom, Scott M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States); Stairs, Ingrid H., E-mail: kaplan@uwm.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2014-07-10

    The recycled pulsar PSR J2222–0137 is one of the closest known neutron stars (NSs) with a parallax distance of 267{sub −0.9}{sup +1.2} pc and an edge-on orbit. We measure the Shapiro delay in the system through pulsar timing with the Green Bank Telescope, deriving a low pulsar mass (1.20 ± 0.14 M{sub ☉}) and a high companion mass (1.05 ± 0.06 M{sub ☉}) consistent with either a low-mass NS or a high-mass white dwarf. We can largely reject the NS hypothesis on the basis of the system's extremely low eccentricity (3 × 10{sup –4})—too low to have been the product of two supernovae under normal circumstances. However, despite deep optical and near-infrared searches with Southern Astrophysical Research and the Keck telescopes we have not discovered the optical counterpart of the system. This is consistent with the white dwarf hypothesis only if the effective temperature is <3000 K, a limit that is robust to distance, mass, and atmosphere uncertainties. This would make the companion to PSR J2222–0137 one of the coolest white dwarfs ever observed. For the implied age to be consistent with the age of the Milky Way requires the white dwarf to have already crystallized and entered the faster Debye-cooling regime.

  16. A 1.05 M☉ companion to PSR J2222–0137: The coolest known white dwarf?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, David L.; Boyles, Jason; McLaughlin, Maura A.; Lorimer, Duncan R.; Dunlap, Bart H.; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Deller, Adam T.; Ransom, Scott M.; Stairs, Ingrid H.

    2014-01-01

    The recycled pulsar PSR J2222–0137 is one of the closest known neutron stars (NSs) with a parallax distance of 267 −0.9 +1.2 pc and an edge-on orbit. We measure the Shapiro delay in the system through pulsar timing with the Green Bank Telescope, deriving a low pulsar mass (1.20 ± 0.14 M ☉ ) and a high companion mass (1.05 ± 0.06 M ☉ ) consistent with either a low-mass NS or a high-mass white dwarf. We can largely reject the NS hypothesis on the basis of the system's extremely low eccentricity (3 × 10 –4 )—too low to have been the product of two supernovae under normal circumstances. However, despite deep optical and near-infrared searches with Southern Astrophysical Research and the Keck telescopes we have not discovered the optical counterpart of the system. This is consistent with the white dwarf hypothesis only if the effective temperature is <3000 K, a limit that is robust to distance, mass, and atmosphere uncertainties. This would make the companion to PSR J2222–0137 one of the coolest white dwarfs ever observed. For the implied age to be consistent with the age of the Milky Way requires the white dwarf to have already crystallized and entered the faster Debye-cooling regime.

  17. The Routledge Companion to Media, Sex and Sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    2018-01-01

    The Routledge Companion to Media, Sex and Sexuality is a vibrant and authoritative exploration of the ways in which sex and sexualities are mediated in modern media and everyday life.\\ud \\ud The 40 chapters in this volume offer a snapshot of the remarkable diversification of approaches and research within the field, bringing together a wide range of scholars and researchers from around the world and from different disciplinary backgrounds including cultural studies, education, history, media ...

  18. Neural correlates for perception of companion animal photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayama, Sara; Chang, Linda; Gumus, Kazim; King, George R; Ernst, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Anthrozoological neuroscience, which we propose as the use of neuroscience techniques to study human-animal interaction, may help to elucidate mechanisms underlying the associated psychological, physiological, and other purported health effects. This preliminary study investigates the neural response to animal photographs in pet owners and non-pet owners, and both attraction and attachment to companion animals as modulators of human perception of companion animal photographs. Thirty male participants, 15 "Pet Owners" (PO) and 15 "Non-Pet Owners" (NPO), viewed photographs of companion animals during functional MRI (fMRI) scans at 3 T and provided ratings of attraction to the animal species represented in the photographs. Fourteen subjects additionally submitted and viewed personal pet photographs during fMRI scans, and completed the Lexington Attachment to Pets Scale (LAPS). PO exhibited greater activation than NPO during the viewing of animal photographs in areas of the insula, and frontal and occipital cortices. Moreover, ratings of attraction to animals correlated positively with neural activation in the cingulate gyrus, precentral gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, and superior temporal gyrus during the viewing of representative photographs. For subjects with household pets, scores on the LAPS correlated positively with neural activation during the viewing of owned pet photographs in the precuneus, cuneus, and superior parietal lobule. Our preliminary findings suggest that human perception of companion animals involve the visual attention network, which may be modulated at the neural level by subjective experiences of attraction or attachment to animals. Our understanding of human-animal interactions through anthrozoological neuroscience may better direct therapeutic applications, such as animal-assisted therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pedagogical Agents as Learning Companions: Building Social Relations with Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yanghee

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the potential of pedagogical agents as learning companions (PALs) to build social relations with learners and, consequently, to motivate learning. The study investigated the impact of PAL affect (positive vs. negative vs. neutral), PAL gender (male vs. female), and learner gender (male vs. female) on learners’ social judgments, motivation, and learning in a controlled experiment. Participants were 142 college students in a computer-literacy course. Overall, the results ind...

  20. Environmental enrichment in farm, zoo, companion and experimental animals

    OpenAIRE

    Vučinić Marijana

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with environmental enrichment for domestic animals at farms, animals in zoos, experimental animals and pet animals. Also, the paper defines and describes different strategies of environmental enrichment. Environmental enrichment is a simple and effective mean of prevention of boredom, behavioral disorders as well as an effective mean of improving animal welfare in farm, zoo, companion and experimental animals. Different items and materials may be used for environmental enrichm...

  1. Clinical and radiological diagnostic of foreign bodies in companion birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kummerfeld, N.; Erhorn, I.

    1991-01-01

    Sometimes curious foreign bodies placed in the proventriculus/ventriculus of companion birds are causes of single case diseases. Clinical signs include untypical symptoms such as distress, lameness, vomiting and diarrhoe. In cases of heavy metal intoxication, e.g. lead poisoning, CNS-disorders are found. Radiographs taken in a ventro-dorsal and a latero-lateral view show the presence of foreign bodies in suspicion. In most cases of foreign bodies in birds a surgical intervention (Gastrotomy) is indicated

  2. [Influence of waiting time on patient and companion satisfaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontova-Almató, A; Juvinyà-Canal, D; Suñer-Soler, R

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate patient and companion satisfaction of a hospital Emergency Department and its relationship with waiting time. Prospective, observational study. Hospital de Figueres Emergency Department (Girona, Spain). sociodemographic characteristics, satisfaction level, real and perceived waiting time for triage and being seen by a physician. A total of 285 responses were received from patients and companions. The mean age of the patients and companions (n=257) was 54.6years (SD=18.3). The mean overall satisfaction (n=273) was 7.6 (SD=2.2). Lower perceived waiting time until nurse triage was related to higher overall satisfaction (Spearman rho (ρ)=-0.242, P<.001), and lower perceived waiting time until being seen by physician, with a higher overall satisfaction (ρ=-0.304; P<.001). Users who were informed about estimated waiting time showed higher satisfaction than those who were not informed (P=.001). Perceived waiting time and the information about estimated waiting time determined overall satisfaction. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. The Search for Binaries in Post-Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars: Do Binary Companions Shape the Nebulae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce J. Hrivnak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Binary companions are often invoked to explain the axial and point symmetry seen in the majority of planetary nebulae and proto-planetary nebulae (PPNs. To explore this hypothesis, we have undertaken a long-term (20 year study of light and velocity variations in PPNs. From the photometric study of 24 PPNs, we find that all vary in brightness, and from a subset of 12 carbon-rich PPNs of F-G spectral type we find periods of 35-155 days, with the cooler having the longer periods. The variations are seen to be due to pulsation; no photometric evidence for binarity is seen. A radial velocity study of a sub-sample of seven of the brightest of these shows that they all vary with the pulsation periods. Only one shows evidence of a longer-term variation that we tentatively identify as being due to a binary companion. We conclude that the present evidence for the binary nature of these PPNs is meager and that any undetected companions of these PPNs must be of low mass ( 30 years.

  4. THE TRENDS HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING SURVEY. III. A FAINT WHITE DWARF COMPANION ORBITING HD 114174

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crepp, Justin R.; Johnson, John Asher; Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Gianninas, Alexandros; Kilic, Mukremin; Wright, Jason T.

    2013-01-01

    The nearby Sun-like star HD 114174 exhibits a strong and persistent Doppler acceleration indicating the presence of an unseen distant companion. We have acquired high-contrast imaging observations of this star using NIRC2 at Keck and report the direct detection of the body responsible for causing the ''trend''. HD 114174 B has a projected separation of 692 ± 9 mas (18.1 AU) and is 10.75 ± 0.12 mag (contrast of 5 × 10 –5 ) fainter than its host in the K-band, requiring aggressive point-spread function subtraction to identify. Our astrometric time baseline of 1.4 yr demonstrates physical association through common proper motion. We find that the companion has absolute magnitude, M J = 13.97 ± 0.11, and colors, J – K = 0.12 ± 0.16 mag. These characteristics are consistent with an ≈T3 dwarf, initially leading us to believe that HD 114174 B was a substellar object. However, a dynamical analysis that combines radial velocity measurements with available imaging data indicates a minimum mass of 0.260 ± 0.010 M ☉ . We conclude that HD 114174 B must be a white dwarf. Assuming a hydrogen-rich composition, atmospheric and evolutionary model fits yield an effective temperature T eff = 8200 ± 4000 K, surface gravity log g = 8.90 ± 0.02, and cooling age of t c ≈ 3.4 Gyr, which is consistent with the 4.7 +2.3 -2.6 Gyr host star isochronal age estimate. HD 114174 B is a benchmark object located only 26.14 ± 0.37 pc from the Sun. It may be studied at a level of detail comparable to Sirius and Procyon, and used to understand the link between the mass of white dwarf remnants with that of their progenitors

  5. Multidimensional Models of Type Ia Supernova Nebular Spectra: Strong Emission Lines from Stripped Companion Gas Rule Out Classic Single-degenerate Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botyánszki, János; Kasen, Daniel; Plewa, Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    The classic single-degenerate model for the progenitors of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) predicts that the supernova ejecta should be enriched with solar-like abundance material stripped from the companion star. Spectroscopic observations of normal SNe Ia at late times, however, have not resulted in definite detection of hydrogen. In this Letter, we study line formation in SNe Ia at nebular times using non-LTE spectral modeling. We present, for the first time, multidimensional radiative transfer calculations of SNe Ia with stripped material mixed in the ejecta core, based on hydrodynamical simulations of ejecta–companion interaction. We find that interaction models with main-sequence companions produce significant Hα emission at late times, ruling out these types of binaries being viable progenitors of SNe Ia. We also predict significant He I line emission at optical and near-infrared wavelengths for both hydrogen-rich or helium-rich material, providing an additional observational probe of stripped ejecta. We produce models with reduced stripped masses and find a more stringent mass limit of M st ≲ 1 × 10‑4 M ⊙ of stripped companion material for SN 2011fe.

  6. Proposal for lower frequency companions for the advanced LIGO Gravitational Wave Interferometric Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conforto, Gianni; De Salvo, Riccardo

    2004-01-01

    Recent X-ray observations of many galaxies, combined with optical observations of Galactic globular clusters, provide evidence for a population of Black Holes (BH) with masses of hundreds to thousands of solar masses. These candidate intermediate-mass BHs are often found in high density stellar clusters, where dynamical braking is rapid and hence massive stars are expected to sink to the center of the clusters within a few million years. In this same timescale, heavy star binary systems are expected to undergo numerous three-body interactions, tightening them and causing massive BHs to undergo multiple coalescences. At the BH masses implied by observations, these coalescences will take place below 100 Hz. There are advances in technology that make instruments to observe these events feasible. For example, new measurements of fused silica quality factors, as well as new wide beam technologies, can drive the thermal noise of large mirrors sufficiently low to allow monitoring of these low frequency BH-BH inspirals. It is possible to suspend an additional LF interferometer in the advanced LIGO beam pipes and within the existing LIGO facilities. This additional interferometer could be operated simultaneously with the advanced LIGO ones, thus providing both matching companions for the LF Virgo GW interferometer, and suitable triggers for higher frequency merging and ring-down signals to be measured in advanced LIGO

  7. Grief and Bereavement Issues and the Loss of a Companion Animal: People Living with a Companion Animal, Owners of Livestock, and Animal Support Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chur-Hansen, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Companion animals play various roles in people's lives and these roles can impact on loss, grief, bereavement and mourning when the animal has been lost, whether that is through death, when missing, or when relinquished. This paper considers not only companion animal owners, but also those who own farm animals and those who work in animal service…

  8. The Young Substellar Companion ROXs 12 B: Near-infrared Spectrum, System Architecture, and Spin-Orbit Misalignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Kraus, Adam L.; Bryan, Marta L.; Knutson, Heather A.; Brogi, Matteo; Rizzuto, Aaron C.; Mace, Gregory N.; Vanderburg, Andrew; Liu, Michael C.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Cieza, Lucas A.

    2017-10-01

    ROXs 12 (2MASS J16262803-2526477) is a young star hosting a directly imaged companion near the deuterium-burning limit. We present a suite of spectroscopic, imaging, and time-series observations to characterize the physical and environmental properties of this system. Moderate-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy of ROXs 12 B from Gemini-North/NIFS and Keck/OSIRIS reveals signatures of low surface gravity including weak alkali absorption lines and a triangular H-band pseudocontinuum shape. No signs of Paβ emission are evident. As a population, however, we find that about half (46% ± 14%) of young (≲15 Myr) companions with masses ≲20 M Jup possess actively accreting subdisks detected via Paβ line emission, which represents a lower limit on the prevalence of circumplanetary disks in general, as some are expected to be in a quiescent phase of accretion. The bolometric luminosity of the companion and age of the host star ({6}-2+4 Myr) imply a mass of 17.5 ± 1.5 M Jup for ROXs 12 B based on hot-start evolutionary models. We identify a wide (5100 au) tertiary companion to this system, 2MASS J16262774-2527247, that is heavily accreting and exhibits stochastic variability in its K2 light curve. By combining v sin I * measurements with rotation periods from K2, we constrain the line-of-sight inclinations of ROXs 12 A and 2MASS J16262774-2527247 and find that they are misaligned by {{60}-11+7}^\\circ . In addition, the orbital axis of ROXs 12 B is likely misaligned from the spin axis of its host star, ROXs 12 A, suggesting that ROXs 12 B formed akin to fragmenting binary stars or in an equatorial disk that was torqued by the wide stellar tertiary. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The observatory was made possible by the generous financial support

  9. DISCOVERY OF A COMPANION CANDIDATE IN THE HD 169142 TRANSITION DISK AND THE POSSIBILITY OF MULTIPLE PLANET FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reggiani, Maddalena; Quanz, Sascha P.; Meyer, Michael R.; Amara, Adam; Avenhaus, Henning; Meru, Farzana [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Pueyo, Laurent; Wolff, Schuyler [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Absil, Olivier [Département d' Astrophysique, Géophysique et Océanographie, Université de Liège, 17 Allée du Six Août, B-4000 Liège (Belgium); Anglada, Guillem; Osorio, Mayra [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Girard, Julien H.; Mawet, Dimitri; Milli, Julien [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001 Vitacura, Santiago 19 (Chile); Gonzalez, Carlos Carrasco [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica (UNAM), Apartado Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia (Mexico); Graham, James [University of California, 644 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA (United States); Torrelles, Jose-Maria, E-mail: reggiani@phys.ethz.ch [Instituto de Ciencias del Espacio (CSIC)-UB/IEEC, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-09-01

    We present L'- and J-band high-contrast observations of HD 169142, obtained with the Very Large Telescope/NACO AGPM vector vortex coronagraph and the Gemini Planet Imager, respectively. A source located at 0.''156 ± 0.''032 north of the host star (P.A. = 7.°4 ± 11.°3) appears in the final reduced L' image. At the distance of the star (∼145 pc), this angular separation corresponds to a physical separation of 22.7 ± 4.7 AU, locating the source within the recently resolved inner cavity of the transition disk. The source has a brightness of L' = 12.2 ± 0.5 mag, whereas it is not detected in the J band (J >13.8 mag). If its L' brightness arose solely from the photosphere of a companion and given the J – L' color constraints, it would correspond to a 28-32 M {sub Jupiter} object at the age of the star, according to the COND models. Ongoing accretion activity of the star suggests, however, that gas is left in the inner disk cavity from which the companion could also be accreting. In this case, the object could be lower in mass and its luminosity enhanced by the accretion process and by a circumplanetary disk. A lower-mass object is more consistent with the observed cavity width. Finally, the observations enable us to place an upper limit on the L'-band flux of a second companion candidate orbiting in the disk annular gap at ∼50 AU, as suggested by millimeter observations. If the second companion is also confirmed, HD 169142 might be forming a planetary system, with at least two companions opening gaps and possibly interacting with each other.

  10. Measurement of the masses of the neutron star, Her X-1, and its binary companion, HZ Her, as derived from the study of 1.24-second optical pulsations from the Hz Her - Her X-1 binary system and the x ray-to-optical reprocessing reflection and transmission mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleditch, J.

    1975-10-01

    Intermittent optical pulsations at the 0.1--0.3 percent level have been detected from this binary system in over 500 hours of optical observations. These pulsations are present only for well defined values of the 1.7-day (binary) and 35-day phases. Positions of the pulsation-emitting regions, projected onto the orbital plane, have been measured and three distinct regions have been resolved. A simple model is put forth which accounts for the observed binary behavior, which gives a direct determination of the mass ratio, M/sub HZ Her//M/sub Her X-1/ = 1.69 +- 0.05, and which establishes that the spin of the pulsar is prograde. Additionally it is shown that HZ Her fills its critical Roche lobe. Using the above, the known x ray eclipse duration, and the mass function, the orbital inclination is calculated to be i = 85 0 +- 5 0 and the masses to be M/sub Her X-1/ = 1.28 +- 0.08 M/sub solar/ and M/sub HZ Her/ = 2.16 +- 0.07 M/sub solar/. Constraints on the physical parameters of the accretion stream and disk are derived from the data. The nature of the 35-day modulation of the data is discussed in relation to various models

  11. A COMPARISON OF SPECTROSCOPIC VERSUS IMAGING TECHNIQUES FOR DETECTING CLOSE COMPANIONS TO KEPLER OBJECTS OF INTEREST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teske, Johanna K.; Everett, Mark E.; Hirsch, Lea; Furlan, Elise; Ciardi, David R.; Horch, Elliott P.; Howell, Steve B.; Gonzales, Erica; Crepp, Justin R.

    2015-01-01

    Kepler planet candidates require both spectroscopic and imaging follow-up observations to rule out false positives and detect blended stars. Traditionally, spectroscopy and high-resolution imaging have probed different host star companion parameter spaces, the former detecting tight binaries and the latter detecting wider bound companions as well as chance background stars. In this paper, we examine a sample of 11 Kepler host stars with companions detected by two techniques—near-infrared adaptive optics and/or optical speckle interferometry imaging, and a new spectroscopic deblending method. We compare the companion effective temperatures (T eff ) and flux ratios (F B /F A , where A is the primary and B is the companion) derived from each technique and find no cases where both companion parameters agree within 1σ errors. In 3/11 cases the companion T eff values agree within 1σ errors, and in 2/11 cases the companion F B /F A values agree within 1σ errors. Examining each Kepler system individually considering multiple avenues (isochrone mapping, contrast curves, probability of being bound), we suggest two cases for which the techniques most likely agree in their companion detections (detect the same companion star). Overall, our results support the advantage that the spectroscopic deblending technique has for finding very close-in companions (θ ≲ 0.″02–0.″05) that are not easily detectable with imaging. However, we also specifically show how high-contrast AO and speckle imaging observations detect companions at larger separations (θ ≥ 0.″02–0.″05) that are missed by the spectroscopic technique, provide additional information for characterizing the companion and its potential contamination (e.g., position angle, separation, magnitude differences), and cover a wider range of primary star effective temperatures. The investigation presented here illustrates the utility of combining the two techniques to reveal higher-order multiples in known

  12. ASSERT FY16 Analysis of Feedstock Companion Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamers, Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hansen, Jason [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jacobson, Jacob J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nguyen, Thuy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nair, Shyam [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Searcy, Erin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hess, J. Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Meeting Co-Optima biofuel production targets will require large quantities of mobilized biomass feedstock. Mobilization is of key importance as there is an abundance of biomass resources, yet little is available for purchase, let alone at desired quantity and quality levels needed for a continuous operation, e.g., a biorefinery. Therefore Co-Optima research includes outlining a path towards feedstock production at scale by understanding routes to mobilizing large quantities of biomass feedstock. Continuing along the vertically-integrated path that pioneer cellulosic biorefineries have taken will constrain the bioenergy industry to high biomass yield areas, limiting its ability to reach biofuel production at scale. To advance the cellulosic biofuels industry, a separation between feedstock supply and conversion is necessary. Thus, in contrast to the vertically integrated supply chain, two industries are required: a feedstock industry and a conversion industry. The split is beneficial for growers and feedstock processers as they are able to sell into multiple markets. That is, depots that produce value-add feedstock intermediates that are fully fungible in both the biofuels refining and other, so-called companion markets. As the biofuel industry is currently too small to leverage significant investment in up-stream infrastructure build-up, it requires an established (companion) market to secure demand, which de-risks potential investments and makes a build-up of processing and other logistics infrastructure more likely. A common concern to this theory however is that more demand by other markets could present a disadvantage for biofuels production as resource competition may increase prices leading to reduced availability of low-cost feedstock for biorefineries. To analyze the dynamics across multiple markets vying for the same resources, particularly the potential effects on resource price and distribution, the Companion Market Model (CMM) has been developed in this

  13. Close companions to two high-redshift quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGreer, Ian D.; Fan, Xiaohui; Bian, Fuyan [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Strauss, Michael A. [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Haiman, Zoltàn [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Richards, Gordon T. [Department of Physics, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Jiang, Linhua [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Schneider, Donald P., E-mail: imcgreer@as.arizona.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and the Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    We report the serendipitous discoveries of companion galaxies to two high-redshift quasars. SDSS J025617.7+001904 is a z = 4.79 quasar included in our recent survey of faint quasars in the SDSS Stripe 82 region. The initial MMT slit spectroscopy shows excess Lyα emission extending well beyond the quasar's light profile. Further imaging and spectroscopy with LBT/MODS1 confirms the presence of a bright galaxy (i {sub AB} = 23.6) located 2'' (12 kpc projected) from the quasar with strong Lyα emission (EW{sub 0} ≈ 100 Å) at the redshift of the quasar, as well as faint continuum. The second quasar, CFHQS J005006.6+344522 (z = 6.25), is included in our recent HST SNAP survey of z ∼ 6 quasars searching for evidence of gravitational lensing. Deep imaging with ACS and WFC3 confirms an optical dropout ∼4.5 mag fainter than the quasar (Y {sub AB} = 25) at a separation of 0.''9. The red i {sub 775} – Y {sub 105} color of the galaxy and its proximity to the quasar (5 kpc projected if at the quasar redshift) strongly favor an association with the quasar. Although it is much fainter than the quasar, it is remarkably bright when compared to field galaxies at this redshift, while showing no evidence for lensing. Both systems may represent late-stage mergers of two massive galaxies, with the observed light for one dominated by powerful ongoing star formation and for the other by rapid black hole growth. Observations of close companions are rare; if major mergers are primarily responsible for high-redshift quasar fueling then the phase when progenitor galaxies can be observed as bright companions is relatively short.

  14. ASSERT FY16 Analysis of Feedstock Companion Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamers, Patrick; Hansen, Jason; Jacobson, Jacob J.; Nguyen, Thuy; Nair, Shyam; Searcy, Erin; Hess, J. Richard

    2016-01-01

    Meeting Co-Optima biofuel production targets will require large quantities of mobilized biomass feedstock. Mobilization is of key importance as there is an abundance of biomass resources, yet little is available for purchase, let alone at desired quantity and quality levels needed for a continuous operation, e.g., a biorefinery. Therefore Co-Optima research includes outlining a path towards feedstock production at scale by understanding routes to mobilizing large quantities of biomass feedstock. Continuing along the vertically-integrated path that pioneer cellulosic biorefineries have taken will constrain the bioenergy industry to high biomass yield areas, limiting its ability to reach biofuel production at scale. To advance the cellulosic biofuels industry, a separation between feedstock supply and conversion is necessary. Thus, in contrast to the vertically integrated supply chain, two industries are required: a feedstock industry and a conversion industry. The split is beneficial for growers and feedstock processers as they are able to sell into multiple markets. That is, depots that produce value-add feedstock intermediates that are fully fungible in both the biofuels refining and other, so-called companion markets. As the biofuel industry is currently too small to leverage significant investment in up-stream infrastructure build-up, it requires an established (companion) market to secure demand, which de-risks potential investments and makes a build-up of processing and other logistics infrastructure more likely. A common concern to this theory however is that more demand by other markets could present a disadvantage for biofuels production as resource competition may increase prices leading to reduced availability of low-cost feedstock for biorefineries. To analyze the dynamics across multiple markets vying for the same resources, particularly the potential effects on resource price and distribution, the Companion Market Model (CMM) has been developed in this

  15. Do some x-ray stars have white dwarf companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccollum, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Some Be stars which are intermittent X-ray sources may have white dwarf companions rather than neutron stars. It is not possible to prove or rule out the existence of Be + WD systems using X-ray or optical data. However, the presence of a white dwarf could be established by the detection of its EUV continuum shortward of the Be star's continuum turnover at 100 A. Either the detection or the nondetection of Be + WD systems would have implications for models of Be star variability, models of Be binary system formation and evolution, and models of wind-fed accretion.

  16. A Search for Pulsar Companions to OB Runaway Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspi, V. M.

    1995-01-01

    We have searched for radio pulsar companions to 40 nearby OB runaway stars. Observations were made at 474 and 770 MHz with the NRAO 140 ft telescope. The survey was sensitive to long- period pulsars with flux densities of 1 mJy or more. One previously unknown pulsar was discovered, PSRJ2044+4614, while observing towards target O star BD+45,3260. Follow-up timing observations of the pulsar measured its position to high precision, revealing a 9' separation between the pulsar and the target star, unequivocally indicating they are not associated.

  17. Ectoparasites of livestock and companion animals in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Acg

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Extract Principal livestock species in New Zealand, namely sheep, cattle, goats, pigs, horses and deer, are hosts, collectively to at least 45 species of ectoparasites, whereas companion animals such as dogs, cats, rabbits, guinea pigs and ferrets, share about 30 species. Tenquist and Charleston (2001) provide a host/parasite checklist of all species, together with limited information on distribution and aspects of nomenclature. Many of the parasites are not host-specific and none is restricted to New Zealand. There is only one recorded eradication, that of the sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis, but the sheep ked, Melophagus ovinus, is very rare.

  18. The Senior Companion Program Plus: A culturally tailored psychoeducational training program (innovative practice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Noelle L; Xu, Ling; Richardson, Virginia E; Parekh, Rupal; Ivey, Dorothea; Feinhals, Gretchen; Calhoun, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    A purposive sample of African American Senior Companions ( N = 23) participated in a 5-day, 20-hour psychoeducational training designed to address the unique cultural needs of African American dementia caregivers. Previous studies have not utilized lay caregiver volunteers such as Senior Companions in dementia research in the United States. Pre- and post-tests were administered to determine whether African American Senior Companions increased their knowledge of Alzheimer's disease after participating in the Senior Companion Program Plus. Results from both the quantitative and qualitative data suggest that participants improved their understanding of Alzheimer's disease. Findings from the Senior Companion Program Plus pilot warrant further study for its potential as cost effective, culturally tailored training for Senior Companions who serve persons with dementia and their family caregivers.

  19. Two active galaxies with tidal tails and companions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, W.C.

    1985-01-01

    Spectroscopic, imaging, and radio observations of the tidally disturbed active systems VV 144 and I Zw 96 are presented, and indicate that the prominent optical extensions seen in both cases represent tidal tails rather than matter ejected from their nuclei (jets). This conclusion is based on the presence of stellar spectral features in the tails, lack of significant ionized gas over most of their length, and lack of radio emission outside the nuclei. Discrete knots in these tails are identified with remnant cores of the companion galaxies responsible for the morphological disturbances of the main galaxies and perhaps contributing to their nuclear activity. In both cases, the dynamics of the interactions are unusual in nature or viewing geometry. VV 144 is seen in the common plane of interaction and disk rotation, appearing strongly foreshortened. I Zw 96 shows tails associated with two companions; each is accompanied by changes in tail structure. This may be the result of a binary system of spirals colliding with a giant elliptical galaxy. 18 references

  20. Vegetarian versus Meat-Based Diets for Companion Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Knight

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Companion animal owners are increasingly concerned about the links between degenerative health conditions, farm animal welfare problems, environmental degradation, fertilizers and herbicides, climate change, and causative factors; such as animal farming and the consumption of animal products. Accordingly, many owners are increasingly interested in vegetarian diets for themselves and their companion animals. However, are vegetarian canine and feline diets nutritious and safe? Four studies assessing the nutritional soundness of these diets were reviewed, and manufacturer responses to the most recent studies are provided. Additional reviewed studies examined the nutritional soundness of commercial meat-based diets and the health status of cats and dogs maintained on vegetarian and meat-based diets. Problems with all of these dietary choices have been documented, including nutritional inadequacies and health problems. However, a significant and growing body of population studies and case reports have indicated that cats and dogs maintained on vegetarian diets may be healthy—including those exercising at the highest levels—and, indeed, may experience a range of health benefits. Such diets must be nutritionally complete and reasonably balanced, however, and owners should regularly monitor urinary acidity and should correct urinary alkalinisation through appropriate dietary additives, if necessary.

  1. Robot companions and ethics a pragmatic approach of ethical design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, Gérard

    2013-12-01

    From his experience as ethical expert for two Robot Companion prototype projects aiming at empowering older MCI persons to remain at home and to support their family carers, Gerard Cornet, Gerontologist, review the ethical rules, principles and pragmatic approaches in different cultures. The ethical process of these two funded projects, one European, Companionable (FP7 e-inclusion call1), the other French, Quo vadis (ANR tecsan) are described from the inclusion of the targeted end users in the process, to the assessment and ranking of their main needs and whishes to design the specifications, test the performance expected. Obstacles to turn round and limits for risks evaluation (directs or implicit), acceptability, utility, respect of intimacy and dignity, and balance with freedom and security and frontiers to artificial intelligence are discussed As quoted in the discussion with the French and Japanese experts attending the Toulouse Robotics and medicine symposium (March 26th 2011), the need of a new ethical approach, going further the present ethical rules is needed for the design and social status of ethical robots, having capacity cas factor of progress and global quality of innovation design in an ageing society.

  2. The companion dog as a unique translational model for aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzatenta, Andrea; Carluccio, Augusto; Robbe, Domenico; Giulio, Camillo Di; Cellerino, Alessandro

    2017-10-01

    The dog is a unique species due to its wide variation among breeds in terms of size, morphology, behaviour and lifespan, coupled with a genetic structure that facilitates the dissection of the genetic architecture that controls these traits. Dogs and humans co-evolved and share recent evolutionary selection processes, such as adaptation to digest starch-rich diets. Many diseases of the dog have a human counterpart, and notably Alzheimer's disease, which is otherwise difficult to model in other organisms. Unlike laboratory animals, companion dogs share the human environment and lifestyle, are exposed to the same pollutants, and are faced with pathogens and infections. Dogs represented a very useful model to understand the relationship between size, insulin-like growth factor-1 genetic variation and lifespan, and have been used to test the effects of dietary restriction and immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease. Very recently, rapamycin was tested in companion dogs outside the laboratory, and this approach where citizens are involved in research aimed at the benefit of dog welfare might become a game changer in geroscience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The nature of the companion star in Circinus X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Helen M.; Soria, Roberto; Gibson, Joel

    2016-02-01

    We present optical spectra and images of the X-ray binary Circinus X-1. The optical light curve of Cir X-1 is strongly variable, changing in brightness by 1.2 mag in the space of four days. The shape of the light curve is consistent with that seen in the 1980s, when the X-ray and radio counterparts of the source were at least ten times as bright as they are currently. We detect strong, variable H α emission lines, consisting of multiple components which vary with orbital phase. We estimate the extinction to the source from the strength of the diffuse interstellar bands and the Balmer decrement; the two methods give AV = 7.6 ± 0.6 mag and AV > 9.1 mag, respectively. The optical light curve can be modelled as arising from irradiation of the companion star by the central X-ray source, where a low-temperature star fills its Roche lobe in an orbit of moderate eccentricity (e ˜ 0.4). We suggest that the companion star is overluminous and underdense, due to the impact of the supernova which occurred less than 5000 yr ago.

  4. Companion animal veterinarians' use of clinical communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, M L; Fitzgerald, J R

    2013-09-01

    To describe the communication techniques used by clients and veterinarians during companion animal visits in Australia. A cross-sectional descriptive study. A total of 64 veterinary consultations were audiotaped and analysed with the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS); clients completed appointment level measures, including their satisfaction and perceptions of relational communication. Participants were 24 veterinarians and 64 clients. Statements intended to reassure clients were expressed frequently in the consultations, but in 59% of appointments empathy statements were not expressed towards either the client or the patient. In 10% of appointments, veterinarians did not used any open-ended questions. Overall client satisfaction was high and veterinarians' expressions of empathy directed to the client resulted in higher levels of client satisfaction. Clients' perceptions of relational communication were related to several veterinarian and client nonverbal scales. A focus on developing evidence-based clinical communication skills is expected to further enhance the veterinarian-client-patient relationship and associated clinical outcomes. Particular recommendations include the development of a broader emotion-handling repertoire, increased emphasis on the use of open-ended enquiry, including assessment of the client's perspective, as well as attention to aspects of nonverbal communication. The study provides preliminary evidence for the importance of verbal expressions of empathy during the companion animal consultation. © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association.

  5. Hot subdwarf stars in close-up view. I. Rotational properties of subdwarf B stars in close binary systems and nature of their unseen companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, S.; Heber, U.; Podsiadlowski, Ph.; Edelmann, H.; Napiwotzki, R.; Kupfer, T.; Müller, S.

    2010-09-01

    The origin of hot subdwarf B stars (sdBs) is still unclear. About half of the known sdBs are in close binary systems for which common envelope ejection is the most likely formation channel. Little is known about this dynamic phase of binary evolution. Since most of the known sdB systems are single-lined spectroscopic binaries, it is difficult to derive masses and unravel the companions' nature, which is the aim of this paper. Due to the tidal influence of the companion in close binary systems, the rotation of the primary becomes synchronised to its orbital motion. In this case it is possible to constrain the mass of the companion, if the primary mass, its projected rotational velocity as well as its surface gravity are known. For the first time we measured the projected rotational velocities of a large sdB binary sample from high resolution spectra. We analysed a sample of 51 sdB stars in close binaries, 40 of which have known orbital parameters comprising half of all such systems known today. Synchronisation in sdB binaries is discussed both from the theoretical and the observational point of view. The masses and the nature of the unseen companions could be constrained in 31 cases. We found orbital synchronisation most likely to be established in binaries with orbital periods shorter than 1.2 d. Only in five cases it was impossible to decide whether the sdB's companion is a white dwarf or an M dwarf. The companions to seven sdBs could be clearly identified as late M stars. One binary may have a brown dwarf companion. The unseen companions of nine sdBs are white dwarfs with typical masses. The mass of one white dwarf companion is very low. In eight cases (including the well known system KPD1930+2752) the companion mass exceeds 0.9~M_⊙, four of which even exceed the Chandrasekhar limit indicating that they may be neutron stars. Even stellar mass black holes are possible for the most massive companions. The distribution of the inclinations of the systems with low

  6. Artificial companions as personal coach for children: The Interactive Drums Teacher

    OpenAIRE

    Courgeon , Matthieu; Duhaut , Dominique

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The MOCA Project that aims at designing and studying the interaction and relationship between artificial companions and children in everyday life at home activities. Artificial companions are digital embodied entities that can be either robotic or virtual. In this paper, we focus on a single activity, subpart of the whole project: a coaching application that uses two artificial companions to teach the basics of drums to children. One device is a Nao robot, the other is...

  7. Kepler-424 b: A "Lonely" Hot Jupiter that Found a Companion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endl, Michael; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Barclay, Thomas; Huber, Daniel; Isaacson, Howard; Buchhave, Lars A.; Brugamyer, Erik; Robertson, Paul; Cochran, William D.; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Havel, Mathieu; Lucas, Phillip; Howell, Steve B.; Fischer, Debra; Quintana, Elisa; Ciardi, David R.

    2014-11-01

    Hot Jupiter systems provide unique observational constraints for migration models in multiple systems and binaries. We report on the discovery of the Kepler-424 (KOI-214) two-planet system, which consists of a transiting hot Jupiter (Kepler-424b) in a 3.31 day orbit accompanied by a more massive outer companion in an eccentric (e = 0.3) 223 day orbit. The outer giant planet, Kepler-424c, is not detected transiting the host star. The masses of both planets and the orbital parameters for the second planet were determined using precise radial velocity (RV) measurements from the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) and its High Resolution Spectrograph (HRS). In stark contrast to smaller planets, hot Jupiters are predominantly found to be lacking any nearby additional planets; they appear to be "lonely". This might be a consequence of these systems having a highly dynamical past. The Kepler-424 planetary system has a hot Jupiter in a multiple system, similar to \\upsilon Andromedae. We also present our results for Kepler-422 (KOI-22), Kepler-77 (KOI-127), Kepler-43 (KOI-135), and Kepler-423 (KOI-183). These results are based on spectroscopic data collected with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), the Keck 1 telescope, and HET. For all systems, we rule out false positives based on various follow-up observations, confirming the planetary nature of these companions. We performed a comparison with planetary evolutionary models which indicate that these five hot Jupiters have heavy element contents between 20 and 120 M ⊕. Based on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen.

  8. Kepler-424 b: A 'lonely' hot Jupiter that found A companion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endl, Michael [McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Caldwell, Douglas A.; Barclay, Thomas; Huber, Daniel; Havel, Mathieu; Howell, Steve B.; Quintana, Elisa [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Isaacson, Howard [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Buchhave, Lars A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Brugamyer, Erik [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Robertson, Paul [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, Pennsylvania State University (United States); Cochran, William D.; MacQueen, Phillip J. [McDonald Observatory and Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Lucas, Phillip [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Fischer, Debra [Department of Astronomy, Yale University (United States); Ciardi, David R. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-11-10

    Hot Jupiter systems provide unique observational constraints for migration models in multiple systems and binaries. We report on the discovery of the Kepler-424 (KOI-214) two-planet system, which consists of a transiting hot Jupiter (Kepler-424b) in a 3.31 day orbit accompanied by a more massive outer companion in an eccentric (e = 0.3) 223 day orbit. The outer giant planet, Kepler-424c, is not detected transiting the host star. The masses of both planets and the orbital parameters for the second planet were determined using precise radial velocity (RV) measurements from the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) and its High Resolution Spectrograph (HRS). In stark contrast to smaller planets, hot Jupiters are predominantly found to be lacking any nearby additional planets; they appear to be {sup l}onely{sup .} This might be a consequence of these systems having a highly dynamical past. The Kepler-424 planetary system has a hot Jupiter in a multiple system, similar to υ Andromedae. We also present our results for Kepler-422 (KOI-22), Kepler-77 (KOI-127), Kepler-43 (KOI-135), and Kepler-423 (KOI-183). These results are based on spectroscopic data collected with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), the Keck 1 telescope, and HET. For all systems, we rule out false positives based on various follow-up observations, confirming the planetary nature of these companions. We performed a comparison with planetary evolutionary models which indicate that these five hot Jupiters have heavy element contents between 20 and 120 M {sub ⊕}.

  9. Identification of Group G Streptococcal Isolates from Companion Animals in Japan and Their Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuki, Yuzo; Kurita, Goro; Murata, Yoshiteru; Goto, Mieko; Takahashi, Takashi

    2017-07-24

    In this study, we conducted a species-level identification of group G streptococcal (GGS) isolates from companion animals in Japan and analyzed antimicrobial resistance (AMR) patterns. Strains were isolated from sterile and non-sterile specimens collected from 72 animals with clinical signs or symptoms in April-May, 2015. We identified the strain by 16S rRNA sequencing, mass spectrometry (MS), and an automated method based on their biochemical properties. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using the broth microdilution method and E-test. AMR determinants (erm(A), erm(B), mef(A), tet(M), tet(O), tet(K), tet(L), and tet(S)) in corresponding resistant isolates were amplified by PCR. The 16S rRNA sequencing identified the GGS species as Streptococcus canis (n = 68), Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (n = 3), and S. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (n = 1). However, there were discrepancies between the sequencing data and both the MS and automated identification data. MS and the automated biochemical technique identified 18 and 37 of the 68 sequencing-identified S. canis strains, respectively. The AMR rates were 20.8% for tetracycline and 5.6% for clarithromycin, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) 50 -MIC 90 of 2-64 and ≤ 0.12-0.25μg/mL, respectively. AMR genotyping showed single or combined genotypes: erm(B) or tet(M)-tet(O)-tet(S). Our findings show the unique characteristics of GGS isolates from companion animals in Japan in terms of species-level identification and AMR patterns.

  10. Are emotionally attached companion animal caregivers conscientious and neurotic? Factors that affect the human-companion animal relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reevy, Gretchen M; Delgado, Mikel M

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined how personality traits may be related to the amounts and types of attachments humans have toward companion animals (pets). In this study, 1,098 companion animal guardians (owners) completed a survey that included the Big Five Inventory, the Lexington Attachment to Pets Scale, and the Pet Attachment Questionnaire. Each participant chose whether he or she identified as a Cat Person, Dog Person, Both, or Neither. Results indicated that neuroticism, conscientiousness, choosing a dog as a favorite pet, and identifying as a Cat Person, Dog Person, or Both predicted affection for a pet. Conscientiousness, extraversion, and openness decreased avoidant attachment to pets, and neuroticism increased anxious attachment to pets. Both dogs and cats could benefit from pet owners who are conscientious, and there may be some benefits of neuroticism in pet owners. The findings of this study will advance understanding of the human-animal bond. As this understanding increases, measurements of human attachment and personality may be useful for the development of tools that could assist shelter employees and veterinarians in counseling people about pet ownership.

  11. Close Companions to Two High-redshift Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreer, Ian D.; Fan, Xiaohui; Strauss, Michael A.; Haiman, Zoltàn; Richards, Gordon T.; Jiang, Linhua; Bian, Fuyan; Schneider, Donald P.

    2014-10-01

    We report the serendipitous discoveries of companion galaxies to two high-redshift quasars. SDSS J025617.7+001904 is a z = 4.79 quasar included in our recent survey of faint quasars in the SDSS Stripe 82 region. The initial MMT slit spectroscopy shows excess Lyα emission extending well beyond the quasar's light profile. Further imaging and spectroscopy with LBT/MODS1 confirms the presence of a bright galaxy (i AB = 23.6) located 2'' (12 kpc projected) from the quasar with strong Lyα emission (EW0 ≈ 100 Å) at the redshift of the quasar, as well as faint continuum. The second quasar, CFHQS J005006.6+344522 (z = 6.25), is included in our recent HST SNAP survey of z ~ 6 quasars searching for evidence of gravitational lensing. Deep imaging with ACS and WFC3 confirms an optical dropout ~4.5 mag fainter than the quasar (Y AB = 25) at a separation of 0.''9. The red i 775 - Y 105 color of the galaxy and its proximity to the quasar (5 kpc projected if at the quasar redshift) strongly favor an association with the quasar. Although it is much fainter than the quasar, it is remarkably bright when compared to field galaxies at this redshift, while showing no evidence for lensing. Both systems may represent late-stage mergers of two massive galaxies, with the observed light for one dominated by powerful ongoing star formation and for the other by rapid black hole growth. Observations of close companions are rare; if major mergers are primarily responsible for high-redshift quasar fueling then the phase when progenitor galaxies can be observed as bright companions is relatively short. Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs #12184 and #12493. Observations were also made with the LBT and MMT.

  12. Role of nuclear medicine in imaging companion animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, Geoffrey M.; Wheat, Janelle M.

    2005-01-01

    The role of equine nuclear medicine in Australia has been previously described in this journal and more recently, Lyall et al. provided a general overview of demographics of veterinary nuclear medicine departments in Australia. Lyall et al. discuss the main clinical applications of nuclear medicine scintigraphy in companion animals; dogs and cats. The aim of this article is to discuss in brief the applications of commonly performed nuclear medicine procedures in humans with respect to veterinary applications. More detailed discussion will also be offered for investigation of pathologies unique to veterinary nuclear medicine or which are more common in animals than humans. Companion animals are living longer today due to advances in both veterinary and human medicine. The problem is, like humans, longevity brings higher incidence of old age morbidity. As a pet owner, one might be initially motivated to extend life expectancy which is followed by the realisation that one also demands quality of life for pets. Early detection through advanced diagnostic tools, like nuclear medicine scintigraphy, allows greater efficacy in veterinary disease. There are limited veterinary nuclear medicine facilities in Australia due to cost and demand. Not surprisingly then, the growth of veterinary nuclear medicine in Australia, and overseas, has been integrally coupled to evaluation of race horses. While these facilities are generally specifically designed for race horses, racing greyhounds, lame family horses and companion animals are being investigated more frequently. In the USA, the American College of Veterinary Radiology (ACVC) is very active clinically and in research. The ACVC journal, Journal of Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound, is published quarterly and includes a Nuclear Medicine section. Within the ACVR is the Society of Veterinary Nuclear Medicine. Proliferation of veterinary nuclear medicine centres in the USA has been associated with insurance and lifestyle changes

  13. A Quantitative Assessment of Factors Affecting the Technological Development and Adoption of Companion Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dee eLuo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid innovation in (epigenetics and biomarker sciences is driving a new drug development and product development pathway, with the personalized medicine era dominated by biologic therapeutics and companion diagnostics. Companion diagnostics (CDx are tests and assays that detect biomarkers and specific mutations to elucidate disease pathways, stratify patient populations, and target drug therapies. CDx can substantially influence the development and regulatory approval for certain high-risk biologics. However, despite the increasingly important role of companion diagnostics in the realization of personalized medicine, in the United States, there are only twenty-three Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved companion diagnostics on the market for eleven unique indications. Personalized medicines have great potential, yet their use is currently constrained. A major factor for this may lie in the increased complexity of the companion diagnostic and corresponding therapeutic development and adoption pathways. Understanding the market dynamics of companion diagnostic/therapeutic (CDx/Rx pairs is important to further development and adoption of personalized medicine. Therefore, data collected on a variety of factors may highlight incentives or disincentives driving the development of companion diagnostics. Statistical analysis for thirty-six hypotheses resulted in two significant relationships and thirty-four non-significant relationships. The sensitivity of the companion diagnostic was the only factor that significantly correlated with the price of the companion diagnostic. This result indicates that while there is regulatory pressure for the diagnostic and pharmaceutical industry to collaborate and co-develop companion diagnostics for the approval of personalized therapeutics, there seems to be a lack of parallel economic collaboration to incentivize development of companion diagnostics.

  14. RESOLVED COMPANIONS OF CEPHEIDS: TESTING THE CANDIDATES WITH X-RAY OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Pillitteri, Ignazio; Wolk, Scott; Karovska, Margarita; Tingle, Evan [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, MS 4, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Guinan, Edward; Engle, Scott [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Villanova University, 800 Lancaster Ave., Villanova, PA 19085 (United States); Bond, Howard E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Schaefer, Gail H. [The CHARA Array of Georgia State University, Mount Wilson, California 91023 (United States); Mason, Brian D., E-mail: nevans@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: heb11@psu.edu, E-mail: schaefer@chara-array.org [US Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20392-5420 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    We have made XMM-Newton observations of 14 Galactic Cepheids that have candidate resolved (≥5″) companion stars based on our earlier HST Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) imaging survey. Main-sequence stars that are young enough to be physical companions of Cepheids are expected to be strong X-ray producers in contrast to field stars. XMM-Newton exposures were set to detect essentially all companions hotter than spectral type M0 (corresponding to 0.5 M{sub ⊙}). The large majority of our candidate companions were not detected in X-rays, and hence are not confirmed as young companions. One resolved candidate (S Nor #4) was unambiguously detected, but the Cepheid is a member of a populous cluster. For this reason, it is likely that S Nor #4 is a cluster member rather than a gravitationally bound companion. Two further Cepheids (S Mus and R Cru) have X-ray emission that might be produced by either the Cepheid or the candidate resolved companion. A subsequent Chandra observation of S Mus shows that the X-rays are at the location of the Cepheid/spectroscopic binary. R Cru and also V659 Cen (also X-ray bright) have possible companions closer than 5″ (the limit for this study) which are the likely sources of X-rays. One final X-ray detection (V473 Lyr) has no known optical companion, so the prime suspect is the Cepheid itself. It is a unique Cepheid with a variable amplitude. The 14 stars that we observed with XMM constitute 36% of the 39 Cepheids found to have candidate companions in our HST/WFC3 optical survey. No young probable binary companions were found with separations of ≥5″ or 4000 au.

  15. RESOLVED COMPANIONS OF CEPHEIDS: TESTING THE CANDIDATES WITH X-RAY OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Pillitteri, Ignazio; Wolk, Scott; Karovska, Margarita; Tingle, Evan; Guinan, Edward; Engle, Scott; Bond, Howard E.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Mason, Brian D.

    2016-01-01

    We have made XMM-Newton observations of 14 Galactic Cepheids that have candidate resolved (≥5″) companion stars based on our earlier HST Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) imaging survey. Main-sequence stars that are young enough to be physical companions of Cepheids are expected to be strong X-ray producers in contrast to field stars. XMM-Newton exposures were set to detect essentially all companions hotter than spectral type M0 (corresponding to 0.5 M ⊙ ). The large majority of our candidate companions were not detected in X-rays, and hence are not confirmed as young companions. One resolved candidate (S Nor #4) was unambiguously detected, but the Cepheid is a member of a populous cluster. For this reason, it is likely that S Nor #4 is a cluster member rather than a gravitationally bound companion. Two further Cepheids (S Mus and R Cru) have X-ray emission that might be produced by either the Cepheid or the candidate resolved companion. A subsequent Chandra observation of S Mus shows that the X-rays are at the location of the Cepheid/spectroscopic binary. R Cru and also V659 Cen (also X-ray bright) have possible companions closer than 5″ (the limit for this study) which are the likely sources of X-rays. One final X-ray detection (V473 Lyr) has no known optical companion, so the prime suspect is the Cepheid itself. It is a unique Cepheid with a variable amplitude. The 14 stars that we observed with XMM constitute 36% of the 39 Cepheids found to have candidate companions in our HST/WFC3 optical survey. No young probable binary companions were found with separations of ≥5″ or 4000 au

  16. Resolved Companions of Cepheids: Testing the Candidates with X-Ray Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Pillitteri, Ignazio; Wolk, Scott; Karovska, Margarita; Tingle, Evan; Guinan, Edward; Engle, Scott; Bond, Howard E.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Mason, Brian D.

    2016-04-01

    We have made XMM-Newton observations of 14 Galactic Cepheids that have candidate resolved (≥5″) companion stars based on our earlier HST Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) imaging survey. Main-sequence stars that are young enough to be physical companions of Cepheids are expected to be strong X-ray producers in contrast to field stars. XMM-Newton exposures were set to detect essentially all companions hotter than spectral type M0 (corresponding to 0.5 M⊙). The large majority of our candidate companions were not detected in X-rays, and hence are not confirmed as young companions. One resolved candidate (S Nor #4) was unambiguously detected, but the Cepheid is a member of a populous cluster. For this reason, it is likely that S Nor #4 is a cluster member rather than a gravitationally bound companion. Two further Cepheids (S Mus and R Cru) have X-ray emission that might be produced by either the Cepheid or the candidate resolved companion. A subsequent Chandra observation of S Mus shows that the X-rays are at the location of the Cepheid/spectroscopic binary. R Cru and also V659 Cen (also X-ray bright) have possible companions closer than 5″ (the limit for this study) which are the likely sources of X-rays. One final X-ray detection (V473 Lyr) has no known optical companion, so the prime suspect is the Cepheid itself. It is a unique Cepheid with a variable amplitude. The 14 stars that we observed with XMM constitute 36% of the 39 Cepheids found to have candidate companions in our HST/WFC3 optical survey. No young probable binary companions were found with separations of ≥5″ or 4000 au. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and the USA (NASA).

  17. A Quantitative Assessment of Factors Affecting the Technological Development and Adoption of Companion Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dee; Smith, James A; Meadows, Nick A; Schuh, A; Manescu, Katie E; Bure, Kim; Davies, Benjamin; Horne, Rob; Kope, Mike; DiGiusto, David L; Brindley, David A

    2015-01-01

    Rapid innovation in (epi)genetics and biomarker sciences is driving a new drug development and product development pathway, with the personalized medicine era dominated by biologic therapeutics and companion diagnostics. Companion diagnostics (CDx) are tests and assays that detect biomarkers and specific mutations to elucidate disease pathways, stratify patient populations, and target drug therapies. CDx can substantially influence the development and regulatory approval for certain high-risk biologics. However, despite the increasingly important role of companion diagnostics in the realization of personalized medicine, in the USA, there are only 23 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved companion diagnostics on the market for 11 unique indications. Personalized medicines have great potential, yet their use is currently constrained. A major factor for this may lie in the increased complexity of the companion diagnostic and corresponding therapeutic development and adoption pathways. Understanding the market dynamics of companion diagnostic/therapeutic (CDx/Rx) pairs is important to further development and adoption of personalized medicine. Therefore, data collected on a variety of factors may highlight incentives or disincentives driving the development of companion diagnostics. Statistical analysis for 36 hypotheses resulted in two significant relationships and 34 non-significant relationships. The sensitivity of the companion diagnostic was the only factor that significantly correlated with the price of the companion diagnostic. This result indicates that while there is regulatory pressure for the diagnostic and pharmaceutical industry to collaborate and co-develop companion diagnostics for the approval of personalized therapeutics, there seems to be a lack of parallel economic collaboration to incentivize development of companion diagnostics.

  18. CLOSE COMPANIONS TO YOUNG STARS. I. A LARGE SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY IN CHAMAELEON I AND TAURUS-AURIGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Brandeker, Alexis; Van Kerkwijk, Marten H.; Jayawardhana, Ray

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a multiplicity survey of 212 T Tauri stars in the Chamaeleon I and Taurus-Auriga star-forming regions, based on high-resolution spectra from the Magellan Clay 6.5 m telescope. From these data, we achieved a typical radial velocity (RV) precision of ∼80 m s –1 with slower rotators yielding better precision, in general. For 174 of these stars, we obtained multi-epoch data with sufficient time baselines to identify binaries based on RV variations. We identified eight close binaries and four close triples, of which three and two, respectively, are new discoveries. The spectroscopic multiplicity fractions we find for Chamaeleon I (7%) and Taurus-Auriga (6%) are similar to each other, and to the results of field star surveys in the same mass and period regime. However, unlike the results from imaging surveys, the frequency of systems with close companions in our sample is not seen to depend on primary mass. Additionally, we do not find a strong correlation between accretion and close multiplicity. This implies that close companions are not likely the main source of the accretion shut down observed in weak-lined T Tauri stars. Our results also suggest that sufficient RV precision can be achieved for at least a subset of slowly rotating young stars to search for hot Jupiter planets.

  19. Companion diagnostics for the targeted therapy of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Changhoon; Park, Young Soo

    2015-10-21

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common type of cancer and represents a major cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. With recent biomedical advances in our understanding of the molecular characteristics of gastric cancer, many genetic alterations have been identified as potential targets for its treatment. Multiple novel agents are currently under development as the demand for active agents that improve the survival of gastric cancer patients constantly increases. Based on lessons from previous trials of targeted agents, it is now widely accepted that the establishment of an optimal diagnostic test to select molecularly defined patients is of equal importance to the development of active agents against targetable genetic alterations. Herein, we highlight the current status and future perspectives of companion diagnostics in the treatment of gastric cancer.

  20. Aligning the Economic Value of Companion Diagnostics and Stratified Medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward D. Blair

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The twin forces of payors seeking fair pricing and the rising costs of developing new medicines has driven a closer relationship between pharmaceutical companies and diagnostics companies, because stratified medicines, guided by companion diagnostics, offer better commercial, as well as clinical, outcomes. Stratified medicines have created clinical success and provided rapid product approvals, particularly in oncology, and indeed have changed the dynamic between drug and diagnostic developers. The commercial payback for such partnerships offered by stratified medicines has been less well articulated, but this has shifted as the benefits in risk management, pricing and value creation for all stakeholders become clearer. In this larger healthcare setting, stratified medicine provides both physicians and patients with greater insight on the disease and provides rationale for providers to understand cost-effectiveness of treatment. This article considers how the economic value of stratified medicine relationships can be recognized and translated into better outcomes for all healthcare stakeholders.

  1. Companion classroom activities for "stop faking it!" force and motion

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2011-01-01

    Never has it been so easy for educators to learn to teach physical science with confidence. Award-winning author Bill Robertson launched his bestselling Stop Faking It! series in 2002 with Force and Motion--offering elementary and middle school teachers a jargon-free way to learn the background for teaching physical science with confidence. Combining easy-to-understand if irreverent explanations and quirky diagrams, Stop Faking It! Force and Motion helped thousands of teachers, parents, and homeschoolers conquer topics from Newton s laws to the physics of space travel. Now Companion Classroom Activities for Stop Faking It! Force and Motion proves an ideal supplement to the original book or a valuable resource of its own. The hands-on activities and highly readable explanations allow students to first investigate concepts, then discuss learned concepts, and finally apply the concepts to everyday situations. Robertson's wit and humor are sure to keep students and teachers entertained while they tackle topics ...

  2. Lithium in Open Cluster Red Giants Hosting Substellar Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, Joleen K.; Smith, Verne V.; Cunha, Katia; Carpenter, Kenneth G.

    2016-02-01

    We have measured stellar parameters, [Fe/H], lithium abundances, rotation, and 12C/13C in a small sample of red giants (RGs) in three open clusters that are each home to a RG star that hosts a substellar companion (SSC) (NGC 2423 3, NGC 4349 127, and BD+12 1917 in M67). Our goal is to explore whether the presence of SSCs influences the Li content. Both 12C/13C and stellar rotation are measured as additional tracers of stellar mixing. One of the companion hosts, NGC 2423 3, is found to be Li-rich with A(Li){}{{NLTE}} = 1.56 dex, and this abundance is significantly higher than the A(Li) of the two comparison stars in NGC 2423. All three SSC hosts have the highest A(Li) and 12C/13C when compared to the control RGs in their respective clusters; however, except for NGC 2423 3, at least one control star has similarly high abundances within the uncertainties. Higher A(Li) could suggest that the formation or presence of planets plays a role in the degree of internal mixing on or before the RG branch. However, a multitude of factors affect A(Li) during the RG phase, and when the abundances of our sample are compared with the abundances of RGs in other open clusters available in the literature, we find that they all fall well within a much larger distribution of A(Li) and 12C/13C. Thus, even the high Li in NGC 2423 3 cannot be concretely tied to the presence of the SSC.

  3. The nutritional management of gastrointestinal tract disorders in companion animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilford, W G; Matz, M E

    2003-12-01

    Dietary protein, carbohydrates, fats and fibre have marked influences on gastrointestinal tract function and dysfunction. This article reviews the nutritional management of common gastrointestinal disorders in companion animals and introduces some of the current areas of research including probiotics, prebiotics, protein-hydrolysate diets, immunonutrition and dietary fibre. Nutritional management of oesophageal disease revolves around varying the consistency of the diet and feeding the animal from an elevated container. Provision of bowel rest remains the mainstay of the management of acute gastroenteritis but food-based oral rehydration solutions are a useful adjunct. The recommended diet for chronic small bowel diarrhoea is a highly digestible, hypoallergenic, gluten-free, low-lactose and low-fat diet with modest amounts of fermentable fibre. The use of probiotics in the management of diarrhoea in companion animals has not yet been shown to be beneficial. It is likely that prebiotics will prove more effective than probiotics in the prevention of enteropathogenic infections. Approximately 50% of cats in New Zealand that suffer from chronic idiopathic vomiting or diarrhoea will respond to a novel-protein-elimination diet and approximately 30% meet the diagnostic criteria for food sensitivity. Growing evidence supports the use of protein-hydrolysate diets in the management of inflammatory bowel disease and further advances in immunonutrition are expected. The dietary management of colitis should include a hypoallergenic diet with a fermentable fibre source. Manipulation of the diet provides clinicians a powerful therapeutic strategy to be used alone or concurrently with drug therapy in the management of gastrointestinal disorders.

  4. K-KIDS: The Imaging Survey for Stellar Companions at Solar System Scales Around More than 1000 K Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusdeo, Daniel A.

    2018-01-01

    An initial sample of 1048 K dwarfs, hereafter known as the “K-KIDS” targets, was built from the Hipparcos and 2MASS catalogs in order to construct a robust list for a multiplicity survey. There have been two recent comprehensive stellar multiplicity surveys of low mass stars: Raghavan et. al. (2010) searched 454 solar-type stars and found a stellar multiplicity rate of 50%, and Winters et. al. (2017) surveyed 1121 M dwarfs and found a rate of 27%. A gap still remains in our understanding of the multiplicity rate of K dwarfs.For observational purposes, K-KIDS is confined equatorally to -30 < DEC < +30 to ensure that all stars are observable from either hemisphere, thereby creating a legacy sample that can be investigated for decades for stellar, brown dwarf, and planetary companions of various types. The RECONS team is conducting four companion surveys of these 1048 stars, including imaging surveys at various separations --- large (10+ arcseconds), medium (2–10 arcseconds), and small (0.02–2 arcseconds) --- and a radial velocity survey for the closest companions. Here we report on the small separation survey that targets scales similar to our Solar System, 0.1-100 AU, carried out using the Differential Speckle Survey Instrument on the Gemini and WIYN telescopes. To date, we have observed 964 out of 1048 systems, already finding 135 companions. We present a sample of K dwarf double stars with separations less than 100 AU, of which the vast majority are new discoveries. Further progress on the medium and large separation regimes ensures that a statistically significant stellar multiplicity rate for K dwarfs will soon be in achieved, which can then be investigated for dependences on, for example, stellar age and metallicity.This effort has been supported by the NSF through grant AST-1517413 and via observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory (North and South telescopes), which is operated by AURA under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the

  5. Three-dimensional simulations of the interaction between the nova ejecta, accretion disk, and companion star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Joana; José, Jordi; García-Berro, Enrique; Campbell, Simon W.; García-Senz, Domingo; Mohamed, Shazrene

    2018-05-01

    Context. Classical novae are thermonuclear explosions hosted by accreting white dwarfs in stellar binary systems. Material piles up on top of the white dwarf star under mildly degenerate conditions, driving a thermonuclear runaway. The energy released by the suite of nuclear processes operating at the envelope, mostly proton-capture reactions and β+-decays, heats the material up to peak temperatures ranging from 100 to 400 MK. In these events, about 10-3-10-7 M⊙, enriched in CNO and, sometimes, other intermediate-mass elements (e.g., Ne, Na, Mg, and Al) are ejected into the interstellar medium. Aims: To date, most of the efforts undertaken in the modeling of classical nova outbursts have focused on the early stages of the explosion and ejection, ignoring the interaction of the ejecta, first with the accretion disk orbiting the white dwarf and ultimately with the secondary star. Methods: A suite of 3D, smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of the interaction between the nova ejecta, accretion disk, and stellar companion were performed to fill this gap; these simulations were aimed at testing the influence of the model parameters—that is, the mass and velocity of the ejecta, mass and the geometry of the accretion disk—on the dynamical and chemical properties of the system. Results: We discuss the conditions that lead to the disruption of the accretion disk and to mass loss from the binary system. In addition, we discuss the likelihood of chemical contamination of the stellar secondary induced by the impact with the nova ejecta and its potential effect on the next nova cycle. Movies showing the full evolution of several models are available online at http://https://www.aanda.org and at http://www.fen.upc.edu/users/jjose/Downloads.html

  6. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reperant, L. A.; Brown, I. H.; Haenen, O. L.; de Jong, M. D.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Papa, A.; Rimstad, E.; Valarcher, J.-F.; Kuiken, T.

    2016-01-01

    Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known

  7. A dual-mask coronagraph for observing faint companions to binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cady, E.; McElwain, M.; Kasdin, N.J.; Thalmann, C.

    2011-01-01

    Observations of binary stars for faint companions with conventional coronagraphic methods are challenging, as both targets will be bright enough to obscure any nearby faint companions if their scattered light is not suppressed. We propose coronagraphic examination of binary stars using an

  8. Artificial companions: empathy and vulnerability mirroring in human-robot relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Under what conditions can robots become companions and what are the ethical issues that might arise in human-robot companionship relations? I argue that the possibility and future of robots as companions depends (among other things) on the robot’s capacity to be a recipient of human empathy, and

  9. Pallet Users State Their Preferences For Used Pallets - Companion Stringers Cited as Biggest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Bush; Ronen Roudik; Philip A. Araman

    1995-01-01

    A study recently completed by VA Tech in Blacksburg, VA, found that half companion stringers have the greatest negative impact on purchasers of used pallets, followed by split deckboards, protruding nails, and full companion stringers. Repairs using metal plates had relatively little affect on the value of the pallet. The study provides new information concerning the...

  10. 45 CFR 2551.46 - What cost reimbursements are provided to Senior Companions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What cost reimbursements are provided to Senior..., and Cost Reimbursements § 2551.46 What cost reimbursements are provided to Senior Companions? Cost reimbursements include: (a) Stipend. Senior Companions who are income eligible will receive a stipend in an...

  11. Efficacy of an educational manual for childbirth companions: pilot study of a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Mara Rocha Teles

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational manual in the instrumentalization of companions to provide support to the parturients and check its influence on the satisfaction of companions and women during vaginal delivery. Method: pilot study of a randomized controlled clinical trial with 65 companions and puerperal women (intervention = 21 and control = 44. The previous knowledge of the companions was evaluated at baseline. The Evaluation Form for Companions in the Delivery Room was used to measure the actions provided and the satisfaction with the experience, and the Questionnaire for Evaluation of the Experience and Satisfaction of Puerperal Women with Labor and Delivery was used to evaluate the satisfaction of women with childbirth. The Student’s t-test or Wilcoxon, chi-square or Fisher’s exact test, risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used. Results: the companions in the intervention group performed a greater number of support actions (7.2 vs 4.6, p: 0.001 and had higher satisfaction scores (72.4 vs 64.2; p = 0.00. Puerperal women in the intervention group had higher satisfaction with childbirth (119.6 vs 107.9; p: 0.000. Conclusion: the manual was effective for the instrumentalization of companions, contributed to support actions to the parturients and had repercussions on the satisfaction of companions and women with the birthing process. RBR-776d9s

  12. European multicenter study on antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from companion animal urinary tract infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, Cátia; Gama, Luís Telo; Belas, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    for fluoroquinolone-resistant Proteus spp. isolated from companion animals from Belgium. CONCLUSIONS: This work brings new insights into the current status of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from companion animals with UTI in Europe and reinforces the need for strategies aiming to reduce resistance....

  13. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A. Reperant (Leslie); I.H. Brown (Ian); Haenen, O.L.; M.D. de Jong (Menno); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A. Papa (Anna); Rimstad, E.; Valarcher, J.-F.; T. Kuiken (Thijs)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractCompanion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society,

  14. Imaging of SDSS z > 6 Quasar Fields: Gravitational Lensing, Companion Galaxies, and the Host Dark Matter Halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willott, Chris J.; Percival, Will J.; McLure, Ross J.; Crampton, David; Hutchings, John B.; Jarvis, Matt J.; Sawicki, Marcin; Simard, Luc

    2005-06-01

    We have undertaken deep optical imaging observations of three 6.2dropouts is consistent with that found in random fields. We consider the expected dark matter halo masses that host these quasars under the assumption that a correlation between black hole mass and dark matter halo mass exists. We show that the steepness of the high-mass tail of the halo mass function at this redshift, combined with realistic amounts of scatter in this correlation, leads to expected halo masses substantially lower than previously believed. This analysis can explain the lack of companion galaxies found here and the low dynamical mass recently published for one of the quasars. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF) on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the NSF (United States), the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), CNPq (Brazil), and CONICET (Argentina).

  15. New Results on Cepheid Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, N. R.; Bohm-Vitense, E.; Carpenter, K.; Robinson, R.; Beck-Winchatz, B.

    1996-12-01

    Masses for Cepheid variable stars can be measured by combining the orbital velocity amplitude for the Cepheid (from a ground-based orbit) with the orbital velocity amplitude of a hot main sequence companion (observed in the ultraviolet from satellites such as IUE and HST) and the mass of the companion (inferred from from the ultraviolet energy distribution). Observations of 5 binary systems are now completed or in progress with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. Recently completed observations of U Aql lead to a mass of 5.1 +/- 1.1 Msun . We will discuss the results for S Mus, V350 Sgr, U Aql, and Y Car, and the constraints they place on stellar evolution calculations. As would be expected, some of the B companions have high rotational velocities, decreasing the accuracy with which their orbital velocities can be measured. The preliminary conclusion from the 4 HST targets and SU Cyg (mass from IUE observations) is that a weighted mean indicates no convective overshoot but the mode (which reflects the HST results better) agrees with the modest overshoot used in the Geneva evolutionary calculations. Financial Support was provided by a NASA grant GO-4541-01 to EB--V and GO-4541.02 to KGC, a grant from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Council, Canada to NRE, from the AXAF Science Center NASA Contract NAS8-39073.

  16. THE TRENDS HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING SURVEY. III. A FAINT WHITE DWARF COMPANION ORBITING HD 114174

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Johnson, John Asher [Department of Planetary Science, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Howard, Andrew W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Marcy, Geoffrey W. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gianninas, Alexandros; Kilic, Mukremin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Wright, Jason T., E-mail: jcrepp@nd.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The nearby Sun-like star HD 114174 exhibits a strong and persistent Doppler acceleration indicating the presence of an unseen distant companion. We have acquired high-contrast imaging observations of this star using NIRC2 at Keck and report the direct detection of the body responsible for causing the ''trend''. HD 114174 B has a projected separation of 692 {+-} 9 mas (18.1 AU) and is 10.75 {+-} 0.12 mag (contrast of 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5}) fainter than its host in the K-band, requiring aggressive point-spread function subtraction to identify. Our astrometric time baseline of 1.4 yr demonstrates physical association through common proper motion. We find that the companion has absolute magnitude, M{sub J} = 13.97 {+-} 0.11, and colors, J - K = 0.12 {+-} 0.16 mag. These characteristics are consistent with an Almost-Equal-To T3 dwarf, initially leading us to believe that HD 114174 B was a substellar object. However, a dynamical analysis that combines radial velocity measurements with available imaging data indicates a minimum mass of 0.260 {+-} 0.010 M{sub Sun }. We conclude that HD 114174 B must be a white dwarf. Assuming a hydrogen-rich composition, atmospheric and evolutionary model fits yield an effective temperature T{sub eff} = 8200 {+-} 4000 K, surface gravity log g = 8.90 {+-} 0.02, and cooling age of t{sub c} Almost-Equal-To 3.4 Gyr, which is consistent with the 4.7{sup +2.3}{sub -2.6} Gyr host star isochronal age estimate. HD 114174 B is a benchmark object located only 26.14 {+-} 0.37 pc from the Sun. It may be studied at a level of detail comparable to Sirius and Procyon, and used to understand the link between the mass of white dwarf remnants with that of their progenitors.

  17. Hubble Space Telescope Snapshot Survey for Resolved Companions of Galactic Cepheids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Bond, Howard E.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Mason, Brian D.; Tingle, Evan; Karovska, Margarita; Pillitteri, Ignazio

    2016-05-01

    We have conducted an imaging survey with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) of 70 Galactic Cepheids, typically within 1 kpc, with the aim of finding resolved physical companions. The WFC3 field typically covers the 0.1 pc area where companions are expected. In this paper, we identify 39 Cepheids having candidate companions, based on their positions in color-magnitude diagrams, and having separations ⩾ 5'' from the Cepheids. We use follow-up observations of 14 of these candidates with XMM-Newton, and of one of them with ROSAT, to separate X-ray-active young stars (probable physical companions) from field stars (chance alignments). Our preliminary estimate, based on the optical and X-ray observations, is that only 3% of the Cepheids in the sample have wide companions. Our survey easily detects resolved main-sequence companions as faint as spectral type K. Thus the fact that the two most probable companions (those of FF Aql and RV Sco) are earlier than type K is not simply a function of the detection limit. We find no physical companions having separations larger than 4000 au in the X-ray survey. Two Cepheids are exceptions in that they do have young companions at significantly larger separations (δ Cep and S Nor), but both belong to a cluster or a loose association, so our working model is that they are not gravitationally bound binary members, but rather cluster/association members. All of these properties provide constraints on both star formation and subsequent dynamical evolution. The low frequency of true physical companions at separations > 5'' is confirmed by examination of the subset of the nearest Cepheids and also the density of the fields. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  18. Computed Tomography Imaging of Solid Tumors Using a Liposomal-Iodine Contrast Agent in Companion Dogs with Naturally Occurring Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaghada, Ketan B; Sato, Amy F; Starosolski, Zbigniew A; Berg, John; Vail, David M

    2016-01-01

    Companion dogs with naturally occurring cancer serve as an important large animal model in translational research because they share strong similarities with human cancers. In this study, we investigated a long circulating liposomal-iodine contrast agent (Liposomal-I) for computed tomography (CT) imaging of solid tumors in companion dogs with naturally occurring cancer. The institutional animal ethics committees approved the study and written informed consent was obtained from all owners. Thirteen dogs (mean age 10.1 years) with a variety of masses including primary and metastatic liver tumors, sarcomas, mammary carcinoma and lung tumors, were enrolled in the study. CT imaging was performed pre-contrast and at 15 minutes and 24 hours after intravenous administration of Liposomal-I (275 mg/kg iodine dose). Conventional contrast-enhanced CT imaging was performed in a subset of dogs, 90 minutes prior to administration of Liposomal-I. Histologic or cytologic diagnosis was obtained for each dog prior to admission into the study. Liposomal-I resulted in significant (p contrast agent was demonstrated. Liposomal-I enabled visualization of primary and metastatic liver tumors. Sub-cm sized liver lesions grossly appeared as hypo-enhanced compared to the surrounding normal parenchyma with improved lesion conspicuity in the post-24 hour scan. Large liver tumors (> 1 cm) demonstrated a heterogeneous pattern of intra-tumoral signal with visibly higher signal enhancement at the post-24 hour time point. Extra-hepatic, extra-splenic tumors, including histiocytic sarcoma, anaplastic sarcoma, mammary carcinoma and lung tumors, were visualized with a heterogeneous enhancement pattern in the post-24 hour scan. The long circulating liposomal-iodine contrast agent enabled prolonged visualization of small and large tumors in companion dogs with naturally occurring cancer. The study warrants future work to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the Liposomal-I agent in various types of

  19. LUT REVEALS AN ALGOL-TYPE ECLIPSING BINARY WITH THREE ADDITIONAL STELLAR COMPANIONS IN A MULTIPLE SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, L.-Y.; Zhou, X.; Qian, S.-B.; Li, L.-J.; Liao, W.-P.; Tian, X.-M.; Wang, Z.-H. [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), P.O. Box 110, 650011 Kunming (China); Hu, J.-Y., E-mail: zhuly@ynao.ac.cn [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100012 Beijing (China)

    2016-04-15

    A complete light curve of the neglected eclipsing binary Algol V548 Cygni in the UV band was obtained with the Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope in 2014 May. Photometric solutions are obtained using the Wilson–Devinney method. It is found that solutions with and without third light are quite different. The mass ratio without third light is determined to be q = 0.307, while that derived with third light is q = 0.606. It is shown that V548 Cygni is a semi-detached binary where the secondary component is filling the critical Roche lobe. An analysis of all available eclipse times suggests that there are three cyclic variations in the O–C diagram that are interpreted by the light travel-time effect via the presence of three additional stellar companions. This is in agreement with the presence of a large quantity of third light in the system. The masses of these companions are estimated as m sin i′ ∼ 1.09, 0.20, and 0.52 M{sub ⊙}. They are orbiting the central binary with orbital periods of about 5.5, 23.3, and 69.9 years, i.e., in 1:4:12 resonance orbit. Their orbital separations are about 4.5, 13.2, and 26.4 au, respectively. Our photometric solutions suggest that they contribute about 32.4% to the total light of the multiple system. No obvious long-term changes in the orbital period were found, indicating that the contributions of the mass transfer and the mass loss due to magnetic braking to the period variations are comparable. The detection of three possible additional stellar components orbiting a typical Algol in a multiple system make V548 Cygni a very interesting binary to study in the future.

  20. Detection limits for close eclipsing and transiting sub-stellar and planetary companions to white dwarfs in the WASP survey

    OpenAIRE

    Faedi, F.; West, R. G.; Burleigh, M. R.; Goad, M. R.; Hebb, L.

    2010-01-01

    We have performed extensive simulations to explore the possibility of detecting eclipses and transits of close, sub-stellar and planetary companions to white dwarfs in WASP light-curves. Our simulations cover companions $\\sim0.3\\Re

  1. Are Elias 2-27's Spiral Arms Driven by Self-gravity, or by a Companion? A Comparative Spiral Morphology Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgan, Duncan H.; Ilee, John D.; Meru, Farzana

    2018-06-01

    The spiral waves detected in the protostellar disk surrounding Elias 2-27 have been suggested as evidence of the disk being gravitationally unstable. However, previous work has shown that a massive, stable disk undergoing an encounter with a massive companion are also consistent with the observations. We compare the spiral morphology of smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations modeling both cases. The gravitationally unstable disk produces symmetric, tightly wound spiral arms with constant pitch angle, as predicted by the literature. The companion disk’s arms are asymmetric, with pitch angles that increase with radius. However, these arms are not well-fitted by standard analytic expressions, due to the high disk mass and relatively low companion mass. We note that differences (or indeed similarities) in morphology between pairs of spirals is a crucial discriminant between scenarios for Elias 2-27, and hence future studies must fit spiral arms individually. If Elias 2-27 continues to show symmetric tightly wound spiral arms in future observations, then we posit that it is the first observed example of a gravitationally unstable protostellar disk.

  2. A COMPARISON OF SPECTROSCOPIC VERSUS IMAGING TECHNIQUES FOR DETECTING CLOSE COMPANIONS TO KEPLER OBJECTS OF INTEREST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teske, Johanna K. [Carnegie DTM, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Everett, Mark E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Hirsch, Lea [Astronomy Department, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Furlan, Elise; Ciardi, David R. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Ave., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Horch, Elliott P. [Department of Physics, Southern Connecticut State University, 501 Crescent Street, New Haven, CT 06515 (United States); Howell, Steve B. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Gonzales, Erica; Crepp, Justin R., E-mail: jteske@carnegiescience.edu [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Kepler planet candidates require both spectroscopic and imaging follow-up observations to rule out false positives and detect blended stars. Traditionally, spectroscopy and high-resolution imaging have probed different host star companion parameter spaces, the former detecting tight binaries and the latter detecting wider bound companions as well as chance background stars. In this paper, we examine a sample of 11 Kepler host stars with companions detected by two techniques—near-infrared adaptive optics and/or optical speckle interferometry imaging, and a new spectroscopic deblending method. We compare the companion effective temperatures (T{sub eff}) and flux ratios (F{sub B}/F{sub A}, where A is the primary and B is the companion) derived from each technique and find no cases where both companion parameters agree within 1σ errors. In 3/11 cases the companion T{sub eff} values agree within 1σ errors, and in 2/11 cases the companion F{sub B}/F{sub A} values agree within 1σ errors. Examining each Kepler system individually considering multiple avenues (isochrone mapping, contrast curves, probability of being bound), we suggest two cases for which the techniques most likely agree in their companion detections (detect the same companion star). Overall, our results support the advantage that the spectroscopic deblending technique has for finding very close-in companions (θ ≲ 0.″02–0.″05) that are not easily detectable with imaging. However, we also specifically show how high-contrast AO and speckle imaging observations detect companions at larger separations (θ ≥ 0.″02–0.″05) that are missed by the spectroscopic technique, provide additional information for characterizing the companion and its potential contamination (e.g., position angle, separation, magnitude differences), and cover a wider range of primary star effective temperatures. The investigation presented here illustrates the utility of combining the two techniques to reveal higher

  3. Whole genome sequencing of Escherichia coli encoding blaNDM isolated from humans and companion animals in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Companion animals are a source of zoonotic infections and especially important considering the potential of companion animals to harbor antibiotic resistant pathogens. In this study, blaNDM positive Escherichia coli from companion animals, humans, and the environment from Mansoura, Egypt were charac...

  4. The Creative Use of Companion Values in Environmental Education and Education for Sustainable Development: Exploring the Educative Moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Jim; Östman, Leif; Håkansson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Our paper addresses the emergence and evolution of values in educational settings. It builds upon and extends earlier work on companion meanings to develop a theory of the creative use of companion values and meanings in education. The recognition of companion values in educational practices highlight epistemological, ethical, and aesthetic…

  5. The third person in the room: frequency, role, and influence of companions during primary care medical encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Lisa M; Scatena, Lisa; Steiner, John F; Albertson, Gail A; Lin, C T; Cyran, Lisa; Ware, Lindsay; Anderson, Robert J

    2002-08-01

    We wanted to characterize patient accompaniment to medical encounters and to explore the rationale and influence of the companion on the primary care medical encounter. This was a descriptive study. Academic general internal medicine physicians, patients, and patient companions participated. We measured the frequency of waiting and examination room companions, the reasons for accompaniment, the influence on the encounter, and the overall helpfulness of the companion as assessed by patients and companions. We also determined the physicianamprsquos assessment of the companionamprsquos influence, helpfulness, and behavior during the encounter. Companions were in the examination room for 16% of visits; 93% were family members. The rationales for waiting and examination room companions were to help with transportation, provide emotional support, and provide company. Examination room companions helped communicate concerns to the physician, remember the physicianamprsquos advice, make decisions, and communicate their own concerns to the physician. Patients believed that examination room companions influenced 75% of medical encounters, mainly by improving communication between physician and patient. Physicians agreed that examination room companions favorably influenced physician and patient understanding (60% and 46% of encounters, respectively). Patients indicated that waiting and examination room companions were very helpful for 71% and 83% of visits, respectively. Companions frequently accompany patients to their primary care medical encounters. They are often family members, and they assume important roles in enhancing patient and physician understanding.

  6. 76 FR 39361 - AmeriCorps State/National, Senior Companions, Foster Grandparents, and Retired and Senior...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... AmeriCorps State/National, Senior Companions, Foster Grandparents, and Retired and Senior Volunteer...) on Senior Companions, Foster Grandparents, Retired Senior Volunteer Program grant-funded staff, Learn... X ....... X X ....... Senior Companions Yes X ....... ....... X X ....... X X ....... X X X No...

  7. Companion Animals in Natural Disasters: A Scoping Review of Scholarly Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Cheryl; Degeling, Chris; Rock, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    During a disaster, people may make evacuation decisions based on their companion animal's welfare, therefore exposing themselves, their companion animals, and emergency responders to increased risk for injury or death. The loss and suffering of companion animals in disasters causes deep distress, diminishing people's capacity to rebuild their lives. This scoping review presents scholarly research studies and reviews relating to people and their companion animals in the context of disasters, with an aim of informing researchers, policymakers, and practitioners and providing direction for future research. Using the Arksey and O'Malley framework, articles in scholarly journals from 2004 to 2014 are discussed. Analysis included 38 articles: 20 research studies, 12 reviews, and 6 editorials. Findings revealed 2 central themes: companion animals as a risk factor to human health and safety and companion animals being "at risk" themselves. An emerging theme was "responsibility": Who is responsible for companion animals in disasters and how? Understanding the implications of human-nonhuman animal relationships for disaster response and having a broader public consensus on what is owed to animals at times of emergency are important to community preparedness and resilience.

  8. Cost Implications of Value-Based Pricing for Companion Diagnostic Tests in Precision Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaric, Gregory S

    2016-07-01

    Many interpretations of personalized medicine, also referred to as precision medicine, include discussions of companion diagnostic tests that allow drugs to be targeted to those individuals who are most likely to benefit or that allow treatment to be designed in a way such that individuals who are unlikely to benefit do not receive treatment. Many authors have commented on the clinical and competitive implications of companion diagnostics, but there has been relatively little formal analysis of the cost implications of companion diagnostics, although cost reduction is often cited as a significant benefit of precision medicine. We investigate the potential impact on costs of precision medicine implemented through the use of companion diagnostics. We develop a framework in which the costs of companion diagnostic tests are determined by considerations of profit maximization and cost effectiveness. We analyze four scenarios that are defined by the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of the new drug in the absence of a companion diagnostic test. We find that, in most scenarios, precision medicine strategies based on companion diagnostics should be expected to lead to increases in costs in the short term and that costs would fall only in a limited number of situations.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: New companions to nearby low-mass stars (Jodar+, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodar, E.; Perez-Garrido, A.; Diaz-Sanchez, A.; Villo, I.; Rebolo, R.; Perez-Prieto, J. A.

    2016-04-01

    we present the results of a high-resolution imaging survey of 451 late K and M dwarfs selected from the Gliese catalogue (Gliese 1969; Gliese & Jahreiss 1979, 1991, Cat. V/70). The observations were carried out during 2008 using Astralux at the 2.2m telescope at the Centro Astronomico Hispano Aleman (CAHA, Almeria, Spain) and FastCam at the 1.5m Carlos Sanchez Telescope at Teide Observatory (OT, Tenerife, Spain). The observations were done in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) i band at CAHA with pixel scales of ~47mas/pix and the Johnson-Cousin I band at OT with ~43mas/pix. (3 data files).

  10. Substellar companions in low-mass eclipsing binaries NSVS 01286630, NSVS 02502726, and NSVS 07453183

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wolf, M.; Zasche, P.; Kučáková, Hana; Vraštil, J.; Hornoch, Kamil; Šmelcer, L.; Bílek, F.; Pilarčík, L.; Chrastina, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 587, March (2016), A82/1-A82/8 ISSN 0004-6361 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : stars * fundamental parameters * eclipsing Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy , Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  11. Search for surviving companions in type Ia supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Kuo-Chuan; Ricker, Paul M.; Taam, Ronald E.

    2014-01-01

    The nature of the progenitor systems of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is still unclear. One way to distinguish between the single-degenerate scenario and double-degenerate scenario for their progenitors is to search for the surviving companions (SCs). Using a technique that couples the results from multi-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations with calculations of the structure and evolution of main-sequence- (MS-) and helium-rich SCs, the color and magnitude of MS- and helium-rich SCs are predicted as functions of time. The SC candidates in Galactic type Ia supernova remnants (Ia SNR) and nearby extragalactic Ia SNRs are discussed. We find that the maximum detectable distance of MS SCs (helium-rich SCs) is 0.6-4 Mpc (0.4-16 Mpc), if the apparent magnitude limit is 27 in the absence of extinction, suggesting that the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds and the Andromeda Galaxy are excellent environments in which to search for SCs. However, only five Ia SNRs have been searched for SCs, showing little support for the standard channels in the singe-degenerate scenario. To better understand the progenitors of SNe Ia, we encourage the search for SCs in other nearby Ia SNRs.

  12. Small inner companions of warm Jupiters: Lifetimes and legacies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Laerhoven, Christa; Greenberg, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Although warm Jupiters are generally too far from their stars for tides to be important, the presence of an inner planetary companion to a warm Jupiter can result in tidal evolution of the system. Insight into the process and its effects comes form classical secular theory of planetary perturbations. The lifetime of the inner planet may be shorter than the age of the system, because the warm Jupiter maintains its eccentricity and hence promotes tidal migration into the star. Thus a warm Jupiter observed to be alone in its system might have previously cleared away any interior planets. Before its demise, even if an inner planet is of terrestrial scale, it may promote damping of the warm Jupiter's eccentricity. Thus any inferences of the initial orbit of an observed warm Jupiter must include the possibility of a greater initial eccentricity than would be estimated by assuming it had always been alone. Tidal evolution involving multiple planets also enhances the internal heating of the planets, which readily exceeds that of stellar radiation for the inner planet, and may be great enough to affect the internal structure of warm Jupiters. Secular theory gives insight into the tidal processes, providing, among other things, a way to constrain eccentricities of transiting planets based on estimates of the tidal parameter Q.

  13. Plague: Infections of Companion Animals and Opportunities for Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra C.F. Oyston

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Plague is a zoonotic disease, normally circulating in rodent populations, transmitted to humans most commonly through the bite of an infected flea vector. Secondary infection of the lungs results in generation of infectious aerosols, which pose a significant hazard to close contacts. In enzootic areas, plague infections have been reported in owners and veterinarians who come into contact with infected pets. Dogs are relatively resistant, but can import infected fleas into the home. Cats are acutely susceptible, and can present a direct hazard to health. Reducing roaming and hunting behaviours, combined with flea control measures go some way to reducing the risk to humans. Various vaccine formulations have been developed which may be suitable to protect companion animals from contracting plague, and thus preventing onward transmission to man. Since transmission has resulted in a number of fatal cases of plague, the vaccination of domestic animals such as cats would seem a low cost strategy for reducing the risk of infection by this serious disease in enzootic regions.

  14. Massive unseen companion of X Persei - emission contamination in the Balmer lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penrod, G.D.; Vogt, S.S.

    1985-12-01

    X Per is the optical counterpart of the pulsating X-ray source 4U 0352 + 30. Although nearly all observations of this system are consistent with a relatively simple model consisting of a normal O93-B0e star with a neutron star companion in a distant orbit, Hutchings et al. (1974) reported large-amplitude radial velocity variations with a 580-day period in the high-order Balmer absorption lines, which, if interpreted as orbital motion, imply the existence of a massive (more than 30 solar mass) unseen compansion, probably a black hole. High-quality Reticon spectra of the high-order Balmer lines have been obtained which show that the radial velocity variations reported by Hutchings et al. are spurious and are caused by asymmetric and variable emission components hiding in the absorption profiles. This result eliminates the necessity for postulating a massive, unseen secondary or tertiary star. All observed aspects of X Per now seem consistent with the Be + neutron star binary scenario. A previously reported 22.4-hr periodicity in the X-ray flux is explained in terms of nonradial g-mode pulsations of the Be star, which modulate the star's wind, and, hence, the accretion rate onto the neutron star. 21 references.

  15. Massive unseen companion of X Persei - emission contamination in the Balmer lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrod, G.D.; Vogt, S.S.

    1985-01-01

    X Per is the optical counterpart of the pulsating X-ray source 4U 0352 + 30. Although nearly all observations of this system are consistent with a relatively simple model consisting of a normal O93-B0e star with a neutron star companion in a distant orbit, Hutchings et al. (1974) reported large-amplitude radial velocity variations with a 580-day period in the high-order Balmer absorption lines, which, if interpreted as orbital motion, imply the existence of a massive (more than 30 solar mass) unseen compansion, probably a black hole. High-quality Reticon spectra of the high-order Balmer lines have been obtained which show that the radial velocity variations reported by Hutchings et al. are spurious and are caused by asymmetric and variable emission components hiding in the absorption profiles. This result eliminates the necessity for postulating a massive, unseen secondary or tertiary star. All observed aspects of X Per now seem consistent with the Be + neutron star binary scenario. A previously reported 22.4-hr periodicity in the X-ray flux is explained in terms of nonradial g-mode pulsations of the Be star, which modulate the star's wind, and, hence, the accretion rate onto the neutron star. 21 references

  16. A DEEP KECK/NIRC2 SEARCH FOR THERMAL EMISSION FROM PLANETARY COMPANIONS ORBITING FOMALHAUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currie, Thayne; Cloutier, Ryan [University of Toronto, 50 St George St., Toronto, ON M5S 1A1 (Canada); Debes, John H. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kenyon, Scott J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kaisler, Denise [Citrus College, 1000 West Foothill Boulevard, Glendora, CA 91741 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We present deep Keck/NIRC2 1.6 and 3.8 μm imaging of Fomalhaut to constrain the near-infrared brightness of Fomalhaut b, recently confirmed as a likely planet, and search for additional planets at r {sub proj} = 15-150 AU. Using advanced/novel point spread function subtraction techniques, we identify seven candidate substellar companions Fomalhaut b-like projected separations. However, multi-epoch data show them to be background objects. We set a new 3σ upper limit for Fomalhaut b's H-band brightness of m(H) ∼23.15 or 1.5-4.5 M{sub J} . We do not recover the possible point source reported from Spitzer/IRAC data: at its location detection limits are similar to those for Fomalhaut b. Our data when combined with other recent work rule out planets with masses and projected separations comparable to HR 8799 bcde and M > 3 M{sub J} planets at r {sub proj} > 45 AU. The James Webb Space Telescope will likely be required to shed substantial further light on Fomalhaut's planetary system in the next decade.

  17. Common Proper Motion Companions to Nearby Stars: Ages and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    supplying the stars with NIR magnitudes from 2MASS . This allowed Gould & Chaname (2004) to estimate, for the first time, trigonometric parallaxes of...sup- plemented by BVR optical photometry, mainly from USNO-B, and JHK near-IR photometry from 2MASS . This catalog covers the entire magnitude range...for the Schmidt plate data used in the USNO-B catalog, with possible local offsets up to about 300 mas. Systematic errors in UCAC2 and 2MASS are much

  18. AN M DWARF COMPANION TO AN F-TYPE STAR IN A YOUNG MAIN-SEQUENCE BINARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eigmüller, Ph.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Erikson, A.; Fridlund, M.; Pasternacki, Th.; Rauer, H. [Institute of Planetary Research, German Aerospace Center Rutherfordstr. 2, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Eislöffel, J.; Lehmann, H.; Hartmann, M.; Hatzes, A. [Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg Sternwarte 5, D-07778 Tautenburg (Germany); Tkachenko, A. [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, KU Leuven Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Voss, H., E-mail: philipp.eigmueller@dlr.de [Universitat de Barcelona, Department of Astronomy and Meteorology Martí i Franquès, 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-03-15

    Only a few well characterized very low-mass M dwarfs are known today. Our understanding of M dwarfs is vital as these are the most common stars in our solar neighborhood. We aim to characterize the properties of a rare F+dM stellar system for a better understanding of the low-mass end of the Hertzsprung–Russel diagram. We used photometric light curves and radial velocity follow-up measurements to study the binary. Spectroscopic analysis was used in combination with isochrone fitting to characterize the primary star. The primary star is an early F-type main-sequence star with a mass of (1.493 ± 0.073) M{sub ⊙} and a radius of (1.474 ± 0.040) R{sub ⊙}. The companion is an M dwarf with a mass of (0.188 ± 0.014) M{sub ⊙} and a radius of (0.234 ± 0.009) R{sub ⊙}. The orbital period is (1.35121 ± 0.00001) days. The secondary star is among the lowest-mass M dwarfs known to date. The binary has not reached a 1:1 spin–orbit synchronization. This indicates a young main-sequence binary with an age below ∼250 Myr. The mass–radius relation of both components are in agreement with this finding.

  19. Alternative Dietary Fiber Sources in Companion Animal Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George C. Fahey, Jr.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More recently, because of increased awareness of the beneficial effects of dietary fibers in health, as well as the popularity of functional foods and holistic and natural diets, alternative and novel carbohydrates have become widespread in human and pet nutrition. Fiber sources from cereal grains, whole grains and fruits have received increasing attention by the pet food industry and pet owners. While limited scientific information is available on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of alternative fiber sources, studies indicate that corn fiber is an efficacious fiber source for pets, showing no detrimental effects on palatability or nutrient digestibility, while lowering the glycemic response in adult dogs. Fruit fiber and pomaces have good water-binding properties, which may be advantageous in wet pet food production, where a greater water content is required, along with low water activity and a firm texture of the final product. Rice bran is a palatable fiber source for dogs and may be an economical alternative to prebiotic supplementation of pet foods. However, it increases the dietary requirement of taurine in cats. Barley up to 40% in a dry extruded diet is well tolerated by adult dogs. In addition, consumption of complex carbohydrates has shown a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. Alternative fiber sources are suitable ingredients for pet foods. They have been shown to be nutritionally adequate and to have potential

  20. Nutritional ecology of obesity: from humans to companion animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, David; Machovsky-Capuska, Gabriel E; Gosby, Alison K; Simpson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We apply nutritional geometry, a framework for modelling the interactive effects of nutrients on animals, to help understand the role of modern environments in the obesity pandemic. Evidence suggests that humans regulate the intake of protein energy (PE) more strongly than non-protein energy (nPE), and consequently will over- and under-ingest nPE on diets with low or high PE, respectively. This pattern of macronutrient regulation has led to the protein leverage hypothesis, which proposes that the rise in obesity has been caused partly by a shift towards diets with reduced PE:nPE ratios relative to the set point for protein regulation. We discuss potential causes of this mismatch, including environmentally induced reductions in the protein density of the human diet and factors that might increase the regulatory set point for protein and hence exacerbate protein leverage. Economics--the high price of protein compared with fats and carbohydrates--is one factor that might contribute to the reduction of dietary protein concentrations. The possibility that rising atmospheric CO₂ levels could also play a role through reducing the PE:nPE ratios in plants and animals in the human food chain is discussed. Factors that reduce protein efficiency, for example by increasing the use of ingested amino acids in energy metabolism (hepatic gluconeogenesis), are highlighted as potential drivers of increased set points for protein regulation. We recommend that a similar approach is taken to understand the rise of obesity in other species, and identify some key gaps in the understanding of nutrient regulation in companion animals.

  1. Alternative dietary fiber sources in companion animal nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, Maria R C; Kerr, Katherine R; Fahey, George C

    2013-08-06

    The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More recently, because of increased awareness of the beneficial effects of dietary fibers in health, as well as the popularity of functional foods and holistic and natural diets, alternative and novel carbohydrates have become widespread in human and pet nutrition. Fiber sources from cereal grains, whole grains and fruits have received increasing attention by the pet food industry and pet owners. While limited scientific information is available on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of alternative fiber sources, studies indicate that corn fiber is an efficacious fiber source for pets, showing no detrimental effects on palatability or nutrient digestibility, while lowering the glycemic response in adult dogs. Fruit fiber and pomaces have good water-binding properties, which may be advantageous in wet pet food production, where a greater water content is required, along with low water activity and a firm texture of the final product. Rice bran is a palatable fiber source for dogs and may be an economical alternative to prebiotic supplementation of pet foods. However, it increases the dietary requirement of taurine in cats. Barley up to 40% in a dry extruded diet is well tolerated by adult dogs. In addition, consumption of complex carbohydrates has shown a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. Alternative fiber sources are suitable ingredients for pet foods. They have been shown to be nutritionally adequate and to have potential nutraceutical

  2. KELT-19Ab: A P ∼ 4.6-day Hot Jupiter Transiting a Likely Am Star with a Distant Stellar Companion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siverd, Robert J.; Collins, Karen A.; Zhou, George; Quinn, Samuel N.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Stassun, Keivan G.; Johnson, Marshall C.; Bieryla, Allyson; Latham, David W.; Ciardi, David R.; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Penev, Kaloyan; Pinsonneault, Marc; Pepper, Joshua; Eastman, Jason D.; Relles, Howard; Kielkopf, John F.; Gregorio, Joao; Oberst, Thomas E.; Aldi, Giulio Francesco; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Calkins, Michael L.; Berlind, Perry; Dressing, Courtney D.; Patel, Rahul; Stevens, Daniel J.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Lund, Michael B.; Labadie-Bartz, Jonathan; Kuhn, Rudolf B.; Colón, Knicole D.; James, David; Yao, Xinyu; Johnson, John A.; Wright, Jason T.; McCrady, Nate; Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Johnson, Samson A.; Sliski, David H.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Cohen, David H.; McLeod, Kim K.; Penny, Matthew T.; Joner, Michael D.; Stephens, Denise C.; Villanueva, Steven, Jr.; Zambelli, Roberto; Stockdale, Christopher; Evans, Phil; Tan, Thiam-Guan; Curtis, Ivan A.; Reed, Phillip A.; Trueblood, Mark; Trueblood, Patricia

    2018-01-01

    We present the discovery of the giant planet KELT-19Ab, which transits the moderately bright (V∼ 9.9) A8V star TYC 764-1494-1 with an orbital period of 4.61 days. We confirm the planetary nature of the companion via a combination of radial velocities, which limit the mass to ≲ 4.1 {M}{{J}} (3σ ), and a clear Doppler tomography signal, which indicates a retrograde projected spin–orbit misalignment of λ =-{179.7}-3.8+3.7 degrees. Global modeling indicates that the {T}{eff}=7500+/- 110 K host star has {M}\\star ={1.62}-0.20+0.25 {M}ȯ and {R}\\star =1.83+/- 0.10 {R}ȯ . The planet has a radius of {R}P=1.91+/- 0.11 {R}{{J}} and receives a stellar insolation flux of ∼ 3.2× {10}9 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 {{cm}}-2, leading to an inferred equilibrium temperature of {T}{eq}∼ 1935 K assuming zero albedo and complete heat redistribution. With a v\\sin {I}* =84.8+/- 2.0 {km} {{{s}}}-1, the host is relatively slowly rotating compared to other stars with similar effective temperatures, and it appears to be enhanced in metallic elements but deficient in calcium, suggesting that it is likely an Am star. KELT-19A would be the first detection of an Am host of a transiting planet of which we are aware. Adaptive optics observations of the system reveal the existence of a companion with late-G9V/early-K1V spectral type at a projected separation of ≈ 160 {au}. Radial velocity measurements indicate that this companion is bound. Most Am stars are known to have stellar companions, which are often invoked to explain the relatively slow rotation of the primary. In this case, the stellar companion is unlikely to have caused the tidal braking of the primary. However, it may have emplaced the transiting planetary companion via the Kozai–Lidov mechanism.

  3. Most sub-arcsecond companions of Kepler exoplanet candidate host stars are gravitationally bound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horch, Elliott P.; Howell, Steve B.; Everett, Mark E.; Ciardi, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Using the known detection limits for high-resolution imaging observations and the statistical properties of true binary and line-of-sight companions, we estimate the binary fraction of Kepler exoplanet host stars. Our speckle imaging programs at the WIYN 3.5 m and Gemini North 8.1 m telescopes have observed over 600 Kepler objects of interest and detected 49 stellar companions within ∼1 arcsec. Assuming binary stars follow a log-normal period distribution for an effective temperature range of 3000-10,000 K, then the model predicts that the vast majority of detected sub-arcsecond companions are long period (P > 50 yr), gravitationally bound companions. In comparing the model predictions to the number of real detections in both observational programs, we conclude that the overall binary fraction of host stars is similar to the 40%-50% rate observed for field stars.

  4. 45 CFR 2551.71 - What requirements govern the assignment of Senior Companions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: (1) Result in person-to-person supportive relationships with each client served. (2) Support the.... Senior Companions with special skills or demonstrated leadership ability may assist newer Senior...

  5. "Speaking-for" and "speaking-as": pseudo-surrogacy in physician-patient-companion medical encounters about advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazer, Benjamin L; Cameron, Rachel A; DeLuca, Jane M; Mohile, Supriya G; Epstein, Ronald M

    2014-07-01

    To examine using audio-recorded encounters the extent and process of companion participation when discussing treatment choices and prognosis in the context of a life-limiting cancer diagnosis. Qualitative analysis of transcribed outpatient visits between 17 oncologists, 49 patients with advanced cancer, and 34 companions. 46 qualifying companion statements were collected from a total of 28 conversations about treatment choices or prognosis. We identified a range of companion positions, from "pseudo-surrogacy" (companion speaking as if the patient were not able to speak for himself), "hearsay", "conflation of thoughts", "co-experiencing", "observation as an outsider", and "facilitation". Statements made by companions were infrequently directly validated by the patient. Companions often spoke on behalf of patients during discussions of prognosis and treatment choices, even when the patient was present and capable of speaking on his or her own behalf. The conversational role of companions as well as whether the physician checks with the patient can determine whether a companion facilitates or inhibits patient autonomy and involvement. Physicians can reduce ambiguity and encourage patient participation by being aware of when and how companions may speak on behalf of patients and by corroborating the companion's statement with the patient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. "SPEAKING-FOR" AND "SPEAKING-AS": PSEUDO-SURROGACY IN PHYSICIANPATIENT-COMPANION MEDICAL ENCOUNTERS ABOUT ADVANCED CANCER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazer, Benjamin L.; Cameron, Rachel A.; DeLuca, Jane M.; Mohile, Supriya G.; Epstein, Ronald M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine using audio-recorded encounters the extent and process of companion participation when discussing treatment choices and prognosis in the context of a life-limiting cancer diagnosis. Methods Qualitative analysis of transcribed outpatient visits between 17 oncologists, 49 patients with advanced cancer, and 34 companions. Results 46 qualifying companion statements were collected from a total of 28 conversations about treatment choices or prognosis. We identified a range of companion positions, from “pseudo-surrogacy” (companion speaking as if the patient were not able to speak for himself), “hearsay”, “conflation of thoughts”, “co-experiencing”, “observation as an outsider”, and “facilitation”. Statements made by companions were infrequently directly validated by the patient. Conclusions Companions often spoke on behalf of patients during discussions of prognosis and treatment choices, even when the patient was present and capable of speaking on his or her own behalf. Practice Implications The conversational role of companions as well as whether the physician checks with the patient can determine whether a companion facilitates or inhibits patient autonomy and involvement. Physicians can reduce ambiguity and encourage patient participation by being aware of the when and how companions may speak on behalf of patients and by corroborating the companion's statement with the patient. PMID:24862913

  7. Role and influence of the patient′s companion in family medicine consultations: "The patient′s perspective"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Andrades

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Companions often accompany the patient in family medicine clinics and may influence the consultation. This study aims to determine the patients′ perspective regarding the role and influence of the companion in the consultation process. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the family medicine clinics of a university hospital. Adult patients accompanied by companions during the consultation were interviewed through a structured questionnaire. Attributes with respect to role and influence of companion on the consultation were assessed. Data was entered and analyzed through IBM Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS software version 18 using the Chi-square test. Results: A total of 100 patients accompanied by companions participated in the study. Majority of companions were present to either provide company (90% and/or emotional support (90%. Immediate relatives had a role in mobility (P = 0.016 and decision making (P = 0.006. Most companions remained passive and did not contribute to the doctor patient relationship (P = 0.058. Male companions were relatively helpful (54% vs. 25%, P = 0.008 in achieving the expectations from the visit. The companion played a supportive role in 62% of the consultations. Conclusion: This study signifies a supportive role of companion in a consultation which emphasizes the need of consultation models to include the "companion."

  8. Typology of Interpretive Narratives of the followers of the Companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Shariati

    2013-01-01

    A large quantity of narratives in interpretation of the Holy Quran is related to the followers of the Companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) s of companions of the Prophet Muhammad ( PBUH) .Investigating those narratives we see a kind of variation in His interpretations of the verses of the Holy Quran . Some narratives investigate the lexicology of the Holy Quran denotatively. They have also mentioned the reasons for the fall of the verses, the news of the nations and past events, the definiti...

  9. The role of companions in aiding older cancer patients to recall medical information.

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, J.; Weert, J.C.M. van; Wijngaards-de Meij, L.; Dulmen, S. van; Heeren, T.J.; Bensing, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigates information recall in unaccompanied and accompanied older cancer patients and their companions.Methods: One hundred cancer patients (aged >/=65 years) and 71 companions completed a recall questionnaire after a nursing consultation preceding chemotherapy treatment. Recall was checked against the actual communication in video-recordings of the consultations. Patients also completed measures of anxiety and memory-related beliefs.Results: Findings revealed that...

  10. Benefits and Risks for People and Livestock of Keeping Companion Animals: Searching for a Healthy Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterneberg-van der Maaten, T; Turner, D; Van Tilburg, J; Vaarten, J

    2016-07-01

    The mission of the CALLISTO (Companion Animals multisectoriaL interprofessionaL Interdisciplinary Strategic Think tank On zoonoses) project was to provide an overview of the current situation on the role of companion animals as a source of infectious diseases for people and food animals. It also aimed to identify knowledge and technology gaps for the most important zoonoses and propose targeted actions to reduce the risk of zoonotic diseases transmitted via companion animals. After a 3-year study, its members have developed practical recommendations for improved data collection on companion animal numbers and the mechanisms for disease surveillance in companion animals. They highlight the importance of introducing a system for the unique identification of dogs and other companion animals with an implanted microchip transponder and storage of the details it contains on an internationally accessible online database. Their report also emphasises the need for balanced communication with the public on the risks and benefits of pet ownership and the value of the 'One Health' concept to encourage closer collaboration between veterinary and human medical professionals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cancer drug development and the evolving regulatory framework for companion diagnostics in the European union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatti, Francesco; Ehmann, Falk; Hemmings, Robert; Jonsson, Bertil; Nuebling, Micha; Papaluca-Amati, Marisa; Posch, Martin; Rasi, Guido

    2014-03-15

    The European Union (EU) legal framework for medical device regulation is currently under revision. The European Commission has proposed a new framework to ensure that medical devices serve the needs and ensure the safety of European citizens, aiming for a framework that is fit for purpose, more transparent, and better adapted to scientific and technological progress. The proposed new framework is described as an evolution of the current regime keeping the same legal approach. An important proposed change is that companion diagnostics will no longer be considered as low risk and subject to self-certification by the manufacturer. According to the new proposal, companion diagnostics will be classified as high individual risk or moderate public health risk (category C) and require conformity assessment by a notified body. It has also been proposed that evidence of the clinical utility of the device for the intended purpose should be required for companion diagnostics. In this article, we review the EU legal framework relevant for companion diagnostics, describe the proposed changes, and summarize the available scientific guidance from the European Medicines Agency and its regulatory experience with cancer drug development including companion diagnostics. See all articles in this CCR Focus section, "The Precision Medicine Conundrum: Approaches to Companion Diagnostic Co-development." ©2014 AACR.

  12. A search for companions to brown dwarfs in the Taurus and Chamaeleon star-forming regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, K. O.; Luhman, K. L.; Konopacky, Q. M.; McLeod, K. K.; Apai, D.; Pascucci, I.; Ghez, A. M.; Robberto, M.

    2014-01-01

    We have used WFPC2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope to obtain images of 47 members of the Taurus and Chamaeleon I star-forming regions that have spectral types of M6-L0 (M ∼ 0.01-0.1 M ☉ ). An additional late-type member of Taurus, FU Tau (M7.25+M9.25), was also observed with adaptive optics at Keck Observatory. In these images, we have identified promising candidate companions to 2MASS J04414489+2301513 (ρ = 0.''105/15 AU), 2MASS J04221332+1934392 (ρ = 0.''05/7 AU), and ISO 217 (ρ = 0.''03/5 AU). We reported the first candidate in a previous study, showing that it has a similar proper motion as the primary in images from WFPC2 and Gemini adaptive optics. We have collected an additional epoch of data with Gemini that further supports that result. By combining our survey with previous high-resolution imaging in Taurus, Chamaeleon I, and Upper Sco (τ ∼ 10 Myr), we measure binary fractions of 14/93 = 0.15 −0.03 +0.05 for M4-M6 (M ∼ 0.1-0.3 M ☉ ) and 4/108 = 0.04 −0.01 +0.03 for >M6 (M ≲ 0.1 M ☉ ) at separations of >10 AU. Given the youth and low density of these regions, the lower binary fraction at later types is probably primordial rather than due to dynamical interactions among association members. The widest low-mass binaries (>100 AU) also appear to be more common in Taurus and Chamaeleon I than in the field, which suggests that the widest low-mass binaries are disrupted by dynamical interactions at >10 Myr, or that field brown dwarfs have been born predominantly in denser clusters where wide systems are disrupted or inhibited from forming.

  13. OGLE-2005-BLG-071Lb, the Most Massive M-Dwarf Planetary Companion?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, S; Gould, A; Udalski, A; Anderson, J; Christie, G W; Gaudi, B S; Jaroszynski, M; Kubiak, M; Szymanski, M K; Pietrzynski, G; Soszynski, I; Szewczyk, O; Ulaczyk, K; Wyrzykowski, L; DePoy, D L; Fox, D B; Gal-Yam, A; Han, C; Lepine, S; McCormick, J; Ofek, E; Park, B; Pogge, R W; Abe, F; Bennett, D P; Bond, I A; Britton, T R; Gilmore, A C; Hearnshaw, J B; Itow, Y; Kamiya, K; Kilmartin, P M; Korpela, A; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Motomura, M; Muraki, Y; Nakamura, S; Ohnishi, K; Okada, C; Rattenbury, N; Saito, T; Sako, T; Sasaki, M; Sullivan, D; Sumi, T; Tristram, P J; Yanagisawa, T; Yock, P M; Yoshoika, T; Albrow, M D; Beaulieu, J P; Brillant, S; Calitz, H; Cassan, A; Cook, K H; Coutures, C; Dieters, S; Prester, D D; Donatowicz, J; Fouque, P; Greenhill, J; Hill, K; Hoffman, M; Horne, K; J?rgensen, U G; Kane, S; Kubas, D; Marquette, J B; Martin, R; Meintjes, P; Menzies, J; Pollard, K R; Sahu, K C; Vinter, C; Wambsganss, J; Williams, A; Bode, M; Bramich, D M; Burgdorf, M; Snodgrass, C; Steele, I; Doublier, V; Foelmi, C

    2008-04-18

    We combine all available information to constrain the nature of OGLE-2005-BLG-071Lb, the second planet discovered by microlensing and the first in a high-magnification event. These include photometric and astrometric measurements from Hubble Space Telescope, as well as constraints from higher-order effects extracted from the ground-based light curve, such as microlens parallax, planetary orbital motion and finite-source effects. Our primary analysis leads to the conclusion that the host of Jovian planet OGLE-2005-BLG-071Lb is a foreground M dwarf, with mass M = 0.46 {+-} 0.04M{sub {circle_dot}}, distance D{sub l} = 3.3 {+-} 0.4 kpc, and thick-disk kinematics {nu}{sub LSR} {approx} 103 km s{sup -1}. From the best-fit model, the planet has mass M{sub p} = 3.5 {+-} 0.3 M{sub Jupiter}, lies at a projected separation r{sub {perpendicular}} = 3.6 {+-} 0.2 AU from its host and has an equilibrium temperature of T {approx} 50 K, i.e., similar to Neptune. A degenerate model less favored by {Delta}{sub {chi}}{sup 2} {approx} 4 gives essentially the same planetary mass M{sub p} = 3.3 {+-} 0.3 M{sub Jupiter} with a smaller projected separation, r{sub {perpendicular}} = 2.1 {+-} 0.1 AU, and higher equilibrium temperature T {approx} 68 K. These results from the primary analysis suggest that OGLE-2005-BLG-071Lb is likely to be the most massive planet yet discovered that is hosted by an M dwarf. However, the formation of such high-mass planetary companions in the outer regions of M-dwarf planetary systems is predicted to be unlikely within the core-accretion scenario. There are a number of caveats to this analysis, but these could mostly be resolved by a single astrometric measurement a few years after the event.

  14. A search for companions to brown dwarfs in the Taurus and Chamaeleon star-forming regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorov, K. O.; Luhman, K. L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Konopacky, Q. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); McLeod, K. K. [Whitin Observatory, Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA 02481 (United States); Apai, D.; Pascucci, I. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ghez, A. M. [Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Robberto, M., E-mail: todorovk@phys.ethz.ch [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-06-10

    We have used WFPC2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope to obtain images of 47 members of the Taurus and Chamaeleon I star-forming regions that have spectral types of M6-L0 (M ∼ 0.01-0.1 M {sub ☉}). An additional late-type member of Taurus, FU Tau (M7.25+M9.25), was also observed with adaptive optics at Keck Observatory. In these images, we have identified promising candidate companions to 2MASS J04414489+2301513 (ρ = 0.''105/15 AU), 2MASS J04221332+1934392 (ρ = 0.''05/7 AU), and ISO 217 (ρ = 0.''03/5 AU). We reported the first candidate in a previous study, showing that it has a similar proper motion as the primary in images from WFPC2 and Gemini adaptive optics. We have collected an additional epoch of data with Gemini that further supports that result. By combining our survey with previous high-resolution imaging in Taurus, Chamaeleon I, and Upper Sco (τ ∼ 10 Myr), we measure binary fractions of 14/93 = 0.15{sub −0.03}{sup +0.05} for M4-M6 (M ∼ 0.1-0.3 M {sub ☉}) and 4/108 = 0.04{sub −0.01}{sup +0.03} for >M6 (M ≲ 0.1 M {sub ☉}) at separations of >10 AU. Given the youth and low density of these regions, the lower binary fraction at later types is probably primordial rather than due to dynamical interactions among association members. The widest low-mass binaries (>100 AU) also appear to be more common in Taurus and Chamaeleon I than in the field, which suggests that the widest low-mass binaries are disrupted by dynamical interactions at >10 Myr, or that field brown dwarfs have been born predominantly in denser clusters where wide systems are disrupted or inhibited from forming.

  15. CROWDING-OUT OF GIANTS BY DWARFS: AN ORIGIN FOR THE LACK OF COMPANION PLANETS IN HOT JUPITER SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogihara, Masahiro; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the formation of close-in terrestrial planets from planetary embryos under the influence of a hot Jupiter (HJ) using gravitational N-body simulations that include gravitational interactions between the gas disk and the terrestrial planet (e.g., type I migration). Our simulations show that several terrestrial planets efficiently form outside the orbit of the HJ, making a chain of planets, and all of them gravitationally interact directly or indirectly with the HJ through resonance, which leads to inward migration of the HJ. We call this mechanism of induced migration of the HJ ''crowding-out''. The HJ is eventually lost through collision with the central star, and only several terrestrial planets remain. We also find that the efficiency of the crowding-out effect depends on the model parameters; for example, the heavier the disk is, the more efficient the crowding-out is. When planet formation occurs in a massive disk, the HJ can be lost to the central star and is never observed. On the other hand, for a less massive disk, the HJ and terrestrial planets can coexist; however, the companion planets may be below the detection limit of current observations. In both cases, systems with a HJ and terrestrial planets have little chance of detection. Therefore, our model naturally explains the lack of companion planets in HJ systems regardless of the disk mass. In effect, our model provides a theoretical prediction for future observations; additional planets can be discovered just outside the HJ, and their masses should generally be small

  16. Ages of Young Star Clusters, Massive Blue Stragglers, and the Upper Mass Limit of Stars: Analyzing Age-dependent Stellar Mass Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, F.R.N.; Izzard, R.G.; de Mink, S.E.; Langer, N.; Stolte, A.; de Koter, A.; Gvaramadze, V.V.; Huβman, B.; Liermann, A.; Sana, H.

    2014-01-01

    Massive stars rapidly change their masses through strong stellar winds and mass transfer in binary systems. The latter aspect is important for populations of massive stars as more than 70% of all O stars are expected to interact with a binary companion during their lifetime. We show that such mass

  17. Leishmaniosis of companion animals in Europe: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennisi, Maria Grazia

    2015-02-28

    Leishmaniosis caused by Leishmania infantum is a vector-borne zoonotic disease endemic in southern Europe, but which is spreading northwards. Millions of dogs, cats and other non-conventional companion animals susceptible to L. infantum, living in European households, may develop a severe disease and contribute to the spread of leishmaniosis because of travelling or re-homing. Dogs are the main reservoir but other new reservoirs have recently been incriminated. Sand flies remain the sole proven vector and non-vectorial transmission has been reported at individual level and in areas where the vector is absent. Clinical disease affects only a proportion of infected dogs and a complex genetic background of immune response is responsible for this susceptibility. There is a wide range of serological and parasitological diagnostic tools available whose cost-effective use depends on a reasoned approach. Clinical response to treatment of sick dogs is variable. Clinical cure is often obtained but clinical recurrence can occur and post-therapy follow up should be maintained life-long. In Europe, vaccination can be combined with individual protection with pyrethroids as part of an integrated approach to prevention. L. infantum is the only species isolated from cats in Europe and xenodiagnosis substantiated that infected cats are infectious for sand flies. Feline infection may be frequent in endemic areas, but prevalence is generally lower than in dogs. When cats are tested by both serological and molecular techniques discordant results are often observed. Feline cases have been reported from endemic areas in Italy, France, Spain and Portugal, but four cases were also diagnosed in Switzerland in cats that had travelled to or been imported from Spain. Half of the cases were diagnosed in cats with impaired immune responses. Clinical manifestations compatible with feline leishmaniosis include lymph node enlargement, skin and mucocutaneous lesions, ocular lesions, chronic

  18. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reperant, L A; Brown, I H; Haenen, O L; de Jong, M D; Osterhaus, A D M E; Papa, A; Rimstad, E; Valarcher, J-F; Kuiken, T

    2016-07-01

    Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known about the role of companion animals as sources of viruses for people and food production animals. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for accounts of infections of companion animals by zoonotic viruses and viruses of food production animals, and prioritized these viruses in terms of human health and economic importance. In total, 138 virus species reportedly capable of infecting companion animals were of concern for human and food production animal health: 59 of these viruses were infectious for human beings, 135 were infectious for food production mammals and birds, and 22 were infectious for food production fishes. Viruses of highest concern for human health included hantaviruses, Tahyna virus, rabies virus, West Nile virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, Aichi virus, European bat lyssavirus, hepatitis E virus, cowpox virus, G5 rotavirus, influenza A virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production mammals and birds included bluetongue virus, African swine fever virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, lumpy skin disease virus, Rift Valley fever virus, porcine circovirus, classical swine fever virus, equine herpesvirus 9, peste des petits ruminants virus and equine infectious anaemia virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production fishes included cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (koi herpesvirus), viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. Of particular concern as sources of zoonotic or food production animal viruses were domestic carnivores, rodents and food production animals kept as companion animals. The current list of viruses provides an objective

  19. AN M DWARF COMPANION AND ITS INDUCED SPIRAL ARMS IN THE HD 100453 PROTOPLANETARY DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Ruobing [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Zhu, Zhaohuan [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Fung, Jeffrey; Chiang, Eugene [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Rafikov, Roman [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Wagner, Kevin, E-mail: rdong2013@berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Recent VLT/SPHERE near-infrared imaging observations revealed two spiral arms with a near m = 2 rotational symmetry in the protoplanetary disk around the ∼1.7 M{sub ⊙} Herbig star HD 100453. A ∼0.3 M{sub ⊙} M dwarf companion, HD 100453 B, was also identified at a projected separation of 120 AU from the primary. In this Letter, we carry out hydrodynamic and radiative transfer simulations to examine the scattered light morphology of the HD 100453 disk as perturbed by the companion on a circular and coplanar orbit. We find that the companion truncates the disk at ∼45 AU in scattered light images, and excites two spiral arms in the remaining (circumprimary) disk with a near m = 2 rotational symmetry. Both the truncated disk size and the morphology of the spirals are in excellent agreement with the SPHERE observations at Y, J, H, and K1-bands, suggesting that the M dwarf companion is indeed responsible for the observed double-spiral-arm pattern. Our model suggests that the disk is close to face on (inclination angle ∼5°), and that the entire disk-companion system rotates counterclockwise on the sky. The HD 100453 observations, along with our modeling work, demonstrate that double spiral arm patterns in near-infrared scattered light images can be generically produced by companions, and support future observations to identify the companions responsible for the arms observed in the MWC 758 and SAO 206462 systems.

  20. Modeling companion diagnostics in economic evaluations of targeted oncology therapies: systematic review and methodological checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doble, Brett; Tan, Marcus; Harris, Anthony; Lorgelly, Paula

    2015-02-01

    The successful use of a targeted therapy is intrinsically linked to the ability of a companion diagnostic to correctly identify patients most likely to benefit from treatment. The aim of this study was to review the characteristics of companion diagnostics that are of importance for inclusion in an economic evaluation. Approaches for including these characteristics in model-based economic evaluations are compared with the intent to describe best practice methods. Five databases and government agency websites were searched to identify model-based economic evaluations comparing a companion diagnostic and subsequent treatment strategy to another alternative treatment strategy with model parameters for the sensitivity and specificity of the companion diagnostic (primary synthesis). Economic evaluations that limited model parameters for the companion diagnostic to only its cost were also identified (secondary synthesis). Quality was assessed using the Quality of Health Economic Studies instrument. 30 studies were included in the review (primary synthesis n = 12; secondary synthesis n = 18). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios may be lower when the only parameter for the companion diagnostic included in a model is the cost of testing. Incorporating the test's accuracy in addition to its cost may be a more appropriate methodological approach. Altering the prevalence of the genetic biomarker, specific population tested, type of test, test accuracy and timing/sequence of multiple tests can all impact overall model results. The impact of altering a test's threshold for positivity is unknown as it was not addressed in any of the included studies. Additional quality criteria as outlined in our methodological checklist should be considered due to the shortcomings of standard quality assessment tools in differentiating studies that incorporate important test-related characteristics and those that do not. There is a need to refine methods for incorporating the characteristics

  1. Antimicrobial resistance in coagulase-positive staphylococci isolated from companion animals in Australia: A one year study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiyono Saputra

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci (CoPS have become increasingly recognised as opportunistic pathogens that limit therapeutic options in companion animals. The frequency of methicillin resistance amongst clinical isolates on an Australia-wide level is unknown. This study determined antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for CoPS isolated from clinical infections in companion animals (dogs, cats and horses as part of the first nation-wide survey on antimicrobial resistance in animal pathogens in Australia for a one-year period (January 2013 to January 2014. Clinical Staphylococcus spp. isolates (n = 888 obtained from 22 veterinary diagnostic laboratories were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing for 16 antimicrobials, representing 12 antimicrobial classes. Potential risk factors associated with methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from dogs were analysed based on demographic factors and clinical history, including gender, age, previous antimicrobial treatment, chronic and/or recurrent diseases and site of infections. The most commonly identified CoPS were S. pseudintermedius (70.8%; dogs n = 616, cats n = 13 and S. aureus (13.2%, horses n = 53, dogs n = 47 and cats n = 17. Overall, the frequency of methicillin resistance among S. pseudintermedius (MRSP and S. aureus (MRSA was 11.8% and 12.8%, respectively. MRSP isolates were strongly associated with resistance to fluoroquinolones (OR 287; 95%CI 91.2-1144.8 and clindamycin (OR 105.2, 95%CI 48.5-231.9. MRSA isolates from dogs and cats were also more likely to be resistant to fluoroquinolones (OR 5.4, 95%CI 0.6-252.1, whereas MRSA from horses were more likely to be resistant to rifampicin. In multivariate analysis, MRSP-positive status was significantly associated with particular infection sites, including surgical (OR 8.8; 95%CI 3.74-20.7, and skin and soft tissue (OR 3.9; 95%CI 1.97-7.51. S

  2. Antimicrobial resistance in coagulase-positive staphylococci isolated from companion animals in Australia: A one year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, Sugiyono; Jordan, David; Worthing, Kate A; Norris, Jacqueline M; Wong, Hui S; Abraham, Rebecca; Trott, Darren J; Abraham, Sam

    2017-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci (CoPS) have become increasingly recognised as opportunistic pathogens that limit therapeutic options in companion animals. The frequency of methicillin resistance amongst clinical isolates on an Australia-wide level is unknown. This study determined antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for CoPS isolated from clinical infections in companion animals (dogs, cats and horses) as part of the first nation-wide survey on antimicrobial resistance in animal pathogens in Australia for a one-year period (January 2013 to January 2014). Clinical Staphylococcus spp. isolates (n = 888) obtained from 22 veterinary diagnostic laboratories were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing for 16 antimicrobials, representing 12 antimicrobial classes. Potential risk factors associated with methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from dogs were analysed based on demographic factors and clinical history, including gender, age, previous antimicrobial treatment, chronic and/or recurrent diseases and site of infections. The most commonly identified CoPS were S. pseudintermedius (70.8%; dogs n = 616, cats n = 13) and S. aureus (13.2%, horses n = 53, dogs n = 47 and cats n = 17). Overall, the frequency of methicillin resistance among S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) and S. aureus (MRSA) was 11.8% and 12.8%, respectively. MRSP isolates were strongly associated with resistance to fluoroquinolones (OR 287; 95%CI 91.2-1144.8) and clindamycin (OR 105.2, 95%CI 48.5-231.9). MRSA isolates from dogs and cats were also more likely to be resistant to fluoroquinolones (OR 5.4, 95%CI 0.6-252.1), whereas MRSA from horses were more likely to be resistant to rifampicin. In multivariate analysis, MRSP-positive status was significantly associated with particular infection sites, including surgical (OR 8.8; 95%CI 3.74-20.7), and skin and soft tissue (OR 3.9; 95%CI 1.97-7.51). S

  3. Jet creation in post-AGB binaries: the circum-companion accretion disk around BD+46°442

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Dylan; Van Winckel, Hans; Kamath, Devika

    2017-11-01

    Aims: We aim at describing and understanding binary interaction processes in systems with very evolved companions. Here, we focus on understanding the origin and determining the properties of the high-velocity outflow observed in one such system. Methods: We present a quantitative analysis of BD+46°442, a post-AGB binary that shows active mass transfer that leads to the creation of a disk-driven outflow or jet. We obtained high-resolution optical spectra from the HERMES spectrograph, mounted on the 1.2 m Flemish Mercator Telescope. By performing a time-series analysis of the Hα profile, we identified the different components of the system. We deduced the jet geometry by comparing the orbital phased data with our jet model. In order to image the accretion disk around the companion of BD+46°442, we applied the technique of Doppler tomography. Results: The orbital phase-dependent variations in the Hα profile can be related to an accretion disk around the companion, from which a high-velocity outflow or jet is launched. Our model shows that there is a clear correlation between the inclination angle and the jet opening angle. The latitudinally dependent velocity structure of our jet model shows a good correspondence to the data, with outflow velocities higher than at least 400 km s-1. The intensity peak in the Doppler map might be partly caused by a hot spot in the disk, or by a larger asymmetrical structure in the disk. Conclusions: We show that BD+46°442 is a result of a binary interaction channel. The origin of the fast outflow in this system might be to a gaseous disk around the secondary component, which is most likely a main-sequence star. Our analysis suggests that the outflow has a rather wide opening angle and is not strongly collimated. Our time-resolved spectral monitoring reveals the launching site of the jet in the binary BD+46°442. Similar orbital phase-dependent Hα profiles are commonly observed in post-AGB binaries. Post-AGB binaries provide ideal

  4. THE ABSENCE OF EX-COMPANIONS IN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Stefano, R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kilic, Mukremin, E-mail: rd@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: kilic@ou.edu [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) play important roles in our study of the expansion and acceleration of the universe, but because we do not know the exact nature or natures of the progenitors, there is a systematic uncertainty that must be resolved if SNe Ia are to become more precise cosmic probes. No progenitor system has ever been identified either in the pre- or post-explosion images of a Ia event. There have been recent claims for and against the detection of ex-companion stars in several SNe Ia remnants. These studies, however, usually ignore the angular momentum gain of the progenitor white dwarf (WD), which leads to a spin-up phase and a subsequent spin-down phase before explosion. For spin-down timescales greater than 10{sup 5} years, the donor star could be too dim to detect by the time of explosion. Here we revisit the current limits on ex-companion stars to SNR 0509-67.5, a 400-year-old remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud. If the effects of possible angular momentum gain on the WD are included, a wide range of single-degenerate progenitor models are allowed for this remnant. We demonstrate that the current absence of evidence for ex-companion stars in this remnant, as well as other SNe Ia remnants, does not necessarily provide the evidence of absence for ex-companions. We discuss potential ways to identify such ex-companion stars through deep imaging observations.

  5. THE ABSENCE OF EX-COMPANIONS IN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Stefano, R.; Kilic, Mukremin

    2012-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) play important roles in our study of the expansion and acceleration of the universe, but because we do not know the exact nature or natures of the progenitors, there is a systematic uncertainty that must be resolved if SNe Ia are to become more precise cosmic probes. No progenitor system has ever been identified either in the pre- or post-explosion images of a Ia event. There have been recent claims for and against the detection of ex-companion stars in several SNe Ia remnants. These studies, however, usually ignore the angular momentum gain of the progenitor white dwarf (WD), which leads to a spin-up phase and a subsequent spin-down phase before explosion. For spin-down timescales greater than 10 5 years, the donor star could be too dim to detect by the time of explosion. Here we revisit the current limits on ex-companion stars to SNR 0509-67.5, a 400-year-old remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud. If the effects of possible angular momentum gain on the WD are included, a wide range of single-degenerate progenitor models are allowed for this remnant. We demonstrate that the current absence of evidence for ex-companion stars in this remnant, as well as other SNe Ia remnants, does not necessarily provide the evidence of absence for ex-companions. We discuss potential ways to identify such ex-companion stars through deep imaging observations.

  6. The Endurance of Love: Passionate and Companionate Love in Newlywed and Long-term Marriages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Utne O’Brien

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Most theorists assume that the passage of time will have a very different impact on passionate versus companionate love. Passionate love is said to decline fairly quickly, while companionate love is thought to remain fairly stable (or actually increase over time.This hypothesis was tested in two studies. In Study 1, we interviewed 53 newlywed couples soon after their marriages and again one year later, when presumably (for some the “honeymoon was over.” In Study 2, we interviewed a random sample of 240 older women, ranging in age from 50-82, who had been married varying lengths of time. (The median length of marriage was 33 years. We asked about their passionate and companionate love for their partners and their partner’s love for them. In Study 1, it was found that although newlywed men and women loved with equal passion, women tended to love their partners more companionately than they were loved in return. (This is in accord with previous research with dating couples. The results for people married many years were more complex.Finally, we turned to the question with which we are most concerned: What impact does time have on love? In both Study 1 and Study 2, time did have a corrosive effect on love—but to our surprise it appeared to have an equally detrimental effect on both passionate and companionate love.

  7. “HE MADE ME SPECIAL”: IMAGINARY COMPANIONS, FUNCTIONS AND PARENTAL ATTITUDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Benincasa Velludo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Imaginary companions are one especially elaborated form of pretend play, so frequent in their creators’ daily lives that they can actually serve the function of keeping them company. The characteristics of these types of fantasy creations, as well as their possible functions, were investigated in a sample of 18 children between 6 and 7 years of age (M = 85 months, SD = 4,82; range = 76 – 94 months; 10 girls e 8 boys who had imaginary companions. These children participated in a larger study that aimed at comparing sociocognitive and language development in children with (n = 18 and without imaginary companions (n = 22. In order to investigate parental attitudes toward the phenomenon, parents/caretakers of children (from both groups from the first study were invited to participate, and 11 (10 mothers and 1 grandmother accepted the invitation. The reported characteristics of imaginary companions were diverse (i.e., physical appearance, type, age, for how long they have been friends, and their functions were associated with different needs, such as company, fun or emotional comfort. Whereas the majority of parents associated the phenomenon with an exercise of imagination, some believed the experience could be indicative of problems, for example, a loss of contact with reality or the influence of evil entities. The findings of the present research are consistent with international studies on imaginary companions. We hope these results may contribute to advancing this line of investigation in Brazil.

  8. Organizational and leadership perceptions assessment: opportunities and challenges using the Baldrige companion surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Lisa M; Perla, Rocco J; Carifio, James; Bernhardt, Jean M; Slayton, Val W

    2011-01-01

    Combining the use of employee perception surveys with sound analytical techniques and models is critical to capturing high quality data from which effective decisions can be made in complex healthcare settings. This study used the Baldrige Award companion surveys with an analysis of variance (ANOVA) framework to identify discordant perceptions of hospital staff and leadership in the areas of customer focus, knowledge management, and results that were significant at the 0.05 and 0.01 levels. Senior leaders in the organization found the ANOVA framework helpful as they interpreted results from the Baldrige companion surveys and planned future improvement activities. During the execution of our study a number of difficulties and challenges arose that are not uncommon to survey administration in smaller settings, such as community hospitals, or in larger hospital settings with no research staff or research staff with relevant psychometric expertise. Our experience suggests that the Baldrige companion survey process would be enhanced by providing organizations with general guidance and protocols for optimal survey administration and data analysis. The purpose of this article is to outline the ANOVA model we used with the Baldrige companion surveys and to provide guidance related to the administration and analysis of these companion surveys for those that use them. © 2010 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  9. Social Environment and Control Status of Companion Animal-Borne Zoonoses in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Takahashi-Omoe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Changing social and environmental factors have been the cause of an increase in the number and variety of animals are being imported into Japan. Moreover, the number of Japanese households are keeping companion animals has also risen. These factors, along with the high density of the Japanese population and the low percentage of registered dogs, have increased the risk of animal-to-human transmission of zoonoses. To control zoonosis outbreaks, the Japanese government has implemented a three-stage approach for the border control of zoonoses and has stipulated the monitoring and reporting of eight companion animal-borne zoonoses under the Rabies Prevention Law and the Infectious Diseases Control Law. The fact that no case of human and animal rabies has been reported over the past 50 years indicates that these measures are highly effective in preventing rabies transmission. Although it is known that the total number of possible companion animal-borne zoonosis outbreaks decreased between 2005 and 2009 when compared with numbers between 2001 and 2004, the number of zoonosis cases that can be attributed to transmission by companion animals remains unclear. Active surveillance should be conducted on a national level to collect the data necessary to determine this number and identify trends in companion-animal transmitted diseases. Using the data collected, regulation systems should be evaluated to determine whether they have met reasonable goals and policy planning conducted for the control of emerging diseases.

  10. Evaluation of a Digital Companion for Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiris, George; Thompson, Hilaire J; Lazar, Amanda; Lin, Shih-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Study Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of a digital companion system used by older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We utilized a commercially available system that is comprehensive in its functionalities (including conversation ability, use of pictures and other media, and reminders) to explore the system's impact on older adults ' social interactions, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and acceptance of the system. Study Design: We conducted a three-month mixed methods evaluation study of the digital companion. Results: Ten female community-dwelling older adults (average age 78.3 years) participated in the study. Overall, participants utilized the tool regularly and appreciated its presence and their interactions. Participants scored higher at the end of the study in cognition and social support scales, and lower in presence of depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Findings indicate the feasibility of a digital companion for people with MCI and inform the need for additional research.

  11. Molecular Pathology and Personalized Medicine: The Dawn of a New Era in Companion Diagnostics-Practical Considerations about Companion Diagnostics for Non-Small-Cell-Lung-Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plönes, Till; Engel-Riedel, Walburga; Stoelben, Erich; Limmroth, Christina; Schildgen, Oliver; Schildgen, Verena

    2016-01-15

    Companion diagnostics (CDx) have become a major tool in molecular pathology and assist in therapy decisions in an increasing number of various cancers. Particularly, the developments in lung cancer have been most impressing in the last decade and consequently lung cancer mutation testing and molecular profiling has become a major business of diagnostic laboratories. However, it has become difficult to decide which biomarkers are currently relevant for therapy decisions, as many of the new biomarkers are not yet approved as therapy targets, remain in the status of clinical studies, or still have not left the experimental phase. The current review is focussed on those markers that do have current therapy implications, practical implications arising from the respective companion diagnostics, and thus is focused on daily practice.

  12. Molecular Pathology and Personalized Medicine: The Dawn of a New Era in Companion Diagnostics—Practical Considerations about Companion Diagnostics for Non-Small-Cell-Lung-Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Plönes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Companion diagnostics (CDx have become a major tool in molecular pathology and assist in therapy decisions in an increasing number of various cancers. Particularly, the developments in lung cancer have been most impressing in the last decade and consequently lung cancer mutation testing and molecular profiling has become a major business of diagnostic laboratories. However, it has become difficult to decide which biomarkers are currently relevant for therapy decisions, as many of the new biomarkers are not yet approved as therapy targets, remain in the status of clinical studies, or still have not left the experimental phase. The current review is focussed on those markers that do have current therapy implications, practical implications arising from the respective companion diagnostics, and thus is focused on daily practice.

  13. Owners’ Perceptions of Their Animal’s Behavioural Response to the Loss of an Animal Companion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K. Walker

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The loss of a companion animal is recognised as being associated with experiences of grief by the owner, but it is unclear how other animals in the household may be affected by such a loss. Our aim was to investigate companion animals’ behavioural responses to the loss of a companion through owner-report. A questionnaire was distributed via, and advertised within, publications produced by the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA across Australia and New Zealand, and through a selection of veterinary clinics within New Zealand. A total of 279 viable surveys were returned pertaining to 159 dogs and 152 cats. The two most common classes of behavioural changes reported for both dogs and cats were affectionate behaviours (74% of dogs and 78% of cats and territorial behaviours (60% of dogs and 63% of cats. Both dogs and cats were reported to demand more attention from their owners and/or display affiliative behaviour, as well as spend time seeking out the deceased’s favourite spot. Dogs were reported to reduce the volume (35% and speed (31% of food consumption and increase the amount of time spent sleeping (34%. Cats were reported to increase the frequency (43% and volume (32% of vocalisations following the death of a companion. The median duration of reported behavioural changes in both species was less than 6 months. There was consensus that the behaviour of companion animals changed in response to the loss of an animal companion. These behavioural changes suggest the loss had an impact on the remaining animal.

  14. Owners' Perceptions of Their Animal's Behavioural Response to the Loss of an Animal Companion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jessica K; Waran, Natalie K; Phillips, Clive J C

    2016-11-03

    The loss of a companion animal is recognised as being associated with experiences of grief by the owner, but it is unclear how other animals in the household may be affected by such a loss. Our aim was to investigate companion animals' behavioural responses to the loss of a companion through owner-report. A questionnaire was distributed via, and advertised within, publications produced by the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) across Australia and New Zealand, and through a selection of veterinary clinics within New Zealand. A total of 279 viable surveys were returned pertaining to 159 dogs and 152 cats. The two most common classes of behavioural changes reported for both dogs and cats were affectionate behaviours (74% of dogs and 78% of cats) and territorial behaviours (60% of dogs and 63% of cats). Both dogs and cats were reported to demand more attention from their owners and/or display affiliative behaviour, as well as spend time seeking out the deceased's favourite spot. Dogs were reported to reduce the volume (35%) and speed (31%) of food consumption and increase the amount of time spent sleeping (34%). Cats were reported to increase the frequency (43%) and volume (32%) of vocalisations following the death of a companion. The median duration of reported behavioural changes in both species was less than 6 months. There was consensus that the behaviour of companion animals changed in response to the loss of an animal companion. These behavioural changes suggest the loss had an impact on the remaining animal.

  15. The Dwarf Spheroidal Companions to M31: WFPC2 Observations of Andromeda III

    OpenAIRE

    Da Costa, G. S.; Armandroff, T. E.; Caldwell, Nelson

    2002-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 camera has been used to image Andromeda III, a dwarf spheroidal companion (dSph) to M31. The resulting color-magnitude (c-m) diagrams reveal the morphology of the horizontal branch (HB) in this dwarf galaxy. We find that like Andromeda I and Andromeda II, and like most of the Galactic dSph companions, the HB morphology of And III is predominantly red, redder than that of both And I and And II despite And III having a lower mean metallicity. We interpret this r...

  16. SOUTHERN MASSIVE STARS AT HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION: OBSERVATIONAL CAMPAIGN AND COMPANION DETECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sana, H. [European Space Agency/Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Duvert, G.; Zins, G. [Université Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Lacour, S.; Gauchet, L.; Pickel, D. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UPMC, Université Paris-Diderot, Paris Sciences et Lettres, 5 Place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France); Berger, J.-P. [European Southern Observatory, Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Norris, B. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Olofsson, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Absil, O. [Département d' Astrophysique, Géophysique et Océanographie, Université de Liège, 17 Allée du Six Août, B-4000 Liège (Belgium); De Koter, A. [Astrophysical Institute Anton Pannekoek, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kratter, K. [JILA, 440 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States); Schnurr, O. [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Zinnecker, H., E-mail: hsana@stsci.edu [Deutsches SOFIA Instituut, SOFIA Science Center, NASA Ames Research Center, Mail Stop N232-12, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Multiplicity is one of the most fundamental observable properties of massive O-type stars and offers a promising way to discriminate between massive star formation theories. Nevertheless, companions at separations between 1 and 100 milliarcsec (mas) remain mostly unknown due to intrinsic observational limitations. At a typical distance of 2 kpc, this corresponds to projected physical separations of 2-200 AU. The Southern MAssive Stars at High angular resolution survey (SMaSH+) was designed to fill this gap by providing the first systematic interferometric survey of Galactic massive stars. We observed 117 O-type stars with VLTI/PIONIER and 162 O-type stars with NACO/Sparse Aperture Masking (SAM), probing the separation ranges 1-45 and 30-250 mas and brightness contrasts of ΔH < 4 and ΔH < 5, respectively. Taking advantage of NACO's field of view, we further uniformly searched for visual companions in an 8'' radius down to ΔH = 8. This paper describes observations and data analysis, reports the discovery of almost 200 new companions in the separation range from 1 mas to 8'' and presents a catalog of detections, including the first resolved measurements of over a dozen known long-period spectroscopic binaries. Excluding known runaway stars for which no companions are detected, 96 objects in our main sample (δ < 0°; H < 7.5) were observed both with PIONIER and NACO/SAM. The fraction of these stars with at least one resolved companion within 200 mas is 0.53. Accounting for known but unresolved spectroscopic or eclipsing companions, the multiplicity fraction at separation ρ < 8'' increases to f {sub m} = 0.91 ± 0.03. The fraction of luminosity class V stars that have a bound companion reaches 100% at 30 mas while their average number of physically connected companions within 8'' is f {sub c} = 2.2 ± 0.3. This demonstrates that massive stars form nearly exclusively in multiple systems. The nine non-thermal radio

  17. EFFECT OF A STELLAR COMPANION ON THE MODELING OF HD 142527 INFRARED SED

    OpenAIRE

    Erick Nagel

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of a companion of the Herbig Ae/Be star HD 142527 motivates the study of the effect that it produces on the SED. The main change on the system configuration is the formation of a gap in the disk. Due to this change, a wall (outer edge of the gap), which is frontally illuminated by stellar radiation is formed. We present a model for the SED, considering all the components: a disk with two gaps (one produced by the stellar companion and the other by potential planets), three walls...

  18. Social Environment and Control Status of Companion Animal-Borne Zoonoses in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi-Omoe, Hiromi; Omoe, Katsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary The risk of companion animal-borne zoonoses has been rising in Japan with the tendency for increasing number of households to ever-growing numbers and varieties of animals as pets. In response, the Japanese government has implemented measures for the domestic and border control of zoonoses. However, it is impossible to determine whether these measures have adequately controlled the transmission of companion animal-borne zoonoses, due to a lack of (i) direct evidence linking companion animal involvement in disease and (ii) understanding of current trends in disease outbreak. Active surveillance should be conducted on a national level to collect the data necessary to make this determination and identify these trends. Abstract Changing social and environmental factors have been the cause of an increase in the number and variety of animals are being imported into Japan. Moreover, the number of Japanese households are keeping companion animals has also risen. These factors, along with the high density of the Japanese population and the low percentage of registered dogs, have increased the risk of animal-to-human transmission of zoonoses. To control zoonosis outbreaks, the Japanese government has implemented a three-stage approach for the border control of zoonoses and has stipulated the monitoring and reporting of eight companion animal-borne zoonoses under the Rabies Prevention Law and the Infectious Diseases Control Law. The fact that no case of human and animal rabies has been reported over the past 50 years indicates that these measures are highly effective in preventing rabies transmission. Although it is known that the total number of possible companion animal-borne zoonosis outbreaks decreased between 2005 and 2009 when compared with numbers between 2001 and 2004, the number of zoonosis cases that can be attributed to transmission by companion animals remains unclear. Active surveillance should be conducted on a national level to collect the data

  19. Surface runoff and subsurface tile drain losses of neonicotinoids and companion herbicides at edge-of-field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrétien, François; Giroux, Isabelle; Thériault, Georges; Gagnon, Patrick; Corriveau, Julie

    2017-05-01

    With their application as seed coatings, the use of neonicotinoid insecticides increased dramatically during the last decade. They are now frequently detected in aquatic ecosystems at concentrations susceptible to harm aquatic invertebrates at individual and population levels. This study intent was to document surface runoff and subsurface tile drain losses of two common neonicotinoids (thiamethoxam and clothianidin) compared to those of companion herbicides (atrazine, glyphosate, S-metolachlor and mesotrione) at the edge of a 22.5-ha field under a corn-soybean rotation. A total of 14 surface runoff and tile drain discharge events were sampled over two years. Events and annual unit mass losses were computed using flow-weighted concentrations and total surface runoff and tile drain flow volumes. Detection frequencies close to 100% in edge-of-field surface runoff and tile drain water samples were observed for thiamethoxam and clothianidin even though only thiamethoxam had been applied in the first year. In 2014, thiamethoxam median concentrations in surface runoff and tile drain samples were respectively 0.46 and 0.16 μg/L, while respective maximum concentrations of 2.20 and 0.44 μg/L were measured in surface runoff and tile drain samples during the first post-seeding storm event. For clothianidin, median concentrations in surface runoff and tile drain samples were 0.02 and 0.01, μg/L, and respective maximum concentrations were 0.07 μg/L and 0.05 μg/L. Surface runoff and tile drain discharge were key transport mechanisms with similar contributions of 53 and 47% of measured mass losses, respectively. Even if thiamethoxam was applied at a relatively low rate and had a low mass exportation value (0.3%), the relative toxicity was one to two orders of magnitude higher than those of the other chemicals applied in 2014 and 2015. Companion herbicides, except glyphosate in tile drains, exceeded their water quality guideline during one sampling campaign after

  20. The Orbit of X Persei and Its Neutron Star Companion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Martí, Hugo; Levine, Alan M.; Pfahl, Eric; Rappaport, Saul A.

    2001-01-01

    We have observed the Be/X-ray pulsar binary system X Per/4U 0352+30 on 61 occasions spanning an interval of 600 days with the PCA instrument on board the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). Pulse timing analyses of the 837 s pulsations yield strong evidence for the presence of orbital Doppler delays. We confirm the Doppler delays by using measurements made with the All Sky Monitor (ASM) on RXTE. We infer that the orbit is characterized by a period Porb=250 days, a projected semimajor axis of the neutron star axsini=454 lt-s, a mass function f(M)=1.61 Msolar, and a modest eccentricity e=0.11. The measured orbital parameters, together with the known properties of the classical Be star X Per, imply a semimajor axis a=1.8-2.2 AU and an orbital inclination i~26deg-33deg. We discuss the formation of the system in the context of the standard evolutionary scenario for Be/X-ray binaries. We find that the system most likely formed from a pair of massive progenitor stars and probably involved a quasi-stable and nearly conservative transfer of mass from the primary to the secondary. We find that the He star remnant of the primary most likely had a mass probability of a system like that of X Per forming with an orbital eccentricity e<~0.11. We speculate that there may be a substantial population of neutron stars formed with little or no kick. Finally, we discuss the connected topics of the wide orbit and accretion by the neutron star from a stellar wind.

  1. BINARIES DISCOVERED BY THE MUCHFUSS PROJECT: SDSS J08205+0008-AN ECLIPSING SUBDWARF B BINARY WITH A BROWN DWARF COMPANION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, S.; Schaffenroth, V.; Drechsel, H.; Heber, U.; Kupfer, T.; Tillich, A.; Oestensen, R. H.; Smolders, K.; Degroote, P.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Barlow, B. N.; Gaensicke, B. T.; Marsh, T. R.; Napiwotzki, R.

    2011-01-01

    Hot subdwarf B stars (sdBs) are extreme horizontal branch stars believed to originate from close binary evolution. Indeed about half of the known sdB stars are found in close binaries with periods ranging from a few hours to a few days. The enormous mass loss required to remove the hydrogen envelope of the red-giant progenitor almost entirely can be explained by common envelope ejection. A rare subclass of these binaries are the eclipsing HW Vir binaries where the sdB is orbited by a dwarf M star. Here, we report the discovery of an HW Vir system in the course of the MUCHFUSS project. A most likely substellar object (≅0.068 M sun ) was found to orbit the hot subdwarf J08205+0008 with a period of 0.096 days. Since the eclipses are total, the system parameters are very well constrained. J08205+0008 has the lowest unambiguously measured companion mass yet found in a subdwarf B binary. This implies that the most likely substellar companion has not only survived the engulfment by the red-giant envelope, but also triggered its ejection and enabled the sdB star to form. The system provides evidence that brown dwarfs may indeed be able to significantly affect late stellar evolution.

  2. Growth of a Massive Young Stellar Object Fed by a Gas Flow from a Companion Gas Clump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xi; Shen, Zhiqiang [Shanghai Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, Nandan Rd. 80, Shanghai (China); Ren, Zhiyuan [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, Chaoyang District Datun Rd. A20, Beijing (China); Zhang, Qizhou [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Qiu, Keping [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Rd., Nanjing, Jiangsu 210093 (China)

    2017-02-01

    We present a Submillimeter Array (SMA) observation toward the young massive double-core system G350.69-0.49. This system consists of a northeast (NE) diffuse gas bubble and a southwest (SW) massive young stellar object (MYSO), both clearly seen in the Spitzer images. The SMA observations reveal a gas flow between the NE bubble and the SW MYSO in a broad velocity range from 5 to 30 km s{sup −1} with respect to the system velocity. The gas flow is well confined within the interval between the two objects and traces a significant mass transfer from the NE gas bubble to the SW massive core. The transfer flow can supply the material accreted onto the SW MYSO at a rate of 4.2×10{sup −4} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. The whole system therefore suggests a mode for the mass growth in the MYSO from a gas transfer flow launched from its companion gas clump, despite the driving mechanism of the transfer flow not being fully determined from the current data.

  3. X-ray emission from hot subdwarfs with compact companions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito P.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We review the X-ray observations of hot subdwarf stars. While no X-ray emission has been detected yet from binaries containing B-type subdwarfs, interesting results have been obtained in the case of the two luminous O-type subdwarfs HD 49798 and BD + 37° 442. Both of them are members of binary systems in which the X-ray luminosity is powered by accretion onto a compact object: a rapidly spinning (13.2 s and massive (1.28  M⊙ white dwarf in the case of HD 49798 and most likely a neutron star, spinning at 19.2 s, in the case of BD + 37° 442. Their study can shed light on the poorly known processes taking place during common envelope evolutionary phases and on the properties of wind mass loss from hot subdwarfs.

  4. 76 FR 41506 - Draft Guidance for Industry and FDA Staff on In Vitro Companion Diagnostic Devices; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ...., Bldg. 51, rm. 2201, Silver Spring, MD 20993- 0002, or Office of Communication, Outreach and Development... help make critical treatment decisions. FDA oversight of companion diagnostics will protect patients... current thinking on companion diagnostic devices. It does not create or confer any rights for or on any...

  5. European multicenter study on antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from companion animal urinary tract infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marques, Cátia; Gama, Luís Telo; Belas, Adriana; Bergström, Karin; Beurlet, Stéphanie; Briend-Marchal, Alexandra; Broens, Els M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314627723; Costa, Marta; Criel, Delphine; Damborg, Peter; van Dijk, Marloes A M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413392058; van Dongen, A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/097672637; Dorsch, Roswitha; Espada, Carmen Martin; Gerber, Bernhard; Kritsepi-Konstantinou, Maria; Loncaric, Igor; Mion, Domenico; Misic, Dusan; Movilla, Rebeca; Overesch, Gudrun; Perreten, Vincent; Roura, Xavier; Steenbergen, Joachim; Timofte, Dorina; Wolf, Georg; Zanoni, Renato Giulio; Schmitt, Sarah; Guardabassi, Luca; Pomba, Constança

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a growing concern regarding the increase of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in companion animals. Yet, there are no studies comparing the resistance levels of these organisms in European countries. The aim of this study was to investigate geographical and temporal trends of

  6. Close Companion Friends, Self-Expression, and Psychological Well-Being in Late Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal

    2010-01-01

    This study has two central aims. Both are associated with self-expression, which is defined as the ability to fully utilize one's own talents and abilities. The first goal is to see if self-expression reduces depressive symptoms over time whereas the second aim is to see whether close companion friends help older people more fully utilize their…

  7. Disease Risk Assessments Involving Companion Animals: an Overview for 15 Selected Pathogens Taking a European Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijks, J M; Cito, F; Cunningham, A A; Rantsios, A T; Giovannini, A

    2016-07-01

    Prioritization of companion animal transmissible diseases was performed by the Companion Animals multisectoriaL interprofessionaL Interdisciplinary Strategic Think tank On zoonoses (CALLISTO) project. The project considered diseases occurring in domesticated species commonly kept as pets, such as dogs and cats, but also included diseases occurring in captive wild animals and production animal species. The prioritization process led to the selection of 15 diseases of prime public health relevance, agricultural economic importance, or both. An analysis was made of the current knowledge on the risk of occurrence and transmission of these diseases among companion animals, and from companion animals to man (zoonoses) or to livestock. The literature was scanned for risk assessments for these diseases. Studies were classified as import risk assessments (IRAs) or risk factor analyses (RFAs) in endemic areas. For those pathogens that are absent from Europe, only IRAs were considered; for pathogens present throughout Europe, only RFAs were considered. IRAs were identified for seven of the eight diseases totally or partially absent from Europe. IRAs for classical rabies and alveolar echinococcosis found an increased risk for introduction of the pathogen into officially disease-free areas as a consequence of abandoning national rules and adopting the harmonized EU rules for pet travel. IRAs for leishmaniosis focused on risk associated with the presence of persistently infected dogs in new geographical areas, taking into consideration the risk of disease establishment should a competent vector arise. IRAs for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and West Nile fever indicated that the likelihood of introduction via companion animals was low. IRAs for bluetongue paid no attention to the risk of introduction via companion animals, which was also the case for IRAs for foot-and-mouth disease, the only disease considered to be absent from Europe. RFAs dealing with the risk factors for

  8. How I Learned to Swim: The Visual Journal as a Companion to Creative Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Shields, Sara

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss my engagement with a visual journal as a companion to creative research practice during my dissertation research. Grounded in arts based research methodologies; I explore visual journals in relationship to research, reflection and analytic processes. I begin with a discussion of the visual journal as an artifact of…

  9. Discourse Features Among Providers, Patients, and Companions and Their Effect on Outcomes of Dementia Diagnosis Disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Matthew J; Carpenter, Brian D

    2017-12-13

    Receiving a diagnosis of dementia has major implications. Although protocols for disclosing difficult information have been developed for other health conditions, no such evidence-based method exists for dementia. As a step toward that goal, this study analyzed the discourse within dementia diagnosis disclosure sessions to identify conversational features associated with psychological outcomes. The Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS) was used to code the discourse among patients, their companions, and providers during 84 dementia diagnosis disclosure sessions following an initial evaluation at an Alzheimer's Disease Research Center. Providers dominated the conversation in terms of overall time spent talking. With more severe dementia, patients spoke less and companions spoke more. Provider-positive rapport building was associated with lower patient depression and anxiety following the disclosure session. Patient-positive rapport building was associated with higher companion anxiety, but only when the patient was not suspected to have dementia. No associations were found between other types of discourse and patient or companion psychological outcomes. A relatively small amount of positive rapport building by providers can lead to reduced distress following dementia disclosure. Dementia disclosure best practices should emphasize patient-centered communication techniques in order to minimize psychological distress following diagnosis. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The Development of a Robot-Based Learning Companion: A User-Centered Design Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Zeng; Su, Mu-Chun; Chen, Sherry Y.; Chen, Gow-Dong

    2015-01-01

    A computer-vision-based method is widely employed to support the development of a variety of applications. In this vein, this study uses a computer-vision-based method to develop a playful learning system, which is a robot-based learning companion named RobotTell. Unlike existing playful learning systems, a user-centered design (UCD) approach is…

  11. Pedagogical Agents as Learning Companions: The Role of Agent Competency and Type of Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yanghee; Baylor, Amy L.

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of the competency (low vs. high) and interaction type (proactive vs. responsive) of pedagogical agents as learning companions (PALs) on learning, self-efficacy, and attitudes. Participants were 72 undergraduates in an introductory computer-literacy course who were randomly assigned to one of four…

  12. Pedagogical Agents as Learning Companions: The Impact of Agent Emotion and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yanghee; Baylor, A. L.; Shen, E.

    2007-01-01

    The potential of emotional interaction between human and computer has recently interested researchers in human-computer interaction. The instructional impact of this interaction in learning environments has not been established, however. This study examined the impact of emotion and gender of a pedagogical agent as a learning companion (PAL) on…

  13. The night sky companion a yearly guide to sky-watching 2008-2009

    CERN Document Server

    Plotner, Tammy

    2007-01-01

    The Night Sky Companion is a comprehensive guide to what can be explored in the heavens on a nightly basis. Designed to appeal to readers at all skill levels, it provides a digest for sky watchers interested in all types of astronomical information.

  14. Imaginary Companions, Theory of Mind and Emotion Understanding in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Dasí, Marta; Pons, Francisco; Bender, Patrick K.

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of imaginary companions (ICs) has received little attention in developmental psychology, even though it can be observed in approximately 25% of preschool-aged children. Only a few studies have investigated the effect of ICs on children's theory of mind and emotion understanding, and the results are partial or inconsistent. This…

  15. Children with Imaginary Companions Focus on Mental Characteristics When Describing Their Real-life Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Paige E.; Meins, Elizabeth; Fernyhough, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Relations between having an imaginary companion (IC) and (i) descriptions of a real-life friend, (ii) theory of mind performance, and (iii) reported prosocial behaviour and behavioural difficulties were investigated in a sample of 5-year-olds (N?=?159). Children who had an IC were more likely than their peers without an IC to describe their best…

  16. Assistive technology design and development for acceptable robotics companions for ageing years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amirabdollahian, F.; op den Akker, R.; Bedaf, S.; Bormann, R.; Draper, H.; Evers, V.; Gallego Pérez, J.; Gelderblom, G.J.; Gutierrez Ruiz, C.; Hewson, D.; Hu, N.; Kröse, B.; Lehmann, H.; Marti, P.; Michel, H.; Prevot-Huille, H.; Reiser, U.; Saunders, J.; Sorell, T.; Stienstra, J.; Syrdal, D.; Walters, M.; Dautenhahn, K.

    2013-01-01

    A new stream of research and development responds to changes in life expectancy across the world. It includes technologies which enhance well-being of individuals, specifically for older people. The ACCOMPANY project focuses on home companion technologies and issues surrounding technology

  17. Assistive technology design and development for acceptable robotics companions for ageing years.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amirabdollahian, F.; Akker, op den R.; Bedaf, S.; Bormann, R.; Draper, H.; Gelderblom, G.J.; Gutierrez Ruiz, C.; Hewson, D.; Hu, N.; Koay, K.L.; Kröse, B.; Lehmann, H.; Marti, P.; Michel, H.; Prevot-Huille, H.; Reiser, U.; Saunders, J.; Sorell, T.; Stienstra, J.T.; Syrdal, D.; Walters, M.; Dautenhahn, K.

    2013-01-01

    A new stream of research and development responds to changes in life expectancy across the world. It includes technologies which enhance well-being of individuals, specifically for older people. The ACCOMPANY project focuses on home companion technologies and issues surrounding technology

  18. Prosocial Behaviors in Context: Examining the Role of Children's Social Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Maria Rosario T.; Carlo, Gustavo; Edwards, Carolyn Pope

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the role of immediate social companions in the prosocial behaviors of children from two cultural communities from the USA and the Philippines. Materials for this study comprised behavioral observations drawn from the Six Cultures Study--with 612 five-minute observations of 23 children (12 girls, 11 boys) from Orchard Town, MA…

  19. Veterinarians’ role in clients’ decision‑making regarding seriously ill companion animal patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Stine B.; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri; Lassen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Background: When companion animals become seriously ill clients may have doubts about treatment choices, if any, and turn to veterinarians for help. But how should veterinarians reply? Influence on clients’ decision-making may or may not be acceptable—depending on one’s attitude to principles suc...

  20. Animal Companions: Fostering Children's Effort-Making by Nurturing Virtual Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Hong; Liao, Calvin; Chien, Tzu-Chao; Chan, Tak-Wai

    2011-01-01

    Virtual character is a significant application in the research field of technology-enhanced learning. In this study, the concept of animal companions, "non-smart" virtual characters, is proposed as a way to encourage students to promote effort-making learning behaviours. The two underpinning design rationales are first discussed followed by the…

  1. Learning Companion Systems, Social Learning Systems, and the Global Social Learning Club.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tak-Wai

    1996-01-01

    Describes the development of learning companion systems and their contributions to the class of social learning systems that integrate artificial intelligence agents and use machine learning to tutor and interact with students. Outlines initial social learning projects, their programming languages, and weakness. Future improvements will include…

  2. Operant Conditioning Concepts in Introductory Psychology Textbooks and Their Companion Web Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Jane P.

    2002-01-01

    Psychology instructors and textbook authors rate operant conditioning as one of the most essential concepts for students to learn, yet textbook writers, as well as students, can fall prey to misconceptions. This study is a content analysis of the presentation of operant conditioning in introductory psychology textbooks and their companion Web…

  3. STELLAR MASS DEPENDENT DISK DISPERSAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Grant M.; Kenyon, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    We use published optical spectral and infrared (IR) excess data from nine young clusters and associations to study the stellar mass dependent dispersal of circumstellar disks. All clusters older than ∼3 Myr show a decrease in disk fraction with increasing stellar mass for solar to higher mass stars. This result is significant at about the 1σ level in each cluster. For the complete set of clusters we reject the null hypothesis-that solar and intermediate-mass stars lose their disks at the same rate-with 95%-99.9% confidence. To interpret this behavior, we investigate the impact of grain growth, binary companions, and photoevaporation on the evolution of disk signatures. Changes in grain growth timescales at fixed disk temperature may explain why early-type stars with IR excesses appear to evolve faster than their later-type counterparts. Little evidence that binary companions affect disk evolution suggests that photoevaporation is the more likely mechanism for disk dispersal. A simple photoevaporation model provides a good fit to the observed disk fractions for solar and intermediate-mass stars. Although the current mass-dependent disk dispersal signal is not strong, larger and more complete samples of clusters with ages of 3-5 Myr can improve the significance and provide better tests of theoretical models. In addition, the orbits of extra-solar planets can constrain models of disk dispersal and migration. We suggest that the signature of stellar mass dependent disk dispersal due to photoevaporation may be present in the orbits of observed extra-solar planets. Planets orbiting hosts more massive than ∼1.6 M sun may have larger orbits because the disks in which they formed were dispersed before they could migrate.

  4. HAT-P-13b,c: A TRANSITING HOT JUPITER WITH A MASSIVE OUTER COMPANION ON AN ECCENTRIC ORBIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakos, G. A.; Noyes, R. W.; Hartman, J.; Torres, G.; Latham, D. W.; Sasselov, D. D.; Stefanik, R. P.; Sipocz, B.; Kovacs, Gabor; Esquerdo, G. A.; Pal, A.; Howard, A. W.; Marcy, G. W.; Kovacs, Geza; Fischer, D. A.; Johnson, J. A.; Lazar, J.; Papp, I.; Sari, P.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the discovery of a planetary system with a close-in transiting hot Jupiter on a near circular orbit and a massive outer planet on a highly eccentric orbit. The inner planet, HAT-P-13b, transits the bright V = 10.622 G4 dwarf star GSC 3416 - 00543 every P = 2.916260 ± 0.000010 days, with transit epoch T c = 2454779.92979 ± 0.00038 (BJD) and duration 0.1345 ± 0.0017 days. The outer planet HAT-P-13c orbits the star every P 2 = 428.5 ± 3.0 days with a nominal transit center (assuming zero impact parameter) of T 2c = 2454870.4 ± 1.8 (BJD) or time of periastron passage T 2,peri = 2454890.05 ± 0.48 (BJD). Transits of the outer planet have not been observed, and may not be present. The host star has a mass of 1.22 +0.05 -0.10 M sun , radius of 1.56 ± 0.08 R sun , effective temperature of 5653 ± 90 K, and is rather metal-rich with [Fe/H] = +0.41 ± 0.08. The inner planetary companion has a mass of 0.853 +0.029 -0.046 M J , and radius of 1.281 ± 0.079 R J , yielding a mean density of 0.498 +0.103 -0.069 g cm -3 . The outer companion has m 2 sin i 2 = 15.2 ± 1.0 M J , and orbits on a highly eccentric orbit of e 2 = 0.691 ± 0.018. While we have not detected significant transit timing variations of HAT-P-13b, due to gravitational and light-travel time effects, future observations will constrain the orbital inclination of HAT-P-13c, along with its mutual inclination to HAT-P-13b. The HAT-P-13 (b, c) double-planet system may prove extremely valuable for theoretical studies of the formation and dynamics of planetary systems.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: KOIs companions from high-resolution imaging (Hirsch+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, L. A.; Ciardi, D. R.; Howard, A. W.; Everett, M. E.; Furlan, E.; Saylors, M.; Horch, E. P.; Howell, S. B.; Teske, J.; Marcy, G. W.

    2017-07-01

    We report on 176 close (<2'') stellar companions detected with high-resolution imaging near 170 hosts of Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs). Our sample consists of 170 stellar hosts of Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) observed with various high-resolution imaging campaigns. This sample was drawn from the overall sample of KOI stars observed with high-resolution imaging, described in the imaging compilation paper by Furlan et al. 2017 (Cat. J/AJ/153/71). We choose targets for this study by requiring that at least one companion was detected within 2'', and that the companion was detected in two or more filters, providing color information. We choose the 2'' separation limit to include all companions falling on the same Kepler pixel as the primary KOI host star. Furlan et al. 2017 (Cat. J/AJ/153/71) details the observations and measured differential magnitudes (Δm=m2-m1) for stars with high-resolution imaging, including our target systems. Each companion within 2'' must have at least two measured Δm values from the full set of filters used for follow-up observations, in order to be included in our sample. These filters include J-band, H-band, and K-band from adaptive optics imaging from the Keck/NIRC2, Palomar/PHARO, Lick/IRCAL, and MMT/Aries instruments; 562, 692 and 880nm filters from the Differential Speckle Survey Instrument (DSSI) at the Gemini North and WIYN telescopes; i and z bands from the AstraLux lucky imaging campaign at the Calar Alto 2.2m telescope; and LP600 and i bands from Palomar/RoboAO. We also include seeing-limited observations in the U-, B-, and V-bands from the UBV survey (Everett et al.) and "secure" detections (noise probability <10%) in the J-band from the UKIRT Kepler field survey. (3 data files).

  6. AY Ceti: A flaring, spotted star with a hot companion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, T.; Fekel, F.C. Jr.; Gibson, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    AY Ceti is a late-type single-line spectroscopic binary, a bright X-ray source (L/sub x/roughly-equal1.5 x 10 31 ergs s -1 ), and a spotted star, as evidenced by its prominent photometric wave. In this paper, we report on observations made with the IUE satellite and the VLA radio interferometer. The 1200--2000 A UV spectrum of AY Cet shows a hot stellar continuum and a very broad Lyα absorption line from a previously unobserved white dwarf secondary. The UV spectrum can be matched to the energy distribution of a (T/sub eff/ = 18,000 K, log g = 8) model atmosphere. Superposed on this hot continuum are high-excitation emission lines typical of chromospheres and transition regions of active late-type stars, e.g., the spotted RS CVn binaries. We conclude that the bright lines and soft X-ray emission of AY Cet arise from the cool primary star, rather than from mass transfer and accretion onto the secondary as has recently been proposed for the similar system 56 Peg. Two strong radio flares on AY Cet were observed. The second was rapidly variable and left-hand circularly polarized at levels up to π/sub c/ = 86 +- 5% at 20 cm wavelength. The most likely radio emission mechanism is an electron-cyclotron maser

  7. SDSS J001641-000925: THE FIRST STABLE RED DWARF CONTACT BINARY WITH A CLOSE-IN STELLAR COMPANION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, S.-B.; Jiang, L.-Q.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Zhao, E. G.; He, J.-J.; Liao, W.-P.; Wang, J.-J.; Liu, L.; Zhou, X.; Liu, N. P. [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), P.O. Box 110, 650011 Kunming (China); Fernández Lajús, E. [Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Soonthornthum, B.; Rattanasoon, S.; Aukkaravittayapun, S., E-mail: qsb@ynao.ac.cn [National Astronomical Research Insititude of Thailand, 191 Siriphanich Bldg., Huay Kaew Road, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2015-01-10

    SDSS J001641-000925 is the first red dwarf contact binary star with an orbital period of 0.19856 days that is one of the shortest known periods among M-dwarf binary systems. The orbital period was detected to be decreasing rapidly at a rate of P-dot ∼8 s yr{sup −1}. This indicated that SDSS J001641-000925 was undergoing coalescence via a dynamical mass transfer or loss and thus this red dwarf contact binary is dynamically unstable. To understand the properties of the period change, we monitored the binary system photometrically from 2011 September 2 to 2014 October 1 by using several telescopes in the world and 25 eclipse times were determined. It is discovered that the rapid decrease of the orbital period is not true. This is contrary to the prediction that the system is merging driven by rapid mass transfer or loss. Our preliminary analysis suggests that the observed minus calculated (O–C) diagram shows a cyclic oscillation with an amplitude of 0.00255 days and a period of 5.7 yr. The cyclic variation can be explained by the light travel time effect via the presence of a cool stellar companion with a mass of M {sub 3}sin i' ∼ 0.14 M {sub ☉}. The orbital separation between the third body and the central binary is about 2.8 AU. These results reveal that the rarity of red dwarf contact binaries could not be explained by rapidly dynamical destruction and the presence of the third body helps to form the red dwarf contact binary.

  8. THE BINARY FRACTION OF LOW-MASS WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Justin M.; Kilic, Mukremin; Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, Scott J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe spectroscopic observations of 21 low-mass (≤0.45 M sun ) white dwarfs (WDs) from the Palomar-Green survey obtained over four years. We use both radial velocities and infrared photometry to identify binary systems, and find that the fraction of single, low-mass WDs is ≤30%. We discuss the potential formation channels for these single stars including binary mergers of lower-mass objects. However, binary mergers are not likely to explain the observed number of single low-mass WDs. Thus, additional formation channels, such as enhanced mass loss due to winds or interactions with substellar companions, are likely.

  9. How Japanese companion dog and cat owners’ degree of attachment relates to the attribution of emotions to their animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Naoko; Martens, Pim

    2018-01-01

    Recently, studies in the United States and European countries have shown that the degree of attachment is associated with the attribution of emotions to companion animals. These studies imply that investigating the degree of attachment to companion animals is a good way for researchers to explore animal emotions and then improve animal welfare. Although a promising area of study, in Japan, no empirical studies have examined the correlation between the degree of attachment and the attribution of emotions to companion animals. In this research, we aimed to assess companion animal owners’ attribution of six primary (anger, joy, sadness, disgust, fear and surprise) and four secondary (shame, jealousy, disappointment and compassion) emotions to their dogs and cats, as well as how the degree of attachment related to such attribution of emotions from a Japanese cultural perspective. The “Pet Bonding Scale” (PBS), which is used to determine the level of bonding between humans and animals, was introduced to measure respondents’ degree of attachment to their companion animals. The results of a questionnaire (N = 546) distributed throughout Japan showed that respondents attributed a wide range of emotions to their animals. Companion animals’ primary emotions, compared to secondary emotions, were more commonly attributed by their owners. The attribution of compassion and jealousy was reported at a high level (73.1% and 56.2%, respectively), which was surprising as compassion and jealousy are generally defined as secondary emotions. All participants were highly attached to their companion animals, and this attachment was positively associated with the attribution of emotions (9/10) to companion animals (all p animal emotions by analyzing the bonding between companion animals and owners in Japan, and it can therefore provide knowledge to increase Japanese people’s awareness of animal welfare. PMID:29304166

  10. How Japanese companion dog and cat owners' degree of attachment relates to the attribution of emotions to their animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Bingtao; Koda, Naoko; Martens, Pim

    2018-01-01

    Recently, studies in the United States and European countries have shown that the degree of attachment is associated with the attribution of emotions to companion animals. These studies imply that investigating the degree of attachment to companion animals is a good way for researchers to explore animal emotions and then improve animal welfare. Although a promising area of study, in Japan, no empirical studies have examined the correlation between the degree of attachment and the attribution of emotions to companion animals. In this research, we aimed to assess companion animal owners' attribution of six primary (anger, joy, sadness, disgust, fear and surprise) and four secondary (shame, jealousy, disappointment and compassion) emotions to their dogs and cats, as well as how the degree of attachment related to such attribution of emotions from a Japanese cultural perspective. The "Pet Bonding Scale" (PBS), which is used to determine the level of bonding between humans and animals, was introduced to measure respondents' degree of attachment to their companion animals. The results of a questionnaire (N = 546) distributed throughout Japan showed that respondents attributed a wide range of emotions to their animals. Companion animals' primary emotions, compared to secondary emotions, were more commonly attributed by their owners. The attribution of compassion and jealousy was reported at a high level (73.1% and 56.2%, respectively), which was surprising as compassion and jealousy are generally defined as secondary emotions. All participants were highly attached to their companion animals, and this attachment was positively associated with the attribution of emotions (9/10) to companion animals (all p animal emotions by analyzing the bonding between companion animals and owners in Japan, and it can therefore provide knowledge to increase Japanese people's awareness of animal welfare.

  11. How Japanese companion dog and cat owners' degree of attachment relates to the attribution of emotions to their animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingtao Su

    Full Text Available Recently, studies in the United States and European countries have shown that the degree of attachment is associated with the attribution of emotions to companion animals. These studies imply that investigating the degree of attachment to companion animals is a good way for researchers to explore animal emotions and then improve animal welfare. Although a promising area of study, in Japan, no empirical studies have examined the correlation between the degree of attachment and the attribution of emotions to companion animals. In this research, we aimed to assess companion animal owners' attribution of six primary (anger, joy, sadness, disgust, fear and surprise and four secondary (shame, jealousy, disappointment and compassion emotions to their dogs and cats, as well as how the degree of attachment related to such attribution of emotions from a Japanese cultural perspective. The "Pet Bonding Scale" (PBS, which is used to determine the level of bonding between humans and animals, was introduced to measure respondents' degree of attachment to their companion animals. The results of a questionnaire (N = 546 distributed throughout Japan showed that respondents attributed a wide range of emotions to their animals. Companion animals' primary emotions, compared to secondary emotions, were more commonly attributed by their owners. The attribution of compassion and jealousy was reported at a high level (73.1% and 56.2%, respectively, which was surprising as compassion and jealousy are generally defined as secondary emotions. All participants were highly attached to their companion animals, and this attachment was positively associated with the attribution of emotions (9/10 to companion animals (all p < 0.05. This study is one of the first to investigate animal emotions by analyzing the bonding between companion animals and owners in Japan, and it can therefore provide knowledge to increase Japanese people's awareness of animal welfare.

  12. LHS 1610A: A Nearby Mid-M Dwarf with a Companion That Is Likely a Brown Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Jennifer G.; Irwin, Jonathan; Newton, Elisabeth R.; Charbonneau, David; Latham, David W.; Han, Eunkyu; Muirhead, Philip S.; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Michael L.; Esquerdo, Gil

    2018-03-01

    We present the spectroscopic orbit of LHS 1610A, a newly discovered single-lined spectroscopic binary with a trigonometric distance placing it at 9.9 ± 0.2 pc. We obtained spectra with the TRES instrument on the 1.5 m Tillinghast Reflector at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory located on Mt. Hopkins in AZ. We demonstrate the use of the TiO molecular bands at 7065–7165 Å to measure radial velocities and achieve an average estimated velocity uncertainty of 28 m s‑1. We measure the orbital period to be 10.6 days and calculate a minimum mass of 44.8 ± 3.2 M Jup for the secondary, indicating that it is likely a brown dwarf. We place an upper limit to 3σ of 2500 K on the effective temperature of the companion from infrared spectroscopic observations using IGRINS on the 4.3 m Discovery Channel Telescope. In addition, we present a new photometric rotation period of 84.3 days for the primary star using data from the MEarth-South Observatory, with which we show that the system does not eclipse.

  13. The ATLAS(3D) project - XX. Mass-size and mass-Sigma distributions of early-type galaxies : bulge fraction drives kinematics, mass-to-light ratio, molecular gas fraction and stellar initial mass function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappellari, Michele; McDermid, Richard M.; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frederic; Bureau, M.; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    In the companion Paper XV of this series, we derive accurate total mass-to-light ratios (M/L)(JAM) approximate to (M/L)(r = R-e) within a sphere of radius r = R-e centred on the galaxy, as well as stellar (M/L)(stars) (with the dark matter removed) for the volume-limited and nearly mass-selected

  14. A HOT COMPANION TO A BLUE STRAGGLER IN NGC 188 AS REVEALED BY THE ULTRA-VIOLET IMAGING TELESCOPE (UVIT) ON ASTROSAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramaniam, Annapurni; Sindhu, N.; Tandon, S. N.; Rao, N. Kameswara; George, K.; Mohan, R.; Murthy, J.; Sankarasubramanian, K.; Stalin, C. S.; Sutaria, F.; Mondal, C.; Sahu, S. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala II Block, Bangalore-560034 (India); Postma, J. [University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Côté, Patrick; Hutchings, J. B. [National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Ghosh, S. K. [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Pune (India); Girish, V., E-mail: purni@iiap.res.in [ISRO Satellite Centre, HAL Airport Road, Bangalore 560017 (India)

    2016-12-20

    We present early results from the Ultra-Violet Imaging Telescope (UVIT) on board the ASTROSAT observatory. We report the discovery of a hot companion associated with one of the blue straggler stars (BSSs) in the old open cluster, NGC 188. Using fluxes measured in four filters in UVIT’s far-UV (FUV) channel, and two filters in the near-UV (NUV) channel, we have constructed the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the star WOCS-5885, after combining with flux measurements from GALEX , Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope, Ultraviolet Optical Telescope, SPITZER , WISE , and several ground-based facilities. The resulting SED spans a wavelength range of 0.15 μ m to 7.8 μ m. This object is found to be one of the brightest FUV sources in the cluster. An analysis of the SED reveals the presence of two components. The cooler component is found to have a temperature of 6000 ± 150 K, confirming that it is a BSS. Assuming it to be a main-sequence star, we estimate its mass to be ∼1.1–1.2 M {sub ⊙}. The hotter component, with an estimated temperature of 17,000 ± 500 K, has a radius of ∼ 0.6 R {sub ⊙} and L ∼30 L {sub ⊙}. Bigger and more luminous than a white dwarf, yet cooler than a sub-dwarf, we speculate that it is a post-AGB/HB star that has recently transferred its mass to the BSS, which is known to be a rapid rotator. This binary system, which is the first BSS with a post-AGB/HB companion identified in an open cluster, is an ideal laboratory to study the process of BSS formation via mass transfer.

  15. A HOT COMPANION TO A BLUE STRAGGLER IN NGC 188 AS REVEALED BY THE ULTRA-VIOLET IMAGING TELESCOPE (UVIT) ON ASTROSAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramaniam, Annapurni; Sindhu, N.; Tandon, S. N.; Rao, N. Kameswara; George, K.; Mohan, R.; Murthy, J.; Sankarasubramanian, K.; Stalin, C. S.; Sutaria, F.; Mondal, C.; Sahu, S.; Postma, J.; Côté, Patrick; Hutchings, J. B.; Ghosh, S. K.; Girish, V.

    2016-01-01

    We present early results from the Ultra-Violet Imaging Telescope (UVIT) on board the ASTROSAT observatory. We report the discovery of a hot companion associated with one of the blue straggler stars (BSSs) in the old open cluster, NGC 188. Using fluxes measured in four filters in UVIT’s far-UV (FUV) channel, and two filters in the near-UV (NUV) channel, we have constructed the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the star WOCS-5885, after combining with flux measurements from GALEX , Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope, Ultraviolet Optical Telescope, SPITZER , WISE , and several ground-based facilities. The resulting SED spans a wavelength range of 0.15 μ m to 7.8 μ m. This object is found to be one of the brightest FUV sources in the cluster. An analysis of the SED reveals the presence of two components. The cooler component is found to have a temperature of 6000 ± 150 K, confirming that it is a BSS. Assuming it to be a main-sequence star, we estimate its mass to be ∼1.1–1.2 M _⊙. The hotter component, with an estimated temperature of 17,000 ± 500 K, has a radius of ∼ 0.6 R _⊙ and L ∼30 L _⊙. Bigger and more luminous than a white dwarf, yet cooler than a sub-dwarf, we speculate that it is a post-AGB/HB star that has recently transferred its mass to the BSS, which is known to be a rapid rotator. This binary system, which is the first BSS with a post-AGB/HB companion identified in an open cluster, is an ideal laboratory to study the process of BSS formation via mass transfer.

  16. Training young horses to social separation: Effect of a companion horse on training efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, E.; Christensen, Janne Winther; Keeling, LJ

    2011-01-01

    : To investigate whether the initial presence of a familiar companion horse modifies responses to separation from the group, lowers stress levels (as measured by heart rate) and increases training efficiency. Hypothesis: Habituation to separation proceeds more quickly if the horse is first trained with a companion......Reasons for performing study: The intensity with which a horse responds to separation from its group and subsequently to being alone is relevant for both horse and handler safety. Identification of training methods that may reduce responses to separation would be useful in practice. Objectives......, and heart rate is lower when the horse is subsequently trained alone, compared to control horses trained individually from the start. Methods: Young mares (n = 32), kept in groups of 4 were exposed to social separation: 2 horses of the group were trained singly (S1, n = 16) and the remaining 2 horses (n...

  17. Quality of Life in Prodromal HD: Qualitative Analyses of Discourse from Participants and Companions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Ready

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Persons who are at risk for Huntington's Disease (HD can be tested for the HD gene expansion before symptom onset. People with the gene expansion, but no clinical diagnosis, are in the prodromal phase of HD. This study explored quality of life (QOL in prodromal HD. Interviews about QOL, conducted with 9 prodromal HD participants and 6 companions, were transcribed. Discourse was coded for emotional valence, content (e.g., coping, spirituality, interpersonal relationships, HD in others, and employment, and time frame (e.g., current, past, and future. Respondents were more positive than negative about the present, which was their major focus. The most common statements were about positive attitudes. Positive statements were made about spirituality, and negative statements were made about HD in other people. Relationships, employment, and coping with HD reflected both positivity and negativity. Participants and companions spoke of the future with different concerns. Applicability of findings to the clinical management of HD are discussed.

  18. Companion Protease Inhibitors for the In Situ Protection of Recombinant Proteins in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Stéphanie; Jutras, Philippe V; Khalf, Moustafa; D'Aoust, Marc-André; Goulet, Marie-Claire; Sainsbury, Frank; Michaud, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    We previously described a procedure for the use of plant protease inhibitors as "companion" accessory proteins to prevent unwanted proteolysis of clinically useful recombinant proteins in leaf crude protein extracts (Benchabane et al. Methods Mol Biol 483:265-273, 2009). Here we describe the use of these inhibitors for the protection of recombinant proteins in planta, before their extraction from leaf tissues. A procedure is first described involving inhibitors co-expressed along-and co-migrating-with the protein of interest in host plant cells. An alternative, single transgene scheme is then described involving translational fusions of the recombinant protein and companion inhibitor. These approaches may allow for a significant improvement of protein steady-state levels in leaves, comparable to yield improvements observed with protease-deficient strains of less complex protein expression hosts such as E. coli or yeasts.

  19. Targeted therapies with companion diagnostics in the management of breast cancer: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Meagan B

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a multifaceted disease exhibiting both intertumoral and intratumoral heterogeneity as well as variable disease course. Over 2 decades of research has advanced the understanding of the molecular substructure of breast cancer, directing the development of new therapeutic strategies against these actionable targets. In vitro diagnostics, and specifically companion diagnostics, have been integral in the successful development and implementation of these targeted therapies, such as those directed against the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Lately, there has been a surge in the development, commercialization, and marketing of diagnostic assays to assist in breast cancer patient care. More recently, multigene signature assays, such as Oncotype DX, MammaPrint, and Prosigna, have been integrated in the clinical setting in order to tailor decisions on adjuvant endocrine and chemotherapy treatment. This review provides an overview of the current state of breast cancer management and the use of companion diagnostics to direct personalized approaches in the treatment of breast cancer.

  20. Introducing the ESAT-6 free IGRA, a companion diagnostic for TB vaccines based on ESAT-6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhwald, Morten; de Thurah, Lena; Kuchaka, Davis

    2017-01-01

    tests unspecific after vaccination. This challenge has prompted the development of a companion diagnostic for ESAT-6 based vaccines, an ESAT-6 free IGRA. We screened a panel of seven potential new diagnostic antigens not recognized in BCG vaccinated individuals. Three highly recognized antigens Esp......C, EspF and Rv2348c were identified and combined with CFP10 in an ESAT-6 free antigen cocktail. The cocktail was prepared in a field-friendly format, lyophilized with heparin in ready-to-use vacutainer tubes. The diagnostic performance of the ESAT-6 free IGRA was determined in a cross-validation study....... Compared IGRA, the ESAT-6 free IGRA induced a comparable magnitude of IFN-γ release, and the diagnostic performance was on par with Quantiferon (sensitivity 84% vs 79%; specificity 99% vs 97%). The comparable performance of the ESAT-6 free IGRA to IGRA suggests potential as companion diagnostic for ESAT-6...

  1. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection risks from companion animals: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petinaki E

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Efthimia Petinaki,1 Iris Spiliopoulou21Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of Thessalia, Larissa, 2Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Patras, GreeceAbstract: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA remains one of the most virulent human pathogens and has also recently been recognized as such in the veterinary settings. Companion animals, including dogs, cats, horses, small exotic animals, wildlife animals, and livestock, may constitute a reservoir for MRSA transmission to humans and vice versa. The evolution, emergence, and risk factors for MRSA transmission among colonized or infected animals are reviewed in the present paper, and infection control practices are discussed.Keywords: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, companion animals, close contacts

  2. Lyme disease: the promise of Big Data, companion diagnostics and precision medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Raphael B; Johnson, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi has become a major worldwide epidemic. Recent studies based on Big Data registries show that >300,000 people are diagnosed with Lyme disease each year in the USA, and up to two-thirds of individuals infected with B. burgdorferi will fail conventional 30-year-old antibiotic therapy for Lyme disease. In addition, animal and human evidence suggests that sexual transmission of the Lyme spirochete may occur. Improved companion diagnostic tests for Lyme disease need to be implemented, and novel treatment approaches are urgently needed to combat the epidemic. In particular, therapies based on the principles of precision medicine could be modeled on successful “designer drug” treatment for HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C virus infection featuring targeted protease inhibitors. The use of Big Data registries, companion diagnostics and precision medicine will revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease. PMID:27672336

  3. Direct imaging and new technologies to search for substellar companions around MGs cool dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burningham B.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe here our project based in a search for sub-stellar companions (brown dwarfs and exo-planets around young ultra-cool dwarfs (UCDs and characterise their properties. We will use current and future technology (high contrast imaging, high-precision Doppler determinations from the ground and space (VLT, ELT and JWST, to find companions to young objects. Members of young moving groups (MGs have clear advantages in this field. We compiled a catalogue of young UCD objects and studied their membership to five known young moving groups: Local Association (Pleiades moving group, 20–150 Myr, Ursa Mayor group (Sirius supercluster, 300 Myr, Hyades supercluster (600 Myr, IC 2391 supercluster (35 Myr and Castor moving group (200 Myr. To assess them as members we used different kinematic and spectroscopic criteria.

  4. A spectroscopic and photometric study of MSP companions in Galactic Globular Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Cocozza, Gabriele

    2008-01-01

    This Thesis is devoted to the study of the optical companions of Millisecond Pulsars in Galactic Globular Clusters (GCs) as a part of a large project started at the Department of Astronomy of the Bologna University, in collaboration with other institutions (Astronomical Observatory of Cagliari and Bologna, University of Virginia), specifically dedicated to the study of the environmental effects on passive stellar evolution in galactic GCs. Globular Clusters are very efficien...

  5. Companion animals and well-being in palliative care nursing: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Julie M; Barrett, David

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate and critique current knowledge regarding the role of animals in palliative care. To explore the impact that animals may have on the well-being of individuals and to identify gaps in the evidence base. There is recognition that having a companion animal will affect patient experience. Similarly, there has been some previous exploration on the use of specific animal assisted therapies for patients with different healthcare needs. A literature review was conducted to identify published and unpublished research about companion animals or animal-assisted therapy in palliative and/or end-of-life care. The primary objective was to explore the impact of animals on well-being at the end of life. A search for literature was carried out using a variety of databases and different combinations of search terms linked to animals in palliative care. Included works were critically appraised and thematically analysed. A limited range of literature was identified. From the small number of studies included in the review (n = 4), it appears that there is some evidence of animals (either companion animals or those used specifically to enhance care) having a positive impact on the patient experience. This study suggests that animals play a large part in the lives of people receiving palliative care. Using animals to support care may also offer some benefits to the patient experience. However, there appears to be a dearth of high-quality literature in this area. More research is therefore required. Nurses providing palliative care need to be aware of the part that a companion animal may play in the life of patients. There may also be the opportunity for nurses in some settings to integrate animal therapy into their provision of palliative care. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Evaluating Checklist Use in Companion Animal Wellness Visits in a Veterinary Teaching Hospital: A Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nappier, Michael T.; Corrigan, Virginia K.; Bartl-Wilson, Lara E.; Freeman, Mark; Werre, Stephen; Tempel, Eric

    2017-01-01

    The number of companion animal wellness visits in private practice has been decreasing, and one important factor cited is the lack of effective communication between veterinarians and pet owners regarding the importance of preventive care. Checklists have been widely used in many fields and are especially useful in areas where a complex task must be completed with multiple small steps, or when cognitive fatigue is evident. The use of checklists in veterinary medical education has not yet been...

  7. John E. King (ed.), The Elgar Companion to Post Keynesian Economics (Second edition)

    OpenAIRE

    Forges Davanzati, Guglielmo

    2015-01-01

    This book—an extended version of the first Companion (2002, 405)—presents a wide range of studies falling within Post Keynesian economics, for the main purpose of establishing the basic features of this line of thought. With respect to the previous edition, 43 new entries have been added, dealing, in particular, with some important national traditions of Post Keynesian Economics, the role of financial markets and the crises. New entries are motivated both because of the recent historical fact...

  8. Pedagogical Agents as Learning Companions: The Role of Agent Competency and Type of Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yanghee; Baylor, Amy L.; PALS Group,

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of the competency (low vs. high) and interaction type (proactive vs. responsive) of pedagogical agents as learning companions (PALs) on learning, self-efficacy, and attitudes. Participants were 72 undergraduates in an introductory computer-literacy course who were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: Low-Proactive, Low-Responsive, High-Proactive, and High-Responsive. Results indicated a main effect for PAL competency. Students who worked ...

  9. An Architecture for Emotional and Context-Aware Associative Learning for Robot Companions

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzi Raymundo, C.; Johnson, C. G.; Vargas, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    This work proposes a theoretical architectural model based on the brain's fear learning system with the purpose of generating artificial fear conditioning at both stimuli and context abstraction levels in robot companions. The proposed architecture is inspired by the different brain regions involved in fear learning, here divided into four modules that work in an integrated and parallel manner: the sensory system, the amygdala system, the hippocampal system and the working memory. Each of the...

  10. Evaluation of faecal sampling methods for the analysis of Giardia sp. in companion animals

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Ana Rita Ruas dos

    2016-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária Giardiosis is a zoonosis with a worldwide distribution, responsible for gastrointestinal disease in both humans and animals. Transmitted by contaminated water and food, Giardia represents a risk to veterinary and public health. Because of its prevalence in companion animals, veterinarians and animal owners awareness of the importance of its identification and treatment in infected animals, made it an important part of th...

  11. Critically appraised topic on adverse food reactions of companion animals (1): duration of elimination diets

    OpenAIRE

    Olivry, Thierry; Mueller, Ralf S.; Pr?laud, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Restrictive (i.e. elimination)-provocation dietary trials remain the standard of care to diagnose cutaneous adverse food reactions (CAFRs) in dogs and cats. There is currently no consensus on the duration of elimination diet trials that would permit the highest sensitivity of diagnosis of CAFR in companion animals. Results: The search for, and review and analysis of the best evidence available as of December 14, 2014 suggests that, by 5 weeks in dogs and 6 weeks in cats after star...

  12. Progress in Adaptive Immunotherapy for Cancer in Companion Animals: Success on the Path to a Cure

    OpenAIRE

    Katie L. Anderson; Jaime F. Modiano

    2015-01-01

    Harnessing the ability of the immune system to eradicate cancer has been a long-held goal of oncology. Work from the last two decades has finally brought immunotherapy into the forefront for cancer treatment, with demonstrable clinical success for aggressive tumors where other therapies had failed. In this review, we will discuss a range of therapies that are in different stages of clinical or preclinical development for companion animals with cancer, and which share the common objective of ...

  13. Prioritization of Companion Animal Transmissible Diseases for Policy Intervention in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cito, F.; Rijks, J.; Rantsios, A.T.

    2016-01-01

    A number of papers have been published on the prioritization of transmissible diseases in farm animals and wildlife, based either on semiquantitative or truly quantitative methods, but there is no published literature on the prioritization of transmissible diseases in companion animals. In this s...... reptiles. The methodology presented in this paper can be used to generate accurate priority lists according to narrower and more specific objectives....

  14. Companion cropping with potato onion enhances the disease resistance of tomato against Verticillium dahliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuepeng eFu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping could alleviate soil-borne diseases, however, few studies focused on the immunity of the host plant induced by the interspecific interactions. To test whether or not intercropping could enhance the disease resistance of host plant, we investigated the effect of companion cropping with potato onion on tomato Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae (V. dahliae. To investigate the mechanisms, the root exudates were collected from tomato and potato onion which were grown together or separately, and were used to examine the antifungal activities against V. dahliae in vitro, respectively. Furthermore, RNA-seq was used to examine the expression pattern of genes related to disease resistance in tomato companied with potato onion compared to that in tomato grown alone, under the condition of infection with V. dahliae. The results showed that companion cropping with potato onion could alleviate the incidence and severity of tomato Verticillium wilt. The further studies revealed that the root exudates from tomato companied with potato onion significantly inhibited the mycelia growth and spore germination of V. dahliae. However, there were no significant effects on these two measurements for the root exudates from potato onion grown alone or from potato onion grown with tomato. RNA-seq data analysis showed the disease defense genes associated with pathogenesis-related proteins, biosynthesis of lignin, hormone metabolism and signal transduction were expressed much higher in the tomato companied with potato onion than those in the tomato grown alone, which indicated that these defense genes play important roles in tomato against V. dahliae infection, and meant that the disease resistance of tomato against V. dahliae was enhanced in the companion copping with potato onion. We proposed that companion cropping with potato onion could enhance the disease resistance of tomato against V. dahliae by regulating the expression of genes related

  15. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bordetella bronchiseptica Isolates from Swine and Companion Animals and Detection of Resistance Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Prüller

    Full Text Available Bordetella bronchiseptica causes infections of the respiratory tract in swine and other mammals and is a precursor for secondary infections with Pasteurella multocida. Treatment of B. bronchiseptica infections is conducted primarily with antimicrobial agents. Therefore it is essential to get an overview of the susceptibility status of these bacteria. The aim of this study was to comparatively analyse broth microdilution susceptibility testing according to CLSI recommendations with an incubation time of 16 to 20 hours and a longer incubation time of 24 hours, as recently proposed to obtain more homogenous MICs. Susceptibility testing against a panel of 22 antimicrobial agents and two fixed combinations was performed with 107 porcine isolates from different farms and regions in Germany and 43 isolates obtained from companion animals in Germany and other European countries. Isolates with increased MICs were investigated by PCR assays for the presence of resistance genes. For ampicillin, all 107 porcine isolates were classified as resistant, whereas only a single isolate was resistant to florfenicol. All isolates obtained from companion animals showed elevated MICs for β-lactam antibiotics and demonstrated an overall low susceptibility to cephalosporines. Extension of the incubation time resulted in 1-2 dilution steps higher MIC50 values of porcine isolates for seven antimicrobial agents tested, while isolates from companion animals exhibited twofold higher MIC50/90 values only for tetracycline and cefotaxime. For three antimicrobial agents, lower MIC50 and MIC90 values were detected for both, porcine and companion animal isolates. Among the 150 isolates tested, the resistance genes blaBOR-1 (n = 147, blaOXA-2, (n = 4, strA and strB (n = 17, sul1 (n = 10, sul2 (n = 73, dfrA7 (n = 3 and tet(A (n = 8 were detected and a plasmid localisation was identified for several of the resistance genes.

  16. Living with companion animals after stroke: experiences of older people in community and primary care nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Maria; Ahlström, Gerd; Jönsson, Ann-Cathrin

    2014-12-01

    Older people often have companion animals, and the significance of animals in human lives should be considered by nurses-particularly in relation to older people's health, which can be affected by diseases. The incidence of stroke increases with age and disabilities as a result of stroke are common. This study aimed to explore older people's experiences of living with companion animals after stroke, and their life situation with the animals in relation to the physical, psychological and social aspects of recovery after stroke. The study was performed using individual interviews approximately 2 years after stroke with 17 participants (10 women and 7 men) aged 62-88 years. An overarching theme arising from the content analysis was contribution to a meaningful life. This theme was generated from four categories: motivation for physical and psychosocial recovery after stroke; someone to care for who cares for you; animals as family members; and providers of safety and protection. The main conclusion was that companion animals are experienced as physical and psychosocial contributors to recovery and a meaningful life after stroke.

  17. The Gemini NICI planet-finding campaign: The companion detection pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahhaj, Zahed [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago (Chile); Liu, Michael C.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Biller, Beth A. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Close, Laird M. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Hayward, Thomas L.; Hartung, Markus [Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, c/o AURA, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Toomey, Douglas W. [Mauna Kea Infrared, LLC, 21 Pookela St., Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2013-12-10

    We present high-contrast image processing techniques used by the Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign to detect faint companions to bright stars. The Near-Infrared Coronographic Imager (NICI) is an adaptive optics instrument installed on the 8 m Gemini South telescope, capable of angular and spectral difference imaging and specifically designed to image exoplanets. The Campaign data pipeline achieves median contrasts of 12.6 mag at 0.''5 and 14.4 mag at 1'' separation, for a sample of 45 stars (V = 4.3-13.9 mag) from the early phase of the campaign. We also present a novel approach to calculating contrast curves for companion detection based on 95% completeness in the recovery of artificial companions injected into the raw data, while accounting for the false-positive rate. We use this technique to select the image processing algorithms that are more successful at recovering faint simulated point sources. We compare our pipeline to the performance of the Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI) algorithm for NICI data and do not find significant improvement with LOCI.

  18. Mini-Review: Limbal Stem Cells Deficiency in Companion Animals: Time to Give Something Back?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Rick F; Daniels, Julie T

    2016-04-01

    Experimental animals have been used extensively in the goal of developing sight-saving therapies for humans. One example is the development of transplantation of cultured limbal epithelial stem cells (LESC) to restore vision following ocular surface injury or disease. With clinical trials of cultured LESC therapy underway in humans and a potential companion animal population suffering from similar diseases, it is perhaps time to give something back. Comparatively to humans, what is known about the healthy limbus and corneal surface physiology of companion animals is still very little. Blinding corneal diseases in animals such as symblepharon in cats with Feline Herpes Virus-1 infections require a basic understanding of the functional companion animal limbus and corneal stem cells. Our understanding of many other vision threatening conditions such as scarring of the cornea post-inflammation with lymphocytic-plasmacytic infiltrate in dogs (aka chronic superficial keratitis) or pigment proliferation with Pigmentary Keratitis of Pugs would benefit from a better understanding of the animal cornea in health and disease. This is also vital when new therapeutic approaches are considered. This review will explore the current challenges and future research directions that will be required to increase our understanding of corneal diseases in animals and consider the potential development and delivery of cultured stem cell therapy to veterinary ocular surface patients.

  19. Limits on stellar companions to exoplanet host stars with eccentric planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, Stephen R.; Hinkel, Natalie R.; Howell, Steve B.; Horch, Elliott P.; Feng, Ying; Wright, Jason T.; Ciardi, David R.; Everett, Mark E.; Howard, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    Though there are now many hundreds of confirmed exoplanets known, the binarity of exoplanet host stars is not well understood. This is particularly true of host stars that harbor a giant planet in a highly eccentric orbit since these are more likely to have had a dramatic dynamical history that transferred angular momentum to the planet. Here we present observations of four exoplanet host stars that utilize the excellent resolving power of the Differential Speckle Survey Instrument on the Gemini North telescope. Two of the stars are giants and two are dwarfs. Each star is host to a giant planet with an orbital eccentricity >0.5 and whose radial velocity (RV) data contain a trend in the residuals to the Keplerian orbit fit. These observations rule out stellar companions 4-8 mag fainter than the host star at passbands of 692 nm and 880 nm. The resolution and field of view of the instrument result in exclusion radii of 0.''05-1.''4, which excludes stellar companions within several AU of the host star in most cases. We further provide new RVs for the HD 4203 system that confirm that the linear trend previously observed in the residuals is due to an additional planet. These results place dynamical constraints on the source of the planet's eccentricities, place constraints on additional planetary companions, and inform the known distribution of multiplicity amongst exoplanet host stars.

  20. Intellectual property considerations for molecular diagnostic development with emphasis on companion diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorikian, Harry; Warburg, Richard Jeremy; Moore, Kelly; Malinowski, Jennifer

    2018-02-01

    The development of molecular diagnostics is a complex endeavor, with multiple regulatory pathways to consider and numerous approaches to development and commercialization. Companion diagnostics, devices which are "essential for the safe and effective use of a corresponding drug or diagnostic product" (see U.S. Food & Drug Administration, In Vitro Diagnostics - Companion Diagnostics, U.S. Dept. of Health & Human Services(2016), available at https://www.fda.gov/medicaldevices/productsandmedicalprocedures/invitrodiagnostics/ucm407297.htm ) and complementary diagnostics, which are more broadly associated with a class of drug, are becoming increasingly important as integral components of the implementation of precision medicine. Areas covered: The following article will highlight the intellectual property ('IP') considerations pertinent to molecular diagnostics development with special emphasis on companion diagnostics. Expert opinion/commentary Summary: For all molecular diagnostics, intellectual property (IP) concerns are of paramount concern, whether the device will be marketed only in the United States or abroad. Taking steps to protect IP at each stage of product development is critical to optimize profitability of a diagnostic product. Also the legal framework around IP protection of diagnostic technologies has been changing over the previous few years and can be expected to continue to change in the foreseeable near future, thus, a comprehensive IP strategy should take into account the fact that changes in the law can be expected.

  1. The neutron star mass distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiziltan, Bülent [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kottas, Athanasios; De Yoreo, Maria [Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Thorsett, Stephen E., E-mail: bkiziltan@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California and UCO/Lick Observatory, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2013-11-20

    In recent years, the number of pulsars with secure mass measurements has increased to a level that allows us to probe the underlying neutron star (NS) mass distribution in detail. We critically review the radio pulsar mass measurements. For the first time, we are able to analyze a sizable population of NSs with a flexible modeling approach that can effectively accommodate a skewed underlying distribution and asymmetric measurement errors. We find that NSs that have evolved through different evolutionary paths reflect distinctive signatures through dissimilar distribution peak and mass cutoff values. NSs in double NS and NS-white dwarf (WD) systems show consistent respective peaks at 1.33 M {sub ☉} and 1.55 M {sub ☉}, suggesting significant mass accretion (Δm ≈ 0.22 M {sub ☉}) has occurred during the spin-up phase. The width of the mass distribution implied by double NS systems is indicative of a tight initial mass function while the inferred mass range is significantly wider for NSs that have gone through recycling. We find a mass cutoff at ∼2.1 M {sub ☉} for NSs with WD companions, which establishes a firm lower bound for the maximum NS mass. This rules out the majority of strange quark and soft equation of state models as viable configurations for NS matter. The lack of truncation close to the maximum mass cutoff along with the skewed nature of the inferred mass distribution both enforce the suggestion that the 2.1 M {sub ☉} limit is set by evolutionary constraints rather than nuclear physics or general relativity, and the existence of rare supermassive NSs is possible.

  2. The GAPS Programme with HARPS-N at TNG. XV. A substellar companion around a K giant star identified with quasi-simultaneous HARPS-N and GIANO measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Álvarez, E.; Affer, L.; Micela, G.; Maldonado, J.; Carleo, I.; Damasso, M.; D'Orazi, V.; Lanza, A. F.; Biazzo, K.; Poretti, E.; Gratton, R.; Sozzetti, A.; Desidera, S.; Sanna, N.; Harutyunyan, A.; Massi, F.; Oliva, E.; Claudi, R.; Cosentino, R.; Covino, E.; Maggio, A.; Masiero, S.; Molinari, E.; Pagano, I.; Piotto, G.; Smareglia, R.; Benatti, S.; Bonomo, A. S.; Borsa, F.; Esposito, M.; Giacobbe, P.; Malavolta, L.; Martinez-Fiorenzano, A.; Nascimbeni, V.; Pedani, M.; Rainer, M.; Scandariato, G.

    2017-10-01

    Context. Identification of planetary companions of giant stars is made difficult because of the astrophysical noise, that may produce radial velocity variations similar to those induced by a companion. On the other hand any stellar signal is wavelength dependent, while signals due to a companion are achromatic. Aims: Our goal is to determine the origin of the Doppler periodic variations observed in the thick disk K giant star TYC 4282-605-1 by HARPS-N at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) and verify if they can be due to the presence of a substellar companion. Methods: Several methods have been used to exclude the stellar origin of the observed signal including detailed analysis of activity indicators and bisector and the analysis of the photometric light curve. Finally we have conducted an observational campaign to monitor the near infrared (NIR) radial velocity with GIANO at the TNG in order to verify whether the NIR amplitude variations are comparable with those observed in the visible. Results: Both optical and NIR radial velocities show consistent variations with a period at 101 days and similar amplitude, pointing to the presence of a companion orbiting the target. The main orbital properties obtained for our giant star with a derived mass of M = 0.97 ± 0.03M⊙ are MPsini = 10.78 ± 0.12MJ; P = 101.54 ± 0.05 days; e = 0.28 ± 0.01 and a = 0.422 ± 0.009 AU. The chemical analysis shows a significant enrichment in the abundance of Na I, Mg I, Al I and Si I while the rest of analyzed elements are consistent with the solar value demonstrating that the chemical composition corresponds with an old K giant (age = 10.1 Gyr) belonging to local thick disk. Conclusions: We conclude that the substellar companion hypothesis for this K giant is the best explanation for the observed periodic radial velocity variation. This study also shows the high potential of multi-wavelength radial velocity observations for the validation of planet candidates. Based on

  3. The Evolving Role of Companion Diagnostics for Breast Cancer in an Era of Next-Generation Omics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Jason N; Weisman, Paul

    2017-10-01

    A companion diagnostic is a test for a specific biomarker-approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration-qualifying a patient to receive a specific, associated therapy. As interest has grown in precision medicine over the past decade, the principle of companion diagnostics has gained increasing purchase among laboratory professionals, clinicians, regulators, and even patients. The evolution of the biomarkers used to stratify and treat breast cancer illustrates the history of companion diagnostics and provides a lens through which to examine potential challenges. As new targeted therapies and corresponding biomarkers accumulate, algorithms for diagnosis and treatment necessarily become lengthier and more complex. To accommodate future needs of breast cancer patients, the companion diagnostic model will continue to adapt and evolve. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Crusading and Chronicle Writing on the Medieval Baltic Frontier: A Companion to the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia] / Michael Amundsen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Amundsen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Crusading and chronicle writing on the medieval Baltic frontier : a companion to the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia / edited by Marek Tamm, Linda Kaljundi, Carsten Selch Jensen. Farnham : Ashgate, 2011

  5. Prioritization of Companion Animal Transmissible Diseases for Policy Intervention in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cito, F; Rijks, J; Rantsios, A T; Cunningham, A A; Baneth, G; Guardabassi, L; Kuiken, T; Giovannini, A

    2016-07-01

    A number of papers have been published on the prioritization of transmissible diseases in farm animals and wildlife, based either on semiquantitative or truly quantitative methods, but there is no published literature on the prioritization of transmissible diseases in companion animals. In this study, available epidemiological data for diseases transmissible from companion animals to man were analysed with the aim of developing a procedure suitable for their prioritization within a European framework. A new method and its associated questionnaire and scoring system were designed based on methods described by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Modifications were applied to allow for the paucity of specific information on companion animal transmissible diseases. The OIE method was also adapted to the subject and to the regional scope of the interprofessional network addressing zoonotic diseases transmitted via companion animals in Europe: the Companion Animals multisectoriaL interprofessionaL Interdisciplinary Strategic Think tank On zoonoses (CALLISTO). Adaptations were made based on information collected from expert groups on viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases using a structured questionnaire, in which all questions were closed-ended. The expert groups were asked to select the most appropriate answer for each question taking into account the relevance and reliability of the data available in the scientific literature. Subsequently, the scoring of the answers obtained for each disease covered by the questionnaire was analysed to obtain two final overall scores, one for human health impact and one for agricultural economic impact. The adapted method was then applied to select the 15 most important pathogens (five for each pathogen group: viral, bacterial and parasitic) on the basis of their overall impact on public health and agriculture. The result of the prioritization exercise was a joint priority list (available at www.callistoproject.eu) of

  6. Companion for “Statistics for Business and Economics” by Paul Newbold, William L. Carlson and Betty Thorne

    OpenAIRE

    Mynbaev, Kairat

    2010-01-01

    This is a mathematical companion for “Statistics for Business and Economics” by Paul Newbold, William L. Carlson and Betty Thorne, London: Prentice-Hall, 2003, 6th edition. It contains derivations of most formulas from the first 12 chapters of that textbook. Most importantly, the companion provides methodological recommendations as to how statistics should be studied and teaches the reader to learn algebra from scratch. There are 21 examples, 57 exercises, 16 figures and 30 tables. Step-by...

  7. Dynamics of Mass Transfer in Wide Symbiotic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Val-Borro, Miguel; Karovska, M.; Sasselov, D.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the formation of accretion disks around the secondary in detached systems consisting of an Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) star and a compact accreting companion as a function of mass loss rate and orbital parameters. In particular, we study winds from late-type stars that are gravitationally focused by a companion in a wide binary system using hydrodynamical simulations. For a typical slow and massive wind from an evolved star there is a stream flow between the stars with accretion rates of a few percent of the mass loss from the primary. Mass transfer through a focused wind is an important mechanism for a broad range of interacting binary systems and can explain the formation of Barium stars and other chemically peculiar stars.

  8. Reader's Companion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    not because irrotational flow fields do not satisfy the Navier–Stokes equations, but ... describes a spiral, starting at an angle of 45o to the applied stress, and moving ..... The connection of this anomaly with the vortex-breakdown phenomenon is.

  9. Xoom Companion

    CERN Document Server

    Ballew, Joli

    2011-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide that helps you get the most out of your Xoom device Motorola Xoom is one of the hottest new tablets but the owner's manual only goes so far to cover features and functions. This full-color guide is packed with useful tips, invaluable advice, and easy-to-follow shortcuts that help you quickly get acquainted with the Motorola Xoom OS. You'll explore tasks such as working with e-mail, messaging, browsing, utilizing the calendar, making appointments, enjoying and sharing photos and music, using maps, referencing contacts, adjusting the settings, working with security, check

  10. Microlensing discovery of a tight, low-mass-ratio planetary-mass object around an old field brown dwarf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, C.; Jung, Y. K. [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 371-763 (Korea, Republic of); Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzyński, G.; Soszyński, I.; Skowron, J.; Kozłowski, S.; Poleski, R.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Pietrukowicz, P. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Sumi, T. [Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Gaudi, B. S.; Gould, A. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Bennett, D. P. [University of Notre Dame, Department of Physics, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556-5670 (United States); Tsapras, Y. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740B Cortona Dr, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Abe, F. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Bond, I. A. [Institute of Information and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 102-904, North Shore Mail Centre, Auckland (New Zealand); Collaboration: OGLE Collaboration; MOA Collaboration; μFUN Collaboration; RoboNet Collaboration; and others

    2013-11-20

    Observations of accretion disks around young brown dwarfs (BDs) have led to the speculation that they may form planetary systems similar to normal stars. While there have been several detections of planetary-mass objects around BDs (2MASS 1207-3932 and 2MASS 0441-2301), these companions have relatively large mass ratios and projected separations, suggesting that they formed in a manner analogous to stellar binaries. We present the discovery of a planetary-mass object orbiting a field BD via gravitational microlensing, OGLE-2012-BLG-0358Lb. The system is a low secondary/primary mass ratio (0.080 ± 0.001), relatively tightly separated (∼0.87 AU) binary composed of a planetary-mass object with 1.9 ± 0.2 Jupiter masses orbiting a BD with a mass 0.022 M {sub ☉}. The relatively small mass ratio and separation suggest that the companion may have formed in a protoplanetary disk around the BD host in a manner analogous to planets.

  11. Setting the One Health Agenda and the Human–Companion Animal Bond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregg K. Takashima

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available “One Health”, also called “One Medicine”, began as an initiative advocating greater integration of human and animal medicine, in the 1800s. This concept has recently come to prominence, driven by the recognition that 75% of the newly emerging infectious diseases will arise from animal reservoirs, and that successful control and prevention will require a coordinated human medical and veterinary approach. Consequently, many One Health discussions have centered on the surveillance of animals in order to anticipate the potential emergence of new zoonotic diseases. An area that has been given only cursory mention, are the many ways that small companion animals benefit individual, community and possibly world health. The goal of this paper is to briefly review some of the evidenced-based data concerning the benefits of having companion animals in our lives, focusing on four major areas; cancer, heart disease, autism spectrum disorder (ASD, and the potential positive economic effects of the human-companion animal bond on One Health. Heart disease and cancer are the two leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world, while ASD is a growing concern, not only for its individual effects, but also for its effect on family units, educational institutions, and its social implications for the community. In addition, these diseases can greatly affect the national and global cost of healthcare, as well as the economic output of a nation. It is therefore important to include and build on the concept of the Human-Animal Bond (HAB as it relates to healthcare in these areas.

  12. Live imaging of companion cells and sieve elements in Arabidopsis leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaud Cayla

    Full Text Available The phloem is a complex tissue composed of highly specialized cells with unique subcellular structures and a compact organization that is challenging to study in vivo at cellular resolution. We used confocal scanning laser microscopy and subcellular fluorescent markers in companion cells and sieve elements, for live imaging of the phloem in Arabidopsis leaves. This approach provided a simple framework for identifying phloem cell types unambiguously. It highlighted the compactness of the meshed network of organelles within companion cells. By contrast, within the sieve elements, unknown bodies were observed in association with the PP2-A1:GFP, GFP:RTM1 and RTM2:GFP markers at the cell periphery. The phloem lectin PP2-A1:GFP marker was found in the parietal ground matrix. Its location differed from that of the P-protein filaments, which were visualized with SEOR1:GFP and SEOR2:GFP. PP2-A1:GFP surrounded two types of bodies, one of which was identified as mitochondria. This location suggested that it was embedded within the sieve element clamps, specific structures that may fix the organelles to each another or to the plasma membrane in the sieve tubes. GFP:RTM1 was associated with a class of larger bodies, potentially corresponding to plastids. PP2-A1:GFP was soluble in the cytosol of immature sieve elements. The changes in its subcellular localization during differentiation provide an in vivo blueprint for monitoring this process. The subcellular features obtained with these companion cell and sieve element markers can be used as landmarks for exploring the organization and dynamics of phloem cells in vivo.

  13. A COMPANION AS THE CAUSE OF LATITUDE-DEPENDENT EFFECTS IN THE WIND OF ETA CARINAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groh, J. H.; Madura, T. I.; Weigelt, G.; Hillier, D. J.; Kruip, C. J. H.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze spatially resolved spectroscopic observations of the Eta Carinae binary system obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope/STIS. Eta Car is enshrouded by the dusty Homunculus nebula, which scatters light emitted by the central binary and provides a unique opportunity to study a massive binary system from different vantage points. We investigate the latitudinal and azimuthal dependence of Hα line profiles caused by the presence of a wind-wind collision (WWC) cavity created by the companion star. Using two-dimensional radiative transfer models, we find that the wind cavity can qualitatively explain the observed line profiles around apastron. Regions of the Homunculus which scatter light that propagated through the WWC cavity show weaker or no Hα absorption. Regions scattering light that propagated through a significant portion of the primary wind show stronger P Cygni absorption. Our models overestimate the Hα absorption formed in the primary wind, which we attribute to photoionization by the companion, not presently included in the models. We can qualitatively explain the latitudinal changes that occur during periastron, shedding light on the nature of Eta Car's spectroscopic events. Our models support the idea that during the brief period of time around periastron when the primary wind flows unimpeded toward the observer, Hα absorption occurs in directions toward the central object and Homunculus SE pole, but not toward equatorial regions close to the Weigelt blobs. We suggest that observed latitudinal and azimuthal variations are dominated by the companion star via the WWC cavity, rather than by rapid rotation of the primary star.

  14. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (81st, Baltimore, Maryland, August 5-8, 1998). Mass Communication and Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Mass Communication and Society section of the Proceedings contains the following 19 papers: "Talk Radio as Forum and Companion: Listener Attitudes and Uses and Gratifications in Austin, Texas" (John Beatty); "'Willingness to Censor': Developing a Quantitative Measurement across Speech Categories and Types of Media"…

  15. Gonadotrophin-Releasing Hormone Agonists and Other Contraceptive Medications in Exotic Companion Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoemaker, Nico J

    2018-05-01

    The use of a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist slow-release implant (GnRH A-SRI) has become increasingly popular as an alternative for surgical contraception in many species. Although these implants have proven to be very effective in some species (eg, ferrets, rats, chicken, psittacines, and iguanas), they have been found less effective in other species (eg, male guinea pigs and rabbits, veiled chameleons, slider turtles, and leopard geckos). This review provides an overview of the available literature on the effects of GnRH A-SRIs in companion exotic animals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Digital companion species and eating data: Implications for theorising digital data–human assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Lupton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This commentary is an attempt to begin to identify and think through some of the ways in which sociocultural theory may contribute to understandings of the relationship between humans and digital data. I develop an argument that rests largely on the work of two scholars in the field of science and technology studies: Donna Haraway and Annemarie Mol. Both authors emphasised materiality and multiple ontologies in their writing. I argue that these concepts have much to offer critical data studies. I employ the tropes of companion species, drawn from Haraway, and eating data, from Mol, and demonstrate how these may be employed to theorise digital data–human assemblages.

  17. Do Magazines' "Companion  Websites" Cannibalize the Demand for the Print Version?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Kongsted, Hans Christian

    We analyze the extent to which visits to a magazine's companion website affects total circulation, subscription, kiosk sales and foreign sales using Granger causality tests on the basis of monthly data for the German magazine market spanning the period January 1998 to September 2005. We find...... evidence for positive effects of website visits on magazine subscription but negative effects on magazine kiosk sales. Contrary to the widespread belief that the Internet will cannibalize print media markets, our results do not, however, provide evidence for website visits adversely affecting total...

  18. Magazine "Companion Websites" and the Demand for Newsstand Sales and Subscriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Kongsted, H.C.

    2012-01-01

    analysis finds some support for the widespread belief that the Internet cannibalizes print media. On average, a 1% increase in companion website traffic is associated with a weakly significant decrease in total print circulation by 0.15%. This association is mainly driven by a statistically significant...... and negative mapping between website visits and kiosk sales, although they do not find any statistically significant relationship between website visits and subscriptions. The latter finding is reassuring for publishers because advertisers value a large subscriber base. Moreover, the authors show...

  19. Telecare and Social Link Solution for Ambient Assisted Living Using a Robot Companion with Visiophony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varène, Thibaut; Hillereau, Paul; Simonnet, Thierry

    An increasing number of people are in need of help at home (elderly, isolated and/or disabled persons; people with mild cognitive impairment). Several solutions can be considered to maintain a social link while providing tele-care to these people. Many proposals suggest the use of a robot acting as a companion. In this paper we will look at an environment constrained solution, its drawbacks (such as latency) and its advantages (flexibility, integration…). A key design choice is to control the robot using a unified Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) solution, while addressing bandwidth limitations, providing good communication quality and reducing transmission latency

  20. Anatomy and Disorders of the Oral Cavity of Miscellaneous Exotic Companion Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Angela M; Miwa, Yasutsugu

    2016-09-01

    Unusual mammalian species such as the hedgehog, sugar glider, and miniature pig are encountered with increasing frequency in exotic companion medicine. Disease of the oral cavity can occur in any species; although occasionally encountered in exotic mammalian species, it is rarely described in the literature. Anatomy and dentition vary significantly; diagnosis and treatment are often extrapolated from that known in other species. The best-documented disease of the oral cavity in this group of species is oral neoplasia in the hedgehog. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A comparison of companion matrix methods to find roots of a trigonometric polynomial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, John P.

    2013-08-01

    A trigonometric polynomial is a truncated Fourier series of the form fN(t)≡∑j=0Naj cos(jt)+∑j=1N bj sin(jt). It has been previously shown by the author that zeros of such a polynomial can be computed as the eigenvalues of a companion matrix with elements which are complex valued combinations of the Fourier coefficients, the "CCM" method. However, previous work provided no examples, so one goal of this new work is to experimentally test the CCM method. A second goal is introduce a new alternative, the elimination/Chebyshev algorithm, and experimentally compare it with the CCM scheme. The elimination/Chebyshev matrix (ECM) algorithm yields a companion matrix with real-valued elements, albeit at the price of usefulness only for real roots. The new elimination scheme first converts the trigonometric rootfinding problem to a pair of polynomial equations in the variables (c,s) where c≡cos(t) and s≡sin(t). The elimination method next reduces the system to a single univariate polynomial P(c). We show that this same polynomial is the resultant of the system and is also a generator of the Groebner basis with lexicographic ordering for the system. Both methods give very high numerical accuracy for real-valued roots, typically at least 11 decimal places in Matlab/IEEE 754 16 digit floating point arithmetic. The CCM algorithm is typically one or two decimal places more accurate, though these differences disappear if the roots are "Newton-polished" by a single Newton's iteration. The complex-valued matrix is accurate for complex-valued roots, too, though accuracy decreases with the magnitude of the imaginary part of the root. The cost of both methods scales as O(N3) floating point operations. In spite of intimate connections of the elimination/Chebyshev scheme to two well-established technologies for solving systems of equations, resultants and Groebner bases, and the advantages of using only real-valued arithmetic to obtain a companion matrix with real-valued elements

  2. Basolateral amygdalar D2 receptor activation is required for the companions-exerted suppressive effect on the cocaine conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Wen-Yu; Cherng, Chian-Fang G; Yu, Lung; Wang, Ching-Yi

    2017-01-01

    The presence of companions renders decreases in cocaine-stimulated dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) magnitude. Limbic systems are widely believed to underlie the modulation of accumbal dopamine release and cocaine conditioning. Thus, this study aimed to assess whether intact basolateral nucleus of amygdala (BLA), dorsal hippocampus (DH), and dorsolateral striatum (DLS) is required for the companions-exerted suppressive effect on the cocaine-induced CPP. Three cage mates, serving as companions, were arranged to house with the experimental mice in the cocaine conditioning compartment throughout the cocaine conditioning sessions. Approximately 1week before the conditioning procedure, intracranial ibotenic acid infusions were done in an attempt to cause excitotoxic lesions targeting bilateral BLA, DH and DLS. Albeit their BLA, DH, and DLS lesions, the lesioned mice exhibited comparable cocaine-induced CPP magnitudes compared to the intact and sham lesion controls. Bilateral BLA, but not DH or DLS, lesions abolished the companions-exerted suppressive effect on the cocaine-induced CPP. Intact mice receiving intra-BLA infusion of raclopride, a selective D2 antagonist, 30min prior to the cocaine conditioning did not exhibit the companions-exerted suppressive effect on the cocaine-induced CPP. Intra-BLA infusion of Sch23390, a selective D1 antagonist, did not affect the companions-exerted suppressive effect on the CPP. These results, taken together, prompt us to conclude that the intactness of BLA is required for the companions-exerted suppressive effect on the cocaine-induced CPP. Importantly, activation of D2 receptor in the BLA is required for such suppressive effect on the CPP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. KNOW THE STAR, KNOW THE PLANET. V. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE STELLAR COMPANION TO THE EXOPLANET HOST STAR HD 177830

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Lewis C. Jr.; Beichman, Charles; Burruss, Rick; Cady, Eric; Lockhart, Thomas G. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena CA 91109 (United States); Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Brenner, Douglas; Luszcz-Cook, Statia; Nilsson, Ricky [American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Baranec, Christoph [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Hilo, HI 96720-2700 (United States); Dekany, Richard; Hillenbrand, Lynne [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hinkley, Sasha [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter, EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); King, David; Parry, Ian R. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road., Cambridge, CB3 OHA (United Kingdom); Pueyo, Laurent [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Soummer, Rémi [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, Roslagstullsbacken 21, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Rice, Emily L., E-mail: lewis.c.roberts@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Engineering Science and Physics, College of Staten Island, City University of New York, Staten Island, NY 10314 (United States); and others

    2015-10-15

    HD 177830 is an evolved K0IV star with two known exoplanets. In addition to the planetary companions it has a late-type stellar companion discovered with adaptive optics imagery. We observed the binary star system with the PHARO near-IR camera and the Project 1640 coronagraph. Using the Project 1640 coronagraph and integral field spectrograph we extracted a spectrum of the stellar companion. This allowed us to determine that the spectral type of the stellar companion is a M4 ± 1 V. We used both instruments to measure the astrometry of the binary system. Combining these data with published data, we determined that the binary star has a likely period of approximately 800 years with a semimajor axis of 100–200 AU. This implies that the stellar companion has had little or no impact on the dynamics of the exoplanets. The astrometry of the system should continue to be monitored, but due to the slow nature of the system, observations can be made once every 5–10 years.

  4. Influence of companion diagnostics on efficacy and safety of targeted anti-cancer drugs: systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocana, Alberto; Ethier, Josee-Lyne; Díez-González, Laura; Corrales-Sánchez, Verónica; Srikanthan, Amirrtha; Gascón-Escribano, María J; Templeton, Arnoud J; Vera-Badillo, Francisco; Seruga, Bostjan; Niraula, Saroj; Pandiella, Atanasio; Amir, Eitan

    2015-11-24

    Companion diagnostics aim to identify patients that will respond to targeted therapies, therefore increasing the clinical efficacy of such drugs. Less is known about their influence on safety and tolerability of targeted anti-cancer agents. Randomized trials evaluating targeted agents for solid tumors approved by the US Food and Drug Administration since year 2000 were assessed. Odds ratios (OR) and and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed for treatment-related death, treatment-discontinuation related to toxicity and occurrence of any grade 3/4 adverse events (AEs). The 12 most commonly reported individual AEs were also explored. ORs were pooled in a meta-analysis. Analysis comprised 41 trials evaluating 28 targeted agents. Seventeen trials (41%) utilized companion diagnostics. Compared to control groups, targeted drugs in experimental arms were associated with increased odds of treatment discontinuation, grade 3/4 AEs, and toxic death irrespective of whether they utilized companion diagnostics or not. Compared to drugs without available companion diagnostics, agents with companion diagnostics had a lower magnitude of increased odds of treatment discontinuation (OR = 1.12 vs. 1.65, p diagnostics were greatest for diarrhea (OR = 1.29 vs. 2.43, p diagnostics are associated with improved safety, and tolerability. Differences were most marked for gastrointestinal, cutaneous and neurological toxicity.

  5. Control of DEMETER DNA demethylase gene transcription in male and female gamete companion cells in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Sup; Frost, Jennifer M; Park, Kyunghyuk; Ohr, Hyonhwa; Park, Guen Tae; Kim, Seohyun; Eom, Hyunjoo; Lee, Ilha; Brooks, Janie S; Fischer, Robert L; Choi, Yeonhee

    2017-02-21

    The DEMETER (DME) DNA glycosylase initiates active DNA demethylation via the base-excision repair pathway and is vital for reproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana DME-mediated DNA demethylation is preferentially targeted to small, AT-rich, and nucleosome-depleted euchromatic transposable elements, influencing expression of adjacent genes and leading to imprinting in the endosperm. In the female gametophyte, DME expression and subsequent genome-wide DNA demethylation are confined to the companion cell of the egg, the central cell. Here, we show that, in the male gametophyte, DME expression is limited to the companion cell of sperm, the vegetative cell, and to a narrow window of time: immediately after separation of the companion cell lineage from the germline. We define transcriptional regulatory elements of DME using reporter genes, showing that a small region, which surprisingly lies within the DME gene, controls its expression in male and female companion cells. DME expression from this minimal promoter is sufficient to rescue seed abortion and the aberrant DNA methylome associated with the null dme-2 mutation. Within this minimal promoter, we found short, conserved enhancer sequences necessary for the transcriptional activities of DME and combined predicted binding motifs with published transcription factor binding coordinates to produce a list of candidate upstream pathway members in the genetic circuitry controlling DNA demethylation in gamete companion cells. These data show how DNA demethylation is regulated to facilitate endosperm gene imprinting and potential transgenerational epigenetic regulation, without subjecting the germline to potentially deleterious transposable element demethylation.

  6. REFERENCE-LESS DETECTION, ASTROMETRY, AND PHOTOMETRY OF FAINT COMPANIONS WITH ADAPTIVE OPTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladysz, Szymon; Christou, Julian C.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a complete framework for the detection, astrometry, and photometry of faint companions from a sequence of adaptive optics (AO) corrected short exposures. The algorithms exploit the difference in statistics between the on-axis and off-axis intensity of the AO point-spread function (PSF) to differentiate real sources from speckles. We validate the new approach and illustrate its performance using moderate Strehl ratio data obtained with the natural guide star AO system on the Lick Observatory's 3 m Shane Telescope. We obtain almost a 2 mag gain in achievable contrast by using our detection method compared to 5σ detectability in long exposures. We also present a first guide to expected accuracy of differential photometry and astrometry with the new techniques. Our approach performs better than PSF-fitting in general and especially so for close companions, which are located within the uncompensated seeing (speckle) halo. All three proposed algorithms are self-calibrating, i.e., they do not require observation of a calibration star. One of the advantages of this approach is improved observing efficiency.

  7. Planet Formation in Disks with Inclined Binary Companions: Can Primordial Spin-Orbit Misalignment be Produced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanazzi, J. J.; Lai, Dong

    2018-04-01

    Many hot Jupiter (HJ) systems have been observed to have their stellar spin axis misaligned with the planet's orbital angular momentum axis. The origin of this spin-orbit misalignment and the formation mechanism of HJs remain poorly understood. A number of recent works have suggested that gravitational interactions between host stars, protoplanetary disks, and inclined binary companions may tilt the stellar spin axis with respect to the disk's angular angular momentum axis, producing planetary systems with misaligned orbits. These previous works considered idealized disk evolution models and neglected the gravitational influence of newly formed planets. In this paper, we explore how disk photoevaporation and planet formation and migration affect the inclination evolution of planet-star-disk-binary systems. We take into account planet-disk interactions and the gravitational spin-orbit coupling between the host star and the planet. We find that the rapid depletion of the inner disk via photoevaporation reduces the excitation of stellar obliquities. Depending on the formation and migration history of HJs, the spin-orbit coupling between the star and the planet may reduces and even completely suppress the excitation of stellar obliquities. Our work constrains the formation/migration history of HJs. On the other hand, planetary systems with "cold" Jupiters or close-in super-earths may experience excitation of stellar obliquities in the presence of distant inclined companions.

  8. Evaluating Checklist Use in Companion Animal Wellness Visits in a Veterinary Teaching Hospital: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappier, Michael T; Corrigan, Virginia K; Bartl-Wilson, Lara E; Freeman, Mark; Werre, Stephen; Tempel, Eric

    2017-01-01

    The number of companion animal wellness visits in private practice has been decreasing, and one important factor cited is the lack of effective communication between veterinarians and pet owners regarding the importance of preventive care. Checklists have been widely used in many fields and are especially useful in areas where a complex task must be completed with multiple small steps, or when cognitive fatigue is evident. The use of checklists in veterinary medical education has not yet been thoroughly evaluated as a potential strategy to improve communication with pet owners regarding preventive care. The authors explored whether the use of a checklist based on the American Animal Hospital Association/American Veterinary Medical Association canine and feline preventive care guidelines would benefit senior veterinary students in accomplishing more complete canine and feline wellness visits. A group of students using provided checklists was compared to a control group of students who did not use checklists on the basis of their medical record notes from the visits. The students using the checklists were routinely more complete in several areas of a wellness visit vs. those who did not use the checklists. However, neither group of students routinely discussed follow-up care recommendations such as frequency or timing of follow-up visits. The study authors recommend considering checklist use for teaching and implementing wellness in companion animal primary care veterinary clinical teaching settings.

  9. Evaluating Checklist Use in Companion Animal Wellness Visits in a Veterinary Teaching Hospital: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Nappier

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The number of companion animal wellness visits in private practice has been decreasing, and one important factor cited is the lack of effective communication between veterinarians and pet owners regarding the importance of preventive care. Checklists have been widely used in many fields and are especially useful in areas where a complex task must be completed with multiple small steps, or when cognitive fatigue is evident. The use of checklists in veterinary medical education has not yet been thoroughly evaluated as a potential strategy to improve communication with pet owners regarding preventive care. The authors explored whether the use of a checklist based on the American Animal Hospital Association/American Veterinary Medical Association canine and feline preventive care guidelines would benefit senior veterinary students in accomplishing more complete canine and feline wellness visits. A group of students using provided checklists was compared to a control group of students who did not use checklists on the basis of their medical record notes from the visits. The students using the checklists were routinely more complete in several areas of a wellness visit vs. those who did not use the checklists. However, neither group of students routinely discussed follow-up care recommendations such as frequency or timing of follow-up visits. The study authors recommend considering checklist use for teaching and implementing wellness in companion animal primary care veterinary clinical teaching settings.

  10. An Improved Technique for the Photometry and Astrometry of Faint Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Daniel; Gladysz, Szymon; Roberts, Lewis; Devaney, Nicholas; Dainty, Chris

    2009-07-01

    We propose a new approach to differential astrometry and photometry of faint companions in adaptive optics images. It is based on a prewhitening matched filter, also referred to in the literature as the Hotelling observer. We focus on cases where the signal of the companion is located within the bright halo of the parent star. Using real adaptive optics data from the 3 m Shane telescope at the Lick Observatory, we compare the performance of the Hotelling algorithm with other estimation algorithms currently used for the same problem. The real single-star data are used to generate artificial binary objects with a range of magnitude ratios. In most cases, the Hotelling observer gives significantly lower astrometric and photometric errors. In the case of high Strehl ratio (SR) data (SR ≈ 0.5), the differential photometry of a binary star with a Δm = 4.5 and a separation of 0.6″ is better than 0.1 mag a factor of 2 lower than the other algorithms considered.

  11. Mining free-text medical records for companion animal enteric syndrome surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anholt, R M; Berezowski, J; Jamal, I; Ribble, C; Stephen, C

    2014-03-01

    Large amounts of animal health care data are present in veterinary electronic medical records (EMR) and they present an opportunity for companion animal disease surveillance. Veterinary patient records are largely in free-text without clinical coding or fixed vocabulary. Text-mining, a computer and information technology application, is needed to identify cases of interest and to add structure to the otherwise unstructured data. In this study EMR's were extracted from veterinary management programs of 12 participating veterinary practices and stored in a data warehouse. Using commercially available text-mining software (WordStat™), we developed a categorization dictionary that could be used to automatically classify and extract enteric syndrome cases from the warehoused electronic medical records. The diagnostic accuracy of the text-miner for retrieving cases of enteric syndrome was measured against human reviewers who independently categorized a random sample of 2500 cases as enteric syndrome positive or negative. Compared to the reviewers, the text-miner retrieved cases with enteric signs with a sensitivity of 87.6% (95%CI, 80.4-92.9%) and a specificity of 99.3% (95%CI, 98.9-99.6%). Automatic and accurate detection of enteric syndrome cases provides an opportunity for community surveillance of enteric pathogens in companion animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Children’s Experiences of Companion Animal Maltreatment in Households Characterized by Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Shelby Elaine; Collins, Elizabeth A.; Nicotera, Nicole; Hageman, Tina O.; Ascione, Frank R.; Williams, James Herbert; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    Cruelty toward companion animals is a well-documented, coercive tactic used by abusive partners to intimidate and control their intimate partners. Experiences of co-occurring violence are common for children living in families with intimate partner violence (IPV) and surveys show that more than half are also exposed to abuse of their pets. Given children’s relationships with their pets, witnessing such abuse may be traumatic for them. Yet little is known about the prevalence and significance of this issue for children. The present study examines the experiences of children in families with co-occurring pet abuse and IPV. Using qualitative methods, 58 children ages 7-12 who were exposed to IPV were asked to describe their experiences of threats to and harm of their companion animals. Following the interviews, template analysis was employed to systematically develop codes and themes. Coding reliability was assessed using Randolph's free-marginal multirater kappa (kfree = .90). Five themes emerged from the qualitative data, the most common being children’s exposure to pet abuse as a power and control tactic against their mother in the context of IPV. Other themes were animal maltreatment to discipline or punish the pet, animal cruelty by a sibling, children intervening to prevent pet abuse, and children intervening to protect the pet during a violent episode. Results indicate that children’s experiences of pet abuse are multifaceted, potentially traumatic, and may involve multiple family members with diverse motives. PMID:26520828

  13. Children's experiences of companion animal maltreatment in households characterized by intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Shelby Elaine; Collins, Elizabeth A; Nicotera, Nicole; Hageman, Tina O; Ascione, Frank R; Williams, James Herbert; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A

    2015-12-01

    Cruelty toward companion animals is a well-documented, coercive tactic used by abusive partners to intimidate and control their intimate partners. Experiences of co-occurring violence are common for children living in families with intimate partner violence (IPV) and surveys show that more than half are also exposed to abuse of their pets. Given children's relationships with their pets, witnessing such abuse may be traumatic for them. Yet little is known about the prevalence and significance of this issue for children. The present study examines the experiences of children in families with co-occurring pet abuse and IPV. Using qualitative methods, 58 children ages 7-12 who were exposed to IPV were asked to describe their experiences of threats to and harm of their companion animals. Following the interviews, template analysis was employed to systematically develop codes and themes. Coding reliability was assessed using Randolph's free-marginal multirater kappa (kfree=.90). Five themes emerged from the qualitative data, the most common being children's exposure to pet abuse as a power and control tactic against their mother in the context of IPV. Other themes were animal maltreatment to discipline or punish the pet, animal cruelty by a sibling, children intervening to prevent pet abuse, and children intervening to protect the pet during a violent episode. Results indicate that children's experiences of pet abuse are multifaceted, potentially traumatic, and may involve multiple family members with diverse motives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Expert consensus regarding drivers of antimicrobial stewardship in companion animal veterinary practice: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Kay; King, Caroline; Nuttall, Tim; Smith, Matt; Flowers, Paul

    2018-03-23

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global challenge facing both human and animal healthcare professionals; an effective response to this threat requires a 'One-Health' approach to antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) to preserve important antibiotics for urgent clinical need. However, understanding of barriers and enablers to effective AMS behaviour in companion animal veterinary practice is currently limited. We conducted a Delphi study of 16 nationally recognised experts from UK-based veterinary policymakers, university academics and leaders of professional bodies. This Delphi study sought to identify veterinary behaviours which experts believe contribute to AMR and form vital aspects of AMS. Analysis of Delphi findings indicated a perceived hierarchy of behaviours, the most influential being antibiotic prescribing behaviours and interactions with clients. Other veterinary behaviours perceived as being important related to interactions with veterinary colleagues; infection control practices; and the use of diagnostic tests to confirm infection. Key barriers and enablers to AMS within each of these behavioural domains were identified. Specific interventions to address important barriers and enablers are recommended. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to establish expert consensus at a national level about which 'behaviours' (aspects of veterinarian practice) should be targeted in relation to AMR and AMS in companion animal veterinary practice. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. The role of veterinary team effectiveness in job satisfaction and burnout in companion animal veterinary clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Irene C; Coe, Jason B; Adams, Cindy L; Conlon, Peter D; Sargeant, Jan M

    2014-09-01

    To determine the role of veterinary team effectiveness regarding job satisfaction and burnout in companion animal veterinary practice. Cross-sectional observational study. 48 companion animal veterinary health-care teams. 274 team members participated in an online survey. Overall job satisfaction was evaluated with a 1-item measure, and the 3 dimensions of burnout (exhaustion, cynicism, and professional efficacy) were measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey. Team effectiveness was assessed with a survey developed for this study. Demographic and team effectiveness factors (coordinated team environment, toxic team environment, team engagement, and individual engagement) associated with job satisfaction and burnout were evaluated. Overall mean job satisfaction score was 5.46 of 7 (median, 6.00); veterinary technicians and kennel attendants had the lowest scores. According to the Maslach survey results, 22.4% of participants were in the high-risk category for exhaustion, 23.2% were in the high-risk category for cynicism, and 9.3% were in the high-risk category for professional efficacy. A coordinated team environment was associated with increased professional efficacy and decreased cynicism. A toxic team environment was negatively associated with job satisfaction and positively associated with exhaustion and cynicism. Individual engagement was positively associated with job satisfaction and professional efficacy and negatively associated with exhaustion and cynicism. Results suggested the effectiveness of a veterinary team can significantly influence individual team members' job satisfaction and burnout. Practices should pay specific attention to the effectiveness with which their veterinary team operates.

  16. Characterisation of antimicrobial usage in cats and dogs attending UK primary care companion animal veterinary practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland, E L; O'Neill, D; Summers, J; Mateus, A; Church, D; Redmond, L; Brodbelt, D

    2016-11-12

    There is scant evidence describing antimicrobial (AM) usage in companion animal primary care veterinary practices in the UK. The use of AMs in dogs and cats was quantified using data extracted from 374 veterinary practices participating in VetCompass. The frequency and quantity of systemic antibiotic usage was described.Overall, 25 per cent of 963,463 dogs and 21 per cent of 594,812 cats seen at veterinary practices received at least one AM over a two-year period (2012-2014) and 42 per cent of these animals were given repeated AMs. The main agents used were aminopenicillin types and cephalosporins. Of the AM events, 60 per cent in dogs and 81 per cent in cats were AMs classified as critically important (CIAs) to human health by the World Health Organisation. CIAs of highest importance (fluoroquinolones, macrolides, third-generation cephalosporins) accounted for just over 6 per cent and 34 per cent of AMs in dogs and cats, respectively. The total quantity of AMs used within the study population was estimated to be 1473 kg for dogs and 58 kg for cats.This study has identified a high frequency of AM usage in companion animal practice and for certain agents classified as of critical importance in human medicine. The study highlights the usefulness of veterinary practice electronic health records for studying AM usage. British Veterinary Association.

  17. Prose Fiction as a Narrative Companion for a Vegetable Parenting Videogame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Leah; Beltran, Alicia; Buday, Richard; O'Connor, Teresia; Hughes, Sheryl; Baranowski, Janice; Diep, Cassandra; Lu, Amy Shirong; Baranowski, Tom

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the capacity of story to connect to a health-related videogame, as well as the qualities that may increase efficacy by making the story compelling. Parents of 3-5-year-old children often report difficulty getting their children to eat vegetables, which are protective against chronic illnesses. Videogames may be vehicles for training parenting practices for successful vegetable consumption outcomes but often rely on stories to provide context and details. Unfortunately, storytelling may interrupt immersion and player agency. Delivering stories outside of gameplay may provide an understanding of game situations while maintaining immersion. Two companion storylines (one a romantic adventure and the other a suspenseful fantasy) were generated for a vegetable parenting game, "Mommio," targeting mothers of preschool children. Mothers of 3-5-year-old children (n=18) read both storylines and completed semistructured interviews. Mothers preferred the romantic adventure, which featured strong characters, relatable issues, and an engaging plot. Most mothers were interested in playing the "Mommio" videogame after reading the stories. Results suggest that it is possible for prose literature to both motivate gameplay and be an immersive narrative companion to, but separate from, games for health. This literature should include engaging, realistic stories and relatable strong characters.

  18. Communication patterns in audiologic rehabilitation history-taking: audiologists, patients, and their companions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenness, Caitlin; Hickson, Louise; Laplante-Lévesque, Ariane; Meyer, Carly; Davidson, Bronwyn

    2015-01-01

    The nature of communication between patient and practitioner influences patient outcomes. Specifically, the history-taking phase of a consultation plays a role in the development of a relationship and in the success of subsequent shared decision making. There is limited research investigating patient-centered communication in audiology, and this study may be the first to investigate verbal communication in an adult audiologic rehabilitation context. This research aimed, first, to describe the nature of verbal communication involving audiologists, patients, and companions in the history-taking phase of initial audiology consultations and, second, to determine factors associated with communication dynamics. Sixty-three initial audiology consultations involving patients over the age of 55, their companions when present, and audiologists were audio-video recorded. Consultations were coded using the Roter Interaction Analysis System and divided into three consultation phases: history, examination, and counseling. This study analyzed only the history-taking phase in terms of opening structure, communication profiles of each speaker, and communication dynamics. Associations between communication dynamics (verbal dominance, content balance, and communication control) and 11 variables were evaluated using Linear Mixed Model methods. The mean length of the history-taking phase was 8.8 min (range 1.7 to 22.6). A companion was present in 27% of consultations. Results were grouped into three areas of communication: opening structure, information exchange, and relationship building. Examination of the history opening structure revealed audiologists' tendency to control the agenda by initiating consultations with a closed-ended question 62% of the time, followed by interruption of patient talk after 21.3 sec, on average. The aforementioned behaviors were associated with increased verbal dominance throughout the history and increased control over the content of questions. For the

  19. "You're dealing with an emotionally charged individual...": an industry perspective on the challenges posed by medical tourists' informal caregiver-companions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Victoria; Crooks, Valorie A; Snyder, Jeremy; Turner, Leigh

    2013-07-26

    Patients engage in medical tourism when they privately obtain a medical care abroad. Previous research shows that many medical tourists travel abroad with friends and family members who provide support and assistance. Meanwhile, very little is known about this important stakeholder group, referred to here as caregiver-companions. In this article we examine the challenges that can be posed by caregiver-companions and the overall practice of informal caregiving in medical tourism from an industry perspective. Specifically, we report on the findings of interviews conducted with international patient coordinators (IPCs) who work at destination facilities. IPCs come into regular contact with caregiver-companions in their professional positions and thus are ideally suited to comment on trends they have observed among this stakeholder group as well as the challenges they can pose to medical tourists, health workers, and facilities. We conducted 20 semi-structured interviews with 21 IPCs from 16 different facilities across nine countries. Topics probed in the interviews included caregiver-companion roles, IPCs' and others' interaction with caregiver-companions, and potential health and safety risks posed to medical tourists and caregiver-companions. Thematic analysis of the verbatim transcripts was employed. Although most participants encouraged medical tourists to travel with a caregiver-companion, many challenges associated with caregiver-companions were identified. Three themes best characterize the challenges that emerged: (1) caregiver-companions require time, attention and resources; (2) caregiver-companions can disrupt the provision of quality care; and (3) caregiver-companions can be exposed to risks. IPCs pointed out that caregiver-companions may, for example, have a negative impact on the patient through cost of accompaniment or inadequate care provision. Caregiver-companions may also create unanticipated or extra work for IPCs, as additional clients and by

  20. “You’re dealing with an emotionally charged individual…”: an industry perspective on the challenges posed by medical tourists’ informal caregiver-companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients engage in medical tourism when they privately obtain a medical care abroad. Previous research shows that many medical tourists travel abroad with friends and family members who provide support and assistance. Meanwhile, very little is known about this important stakeholder group, referred to here as caregiver-companions. In this article we examine the challenges that can be posed by caregiver-companions and the overall practice of informal caregiving in medical tourism from an industry perspective. Specifically, we report on the findings of interviews conducted with international patient coordinators (IPCs) who work at destination facilities. IPCs come into regular contact with caregiver-companions in their professional positions and thus are ideally suited to comment on trends they have observed among this stakeholder group as well as the challenges they can pose to medical tourists, health workers, and facilities. Methods We conducted 20 semi-structured interviews with 21 IPCs from 16 different facilities across nine countries. Topics probed in the interviews included caregiver-companion roles, IPCs’ and others’ interaction with caregiver-companions, and potential health and safety risks posed to medical tourists and caregiver-companions. Thematic analysis of the verbatim transcripts was employed. Results Although most participants encouraged medical tourists to travel with a caregiver-companion, many challenges associated with caregiver-companions were identified. Three themes best characterize the challenges that emerged: (1) caregiver-companions require time, attention and resources; (2) caregiver-companions can disrupt the provision of quality care; and (3) caregiver-companions can be exposed to risks. IPCs pointed out that caregiver-companions may, for example, have a negative impact on the patient through cost of accompaniment or inadequate care provision. Caregiver-companions may also create unanticipated or extra work for IPCs, as

  1. A likely candidate of type Ia supernova progenitors: the X-ray pulsating companion of the hot subdwarf HD 49798

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bo; Han Zhanwen

    2010-01-01

    HD 49798 is a hydrogen depleted subdwarf O6 star and has an X-ray pulsating companion (RX J0648.0-4418). The X-ray pulsating companion is a massive white dwarf. Employing Eggleton's stellar evolution code with the optically thick wind assumption, we find that the hot subdwarf HD 49798 and its X-ray pulsating companion could produce a type Ia supernova (SN Ia) in future evolution. This implies that the binary system is a likely candidate of an SN Ia progenitor. We also discuss the possibilities of some other WD + He star systems (e.g. V445 Pup and KPD 1930+2752) for producing SNe Ia. (research papers)

  2. The Substellar Companion ROXs12 B: Near-Infrared Spectrum, System Architecture, and Spin-Orbit Misalignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Brendan; Kraus, Adam L.; Bryan, Marta; Knutson, Heather; Brogi, Matteo; Rizzuto, Aaron; Mace, Gregory N.; Vanderburg, Andrew; Liu, Michael C.; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Cieza, Lucas

    2018-01-01

    ROXs 12 B is a substellar companion near the deuterium-burning limit orbiting a young star in Ophiuchus/Upper Scorpius. We present moderate-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy of this little-studied object, which shows clear evidence of low surface gravity and youth. Although ROXs 12 B does not possess obvious signs of a circumplanetary disk, we find that at least half of young (alignment in this system. The rotation axis of ROXs 12 A and the orbital axis of ROXs 12 B are likely misaligned, suggesting this companion formed more akin to fragmenting binary stars than planets in an equatorial disk.

  3. A PRECISE MASS MEASUREMENT OF THE INTERMEDIATE-MASS BINARY PULSAR PSR J1802 - 2124

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdman, R. D.; Cognard, I.; Desvignes, G.; Theureau, G.; Stairs, I. H.; Kramer, M.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Lorimer, D. R.; Nice, D. J.; Manchester, R. N.; Hobbs, G.; Lyne, A. G.; Faulkner, A.; Camilo, F.; Possenti, A.; Demorest, P. B.; Backer, D. C.

    2010-01-01

    PSR J1802 - 2124 is a 12.6 ms pulsar in a 16.8 hr binary orbit with a relatively massive white dwarf (WD) companion. These properties make it a member of the intermediate-mass class of binary pulsar (IMBP) systems. We have been timing this pulsar since its discovery in 2002. Concentrated observations at the Green Bank Telescope, augmented with data from the Parkes and Nancay observatories, have allowed us to determine the general relativistic Shapiro delay. This has yielded pulsar and WD mass measurements of 1.24 ± 0.11 M sun and 0.78 ± 0.04 M sun (68% confidence), respectively. The low mass of the pulsar, the high mass of the WD companion, the short orbital period, and the pulsar spin period may be explained by the system having gone through a common-envelope phase in its evolution. We argue that selection effects may contribute to the relatively small number of known IMBPs.

  4. Population dynamics, overpopulation, and the welfare of companion animals: new insights on old and new data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawistowski, S; Morris, J; Salman, M D; Ruch-Gallie, R

    1998-01-01

    Americans profess a great love for their companion animals, and, indeed, their expenditures on food and other products for their dogs and cats would seem to confirm this. However, each year, many millions of dogs and cats are brought to animal shelters, where the majority are euthanized. Our inability to provide reasonably valid statistics related to this concern makes it difficult to offer a credible presentation on the need for a concerted effort to deal with the issue, design initiatives to ameliorate the problem, or evaluate progress and performance of these efforts. In this article we review some of the past efforts to document the scale of the "pet overpopulation" problem. We reexamine long-term shelter statistics from a single shelter system and present new data that reflect a recent cooperative effort to understand the origins and disposition of dogs and cats received by animal shelters.

  5. The health effects of fetal microchimerism can be modeled in companion dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Senthil R; Hansen, Sarah A; Axiak-Bechtel, Sandra M; Bryan, Jeffrey N

    2013-01-01

    Fetal microchimerism (FMC) has been described to have a range of effects on health and disease. Y-chromosomal DNA has been detected in Golden Retrievers suggesting persistent FMC. In that report, nine dogs had evidence of microchimerism without prior pregnancy. To further understand this finding, a dam with prior male live births giving birth to her fourth litter of puppies, all females, was evaluated for FMC along with two of her daughters. All three female dogs had evidence of Y-chromosomal DNA in their blood. This suggests that male cells carried by the dam from previous pregnancy trafficked to her daughters to establish microchimerism in younger siblings. Companion dogs share many of the same cancers as humans, have out-bred genetics, and share the human environment, making them optimal models of human disease. Understanding the impact of FMC on health and disease of dogs could elucidate mechanisms useful for clinical interventions in humans.

  6. Group of family companions of hospitalized patients: an occupational therapy intervention strategy in a general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ferreira Dahdah

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a consensus in the literature that the company of a family member during the hospitalization period increases patient recovery. However, this can have some negative effects on the caregiver’s health. With the purpose of reducing these negatives effects, it is useful to let family members express themselves. The State Hospital of Ribeirão Preto created a Group of Family Companions coordinated by the Occupational Therapy and Social Service. This study focuses on the assistance offered in a general hospital to families that undergo the whole illness and hospitalization process of their family member, suffering the impacts of this process in their daily lives, and on the intervention of Occupational Therapy in these cases.

  7. PSR 1913 + 16: endpoints of speculation. A critical discussion of possible companions and progenitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webbink, R F [Cambridge Univ. (UK). Inst. of Astronomy

    1975-01-01

    We attempt a comprehensive discussion of the nature and origin of the binary pulsar PSR 1913 + 16. It is shown that the system must have been binary before the creation of the pulsar. Main-sequence stars, white dwarfs, helium stars, neutron stars and black holes are considered as possible secondaries. It is shown that the pulsar component must have been a helium star before collapse. The companion is probably a neutron star, although a helium star or black hole cannot be excluded. We suggest that the pulsar was formed when a moderately massive (2 to 8 M(S)) helium star overfilled its Roche lobe and was stripped of its helium-rich envelope. Core collapse and carbon ignition followed rapidly, creating the neutron star we observe.

  8. Imaginary companions, theory of mind and emotion understanding in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giménez-Dasí, Marta; Pons, Francisco; Bender, Patrick Karl

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of imaginary companions (ICs) has received little attention in developmental psychology, even though it can be observed in approximately 25% of preschool-aged children. Only a few studies have investigated the effect of ICs on children's theory of mind and emotion understanding......, and the results are partial or inconsistent. This study used comprehensive measures to assess emotional understanding and theory of mind in children aged four to six with ICs (N = 24) and compared their performance to that of children without ICs (N = 24). Results showed that children with ICs, regardless of age...... and gender, have a better theory of mind and emotion understanding than children without ICs. The greatest impact of ICs was on girls' emotion understanding. The results are discussed in relation to gender differences....

  9. How to think like a mathematician a companion to undergraduate mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Houston, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Looking for a head start in your undergraduate degree in mathematics? Maybe you've already started your degree and feel bewildered by the subject you previously loved? Don't panic! This friendly companion will ease your transition to real mathematical thinking. Working through the book you will develop an arsenal of techniques to help you unlock the meaning of definitions, theorems and proofs, solve problems, and write mathematics effectively. All the major methods of proof - direct method, cases, induction, contradiction and contrapositive - are featured. Concrete examples are used throughout, and you'll get plenty of practice on topics common to many courses such as divisors, Euclidean algorithms, modular arithmetic, equivalence relations, and injectivity and surjectivity of functions. The material has been tested by real students over many years so all the essentials are covered. With over 300 exercises to help you test your progress, you'll soon learn how to think like a mathematician.

  10. Critically appraised topic on adverse food reactions of companion animals (1): duration of elimination diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivry, Thierry; Mueller, Ralf S; Prélaud, Pascal

    2015-08-28

    Restrictive (i.e. elimination)-provocation dietary trials remain the standard of care to diagnose cutaneous adverse food reactions (CAFRs) in dogs and cats. There is currently no consensus on the duration of elimination diet trials that would permit the highest sensitivity of diagnosis of CAFR in companion animals. The search for, and review and analysis of the best evidence available as of December 14, 2014 suggests that, by 5 weeks in dogs and 6 weeks in cats after starting an elimination diet, more than 80 % of patients had achieved a remission of clinical signs of CAFR. Increasing the diet trial duration to 8 weeks leads to a complete remission in more than 90 % of dogs and cats with CAFR. For diagnosing CAFRs in more than 90 % of dogs and cats, elimination diet trials should last at least 8 weeks.

  11. Living with the animals: animal or robotic companions for the elderly in smart homes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuß, Dirk; Legal, Friederike

    2017-06-01

    Although the use of pet robots in senior living facilities and day-care centres, particularly for individuals suffering from dementia, has been intensively researched, the question of introducing pet robots into domestic settings has been relatively neglected. Ambient assisted living (AAL) offers many interface opportunities for integrating motorised companions. There are diverse medical reasons, as well as arguments from animal ethics, that support the use of pet robots in contrast to living with live animals. However, as this paper makes clear, we should not lose sight of the option of living with animals at home for as long as possible and in conformity with the welfare of the animal assisted by AAL technology. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Companion Modeling, Conflict Resolution, and Institution Building: Sharing Irrigation Water in the Lingmuteychu Watershed, Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayan Raj. Gurung

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We used multi-agent systems (MAS, following the companion modeling method, to facilitate water management negotiations in Bhutan. We show how this methodology helped resolve a conflict over the sharing of water resources by establishing a concrete agreement and creating an institution for collective watershed management. The conceptual model begins with a role-playing game (RPG. The stakeholders play the game, thus validating the proposed environment, the behavioral rules, and the emergent properties of the game. It is then relatively easy to translate the RPG into computerized MAS that allow different scenarios to be explored. After this first step in the MAS model, stakeholders then create an institution. A second model is developed to facilitate this process. We conclude by discussing the relationship between the models and reality, as well as the use of MAS as a mediation tool and the social process.

  13. Overcoming regulatory challenges in the development of companion diagnostics for monitoring and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazawa, Rumiko; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2016-03-01

    Concurrent development and co-approval of a companion diagnostic (CDx) with a corresponding drug is ideal, but often unfeasible. Because of limited exposure to a drug in clinical trials, crucial information on safety is sometimes revealed only after approval. Therefore, a CDx for monitoring/safety is often developed after approval of a corresponding drug. However, regulatory guidance is insufficient if contemporaneous development is not possible, thereby leaving plenty of opportunities for improvement with respect to pharmacovigilance and retrospective validation of the CDx. Furthermore, global harmonization of guidance on how to incorporate new scientific information from retrospective analyses of biomarkers should lead to the establishment of more evidence for the development of CDx for approved drugs.

  14. Advances in Neutron Activation Analysis of Large Objects with Emphasis on Archaeological Examples. Results of a Coordinated Research Project. Annex II. Companion CD-ROM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-03-01

    This publication is a compilation of the main results and findings of an IAEA coordinated research project (CRP). In particular, it discusses an innovative variation of neutron activation analysis (NAA) known as large sample NAA (LSNAA). There is no other way to measure the bulk mass fractions of the elements present in a large sample (up to kilograms in mass) non-destructively. Examples amenable to LSNAA include irregularly shaped archaeological artefacts, excavated rock samples, large samples of assorted ore, and finished products, such as nuclear reactor components. Advantages of LSNAA applications, limitations and scientific and technological requirements are described in this publication, which serves as a reference of interest not only to the NAA experts, research reactor personnel, and those considering this technique, but also to various stakeholders and users such as researchers, industrialists, environmental and legal experts, and administrators. The county reports given in this companion CD-ROM (Annex II) give a global overview of all the accomplishments achieved by the participants during the CRP. However, in several cases common procedures were employed by several participating laboratories, constituting one general approach.

  15. The zoonotic potential of Clostridium difficile from small companion animals and their owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabold, Denise; Espelage, Werner; Abu Sin, Muna; Eckmanns, Tim; Schneeberg, Alexander; Neubauer, Heinrich; Möbius, Nadine; Hille, Katja; Wieler, Lothar H; Seyboldt, Christian; Lübke-Becker, Antina

    2018-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in humans range from asymptomatic carriage to life-threatening intestinal disease. Findings on C. difficile in various animal species and an overlap in ribotypes (RTs) suggest potential zoonotic transmission. However, the impact of animals for human CDI remains unclear. In a large-scale survey we collected 1,447 fecal samples to determine the occurrence of C. difficile in small companion animals (dogs and cats) and their owners and to assess potential epidemiological links within the community. The Germany-wide survey was conducted from July 2012-August 2013. PCR ribotyping, Multilocus VNTR Analysis (MLVA) and PCR detection of toxin genes were used to characterize isolated C. difficile strains. A database was defined and logistic regression used to identify putative factors associated with fecal shedding of C. difficile. In total, 1,418 samples met the inclusion criteria. The isolation rates for small companion animals and their owners within the community were similarly low with 3.0% (25/840) and 2.9% (17/578), respectively. PCR ribotyping revealed eight and twelve different RTs in animals and humans, respectively, whereas three RTs were isolated in both, humans and animals. RT 014/0, a well-known human hospital-associated lineage, was predominantly detected in animal samples. Moreover, the potentially highly pathogenic RTs 027 and 078 were isolated from dogs. Even though, C. difficile did not occur simultaneously in animals and humans sharing the same household. The results of the epidemiological analysis of factors associated with fecal shedding of C. difficile support the hypothesis of a zoonotic potential. Molecular characterization and epidemiological analysis revealed that the zoonotic risk for C. difficile associated with dogs and cats within the community is low but cannot be excluded.

  16. Hubble Space Telescope Trigonometric Parallax of Polaris B, Companion of the Nearest Cepheid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Howard E.; Nelan, Edmund P.; Remage Evans, Nancy; Schaefer, Gail H.; Harmer, Dianne

    2018-01-01

    Polaris, the nearest and brightest Cepheid, is a potential anchor point for the Leavitt period–luminosity relation. However, its distance is a matter of contention, with recent advocacy for a parallax of ∼10 mas, in contrast with the Hipparcos measurement of 7.54 ± 0.11 mas. We report an independent trigonometric parallax determination, using the Fine Guidance Sensors (FGS) on the Hubble Space Telescope. Polaris itself is too bright for FGS, so we measured its eighth-magnitude companion Polaris B, relative to a network of background reference stars. We converted the FGS relative parallax to absolute, using estimated distances to the reference stars from ground-based photometry and spectral classification. Our result, 6.26 ± 0.24 mas, is even smaller than that found by Hipparcos. We note other objects for which Hipparcos appears to have overestimated parallaxes, including the well-established case of the Pleiades. We consider possible sources of systematic error in the FGS parallax, but find no evidence they are significant. If our “long” distance is correct, the high luminosity of Polaris indicates that it is pulsating in the second overtone of its fundamental mode. Our results raise several puzzles, including a long pulsation period for Polaris compared to second-overtone pulsators in the Magellanic Clouds, and a conflict between the isochrone age of Polaris B (∼2.1 Gyr) and the much younger age of Polaris A. We discuss possibilities that B is not a physical companion of A, in spite of the strong evidence that it is, or that one of the stars is a merger remnant. These issues may be resolved when Gaia provides parallaxes for both stars. Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained by the Space Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  17. Halophytic Companion Plants Improve Growth and Physiological Parameters of Tomato Plants Grown under Salinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakas, S.; Cullu, M. A.; Kaya, C.; Dikilitas, M.

    2016-01-01

    Salinity becomes a major concern when soil salt concentration becomes excessive in growth medium. Halophytes are capable of accumulating high concentrations of NaCl in their tissues, thus using halophytic plants in crop rotations or even in mixed cropping systems may be a promising management practices to mitigate salt stress related yield loses. Salinity induced yield losses and related physiological parameters on tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. SC2121) grown with or without halophytic companion plants (SalsolasodaL. and Portulacaoleracea L.) were investigated in pot experiment. Treatments consist of four soil type (collected from Harran plain-Turkey) with similar physical properties but varying in salinity level: electrical conductivity (EC): 0.9, 4.2, 7.2, and 14.1 dS m/sup -1/. The reduction in plant total dry weight was 24, 19, and 48 percent in soils with slight (4.2dS m/sup -1/), moderate (7.2 dS m/sup -1/) and high (14.1 dS m/sup -1/) salinity as compared to non-saline soil (0.9 dS m/sup -1/), respectively. Leaf content of proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX) enzyme activity increased with increasing level of salinity. In tomato plants grown in consociation with Salsolasoda, salinity induced DM decrease was only 6, 12 and 28% in soils with slight, moderate and high salinity as compared to non-saline soil, respectively. However, when Portulaca oleracea used as companion plant, no significant change in biomass or fruit yield was observed. This study showed that mixed planting with Salsolasodain high saline soils may be an effective phyto-remediation technique that may secure yield formation and quality of tomato. (author)

  18. NEW CONSTRAINTS ON COMPANIONS AND DUST WITHIN A FEW AU OF VEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennesson, B.; Serabyn, E.; Martin, S. R.; Liewer, K.; Mawet, D.; Hanot, C.

    2011-01-01

    We report on high contrast near-infrared (∼2.2 μm) observations of Vega obtained with the Palomar Fiber Nuller, a dual sub-aperture rotating coronagraph installed at the Palomar Hale telescope. The data show consistent astrophysical null depth measurements at the ≅ 10 -3 level or below for three different baseline orientations spanning 60 deg in azimuth, with individual 1σ uncertainties ≤7 x 10 -4 . These high cancellation and accuracy levels translate into a dynamic range greater than 1000:1 inside the diffraction limit of the 5 m telescope beam. Such high contrast performance is unprecedented in the near-infrared and provides improved constraints on Vega's immediate (≅20 to 250 mas, or ≅0.15 to 2 AU) environment. In particular, our measurements rule out any potential companion in the [0.25-1 AU] region contributing more than 1% of the overall near-infrared stellar flux, with limits as low as 0.2% near 0.6 AU. These are the best upper limits established so far by direct detection for a companion to Vega in this inner region. We also conclude that any dust population contributing a significant (≥1%) near-infrared thermal excess can arise only within 0.2 AU of the star, and that it must consist of much smaller grains than in the solar zodiacal cloud. Dust emission from farther than ≅2 AU is also not ruled out by our observations, but would have to originate in strong scattering, pointing again to very small grains.

  19. Knowledge brokers, companions, and navigators: a qualitative examination of informal caregivers' roles in medical tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Victoria; Crooks, Valorie A; Snyder, Jeremy; Turner, Leigh

    2013-12-01

    Many studies examining the phenomena of medical tourism have identified health equity issues associated with this global health services practice. However, there is a notable lack of attention in this existing research to the informal care provided by the friends and family members who typically accompany medical tourists abroad. To date, researchers have not examined the care roles filled by informal caregivers travelling with medical tourists. In this article, we fill this gap by examining these informal caregivers and the roles they take on towards supporting medical tourists' health and wellbeing. We conducted 21 interviews with International Patient Coordinators (IPCs) working at medical tourism hospitals across ten countries. IPCs work closely with informal caregivers as providers of non-medical personal assistance, and can therefore offer broad insight on caregiver roles. The interviews were coded and analyzed thematically. Three roles emerged: knowledge broker, companion, and navigator. As knowledge brokers, caregivers facilitate the transfer of information between the medical tourist and formal health care providers as well as other staff members at medical tourism facilities. The companion role involves providing medical tourists with physical and emotional care. Meanwhile, responsibilities associated with handling documents and coordinating often complex journeys are part of the navigation role. This is the first study to examine informal caregiving roles in medical tourism. Many of the roles identified are similar to those of conventional informal caregivers while others are specific to the transnational context. We conclude that these roles make informal caregivers an integral part of the larger phenomenon of medical tourism. We further contend that examining the roles taken on by a heretofore-unconsidered medical tourism stakeholder group sheds valuable insight into how this industry operates and that such knowledge is necessary in order to respond to

  20. Genetic characterization and plasmid replicon typing of ß-lactam resistant Escherichia coli from humans and companion animals in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limited therapeutic options due to antimicrobial resistance (AR) is a major threat to human and animal health worldwide. There is a paucity of information on ß-lactam resistant Esherichia coli isolated from companion animals in developing countries; therefore their zoonotic impact is unknown. This s...

  1. 76 FR 51993 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff on In Vitro Companion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-D-0215] Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff on In Vitro Companion Diagnostic Devices; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; extension...

  2. America's New War on Poverty: A Reader for Action. Companion to the Public Television Series "America's War on Poverty."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Robert, Comp.

    Companion to a five-part public television documentary, this book describes efforts across the United States to fight poverty, and also prescribes that we all take responsibility for a fight against economic inequality. The book's goal is to contribute to a meaningful discussion about poverty in America, a topic that cannot be broached today…

  3. Community perceptions towards the new role of traditional birth attendants as birth companions and nutrition advocates in Kakamega County, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anono, Esther L; Ochola, Sophie; Wawire, Salome; Ogada, Irene; Ndedda, Crispin; Kung'u, Jacqueline K

    2018-02-01

    Delivery with skilled birth attendants is important for reducing maternal mortality in developing countries. However, traditional birth attendants (TBAs) are abundant in such settings, managing deliveries without the skills and resources necessary to prevent mortality in this situations. Interventions that have been proposed to mitigate the situation include redefining the role of TBAs to nutrition advocates and birth companions for pregnant women to health facilities. We thus explored community perceptions on these new roles of TBAs, as birth companions and nutrition advocates, and their influence on health facility deliveries in Kakamega County, Kenya. Qualitative data was collected through key informant interviews with health workers and focus group discussions with lactating mothers, pregnant women, husbands, community leaders, community health volunteers, and TBA. Content analysis was conducted; data was organized into subthemes and conclusions made from each subtheme using Atlas.ti software. TBAs adopted their birth companion role as the majority offered companionship to mothers delivering at health facilities. Mothers were happy with this role as TBAs continued providing companionship even after delivery. The community members were happy with the new role of TBAs and reported increased deliveries at the health facilities. In contrast, TBAs did not adopt the nutrition advocacy role sufficiently. We found that redefining the role of the TBAs into birth companions to support facility-based delivery is thus feasible and acceptable. Nutrition advocacy by the TBAs should be strengthened to maximize on the opportunity provided by the close association between TBAs and mothers and the community. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. An Exploration of the Benefits of an Animallike Robot Companion with More Advanced Touch Interaction Capabilities for Dementia Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, Merel Madeleine; van der Leij, Lisa; Kelders, Saskia Marion

    2017-01-01

    Animallike robot companions such as robotic seal Paro are increasingly used in dementia care due to the positive effects that interaction with these robots can have on the well-being of these patients. Touch is one of the most important interaction modalities for patients with dementia and can be a

  5. ACCOMPANY: ACceptable robotiCs COMPanions for AgeiNg Years: multidimensional aspects of human-system interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amirabdollahian, Farshid; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Bedaf, Sandra; Bormann, Richard; Draper, Heather; Gelderblom, Gert Jan; Evers, Vanessa; Gutierrez Ruiz, Carolina; Hewson, David; Iacono, Iolanda; Koay, Kheng Lee; Krose, Ben; Marti, Patrizia; Prevot-Huille, Helene; Reiser, Ulrich; Saunders, Joe; Sorell, Tom; Dautenhahn, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    With changes in life expectancy across the world, technologies enhancing well-being of individuals, specifically for older people, are subject to a new stream of research and development. In this paper we present the ACCOMPANY project, a pan-European project which focuses on home companion

  6. Accompany: Acceptable robotiCs COMPanions for AgeiNg Years - Multidimensional Aspects of Human-System Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amirabdollahian, F.; Akker, op den R.; Bedaf, S.; Bormann, R.; Draper, H.; Gelderblom, G.J.; Gutierrez Ruiz, C.; Hewson, D.; Iacono, I.; Koay, K.L.; Kröse, B.; Marti, P.; Prevot-Huille, H.; Reiser, U.; Saunders, J.; Sorell, T.; Dautenhahn, K.; Paja, W.A.; Wilamowski, B.M.

    2013-01-01

    With changes in life expectancy across the world, technologies enhancing well-being of individuals, specifically for older people, are subject to a new stream of research and development. In this paper we present the ACCOMPANY project, a pan-European project which focuses on home companion

  7. Effects of Cognitive Styles on an MSN Virtual Learning Companion System as an Adjunct to Classroom Instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Wen

    2011-01-01

    This study designed a chatbot system, Confucius, as a MSN virtual learning companion to examine how specific application design variables within educational software affect the learning process of subjects as defined by the cognitive continuum of field-dependent and field-independent learners. 104 college students participated in a 12 week…

  8. What Does TV Viewing Have to Do with Internet Reading?: Readers, Television "Texts", and Intertextual Links to Companion Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    A growing number of television programs direct their viewers to access an Internet website for further information on a presented topic. The explicit link between television programs and companion Internet websites, both of which communicate information through multiple modes, can be considered a form of intertextuality. Do college students…

  9. Experiences of early labour management from perspectives of women, labour companions and health professionals: A systematic review of qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beake Rm Ma Research Associate, Sarah; Chang Ba MPhil PhD Lecturer, Yan-Shing; Cheyne Rm Rgn MSc PhD Professor Of Midwifery, Helen; Spiby MPhil Rn Rm Professor Of Midwifery, Helen; Sandall Rm MSc PhD Professor Of Social Science And Women's Health, Jane; Bick, Debra

    2018-02-01

    to examine evidence of women's, labour companions' and health professionals' experiences of management of early labour to consider how this could be enhanced to better reflect women's needs. a systematic review of qualitative evidence. women in early labour with term, low risk singleton pregnancies, not booked for a planned caesarean birth or post-dates induction of labour, their labour companions, and health professionals responsible for early labour care (e.g. midwives, nurse-midwives, obstetricians, family doctors). Studies from high and middle income country settings were considered. 21 publications were included from the UK, Ireland, Scandinavia, USA, Italy and New Zealand. Key findings included the impact of communication with health professionals (most usually midwives) on women's decision making; women wanting to be listened to by sympathetic midwives who could reassure that symptoms and signs of early labour were 'normal' and offer clear advice on what to do. Antenatal preparation which included realistic information on what to expect when labour commenced was important and appreciated by women and labour companions. Views of the optimal place for women to remain and allow early labour to progress differed and the perceived benefit of support and help offered by labour companions varied. Some were supportive and helped women to relax, while others were anxious and encouraged women to seek early admission to the planned place of birth. Web-based sources of information are increasingly used by women, with mixed views of the value of information accessed. women, labour companions and health professionals find early labour difficult to manage well, with women unsure of how decisions about admission to their planned place of birth are taken. It is unclear why women are effectively left to manage this aspect of their labour with minimal guidance or support. Tailoring management to meet individual needs, with provision of effective communication could reassure

  10. Mass discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broeckman, A. [Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1978-12-15

    In thermal ionization mass spectrometry the phenomenon of mass discrimination has led to the use of a correction factor for isotope ratio-measurements. The correction factor is defined as the measured ratio divided by the true or accepted value of this ratio. In fact this factor corrects for systematic errors of the whole procedure; however mass discrimination is often associated just with the mass spectrometer.

  11. Negative mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    Some physical aspects of negative mass are examined. Several unusual properties, such as the ability of negative mass to penetrate any armor, are analysed. Other surprising effects include the bizarre system of negative mass chasing positive mass, naked singularities and the violation of cosmic censorship, wormholes, and quantum mechanical results as well. In addition, a brief look into the implications for strings is given. (paper)

  12. Nominal Mass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attygalle, Athula B; Pavlov, Julius

    2017-08-01

    The current IUPAC-recommended definition of the term "nominal mass," based on the most abundant naturally occurring stable isotope of an element, is flawed. We propose that Nominal mass should be defined as the sum of integer masses of protons and neutrons in any chemical species. In this way, all isotopes and isotopologues can be assigned a definitive identifier. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  13. Transcriptome dynamics and molecular cross-talk between bovine oocyte and its companion cumulus cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Looft C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bi-directional communication between the oocyte and its companion cumulus cells (CCs is crucial for development and functions of both cell types. Transcripts that are exclusively expressed either in oocytes or CCs and molecular mechanisms affected due to removal of the communication axis between the two cell types is not investigated at a larger scale. The main objectives of this study were: 1. To identify transcripts exclusively expressed either in oocyte or CCs and 2. To identify those which are differentially expressed when the oocyte is cultured with or without its companion CCs and vice versa. Results We analyzed transcriptome profile of different oocyte and CC samples using Affymetrix GeneChip Bovine Genome array containing 23000 transcripts. Out of 13162 genes detected in germinal vesicle (GV oocytes and their companion CCs, 1516 and 2727 are exclusively expressed in oocytes and CCs, respectively, while 8919 are expressed in both. Similarly, of 13602 genes detected in metaphase II (MII oocytes and CCs, 1423 and 3100 are exclusively expressed in oocytes and CCs, respectively, while 9079 are expressed in both. A total of 265 transcripts are differentially expressed between oocytes cultured with (OO + CCs and without (OO - CCs CCs, of which 217 and 48 are over expressed in the former and the later groups, respectively. Similarly, 566 transcripts are differentially expressed when CCs mature with (CCs + OO or without (CCs - OO their enclosed oocytes. Of these, 320 and 246 are over expressed in CCs + OO and CCs - OO, respectively. While oocyte specific transcripts include those involved in transcription (IRF6, POU5F1, MYF5, MED18, translation (EIF2AK1, EIF4ENIF1 and CCs specific ones include those involved in carbohydrate metabolism (HYAL1, PFKL, PYGL, MPI, protein metabolic processes (IHH, APOA1, PLOD1, steroid biosynthetic process (APOA1, CYP11A1, HSD3B1, HSD3B7. Similarly, while transcripts over expressed in OO + CCs

  14. Estimation of the number and demographics of companion dogs in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asher Lucy

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current estimates of the UK dog population vary, contain potential sources of bias and are based on expensive, large scale, public surveys. Here, we evaluate the potential of a variety of sources for estimation and monitoring of the companion dog population in the UK and associated demographic information. The sources considered were: a public survey; veterinary practices; pet insurance companies; micro-chip records; Kennel Club registrations; and the Pet Travel Scheme. The public survey and subpopulation estimates from veterinary practices, pet insurance companies and Kennel Club registrations, were combined to generate distinct estimates of the UK owned dog population using a Bayesian approach. Results We estimated there are 9.4 (95% CI: 8.1-11.5 million companion dogs in the UK according to the public survey alone, which is similar to other recent estimates. The population was judged to be over-estimated by combining the public and veterinary surveys (16.4, 95% CI: 12.5-21.5 million and under-estimated by combining the public survey and insured dog numbers (4.8, 95% CI: 3.6-6.9 million. An estimate based on combining the public survey and Kennel Club registered dogs was 7.1 (95% CI: 4.5-12.9 million. Based on Bayesian estimations, 77 (95% CI: 62-92% of the UK dog population were registered at a veterinary practice; 42 (95% CI: 29-55% of dogs were insured; and 29 (95% CI: 17-43% of dogs were Kennel Club registered. Breed demographics suggested the Labrador was consistently the most popular breed registered in micro-chip records, with the Kennel Club and with J. Sainsbury's PLC pet insurance. A comparison of the demographics between these sources suggested that popular working breeds were under-represented and certain toy, utility and miniature breeds were over- represented in the Kennel Club registrations. Density maps were produced from micro-chip records based on the geographical distribution of dogs. Conclusions A list

  15. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Enterobacter spp. isolates from companion animals in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuki; Shimizu, Takae; Mukai, Yujiro; Kuwajima, Ken; Sato, Tomomi; Kajino, Akari; Usui, Masaru; Tamura, Yutaka; Kimura, Yui; Miyamoto, Tadashi; Tsuyuki, Yuzo; Ohki, Asami; Kataoka, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of antimicrobial resistance among Enterobacter spp., including resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC), is of great concern in both human and veterinary medicine. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among 60 isolates of Enterobacter spp., including E. cloacae (n = 44), E. aerogenes (n = 10), and E. asburiae (n = 6), from clinical specimens of dogs and cats from 15 prefectures in Japan. Furthermore, we characterized the resistance mechanisms harbored by these isolates, including extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR); and assessed the genetic relatedness of ESC-resistant Enterobacter spp. strains by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing demonstrated the resistance rates to ampicillin (93.3%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (93.3%), cefmetazole (93.3%), chloramphenicol (46.7%), ciprofloxacin (43.3%), tetracycline (40.0%), ceftazidime (33.3%), cefotaxime (33.3%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (28.3%), gentamicin (23.3%), and meropenem (0%). Phenotypic testing detected ESBLs in 16 of 18 ESC-resistant E. cloacae isolates but not in the other species. The most frequent ESBL was CTX-M-15 (n = 8), followed by SHV-12 (n = 7), and CTX-M-3 (n = 1). As for AmpC β-lactamases, CMY-2 (n = 2) and DHA-1 (n = 2) were identified in ESC-resistant E. cloacae strains with or without ESBLs. All of the ESC-resistant E. cloacae strains also harbored one or two PMQRs, including qnrB (n = 15), aac(6')-Ib-cr (n = 8), and qnrS (n = 2). Based on MLST and PFGE analysis, E. cloacae clones of ST591-SHV-12, ST171-CTX-M-15, and ST121-CTX-M-15 were detected in one or several hospitals. These results suggested intra- and inter-hospital dissemination of E. cloacae clones co-harboring ESBLs and PMQRs among companion animals. This is the first report on the large-scale monitoring of antimicrobial-resistant isolates

  16. Radio emissions from pulsar companions: a refutable explanation for galactic transients and fast radio bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottez, F.; Zarka, P.

    2014-09-01

    Context. The six known highly dispersed fast radio bursts are attributed to extragalactic radio sources that are of unknown origin but extremely energetic. We propose here a new explanation that does not require an extreme release of energy and involves a body (planet, asteroid, white dwarf) orbiting an extragalactic pulsar. Aims: We investigate a theory of radio waves associated with such pulsar-orbiting bodies. We focus our analysis on the waves emitted from the magnetic wake of the body in the pulsar wind. After deriving their properties, we compare them with the observations of various transient radio signals to determine whether they could originate from pulsar-orbiting bodies. Methods: The analysis is based on the theory of Alfvén wings: for a body immersed in a pulsar wind, a system of two stationary Alfvén waves is attached to the body, provided that the wind is highly magnetised. When they are destabilised through plasma instabilities, Alfvén wings can be the locus of strong radio sources that are convected with the pulsar wind. By assuming a cyclotron maser instability operating in the Alfvén wings, we make predictions about the shape, frequencies, and brightness of the resulting radio emissions. Results: Because of the beaming by relativistic aberration, the signal is seen only when the companion is perfectly aligned between its parent pulsar and the observer, as is the case for occultations. For pulsar winds with a high Lorentz factor (≥104), the whole duration of the radio event does not exceed a few seconds, and it is composed of one to four peaks that last a few milliseconds each and are detectable up to distances of several Mpc. The Lorimer burst, the three isolated pulses of PSR J1928+15, and the recently detected fast radio bursts are all compatible with our model. According to it, these transient signals should repeat periodically with the companion's orbital period. Conclusions: The search of pulsar-orbiting bodies could be an exploration

  17. Association between indoor air pollution and respiratory disease in companion dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Hui; Lo, Pei-Ying; Wu, Huey-Dong; Chang, Chinhao; Wang, Lih-Chiann

    2018-05-01

    Indoor air pollution (IAP) leads to important respiratory morbidity and mortality in humans. Companion dogs and cats share the same household environment with their owners and are exposed to IAP. Pets with respiratory disease are more commonly exposed to indoor air pollutants in their homes and to worse air quality than pets without respiratory disease. Three hundred and forty-eight animals (230 dogs and 118 cats) were recruited. Dogs and cats attending the National Taiwan University Veterinary Hospital were prospectively enrolled over a 12-month period. Questionnaires were collected from pet owners regarding the status of signs of respiratory problem of animals and air pollutants in their homes. Clinical assessment was performed by veterinarians on all animals included in the case-control study and the presence/absence of respiratory disease and diagnoses were recorded. Individual exposure to particulate matter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5) was estimated in the domestic microenvironment of the animals. Dogs with respiratory disease were more commonly exposed to incense burning than control dogs (30 versus 13%, P = .045), but household PM2.5 level was not different between dogs with and without respiratory disease [median 30.8 μg/m 3 , range 10.8-214.2 versus median 38.2 μg/m 3 , range 5.4-69.4, P = .57]. Signalment factors (age, body weight, and body condition score) instead of IAP factors were associated with respiratory disease in dogs using multivariable logistic regression. In contrast, household PM2.5 level was significantly higher in cats with respiratory disease than in control cats [median 38.6 μg/m 3 , range 17.8-131.2 versus median 27.4 μg/m 3 , range 15.4-70.0, P = .017]. Cats living in households with PM2.5 > 35 μg/m 3 were more likely to have respiratory disease than those living in households with acceptable levels of PM2.5 (OR = 4.13, 95% CI 1.12-15.27, P = .03). The link between IAP and respiratory disease in dogs is

  18. THE MASS OF HD 38529c FROM HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE ASTROMETRY AND HIGH-PRECISION RADIAL VELOCITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedict, G. Fritz; McArthur, Barbara E.; Bean, Jacob L.; Barnes, Rory; Harrison, Thomas E.; Hatzes, Artie; Martioli, Eder; Nelan, Edmund P.

    2010-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensor astrometric observations of the G4 IV star HD 38529 are combined with the results of the analysis of extensive ground-based radial velocity (RV) data to determine the mass of the outermost of two previously known companions. Our new RVs obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope and velocities from the Carnegie-California group now span over 11 yr. With these data we obtain improved RV orbital elements for both the inner companion, HD 38529b, and the outer companion, HD 38529c. We identify a rotational period of HD 38529 (P rot = 31.65 ± 0fd17) with Fine Guidance Sensor photometry. The inferred star spot fraction is consistent with the remaining scatter in velocities being caused by spot-related stellar activity. We then model the combined astrometric and RV measurements to obtain the parallax, proper motion, perturbation period, perturbation inclination, and perturbation size due to HD 38529c. For HD 38529c we find P = 2136.1 ± 0.3 d, perturbation semimajor axis α = 1.05 ± 0.06 mas, and inclination i = 48. 0 3 ± 3. 0 7. Assuming a primary mass M * = 1.48 M sun , we obtain a companion mass M c = 17.6 +1.5 -1.2 M Jup , 3σ above a 13 M Jup deuterium burning, brown dwarf lower limit. Dynamical simulations incorporating this accurate mass for HD 38529c indicate that a near-Saturn mass planet could exist between the two known companions. We find weak evidence of an additional low amplitude signal that can be modeled as a planetary-mass (∼0.17 M Jup ) companion at P ∼194 days. Including this component in our modeling lowers the error of the mass determined for HD 38529c. Additional observations (RVs and/or Gaia astrometry) are required to validate an interpretation of HD 38529d as a planetary-mass companion. If confirmed, the resulting HD 38529 planetary system may be an example of a 'Packed Planetary System'.

  19. NEUTRINO MASS

    OpenAIRE

    Kayser, Boris

    1988-01-01

    This is a review article about the most recent developments on the field of neutrino mass. The first part of the review introduces the idea of neutrino masses and mixing angles, summarizes the most recent experimental data then discusses the experimental prospects and challenges in this area. The second part of the review discusses the implications of these results for particle physics and cosmology, including the origin of neutrino mass, the see-saw mechanism and sequential dominance, and la...

  20. Neutrino mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.G.H.

    1992-01-01

    Despite intensive experimental work since the neutrino's existence was proposed by Pauli 60 years ago, and its first observation by Reines and Cowan almost 40 years ago, the neutrino's fundamental properties remain elusive. Among those properties are the masses of the three known flavors, properties under charge conjugation, parity and time-reversal, and static and dynamic electromagnetic moments. Mass is perhaps the most fundamental, as it constrains the other properties. The present status of the search for neutrino mass is briefly reviewed

  1. Cloud Atlas: Rotational Modulations in the L/T Transition Brown Dwarf Companion HN Peg B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yifan; Apai, Dániel; Metchev, Stanimir; Lew, Ben W. P.; Schneider, Glenn; Marley, Mark S.; Karalidi, Theodora; Manjavacas, Elena; Bedin, Luigi R.; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Miles-Páez, Paulo A.; Lowrance, Patrick J.; Radigan, Jacqueline; Burgasser, Adam J.

    2018-03-01

    Time-resolved observations of brown dwarfs’ rotational modulations provide powerful insights into the properties of condensate clouds in ultra-cool atmospheres. Multi-wavelength light curves reveal cloud vertical structures, condensate particle sizes, and cloud morphology, which directly constrain condensate cloud and atmospheric circulation models. We report results from Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 near-infrared G141 taken in six consecutive orbits observations of HN Peg B, an L/T transition brown dwarf companion to a G0V type star. The best-fit sine wave to the 1.1–1.7 μm broadband light curve has an amplitude of 1.206% ± 0.025% and period of 15.4 ± 0.5 hr. The modulation amplitude has no detectable wavelength dependence except in the 1.4 μm water absorption band, indicating that the characteristic condensate particle sizes are large (>1 μm). We detect significantly (4.4σ) lower modulation amplitude in the 1.4 μm water absorption band and find that HN Peg B’s spectral modulation resembles those of early T type brown dwarfs. We also describe a new empirical interpolation method to remove spectral contamination from the bright host star. This method may be applied in other high-contrast time-resolved observations with WFC3.

  2. Cloud Atlas: Rotational Modulations in the L/T Transition Brown Dwarf Companion HN Peg B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yifan; Apai, Daniel; Metchev, Stanimir; Lew, Ben W. P.; Schneider, Glenn; Marley, Mark S.; Karalidi, Theodora; Manjavacas, Elena; Bedin, Luigi R.; Cowan, Nicolas B.; hide

    2018-01-01

    Time-resolved observations of brown dwarfs' rotational modulations provide powerful insights into the properties of condensate clouds in ultra-cool atmospheres. Multi-wavelength light curves reveal cloud vertical structures, condensate particle sizes, and cloud morphology, which directly constrain condensate cloud and atmospheric circulation models. We report results from Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) near-infrared G141 taken in six consecutive orbits observations of HNPeg B, an L/T transition brown dwarf companion to a G0V type star. The best-fit sine wave to the 1.1 to 1.7 micron broadband light curve has the amplitude of and period of hour. The modulation amplitude has no detectable wavelength dependence except in the 1.4 micron water absorption band, indicating that the characteristic condensate particle sizes are large (greater than 1 micron). We detect significantly (4.4 sigma) lower modulation amplitude in the 1.4 micron water absorption band, and find that HN Peg B's spectral modulation resembles those of early T type brown dwarfs. We also describe a new empirical interpolation method to remove spectral contamination from the bright host star. This method may be applied in other high-contrast time-resolved observations with WFC3.

  3. A modified CoRoT detrend algorithm and the discovery of a new planetary companion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufleur, Rodrigo C.; Emilio, Marcelo; Janot-Pacheco, Eduardo; Andrade, Laerte; Ferraz-Mello, Sylvio; do Nascimento, José-Dias, Jr.; de La Reza, Ramiro

    2018-01-01

    We present MCDA, a modification of the COnvection ROtation and planetary Transits (CoRoT) detrend algorithm (CDA) suitable to detrend chromatic light curves. By means of robust statistics and better handling of short-term variability, the implementation decreases the systematic light-curve variations and improves the detection of exoplanets when compared with the original algorithm. All CoRoT chromatic light curves (a total of 65 655) were analysed with our algorithm. Dozens of new transit candidates and all previously known CoRoT exoplanets were rediscovered in those light curves using a box-fitting algorithm. For three of the new cases, spectroscopic measurements of the candidates' host stars were retrieved from the ESO Science Archive Facility and used to calculate stellar parameters and, in the best cases, radial velocities. In addition to our improved detrend technique, we announce the discovery of a planet that orbits a 0.79_{-0.09}^{+0.08} R⊙ star with a period of 6.718 37 ± 0.000 01 d and has 0.57_{-0.05}^{+0.06} RJ and 0.15 ± 0.10 MJ. We also present the analysis of two cases in which parameters found suggest the existence of possible planetary companions.

  4. Motion control for a walking companion robot with a novel human–robot interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqi Lv

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A walking companion robot is presented for rehabilitation from dyskinesia of lower limbs in this article. A new human–robot interface (HRI is designed which adopts one-axis force sensor and potentiometer connector to detect the motion of the user. To accompany in displacement and angle between the user and the robot precisely in real time, the common motions are classified into two elemental motion states. With distinction method of motion states, a classification scheme of motion control is adopted. The mathematical model-based control method is first introduced and the corresponding control systems are built. Due to the unavoidable deviation of the mathematical model-based control method, a force control method is proposed and the corresponding control systems are built. The corresponding simulations demonstrate that the efficiency of the two proposed control methods. The experimental data and paths of robot verify the two control methods and indicate that the force control method can better satisfy the user’s requirements.

  5. Obesity and Associated Comorbidities in People and Companion Animals: A One Health Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, M; Cunningham, S; Lund, E M; Khanna, C; Naramore, R; Patel, A; Day, M J

    2017-05-01

    This article reviews the biology, prevalence and risks for obesity in people and companion dogs and cats, and explores the links between obesity and diabetes mellitus and cancer across these species. Obesity is a major healthcare problem in both human and veterinary medicine and there is an increasing prevalence of obesity in people and pets. In people and animals, obesity is a complex disorder involving diet, level of physical activity, behavioural factors, socioeconomic factors, environment exposures, genetics, metabolism and the microbiome. Pets and people share a number of obesity-related comorbidities. Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus in people and in cats, but this association is not recognized in dogs. Obesity is a recognized risk factor for a number of human cancers, but there are fewer data available describing this association with canine neoplastic disease. One approach to addressing the problem of obesity is by taking a 'One Health' perspective. Comparative clinical research examining shared lifestyle and environmental risk factors and the reasons underlying species differences should provide new perspectives on the fundamental biology of obesity. One Health programmes involving human healthcare professionals and veterinarians could help address obesity with simple interventions at the community level. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. MAJOR-MERGER GALAXY PAIRS AT Z = 0: DUST PROPERTIES AND COMPANION MORPHOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingue, Donovan L.; Ronca, Joseph; Hill, Emily; Jacques, Allison [Georgia College and State University, CBX 82, Milledgeville, GA 31061 (United States); Cao, Chen [School of Space Science and Physics, Shandong University, Weihai, Weihai, Shandong 264209 (China); Xu, C. Kevin [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Jarrett, Thomas H. [University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701, Republic of South Africa (South Africa)

    2016-10-01

    We present an analysis of dust properties of a sample of close major-merger galaxy pairs selected by K {sub s} magnitude and redshift. The pairs represent the two populations of spiral–spiral (S+S) and mixed morphology spiral–elliptical (S+E). The Code Investigating GALaxy Emission software is used to fit dust models to the Two Micron All Sky Survey, Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer , and Herschel flux density measurements, and to derive the parameters describing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contribution, interstellar radiation field, and photodissociation regions. Model fits verify our previous Spitzer Space Telescope analysis that S+S and S+E pairs do not have the same level of enhancement of star formation and differ in dust composition. The spirals of mixed-morphology galaxy pairs do not exhibit the enhancements in interstellar radiation field and therefore dust temperature for spirals in S+S pairs in contrast to what would be expected according to standard models of gas redistribution due to encounter torques. This suggests the importance of the companion environment/morphology in determining the dust properties of a spiral galaxy in a close major-merger pair.