WorldWideScience

Sample records for mass communication campaigns

  1. The impact of mass communication campaigns in the health field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalay, R

    1983-01-01

    This article analyzes a series of health education projects that used the mass media to change behavior. First, the article describes how persuasion theories are used to maximize impact in mass communication campaigns. Second, this paper discusses theories of social psychology used in such campaigns. One such theory, cognitive dissonance, explains changes at the level of attitudes, beliefs and opinion. Another theory, social learning, defines strategies of behavior changes. A third theory, concerning diffusion of innovations, helps understand the network of interpersonal relationships essential for the adoption of any innovation. McGuire's inoculation theory suggests strategies to aid resistance to harmful environmental influences (e.g. smoking, excessive drinking, etc.). Third, this work reviews public health campaigns that have used one or more of these theories of social psychology. The first project, dealing with smoking behavior cessation and prevention, mainly used strategies of interpersonal communication for inoculating and modeling useful behavior in order to resist social pressures favorable to smoking. The second project, designed to prevent alcoholism, used the mass media primarily. The objective of this campaign was to obtain changes in knowledge, attitude and behavior in the public through modeling desirable behaviors over public service announcements. The third campaign, a heart disease prevention program, used a combination of mass media and interpersonal communication to achieve changes in lifestyle of the population. Finally, this article describes limitations in using mass media in behavior change health programs.

  2. Testing the hierarchy of effects model: ParticipACTION's serial mass communication campaigns on physical activity in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, C L; Bauman, A; Reger-Nash, B

    2010-03-01

    The hierarchy of effects (HOE) model is often used in planning mass-reach communication campaigns to promote health, but has rarely been empirically tested. This paper examines Canada's 30 year ParticipACTION campaign to promote physical activity (PA). A cohort from the nationally representative 1981 Canada Fitness Survey was followed up in 1988 and 2002-2004. Modelling of these data tested whether the mechanisms of campaign effects followed the theoretical framework proposed in the HOE. Campaign awareness was measured in 1981. Outcome expectancy, attitudes, decision balance and future intention were asked in 1988. PA was assessed at all time points. Logistic regression was used to sequentially test mediating and moderating variables adjusting for age, sex and education. No selection bias was observed; however, relatively fewer respondents than non-respondents smoked or were underweight at baseline. Among those inactive at baseline, campaign awareness predicted outcome expectancy which in turn predicted positive attitude to PA. Positive attitudes predicted high decision balance, which predicted future intention. Future intention mediated the relationship between decision balance and sufficient activity. Among those sufficiently active at baseline, awareness was unrelated to outcome expectancy and inversely related to positive attitude. These results lend support to the HOE model, in that the effects of ParticipACTION's serial mass media campaigns were consistent with the sequential rollout of its messages, which in turn was associated with achieving an active lifestyle among those initially insufficiently active. This provides support to an often-used theoretical framework for designing health promotion media campaigns.

  3. Mass media health communication campaigns combined with health-related product distribution: a community guide systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Maren N; Tansil, Kristin A; Elder, Randy W; Soler, Robin E; Labre, Magdala P; Mercer, Shawna L; Eroglu, Dogan; Baur, Cynthia; Lyon-Daniel, Katherine; Fridinger, Fred; Sokler, Lynn A; Green, Lawrence W; Miller, Therese; Dearing, James W; Evans, William D; Snyder, Leslie B; Kasisomayajula Viswanath, K; Beistle, Diane M; Chervin, Doryn D; Bernhardt, Jay M; Rimer, Barbara K

    2014-09-01

    Health communication campaigns including mass media and health-related product distribution have been used to reduce mortality and morbidity through behavior change. The intervention is defined as having two core components reflecting two social marketing principles: (1) promoting behavior change through multiple communication channels, one being mass media, and (2) distributing a free or reduced-price product that facilitates adoption and maintenance of healthy behavior change, sustains cessation of harmful behaviors, or protects against behavior-related disease or injury. Using methods previously developed for the Community Guide, a systematic review (search period, January 1980-December 2009) was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of health communication campaigns that use multiple channels, including mass media, and distribute health-related products. The primary outcome of interest was use of distributed health-related products. Twenty-two studies that met Community Guide quality criteria were analyzed in 2010. Most studies showed favorable behavior change effects on health-related product use (a median increase of 8.4 percentage points). By product category, median increases in desired behaviors ranged from 4.0 percentage points for condom promotion and distribution campaigns to 10.0 percentage points for smoking-cessation campaigns. Health communication campaigns that combine mass media and other communication channels with distribution of free or reduced-price health-related products are effective in improving healthy behaviors. This intervention is expected to be applicable across U.S. demographic groups, with appropriate population targeting. The ability to draw more specific conclusions about other important social marketing practices is constrained by limited reporting of intervention components and characteristics. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Untapped aspects of mass media campaigns for changing health behaviour towards non-communicable diseases in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Reshman; Froeschl, Guenter; Cruz, Jonas P; Colet, Paolo C; Dey, Sukhen; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful

    2018-01-18

    In recent years, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have become epidemic in Bangladesh. Behaviour changing interventions are key to prevention and management of NCDs. A great majority of people in Bangladesh have low health literacy, are less receptive to health information, and are unlikely to embrace positive health behaviours. Mass media campaigns can play a pivotal role in changing health behaviours of the population. This review pinpoints the role of mass media campaigns for NCDs and the challenges along it, whilst stressing on NCD preventive programmes (with the examples from different countries) to change health behaviours in Bangladesh. Future research should underpin the use of innovative technologies and mobile phones, which might be a prospective option for NCD prevention and management in Bangladesh.

  5. Household training vs. mass campaigns: a better method of health communication for preventing malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chourasia, Mehul Kumar; Abraham, Vinod J; John, Jacob

    2014-10-01

    Malaria is endemic in several states of India with high tribal population. Effective use of long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLITNs) can reduce the burden of malaria in these settings. This study assessed the knowledge and behaviour regarding malaria in a tribal population and compared two health education strategies for enhancing effective utilisation of bed nets. A community-based intervention study was carried out among 218 households in two villages. One community received household level training on effective utilisation of LLITNs while the others received training in a mass campaign and outcomes were measured after 2 months. The study showed that the proportion utilising LLITNs was significantly higher among those receiving household level training as compared to those who received the mass campaign. Household level training appears to be a more effective form of health education for improving knowledge and promoting use of LLITNs in these isolated community groups. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  6. The effect of a health communication campaign on compliance with mass drug administration for schistosomiasis control in western Kenya--the SCORE project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omedo, Martin; Ogutu, Michael; Awiti, Alphonce; Musuva, Rosemary; Muchiri, Geoffrey; Montgomery, Susan P; Secor, W Evan; Mwinzi, Pauline

    2014-11-01

    Compliance with mass drug administration (MDA) can be affected by rumors and mistrust about the drug. Communication campaigns are an effective way to influence attitudes and health behaviors in diverse public health contexts, but there is very little documentation about experiences using health communications in schistosomiasis control programs. A qualitative study was conducted with community health workers (CHWs) as informants to explore the effect of a health communication campaign on their experiences during subsequent praziquantel MDA for schistosomiasis. Discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, translated into English where applicable, and analyzed thematically using ATLAS.ti software. According to the CHWs, exposure to mass media messages improved awareness of the MDA, which in turn, led to better treatment compliance. Our findings suggest that communication campaigns influence health behaviors and create awareness of schistosomiasis control interventions, which may ultimately improve praziquantel MDA. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  7. Inoculation in Political Campaign Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Michael; Burgoon, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Posits a strategy of resistance to the influence of attack messages in political campaigns. Finds that political campaign messages can be designed to inoculate supporters of candidates against subsequent attack messages of opposing candidates. (MS)

  8. The Changing Context of Interpersonal Communication in Political Campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Garrett J.

    Critiques and studies have found the traditional two-step flow model of social influence inadequate to describe and explain relationships between interpersonal and mass communications during political campaigns. A study was undertaken to incorporate a wider range of variables pertinent to both kinds of political communication behaviors to redefine…

  9. Relationship between implementing interpersonal communication and mass education campaigns in emergency settings and use of reproductive healthcare services: evidence from Darfur, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Izzeldin Fadl; Nakamura, Keiko; Kizuki, Masashi; Al Rifai, Rami; Vanching, Urnaa

    2015-09-15

    (1) To examine changes in women's awareness and utilisation of reproductive healthcare services in emergency settings following provision of interpersonal communication (IPC) and mass education campaigns, and (2) to describe factors associated with reproductive healthcare service use in internally displaced person (IDP) camps. Three camps containing 88 984 IDPs in Darfur, Sudan. 640 women aged 15-49 who had experienced pregnancy in the camp during the previous 2 years were enrolled in each of two independent cross-sectional surveys 26 months apart. IPC and mass education campaigns where community health workers disseminated information by home/shelter visits, clinic sessions, public meetings and other means to raise awareness and promote reproductive healthcare service use. Awareness of the existence of antenatal care (ANC) and tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccination services, reception of ANC and TT vaccination, place of delivery and use of postnatal care (PNC). The percentage of women who received home visits, and attended in-clinic sessions and public meetings increased from 61.6% to 86.7%, from 43.0% to 68.8%, and from 3.8% to 39.8%, respectively, between the initial and follow-up surveys. More women were aware of ANC (OR 18.6, 95% CI 13.1 to 26.5) and TT vaccination (OR 3.2, 95% CI 2.4 to 4.4) in the follow-up than the initial survey, after multivariable adjustment. More women received ≥3 ANC visits (OR 8.8, 95% CI 6.4 to 12.0) and ≥3 doses of TT (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.9 to 3.3), delivered at a healthcare facility (OR 5.4, 95% CI 4.0 to 7.4) and received a PNC visit (OR 5.5, 95% CI 4.0 to 7.7) in the follow-up than in the initial survey, after multivariable adjustment. Awareness about and utilisation of reproductive healthcare services were higher in the follow-up survey. An integrated IPC and mass education campaign is effective for improving women's reproductive health in emergency settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  10. Analyzing the Communication Dynamics of Political Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Sally

    2007-01-01

    It is widely agreed that college students do not fully participate in the political process. The most commonly cited reasons are apathy, indifference, and ignorance. This article presents an activity that aims to help students learn about communication dynamics in the context of political campaigns and develop an appreciation and confidence about…

  11. The Effect of Campaign-Generated Interpersonal Communication on Campaign-Targeted Health Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Michelle; Bae, Rosie Eungyuhl

    2017-06-16

    This study examined the effect of mass media campaign-generated conversations on campaign-targeted health outcomes, via a systematic meta-analysis of 28 studies (including 124 sub-studies and a total of 138,898 participants). The study also conducted a series of moderation analyses to examine the conditions under which interpersonal communication has larger effects on bringing about the desired outcomes. The findings of this meta-analysis indicate that campaign-generated conversations have a positive effect on inducing campaign-targeted outcomes (OR = 1.28) and show that this effect is moderated by health topic addressed by the campaign, the type of outcome being targeted by the campaign, and with whom people converse, along with several other campaign-relevant and study-relevant variables. The implications of these findings for future research are discussed.

  12. McLetchie on mass campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, C J

    1982-01-01

    Dr. J.L. McLetchie was asked in 1963 to express his thoughts on the many aspects of mass campaigns for the historical record fro future field workers. The significance of his thoughts at that time lies in the soundness of the principles outlined, based upon field responsibility. It was from such principles that the modern strategy of community health in dveloping countries arose, which was adopted and put into practice by the World Health Organization and was presented at the Alma Ata Conference on Primary Health Care in 1978. The text is reproduced here. There should be no need to argue the need for mass campaigns under conditions as they exist at present in Africa as well as other tropical areas. Several conditions cannot be dealt with in other way, e.g., tuberculosis, malnutrition, onchocerciasis, yaws, sleeping sickness. The most essential needs are the recognition, at the highest political and administrative level, that a country's services must be balanced, with well-developed preventive, laboratory, and curative sections. To obtain and retain this balance requires strong and continous administrative action to counteract the overwhelming attraction of the curative services to young African doctors and to expatriates on short-term contracts. The preventive services divide naturally into those dealing with urban problems having a large content of environmental hygiene and those dealing with rural problems in which curative medicine plays a mojor part, i.e., mass treatment. In rural health work, the "amateur" -- the young medical officer assigned to rural duties for a period of 1-2 years -- may play a valuable part but cannot do so unless the service is well organized and has a core of "professionals," senior medical staff with considerable experience with rural problems and how to tackle them. Rural health specialists have to work closely in cooperation with other sections of the medical department, with other departments, and with local government authorities

  13. Evaluation of the mass measles vaccination campaign in Guangdong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhi Qiang; Chen, Wei Shi; He, Qun; Peng, Guo Wen; Wu, Cheng Gang; Xu, Ning; Zhao, Zhan Jie; Shu, Jun; Tan, Qiu; Zheng, Hui Zhen; Lin, Li Feng; Deng, Hui Hong; Lin, Jin Yan; Zhang, Yong Hui

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the mass measles vaccination campaign of 2009 in Guangdong Province, China. Data on the campaign implementation, measles surveillance, and serological surveillance were reviewed and analyzed by statistical methods. Rapid coverage surveys showed that 98.09% of children were vaccinated during the campaign. The coverage of migrant children increased significantly from 67.10% to 97.32% (pvaccinated during the campaign. Flyers, notices of information from doctors, and television programs were the best methods to inform parents of the campaign. Awareness of the campaign by residents increased significantly from 91.86% to 97.10% (pvaccination campaign approach for controlling measles in a developing region like Guangdong Province with a vast migrant population has proved effective. Comprehensive mobilization, communication with the mass media, and support from government departments were critical to the success of the campaign. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Communicating Sustainability: Student Perceptions of a Behavior Change Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, D. Matthew; Feng, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the impacts of a science-based environmental communication campaign at a university dining hall. The impacts are assessed in terms of student attitudes toward sustainability, food consumption choices and perceptions and understanding of the campaign and the information it communicated.…

  15. Efficacy methods to evaluate health communication and marketing campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; Uhrig, Jennifer; Davis, Kevin; McCormack, Lauren

    2009-06-01

    Communication and marketing are growing areas of health research, but relatively few rigorous efficacy studies have been conducted in these fields. In this article, we review recent health communication and marketing efficacy research, present two case studies that illustrate some of the considerations in making efficacy design choices, and advocate for greater emphasis on rigorous health communication and marketing efficacy research and the development of a research agenda. Much of the outcomes research in health communication and marketing, especially mass media, utilizes effectiveness designs conducted in real time, in the media markets or communities in which messages are delivered. Such evaluations may be impractical or impossible, however, imiting opportunities to advance the state of health communication and marketing research and the knowledge base on effective campaign strategies, messages, and channels. Efficacy and effectiveness studies use similar measures of behavior change. Efficacy studies, however, offer greater opportunities for experimental control, message exposure, and testing of health communication and marketing theory. By examining the literature and two in-depth case studies, we identify advantages and limitations to efficacy studies. We also identify considerations for when to adopt efficacy and effectiveness methods, alone or in combination. Finally, we outline a research agenda to investigate issues of internal and external validity, mode of message presentation, differences between marketing and message strategies, and behavioral outcomes.

  16. Evaluating the Persuasiveness of an HIV Mass Communication Campaign Using Gain-Framed Messages and Aimed at Creating a Superordinate Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, Gabriele; Mazzoni, Davide; Cicognani, Elvira; Albanesi, Cinzia; Zani, Bruna

    2016-09-01

    This research assesses the coverage and impact of "United Against AIDS," the 2012-2013 Italian National HIV/AIDS prevention campaign to promote safer sex behavior and voluntary HIV counseling and testing. The campaign used gain-framed messages and aimed at creating a superordinate identity. We conducted two studies. The first study employed a quasi-experimental design involving three groups of participants: general population (n = 858), men who have sex with men (MSM; n = 109), and migrants (n = 211). In the second study, we carried out a time-series design to analyze the archival data of the Italian National AIDS Help-Line. Exposure to the campaign was reported by 78.3%, 67.5%, and 57.8% of the general population, MSM, and migrant respondents, respectively. The probability of having unprotected sexual intercourse with multiple partners decreased significantly in the subsample of the general populations that was exposed to the campaign (compared to the nonexposed participants), but the same effect was not found among MSM and migrant participants. The probability of having unprotected sexual intercourse with someone of unknown HIV status decreased after the campaign in the exposed MSM subsample (compared to the nonexposed participants), but the same effect was not found among the general population and migrant participants. In addition, the probability of undertaking HIV testing increased significantly in the exposed participants belonging to the general population but not among MSM and migrant participants. Time-series analysis revealed that the number of calls at the Italian National AIDS Help-Line significantly increased during the campaign. This research provides evidence that the effect of the campaign was complex and varied across participants.

  17. Getting the message across: perceived effectiveness of political campaign communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Spanje, J.; Boomgaarden, H.G.; Elenbaas, M.; Vliegenthart, R.; Azrout, R.; Schuck, A.R.T.; de Vreese, C.H.

    2013-01-01

    Do political actors communicate effectively during electoral campaigns? We introduce a novel concept in electoral research, the "perceived effectiveness of political parties' election campaigns." This evaluation concentrates on the extent to which a party is seen as getting its message across to the

  18. Zambia Communications Support for Health Safe Love Campaign Outcome Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Safe Love campaign was a three-year comprehensive HIV prevention behavior change and communication (BCC) initiative implemented between June 2011 and June 2014....

  19. Mass media campaigns and organ donation: managing conflicting messages and interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rady, Mohamed Y; McGregor, Joan L; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2012-05-01

    Mass media campaigns are widely and successfully used to change health decisions and behaviors for better or for worse in society. In the United States, media campaigns have been launched at local offices of the states' department of motor vehicles to promote citizens' willingness to organ donation and donor registration. We analyze interventional studies of multimedia communication campaigns to encourage organ-donor registration at local offices of states' department of motor vehicles. The media campaigns include the use of multifaceted communication tools and provide training to desk clerks in the use of scripted messages for the purpose of optimizing enrollment in organ-donor registries. Scripted messages are communicated to customers through mass audiovisual entertainment media, print materials and interpersonal interaction at the offices of departments of motor vehicles. These campaigns give rise to three serious concerns: (1) bias in communicating information with scripted messages without verification of the scientific accuracy of information, (2) the provision of misinformation to future donors that may result in them suffering unintended consequences from consenting to medical procedures before death (e.g, organ preservation and suitability for transplantation), and (3) the unmanaged conflict of interests for organizations charged with implementing these campaigns, (i.e, dual advocacy for transplant recipients and donors). We conclude the following: (1) media campaigns about healthcare should communicate accurate information to the general public and disclose factual materials with the least amount of bias; (2) conflicting interests in media campaigns should be managed with full public transparency; (3) media campaigns should disclose the practical implications of procurement as well as acknowledge the medical, legal, and religious controversies of determining death in organ donation; (4) organ-donor registration must satisfy the criteria of informed

  20. Processes of Mass Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channey, David

    This sociological treatment of mass communications analysis first discusses the theories of audience behavior, then turns to the organization of media production, and closes with a study of performance. The book covers audience needs and gratifications, the history of British press and broadcasting results of systems of media distribution, the…

  1. Talking about Quitting: Interpersonal Communication as a Mediator of Campaign Effects on Smokers’ Quit Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Michelle; Tan, Andy; Brennan, Emily; Gibson, Laura; Hornik, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role of interpersonal communication in the context of a mass media anti-smoking campaign. Specifically, it explored whether conversations about campaign ads and/or about quitting mediated campaign exposure effects on two quitting behaviors (sought help to quit and tried to quit smoking completely), as well as the relationship between ad-related and quitting-related conversations. Data were collected prior to the campaign and monthly for 16 months during the campaign through cross-sectional telephone surveys among a sample of 3277 adult Philadelphian smokers. Follow-up interviews were conducted among 877 participants three months after their first survey. Cross-sectional and longitudinal mediation models with bootstrap procedures assessed the indirect effects of campaign exposure on outcomes through conversations, and of conversations about ads on outcomes through conversations about quitting. In addition, lagged regression analyses tested the causal direction of associations between the variables of interest. The results partially support hypotheses that conversations about quitting mediate campaign effects on quitting-related behaviors, and, in line with previous research, that conversations about the ads have indirect effects on quitting-related behaviors by triggering conversations about quitting. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering interpersonal communication as a route of campaign exposure effects when evaluating and designing future public health campaigns. PMID:26147367

  2. Mass-media publicity campaign on driving while intoxicated.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesemann, P.

    1986-01-01

    Mass media publicity campaigns against driving while intoxicated have been conducted in the netherlands for a number of years. A new, more aggressive approach was introduced in 1984 with the slogan "alcohol ..... all too easily a crime". Goals of this campaign were (1) internationalization of the

  3. An evaluation of the 2012 measles mass vaccination campaign in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: To estimate the post-campaign level of measles vaccination coverage in Guinea. Method: Interview of parents and observation of measles vaccination cards of children aged 9 to 59 months during the mass measles campaign. A nationwide cluster randomized sample under health District stratification. Results: ...

  4. The Strategy and Implementation of the Rosetta Communication Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, M.; McCaughrean, M.; Landeau-Constantin, J.

    2016-03-01

    The communication campaign for Rosetta has been the biggest success in the history of European Space Agency outreach, resulting in global awareness for the agency. The mission itself is an extraordinary operational and scientific success, but communicating only the operational and scientific firsts would likely not have brought the Rosetta orbiter and Philae lander to the attention of so many people, and would not have made the mission part of people's lives across the globe. The additional impact brought to the mission through the communication campaign was based on a strategic approach focusing on: real-time release of information with maximum transparency; direct real-time access for media and social media; adding a human dimension to the story; and communicating the risks openly in order to manage expectations. In this article we describe our overall strategy, illustrate its implementation, and provide the framework for subsequent articles in this journal highlighting specific aspects of the campaign in more detail.

  5. A theoretical perspective on road safety communication campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvik, Rune

    2016-12-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical perspective on road safety communication campaigns, which may help in identifying the conditions under which such campaigns can be effective. The paper proposes that, from a theoretical point of view, it is reasonable to assume that road user behaviour is, by and large, subjectively rational. This means that road users are assumed to behave the way they think is best. If this assumption is accepted, the best theoretical prediction is that road safety campaigns consisting of persuasive messages only will have no effect on road user behaviour and accordingly no effect on accidents. This theoretical prediction is not supported by meta-analyses of studies that have evaluated the effects of road safety communication campaigns. These analyses conclude that, on the average, such campaigns are associated with an accident reduction. The paper discusses whether this finding can be explained theoretically. The discussion relies on the distinction made by many modern theorists between bounded and perfect rationality. Road user behaviour is characterised by bounded rationality. Hence, if road users can gain insight into the bounds of their rationality, so that they see advantages to themselves of changing behaviour, they are likely to do so. It is, however, largely unknown whether such a mechanism explains why some road safety communication campaigns have been found to be more effective than others. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. POLITICAL COMMUNICATION DURING THE 2014 PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN: ONLINE MEDIA COVERAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cîrtiţă-Buzoianu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The election campaign has lately become a real challenge where all the political actors display their skills, the communication ones, but also those related to the electoral marketing and public relations which play a vital role in creating the image of a particular candidate. The interest that the public manifest towards the presidential debates, as well as towards all the means of political communication used by the actors involved represents a reference point in the construction of an election campaign. Our paper aims to achieve a quantitative analysis of the communicational messages sent during the 2014 presidential campaign in the online media. In this respect, we are going to conduct a media monitoring on two central newspapers, namely “Evenimentul Zilei” (“Daily Event” and “Jurnalul Național” (“National Journal”, to track the online media visibility of the political communication starting from several indicators predefined in order to measure the efficiency of the political communication. Thus, our approach considers the influence of political communication in the election campaign as it appears in the online press in Romania.

  7. Evaluating the effectiveness of an Australian obesity mass-media campaign: how did the 'Measure-Up' campaign measure up in New South Wales?

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, E L; Grunseit, A C; O'Hara, B J; Bauman, A E

    2013-12-01

    In 2008, the Australian Government launched a mass-media campaign 'Measure-Up' to reduce lifestyle-related chronic disease risk. Innovative campaign messages linked waist circumference and chronic disease risk. Communication channels for the campaign included television, press, radio and outdoor advertising and local community activities. This analysis examines the impact of the campaign in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Cross-sectional telephone surveys (n = 1006 adults pre- and post-campaign) covered self-reported diet and physical activity, campaign awareness, knowledge about waist circumference, personal relevance of the message, perceived confidence to make lifestyle changes and waist-measuring behaviours. The campaign achieved high unprompted (38%) and prompted (89%) awareness. From pre- to post-campaign, knowledge and personal relevance of the link between waist circumference and chronic disease and waist measuring behaviour increased, although there were no significant changes in reported fruit and vegetable intake nor in physical activity. Knowledge of the correct waist measurement threshold for chronic disease risk increased over 5-fold, adjusted for demographic characteristics. 'Measure-Up' was successful at communicating the new campaign messages. Continued long-term investment in campaigns such as 'Measure-Up', supplemented with community-based health promotion, may contribute to population risk factor understanding and behaviour change to reduce chronic disease.

  8. Inferring Social Influence of Anti-Tobacco Mass Media Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Qianyi; Zhang, Jiawei; Yu, Philip S; Emery, Sherry; Xie, Junyuan

    2017-07-01

    Anti-tobacco mass media campaigns are designed to influence tobacco users. It has been proved that campaigns will produce users' changes in awareness, knowledge, and attitudes, and also produce meaningful behavior change of audience. Anti-smoking television advertising is the most important part in the campaign. Meanwhile, nowadays, successful online social networks are creating new media environment, however, little is known about the relation between social conversations and anti-tobacco campaigns. This paper aims to infer social influence of these campaigns, and the problem is formally referred to as the Social Influence inference of anti-Tobacco mass mEdia campaigns (Site) problem. To address the Site problem, a novel influence inference framework, TV advertising social influence estimation (Asie), is proposed based on our analysis of two real anti-tobacco campaigns. Asie divides audience attitudes toward TV ads into three distinct stages: 1) cognitive; 2) affective; and 3) conative. Audience online reactions at each of these three stages are depicted by Asie with specific probabilistic models based on the synergistic influences from both online social friends and offline TV ads. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of Asie.

  9. Message Testing to Create Effective Health Communication Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domigan, Juliane; Glassman, Tavis J.; Miller, Jeff; Hug, Heather; Diehr, Aaron J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to assess a health communication campaign designed to reduce distracted driving among college students within the USA. Design/methodology/approach: Utilizing central interviewing techniques, participants were asked qualitative and quantitative items soliciting feedback concerning the efficacy of the messages.…

  10. Accounting for Sitting and Moving: An Analysis of Sedentary Behavior in Mass Media Campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Emily; Biddle, Stuart; Esliger, Dale W; Piggin, Joe; Sherar, Lauren

    2015-09-01

    Mass media campaigns are an important tool for promoting health-related physical activity. The relevance of sedentary behavior to public health has propelled it to feature prominently in health campaigns across the world. This study explored the use of messages regarding sedentary behavior in health campaigns within the context of current debates surrounding the association between sedentary behavior and health, and messaging strategies to promote moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). A web-based search of major campaigns in the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, and Australia was performed to identify the main campaign from each country. A directed content analysis was then conducted to analyze the inclusion of messages regarding sedentary behavior in health campaigns and to elucidate key themes. Important areas for future research were illustrated. Four key themes from the campaigns emerged: clinging to sedentary behavior guidelines, advocating reducing sedentary behavior as a first step on the activity continuum and the importance of light activity, confusing the promotion of MVPA, and the demonization of sedentary behavior. Strategies for managing sedentary behavior as an additional complicating factor in health promotion are urgently required. Lessons learned from previous health communication campaigns should stimulate research to inform future messaging strategies.

  11. Use of mass media campaigns to change health behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Melanie A; Loken, Barbara; Hornik, Robert C

    2010-10-09

    Mass media campaigns are widely used to expose high proportions of large populations to messages through routine uses of existing media, such as television, radio, and newspapers. Exposure to such messages is, therefore, generally passive. Such campaigns are frequently competing with factors, such as pervasive product marketing, powerful social norms, and behaviours driven by addiction or habit. In this Review we discuss the outcomes of mass media campaigns in the context of various health-risk behaviours (eg, use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs, heart disease risk factors, sex-related behaviours, road safety, cancer screening and prevention, child survival, and organ or blood donation). We conclude that mass media campaigns can produce positive changes or prevent negative changes in health-related behaviours across large populations. We assess what contributes to these outcomes, such as concurrent availability of required services and products, availability of community-based programmes, and policies that support behaviour change. Finally, we propose areas for improvement, such as investment in longer better-funded campaigns to achieve adequate population exposure to media messages. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Health Education and Mass Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snegroff, Stanley

    1983-01-01

    Health educators should be able to use mass comunications media and should be knowledgeable about the most recent media theories, methods, and technologies. Suggestions for making effective use of television, newspapers, and other media for disseminating health information and for conducting media campaigns are given. (PP)

  13. Research Collaboration in a Communication Rights Campaign: Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    In building public support for social change, activists in communities of color routinely approach broader audiences via news media. Communities of color, however, routinely face disparities that limit their access to media including local news media outlets. This lack of access mirrors inequalities in political, social, and economic arenas and can slow public awareness campaigns to address disparities in health, environmental, and other quality-of-life issues. I describe two community-based collaborative action research studies that documented and challenged how local television newscasts underrepresented and misrepresented three communities of color in Boston. The linkage between communication rights and campaigns to address quality-of-life issues is presented, as well as unresolved challenges in the collaborative research process. The study has implications for environmental health campaigns.

  14. Specifics of Communication in Lithuanian Voting Campaigns, 2012-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mažylis Liudas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of the numbers of unaffiliated voters and the internet users caused politicians’ interest in these audiences and the start of their activities in these communication channels by establishing more personalized relationships with voters. This paper aims to analyze the communication of main parties and their candidates in social media channel “Facebook” and in popular Lithuanian internet news media portals, such as delfi.lt, lrytas.lt and others before the Parliamentary elections in 2012 and the forthcoming 2016 Parliamentary elections. Both quantitative and qualitative aspects of campaign coverage in the media portals and Facebook are analysed. The paper addresses the following questions: How important are factors such as new party emergence, parallel referendum campaign, and activity of using social media for the final result of elections? How active were the politicians in the Facebook? What content dominated their profiles? How much personalized were their messages? What strategies were used for communication? Did the politicians aim at mobilizing or at persuasion the voters? Involvement of citizens, voters’ turnout and political results are linked with campaign arguments and the value normative environment. We conclude by providing the discussion on the noticed tendencies and possible improvements in the communication of candidates for the future.

  15. Mass Media Campaign Impacts Influenza Vaccine Obtainment of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shropshire, Ali M.; Brent-Hotchkiss, Renee; Andrews, Urkovia K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the effectiveness of a mass media campaign in increasing the rate of college student influenza vaccine obtainment. Participants/Methods: Students ("N" = 721) at a large southern university completed a survey between September 2011 and January 2012 assessing what flu clinic media sources were visualized and if they…

  16. Using a Marginal Structural Model to Design a Theory-Based Mass Media Campaign.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromu Nishiuchi

    Full Text Available The essential first step in the development of mass media health campaigns is to identify specific beliefs of the target audience. The challenge is to prioritize suitable beliefs derived from behavioral theory. The purpose of this study was to identify suitable beliefs to target in a mass media campaign to change behavior using a new method to estimate the possible effect size of a small set of beliefs.Data were drawn from the 2010 Japanese Young Female Smoker Survey (n = 500, conducted by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. Survey measures included intention to quit smoking, psychological beliefs (attitude, norms, and perceived control based on the theory of planned behavior and socioeconomic status (age, education, household income, and marital status. To identify suitable candidate beliefs for a mass media health campaign, we estimated the possible effect size required to change the intention to quit smoking among the population of young Japanese women using the population attributable fraction from a marginal structural model.Thirteen percent of study participants intended to quit smoking. The marginal structural model estimated a population attributable fraction of 47 psychological beliefs (21 attitudes, 6 norms, and 19 perceived controls after controlling for socioeconomic status. The belief, "I could quit smoking if my husband or significant other recommended it" suggested a promising target for a mass media campaign (population attributable fraction = 0.12, 95% CI = 0.02-0.23. Messages targeting this belief could possibly improve intention rates by up to 12% among this population. The analysis also suggested the potential for regulatory action.This study proposed a method by which campaign planners can develop theory-based mass communication strategies to change health behaviors at the population level. This method might contribute to improving the quality of future mass health communication strategies and further

  17. Using a Marginal Structural Model to Design a Theory-Based Mass Media Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiuchi, Hiromu; Taguri, Masataka; Ishikawa, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    The essential first step in the development of mass media health campaigns is to identify specific beliefs of the target audience. The challenge is to prioritize suitable beliefs derived from behavioral theory. The purpose of this study was to identify suitable beliefs to target in a mass media campaign to change behavior using a new method to estimate the possible effect size of a small set of beliefs. Data were drawn from the 2010 Japanese Young Female Smoker Survey (n = 500), conducted by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. Survey measures included intention to quit smoking, psychological beliefs (attitude, norms, and perceived control) based on the theory of planned behavior and socioeconomic status (age, education, household income, and marital status). To identify suitable candidate beliefs for a mass media health campaign, we estimated the possible effect size required to change the intention to quit smoking among the population of young Japanese women using the population attributable fraction from a marginal structural model. Thirteen percent of study participants intended to quit smoking. The marginal structural model estimated a population attributable fraction of 47 psychological beliefs (21 attitudes, 6 norms, and 19 perceived controls) after controlling for socioeconomic status. The belief, "I could quit smoking if my husband or significant other recommended it" suggested a promising target for a mass media campaign (population attributable fraction = 0.12, 95% CI = 0.02-0.23). Messages targeting this belief could possibly improve intention rates by up to 12% among this population. The analysis also suggested the potential for regulatory action. This study proposed a method by which campaign planners can develop theory-based mass communication strategies to change health behaviors at the population level. This method might contribute to improving the quality of future mass health communication strategies and further research is needed.

  18. Using mass media campaigns to reduce youth tobacco use: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jane Appleyard; Duke, Jennifer C; Davis, Kevin C; Kim, Annice E; Nonnemaker, James M; Farrelly, Matthew C

    2015-01-01

    This review synthesizes the published literature on using mass media campaigns to reduce youth tobacco use, with particular focus on effects within population subgroups and the relative effectiveness of campaign characteristics. A search of PubMed and PsycINFO conducted in March of 2014 yielded 397 studies with 34 suitable for inclusion. Included were quantitative studies that evaluate an antitobacco media campaign intended to influence youth cognitions or behavior or explore the relative effectiveness of campaign characteristics among youth. An automated search and assessment of suitability for inclusion was done. Study outcomes were compared and synthesized. Antitobacco media campaigns can be effective across racial/ethnic populations, although the size of the campaign effect may differ by race/ethnicity. Evidence is insufficient to determine whether campaign outcomes differ by socioeconomic status (SES) and population density. Youth are more likely to recall and think about advertising that includes personal testimonials; a surprising narrative; and intense images, sound, and editing. Evidence in support of using a health consequences message theme is mixed; an industry manipulation theme may be effective in combination with a health consequences message. Research is insufficient to determine whether advertising with a secondhand smoke or social norms theme influences youth tobacco use. Our recommendation is to develop antitobacco campaigns designed to reach all at-risk youth, which can be effective across racial/ethnic populations. Research priorities include assessing campaign influence among lower SES and rural youth, disentangling the effects of message characteristics, and assessing the degree to which this body of evidence may have changed as a result of changes in youth culture and communication technology.

  19. PERSONAL VERSUS MASS COMMUNICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Girboveanu Sorina

    2007-01-01

    From the comparison of the various aspects of advertising and personal selling, it can be seen that personal selling is a more effective and powerful communication tool than advertising, but advertising is more time and cost efficient than personal selling. Thus advertising and personal selling are tools at the disposal of a marketer and subjects to a firm’s overall objectives.

  20. Comparative cost-effectiveness of the components of a behavior change communication campaign on HIV/AIDS in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Suruchi; Nambiar, Devaki

    2006-01-01

    Numerous studies show that exposure to entertainment-education-based mass media campaigns is associated with reduction in risk behaviors. Concurrently, there is a growing interest in comparing the cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions taking into account infrastructural and programmatic costs. In such analyses, though few in number, mass media campaigns have fared well. Using data from a mass media communication campaign in the low HIV prevalence states of Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Delhi in Northern India, in this article we examine the following: (1) factors that mediate behavior change in different components of the campaign, comprising a TV drama, reality show for youth audiences, and TV spots; (2) the relative impact of campaign components on the behavioral outcome: condom use; and (3) the cost-effectiveness calculations arising from this analysis. Results suggest that recall of the TV spots and the TV drama influences behavior change and is strongly associated with interpersonal communication and positive gender attitudes. The TV drama, in spite of being the costliest, emerges as the most cost-effective component when considering the behavioral outcome of interest. The analysis of the comparative cost-effectiveness of individual campaign components provides insights into the planning of resources for communication interventions globally.

  1. Communication Strategy of a successful Frack Campaign in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogerduijn Strating, Eilard; Seinen, Chiel; Heeringa, Henk; Pestman, Bart

    2016-04-01

    In 2011, after several years without frack activities onshore in the Netherlands, a new conventional frack campaign was planned. In the interim, anti-shalegas sentiments had carried over from the US to Europe and various countries had announced a frack moratorium. The Netherlands was not amongst these yet, but it was recognized that starting a new conventional frack campaign could potentially result in a significant negative public sentiment and affect our License to Operate. A team of subsurface and communication experts drafted a communication strategy that was premised on the "Discuss > Decide > Deliver" philosophy, implying that a decision on the campaign-start would only be taken after the results of the engagements with key stakeholders indicated sufficient support. It was recognized that in order to start communication with stakeholders and the general public through engagements, infographics, websites etc., several minimum requirements had to be in place: 1] An explanation about why fracking is done and what it entails 2] An assessment and description of the risks (eg groundwater contamination, tremors) 3] A description of the REACH compliant chemicals used (composition & quantities). With the basic info in place, a staged engagement process was set up where key stakeholders at the national level were informed first, followed by those at regional level (including waterboards), followed by local stakeholders. Several "Go-No go" decision points were build in. Throughout it was agreed that a target date for the actual frack campaign was only to be set once local engagements were going to start. Several of the technical staff (eg subsurface and well engineers) received media and communication training to prep them for the engagements with external stakeholders and communities. Also several staff were identified that would be involved in the writing of Q&A's, external bulletins etc. Having technical staff involved in such communications helped build credibility

  2. The Geography of Political Communication: Effects of Regional Variations in Campaign Advertising on Citizen Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jaeho

    2011-01-01

    This study explores whether and how campaign-induced changes in local information environments influence citizens' everyday communication activities. The empirical analysis in this study centers on a comparison of two New Jersey media markets that showed idiosyncratic differences in the amount of political advertising during the 2000 presidential…

  3. Pacific Islands Mass Communications; Selected Information Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richstad, Jim; McMillan, Michael

    1977-01-01

    Presents a bibliography of materials on such area of mass communications in the Pacific Islands as broadcasting, radio and television, cinema, communication research, mass media in education, Honululu Media Council, newspapers and newspapermen, and printing and satellite communication. (JEG)

  4. Impact of National HIV and AIDS Communication Campaigns in South Africa to Reduce HIV Risk Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa social and behavioural communication interventions are a critical component of HIV/AIDS prevention, and numerous communication campaigns have been implemented intensively across the country through government initiatives and nongovernmental organisations over the past decade. The aim of this paper is to assess the reach of HIV and AIDS communication campaigns in conjunction with contributions to knowledge, attitudes, and HIV risk behaviours in the general population in South Africa. The sample included in this nationally representative cross-sectional survey was 13234 people aged 15–55 years. Overall, the study found that there was high exposure to 18 different HIV communication programmes (median 6 programmes and 14 programmes more than 30% across different age groups. Most programmes were more often seen or heard by young people aged between 15 and 24 years. In multivariate analysis, greater exposure to HIV mass communication programmes was associated with greater HIV knowledge, condom use at last sex, having tested for HIV in the past 12 months, and less stigmatizing attitude toward PLWHA.

  5. Using Theory to Design Evaluations of Communication Campaigns: The Case of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornik, Robert C; Yanovitzky, Itzhak

    2003-05-01

    We present a general theory about how campaigns can have effects and suggest that the evaluation of communication campaigns must be driven by a theory of effects. The National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign illustrates both the theory of campaign effects and implications that theory has for the evaluation design. Often models of effect assume that individual exposure affects cognitions that continue to affect behavior over a short term. Contrarily, effects may operate through social or institutional paths as well as through individual learning, require substantial levels of exposure achieved through multiple channels over time, take time to accumulate detectable change, and affect some members of the audience but not others. Responsive evaluations will choose appropriate units of analysis and comparison groups, data collection schedules sensitive to lagged effects, samples able to detect subgroup effects, and analytic strategies consistent with the theory of effects that guides the campaign.

  6. Theme Issue on Mass Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anapol, Malthon M., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Focusing on issues in mass communication, the six articles in this journal issue cover many facets and approaches to the topics. The first article offers a review of recent developments in the field and some comments about its future. The second article reviews feminism in comedies from the 1930s and in a current film, and the third analyzes the…

  7. The Stages and Functions of Communication in Ballot Issue Campaigns: A Case Study of the Kansas Campaign for Liquor by the Drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Diana B.; Carlin, John

    Arguing that state and local political issue campaigns warrant increased attention from communication scholars, this paper presents a rationale for analysis of issue campaigns, develops a framework for organizing and analyzing such campaigns, and applies the framework to an analysis of the 1986 campaign for the sale of liquor "by the…

  8. Mass communication and development: impact depends on strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wete, F N

    1988-01-01

    Development scholars are moving toward an emphasis on noneconomic factors (social values, social advancement, equality, individual freedom) and their interactions with labor, capital, and technology. People are now conceptualized as the agents of change, and they in turn must be convinced of the need for change. This new approach implies a need for a review of the role of mass communication in development. A central question is whether development makes possible mass communication development or do improved mass communication facilities--and the resulting increase in the flow of information--make possible economic and social development. Although there have undoubtedly been incidents in which self-serving politicians have used mass communication to oppress the masses, the mass media has the potential to be a powerful force in the education of the society, the sharing of consciousness, the creation of nationhood, and the promotion of socioeconomic development. Mass communication is, for example, vital in the development approach that accords importance to self-sufficiency at the village level. The mass media can be used in such cases to transmit information of a background nature to a group or community about their expressed needs and to disseminate innovations that may need these needs. In the final analysis, mass media's role in development depends on the media's messages reaching the target audiences. This underscores the importance of analyzing in advance who will be the recipients of a mass media campaign and encouraging community involvement in communications planning.

  9. Diversity in Mass Communication Theory Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasorsa, Dominic L.

    2002-01-01

    Shows how prominent mass communication theories can be employed to further knowledge of diversity-related issues. Provides examples of how diversity-related issues can be addressed in mass communication theory courses. Concludes that, by definition, mass communication must take into account diversity. (PM)

  10. The ethical aspects of mass communication

    OpenAIRE

    Наталья Ивановна Клушина

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the ethical aspects of mass communication and key trends of russian media language. The author analyses ethics and law in modern journalism, culture of speech in media discourse, intentional, structural and social aspects of mass communication. Ethics of mass communication presupposes the observance of legal and moral norms, social responsibility and respect for the audience.

  11. The ethical aspects of mass communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталья Ивановна Клушина

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the ethical aspects of mass communication and key trends of russian media language. The author analyses ethics and law in modern journalism, culture of speech in media discourse, intentional, structural and social aspects of mass communication. Ethics of mass communication presupposes the observance of legal and moral norms, social responsibility and respect for the audience.

  12. Importance of Public Communication Campaigns and Art Activities in Social Education

    OpenAIRE

    Bilgehan Gültekin; Tuba Gültekin

    2012-01-01

    Universities have an important role in social education in many aspects. In terms of creating awareness and convincing public about social issues, universities take a leading position for public. The best way to provide public support for social education is to develop public communication campaigns. The aim of this study is to present a public communication model which will be guided in social education practices. The study titled “Importance of public communication campaigns and art activit...

  13. Advertising Campaign Strategy Based on The Communication Objective: A Case Study at Tokobagus Advertising Campaigns (2011-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Oscario

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Article focused on advertising as one of the most important parts of marketing communication in one of the online shop, TokoBagus. Advertising communicated a message from a certain brand to the target audience through a particular medium. The aim of this research was making advertising with a powerful message, so it was able to become a captain of consciousness that could play an important role in economic and social systems of modern society. Because of its potential power, the creative advertising workers had a big responsibility in their hands. It was not only to explore the creativity visually or verbally to a creative worker, but also, they should understand the purpose of communication, the communication strategy, and the creative strategy. In this case, TokoBagus run this in making advertisement campaign to promote its brand. The method used in this research was the qualitative method and inductive model. Data were collected through an interview, literature, and visual data. Those collected data were analyzed using a qualitative-verificative strategy and case study method. The case study was Toko Bagus advertising campaign from the year 2011 to the year 2014 when finally its name changes into OLX. It finds that the advertisements only become beautiful works of art, but it does not solve the problem of the brand. Therefore, this research is important to document the communication strategy and the creative strategy of an advertising campaign so it can be a reference for a young designers or students. 

  14. Communicating on nuclear in Switzerland: a permanent referendum campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aegerter, I.; Bucher, P.

    1993-01-01

    Utility and industry representatives took part in numerous discussions and gave many talks seeking a direct dialogue with the consumers and voters. The strategy was and still is to play the role of the consultant and energy specialist. This implies to avoid imposing an opinion and is particularly important, because the Swiss power sector is often not allowed to take part in political debates due to its structure. Many utilities are under the auspices of cantonal and community Authorities, and because people expect that the utilities have expert knowledge in this field. In order to reach a maximum number of people regular, forum-like advertisement in the print media addressed some of the main concerns. In order to show opening for dialogue platforms are needed, either the mass media or any other public information channel. In order to be heard by a public which often complains that the message is not there, a professional approach and a snappy presentation, hence a certain budget, is needed. This is also one of the lessons learned-not only from the utilities experiences but also from a critical analysis of the anti-nuclear group's campaign

  15. A Systematic Search and Review of Adult-Targeted Overweight and Obesity Prevention Mass Media Campaigns and Their Evaluation: 2000-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, James; Grunseit, Anne; Bohn-Goldbaum, Erika; Bellew, Bill; Carroll, Tom; Bauman, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    Mass media campaigns are a commonly used strategy in public health. However, no review has assessed whether the design and evaluation of overweight and obesity campaigns meets best practice recommendations. This study aimed to fill this gap. We systematically searched five databases for peer-reviewed articles describing adult-targeted obesity mass media campaigns published between 2000 and 2017, complemented by reference list searches and contact with authors and agencies responsible for the campaigns. We extracted data on campaign design, implementation, and evaluation from eligible publications and conducted a qualitative review of 29 publications reporting on 14 campaigns. We found a need for formative research with target audiences to ensure campaigns focus on the most salient issues. Further, we noted that most campaigns targeted individual behaviors, despite calls for campaigns to also focus upstream and to address social determinants of obesity. Television was the dominant communication channel but, with the rapid advance of digital media, evaluation of other channels, such as social media, is increasingly important. Finally, although evaluation methods varied in quality, the evidence suggests that campaigns can have an impact on intermediate outcomes, such as knowledge and attitudes. However, evidence is still limited as to whether campaigns can influence behavior change.

  16. The comprehensive ‘Communicate to Vaccinate’ taxonomy of communication interventions for childhood vaccination in routine and campaign contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Kaufman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Communication can be used to generate demand for vaccination or address vaccine hesitancy, and is crucial to successful childhood vaccination programmes. Research efforts have primarily focused on communication for routine vaccination. However, vaccination campaigns, particularly in low- or middle-income countries (LMICs, also use communication in diverse ways. Without a comprehensive framework integrating communication interventions from routine and campaign contexts, it is not possible to conceptualise the full range of possible vaccination communication interventions. Therefore, vaccine programme managers may be unaware of potential communication options and researchers may not focus on building evidence for interventions used in practice. In this paper, we broaden the scope of our existing taxonomy of communication interventions for routine vaccination to include communication used in campaigns, and integrate these into a comprehensive taxonomy of vaccination communication interventions. Methods Building on our taxonomy of communication for routine vaccination, we identified communication interventions used in vaccination campaigns through a targeted literature search; observation of vaccination activities in Cameroon, Mozambique and Nigeria; and stakeholder consultations. We added these interventions to descriptions of routine vaccination communication and categorised the interventions according to their intended purposes, building from an earlier taxonomy of communication related to routine vaccination. Results The comprehensive taxonomy groups communication used in campaigns and routine childhood vaccination into seven purpose categories: ‘Inform or Educate’; ‘Remind or Recall’; ‘Enhance Community Ownership’; ‘Teach Skills’; ‘Provide Support’; ‘Facilitate Decision Making’ and ‘Enable Communication’. Consultations with LMIC stakeholders and experts informed the taxonomy’s definitions and

  17. 49 CFR 579.5 - Notices, bulletins, customer satisfaction campaigns, consumer advisories, and other communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notices, bulletins, customer satisfaction... General § 579.5 Notices, bulletins, customer satisfaction campaigns, consumer advisories, and other... to NHTSA a copy of each communication relating to a customer satisfaction campaign, consumer advisory...

  18. An evaluation of the 2012 measles mass vaccination campaign in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... 1Ministry of Health and Public Hygiene, Guinea, 2WHO country office, Guinea, 3Ministry of Public health ... Abstract. Introduction: To estimate the post-campaign level of measles vaccination coverage in Guinea. ..... CONAKRY.

  19. Specification and misspecification of theoretical foundations and logic models for health communication campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Michael D

    2006-01-01

    While increasingly widespread use of behavior change theory is an advance for communication campaigns and their evaluation, such theories provide a necessary but not sufficient condition for theory-based communication interventions. Such interventions and their evaluations need to incorporate theoretical thinking about plausible mechanisms of message effect on health-related attitudes and behavior. Otherwise, strategic errors in message design and dissemination, and misspecified campaign logic models, insensitive to campaign effects, are likely to result. Implications of the elaboration likelihood model, attitude accessibility, attitude to the ad theory, exemplification, and framing are explored, and implications for campaign strategy and evaluation designs are briefly discussed. Initial propositions are advanced regarding a theory of campaign affect generalization derived from attitude to ad theory, and regarding a theory of reframing targeted health behaviors in those difficult contexts in which intended audiences are resistant to the advocated behavior or message.

  20. INFORMATION CAMPAIGNS – MEANS OF COMMUNICATION WITH CUSTOMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia-Nicoleta Dobrescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Within a company’s activities, an important role is granted to the performance and implementation of information campaigns for the final consumers. The paper has the general objective to identify specific issues that constitute the premises for the preparation and conduct of such activities, and especially the expected results. The analysis is performed and based on a direct research among several companies, which operate in various fields, for the identification of a method of performance and implementation of information campaigns that are necessary for ensuring visibility on the reference market. The aim of the study was to identify the importance that the firms from Resita give to information campaigns addressed to a target audience. The study was carried from April to May 2013 on a sample of small, medium and large firms, which operate in trade, manufacturing and services. The questions and the discussions addressed to the public were meant to outline the specific aspects of the exact way in which the information campaigns were done for their clients, but also to underline the results obtained with the help of these campaigns.

  1. Long-term evaluation of a Canadian back pain mass media campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Arnela; Bostick, Geoffrey P; Schopflocher, Donald; Russell, Anthony S; Ferrari, Robert; Battié, Michele C; Hu, Richard; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Gross, Douglas P

    2017-09-01

    This paper evaluates the long-term impact of a Canadian mass media campaign on general public beliefs about staying active when experiencing low back pain (LBP). Changes in beliefs about staying active during an episode of LBP were studied using telephone and web-based surveys. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate changes in beliefs over time and the effect of exposure to campaign messaging. The percentage of survey respondents agreeing that they should stay active through LBP increased annually from 58.9 to ~72.0%. Respondents reporting exposure to campaign messaging were statistically significantly more likely to agree with staying active than respondents who did not report exposure to campaign messaging (adjusted OR, 95% CI = 1.96, 1.73-2.21). The mass media campaign had continued impact on public LBP beliefs over the course of 7 years. Improvements over time were associated with exposure to campaign messaging.

  2. Mass communication for energy efficiency. Experiences from energy efficiency campaigns in Schleswig-Holstein 2000-2000. Final report; Massenkommunikation fuer Energieffizienz. Erfahrungen aus landesweiten Energieeffizienz-Kampagnen in Schleswig-Holstein 2000-2002. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortmann, K.; Moehring-Hueser, W.

    2002-10-01

    The report sums up the experience gained with energy efficiency pilot campaigns in Schleswig-Holstein (Schoeth et al., to appear, and Wortman et al., 2000, 2001). The information is to help other actors in this field to develop and optimize their own campaigns. [German] Dieser Bericht resuemiert die wesentlichen Erkenntnisse und Erfahrungen mit wirkungsvoller Umweltwerbung auf Basis der ausfuehrlichen Werbewirkungskontrollen zu den Energieeffizienz-Pilotkampagnen in Schleswig-Holstein (vgl. ausfuehrlicher Schoetz et al., im Druck sowie Wortmann et al., 2000, 2001). Die abschliessenden Abschnitte 'Empfehlungen' und 'Ausblick' kennzeichnen den aktuellen Stand des Wissens und sollen anderen Akteuren mit gleicher oder aehnlicher Zielsetzung Hilfestellung und Anregung fuer die optimierte eigene Planung von Kampagnen geben. (orig.)

  3. Promotion and communication through e-mail marketing campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Dania TODOR

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to try to emphasize the e-mail marketing campaigns importance and efficiency and the way they increase the interaction between a company and potential customers and to increase their interest in a company’s products and services and finally trigger the buying decision. Also the present paper’s aim is to exemplify how business can gain benefits by using marketing automation tools like e-mail marketing campaigns which is considered nowadays a form of direct marketing which is less expensive than the traditional direct marketing alternatives.

  4. Effects of information, education, and communication campaign on a community-based health insurance scheme in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofie, Patience; De Allegri, Manuela; Kouyaté, Bocar; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2013-12-06

    The study analysed the effect of Information, Education, and Communication (IEC) campaign activities on the adoption of a community-based health insurance (CHI) scheme in Nouna, Burkina Faso. It also identified the factors that enhanced or limited the campaign's effectiveness. Complementary data collection approaches were used. A survey was conducted with 250 randomly selected household heads, followed by in-depth interviews with 22 purposively selected community leaders, group discussions with the project management team, and field observations. Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the association between household exposure to campaign and acquisition of knowledge as well as household exposure to campaign and enrolment. The IEC campaign had a positive effect on households' knowledge about the CHI and to a lesser extent on household enrolment in the scheme. The effectiveness of the IEC strategy was mainly influenced by: (1) frequent and consistent IEC messages from multiple media channels (mass and interpersonal channels), including the radio, a mobile information van, and CHI team, and (2) community heads' participation in the CHI scheme promotion. Education was the only significantly influential socio-demographic determinant of knowledge and enrolment among household heads. The relatively low effects of the IEC campaign on CHI enrolment are indicative of other important IEC mediating factors, which should be taken into account in future CHI campaign evaluation. The study concludes that an IEC campaign is crucial to improving the understanding of the CHI scheme concept, which is an enabler to enrolment, and should be integrated into scheme designs and evaluations.

  5. Effects of information, education, and communication campaign on a community-based health insurance scheme in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patience Cofie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The study analysed the effect of Information, Education, and Communication (IEC campaign activities on the adoption of a community-based health insurance (CHI scheme in Nouna, Burkina Faso. It also identified the factors that enhanced or limited the campaign's effectiveness. Design : Complementary data collection approaches were used. A survey was conducted with 250 randomly selected household heads, followed by in-depth interviews with 22 purposively selected community leaders, group discussions with the project management team, and field observations. Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the association between household exposure to campaign and acquisition of knowledge as well as household exposure to campaign and enrolment. Results : The IEC campaign had a positive effect on households’ knowledge about the CHI and to a lesser extent on household enrolment in the scheme. The effectiveness of the IEC strategy was mainly influenced by: 1 frequent and consistent IEC messages from multiple media channels (mass and interpersonal channels, including the radio, a mobile information van, and CHI team, and 2 community heads’ participation in the CHI scheme promotion. Education was the only significantly influential socio-demographic determinant of knowledge and enrolment among household heads. The relatively low effects of the IEC campaign on CHI enrolment are indicative of other important IEC mediating factors, which should be taken into account in future CHI campaign evaluation. Conclusion : The study concludes that an IEC campaign is crucial to improving the understanding of the CHI scheme concept, which is an enabler to enrolment, and should be integrated into scheme designs and evaluations.

  6. Religious communication and hegemony of mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrushkevych Maria Stefanivna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Religious communication is the complex object of scientific research that involves existential component and the inextricable link with relevant historical trends. Mass culture and the information society put pressure on modern religious communication. Media is actively integrating into the system of religious communication. Hegemony of mass communication is realized through the media and religious communicative system becomes the part of this hegemony. Peculiarities of religious communication processes are conditioned by consciousness of itself impact and the need to integrate into the media system.

  7. [A communication campaign to improve how antibiotics are used].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héron, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    A wide-scale information campaign, using a memorable slogan, reminded health professionals and users that the prescribing of antibiotics is not 'automatic' in the case of a viral infection. The fight against antibiotic resistant bacteria requires the consumption of these medications to be limited in order to preserve their effectiveness. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. Measuring and Monitoring in the South African "Kha Ri Gude" Mass Literacy Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    After many previous failed attempts to reach illiterate adults, the award-winning South African "Kha Ri Gude" mass literacy campaign, launched in 2008, undertook to ensure that learners seized the opportunity to learn--for many adults, this was a "last chance". Written from an insider perspective by the campaign's founding…

  9. Population-Based Evaluation of the "Livelighter" Healthy Weight and Lifestyle Mass Media Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, B.; Niven, P.; Dixon, H.; Swanson, M.; Szybiak, M.; Shilton, T.; Pratt, I. S.; Slevin, T.; Hill, D.; Wakefield, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Western Australian (WA) "LiveLighter" (LL) mass media campaign ran during June-August and September-October 2012. The principal campaign ad graphically depicts visceral fat of an overweight individual ("why" change message), whereas supporting ads demonstrate simple changes to increase activity and eat healthier…

  10. Physical Activity Mass Media Campaigns and Their Evaluation: A Systematic Review of the Literature 2003-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Justine E.; Bull, Fiona C.; Rosenberg, Michael; Bauman, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Internationally, mass media campaigns to promote regular moderate-intensity physical activity have increased recently. Evidence of mass media campaign effectiveness exists in other health areas, however the evidence for physical activity is limited. The purpose was to systematically review the literature on physical activity mass media campaigns,…

  11. Communication, Reasoning, and Planned Behaviors: Unveiling the Effect of Interactive Communication in an Anti-Smoking Social Media Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, Kang; Nah, Seungahn; Record, Rachael A; Van Stee, Stephanie K

    2017-01-01

    This study examines direct and indirect effects of interactive communication in an antismoking social media campaign. To that end, we pose a multitheoretical framework that integrates communication mediation models and the Theory of Planned Behavior. To test the theorized model, we conducted an experiment using a two-group pretest-posttest design. Participants (N = 201) were randomly assigned into two experimental conditions: "campaign message reception only" as a control group and "message reception and social interaction" as a treatment group, in which the participants contributed to the antismoking campaign by posting their own campaign ideas and information they found through mediated and interpersonal communication. The findings show that interactive communication catalyzes the participants' information searching behaviors through diverse communication channels. In turn, increased media use plays a crucial role in changing their attitudes and perceived social norms about smoking behaviors, and eventually reducing smoking intention. This study affirms that the theory of planned behavior is effective in predicting behavioral intention and demonstrates the usefulness of a multitheoretical approach in interactive campaign research on social media.

  12. New perspectives and evidence on political communication and campaign effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, S; Simon, A F

    2000-01-01

    We review recent empirical evidence that shows political campaigns are more potent than widely believed, focusing on the conceptual and methodological advances that have produced these findings. Conceptually, a broader definition of effects--that includes learning and agenda-control, as well as vote choice--characterizes contemporary research. This research also features two kinds of interactive models that are more complex than the traditional hypodermic (message-based) approach. The resonance model considers the relationship between message content and receivers' predispositions, while the strategic model highlights the interactions between competing messages. Finally, we attribute the emergence of stronger evidence in favor of campaign effects to the use of new methodologies including experimentation and content analysis, as well as the more sophisticated use of sample surveys.

  13. Characterizing tobacco control mass media campaigns in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Tessa; Lewis, Sarah; McNeill, Ann; Gilmore, Anna; Szatkowski, Lisa; West, Robert; Sims, Michelle

    2013-11-01

    To characterize publically funded tobacco control campaigns in England between 2004 and 2010 and to explore if they were in line with recommendations from the literature in terms of their content and intensity. International evidence suggests that campaigns which warn of the negative consequences of smoking and feature testimonials from real-life smokers are most effective, and that four exposures per head per month are required to reduce smoking prevalence. Characterization of tobacco control advertisements using a theoretically based framework designed to describe advertisement themes, informational and emotional content and style. Study of the intensity of advertising and exposure to different types of advertisement using data on population-level exposure to advertisements shown during the study period. England. Television Ratings (TVRs), a standard measure of advertising exposure, were used to calculate exposure to each different campaign type. A total of 89% of advertising was for smoking cessation; half of this advertising warned of the negative consequences of smoking, while half contained how-to-quit messages. Acted scenes featured in 72% of advertising, while only 17% featured real-life testimonials. Only 39% of months had at least four exposures to tobacco control campaigns per head. A theory-driven approach enabled a systematic characterization of tobacco control advertisements in England. Between 2004 and 2010 only a small proportion of tobacco control advertisements utilized the most effective strategies-negative health effects messages and testimonials from real-life smokers. The intensity of campaigns was lower than international recommendations. © 2013 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Evaluation of the national tobacco control mass media campaign in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezheng Jin

    2018-03-01

    The mass media campaign reinforced people's knowledge and attitudes about harmful health effects of smoking and SHS exposure, increased people's desire to quit, and improved people's support for smoking bans in public places.

  15. Effects of a mass media campaign to increase physical activity among children: year-1 results of the VERB campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhman, Marian; Potter, Lance D; Wong, Faye L; Banspach, Stephen W; Duke, Jennifer C; Heitzler, Carrie D

    2005-08-01

    To determine the effects of a mass media campaign on the levels of physical activity among children 9 to 13 years of age. A prospective, longitudinal, quasi-experimental design was used. A baseline survey was conducted in April to June 2002, before the launch of VERB advertising. Random-digit-dialing methods were used to survey a nationally representative sample of children and parents. The follow-up survey was repeated with the same cohort of children and parents in April to June 2003. Propensity scoring was used to determine the campaign's effects on awareness and physical activity behaviors. United States. A total of 3120 parent-child dyads. Intervention. The VERB campaign is a multiethnic campaign that combines paid advertisements with school and community promotions and Internet activities to encourage children 9 to 13 years of age to be physically active every day. Launched in 2002 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, VERB uses commercial marketing methods to advertise being physically active as cool, fun, and a chance to have a good time with friends. Using the VERB brand, paid advertising ran nationally from June 2002 through June 2003, targeting 9- to 13-year-old youths. Children's awareness of the campaign and self-reported estimates of free-time and organized physical activity sessions during nonschool hours in the week before the interview. After 1 year, 74% of children surveyed were aware of the VERB campaign. Levels of reported sessions of free-time physical activity increased for subgroups of children 9 to 13 years of age. A pattern of effects across 2 measures was observed for younger children (9-10 years of age), girls, children whose parents had less than a high school education, children from urban areas that were densely populated, and children who were low active at baseline. These subgroups engaged in more median weekly sessions of free-time physical activity than did children who were unaware of VERB and, as the children's level

  16. Mass Communication Games: Simulation-Games for Teaching/Learning About Journalism/Mass Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Michael L.

    This dissertation explores the teaching/learning application which simulation-gaming has to offer journalism/mass communication educators. It proposes eight uses to which journalism/mass communication educators can put simulation-games and develops a series of generating principles, based on a broad concept of mass communication, which are…

  17. Use of mass-media and active involvement in a national dental health campaign in Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, L

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of a Dental Health Mass-Media Campaign directed at 5-7-yr-old children and their mothers. It aimed at increasing knowledge and awareness of dental health by making use of three different components: inserts in women's magazines; television commercial; material...... that future national health education campaigns combine the mass-media approach to increase health awareness with active involvement activities to stimulate behavioural changes....

  18. Cost-effectiveness of a smokeless tobacco control mass media campaign in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murukutla, Nandita; Yan, Hongjin; Wang, Shuo; Negi, Nalin Singh; Kotov, Alexey; Mullin, Sandra; Goodchild, Mark

    2017-08-10

    Tobacco control mass media campaigns are cost-effective in reducing tobacco consumption in high-income countries, but similar evidence from low-income countries is limited. An evaluation of a 2009 smokeless tobacco control mass media campaign in India provided an opportunity to test its cost-effectiveness. Campaign evaluation data from a nationally representative household survey of 2898 smokeless tobacco users were compared with campaign costs in a standard cost-effectiveness methodology. Costs and effects of the Surgeon campaign were compared with the status quo to calculate the cost per campaign-attributable benefit, including quit attempts, permanent quits and tobacco-related deaths averted. Sensitivity analyses at varied CIs and tobacco-related mortality risk were conducted. The Surgeon campaign was found to be highly cost-effective. It successfully generated 17 259 148 additional quit attempts, 431 479 permanent quits and 120 814 deaths averted. The cost per benefit was US$0.06 per quit attempt, US$2.6 per permanent quit and US$9.2 per death averted. The campaign continued to be cost-effective in sensitivity analyses. This study suggests that tobacco control mass media campaigns can be cost-effective and economically justified in low-income and middle-income countries. It holds significant policy implications, calling for sustained investment in evidence-based mass media campaigns as part of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Overcoming methodological challenges in evaluating health communication campaigns: evidence from rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilkey, David K; Hutchinson, Paul L

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we examine the effectiveness of the Smiling Sun multimedia health communication campaign in encouraging women to use family health services in rural Bangladesh. We control for endogenous program placement and address the potential endogeneity of self-reported campaign exposure in health-behavior equations by estimating a set of exposure, contraceptive-use, and antenatal-care equations by full information maximum likelihood (FIML). We find that evaluation methods that do not take into account these nonrandom characteristics of communication and program exposure may produce underestimates of program benefits. Relative to the exposure effect of 3.7 percentage points in the simple model of contraceptive use, the exposure effect in the FIML model is a larger 5.5 percentage points, corresponding to as many as 40,000 additional contraceptive users. We conclude that evaluations of health communication campaigns would benefit from methods such as estimation by FIML that address nonrandom exposure and program targeting.

  20. Correlates of Initial Recall of a Multimedia Communication Campaign to Promote Physical Activity among Tweens: the WIXX Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger-Gravel, Ariane; Cutumisu, Nicoleta; Gauvin, Lise; Lagarde, François; Laferté, Marilie

    2017-01-01

    This study examined factors associated with children's and parents' recall of a communication campaign aimed at promoting children's physical activity. A cross-sectional population-based telephone survey was conducted among 1001 children and their parents. Respondents were recruited through a random digit dialing procedure. Respondents' recall of the campaign, beliefs, sociodemographics as well as levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviors were self-reported. Logistic regression analyses were conducted for tweens and their parents separately. Girls (odds ratio [OR] = 2.1; 95%confidence interval (CI): 1.3, 3.5) were more likely to have unaided recall when compared to boys. Tweens in primary school (OR = 1.9; 95%CI: 1.0, 3.4 and OR = 2.1; 95%CI: 1.4, 3.0) and those speaking French (OR = 3.3; 95%CI: 1.4, 8.1 and OR = 2.9; 95%CI: 1.8, 4.7) were more likely to have unaided and aided recall, respectively. Among parents, tweens' unaided (OR = 12.0; 95%CI: 5.2, 28.1) and aided (OR = 3.3; 95%CI: 1.5, 7.3) recall, obesity status (OR = 2.6; 95%CI: 1.3, 5.3), and low income (OR = 5.2; 95%CI: 1.9, 14.3) were positively associated with recall. Additional beliefs were associated with tweens' and parents' recall of the campaign. The association between sex, language, and recall is in line with the branding strategy adopted and no clear evidence for communication inequalities was observed.

  1. [The perils of risk communication and the role of the mass media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmann, C; Brosius, H-B

    2013-01-01

    Based on theories and empirical results from communication science, the present paper provides an overview of the role of mass media in risk communication. It is guided by the following questions: How do risk issues find their way into the media and how does the media depict them? How do mass-mediated risk messages affect people's perception of risks, knowledge, attitudes, and behavior? What potential does the media have in disseminating health risk information in campaigns? Hence, the present paper aims to provide a basis for the appropriate use of mass media in health risk communication so as to make use of the potential of mass media without neglecting its limits.

  2. Effectiveness of a national media campaign to promote parent-child communication about sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kevin C; Evans, W Douglas; Kamyab, Kian

    2013-02-01

    Although there is debate on the effectiveness of youth-focused abstinence education programs, research confirms that parents can influence their children's decisions about sexual behavior. To leverage parent-based approaches to adolescent sexual health, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services launched the Parents Speak Up National Campaign (PSUNC) to encourage parent-child communication about sex. Previous experimental studies have found the campaign to be efficacious in increasing parent-child communication. But to date, the actual reach of the campaign and its real-world effectiveness in promoting parent-child communication has not been established. The present study addresses this gap. The authors surveyed 1,804 parents of 10- to14-year-old children from the nationally representative Knowledge Networks online panel. The survey included questions about parents' awareness of PSUNC ads and parent-child communication behaviors. The authors also analyzed market-level data on campaign gross rating points, a measure of market-level intensity of PSUNC advertising in the United States. Multivariate regressions were used to examine the association between PSUNC exposure and a three-item scale for parent-child communication. Overall, 59.4% of parents in the sample reported awareness of PSUNC. The authors found that higher market-level PSUNC gross rating points were associated with increased parent-child communication. Similar relationships were observed between self-reported awareness of PSUNC and increased frequency of communication and recommendations to wait. These associations were particularly strong among mothers. This study provides the first field-based data on the real-world reach and effectiveness of PSUNC among parents. The data support earlier experimental trials of PSUNC, showing that the campaign is associated with greater parent-child communication, primarily among mothers. Further research may be needed to develop additional messages for fathers.

  3. Effectiveness of Mass Media Campaigns to Reduce Alcohol Consumption and Harm: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sarah; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Bauld, Linda; Stead, Martine; Angus, Kathryn; Campbell, Mhairi; Hilton, Shona; Thomas, James; Hinds, Kate; Ashie, Adela; Langley, Tessa

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Aims To assess the effectiveness of mass media messages to reduce alcohol consumption and related harms using a systematic literature review. Methods Eight databases were searched along with reference lists of eligible studies. Studies of any design in any country were included, provided that they evaluated a mass media intervention targeting alcohol consumption or related behavioural, social cognitive or clinical outcomes. Drink driving interventions and college campus campaigns were ineligible. Studies quality were assessed, data were extracted and a narrative synthesis conducted. Results Searches produced 10,212 results and 24 studies were included in the review. Most campaigns used TV or radio in combination with other media channels were conducted in developed countries and were of weak quality. There was little evidence of reductions in alcohol consumption associated with exposure to campaigns based on 13 studies which measured consumption, although most did not state this as a specific aim of the campaign. There were some increases in treatment seeking and information seeking and mixed evidence of changes in intentions, motivation, beliefs and attitudes about alcohol. Campaigns were associated with increases in knowledge about alcohol consumption, especially where levels had initially been low. Recall of campaigns was high. Conclusion Mass media health campaigns about alcohol are often recalled by individuals, have achieved changes in knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about alcohol but there is little evidence of reductions in alcohol consumption. Short summary There is little evidence that mass media campaigns have reduced alcohol consumption although most did not state that they aimed to do so. Studies show recall of campaigns is high and that they can have an impact on knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about alcohol consumption. PMID:29329359

  4. Effectiveness of Mass Media Campaigns to Reduce Alcohol Consumption and Harm: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ben; Lewis, Sarah; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Bauld, Linda; Stead, Martine; Angus, Kathryn; Campbell, Mhairi; Hilton, Shona; Thomas, James; Hinds, Kate; Ashie, Adela; Langley, Tessa

    2018-05-01

    To assess the effectiveness of mass media messages to reduce alcohol consumption and related harms using a systematic literature review. Eight databases were searched along with reference lists of eligible studies. Studies of any design in any country were included, provided that they evaluated a mass media intervention targeting alcohol consumption or related behavioural, social cognitive or clinical outcomes. Drink driving interventions and college campus campaigns were ineligible. Studies quality were assessed, data were extracted and a narrative synthesis conducted. Searches produced 10,212 results and 24 studies were included in the review. Most campaigns used TV or radio in combination with other media channels were conducted in developed countries and were of weak quality. There was little evidence of reductions in alcohol consumption associated with exposure to campaigns based on 13 studies which measured consumption, although most did not state this as a specific aim of the campaign. There were some increases in treatment seeking and information seeking and mixed evidence of changes in intentions, motivation, beliefs and attitudes about alcohol. Campaigns were associated with increases in knowledge about alcohol consumption, especially where levels had initially been low. Recall of campaigns was high. Mass media health campaigns about alcohol are often recalled by individuals, have achieved changes in knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about alcohol but there is little evidence of reductions in alcohol consumption. There is little evidence that mass media campaigns have reduced alcohol consumption although most did not state that they aimed to do so. Studies show recall of campaigns is high and that they can have an impact on knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about alcohol consumption.

  5. Tobacco packaging and mass media campaigns: research needs for Articles 11 and 12 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; Wakefield, Melanie; Durkin, Sarah; Brennan, Emily

    2013-04-01

    Communicating the health risks of smoking remains a primary objective of tobacco-control policy. Articles 11 and 12 of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control establish standards for two important forms of communication: packaging regulations (Article 11), and mass media campaigns (Article 12). A narrative review approach was used to identify existing evidence in the areas of package labeling regulations (including health warnings, constituent and emission messages, and prohibitions on misleading information) and communication activities (including mass media campaigns and news media coverage). When available, recent reviews of the literature were used, updated with more recent high-quality studies from published literature. Implementation of Articles 11 and 12 share several important research priorities: (a) identify existing consumer information needs and gaps, (b) research on the message source to identify effective types of content for health warnings and media campaigns, (c) research on how messages are processed and the extent to which the content and form of messages need to be tailored to different cultural and geographic groups, as well as subgroups within countries, and (d) research to identify the most cost-effective mix and best practices for sustaining health communications over time. A unifying theme of effective health communication through tobacco packaging and mass media campaigns is the need to provide salient, timely, and engaging reminders of the consequences of tobacco use in ways that motivate and support tobacco users trying to quit and make tobacco use less appealing for those at risk of taking it up.

  6. Communicating climate change: Improving the effectiveness of public campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Hidalgo Villodres

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on climate change highlights the need to develop more effective campaigns to increase citizens’ awareness of this issue, increase their willingness to accept the measures necessary to halt this phenomenon and change their behaviour. This paper describes a study which analyzed the effectiveness of an advertising message that combined informative and motivational variables on pro-environmental attitudes and intended behaviour. The study sample consisted of 180 university students, divided into two equivalent groups. The results supported the initial hypothesis,the participants in the group that received specific behaviour guidelines (to increase perceived control together with information on economic savings (motivational variable displayed more changes in self-efficacy, pro-environmental attitudes and intention of behaviour than the group that did not receive this information.

  7. Exploring the role of communications in quality improvement: A case study of the 1000 Lives Campaign in NHS Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Andrew; Gray, Jonathon; Willson, Alan; Lines, Chris; McCannon, Joe; McHardy, Karina

    2015-03-01

    Effective communication is critical to successful large-scale change. Yet, in our experience, communications strategies are not formally incorporated into quality improvement (QI) frameworks. The 1000 Lives Campaign ('Campaign') was a large-scale national QI collaborative that aimed to save an additional 1000 lives and prevent 50 000 episodes of harm in Welsh health care over a 2-year period. We use the Campaign as a case study to describe the development, application, and impact of a communications strategy embedded in a large-scale QI initiative. A comprehensive communications strategy guided communications work during the Campaign. The main aims of the communications strategy were to engage the hearts and minds of frontline National Health Service (NHS) staff in the Campaign and promote their awareness and understanding of specific QI interventions and the wider patient safety agenda. We used qualitative and quantitative measures to monitor communications outputs and assess how the communications strategy influenced awareness and knowledge of frontline NHS staff. The communications strategy facilitated clear and consistent framing of Campaign messages and allowed dissemination of information related to the range of QI interventions. It reaffirmed the aim and value of the Campaign to frontline staff, thereby promoting sustained engagement with Campaign activities. The communications strategy also built the profile of the Campaign both internally with NHS organizations across Wales and externally with the media, and played a pivotal role in improving awareness and understanding of the patient safety agenda. Ultimately, outcomes from the communications strategy could not be separated from overall Campaign outcomes. Systematic and structured communications can support and enhance QI initiatives. From our experience, we developed a 'communications bundle' consisting of six core components. We recommend that communications bundles be incorporated into existing QI

  8. Do mass media campaigns improve physical activity? a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abioye, Ajibola I; Hajifathalian, Kaveh; Danaei, Goodarz

    2013-08-02

    Mass media campaigns are frequently used to influence the health behaviors of various populations. There are currently no quantitative meta-analyses of the effect of mass media campaigns on physical activity in adults. We searched six electronic databases from their inception to August 2012 and selected prospective studies that evaluated the effect of mass media campaigns on physical activity in adults. We excluded studies that did not have a proper control group or did not report the uncertainties of the effect estimates. Two reviewers independently screened the title/abstracts and full articles. We used random-effects models to pool effect estimates across studies for 3 selected outcomes. Nine prospective cohorts and before-after studies that followed-up 27,601 people over 8 weeks to 3 years met the inclusion criteria. Based on the pooled results from these studies, mass media campaigns had a significant effect on promoting moderate intensity walking (pooled relative risk (RR) from 3 studies=1.53, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.25 to 1.87), but did not help participants achieve sufficient levels of physical activity [4 studies pooled RR=1.02, 95% CI: 0.91 to 1.14)]. The apparent effect of media campaigns on reducing sedentary behavior (pooled RR=1.15, 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.30) was lost when a relatively low-quality study with large effects was excluded in a sensitivity analysis. In subgroup analyses, campaigns that promoted physical activity as a 'social norm' seemed to be more effective in reducing sedentary behavior. Mass media campaigns may promote walking but may not reduce sedentary behavior or lead to achieving recommended levels of overall physical activity. Further research is warranted on different campaign types and in low- and middle- income countries.

  9. Evaluation of a mass media campaign promoting using help to quit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Laura A; Parvanta, Sarah A; Jeong, Michelle; Hornik, Robert C

    2014-05-01

    Although there is evidence that promoting individual cessation aids increases their utilization, mass media campaigns highlighting the benefit of using help to quit have not been evaluated. The effects of a Philadelphia adult smoking-cessation media campaign targeting using help in ad taglines were analyzed from March to November 2012. This study distinctively analyzed the campaign's impact at both the population level (effects on the average person) and the individual level (effects among those who reported exposure). The 16-month mass media campaign aired in Philadelphia PA from December 2010 to March 2012. A representative sample of adult Philadelphia smokers was interviewed by telephone at baseline (n=491) and new samples were interviewed monthly throughout the campaign (n=2,786). In addition, a subsample of these respondents was reinterviewed 3 months later (n=877). On average, participants reported seeing campaign ads four times per week. Among individual respondents, each additional campaign exposure per week increased the likelihood of later reporting using help (OR=1.08, p<0.01), adjusting for baseline use of help and other potential confounders. This corresponded to a 5% increase in the use of help for those with average exposure relative to those with no exposure. Cross-sectional associations between individual campaign exposure and intentions to use help were consistent with these lagged findings. However, there was no evidence of population-level campaign effects on use of help. Although the campaign was effective at the individual level, its effects were too small to have a population-detectable impact. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Innovations in communication technologies for measles supplemental immunization activities: lessons from Kenya measles vaccination campaign, November 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbabazi, William B; Tabu, Collins W; Chemirmir, Caleb; Kisia, James; Ali, Nasra; Corkum, Melissa G; Bartley, Gene L

    2015-01-01

    Background To achieve a measles free world, effective communication must be part of all elimination plans. The choice of communication approaches must be evidence based, locally appropriate, interactive and community owned. In this article, we document the innovative approach of using house visits supported by a web-enabled mobile phone application to create a real-time platform for adaptive management of supplemental measles immunization days in Kenya. Methods One thousand nine hundred and fifty-two Red Cross volunteers were recruited, trained and deployed to conduct house-to-house canvassing in 11 urban districts of Kenya. Three days before the campaigns, volunteers conducted house visits with a uniform approach and package of messages. All house visits were documented using a web-enabled mobile phone application (episurveyor®) that in real-time relayed information collected to all campaign management levels. During the campaigns, volunteers reported daily immunizations to their co-ordinators. Post-campaign house visits were also conducted within 4 days, to verify immunization of eligible children, assess information sources and detect adverse events following immunization. Results Fifty-six per cent of the 164 643 households visited said that they had heard about the planned 2012 measles vaccination campaign 1–3 days before start dates. Twenty-five per cent of households were likely to miss the measles supplemental dose if they had not been reassured by the house visit. Pre- and post-campaign reasons for refusal showed that targeted communication reduced misconceptions, fear of injections and trust in herbal remedies. Daily reporting of immunizations using mobile phones informed changes in service delivery plans for better immunization coverage. House visits were more remembered (70%) as sources of information compared with traditional mass awareness channels like megaphones (41%) and radio (37%). Conclusions In high-density settlements, house-to-house visits

  11. Mass Media Campaign Improves Cervical Screening across All Socio-Economic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jenny O.; Mullins, Robyn M.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Spittal, Matthew J.; Wakefield, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    Low socio-economic status (SES) has been associated with lower cervical screening rates. Mass media is one known strategy that can increase cervical screening participation. This study sought to determine whether a mass media campaign conducted in Victoria, Australia, in 2005 was effective in encouraging women across all SES groups to screen. Data…

  12. The Use of Social Networking Sites (SNSs) in Health Communication Campaigns: Review and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jingyuan; Poorisat, Thanomwong; Salmon, Charles T

    2018-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a rapid increase in the use of Social Networking Sites (SNSs) in health communication campaigns seeking to achieve an ambitious range of health-related impacts. This article provides a review of 40 studies and research protocols, with a focus on two key factors that differentiate SNSs from more traditional health communication approaches of the past. The first is the potential dualism between message sender and receiver, in which receivers become receiver-sources who forward and amplify the content and reach of health messages. The second is the potential dualism between message and message impact, in which the act of forwarding and modifying messages by receiver-sources itself becomes a measure of message impact. Each of these dualisms has implications for the design and evaluation of contemporary health communication campaigns. The review concludes with a series of observations and recommendations for future health communication research.

  13. Intra-Campaign Changes in Voting Preferences: The Impact of Media and Party Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johann, David; Königslöw, Katharina Kleinen-von; Kritzinger, Sylvia; Thomas, Kathrin

    2018-01-01

    An increasing number of citizens change and adapt their party preferences during the electoral campaign. We analyze which short-term factors explain intra-campaign changes in voting preferences, focusing on the visibility and tone of news media reporting and party canvassing. Our analyses rely on an integrative data approach, linking data from media content analysis to public opinion data. This enables us to investigate the relative impact of news media reporting as well as party communication. Inherently, we overcome previously identified methodological problems in the study of communication effects on voting behavior. Our findings reveal that campaigns matter: Especially interpersonal party canvassing increases voters’ likelihood to change their voting preferences in favor of the respective party, whereas media effects are limited to quality news outlets and depend on individual voters’ party ambivalence.

  14. Intra-Campaign Changes in Voting Preferences: The Impact of Media and Party Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johann, David; Königslöw, Katharina Kleinen-von; Kritzinger, Sylvia; Thomas, Kathrin

    2018-01-01

    An increasing number of citizens change and adapt their party preferences during the electoral campaign. We analyze which short-term factors explain intra-campaign changes in voting preferences, focusing on the visibility and tone of news media reporting and party canvassing. Our analyses rely on an integrative data approach, linking data from media content analysis to public opinion data. This enables us to investigate the relative impact of news media reporting as well as party communication. Inherently, we overcome previously identified methodological problems in the study of communication effects on voting behavior. Our findings reveal that campaigns matter: Especially interpersonal party canvassing increases voters' likelihood to change their voting preferences in favor of the respective party, whereas media effects are limited to quality news outlets and depend on individual voters' party ambivalence.

  15. "Get smart Colorado": impact of a mass media campaign to improve community antibiotic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Ralph; Corbett, Kitty K; Wong, Shale; Glazner, Judith E; Deas, Ann; Leeman-Castillo, Bonnie; Maselli, Judith H; Sebert-Kuhlmann, Ann; Wigton, Robert S; Flores, Estevan; Kafadar, Karen

    2008-06-01

    Large-scale strategies are needed to reduce overuse of antibiotics in US communities. To evaluate the impact of a mass media campaign-"Get Smart Colorado"-on public exposure to campaign, antibiotic use, and office visit rates. Nonrandomized controlled trial. Two metropolitan communities in Colorado, United States. The general public, managed care enrollees, and physicians residing in the mass media (2.2 million persons) and comparison (0.53 million persons) communities. : The campaign consisting of paid outdoor advertising, earned media and physician advocacy ran between November 2002 and February 2003. Antibiotics dispensed per 1000 persons or managed care enrollees, and the proportion of office visits receiving antibiotics measured during 10 to 12 months before and after the campaign. After the mass media campaign, there was a 3.8% net decrease in retail pharmacy antibiotic dispenses per 1000 persons (P = 0.30) and an 8.8% net decrease in managed care-associated antibiotic dispenses per 1000 members (P = 0.03) in the mass media community. Most of the decline occurred among pediatric members, and corresponded with a decline in pediatric office visit rates. There was no change in the office visit prescription rates among pediatric or adult managed care members, nor in visit rates for complications of acute respiratory tract infections. A low-cost mass media campaign was associated with a reduction in antibiotic use in the community, and seems to be mediated through decreases in office visits rates among children. The campaign seems to be cost-saving.

  16. The effectiveness of a national communication campaign using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article describes the effects of a national mass media and community-level stigma-reduction programme in Ghana, in which national and local religious leaders urged their congregations and the general public to have greater compassion for people living with HIV or AIDS (PLHA). Data were collected from men and ...

  17. 1 Impact of praziquantel mass drug administration campaign on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    used to collect information on MDA uptake, knowledge of schistosomiasis, sources .... transmission and in which Praziquantel mass drug administration has been ..... MoHSW (2012) Tanzania Mainland Strategic Master Plan for the Neglected ...

  18. Universities and Marketing Mass Communication in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffo, Stefano

    2004-01-01

    Marketing mass communication is a quite recent reality of Italian (mainly public) university system. Up to the last decade, these institutions had a certain reluctance to use marketing in order to raise funds and acquire students. The change was made possible through a variety of factors, among which the extension of mass university, a higher…

  19. Interrelationships Between Mass and Interpersonal Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Judith

    Academic departmentalization, especially at the undergraduate level, can result in the isolation of subject areas. The two purposes of this paper are to make a case for the interrelationships between mass and interpersonal communication becoming an integral aspect of mass media study, and to stress the importance of presenting this material in…

  20. A mass campaign too often? results of a vaccination coverage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To determine the routine and mass immunisation coverage in children aged between 12 and 23 months in the Dikgale-Soekmekaar district, Northern Province, South Africa. Design. Cross-sectional community-based vaccination prevalence survey using a two-stage cluster sampling technique. Methods. Data on ...

  1. Cuba's "Yes, I Can" Mass Adult Literacy Campaign Model in Timor-Leste and Aboriginal Australia: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughton, Bob; Durnan, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    In the field of international adult education, mass literacy campaigns enjoyed wide support in the 20th century, when they were seen as a way to increase the participation of previously marginalised and excluded populations in national development. Cuba's 1961 campaign achieved iconic status, but was only one of many successful campaigns in Latin…

  2. Turning negative into positive: public health mass media campaigns and negative advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollonio, D E; Malone, R E

    2009-06-01

    Literature suggests that 'negative advertising' is an effective way to encourage behavioral changes, but it has enjoyed limited use in public health media campaigns. However, as public health increasingly focuses on non-communicable disease prevention, negative advertising could be more widely applied. This analysis considers an illustrative case from tobacco control. Relying on internal tobacco industry documents, surveys and experimental data and drawing from political advocacy literature, we describe tobacco industry and public health research on the American Legacy Foundation's "truth" campaign, an example of effective negative advertising in the service of public health. The tobacco industry determined that the most effective advertisements run by Legacy's "truth" campaign were negative advertisements. Although the tobacco industry's own research suggested that these negative ads identified and effectively reframed the cigarette as a harmful consumer product rather than focusing solely on tobacco companies, Philip Morris accused Legacy of 'vilifying' it. Public health researchers have demonstrated the effectiveness of the "truth" campaign in reducing smoking initiation. Research on political advocacy demonstrating the value of negative advertising has rarely been used in the development of public health media campaigns, but negative advertising can effectively communicate certain public health messages and serve to counter corporate disease promotion.

  3. Reprint of "Persuasive appeals in road safety communication campaigns: Theoretical frameworks and practical implications from the analysis of a decade of road safety campaign materials".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttman, Nurit

    2016-12-01

    Communication campaigns are employed as an important tool to promote road safety practices. Researchers maintain road safety communication campaigns are more effective when their persuasive appeals, which are central to their communicative strategy, are based on explicit theoretical frameworks. This study's main objectives were to develop a detailed categorization of persuasive appeals used in road safety communication campaigns that differentiate between appeals that appear to be similar but differ conceptually, and to indicate the advantages, limitations and ethical issues associated with each type, drawing on behavior change theories. Materials from over 300 campaigns were obtained from 41 countries, mainly using road safety organizations' websites. Drawing on the literature, five types of main approaches were identified, and the analysis yielded a more detailed categorizations of appeals within these general categories. The analysis points to advantages, limitations, ethical issues and challenges in using different types of appeals. The discussion summarizes challenges in designing persuasive-appeals for road safety communication campaigns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Persuasive appeals in road safety communication campaigns: Theoretical frameworks and practical implications from the analysis of a decade of road safety campaign materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttman, Nurit

    2015-11-01

    Communication campaigns are employed as an important tool to promote road safety practices. Researchers maintain road safety communication campaigns are more effective when their persuasive appeals, which are central to their communicative strategy, are based on explicit theoretical frameworks. This study's main objectives were to develop a detailed categorization of persuasive appeals used in road safety communication campaigns that differentiate between appeals that appear to be similar but differ conceptually, and to indicate the advantages, limitations and ethical issues associated with each type, drawing on behavior change theories. Materials from over 300 campaigns were obtained from 41 countries, mainly using road safety organizations' websites. Drawing on the literature, five types of main approaches were identified, and the analysis yielded a more detailed categorizations of appeals within these general categories. The analysis points to advantages, limitations, ethical issues and challenges in using different types of appeals. The discussion summarizes challenges in designing persuasive-appeals for road safety communication campaigns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Implications of high-/low-context communication for target audience member interpretation of messages in the Nimechill abstinence campaign in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraya, Julie Gathoni; Neville Miller, Ann; Mjomba, Leonard

    2011-09-01

    Although it ran on multiple mass media for the better part of a year, end line evaluation of the Nimechill youth abstinence campaign in Kenya indicated that exposure to the campaign had no relationship to youth decisions to defer sexual debut. One possible explanation of this lack of association could be that target audience members derived inconsistent and confusing meanings from visuals as opposed to text in the campaign. Employing Hall's concept of high- and low-context communication, we assessed target population interpretation of four campaign posters via 12 focus-group discussions and four individual in-depth interviews with Nairobi youth. We found that although participants endorsed and recognized campaign objectives, contextual cues in some campaign visuals were interpreted by participants as being contradictory to the abstinence message in the poster texts. In addition noticeable differences arose between the low-income and middle-/high-income groups in interpretation of one of the posters. We conclude with recommendations regarding use of visuals in high-context cultures and involvement of youth from various socioeconomic strata in campaign planning.

  6. Population-based evaluation of the 'LiveLighter' healthy weight and lifestyle mass media campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, B; Niven, P; Dixon, H; Swanson, M; Szybiak, M; Shilton, T; Pratt, I S; Slevin, T; Hill, D; Wakefield, M

    2016-04-01

    The Western Australian (WA) 'LiveLighter' (LL) mass media campaign ran during June-August and September-October 2012. The principal campaign ad graphically depicts visceral fat of an overweight individual ('why' change message), whereas supporting ads demonstrate simple changes to increase activity and eat healthier ('how' to change message). Cross-sectional surveys among population samples aged 25-49 were undertaken pre-campaign (N= 2012) and following the two media waves (N= 2005 and N= 2009) in the intervention (WA) and comparison state (Victoria) to estimate the population impact of LL. Campaign awareness was 54% after the first media wave and overweight adults were more likely to recall LL and perceive it as personally relevant. Recall was also higher among parents, but equal between socio-economic groups. The 'why' message about health-harms of overweight rated higher than 'how' messages about lifestyle change, on perceived message effectiveness which is predictive of health-related intention and behaviour change. State-by-time interactions showed population-level increases in self-referent thoughts about the health-harms of overweight (P stereotypes of overweight individuals did not increase after LL aired. LL was associated with some population-level improvements in proximal and intermediate markers of campaign impact. However, sustained campaign activity will be needed to impact behaviour. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. ParticipACTION: A mass media campaign targeting parents of inactive children; knowledge, saliency, and trialing behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauvin Lise

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In late 2007, Canada's ParticipACTION national physical activity mass media campaign was re-launched, with an initial campaign targeting parents of elementary school-aged children. The campaign informed them about the risks of physical inactivity for children and youth. The purpose of this study was to assess campaign awareness and understanding following the campaign, and to identify whether exposure to this campaign was likely associated with behaviour change. Methods A convenience sample of 1,500 adults was recruited though an existing panel (n = 60,000 of Canadian adults to participate in online surveys. Initial campaign exposure included "prompted" and "unprompted" recall of specific physical activity messages from the 2007 ParticipACTION campaign, knowledge of the benefits of PA, saliency, and initial trial behaviours to help their children become more active. Results One quarter of respondents showed unprompted recall of specific message content from the ParticipACTION campaign, and prompted recall was 57%. Message recall and understanding was associated with knowledge about physical activity, and that in turn was related to high saliency. Saliency was associated with each of the physical activity-related trial behaviours asked. Conclusion Campaign awareness and understanding was high following this ParticipACTION campaign, and was associated with intermediate campaign outcomes, including saliency and trial behaviours. This is relevant to campaign evaluations, as it suggests that an initial focus on influencing awareness and understanding is likely to lead to more substantial change in campaign endpoints.

  8. Measuring and monitoring in the South African Kha Ri Gude mass literacy campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Veronica

    2015-06-01

    After many previous failed attempts to reach illiterate adults, the award-winning South African Kha Ri Gude mass literacy campaign, launched in 2008, undertook to ensure that learners seized the opportunity to learn - for many adults, this was a "last chance". Written from an insider perspective by the campaign's founding Chief Executive Officer, this article outlines the features which contributed to its success despite the many challenges it initially faced. The author outlines the social and legislative backdrop, notably the South African National Qualifications Framework (NQF) providing the scaffold for the continuum of adult learning and the assessment of learning outcomes, and examines the various components which influenced the design of the campaign. She focuses, in particular, on the learning outcomes measurement model tailored to the campaign's specific context, namely a structured and standardised learner assessment portfolio (LAP). Designed as a tool to be administered universally for both formative and diagnostic purposes, the portfolio enables continuous assessment, forming an integral part of the process of learning and teaching. After many initial challenges encountered in introducing this mode of learner assessment, it was eventually institutionalised and found to be a non-threatening way of assessing learning outcomes while also functioning as a tool for monitoring and ensuring accountability in the campaign. This article gives an account of the development considerations and explains the role of the assessment process within the broader context of the campaign. It also refers to ways in which the mass-based assessments were administered under difficult campaign conditions with a view to assessing for learning.

  9. Symposium: Journalism and Mass Communication Education at the Crossroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jeremy; Brancaccio, David; Dates, Jannette; Ghiglione, Loren; Hamilton, John Maxwell; Jacobson, Tom; Johnson, Pilar Keagy; Liebler, Carol; Rakow, Lana; Reese, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Presents nine responses of professors and communication professionals to the ethical, economic, and enduring issues of journalism and mass communication education. Considers their responses to the state of journalism and mass communication education and reevaluates educational assumptions and practices. (SG)

  10. Mass Media Orientation and External Communication Strategies: Exploring Organisational Differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wonneberger, A.; Jacobs, S.

    2016-01-01

    This study assesses relationships between mass media orientations of communication professionals in organisations and their external communication strategies. We assume that mass media orientations within an organisation may affect an organisation’s external communication strategies of bridging and

  11. Insecticide-treated nets mass distribution campaign: benefits and lessons in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaninga, Freddie; Mukumbuta, Nawa; Ndhlovu, Ketty; Hamainza, Busiku; Wamulume, Pauline; Chanda, Emmanuel; Banda, John; Mwanza-Ingwe, Mercy; Miller, John M; Ameneshewa, Birkinesh; Mnzava, Abraham; Kawesha-Chizema, Elizabeth

    2018-04-24

    Zambia was an early adopter of insecticide-treated nets strategy in 2001, and policy for mass distribution with long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in 2005. Since then, the country has implemented mass distribution supplemented with routine delivery through antenatal care and under five clinics in health facilities. The national targets of universal (100%) coverage and 80% utilization of LLINs have not been attained. Free mass LLIN distribution campaign in Zambia offers important lessons to inform future campaigns in the African region. This study reviewed LLIN free mass distribution campaign information derived from Zambia's national and World Health Organization Global Malaria Programme annual reports and strategic plans published between 2001 and 2016. In 2014, a nationwide mass distribution campaign in Zambia delivered all the 6.0 million LLINs in 6 out of 10 provinces in 4 months between June and September before the onset of the rainy season. Compared with 235,800 LLINs and 2.9 million LLINs distributed on a rolling basis in 2008 and 2013, respectively, the 2014 mass campaign, which distributed 6 million LLINs represented the largest one-time-nationwide LLIN distribution in Zambia. The province (Luapula) with highest malaria transmission, mostly with rural settings recorded 98-100% sleeping spaces in homes covered with LLINs. The percentage of households owning at least 1 LLIN increased from 50.9% in 2006 to 77.7% in 2015. The 2014 mass campaign involved a coordinated response with substantial investments into macro (central) and micro (district) level planning, capacity building, tracking and logistics management supported by a new non-health sector partnership landscape. Coordination of LLIN distribution and logistics benefited from the mobile phone technology to transmit "real time" data on commodity tracking that facilitated timely delivery to districts. Free mass distribution of LLINs policy was adopted in 2005 in Zambia. Consistently implemented

  12. Yielding impressive results. The Egyptian experience in family planning communication campaign has been an exemplary model for many developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafai, M

    1994-09-01

    In Egypt the current use of family planning methods nearly doubled from 1980 to 1992. The toughest obstacles to the promotion of family planning are the deeply rooted pronatalism, the high rate of illiteracy, and low use of print media. The early efforts of the 1960s through the 1970s helped raise people's awareness of the problem, but traditional attitudes to family planning persisted. The Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Center established in 1979 in the State Information Service (SIS) of the Ministry of Information spearheaded the IEC efforts for family planning throughout the country. The Egyptian Contraceptives Prevalence Survey conducted in 1984 showed that the current use of family planning methods had increased 6.1% from the 1980 level, and that 56% of married women wished to stop having children, but were afraid of side effects of contraceptive use. The SIS/IEC Center launched a creative mass media campaign using TV spots and dramas. It also pioneered community-based public communication activities on population and family planning by organizing population communication forums. The local communication work is implemented by each of the 60 regional offices of SIS. Other government agencies, such as Health Insurance Organization, also launched IEC campaigns promoting their own services. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) such as the Family of the Future and the Clinical Service Improvement Project also engaged in social marketing of contraceptives. The use of family planning methods mounted between 1980 and 1992 from 24% to nearly 48%, and the method of choice shifted from the pill to the IUD. The country's crude birth rate declined steadily from 40 per 1000 population in 1985 down to 29/1000 in 1992. The six major factors for success included an innovative communication program, religious support, political commitment, an improved service delivery system, involvement of NGOs, and the economic influence. The Egyptian experience in family

  13. Critical Thinking for Mass Communications Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Pamela J.

    1993-01-01

    Describes one way of systematically teaching critical thinking skills in a journalism-mass communication program. Begins with a general discussion of critical thinking. Proceeds to the theory and structure underlying the course as it is taught at the Ohio State University School of Journalism. (RS)

  14. Agenda Setting and Mass Communication Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Eugene F.

    The agenda-setting concept in mass communication asserts that the news media determine what people will include or exclude in their cognition of public events. Findings in uses and gratification research provide the foundation for this concept: an initial focus on people's needs, particularly the need for information. The agenda-setting concept…

  15. The Effect of Mass Media Campaign on the Use of Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets among Pregnant Women in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ankomah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Malaria during pregnancy is a major public health problem in Nigeria especially in malaria-endemic areas. It increases the risk of low birth weight and child/maternal morbidity/mortality. This paper addresses the impact of radio campaigns on the use of insecticide-treated bed nets among pregnant women in Nigeria. Methods. A total of 2,348 pregnant women were interviewed during the survey across 21 of Nigeria’s 36 states. Respondents were selected through a multistage sampling technique. Analysis was based on multivariate logistic regression. Results. Respondents who knew that sleeping under ITN prevents malaria were 3.2 times more likely to sleep under net (OR: 3.15; 95% CI: 2.28 to 4.33; P<0.0001. Those who listened to radio are also about 1.6 times more likely to use ITN (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.07 to 2.28; P=0.020, while respondents who had heard of a specific sponsored radio campaign on ITN are 1.53 times more likely to use a bed net (P=0.019. Conclusion. Pregnant women who listened to mass media campaigns were more likely to adopt strategies to protect themselves from malaria. Therefore, behavior change communication messages that are aimed at promoting net use and antenatal attendance are necessary in combating malaria.

  16. Impact of a negative emotional antitobacco mass media campaign on French smokers: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guignard, Romain; Gallopel-Morvan, Karine; Mons, Ute; Hummel, Karin; Nguyen-Thanh, Viêt

    2018-01-13

    Mass media campaigns to encourage smoking cessation have been shown to be effective in a context of comprehensive tobacco control programme. The effectiveness of antismoking ads that evoke negative emotions remains unclear, in particular in countries with high smoking prevalence and among smokers with low perceived susceptibility, low self-efficacy or who are not users of smoking cessation services. To evaluate short-term and long-term effects of a 1-month French national highly emotional media campaign, with a focus on these specific targets. A 6-month longitudinal survey by Internet. A sample of 3000 smokers were interviewed before the media campaign (T0). They were contacted again just after (T1) and 6 months after the campaign (T2). Perceived susceptibility to the risks of smoking, self-efficacy to quit smoking, use of smoking cessation services (quitline and website) and 7-day quitting. The analysis was carried out on 2241 individuals who answered at T1 and T2. Multiple logistic regressions were computed to test the association between the change in each outcome at T1 and T2 and the level of exposure based on self-reported recall. Self-reported recall was associated with an increase in perceived susceptibility and with use of cessation services. Campaign recall was also associated with higher 7-day quitting immediately after the campaign (OR=1.8 (1.0 to 3.2), Pmedia campaigns can be effective in encouraging cessation among smokers in a country with high smoking prevalence (France), but should be accompanied by convincing self-efficacy messages. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. The social image of drinking - mass media campaigns may inadvertently increase binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Friederike; Kohlmann, Karoline; Monter, Anne; Ameis, Nina

    2017-10-01

    Mass media campaigns that promote responsible drinking are rarely tested for their usefulness in reducing heavy alcohol consumption. Existing campaigns that appeal to responsible drinking while simultaneously displaying young people in social drinking situations may even have paradoxical effects. To examine such possible effects, we drew on a real-world media campaign, which we systematically modified on the basis of recent prototype research. We pilot tested questionnaires (using n = 41 participants), developed two different sets of posters in the style of an existing campaign (n = 39) and investigated their effectiveness (n = 102). In the main study, young men were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: sociable or unsociable binge drinker prototype condition or a control group. Outcome variables were intention, behavioural willingness, attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, prototype evaluation and prototype similarity with respect to binge drinking. Binge drinking as a habit was included to control for the fact that habitual drinking in social situations is hard to overcome and poses a particular challenge to interventions. The manipulation check showed that the experimental variation (sociable vs. unsociable drinker prototype condition) was successful. Results of the main study showed that the sociable drinker prototype condition resulted in a higher willingness and - for those with less of a habit - a higher intention to binge drink the next weekend. The unsociable drinker prototype condition had no effects. The results imply that the social components of mass media campaigns might inadvertently exacerbate binge drinking in young men. We therefore advocate against campaigns including aspects of alcohol consumption that might be positively associated with drinker prototype perception. Finally, we provide suggestions for future research.

  18. Evaluation of Behavior Change Communication Campaigns to Promote Modern Cookstove Purchase and Use in Lower Middle Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, William Douglas; Johnson, Michael; Jagoe, Kirstie; Charron, Dana; Young, Bonnie N; Rahman, A S M Mashiur; Omolloh, Daniel; Ipe, Julie

    2017-12-22

    Nearly three billion people worldwide burn solid fuels and kerosene in open fires and inefficient stoves to cook, light, and heat their homes. Cleaner-burning stoves reduce emissions and can have positive health, climate, and women's empowerment benefits. This article reports on the protocol and baseline data from the evaluation of four behavior change communication (BCC) campaigns carried out in lower to middle income countries aimed at promoting the sale and use of cleaner-burning stoves. Interventions implemented in Bangladesh, Kenya, and Nigeria are using a range of BCC methods including mass media, digital media, outdoor advertising, and inter-personal communication. The mixed methods evaluation comprises three large-scale surveys: one pre-BCC and two follow-ups, along with smaller scale assessments of stove uptake and patterns of use. Baseline results revealed varying levels of awareness of previous promotions and positive attitudes and beliefs about modern (i.e., relatively clean-burning) cookstoves. Differences in cookstove preferences and behaviors by gender, socio-demographics, media use, and country/region were observed that may affect outcomes. Across all three countries, cost (lack of funds) a key perceived barrier to buying a cleaner-burning stove. Future multivariate analyses will examine potential dose-response effects of BCC on cookstove uptake and patterns of use. BCC campaigns have the potential to promote modern cookstoves at scale. More research on campaign effectiveness is needed, and on how to optimize messages and channels. This evaluation builds on a limited evidence base in the field.

  19. System Models of Information, Communication and Mass Communication: Revaluation of Some Basic Concepts of Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiio, Osmo A.

    A more unified approach to communication theory can evolve through systems modeling of information theory, communication modes, and mass media operations. Such systematic analysis proposes, as is the case care here, that information models be based upon combinations of energy changes and exchanges and changes in receiver systems. The mass media is…

  20. Pathways to use of communication campaigns' evaluation findings within international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Glenn; Bauer, Martin W

    2018-08-01

    This article presents a study on the pathways and processes regarding the use of evaluation findings of communication campaigns from two international organizations, the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). Several years after the completion of the campaigns and their evaluations, our research identified 28 instances of use and six instances of non-use of the evaluation results, of which the large majority being surprising in nature. Results showed that evaluation use facilitated formal and informal changes at the individual and the organizational level; and, this pattern occurred in a predominantly non-linear fashion, interconnected and overlapping, while gradually decreasing in time and space. Evaluation use was mostly unpredictable, which reflected how meanings are constructed by staff members, as they adjusted and interpreted the findings in opportunistic ways. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Image Gently(SM): a national education and communication campaign in radiology using the science of social marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goske, Marilyn J; Applegate, Kimberly E; Boylan, Jennifer; Butler, Priscilla F; Callahan, Michael J; Coley, Brian D; Farley, Shawn; Frush, Donald P; Hernanz-Schulman, Marta; Jaramillo, Diego; Johnson, Neil D; Kaste, Sue C; Morrison, Gregory; Strauss, Keith J

    2008-12-01

    Communication campaigns are an accepted method for altering societal attitudes, increasing knowledge, and achieving social and behavioral change particularly within public health and the social sciences. The Image Gently(SM) campaign is a national education and awareness campaign in radiology designed to promote the need for and opportunities to decrease radiation to children when CT scans are indicated. In this article, the relatively new science of social marketing is reviewed and the theoretical basis for an effective communication campaign in radiology is discussed. Communication strategies are considered and the type of outcomes that should be measured are reviewed. This methodology has demonstrated that simple, straightforward safety messages on radiation protection targeted to medical professionals throughout the radiology community, utilizing multiple media, can affect awareness potentially leading to change in practice.

  2. Political Campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Lilleker, Darren

    2017-01-01

    Political campaigns are orchestrated attempts by political organizations to garner public support through persuasive communication in order to influence public policy in their favor. This broad definition encapsulates all forms of campaigns from those of neighborhood organizations seeking to influence local politicians to the campaigns of political parties and candidates who seek election to office in order to shape policy themselves. In pluralist democracies, campaigns are crucial for repres...

  3. Communicating ALS to the public: The message effectiveness of social-media-based health campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jing Taylor; Wu, Linwan

    2018-01-01

    Celebrity endorsement has been proved to be a very powerful tool in health campaigns. This study examined how celebrity-issue matchup presented in utilitarian and hedonic appeals influences attitude toward the video, perceived issue severity, and behavioral intentions in the context of ALS communication. The findings showed that celebrity-issue matchup condition outperformed nonmatchup condition in generating positive attitude and behavioral intentions. The results also indicated that utilitarian appeal with matchup condition triggered significantly greater behavioral intention than that with nonmatchup condition. However, no difference was found in hedonic appeal between matchup and nonmatchup conditions. Theoretical and practical implications are also discussed.

  4. Using rapid assessment and response to operationalise physical activity strategic health communication campaigns in Tonga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Tahir; Latu, Netina; Cocker-Palu, Elizabeth; Liavaa, Villiami; Vivili, Paul; Gloede, Sara; Simons, Allison

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify stakeholder and program beneficiary needs and wants in relation to a netball communication strategy in Tonga. In addition, the study aimed to more clearly identify audience segments for targeting of communication campaigns and to identify any barriers or benefits to engaging in the physical activity program. A rapid assessment and response (RAR) methodology was used. The elicitation research encompassed qualitative fieldwork approaches, including semistructured interviews with key informants and focus group discussions with program beneficiaries. Desk research of secondary data sources supported in-field findings. A number of potential barriers to behavioural compliance existed, including cultural factors, gender discrimination, socioeconomic factors, stigmatising attitudes, the threat of domestic violence, infrastructure and training issues. Factors contributing to participation in physical activity included the fun and social aspects of the sport, incentives (including career opportunities, highlighting the health benefits of the activity and the provision of religious and cultural sanctions by local leaders towards the increased physical activity of women. The consultative approach of RAR provided a more in-depth understanding of the need for greater levels of physical activity and opportunities for engagement by all stakeholders. The approach facilitated opportunities for the proposed health behaviours to be realised through the communication strategy. Essential insights for the strategy design were identified from key informants, as well as ensuring future engagement of these stakeholders into the strategy. So what? The expanded use of RAR to inform the design of social marketing interventions is a practical approach to data collection for non-communicable diseases and other health issues in developing countries. The approach allows for the rapid mobilisation of scarce resources for the implementation of more

  5. The African American Women and Mass Media (AAMM) campaign in Georgia: quantifying community response to a CDC pilot campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ingrid J; Johnson-Turbes, Ashani; Berkowitz, Zahava; Zavahir, Yasmine

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate whether a culturally appropriate campaign using "Black radio" and print media increased awareness and utilization of local mammography screening services provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program among African American women. The evaluation used a quasi-experimental design involving data collection during and after campaign implementation in two intervention sites in GA (Savannah with radio and print media and Macon with radio only) and one comparison site (Columbus, GA). We used descriptive statistics to compare mammography uptake for African American women during the initial months of the campaign (8/08-1/09) with the latter months (2/09-8/09) and a post-campaign (9/09-12/09) period in each of the study sites. Comparisons of monthly mammogram uptake between cities were performed with multinomial logistic regression. We assumed a p value campaign to the later period. However, the increase did not persist in the post-campaign period. Analysis comparing monthly mammogram uptake in Savannah and Macon with Columbus showed a significant increase in uptake from the first to the second period in Savannah only (OR 1.269, 95 % CI (1.005-1.602), p = 0.0449). Dissemination of health promotion messages via a culturally appropriate, multicomponent campaign using Black radio and print media was effective in increasing mammogram uptake in Savannah among low-income, African American women. Additional research is needed to quantify the relative contribution of campaign radio, print media, and community components to sustain increased mammography uptake.

  6. Mass Communications Students' Motivations: The Case of Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkazemi, Mariam F.; Al Nashmi, Eisa; Wanta, Wayne

    2017-01-01

    Kuwaiti students intending to major in mass communication face a long process that begins in high school. A survey of students at Kuwait University examined whether the process led to disillusionment of the mass communication field and/or mass communication education. Findings show that all respondents viewed the field of journalism positively.…

  7. Mass Communication as a Perspective on Human Communication: The Quandary of a Discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapp, Mary E.; McLuskie, Ed

    The empirical and critical traditions in mass communication inquiry are examined in this paper to determine if mass communication inquiry can provide a useful perspective on human communication. The paper first describes the development of interest in mass communication in the nineteenth century, then explains the empirical research tradition in…

  8. Communication campaign for the selecting of a technical undergraduate degree at the Salesian Polytechnic University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Priscila Vallejo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to make available to the scientific community, a communication campaign designed based on the factors involved in choosing a technical undergraduate degree at the Salesian Polytechnic University in Cuenca. Given the momentum that currently provided by the Ecuadorean government to technical and technological country institutes, must take measures to encourage the academic preparation of students opting not only for technical training but by engineering which ensures professionals that guarantee the rights stipulated in the Constitution of Ecuador and help boost the economy with innovation, research and entrepreneurship. The research is qualitative. It is based on focus groups and semi-structured interviews; its conceptual basis is defined by marketing approaches and public relations services; which means that the above factors constitute the main element for the development of a creative communicational approach to provide a more valuable study fields of the institution. 

  9. Effectiveness of a Mass Media Campaign on Oral Carcinogens and Their Effects on the Oral Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Ashish; Rimal, Jyotsna

    2018-03-27

    Objective: To develop a mass media campaign on oral carcinogens and their effects on the oral cavity in order to increase awareness among the general population. Methods: Documentary and public service announcements highlighting the effects of tobacco and its products were designed and developed based on principles of behavior change. A questionnaire, designed to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of people regarding oral carcinogens, was used to conduct a baseline survey at various sites in eastern Nepal. Local television channels and radio stations broadcasted the documentary and public service announcements. An evaluation survey was then performed to assess the effectiveness of the campaign. Results: Baseline and evaluation surveys covered 1,972 and 2,140 individuals, respectively. A third of the baseline population consumed quid, 22% chewing tobacco, 16% gutka (commercial preparation of arecanut, tobacco, lime and chemicals) and 25% cigarettes. Tobacco consumption differed significantly between 3 ecologic regions with greater use in the Terai region. The knowledge prevalence regarding the oral carcinogens quid (70%), chewing tobacco (82%), gutka (58%) and cigarettes (93%) significantly increased in the evaluation population. Females were more aware about the various tobacco products and their effects on health. More people knew about the harmful effects of tobacco on their health and oral cavity, and had their mouth examined and the frequency of consumption of these products reduced significantly after the campaign. Attitudes towards production, sale and advertisements of tobacco also improved significantly. Conclusions: The mass media campaign was an effective tool for increasing awareness among the population. Creative Commons Attribution License

  10. Health Communication and Social Marketing Campaigns for Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention and Control: What Is the Evidence of their Effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Allison L; Kachur, Rachel E; Noar, Seth M; McFarlane, Mary

    2016-02-01

    Despite the ubiquity of sex in the media, a culture of silence surrounds sexual health in the United States, serving as a barrier to sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention, testing, and treatment. Campaigns can increase STD-related knowledge, communication, and protective behaviors. This review assesses the effectiveness of STD prevention and testing campaigns in the United States to inform the field on their use as a strategy for affecting behavior change. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify original research articles, published between 2000 and 2014, which report on US media campaigns promoting community- or population-level STD testing or prevention behaviors and are evaluated for impact on one or more behavioral outcomes. Titles and abstracts were independently reviewed by 2 researchers. The review yielded 26 articles representing 16 unique STD testing and/or prevention campaigns. Most campaigns were developed using formative research and social marketing or behavioral theory. Most campaigns (68.75%) used posttest-only or pretest-posttest designs without comparison groups for evaluation; only 5 campaigns used control groups, and these proved challenging (i.e., achieving necessary exposure and avoiding contamination). Nearly all campaigns found differences between exposed and unexposed individuals on one or more key behavioral outcomes. Several campaigns found dose-response relationships. Among evaluations with uncontaminated control groups whose campaigns achieved sufficient exposure, sustained campaign effects were observed among targeted populations. Current findings suggest that campaigns can impact targeted STD-related behaviors and add to the evidence that greater exposure is associated with greater behavior change.

  11. Results of a national mass media campaign in India to warn against the dangers of smokeless tobacco consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murukutla, Nandita; Turk, Tahir; Prasad, C V S; Saradhi, Ranjana; Kaur, Jagdish; Gupta, Shefali; Mullin, Sandra; Ram, Faujdar; Gupta, Prakash C; Wakefield, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    Smokeless tobacco consumption in India is a significant source of morbidity and mortality. In order to educate smokeless tobacco users about the health harms of smokeless tobacco and to denormalise tobacco usage and encourage quitting, a national television and radio mass media campaign targeted at smokeless tobacco users was aired for 6 weeks during November and December 2009. The campaign was evaluated with a nationally representative household survey of smokeless tobacco users (n = 2898). The effect of campaign awareness was assessed with logistic regression analysis. The campaign affected smokeless tobacco users as intended: 63% of smokeless-only users and 72% of dual users (ie, those who consumed both smoking and smokeless forms) recalled the campaign advertisement, primarily through television delivery. The vast majority (over 70%) of those aware of the campaign said that it made them stop and think, was relevant to their lives and provided new information. 75% of smokeless-only users and 77% of dual users said that it made them feel concerned about their habit. Campaign awareness was associated with better knowledge, more negative attitudes towards smokeless tobacco and greater cessation-oriented intentions and behaviours among smokeless tobacco users. Social marketing campaigns that utilise mass media are feasible and efficacious interventions for tobacco control in India. Implications for future mass media tobacco control programming in India are discussed.

  12. A 10-year retrospective of research in health mass media campaigns: where do we go from here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Seth M

    2006-01-01

    Mass media campaigns have long been a tool for promoting public health. How effective are such campaigns in changing health-related attitudes and behaviors, however, and how has the literature in this area progressed over the past decade? The purpose of the current article is threefold. First, I discuss the importance of health mass media campaigns and raise the question of whether they are capable of effectively impacting public health. Second, I review the literature and discuss what we have learned about the effectiveness of campaigns over the past 10 years. Finally, I conclude with a discussion of possible avenues for the health campaign literature over the next 10 years. The overriding conclusion is the following: The literature is beginning to amass evidence that targeted, well-executed health mass media campaigns can have small-to-moderate effects not only on health knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes, but on behaviors as well, which can translate into major public health impact given the wide reach of mass media. Such impact can only be achieved, however, if principles of effective campaign design are carefully followed.

  13. Mass Media Campaigns' Influence on Prehospital Behavior for Acute Coronary Syndromes: An Evaluation of the Australian Heart Foundation's Warning Signs Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Janet E; Stub, Dion; Ngu, Philip; Cartledge, Susie; Straney, Lahn; Stewart, Michelle; Keech, Wendy; Patsamanis, Harry; Shaw, James; Finn, Judith

    2015-07-06

    The aim of this study was to examine the awareness of a recent mass media campaign, and its influence on knowledge and prehospital times, in a cohort of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients admitted to an Australian hospital. We conducted 199 semistructured interviews with consecutive ACS patients who were aged 35 to 75 years, competent to provide consent, and English speaking. Questions addressed the factors known to predict prehospital delay, awareness of the campaign, and whether it increased knowledge and influenced actions. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the association between campaign awareness and a 1-hour delay in deciding to seek medical attention (patient delay) and a 2-hour delay in presenting to hospital (prehospital delay). The median age was 62 years (IQR=53 to 68 years), and 68% (n=136) were male. Awareness of the campaign was reported by 127 (64%) patients, with most of these patients stating the campaign (1) increased their understanding of what is a heart attack (63%), (2) increased their awareness of the signs and symptoms of heart attack (68%), and (3) influenced their actions in response to symptoms (43%). After adjustment for other predictors, awareness of the campaign was significantly associated with patient delay time of ≤1 hour (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=2.25, 95% CI: 1.03 to 4.91, P=0.04) and prehospital delay time ≤2 hours (AOR=3.11, 95% CI: 1.36 to 7.08, P=0.007). Our study showed reasonably high awareness of the warning signs campaign, which was significantly associated with shorter prehospital decision-making and faster presentation to hospital. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  14. Transparency and accountability in mass media campaigns about organ donation: a response to Morgan and Feeley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rady, Mohamed Y; McGregor, Joan L; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2013-11-01

    We respond to Morgan and Feeley's critique on our article "Mass Media in Organ Donation: Managing Conflicting Messages and Interests." We noted that Morgan and Feeley agree with the position that the primary aims of media campaigns are: "to educate the general public about organ donation process" and "help individuals make informed decisions" about organ donation. For those reasons, the educational messages in media campaigns should not be restricted to "information from pilot work or focus groups" but should include evidence-based facts resulting from a comprehensive literature research. We consider the controversial aspects about organ donation to be relevant, if not necessary, educational materials that must be disclosed in media campaigns to comply with the legal and moral requirements of informed consent. With that perspective in mind, we address the validity of Morgan and Feeley's claim that media campaigns have no need for informing the public about the controversial nature of death determination in organ donation. Scientific evidence has proven that the criteria for death determination are inconsistent with the Uniform Determination of Death Act and therefore potentially harmful to donors. The decision by campaign designers to use the statutory definition of death without disclosing the current controversies surrounding that definition does not contribute to improved informed decision making. We argue that if Morgan and Feeley accept the important role of media campaigns to enhance informed decision making, then critical controversies should be disclosed. In support of that premise, we will outline: (1) the wide-spread scientific challenges to brain death as a concept of death; (2) the influence of the donor registry and team-huddling on the medical care of potential donors; (3) the use of authorization rather than informed consent for donor registration; (4) the contemporary religious controversy; and (5) the effects of training desk clerks as organ

  15. The American family and mass communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danish, R

    1963-08-01

    Initial attention is directed to how television -- the most typical as well as the most "mass" of the media -- appears to the broadcaster to fit into the fabric of society. This is followed by consideration of how this medium can be used more effectively in family life education. The basic social contribution derives from television's role as a mass medium that uses limited facilities (the air waves) for dissemination of its content, and inherent in television is the inherent need to serve the needs of a total society. If the sights of a society are to be raised by means of a mass medium, the society must 1st be brought to the medium. As long as there are free and alternative channels of communication, the actual influence on ideas which can be exerted by any 1 medium is very slight. The United States has chosen not to take the route of elite control of the products of communications media, preferring pluralism and diversity to orthodoxy. The 1st job of individuals who are concerned about better programming is to be selective as individuals and as families. The support of development and growth of educational television at local levels is urged. The primary objective of the family relations field in the context of the television phenomenon is the enrichment of relationships within the family unit through encouragement of healthy interpersonal attitudes and behavior. Television can be used as a medium for presenting materials which educate, inform, and encourage and to demonstrate what social agencies are doing to help people help themselves.

  16. Mass Communications as a Vehicle to Lure Russian Émigrés Homeward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo Mikkonen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available After the millions of wartime displaced citizens had been forcibly returned to the Soviet Union after the Second World War, the Soviet Union inaugurated a new type of campaign in the mid-1950s to get all the remaining Soviet citizens and former émigrés from Sovietoccupied areas to migrate back. In this campaign, the Soviets used all the means of mass communication they were able to produce, especially radio combined with the press and direct contact with people. The campaign was not very successful, at least not among the people it was supposed to lure back: people residing in Europe. However, many people, especially from Latin America, migrated back to the Soviet Union, only to be disappointed, just as the people who had migrated to the Soviet Union in the early 1930s.

  17. Impact of the Make Healthy Normal mass media campaign (Phase 1) on knowledge, attitudes and behaviours: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, James; Gale, Joanne; Grunseit, Anne; Bellew, William; Li, Vincy; Lloyd, Beverley; Maxwell, Michelle; Vineburg, John; Bauman, Adrian

    2018-06-01

    To determine the impact of the first phase of the Make Healthy Normal mass media campaign on NSW adults' active living and healthy eating knowledge, attitudes, intentions and behaviour. Cohort design with NSW adults, followed up three times over 12 months, with n=939 participants completing all three waves. We used generalised linear mixed models to examine campaign awareness, knowledge, attitudes, intentions and behaviours over time. Campaign recognition built to a reasonable level (45% at Wave 3), although unprompted recall was low (9% at Wave 3). There were significant increases in knowledge of physical activity recommendations (46% to 50%), the health effects of obesity (52% to 64%), and weight loss benefits (53% to 65%), with stronger effects in campaign recognisers. Conversely, we found declines in self-efficacy and intention to increase physical activity (39% to 31%) and decrease soft drink consumption (31% to 24%). Overall, there are some positives for the campaign but intentions need to be a focus of future campaign phases. Continued investment over the medium- to long-term is needed. Mass media campaigns can play a role in obesity prevention but robust evaluations are needed to identify the characteristics of effective campaigns. © 2018 The Authors.

  18. Crisis communication - selected aspects of mass media communication

    OpenAIRE

    WRÓBLEWSKI DARIUSZ

    2007-01-01

    Целью данной публикации является представление кризисной коммуникации. Из-за обширности и многоаспектности тематики были выбраны только важнейшие (по мнению автора) аспекты кризисной коммуникации, а на самом деле коммуникации со СМИ.The main purpose of this publication is to present crisis communication. The author has chosen major aspects of crisis communication (communication with mass media in fact) because the problem is very spacious and multidimensional....

  19. Using campaigns to improve perceptions of the value of adult vaccination in the United States: Health communication considerations and insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Glen J; Shen, Angela K; Schwartz, Jason L

    2017-10-09

    Vaccines have much relevance and promise for improving adult health in the United States, but to date, overall use and uptake remain far below desired levels. Many adults have not received recommended vaccinations and many healthcare providers do not strongly and actively encourage their use with patients. This has led some public health and medical experts to conclude that adult vaccines are severely undervalued by the U.S. public and healthcare providers and to call for campaigns and communication-based efforts to foster increased appreciation, and in turn, higher adult immunization rates. A narrative integrative review that draws upon the vaccine valuation and health communication literatures is used to develop a framework to guide campaign and communication-based efforts to improve public, provider, and policymakers' assessment of the value of adult vaccination. The review does this by: (1) distinguishing social psychological value from economic value; (2) identifying the implications of social psychological value considerations for adult vaccination-related communication campaigns; and (3) using five core health communication considerations to illustrate how social psychological notions of value can be integrated into campaigns or communication that are intended to improve adult vaccination value perceptions and assessments, and in turn, motivate greater support for and uptake of recommended adult vaccines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Improving polio vaccination during supplementary campaigns at areas of mass transit in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahl Sunil

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In India, children who are traveling during mass immunization campaigns for polio represent a substantial component of the total target population. These children are not easily accessible to health workers and may thus not receive vaccine. Vaccination activities at mass transit sites (such as major intersections, bus depots and train stations, can increase the proportion of children vaccinated but the effectiveness of these activities, and factors associated with their success, have not been rigorously evaluated. Methods We assessed data from polio vaccination activities in Jyotiba Phule Nagar district, Uttar Pradesh, India, conducted in June 2006. We used trends in the vaccination results from the June activities to plan the timing, locations, and human resource requirements for transit vaccination activities in two out of the seven blocks in the district for the July 2006 supplementary immunization activity (SIA. In July, similar data was collected and for the first time vaccination teams also recorded the proportion of children encountered each day who were vaccinated (a new monitoring system. Results In June, out of the 360,937 total children vaccinated, 34,643 (9.6% received vaccinations at mass transit sites. In the July SIA, after implementation of a number of changes based on the June monitoring data, 36,475 children were vaccinated at transit sites (a 5.3% increase. Transit site vaccinations in July increased in the two intervention blocks from 18,194 to 21,588 (18.7% and decreased from 16,449 to 14,887 (9.5% in the five other blocks. The new monitoring system showed the proportion of unvaccinated children at street intersection transit sites in the July campaign decreased from 24% (1,784/7,405 at the start of the campaign to 3% (143/5,057 by the end of the SIA, consistent with findings from the more labor-intensive post-vaccination coverage surveys routinely performed by the program. Conclusions Analysis of

  1. Mass and power modeling of communication satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kent M.; Pidgeon, David; Tsao, Alex

    1991-01-01

    Analytic estimating relationships for the mass and power requirements for major satellite subsystems are described. The model for each subsystem is keyed to the performance drivers and system requirements that influence their selection and use. Guidelines are also given for choosing among alternative technologies which accounts for other significant variables such as cost, risk, schedule, operations, heritage, and life requirements. These models are intended for application to first order systems analyses, where resources do not warrant detailed development of a communications system scenario. Given this ground rule, the models are simplified to 'smoothed' representation of reality. Therefore, the user is cautioned that cost, schedule, and risk may be significantly impacted where interpolations are sufficiently different from existing hardware as to warrant development of new devices.

  2. The potential for political leadership in HIV/AIDS communication campaigns in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karan, Abraar; Hartford, Emily; Coates, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic has become a point of important political concern for governments especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. Clinical and public health interventions to curb the epidemic can be greatly enhanced with the strategic support of political leaders. We analyzed the role of national political leadership in large-scale HIV/AIDS communications campaigns in 14 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. We primarily reviewed grey and white literature published from 2005-2014. We further triangulated data from in-person and phone interviews with key public health figures. A number of themes emerged supporting political leaders' efforts toward HIV/AIDS program improvement, including direct involvement of public officials in campaign spearheading, the acknowledgment of personal relationship to the HIV epidemic, and public testing and disclosure of HIV status. Areas for future improvement were also identified, including the need for more directed messaging, increased transparency both nationally and internationally and the reduction of stigmatizing messaging from leaders. The political system has a large role to play within the healthcare system, particularly for HIV/AIDS. This partnership between politics and the health must continue to strengthen and be leveraged to effect major change in behaviors and attitudes across Sub-Saharan Africa.

  3. Integration of Family Planning Counselling to Mass Screening Campaign for Cervical Cancer: Experience from Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. A. Leno

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess feasibility of integrating family planning counselling into mass screening for cervical cancer in Guinea. Methodology. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted over a month in Guinea regional capital cities. The targeted population comprised women aged 15 to 49 years. Nearly 4000 women were expected for the screening campaigns that utilized VIA and VIL methods with confirmation of positive tests through biopsy. A local treatment was immediately performed when the patient was eligible. Results. Overall 5673 women aged 15 to 60 years were received, a surplus of 42% of the expected population. 92.3% of women were aged 15–49 years and 90.1% were 25–49 years. Long-acting methods were the most utilized (89.2% of family planning users. 154 precancerous and cancerous lesions were screened, a global positivity rate of 2.7%. Conclusion. Integration of counselling and family planning services provision during cervical cancer mass screening is a feasible strategy. A cost-effective analysis of this approach would help a better planning of future campaigns and its replication in other contexts.

  4. Advances in segmentation modeling for health communication and social marketing campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, T L; Bryant, C

    1996-01-01

    Large-scale communication campaigns for health promotion and disease prevention involve analysis of audience demographic and psychographic factors for effective message targeting. A variety of segmentation modeling techniques, including tree-based methods such as Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection and logistic regression, are used to identify meaningful target groups within a large sample or population (N = 750-1,000+). Such groups are based on statistically significant combinations of factors (e.g., gender, marital status, and personality predispositions). The identification of groups or clusters facilitates message design in order to address the particular needs, attention patterns, and concerns of audience members within each group. We review current segmentation techniques, their contributions to conceptual development, and cost-effective decision making. Examples from a major study in which these strategies were used are provided from the Texas Women, Infants and Children Program's Comprehensive Social Marketing Program.

  5. A systematic review: effectiveness of mass media campaigns for reducing alcohol-impaired driving and alcohol-related crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Rajendra-Prasad; Kobayashi, Miwako

    2015-09-04

    Mass media campaigns have long been used as a tool for promoting public health. In the past decade, the growth of social media has allowed more diverse options for mass media campaigns. This systematic review was conducted to assess newer evidence from quantitative studies on the effectiveness of mass media campaigns for reducing alcohol-impaired driving (AID) and alcohol-related crashes, particularly after the paper that Elder et al. published in 2004. This review focused on English language studies that evaluated the effect of mass media campaigns for reducing AID and alcohol-related crashes, with or without enforcement efforts. A systematic search was conducted for studies published between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2013. Studies from the review by Elder et al. were added as well. A total of 19 studies met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review, including three studies from the review by Elder et al. Nine of them had concomitant enforcement measures and did not evaluate the impact of media campaigns independently. Studies that evaluated the impact of mass media independently showed reduction more consistently (median -15.1%, range -28.8 to 0%), whereas results of studies that had concomitant enforcement activities were more variable (median -8.6%, range -36.4 to +14.6%). Summary effects calculated from seven studies showed no evidence of media campaigns reducing the risk of alcohol-related injuries or fatalities (RR 1.00, 95% CI = 0.94 to 1.06). Despite additional decade of evidence, reviewed studies were heterogeneous in their approaches; therefore, we could not conclude that media campaigns reduced the risk of alcohol-related injuries or crashes. More studies are needed, including studies evaluating newly emerging media and cost-effectiveness of media campaigns.

  6. Peculiarities of constructing the models of mass religious communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrushkevych Maria Stefanivna

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Religious communication is a full-fledged, effective part of the mass information field. It uses new media to fulfil its needs. And it also functions in the field of mass culture and the information society. To describe the features of mass religious communication in the article, the author constructs a graphic model of its functioning.

  7. Impact of a parent-child sexual communication campaign: results from a controlled efficacy trial of parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kevin C; Blitstein, Jonathan L; Evans, W Douglas; Kamyab, Kian

    2010-07-21

    Prior research supports the notion that parents have the ability to influence their children's decisions regarding sexual behavior. Yet parent-based approaches to curbing teen pregnancy and STDs have been relatively unexplored. The Parents Speak Up National Campaign (PSUNC) is a multimedia campaign that attempts to fill this void by targeting parents of teens to encourage parent-child communication about waiting to have sex. The campaign follows a theoretical framework that identifies cognitions that are targeted in campaign messages and theorized to influence parent-child communication. While a previous experimental study showed PSUNC messages to be effective in increasing parent-child communication, it did not address how these effects manifest through the PSUNC theoretical framework. The current study examines the PSUNC theoretical framework by 1) estimating the impact of PSUNC on specific cognitions identified in the theoretical framework and 2) examining whether those cognitions are indeed associated with parent-child communication Our study consists of a randomized efficacy trial of PSUNC messages under controlled conditions. A sample of 1,969 parents was randomly assigned to treatment (PSUNC exposure) and control (no exposure) conditions. Parents were surveyed at baseline, 4 weeks, 6 months, 12 months, and 18 months post-baseline. Linear regression procedures were used in our analyses. Outcome variables included self-efficacy to communicate with child, long-term outcome expectations that communication would be successful, and norms on appropriate age for sexual initiation. We first estimated multivariable models to test whether these cognitive variables predict parent-child communication longitudinally. Longitudinal change in each cognitive variable was then estimated as a function of treatment condition, controlling for baseline individual characteristics. Norms related to appropriate age for sexual initiation and outcome expectations that communication

  8. Impact of a parent-child sexual communication campaign: results from a controlled efficacy trial of parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans W Douglas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior research supports the notion that parents have the ability to influence their children's decisions regarding sexual behavior. Yet parent-based approaches to curbing teen pregnancy and STDs have been relatively unexplored. The Parents Speak Up National Campaign (PSUNC is a multimedia campaign that attempts to fill this void by targeting parents of teens to encourage parent-child communication about waiting to have sex. The campaign follows a theoretical framework that identifies cognitions that are targeted in campaign messages and theorized to influence parent-child communication. While a previous experimental study showed PSUNC messages to be effective in increasing parent-child communication, it did not address how these effects manifest through the PSUNC theoretical framework. The current study examines the PSUNC theoretical framework by 1 estimating the impact of PSUNC on specific cognitions identified in the theoretical framework and 2 examining whether those cognitions are indeed associated with parent-child communication Methods Our study consists of a randomized efficacy trial of PSUNC messages under controlled conditions. A sample of 1,969 parents was randomly assigned to treatment (PSUNC exposure and control (no exposure conditions. Parents were surveyed at baseline, 4 weeks, 6 months, 12 months, and 18 months post-baseline. Linear regression procedures were used in our analyses. Outcome variables included self-efficacy to communicate with child, long-term outcome expectations that communication would be successful, and norms on appropriate age for sexual initiation. We first estimated multivariable models to test whether these cognitive variables predict parent-child communication longitudinally. Longitudinal change in each cognitive variable was then estimated as a function of treatment condition, controlling for baseline individual characteristics. Results Norms related to appropriate age for sexual

  9. Cost-Effectiveness of Mass Dog Vaccination Campaigns against Rabies in Flores Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wera, E; Mourits, M C M; Siko, M M; Hogeveen, H

    2017-12-01

    A dynamic deterministic simulation model was developed to determine the cost-effectiveness of different mass dog vaccination strategies against rabies in a dog population representative of a typical village on Flores Island. Cost-effectiveness was measured as public cost per averted dog-rabies case. Simulations started with the introduction of one infectious dog into a susceptible dog population of 399 dogs and subsequently ran for a period of 10 years. The base scenario represented a situation without any control intervention. Evaluated vaccination strategies were as follows: annual vaccination campaigns with short-acting vaccine (immunity duration of 52 weeks) (AV_52), annual campaigns with long-acting vaccine (immunity duration of 156 weeks) (AV_156), biannual campaigns with short-acting vaccine (BV_52) and once-in-2-years campaigns with long-acting vaccine (O2V_156). The effectiveness of the vaccination strategies was simulated for vaccination coverages of 50% and 70%. Cumulative results were reported for the 10-year simulation period. The base scenario resulted in three epidemic waves, with a total of 1274 dog-rabies cases. The public cost of applying AV_52 at a coverage of 50% was US$5342 for a village. This strategy was unfavourable compared to other strategies, as it was costly and ineffective in controlling the epidemic. The costs of AV_52 at a coverage of 70% and AV_156 at a coverage of 70% were, respectively, US$3646 and US$3716, equivalent to US$3.00 and US$3.17 per averted dog-rabies case. Increasing the coverage of AV_156 from 50% to 70% reduced the number of cases by 7% and reduced the cost by US$1452, resulting in a cost-effectiveness ratio of US$1.81 per averted dog-rabies case. This simulation model provides an effective tool to explore the public cost-effectiveness of mass dog vaccination strategies in Flores Island. Insights obtained from the simulation results are useful for animal health authorities to support decision-making in rabies

  10. Anticipating demand for emergency health services due to medication-related adverse events after rapid mass prophylaxis campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupert, Nathaniel; Wattson, Daniel; Cuomo, Jason; Benson, Samuel

    2007-03-01

    Mass prophylaxis against infectious disease outbreaks carries the risk of medication-related adverse events (MRAEs). The authors sought to define the relationship between the rapidity of mass prophylaxis dispensing and the subsequent demand for emergency health services due to predictable MRAEs. The authors created a spreadsheet-based computer model that calculates scenario-specific predicted daily MRAE rates from user inputs by applying a probability distribution to the reported timing of MRAEs. A hypothetical two- to ten-day prophylaxis campaign for one million people using recent data from both smallpox vaccination and anthrax chemoprophylaxis campaigns was modeled. The length of a mass prophylaxis campaign plays an important role in determining the subsequent intensity in emergency services utilization due to real or suspected adverse events. A two-day smallpox vaccination scenario would produce an estimated 32,000 medical encounters and 1,960 hospitalizations, peaking at 5,246 health care encounters six days after the start of the campaign; in contrast, a ten-day campaign would lead to 41% lower peak surge, with a maximum of 3,106 encounters on the busiest day, ten days after initiation of the campaign. MRAEs with longer lead times, such as those associated with anthrax chemoprophylaxis, exhibit less variability based on campaign length (e.g., 124 out of an estimated 1,400 hospitalizations on day 20 after a two-day campaign versus 103 on day 24 after a ten-day campaign). The duration of a mass prophylaxis campaign may have a substantial impact on the timing and peak number of clinically significant MRAEs, with very short campaigns overwhelming existing emergency department (ED) capacity to treat real or suspected medication-related injuries. While better reporting of both incidence and timing of MRAEs in future prophylaxis campaigns should improve the application of this model to community-based emergency preparedness planning, these results highlight the need

  11. Advertising Campaign Strategy Based on the Communication Objective: a Case Study at Tokobagus Advertising Campaigns (2011-2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Oscario, Angela; Kuntjara, Hagung; Adhityatama, Agus

    2016-01-01

    Article focused on advertising as one of the most important parts of marketing communication in one of the online shop, TokoBagus. Advertising communicated a message from a certain brand to the target audience through a particular medium. The aim of this research was making advertising with a powerful message, so it was able to become a captain of consciousness that could play an important role in economic and social systems of modern society. Because of its potential power, the creative adve...

  12. Mass Communication: An Introduction; Theory and Practice of Mass Media in Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, John R.

    From the perspectives of historical, contemporary, and future interpretations of mass communication, this introduction to the theory and practice of mass media in society treats both the social context of mass communication and the hardware components that make it operable. The book discusses all mass media--newspapers, magazines, radio,…

  13. Formative Research to Identify Perceptions of E-Cigarettes in College Students: Implications for Future Health Communication Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Kathleen; Crook, Brittani; Lazard, Allison; Mackert, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This formative study examined perceptions of e-cigarettes in college students with the goal of informing future health communication campaigns. Differences between e-cigarette users and nonusers were also examined. Participants: Thirty undergraduate students were recruited from a large southwestern public university (15 users, 15…

  14. Mass analysis of charged aerosol particles in NLC and PMSE during the ECOMA/MASS campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Robertson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available MASS (Mesospheric Aerosol Sampling Spectrometer is a multichannel mass spectrometer for charged aerosol particles, which was flown from the Andøya Rocket Range, Norway, through NLC and PMSE on 3 August 2007 and through PMSE on 6 August 2007. The eight-channel analyzers provided for the first time simultaneous measurements of the charge density residing on aerosol particles in four mass ranges, corresponding to ice particles with radii <0.5 nm (including ions, 0.5–1 nm, 1–2 nm, and >3 nm (approximately. Positive and negative particles were recorded on separate channels. Faraday rotation measurements provided electron density and a means of checking charge density measurements made by the spectrometer. Additional complementary measurements were made by rocket-borne dust impact detectors, electric field booms, a photometer and ground-based radar and lidar. The MASS data from the first flight showed negative charge number densities of 1500–3000 cm−3 for particles with radii >3 nm from 83–88 km approximately coincident with PMSE observed by the ALWIN radar and NLC observed by the ALOMAR lidar. For particles in the 1–2 nm range, number densities of positive and negative charge were similar in magnitude (~2000 cm−3 and for smaller particles, 0.5–1 nm in radius, positive charge was dominant. The occurrence of positive charge on the aerosol particles of the smallest size and predominately negative charge on the particles of largest size suggests that nucleation occurs on positive condensation nuclei and is followed by collection of negative charge during subsequent growth to larger size. Faraday rotation measurements show a bite-out in electron density that increases the time for positive aerosol particles to be neutralized and charged negatively. The larger particles (>3 nm are observed throughout the NLC region, 83–88 km, and the smaller particles are observed primarily at the high end of the range, 86–88 km

  15. Mass analysis of charged aerosol particles in NLC and PMSE during the ECOMA/MASS campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Robertson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available MASS (Mesospheric Aerosol Sampling Spectrometer is a multichannel mass spectrometer for charged aerosol particles, which was flown from the Andøya Rocket Range, Norway, through NLC and PMSE on 3 August 2007 and through PMSE on 6 August 2007. The eight-channel analyzers provided for the first time simultaneous measurements of the charge density residing on aerosol particles in four mass ranges, corresponding to ice particles with radii <0.5 nm (including ions, 0.5–1 nm, 1–2 nm, and >3 nm (approximately. Positive and negative particles were recorded on separate channels. Faraday rotation measurements provided electron density and a means of checking charge density measurements made by the spectrometer. Additional complementary measurements were made by rocket-borne dust impact detectors, electric field booms, a photometer and ground-based radar and lidar. The MASS data from the first flight showed negative charge number densities of 1500–3000 cm−3 for particles with radii >3 nm from 83–88 km approximately coincident with PMSE observed by the ALWIN radar and NLC observed by the ALOMAR lidar. For particles in the 1–2 nm range, number densities of positive and negative charge were similar in magnitude (~2000 cm−3 and for smaller particles, 0.5–1 nm in radius, positive charge was dominant. The occurrence of positive charge on the aerosol particles of the smallest size and predominately negative charge on the particles of largest size suggests that nucleation occurs on positive condensation nuclei and is followed by collection of negative charge during subsequent growth to larger size. Faraday rotation measurements show a bite-out in electron density that increases the time for positive aerosol particles to be neutralized and charged negatively. The larger particles (>3 nm are observed throughout the NLC region, 83–88 km, and the smaller particles are observed primarily at the high end of the range, 86–88 km. The second flight into

  16. Raising Public Awareness of Clinical Trials: Development of Messages for a National Health Communication Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massett, Holly A; Dilts, David M; Bailey, Robert; Berktold, Jennifer; Ledsky, Rebecca; Atkinson, Nancy L; Mishkin, Grace; Denicoff, Andrea; Padberg, Rose Mary; Allen, Marin P; Silver, Karen; Carrington, Kelli; Johnson, Lenora E

    2017-05-01

    Clinical trials are essential for developing new and effective treatments and improving patient quality of life; however, many trials cannot answer their primary research questions because they fall short of their recruitment goals. This article reports the results of formative research conducted in two populations, the public and primary care physicians, to identify messages that may raise awareness and increase interest in clinical trials and be used in a national communication campaign. Results suggested that participants were primarily motivated to participate in clinical trials out of a self-interest to help themselves first. Messages illustrated that current treatments were tested via clinical trials, helped normalize trials as routine practices, and reduced concerns over trying something new first. Participants wanted messages that portray trials as state-of-the-art choices that offer some hope, show people like themselves, and are described in a clear, concise manner with actionable steps for them to take. The study revealed some differences in message salience, with healthy audiences exhibiting lower levels of interest. Our results suggest that targeted messages are needed, and that communication with primary health-care providers is an important and necessary component in raising patient awareness of the importance of clinical trials.

  17. Developing a Mass Media Campaign to Promote Mammography Awareness in African American Women in the Nation's Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, Sherrie Flynt; Oppong, Bridget; Iddirisu, Marquita; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L

    2017-12-26

    This study developed and examined the reach and impact of a culturally appropriate mass media campaign pilot, designed to increase awareness about the importance of mammography screening and the available community mammography services for low-income African American women ages 40 and above. We conducted formative research using focus groups to inform campaign development, resulting in five emergent themes-good breast health, holistic views of healthiness, cancer fatalism, fear of mammogram machines, and mammogram affordability. The campaign targeted specific low-income African American communities in the District of Columbia via print ads in Metro stations and on buses, print ads in the Washington Informer, and online ads on a local TV network website. Data were collected before, during, and after campaign implementation to assess reach and impact. Reach was measured by number of impressions (number of people exposed to the campaign), while impact was assessed via online ad click-through rates, website use and referrals, and mammography center calls. The campaign was successful in reaching the target audience, with a total combined reach from all media of 9,479,386 impressions. In addition, the mammography center received significant increases in new website visitors (1482 during the campaign, compared to 24 during the preceding period) as well as 97 calls to the dedicated phone line. Further research involving a more long-term investment in terms of funding and campaign run time, coupled with a more robust evaluation, is needed to assess if culturally appropriate mass media campaigns can generate increased mammography screening rates and decrease breast-cancer-related mortality.

  18. A New Method for Estimating the Coverage of Mass Vaccination Campaigns Against Poliomyelitis From Surveillance Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, K M; Cori, A; Durry, E; Wadood, M Z; Bosan, A; Aylward, R B; Grassly, N C

    2015-12-01

    Mass vaccination campaigns with the oral poliovirus vaccine targeting children aged poliomyelitis eradication effort. Monitoring the coverage of these campaigns is essential to allow corrective action, but current approaches are limited by their cross-sectional nature, nonrandom sampling, reporting biases, and accessibility issues. We describe a new Bayesian framework using data augmentation and Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to estimate variation in vaccination coverage from children's vaccination histories investigated during surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis. We tested the method using simulated data with at least 200 cases and were able to detect undervaccinated groups if they exceeded 10% of all children and temporal changes in coverage of ±10% with greater than 90% sensitivity. Application of the method to data from Pakistan for 2010-2011 identified undervaccinated groups within the Balochistan/Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa regions, as well as temporal changes in coverage. The sizes of these groups are consistent with the multiple challenges faced by the program in these regions as a result of conflict and insecurity. Application of this new method to routinely collected data can be a useful tool for identifying poorly performing areas and assisting in eradication efforts. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

  19. Long lasting insecticidal bed nets ownership, access and use in a high malaria transmission setting before and after a mass distribution campaign in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzira, Humphrey; Eganyu, Thomas; Mulebeke, Ronald; Bukenya, Fred; Echodu, Dorothy; Adoke, Yeka

    2018-01-01

    Uganda is conducting a second mass LLIN distribution campaign and Katakwi district recently received LLINs as part of this activity. This study was conducted to measure the success of the campaign in this setting, an area of high transmission, with the objectives to estimate LLIN ownership, access and use pre and post campaign implementation. Two identical cross sectional surveys, based on the Malaria Indicator Survey methodology, were conducted in three sub-counties in this district (Kapujan, Magoro and Toroma), six months apart, one before and another after the mass distribution campaign. Data on three main LLIN indicators including; household LLIN ownership, population with access to an LLIN and use were collected using a household and a women's questionnaire identical to the Malaria Indicator Survey. A total of 601 and 607 households were randomly selected in survey one and two respectively. At baseline, 60.57% (56.53-64.50) of households owned at least one net for every two persons who stayed in the household the night before the survey which significantly increased to 70.35% (66.54-73.96) after the campaign (p = 0.001). Similarly, the percentage of the household population with access to an LLIN significantly increased from 84.76% (82.99-86.52) to 91.57% (90.33-92.81), p = 0.001 and the percentage of household population that slept under an LLIN the night before the survey also significantly increased from 56.85% (55.06-58.82) to 81.72% (76.75-83.21), p = 0.001. The LLIN mass campaign successfully achieved the national target of over eighty-five percent of the population with access to an LLIN in this setting, however, universal household coverage and use were fourteen and three percent points less than the national target respectively. This is useful for malaria programs to consider during the planning of future campaigns by tailoring efforts around deficient areas like mechanisms to increase universal coverage and behavior change communication.

  20. Community responses to communication campaigns for influenza A (H1N1: a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Lesley

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This research was a part of a contestable rapid response initiative launched by the Health Research Council of New Zealand and the Ministry of Health in response to the 2009 influenza A pandemic. The aim was to provide health authorities in New Zealand with evidence-based practical information to guide the development and delivery of effective health messages for H1N1 and other health campaigns. This study contributed to the initiative by providing qualitative data about community responses to key health messages in the 2009 and 2010 H1N1 campaigns, the impact of messages on behavioural change and the differential impact on vulnerable groups in New Zealand. Methods Qualitative data were collected on community responses to key health messages in the 2009 and 2010 Ministry of Health H1N1 campaigns, the impact of messages on behaviour and the differential impact on vulnerable groups. Eight focus groups were held in the winter of 2010 with 80 participants from groups identified by the Ministry of Health as vulnerable to the H1N1 virus, such as people with chronic health conditions, pregnant women, children, Pacific Peoples and Māori. Because this study was part of a rapid response initiative, focus groups were selected as the most efficient means of data collection in the time available. For Māori, focus group discussion (hui is a culturally appropriate methodology. Results Thematic analysis of data identified four major themes: personal and community risk, building community strategies, responsibility and information sources. People wanted messages about specific actions that they could take to protect themselves and their families and to mitigate any consequences. They wanted transparent and factual communication where both good and bad news is conveyed by people who they could trust. Conclusions The responses from all groups endorsed the need for community based risk management including information dissemination. Engaging

  1. Electric field measurements in a NLC/PMSE region during the MASS/ECOMA campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shimogawa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We present results of electric field measurements made during the MASS rocket campaign in Andøya, Norway into noctilucent clouds (NLC and polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE on 3 August 2007. The instrument used high input-impedance preamps to measure vertical and horizontal electric fields. No large-amplitude geophysical electric fields were detected in the cloud layers, but significant levels of electric field fluctuations were measured. Within the cloud layer, the probe potentials relative to the rocket skin were driven negative by incident heavy charged aerosols. The amplitude of spikes caused by probe shadowing were also larger in the NLC/PMSE region. We describe a method for calculating positive ion conductivities using these shadowing spike amplitudes and the density of heavy charged aerosols.

  2. Ability of a mass media campaign to influence knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors about sugary drinks and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Myde; Adams, Adelle; Gredler, Amy; Manhas, Sonia

    2014-10-01

    We examined the impact of a mass media campaign that was designed to educate residents about the amount of added sugars in soda and other sugary drinks, as well as the health impacts of consuming such drinks. The campaign was implemented in Multnomah County (Portland), Oregon in 2011 and included paid and unpaid media on the web, television, billboards, and transit. A telephone survey (n=402) measured campaign awareness, attitudes toward obesity, knowledge about health problems of excessive sugar, and behavioral intentions and behaviors around soda and sugary drink consumption. Nearly 80% of people who were aware of the media campaign intended to reduce the amount of soda or sugary drinks they offered to a child as a result of the campaign ads. Those who were aware of the campaign were more likely to agree that too much sugar causes health problems (97.3% vs. 85.9%). There was no significant change in self-reported soda consumption. Media campaigns about sugary drinks and obesity may be effective for raising awareness about added sugars in beverages, increasing knowledge about health problems associated with excessive sugar consumption, and prompting behavioral intentions to reduce soda and sugary drink consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Predictors of Quitting Attempts Among Tobacco Users in Bangladesh After a Communication Campaign to Launch Graphic Warning Labels on Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Tahir; Newton, Fiona; Choudhury, Sohel; Islam, Md Shafiqul

    2018-06-01

    Tobacco use contributes to an estimated 14.6% of male and 5.7% of female deaths in Bangladesh. We examine the determinants of tobacco-related quit attempts among Bangladeshis with and without awareness of the synergized "People Behind the Packs" (PBTP) communication campaign used to support the introduction of pack-based graphic warning labels (GWLs) in 2016. Data from 1,796 adults were collected using multistage sampling and a cross-sectional face-to-face survey. Analyses used a normalized design weight to ensure representativeness to the national population of smokers within Bangladesh. For the overall sample, the multivariable logistic regression model revealed quit attempts were associated with having seen the pack-based GWLs, recalling ≥1 PBTP campaign message, higher levels of self-efficacy to quit, and recognizing more potential side-effects associated with using tobacco products. Conversely, the likelihood of quitting attempts were lower among dual tobacco users (relative to smokers) and those using tobacco at least daily (vs. less than daily). The hierarchical multivariable logistic regression model among those aware of ≥1 PBTP campaign message indicated quitting attempts were positively associated with recalling more of the campaign messages and discussing them with others. This national evaluation of pack-based GWLs and accompanying PBTP campaign within Bangladesh supports the efficacy of using synergized communication messages when introducing such labels. That quit attempts are more likely among those discussing PBTP campaign messages with others and recalling more PBTP campaign messages highlights the importance of ensuring message content is both memorable and engaging.

  4. GoAmazon 2014/15 Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TDCIMS) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, JN [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TDCIMS) deployment to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility T3 site in Manacapuru, Brazil, was motivated by two main scientific objectives of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 2014/15 field campaign. 1) Study the interactions between anthropogenic and biogenic emissions by determining important molecular species in ambient nanoparticles. To address this, TDCIMS data will be combined with coincident measurements such as gas-phase sulfuric acid to determine the contribution of sulfuric acid condensation to nucleation and growth. We can then compare that result to TDCIMS-derived nanoparticle composition to determine the fraction of growth that can be attributed to the uptake of organic compounds. The molecular composition of sampled particles will also be used to attribute specific chemical species and mechanisms to growth, such as the condensation of low-volatility species or the oligomerization of α-dicarbonyl compounds. 2) Determine the source of new ambient nanoparticles in the Amazon. The hypothesis prior to measurements was that potassium salts formed from the evaporation of primary particles emitted by fungal spores can provide a unique and important pathway for new particle production in the Amazon basin. To explore this hypothesis, the TDCIMS recorded the mass spectra of sampled ambient particles using a protonated water cluster Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS). Laboratory tests performed using potassium salts show that the TDCIMS can detect potassium with high sensitivity with this technique.

  5. Effects of a statewide antismoking campaign on mass media messages and smoking beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, D M; Prokhorov, A V; Harty, K C

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND. In 1985, The Minnesota Legislature initiated a long-term and broad-based program to deter adolescent tobacco use. The initiative was funded by higher taxes on tobacco products and combined school-based programming, mass-media campaigns, and local community grants. The Minnesota-Wisconsin Adolescent Tobacco-Use Research Project was designed to evaluate this effort by monitoring adolescent tobacco use and related factors in Minnesota and Wisconsin from 1986 to 1990. The results presented in this paper indicate that the Minnesota initiative dramatically increased Minnesota schoolchildren's reported exposure to the anti-smoking messages in the mass media but had little effect on smoking-related beliefs or smoking behaviors. CONCLUSIONS. These results, together with the findings from other recent studies, suggest that even dramatic increases in exposure to anti-tobacco messages in the mass-media, in the absence of a substantial and sustained school-based tobacco prevention measures, may be insufficient to generate reductions in adolescent tobacco use.

  6. The role of mass media campaigns in reducing high-risk drinking among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, William

    2002-03-01

    This article categorizes and describes current media campaigns to reduce college student drinking, reviews key principles of campaign design and outlines recommendations for future campaigns. The article describes three types of media campaigns on student drinking: information, social norms marketing, and advocacy. Key principles of campaign design are derived from work in commercial marketing, advertising, and public relations and from evaluations of past public health campaigns. Information campaigns on the dangers of high-risk drinking are common, but none has been rigorously evaluated. Quasi-experimental studies suggest that social norms marketing campaigns, which correct misperceptions of campus drinking norms, may be effective, but more rigorous research is needed. As of this writing, only one major media campaign has focused on policy advocacy to reduce college student drinking, but it is still being evaluated. Lessons for campaign design are organized as a series of steps for campaign development, implementation and assessment: launch a strategic planning process, select a strategic objective, select the target audience, develop a staged approach, define the key promise, avoid fear appeals, select the right message source, select a mix of media channels, maximize media exposure, conduct formative research, and conduct process and outcome evaluations. Future campaigns should integrate information, social norms marketing, and advocacy approaches to create a climate of support for institutional, community and policy changes that will alter the environment in which students make decisions about their alcohol consumption.

  7. Mass Communication: Technology Use and Instruction. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brynildssen, Shawna

    This Digest reviews the literature on recent attempts to incorporate technology into the instruction of journalism and mass communication. It first discusses the four main categories of current technology use in journalism and mass communication: classroom instruction; online syllabi/materials; distance learning; and technological literacy. It…

  8. The Move toward Pluralism in Journalism and Mass Communication Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning-Miller, Carmen L.; Dunlap, Karen Brown

    2002-01-01

    Surveys diversity research in journalism and mass communication education. Examines student admissions and retention, faculty and administration hiring and retention, and curriculum. Explores historical context of diversity efforts in journalism and mass communication education. Finds few departments are developing multicultural courses or…

  9. Benefit Cost Analysis of Three Skin Cancer Public Education Mass-Media Campaigns Implemented in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Christopher M; Ling, Rod; Byrnes, Joshua; Crane, Melanie; Shakeshaft, Anthony P; Searles, Andrew; Perez, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Public education mass media campaigns are an important intervention for influencing behaviour modifications. However, evidence on the effectiveness of such campaigns to encourage the population to reduce sun exposure is limited. This study investigates the benefits and costs of three skin cancer campaigns implemented in New South Wales from 2006-2013. This analysis uses Australian dollars (AUD) and 2010-11 as the currency and base year, respectively. Historical data on skin cancer were used to project skin cancer rates for the period 2006-2020. The expected number of skin cancer cases is derived by combining skin cancer rates, sunburn rates and relative risk of skin cancers due to sun exposure. Counterfactual estimates are based on sunburn exposure in the absence of the campaigns. Monetary values are attached to direct (treatment) and indirect (productivity) costs saved due to fewer skin cancer cases. Monetary benefits are compared with the cost of implementing the campaigns and are presented in the form of a benefit-cost ratio. Relative to the counterfactual (i.e., no campaigns) there are an estimated 13,174 fewer skin cancers and 112 averted deaths over the period 2006-2013. The net present value of these benefits is $60.17 million and the campaign cost is $15.63 million. The benefit cost ratio is 3.85, suggesting that for every $1 invested a return of $3.85 is achieved. Skin cancer public education mass media campaigns are a good investment given the likely extent to which they reduce the morbidity, mortality and economic burden of skin cancer.

  10. Benefit Cost Analysis of Three Skin Cancer Public Education Mass-Media Campaigns Implemented in New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Public education mass media campaigns are an important intervention for influencing behaviour modifications. However, evidence on the effectiveness of such campaigns to encourage the population to reduce sun exposure is limited. This study investigates the benefits and costs of three skin cancer campaigns implemented in New South Wales from 2006–2013. This analysis uses Australian dollars (AUD) and 2010–11 as the currency and base year, respectively. Historical data on skin cancer were used to project skin cancer rates for the period 2006–2020. The expected number of skin cancer cases is derived by combining skin cancer rates, sunburn rates and relative risk of skin cancers due to sun exposure. Counterfactual estimates are based on sunburn exposure in the absence of the campaigns. Monetary values are attached to direct (treatment) and indirect (productivity) costs saved due to fewer skin cancer cases. Monetary benefits are compared with the cost of implementing the campaigns and are presented in the form of a benefit-cost ratio. Relative to the counterfactual (i.e., no campaigns) there are an estimated 13,174 fewer skin cancers and 112 averted deaths over the period 2006–2013. The net present value of these benefits is $60.17 million and the campaign cost is $15.63 million. The benefit cost ratio is 3.85, suggesting that for every $1 invested a return of $3.85 is achieved. Skin cancer public education mass media campaigns are a good investment given the likely extent to which they reduce the morbidity, mortality and economic burden of skin cancer. PMID:26824695

  11. Disadvantaged Parents' Engagement with a National Secondhand Smoke in the Home Mass Media Campaign: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowa-Dewar, Neneh; Amos, Amanda

    2016-09-09

    Mass media campaigns can be effective in tobacco control but may widen health inequalities if they fail to engage disadvantaged smokers. This qualitative study explored how parents with young children living in disadvantaged circumstances engaged with a national campaign which aimed to raise awareness of the importance of smokefree homes. Individual semi-structured interviews were carried out with 17 parents before and after the Scottish 2014 "Right Outside" mass media campaign. A conceptual framework exploring meaningful exposure (recall and understanding), motivational responses (protecting children from secondhand smoke (SHS)) and opportunities to act (barriers) was used to thematically analyse the findings. Campaign recall and engagement, and motivation to protect children were high. Parents identified with the dramatized scenario and visual impact of SHS harm to children in the TV advertisement. Some reported changed smoking practices. However, supervising young children in limited accommodation when caring alone constrained opportunities to smoke outside. Instead, parents described actions other than smoking outside that they had taken or were planning to take to create smokefree homes. Mass media campaigns using emotive, real-life circumstances can be effective in engaging parents about SHS. However, the behavioural impact may be limited because of difficult home environments and circumstances.

  12. Disadvantaged Parents’ Engagement with a National Secondhand Smoke in the Home Mass Media Campaign: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neneh Rowa-Dewar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mass media campaigns can be effective in tobacco control but may widen health inequalities if they fail to engage disadvantaged smokers. This qualitative study explored how parents with young children living in disadvantaged circumstances engaged with a national campaign which aimed to raise awareness of the importance of smokefree homes. Individual semi-structured interviews were carried out with 17 parents before and after the Scottish 2014 “Right Outside” mass media campaign. A conceptual framework exploring meaningful exposure (recall and understanding, motivational responses (protecting children from secondhand smoke (SHS and opportunities to act (barriers was used to thematically analyse the findings. Campaign recall and engagement, and motivation to protect children were high. Parents identified with the dramatized scenario and visual impact of SHS harm to children in the TV advertisement. Some reported changed smoking practices. However, supervising young children in limited accommodation when caring alone constrained opportunities to smoke outside. Instead, parents described actions other than smoking outside that they had taken or were planning to take to create smokefree homes. Mass media campaigns using emotive, real-life circumstances can be effective in engaging parents about SHS. However, the behavioural impact may be limited because of difficult home environments and circumstances.

  13. Contemporary Advertising and Mass Communications Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Rógora Kawano

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available From readings of classic works on communications theories, presented in Wolf (2005 and Mattelart and Mattelart (2000, in this work are presented the main theoretical reflections on communications theories that have contributed for the understanding of the processes in advertising and propaganda, in order to observe the most used theoretical lines in the area, as well as to point out other theories and less worked hypotheses in the studies of communication.

  14. Mass Measles Vaccination Campaign in Aila Cyclone-Affected Areas of West Bengal, India: An In-depth Analysis and Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmila Mallik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Disaster-affected populations are highly vulnerable to outbreaks of measles. Therefore, a mass vaccination against measles was conducted in Aila cyclone-affected blocks of West Bengal, India in July 2009. The objectives of the present report were to conduct an in depth analysis of the campaign, and to discuss the major challenges. A block level micro-plan, which included mapping of the villages, health facilities, temporary settlements of disaster-affected population, communications available, formation of vaccination team, information education communication, vaccine storage, waste disposal, surveillance for adverse events following immunization, supervision and monitoring was developed. The rate of six months to five years old children, who were vaccinated by measles vaccine, was 70.7% and that of those who received one dose of vitamin A was 71.3%. Wastage factor for vaccine doses and auto-disable syringes were 1.09 and 1.07, respectively. Only 13 cases of adverse events following immunization were reported. An average of 0.91 puncture-proof containers per vaccination session was used. Despite the major challenges faced due to difficult to reach areas, inadequate infrastructure, manpower and communication, problems of vaccine storage and transport, the campaign achieved a remarkable success regarding measles vaccine coverage, improvements of cold chain infrastructure, formulating an efficient surveillance and reporting system for adverse events following immunization, building self-confidence of the stakeholders

  15. Mass Measles Vaccination Campaign in Aila Cyclone-Affected Areas of West Bengal, India: An In-depth Analysis and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Sarmila; Mandal, Pankaj Kumar; Ghosh, Pramit; Manna, Nirmalya; Chatterjee, Chitra; Chakrabarty, Debadatta; Bagchi, Saumendra Nath; Dasgupta, Samir

    2011-01-01

    Disaster-affected populations are highly vulnerable to outbreaks of measles. Therefore, a mass vaccination against measles was conducted in Aila cyclone-affected blocks of West Bengal, India in July 2009. The objectives of the present report were to conduct an in depth analysis of the campaign, and to discuss the major challenges. A block level micro-plan, which included mapping of the villages, health facilities, temporary settlements of disaster-affected population, communications available, formation of vaccination team, information education communication, vaccine storage, waste disposal, surveillance for adverse events following immunization, supervision and monitoring was developed. The rate of six months to five years old children, who were vaccinated by measles vaccine, was 70.7% and that of those who received one dose of vitamin A was 71.3%. Wastage factor for vaccine doses and auto-disable syringes were 1.09 and 1.07, respectively. Only 13 cases of adverse events following immunization were reported. An average of 0.91 puncture-proof containers per vaccination session was used. Despite the major challenges faced due to difficult to reach areas, inadequate infrastructure, manpower and communication, problems of vaccine storage and transport, the campaign achieved a remarkable success regarding measles vaccine coverage, improvements of cold chain infrastructure, formulating an efficient surveillance and reporting system for adverse events following immunization, building self-confidence of the stakeholders, and developing a biomedical waste disposal system. PMID:23115416

  16. Mass Measles Vaccination Campaign in Aila Cyclone-Affected Areas of West Bengal, India: An In-depth Analysis and Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Sarmila; Mandal, Pankaj Kumar; Ghosh, Pramit; Manna, Nirmalya; Chatterjee, Chitra; Chakrabarty, Debadatta; Bagchi, Saumendra Nath; Dasgupta, Samir

    2011-12-01

    Disaster-affected populations are highly vulnerable to outbreaks of measles. Therefore, a mass vaccination against measles was conducted in Aila cyclone-affected blocks of West Bengal, India in July 2009. The objectives of the present report were to conduct an in depth analysis of the campaign, and to discuss the major challenges. A block level micro-plan, which included mapping of the villages, health facilities, temporary settlements of disaster-affected population, communications available, formation of vaccination team, information education communication, vaccine storage, waste disposal, surveillance for adverse events following immunization, supervision and monitoring was developed. The rate of six months to five years old children, who were vaccinated by measles vaccine, was 70.7% and that of those who received one dose of vitamin A was 71.3%. Wastage factor for vaccine doses and auto-disable syringes were 1.09 and 1.07, respectively. Only 13 cases of adverse events following immunization were reported. An average of 0.91 puncture-proof containers per vaccination session was used. Despite the major challenges faced due to difficult to reach areas, inadequate infrastructure, manpower and communication, problems of vaccine storage and transport, the campaign achieved a remarkable success regarding measles vaccine coverage, improvements of cold chain infrastructure, formulating an efficient surveillance and reporting system for adverse events following immunization, building self-confidence of the stakeholders, and developing a biomedical waste disposal system.

  17. Impact of the mass media OBERTAMENT campaign on the levels of stigma among the population of Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Valera, M; Fernández, A; Evans-Lacko, S; Luciano, J V; Thornicroft, G; Aznar-Lou, I; Serrano-Blanco, A

    2016-01-01

    Reducing public stigma could improve patients' access to care, recovery and social integration. The aim of the study was to evaluate a mass media intervention, which aimed to reduce the mental health, related stigma among the general population in Catalonia (Spain). We conducted a cross-sectional population-based survey of a representative sample of the Catalan non-institutionalized adult population (n=1019). We assessed campaign awareness, attitudes to people with mental illness (CAMI) and intended behaviour (RIBS). To evaluate the association between campaign awareness and stigma, multivariable regression models were used. Over 20% of respondents recognized the campaign when prompted, and 11% when unprompted. Campaign aware individuals had better attitudes on the benevolence subscale of the CAMI than unaware individuals (P=0.009). No significant differences in authoritarianism and support for community mental health care attitudes subscales were observed. The campaign aware group had better intended behaviour than the unaware group (Pstigma campaign had a positive impact to improve the attitudes and intended behaviour towards people with mental illness of the Catalan population. The impact on stigma was limited to attitudes related to benevolence. A wider range of anti-stigma messages could produce a stronger impact on attitudes and intended behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Fear appeals in advanced tobacco control environments: the impact of a national mass media campaign in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkjelsvik, Torleif; Lund, Karl Erik; Kraft, Pål; Rise, Jostein

    2013-10-01

    Norway has one of the most comprehensive infrastructures for tobacco control in the world and has launched several media campaigns recent years. Can yet another anti-smoking campaign, using fear appeal messages, have an immediate impact on smoking behavior, motivation to quit and health beliefs? A sample of smokers (N = 2543) completed a survey before and after a 7-week national media campaign. Individual exposure to campaign (unaided recall) was used as predictor of change. We observed no statistically significant effect on smoking status but tendencies were in the expected direction for daily smokers (P = 0.09). There were no effects on number of cigarettes per day, likelihood to quit or reduce smoking. Small but statistically significant effects were found on motivation to quit (P < 0.01, ηp(2) = 0.004) and perceived seriousness of health hazards (P < 0.05, ηp(2) = 0.002). In addition, there was an increase in interpersonal discussions about health and smoking for those exposed to the campaign (P < 0.01, ηp(2) = 0.008). We conclude that there are very small effects of a relatively short and intense mass media campaign on a population of smokers already exposed to one of the most comprehensive tobacco control programs in the world.

  19. Population-based evaluation of the ‘LiveLighter’ healthy weight and lifestyle mass media campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, B.; Niven, P.; Dixon, H.; Swanson, M.; Szybiak, M.; Shilton, T.; Pratt, I. S.; Slevin, T.; Hill, D.; Wakefield, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Western Australian (WA) ‘LiveLighter’ (LL) mass media campaign ran during June–August and September–October 2012. The principal campaign ad graphically depicts visceral fat of an overweight individual (‘why’ change message), whereas supporting ads demonstrate simple changes to increase activity and eat healthier (‘how’ to change message). Cross-sectional surveys among population samples aged 25–49 were undertaken pre-campaign (N = 2012) and following the two media waves (N = 2005 and N = 2009) in the intervention (WA) and comparison state (Victoria) to estimate the population impact of LL. Campaign awareness was 54% after the first media wave and overweight adults were more likely to recall LL and perceive it as personally relevant. Recall was also higher among parents, but equal between socio-economic groups. The ‘why’ message about health-harms of overweight rated higher than ‘how’ messages about lifestyle change, on perceived message effectiveness which is predictive of health-related intention and behaviour change. State-by-time interactions showed population-level increases in self-referent thoughts about the health-harms of overweight (P campaign impact. However, sustained campaign activity will be needed to impact behaviour. PMID:26956039

  20. Narratives of Agency: The Experiences of Braille Literacy Practitioners in the "Kha Ri Gude" South African Mass Literacy Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Veronica I.; Romm, Norma R. A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we locate the "Kha Ri Gude" South African Mass Literacy Campaign within the context of the problem of illiteracy and exclusion in South Africa, while concentrating on various post-apartheid initiatives designed to give visually challenged adults the opportunity to become literate. We shall provide a detailed account of…

  1. Functions and Dysfunctions of Mass Communication Media | Rabiu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mass communication provides a way of interacting, distantly, with unknown audiences. It is the process of sharing experience in which a huge number of people are involved simultaneously, or almost so. It often occurs through the use of mass media channels and technology. The mass media are all around us. To live even ...

  2. THE ROLE AND IMPLICATIONS OF THE EVENT BASED COMMUNICATION IN THE ELECTORAL CAMPAIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatu Cristian Ionut

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The electoral campaigns are considered to be among the most delicate challenges for a marketer due to the limited time available, the sensible margin for error, the high impact of each statement and the condensation of a quite large amount of resources in a 30 day period. While the ultimate goal for the campaign staff is to bring the global electoral package closer to the electorate and earn their votes most, of the time various competitors use disappointingly similar tactics that create confusion among the electorate. The campaign related events turned out to be one of the tactics that allows for a pin-point targeting of the electorate and a better control on the receivers of the message. This paper focuses on the types of events used that can be used in an electoral campaign reinforced with their particularities and effects registered in previous campaigns.

  3. Quantifying the impact of Wellington Zoo's persuasive communication campaign on post-visit behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Zoos potential to facilitate visitor conservation behavior is commonly articulated. Few studies, however, have quantified whether zoos' conservation messages result in visitors implementing the behavior. To test if zoo conservation messages are adopted at home, I implemented a persuasive communication campaign which advocated keeping cats indoor at night, a behavior that is a potential solution to cats depredating native wildlife. Furthermore, I tested if a public commitment (signing a pledge card) strengthened the relationship between on-site intention to engage in the behavior and actual implementation of the behavior at home. The conservation behavior was included in the twice-daily animal presentations in the amphitheater. A sample of 691 visitors completed a survey as they exited the amphitheater that measured their recall of the conservation behavior and intention to engage in the behavior at home. The last 311 visitors to complete the survey were asked to sign a pledge card which was publicly displayed in the amphitheater. Six weeks after their zoo trip, visitors were contacted and asked if they had implemented the behavior. Recall of the conservation behavior was high (91% for control, 100% for pledge group) and the entire pledge group had implemented the behavior whereas just half (51%) of the control group did. Furthermore, signing the pledge card strengthened the relationship between onsite intention and at home behavior (r = 1.0 of for the pledge group and r = 0.21 for the control group). Overall, the zoo's conservation message was recalled and behavior implemented at home. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The role of digital and social media within mass media anti-smoking campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Lloyd

    2018-03-01

    Digital media plays an important role in driving direct responses to campaign websites that offer support, and in generating discussion. However, it is still TV that drives the conversation and response rates online; digital display performs best if it features campaign visuals, while TV advertising is often discussed in Facebook responses. We continue to make the case to fund TV advertising.

  5. "Love me, parents!": impact evaluation of a national social and behavioral change communication campaign on maternal health outcomes in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Michelle R; Harman, Jennifer J; Smelyanskaya, Marina; Orkis, Jennifer; Ainslie, Robert

    2017-09-15

    Despite marked improvements over the last few decades, maternal mortality in Tanzania remains among the world's highest at 454 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Many factors contribute to this disparity, such as a lack of attendance at antenatal care (ANC) services and low rates of delivery at a health facility with a skilled provider. The Wazazi Nipendeni (Love me, parents) social and behavioral change communication campaign was launched in Tanzania in 2012 to improve a range of maternal health outcomes, including individual birth planning, timely ANC attendance, and giving birth in a healthcare facility. An evaluation to determine the impact of the national Wazazi Nipendeni campaign was conducted in five purposively selected regions of Tanzania using exit interviews with pregnant and post-natal women attending ANC clinics. A total of 1708 women were interviewed regarding campaign exposure, ANC attendance, and individual birth planning. Over one third of interviewed women (35.1%) reported exposure to the campaign in the last month. The more sources from which women reported hearing the Wazazi Nipendeni message, the more they planned for the birth of their child (β = 0.08, p = .001). Greater numbers of types of exposure to the Wazazi Nipendeni message was associated with an increase in ANC visits (β = 0.05, p = .004). Intervention exposure did not significantly predict the timing of the first ANC visit or HIV testing in the adjusted model, however, findings showed that exposure did predict whether women delivered at a health care facility (or not) and whether they tested for HIV with a partner in the unadjusted models. The Wazazi Nipendeni campaign shows promise that such a behavior change communication intervention could lead to better pregnancy and childbirth outcomes for women in low resource settings. For outcomes such as HIV testing, message exposure showed some promising effects, but demographic variables such as age and socioeconomic status

  6. Merging mass and interpersonal communication via interactive communication technology: A symposium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walther, J.B.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2017-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue describes the impetus for a review of the merger of mass and interpersonal communication processes in light of recent developments in communication technologies. It reviews historical arguments about the need for integration in theorizing about communication

  7. Internet: A New Tool for Mass Communication and Public Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Yılmaz

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the Internet as a tool for mass communication and public relations is emphasized and the use of Internet for such purposes in librarianship and infor­mation studies is explained.

  8. Challenging the One-Way Paradigm for More Effective Science Communication: A Critical Review of Two Public Campaigns Addressing Contentious Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntee, Marie; Mortimer, Claire

    2013-01-01

    This article examines two large-scale public communication campaigns to explore the appropriateness and effectiveness of using one-way communication in contentious environmental issues. The findings show while one-way communication can be successfully employed in contentious issues, it is not appropriate for all contexts and may contribute to…

  9. Communicating Georgia : Georgia's information campaign in the 2008 war with Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Jugaste, Artur

    2011-01-01

    During the 2008 South Ossetia war, Georgia and Russia fought what the English-language media called "a public relations war“. This was an interesting example of modern information warfare where governments allied with public relations agencies battled for symbolic power on the media field. This study investigates the information campaign that the Georgian government launched to promote their framing of the conflict in the English-language media. First-hand information about the campaign strat...

  10. A national mass media smoking cessation campaign: effects by race/ethnicity and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallone, Donna M; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Richardson, Amanda Kalaydjian; Patwardhan, Pallavi; Niaura, Raymond; Cullen, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a large-scale, national smoking cessation media campaign, the EX campaign, across racial/ethnic and educational subgroups. A longitudinal random-digit-dial panel study conducted prior to and 6 months following the national launch of the campaign. The sample was drawn from eight designated media markets in the United States. The baseline survey was conducted on 5616 current smokers, aged 18 to 49 years, and 4067 (73% follow-up response rate) were resurveyed at the 6-month follow-up. The primary independent variable is confirmed awareness of the campaign advertising, and the outcome variables are follow-up cessation-related cognitions index score and quit attempts. Multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses were conducted within racial/ethnic and educational strata to assess the strength of association between confirmed awareness of campaign advertising and cessation-related outcomes. Confirmed awareness of campaign advertising increased favorable cessation-related cognitions among Hispanics and quit attempts among non-Hispanic blacks, and increased favorable cessation-related cognitions and quit attempts among smokers with less than a high school education. These results suggest that the EX campaign may be effective in promoting cessation-related cognitions and behaviors among minority and disadvantaged smokers who experience a disproportionate burden of tobacco-related illness and mortality.

  11. Advertising campaigns on the necessity of nuclear energy through mass-media in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwano, Sadaji

    1998-01-01

    provide the public with materials and elements to think and decide with as information. In the background of those circumstances, the attitudes of PA activities toward the public-has changed recently to draw public attention to the wide range of issues from current severe energy conditions in Japan to global environmental problems connecting to the role and the position of nuclear power among overall national energy policies in Japan and let have urgent feelings among the public. Followings are the examples that we are taking up in promotion of advertising campaigns through mass media, including inter- net and other information tools. (1) To show concrete measures to be taken to meet national long- term energy supply/demand outlook for the year to 2030 that encourage energy- saving efforts, increased use of new energy sources and further development of nuclear power generation. (2) In this December, the 3rd Conference of the Parties to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change will be held at Kyoto, Japan. At this very moment that national attentions are increasingly concentrating toward the energy and environment issues, we will intend to hold advertising campaigns widely through mass media to heighten public awareness on the necessity of nuclear power promotion, as well as conservation and energy efficiency measures, introduction of alternative energy sources, such as solar, wind etc. in connection with the necessity of tackling the environmental problems, especially global warming phenomenon due to the greenhouse gas emissions. At this occasion, taking up some topics of specifically rapid energy demand which will obviously continue well into the next century and will very likely cause impending energy situations in Asian countries, expectations of serious environmental problems particularly in those of Asian countries, and among that appealing the role of nuclear energy as a clean energy source

  12. The Social Purposes of Mass Communications Research: A Transatlantic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumler, Jay G.

    Purposes and alternative forms of mass communications research are explored in this four-part presentation. Part One examines the origins of, and the differences between, two conflicting types of research: administrative research, in which the mass media are perceived as neutral tools, capable of serving a wide range of purposes; and critical…

  13. Polio immunity and the impact of mass immunization campaigns in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorman, Arend; Hoff, Nicole A; Doshi, Reena H; Alfonso, Vivian; Mukadi, Patrick; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Wemakoy, Emile Okitolonda; Bwaka, Ado; Weldon, William; Gerber, Sue; Rimoin, Anne W

    2017-10-09

    In order to prevent outbreaks from wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus, maintenance of population immunity in non-endemic countries is critical. We estimated population seroprevalence using dried blood spots collected from 4893 children 6-59months olds in the 2013-2014 Demographic and Health Survey in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Population immunity was 81%, 90%, and 70% for poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Among 6-59-month-old children, 78% reported at least one dose of polio in routine immunization, while only 15% had three doses documented on vaccination cards. All children in the study had been eligible for at least two trivalent oral polio vaccine campaigns at the time of enrollment; additional immunization campaigns seroconverted 5.0%, 14%, and 5.5% of non-immune children per-campaign for types 1, 2, and 3, respectively, averaged over relevant campaigns for each serotype. Overall polio immunity was high at the time of the study, though pockets of low immunity cannot be ruled out. The DRC still relies on supplementary immunization campaigns, and this report stresses the importance of the quality and coverage of those campaigns over their quantity, as well as the importance of routine immunization. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. The Use of Facebook Advertising for Communicating Public Health Messages: A Campaign Against Drinking During Pregnancy in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parackal, Mathew; Parackal, Sherly; Eusebius, Shobhit; Mather, Damien

    2017-08-10

    Social media is gaining recognition as a platform for delivering public health messages. One area attracting attention from public health researchers and professionals is Facebook's advertising channel. This channel is reported to have a broad reach and generate high user engagement with the disseminated campaign materials. However, to date, no study has examined the communication process via this channel which this study aimed to address. The specific objectives of the study were to (1) examine user engagement for a public health campaign based on the metadata provided by Facebook, (2) analyze comments generated by the campaign materials using text mining, and (3) investigate the relationship between the themes identified in the comments and the message and the sentiments prevalent in the themes that exhibited significant relationships. This study examined a New Zealand public health pilot campaign called "Don't Know? Don't Drink," which warned against drinking alcohol during pregnancy. The campaign conveyed the warning through a video and three banner ads that were delivered as news feeds to women aged 18-30 years. Thematic analysis using text mining performed on the comments (n=819) identified four themes. Logistic regression was used to identify meaning-making themes that exhibited association with the message. The users' engagement was impressive with the video receiving 203,754 views. The combined likes and shares for the promotional materials (video and banner ads) amounted to 6125 and 300, respectively. The logistic regression analysis showed two meaning-making themes, namely, risk of pregnancy (P=.003) and alcohol and culture (PFacebook's advertising channel. ©Mathew Parackal, Sherly Parackal, Shobhit Eusebius, Damien Mather. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 10.08.2017.

  15. Study of elemental mass size distributions at Skukuza, South Africa, during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maenhaut, Willy; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Cafmeyer, Jan; Annegarn, Harold J.

    2002-01-01

    As part of the final dry season campaign of SAFARI 2000, a 12-stage small deposit area low pressure impactor (SDI) was operated at Skukuza, in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, from 17 August until 19 September 2000. Separate day and night samples were collected (64 in total), starting at about 7:00 and at about 18:00 local time, respectively. The samples were analysed for 28 elements by PIXE. The total concentrations (summed over all 12 stages) varied quite substantially during the campaign (up to a factor of 50), but no systematic day/night difference pattern was observed. Also the size distributions were rather similar during day and night. S, K, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb and Pb had most of their mass in the submicrometre size range, with maximum typically at about 0.3 μm equivalent aerodynamic diameter. Several of those elements are good indicators for biomass burning. Mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMADs) were calculated for the various elements and compared with those obtained during SAFARI-92. During this earlier campaign, which also took place in the dry season, 41 daily samples were taken at Skukuza with a PIXE International cascade impactor (PCI). For the crustal and sea-salt elements, fairly similar MMADs were obtained in the two campaigns. For the fine-mode elements, however, the MMADs were substantially lower during SAFARI 2000 than during SAFARI-92. During this earlier campaign, the MMADs were most likely overestimated. Compared to the SDI, the PCI is much less appropriate for studying the size distribution in the submicrometre size range

  16. Feasibility and acceptability of oral cholera vaccine mass vaccination campaign in response to an outbreak and floods in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msyamboza, Kelias Phiri; M'bang'ombe, Maurice; Hausi, Hannah; Chijuwa, Alexander; Nkukumila, Veronica; Kubwalo, Hudson Wenji; Desai, Sachin; Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Legros, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Despite some improvement in provision of safe drinking water, proper sanitation and hygiene promotion, cholera still remains a major public health problem in Malawi with outbreaks occurring almost every year since 1998. In response to 2014/2015 cholera outbreak, ministry of health and partners made a decision to assess the feasibility and acceptability of conducting a mass oral cholera vaccine (OCV) as an additional public health measure. This paper highlights the burden of the 2014/15 cholera outbreak, successes and challenges of OCV campaign conducted in March and April 2015. This was a documentation of the first OCV campaign conducted in Malawi. The campaign targeted over 160,000 people aged one year or more living in 19 camps of people internally displaced by floods and their surrounding communities in Nsanje district. It was a reactive campaign as additional measure to improved water, sanitation and hygiene in response to the laboratory confirmed cholera outbreak. During the first round of the OCV campaign conducted from 30 March to 4 April 2015, a total of 156,592 (97.6%) people out of 160,482 target population received OCV. During the second round (20 to 25 April 2015), a total of 137,629 (85.8%) people received OCV. Of these, 108,247 (67.6%) people received their second dose while 29,382 (18.3%) were their first dose. Of the 134,836 people with known gender and sex who received 1 or 2 doses, 54.4% were females and over half (55.4%) were children under the age of 15 years. Among 108,237 people who received 2 doses (fully immunized), 54.4% were females and 51.9% were children under 15 years of age. No severe adverse event following immunization was reported. The main reason for non-vaccination or failure to take the 2 doses was absence during the period of the campaign. This documentation has demonstrated that it was feasible, acceptable by the community to conduct a large-scale mass OCV campaign in Malawi within five weeks. Of 320,000 OCV doses received

  17. [Mass media communication of biomedical advances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    P Salas, Sofía; Beca I, Juan Pablo

    2008-10-01

    The public dissemination of advances in biomedical research and clinical medicine generates several difficulties and problems. Mass media have the responsibility to report accurately and in a comprehensive way, and physicians and researchers must provide this information in a timely manner and without bias. After reviewing the literature related to this subject and discussing some examples of inadequate information in the Chilean context, the authors suggest the following recommendations: journalists should compare and evaluate the information appropriately before its publication, researchers and journalists should work together, reports should inform clearly about the state of the research and every academic institution should avoid reporting publicly preliminary experiences. If these recommendations are followed, the general public, physicians, researchers and health care institutions will be benefited.

  18. An evaluation of a mass media campaign to encourage parents of adolescents to talk to their children about sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuRant, Robert H; Wolfson, Mark; LaFrance, Betty; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Altman, David

    2006-03-01

    We evaluated a mass media campaign in North Carolina that used television (TV) public service announcements (PSAs), radio PSAs, and billboards to encourage parents of adolescents to talk to their children about sex. The primary message of the campaign was "Talk to your kids about sex. Everyone else is." Thirty-two of the 100 counties in North Carolina were chosen to evaluate the mass media campaign. Paid TV PSAs were aired in 22 of these counties, radio PSAs were aired in 21 counties, and billboards were displayed in 6 counties over a period of 9 months. The counties in our sample varied from no exposure to exposure to all 3 types of media. To assess the impact of the campaign, a sample of 1,132 parents of adolescents living in the 32 counties was administered a postexposure survey via a telephone interview. Questions about exposure to the media campaign were embedded among questions concerning media exposure to other health-related messages. The parent survey assessed the frequency the parents reported exposure to each type of media message, correct knowledge of the message, and multiple item scales that assessed how often they had talked to their child about various issues related to sex during the previous 6 months, intentions to talk to their child about these issues during the next month, and attitudes about discussing sexual issues with their child. In bivariate analyses the levels of parental exposure to the 3 types of media messages were associated with both having talked to their children and intentions to talk to their children about sex (p TV PSA about sex, and frequency of hearing a radio PSA about sex and teenage pregnancy accounted for 12.8% (p TV PSA about sex, and frequency of hearing radio PSAs about sex accounted for 12.3% of the variation in parental intentions to talk to their child about sex during the next month. Exposure to each component of this mass media campaign was associated with parents recently having talked to their adolescent

  19. Exposure to the "Dark Side of Tanning" Skin Cancer Prevention Mass Media Campaign and Its Association with Tanning Attitudes in New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Donna; Kite, James; Dunlop, Sally M.; Cust, Anne E.; Goumas, Chris; Cotter, Trish; Walsberger, Scott C.; Dessaix, Anita; Bauman, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is the most common cancer among 15- to 29-year-olds in Australia, with rates increasing with age. The "Dark Side of Tanning" (DSOT) mass media campaign was developed in 2007 to influence attitudes related to tanning. This study aimed to assess recall and impact of the DSOT campaign. Data were collected using online surveys of…

  20. Effects of "Find Thirty Every Day [R]": Cross-Sectional Findings from a Western Australian Population-Wide Mass Media Campaign, 2008-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Justine E.; Rosenberg, Michael; Bauman, Adrian E.; Bull, Fiona C.; Giles-Corti, Billie; Shilton, Trevor; Maitland, Clover; Barnes, Rosanne

    2013-01-01

    Background: Internationally, over the last four decades large-scale mass media campaigns have been delivered to promote physical activity and its associated health benefits. In 2002-2005, the first Western Australian statewide adult physical activity campaign "Find Thirty. It's Not a Big Exercise" was launched. In 2007, a new iteration…

  1. A Semester-Long Joint Simulation of the Development of a Health Communication Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ann Neville; McCain, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Although a growing number of universities are mounting concentrations or degrees in health communication, the most common level of training offered in the subject is a single introductory course. Typically, prerequisites for these courses are an introduction to communication course and/or a communication theory course. This makes it challenging to…

  2. Organizational Campaigning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    This conference paper will explore the difference between communicating changes and changing communication. Based on a case study in which a manager applies two quite different approaches to organizational communication in order to change the organization he is leading. The first and failing...... approach will in be named: organizational campaigning and means (e.g. Kotter, 2012, p. 9 and Clegg, Kornberger & Pitsis, 2009) that the manager takes control with communication and communication cannels in order to ensure successful organizational changes. Since the changes were not succeeding the approach...... is replaced with a new approach which will be named organizing communication. During the case analysis we will see that this change in approach not only change the managers perception of communication but also his perception of the organization he is leading....

  3. Developing antitobacco mass media campaign messages in a low-resource setting: experience from the Kingdom of Tonga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, C; Phongsavan, P; Gloede, S; Filiai, S; Tongamana, V O

    2017-05-01

    Tobacco use has become the leading cause of preventable death in Tonga, a small island nation in the South Pacific. One pragmatic and economical strategy to address this worrying trend is to adapt effective antitobacco mass media materials developed in high-income countries for local audiences. Using Tonga as an example, this paper shares the practical steps involved in adapting antitobacco campaign materials for local audiences with minimal resources, a limited budget and without the need for an external production team. The Tongan experience underscores the importance of an adaptation process that draws from evidence-based best-practice models and engages local and regional stakeholders to ensure that campaign materials are tailored to the local context and are embedded within a mix of antitobacco strategies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Developing antitobacco mass media campaign messages in a low-resource setting: experience from the Kingdom of Tonga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, C; Phongsavan, P; Gloede, S; Filiai, S; Tongamana, V O

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco use has become the leading cause of preventable death in Tonga, a small island nation in the South Pacific. One pragmatic and economical strategy to address this worrying trend is to adapt effective antitobacco mass media materials developed in high-income countries for local audiences. Using Tonga as an example, this paper shares the practical steps involved in adapting antitobacco campaign materials for local audiences with minimal resources, a limited budget and without the need for an external production team. The Tongan experience underscores the importance of an adaptation process that draws from evidence-based best-practice models and engages local and regional stakeholders to ensure that campaign materials are tailored to the local context and are embedded within a mix of antitobacco strategies. PMID:26969171

  5. How to Measure Consumer Awareness of Mass-Media Campaigns for Public Health Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peetz-Schou, Mette

    1997-01-01

    The measurement of "consumer awareness" in health promotion campaigns is discussed. Seven effectiveness evaluations are reviewed. Problem areas, including interpretation of differently phrased awareness questions and response bias, are discussed. Recommendations for overcoming common problems are made, and an open discussion based on…

  6. Mass-media information campaigns about road safety. [previously known as: Public information about road safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    In the Netherlands, public information is often used as an instrument to improve road safety. The purpose of each public information campaign is a voluntary and lasting change in traffic behaviour. This requires road users to have sufficient knowledge about a problem and to adapt their behaviour.

  7. Formative research to identify perceptions of e-cigarettes in college students: Implications for future health communication campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Kathleen; Crook, Brittani; Lazard, Allison; Mackert, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objective This formative study examined perceptions of e-cigarettes in college students with the goal of informing future health communication campaigns. Differences between e-cigarette users and nonusers were also examined. Participants: Thirty undergraduate students were recruited from a large southwestern public university (15 users, 15 nonusers). Methods Structured interviews were conducted and transcripts were coded for themes. Results Although users had more favorable attitudes toward e-cigarettes, both users and nonusers believed that e-cigarettes produce water vapor and reported that e-cigarettes were less harmful than conventional cigarettes. Potential health consequences and addiction concerns were the most common perceived threats for both users and nonusers. Both nonusers and users cited social stigma as a perceived disadvantage of e-cigarette use. Conclusions Ultimately, themes with particular relevance to future health communication campaigns included negative perceptions of e-cigarette users and social stigma, as well as harm perceptions and potential health consequences associated with e-cigarette use. PMID:26979833

  8. Population Level Effects of a Mass Media Alcohol and Breast Cancer Campaign: A Cross-Sectional Pre-Intervention and Post-Intervention Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Neil; Buykx, Penny; Shevills, Colin; Sullivan, Claire; Clark, Lynsey; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy

    2018-01-01

    To examine the relationship between a TV-led breast cancer mass-media campaign in the North East of England (conducted in two waves: Jul/2015 and Nov/2015), awareness of the link between alcohol and cancer, intention to reduce alcohol consumption and support for alcohol related policies. Three cross-sectional surveys were conducted; one over the 2 weeks pre-campaign (n = 572); one immediately following campaign wave 1 (n = 576); and another immediately following campaign wave 2 (n = 552). Survey questions assessed; campaign exposure; awareness of the links between alcohol and related cancers; intention to change alcohol consumption; and support for alcohol related policies. The proportion of respondents indicating awareness of alcohol as a cancer risk factor was larger post-campaign compared to pre-campaign. The largest increase was seen for breast cancer with 45% aware of the links post-campaign wave 2 compared to 33% pre-campaign. The proportion of respondents indicating 'strong support' of the seven alcohol related policies significantly increased between surveys. The proportion of respondents both aware of alcohol as a cancer risk factor and supportive of the seven alcohol related policies significantly increased between surveys. There was no significant change in self-reported intention to reduce alcohol consumption amongst increasing/higher risk drinkers. These findings indicate that a mass-media campaign raising awareness of the links between alcohol and breast cancer is associated with increased awareness and alcohol related policy support at a population level. However, there was no association found with a change in short-term drinking intentions. A mass-media campaign raising awareness of the links between alcohol and breast cancer is associated with increased awareness and alcohol policy support at a population level but does not appear to be associated with a change in short term drinking intentions. © The Author 2017. Medical Council on Alcohol and

  9. English for Mass Communications and for Other Purposes-Readers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was an investigation into the way readers perceive the use of English, for different purposes, and in particular, for mass communication in a second language setting. For this purpose, a simple questionnaire in form of the Likert rating scale was used to generate data. The study involved 337 respondents.

  10. Job-Related Stress among Mass Communication Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Fred F.; Wearden, Stanley T.

    1996-01-01

    Questions 600 full-time faculty members teaching journalism and/or mass communication about job-related stress. Finds faculty members suffer from job-related stress; differences exist in the way men and women view, experience, and cope with stress; anxiety and stress are shared by teachers at all grade levels; and times when faculty and students…

  11. The Historical Origins of Mass Communication Research in Our Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Samuel L.

    The seeds of mass communication research in broadcasting were extracurricular, not academic, inspired by experimental campus radio stations. Prior to the mid-1930s, radio research was scarce. Until World War II, radio speech was the most important topic, followed by articles on how to use radio for improving instruction. There are three…

  12. Gender Equity and Mass Communication's Female Student Majority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombisky, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Provides an overview of the history and politics of gender equity to make problematic the phrase "gender equity," to introduce the gender equity in education literature, and to outline some issues relevant to mass communication. Suggests that equal access represents a sex-blind approach dependent on a male standard. (SG)

  13. Mass Communication Research Trends from 1980 to 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Rasha; Weaver, David

    2003-01-01

    Uses thematic meta-analysis to examine study method, medium and area of focus, theoretical approach, funding source, and time period covered in research articles published in 10 major mass communications journals during the 1980 to 1999 period. Finds that qualitative research methods continued to be much less common than quantitative methods…

  14. Interpersonal versus Mass Media Communication: A False Dichotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Kathleen K.; Rogers, Everett M.

    1988-01-01

    Challenges the intellectual separation of interpersonal and mass media communication, arguing that this division rests primarily on grounds of historical convenience and university politics. Discusses the consequences of this dichotomy and suggests ways of encouraging intellectual exchange between the two subdisciplines. (MM)

  15. Framing in mass communication research: an overview and assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the use of the framing concept in mass communication research. It focuses on the questions what a frame is and how it is measured, how variation in framing can be explained and what the effects of media framing are. Specific attention will be paid to the

  16. The Teaching of Mass Communication Through the use of Computer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mass communication as a programme in education is an important subject in the training of students. Here, we determined the effects of improving the teaching of the subject in a tertiary institution like Cross River University of Technology through the use of computer assisted picture presentation. The study was ...

  17. Scandinavian Mass Communication Research: Publications in English, French and German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordic Documentation Center for Mass Communication Research, Aarhus (Denmark).

    This update to the bibliographies from Nordicom edited in 1975 and 1976 lists publications on mass communications research from Denmark, Finland, and Norway, that have appeared in one or more of the three languages--English, French, or German. Materials are listed for each country separately, arranged by author (or title if there is no author),…

  18. A theory of planned behaviour perspective on practitioners' beliefs toward the integration of the WIXX communication campaign messages and activities into daily practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger-Gravel, A; Lottinville, S; Beaurivage, D; Laferté, M; Therrien, F; Gauvin, L

    2018-01-01

    To favour the dissemination and the implementation of the WIXX multimedia communication campaign, the aim of this study was to examine practitioners' beliefs towards the integration of the WIXX campaign activities into daily practice. An exploratory qualitative study. Overall, 58 community-based practitioners completed an online questionnaire based on the theory of planned behaviour guidelines pertaining to perceived advantages/disadvantages and perceived barriers/facilitators toward the campaign. A content analysis was performed by two independent coders to extract modal beliefs. Results were validated by a third coder. Local partners had a positive attitude toward the WIXX campaign, but significant barriers remained and needed to be addressed to ensure full implementation of this campaign (e.g. lack of time or resources, additional workload, complexity of the registration process and so forth). Beliefs were fragmented and diversified, indicating that they were highly context dependent. To conclude, some remaining challenges regarding the full implementation of the WIXX communication campaign were identified, suggesting that additional efforts might be needed to ensure the full adoption of the campaign by local practitioners. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Back to the Future?: Timor-Leste, Cuba and the return of the mass literacy campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Boughton

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In December 2005, eleven Cuban educational advisers arrived in Timor-Leste to begin work on a national literacy campaign. Adapting the program known in Latin America as Yo, Sí Puedo (Yes I Can, the Cubans trained over 400 local tutors to run classes in every part of the country, using a method they call ‘alphanumeric’, delivered via audiovisual technology. The campaign was launched in March 2007, and the first classes began in June of that year. By September 2010, three years later, over 70,000 adults, over one fifth of the total illiterate population, had successfully completed a thirteen week basic literacy course. Drawing on original research undertaken in Timor-Leste between 2004 and 2009, followed by further investigations in May 2010 in Havana, Cuba, this paper describes the Timor-Leste campaign, locating it within the historical commitment of the country’s independence movement to adult literacy, and the broader context of Cuba’s international literacy work.

  20. The Effect of Health Beliefs, Media Perceptions, and Communicative Behaviors on Health Behavioral Intention: An Integrated Health Campaign Model on Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sun-Wook; Kim, Jarim; Lee, Yeunjae

    2018-01-01

    Social media have recently gained attention as a potential health campaign tool. This study examines this line of expectation concerning the role social media may play in health campaigns by testing an integrated health campaign model that combines insights from research on social media-specific perceptions and communicative behaviors in order to predict health behaviors. Specifically, this study aims to (a) develop a more holistic social media campaign model for predicting health behaviors in the social media context, (b) investigate how social media channel-related perceptions affect preventive health behaviors, and (c) investigate how communicative behaviors mediate perceptions and behavioral intention. The study conducted an online survey of 498 females who followed the Purple Ribbon Twitter campaign (@pprb), a cervical cancer prevention campaign. The results indicated that information acquisition mediated perceived risk's effect on intention. Information acquisition also mediated the relationships between intention and information selection and information transmission. On the other hand, social media-related perceptions indirectly impacted behavioral intention through communicative behaviors. The findings' theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  1. Improving Community Coverage of Oral Cholera Mass Vaccination Campaigns: Lessons Learned in Zanzibar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaetti, Christian; Ali, Said M.; Chaignat, Claire-Lise; Khatib, Ahmed M.; Hutubessy, Raymond; Weiss, Mitchell G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent research in two cholera-endemic communities of Zanzibar has shown that a majority (∼94%) of the adult population was willing to receive free oral cholera vaccines (OCVs). Since OCV uptake in the 2009 campaign reached only ∼50% in these communities, an evaluation of social and cultural factors and of barriers was conducted to understand this difference for future cholera control planning. Methodology/Principal Findings A random sample of 367 adult peri-urban and rural community residents (46.6% immunized vs. 53.4% unimmunized) was studied with a semi-structured interview that inquired about social and cultural features of cholera depicted in a vignette and barriers to OCV uptake. Symptoms (rectal pain, loose skin only in rural community) and perceived causes (uncovered food, contact with contaminated water) specific for severe diarrhea were associated with uptake. Purchasing drugs from pharmacies to stop diarrhea and vomiting was negatively associated with uptake. Increasing household size, age and previous enteric illness episode were positively related to uptake, the latter only at the rural site. The most prominent barrier to uptake was competing obligations or priorities (reported by 74.5%, identified as most important barrier by 49.5%). Next most prominent barriers were lacking information about the campaign (29.6%, 12.2%), sickness (14.3%, 13.3%) and fear of possible vaccine side effects (15.3%, 5.6%). The majority of unvaccinated respondents requested repetition of the vaccination with free OCVs. Conclusions/Significance Factors associated with uptake indicated a positive impact of the vaccination campaign and of sensitization activities on vaccine acceptance behavior. Unlike communities opposed to cholera control or settings where public confidence in vaccines is lacking, identified barriers to uptake indicated a good campaign implementation and trust in the health system. Despite prospects and demand for repeating the vaccination

  2. Public Hygiene Campaign in Denmark during the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Had No Effect on Hospitalization Rate of Communicable Diseases in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Sevelsted, Astrid; Bisgaard, Hans

    2013-01-01

    During the 2009 H1N1 pandemic the Danish National board of Health carried out massive public hygiene campaigns to limit spread of disease. We aimed to investigate whether this resulted in lower incidences of communicable diseases in the paediatric population.......During the 2009 H1N1 pandemic the Danish National board of Health carried out massive public hygiene campaigns to limit spread of disease. We aimed to investigate whether this resulted in lower incidences of communicable diseases in the paediatric population....

  3. No drama: key elements to the success of an HIV/STI-prevention mass-media campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrana, Alisa E; Hellard, Margaret E; Higgs, Peter; Asselin, Jason; Batrouney, Colin; Stoovè, Mark

    2014-05-01

    We qualitatively examined gay men's reactions to the national "Drama Downunder" HIV/STI social marketing campaign targeting gay men in Australia to identify key campaign elements that underpinned the demonstrated effectiveness of the campaign. We present findings from six qualitative focus groups held with 49 participants as part of the evaluation of the sexual-health-promotion campaign over 2008-2009. Participants identified attention-grabbing images, a humorous approach, positive and simple tailored messaging, and the use of mainstream media as campaign features crucial in normalizing sexual health testing, driving campaign engagement, and ensuring high message exposure. Our results suggest that designers of future campaigns should strive to balance positive and negative campaign images and messages, and find new ways to engage men with sexual health topics, particularly younger gay men. We discuss the implications of our findings about campaign effectiveness for future health-promotion campaigns and message design.

  4. The professionalization of political communication? a longitudinal analysis of Dutch election campaign posters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of Dutch election posters in the period from 1946 to 2006. Based on the literature on the professionalization of political communication, several hypotheses are formulated regarding changes in textual and visual elements of those posters. These hypotheses focus on

  5. Communicating on Sustainable Energy: The See Campaign of the European Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarle, M.

    2010-01-01

    Public and private organisations across Europe are discovering the importance of using communication strategies to change consumers' attitudes and behaviours related to energy use and conservation. There is a clear need to raise awareness on climate change issues, to spark public debate and to inspire energy innovation. The aim of the conference paper is to describe the variety of communication strategies that are currently used in Europe to communicate on energy issues. We will see how different stake holders choose to communicate on energy issues, who their target audiences are and what media they use to get their messages across. The best practises shown will be in the following fields: convincing residents in old apartment buildings to improve the energy efficiency of their buildings; getting citizens to accept new renewable energy infrastructure in their neighbourhoods ( i.e. wind and solar parks); popularising clean transport amongst teenagers; getting energy-intense industries to reduce their energy consumption; teaching energy innovation in schools; attracting the media to the energy debate; using social media when talking about energy ( You tube, Facebook, blogs, etc).(author).

  6. Team Teaching Political Communication: The 2000 Campus U.S. Presidential Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardeman, Keith T.; Jefferson, Kurt W.

    The closeness of the 2000 presidential election clearly demonstrated that the country was divided philosophically and politically. The authors of this paper, a speech communication professor and a political science professor at Westminster College in Missouri, capitalized on that division based upon their diametrically opposed political views by…

  7. Mass Communication and Journalism Faculty and Their Electronic Communication with College Students: A Nationwide Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Brigitta R.; Yates, Bradford L.; Adams, Jennifer Wood

    2008-01-01

    Nearly 700 U.S. journalism and mass communication faculty reported their perceptions of student e-mail use via a Web-based survey. This nationwide study focused on content of e-mail received by faculty and made comparisons based on faculty gender. Nearly half of the respondents reported that they occasionally receive e-mails from students before a…

  8. Research of connection between mass audience and new media. Approaches to new model of mass communication measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Sibiriakova Olena Oleksandrivna

    2015-01-01

    In this research the author examines changes to approaches of observation of mass communication. As a result of systemization of key theoretical models of communication, the author comes to conclusion of evolution of ideas about the process of mass communication measurement from linear to multisided and multiple.

  9. Impact of the Swap It, Don't Stop It Australian National Mass Media Campaign on Promoting Small Changes to Lifestyle Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Blythe J; Grunseit, Anne; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Bellew, William; Briggs, Megan; Bauman, Adrian E

    2016-12-01

    Mass media campaigns aimed at influencing lifestyle risk factors are one way that governments are attempting to address chronic disease risk. In Australia, a national campaign aimed at encouraging Australians to make changes in lifestyle-related behaviors was implemented from 2008 to 2011. The first phase, Measure Up (2008-2009), focused on why lifestyle changes are needed by increasing awareness of the link between waist circumference and chronic disease risk. The second phase, Swap It, Don't Stop It (2011), emphasized how adults can change their behaviors. Cross-sectional telephone surveys (after the campaign) were undertaken in July and November 2011 to evaluate the Swap It, Don't Stop It campaign and included measures of campaign awareness and lifestyle-related behavior change. Survey participants (N = 5,097) were similar across the two survey periods. Prompted campaign awareness was 62% (16% for unprompted awareness); females, younger respondents (18-44 years), those in paid employment, and those who spoke English at home were more likely to report prompted/unprompted campaign awareness. Moreover, 16% of survey respondents reported any swapping behavior in the previous 6 months, with the majority (14%) reporting only one swap; younger respondents and those in paid employment were significantly more likely to report having implemented a swapping behavior. The campaign achieved modest population awareness but demonstrated limited effect in terms of nudging behaviors. This evaluation indicates that encouraging swapping behaviors as a prelude to lifestyle change may not result from a mass media campaign alone; a comprehensive multicomponent population approach may be required.

  10. Does neighbourhood walkability moderate the effects of mass media communication strategies to promote regular physical activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, R; Giles-Corti, B; Bauman, A; Rosenberg, M; Bull, F C; Leavy, J E

    2013-02-01

    Mass media campaigns are widely used in Australia and elsewhere to promote physical activity among adults. Neighbourhood walkability is consistently shown to be associated with walking and total activity. Campaigns may have different effects on individuals living in high and low walkable neighbourhoods. The purpose of this study is to compare pre- and post-campaign cognitive and behavioural impacts of the Heart Foundation's Find Thirty every day® campaign, in respondents living in high and lower walkable neighbourhoods. Pre- and post-campaign cross-sectional survey data were linked with objectively measured neighbourhood walkability. Cognitive and behavioural impacts were assessed using logistic regression stratified by walkability. Cognitive impacts were significantly higher post-campaign and consistently higher in respondents in high compared with lower walkable neighbourhoods. Post campaign sufficient activity was significantly higher and transport walking significantly lower, but only in residents of lower walkable areas. Cognitive impacts of mass media physical activity campaigns may be enhanced by living in a more walkable neighbourhood.

  11. Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds Using Proton Transfer Reaction – Mass Spectrometry during the MILAGRO 2006 Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Fortner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs were measured by proton transfer reaction – mass spectrometry (PTR-MS on a rooftop in the urban mixed residential and industrial area North Northeast of downtown Mexico City as part of the Megacity Initiative – Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO 2006 field campaign. Thirty eight individual masses were monitored during the campaign and many species were quantified including methanol, acetaldehyde, toluene, the sum of C2 benzenes, the sum of C3 benzenes, acetone, isoprene, benzene, and ethyl acetate. The VOC measurements were analyzed to gain a better understanding of the type of VOCs present in the MCMA, their diurnal patterns, and their origins. Diurnal profiles of weekday and weekend/holiday aromatic VOC concentrations showed the influence of vehicular traffic during the morning rush hours and during the afternoon hours. Plumes including elevated toluene as high as 216 parts per billion (ppb and ethyl acetate as high as 183 ppb were frequently observed during the late night and early morning hours, indicating the possibility of significant industrial sources of the two compounds in the region. Wind fields during those peak episodes revealed no specific direction for the majority of the toluene plumes but the ethyl acetate plumes arrived at the site when winds were from the Southwest or West. The PTR-MS measurements combined with other VOC measuring techniques at the field site as well as VOC measurements conducted in other areas of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA will help to develop a better understanding of the spatial pattern of VOCs and its variability in the MCMA.

  12. Hypostases of THEM category in mass media communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanysheva Zulfira Zakievna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the reflection of the US/THEM category in mass media communication in conditions of sharp confrontation of ideological opponents. It is aimed at revealing the potential of lingvocultural signs to be used as units of generating desirable senses in leading English periodical issues. The alien culture is shown to possess three basic hypostases with xenocultural axiological semantic space taking the lead. The article proves that intercultural massmedia communication is marked by reciprocal influence of semantic spaces and subjective evaluation of information. Xenoprecedent phenomena are viewed as supporting clamps in the process of semantic transformations of national and cultural signs designed to exert a manipulative effect on the target reader.

  13. Fear appeals in advanced tobacco control environments: the impact of a National Mass Media Campaign in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Halkjelsvik, Torleif; Lund, Karl Erik; Kraft, Pål; Rise, Jostein

    2013-01-01

    - Norway has one of the most comprehensive infrastructures for tobacco control in the world and has launched several media campaigns recent years. Can yet another anti-smoking campaign, using fear appeal messages, have an immediate impact on smoking behavior, motivation to quit and health beliefs? A sample of smokers (N = 2543) completed a survey before and after a 7-week national media campaign. Individual exposure to campaign (unaided recall) was used as predictor of change. We observed ...

  14. Fear appeals in advanced tobacco control environments: the impact of a National Mass Media Campaign in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Halkjelsvik, Torleif; Lund, Karl Erik; Kraft, Pål; Rise, Jostein

    2013-01-01

    Norway has one of the most comprehensive infrastructures for tobacco control in the world and has launched several media campaigns recent years. Can yet another anti-smoking campaign, using fear appeal messages, have an immediate impact on smoking behavior, motivation to quit and health beliefs? A sample of smokers (N = 2543) completed a survey before and after a 7-week national media campaign. Individual exposure to campaign (unaided recall) was used as predictor of change. We observed no st...

  15. Overview of aerosol properties associated with air masses sampled by the ATR-42 during the EUCAARI campaign (2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Crumeyrolle

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the frame of the European Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions (EUCAARI project, the Météo-France aircraft ATR-42 performed 22 research flights over central Europe and the North Sea during the intensive observation period in May 2008. For the campaign, the ATR-42 was equipped to study the aerosol physical, chemical, hygroscopic and optical properties, as well as cloud microphysics. For the 22 research flights, retroplume analyses along the flight tracks were performed with FLEXPART in order to classify air masses into five sectors of origin, allowing for a qualitative evaluation of emission influence on the respective air parcel. This study shows that the extensive aerosol parameters (aerosol mass and number concentrations show vertical decreasing gradients and in some air masses maximum mass concentrations (mainly organics in an intermediate layer (1–3 km. The observed mass concentrations (in the boundary layer (BL: between 10 and 30 μg m−3; lower free troposphere (LFT: 0.8 and 14 μg m−3 are high especially in comparison with the 2015 European norms for PM2.5 (25 μg m−3 and with previous airborne studies performed over England (Morgan et al., 2009; McMeeking et al., 2012. Particle number size distributions show a larger fraction of particles in the accumulation size range in the LFT compared to BL. The chemical composition of submicron aerosol particles is dominated by organics in the BL, while ammonium sulphate dominates the submicron aerosols in the LFT, especially in the aerosol particles originated from north-eastern Europe (~ 80%, also experiencing nucleation events along the transport. As a consequence, first the particle CCN acting ability, shown by the CCN/CN ratio, and second the average values of the scattering cross sections of optically active particles (i.e. scattering coefficient divided by the optical active particle concentration are increased in the LFT compared to BL.

  16. Exposure to the 'Dark Side of Tanning' skin cancer prevention mass media campaign and its association with tanning attitudes in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Donna; Kite, James; Dunlop, Sally M; Cust, Anne E; Goumas, Chris; Cotter, Trish; Walsberger, Scott C; Dessaix, Anita; Bauman, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    Melanoma is the most common cancer among 15- to 29-year-olds in Australia, with rates increasing with age. The 'Dark Side of Tanning' (DSOT) mass media campaign was developed in 2007 to influence attitudes related to tanning. This study aimed to assess recall and impact of the DSOT campaign. Data were collected using online surveys of 13- to 44-year-olds living in New South Wales in the summer months of 2007-2010 (n = 7490). Regression models were used to determine predictors of recall of DSOT and to investigate associations between exposure to the campaign and tanning attitudes. The campaign achieved consistently high recall (unprompted recall 42-53% during campaign periods; prompted recall 76-84%). Those who recalled DSOT advertisements had a higher likelihood of reporting negative tanning attitudes compared with those who reported no recall, after adjusting for other factors (odds ratio [OR] 1.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.27 for unprompted recall; OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.03-1.36 for prompted recall). Being interviewed in later campaign years was also a significant predictor of negative tanning attitudes (e.g. fourth year of campaign versus first year: OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.01-1.53). These results suggest that mass media campaigns have potential to influence tanning-related attitudes and could play an important role in skin cancer prevention. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Political Candidate Campaign Advertising: A Selected Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweg, Susan A.

    This paper provides a selected review of political candidate campaign advertising studies from the political science, mass communication, advertising, and political communication literature. The paper examines the literature in terms of research pertaining to (1) candidate advertising content (commercials for male versus female candidates and for…

  18. The role of digital and social media within mass media anti-smoking campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Andy Lloyd; James Mckendrick; Ailsa Rutter

    2018-01-01

    Background and challenges to implementation The evidence for mass media to raise awareness about the harm of smoking and benefits of quitting remains strong. However, pressures on budgets means TV is not always seen as an affordable option, while the emergence of digital media presents an attractive option to funders as a way of saving costs while maintaining responses. Digital and social media has provided us with learnings about the role of “push” (broadcast) and “pull” (direct responses...

  19. Cluster-randomised trial to evaluate the ‘Change for Life’ mass media/ social marketing campaign in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croker Helen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social marketing campaigns offer a promising approach to the prevention of childhood obesity. Change4Life (C4L is a national obesity prevention campaign in England. It included mass media coverage aiming to reframe obesity into a health issue relevant to all and provided the opportunity for parents to complete a brief questionnaire (‘How are the Kids’ and receive personalised feedback about their children’s eating and activity. Print and online C4L resources were available with guidance about healthy eating and physical activity. The study aims were to examine the impact of personalised feedback and print material from the C4L campaign on parents’ attitudes and behaviours about their children’s eating and activity in a community-based cluster-randomised controlled trial. Methods Parents of 5–11 year old children were recruited from 40 primary schools across England. Schools were randomised to intervention or control (‘usual care’. Basic demographic data and brief information about their attitudes to their children’s health were collected. Families in intervention schools were mailed the C4L print materials and the ‘How are the Kids’ questionnaire; those returning the questionnaire were sent personalised feedback and others received generic materials. Outcomes included awareness of C4L, attitudes to the behaviours recommended in C4L, parenting behaviours (monitoring and modelling, and child health behaviours (diet, physical activity and television viewing. Follow-up data were collected from parents by postal questionnaire after six months. Qualitative interviews were carried out with a subset of parents (n = 12. Results 3,774 families completed baseline questionnaires and follow-up data were obtained from 1,419 families (37.6%. Awareness was high in both groups at baseline (75%, but increased significantly in the intervention group by follow-up (96% vs. 87%. Few parents (5.2% of the intervention

  20. Cluster-randomised trial to evaluate the 'Change for Life' mass media/ social marketing campaign in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croker, Helen; Lucas, Rebecca; Wardle, Jane

    2012-06-06

    Social marketing campaigns offer a promising approach to the prevention of childhood obesity. Change4Life (C4L) is a national obesity prevention campaign in England. It included mass media coverage aiming to reframe obesity into a health issue relevant to all and provided the opportunity for parents to complete a brief questionnaire ('How are the Kids') and receive personalised feedback about their children's eating and activity. Print and online C4L resources were available with guidance about healthy eating and physical activity. The study aims were to examine the impact of personalised feedback and print material from the C4L campaign on parents' attitudes and behaviours about their children's eating and activity in a community-based cluster-randomised controlled trial. Parents of 5-11 year old children were recruited from 40 primary schools across England. Schools were randomised to intervention or control ('usual care'). Basic demographic data and brief information about their attitudes to their children's health were collected. Families in intervention schools were mailed the C4L print materials and the 'How are the Kids' questionnaire; those returning the questionnaire were sent personalised feedback and others received generic materials. Outcomes included awareness of C4L, attitudes to the behaviours recommended in C4L, parenting behaviours (monitoring and modelling), and child health behaviours (diet, physical activity and television viewing). Follow-up data were collected from parents by postal questionnaire after six months. Qualitative interviews were carried out with a subset of parents (n = 12). 3,774 families completed baseline questionnaires and follow-up data were obtained from 1,419 families (37.6%). Awareness was high in both groups at baseline (75%), but increased significantly in the intervention group by follow-up (96% vs. 87%). Few parents (5.2% of the intervention group) returned the questionnaire to get personalised feedback. There

  1. Cluster-randomised trial to evaluate the ‘Change for Life’ mass media/ social marketing campaign in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Social marketing campaigns offer a promising approach to the prevention of childhood obesity. Change4Life (C4L) is a national obesity prevention campaign in England. It included mass media coverage aiming to reframe obesity into a health issue relevant to all and provided the opportunity for parents to complete a brief questionnaire (‘How are the Kids’) and receive personalised feedback about their children’s eating and activity. Print and online C4L resources were available with guidance about healthy eating and physical activity. The study aims were to examine the impact of personalised feedback and print material from the C4L campaign on parents’ attitudes and behaviours about their children’s eating and activity in a community-based cluster-randomised controlled trial. Methods Parents of 5–11 year old children were recruited from 40 primary schools across England. Schools were randomised to intervention or control (‘usual care’). Basic demographic data and brief information about their attitudes to their children’s health were collected. Families in intervention schools were mailed the C4L print materials and the ‘How are the Kids’ questionnaire; those returning the questionnaire were sent personalised feedback and others received generic materials. Outcomes included awareness of C4L, attitudes to the behaviours recommended in C4L, parenting behaviours (monitoring and modelling), and child health behaviours (diet, physical activity and television viewing). Follow-up data were collected from parents by postal questionnaire after six months. Qualitative interviews were carried out with a subset of parents (n = 12). Results 3,774 families completed baseline questionnaires and follow-up data were obtained from 1,419 families (37.6%). Awareness was high in both groups at baseline (75%), but increased significantly in the intervention group by follow-up (96% vs. 87%). Few parents (5.2% of the intervention group) returned the

  2. Radon derived air mass fetch regions during the ACE-Asia campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, S.; Zahorowski, W.; Werczynski, S.; Wang, T.; Poon, S.; Kim, J.; Oh, S.-N.; Knag, H.; Uematsu, M.; Matsumoto, K.

    2003-01-01

    Seasonal variations in fetch regions for air masses exhibiting the greatest and least terrestrial influence at three sites in East Asia are discussed. Results are based on the first year of hourly atmospheric radon concentration observations made as part of the Asian Aerosol Characterisation Experiment (ACE-Asia). Fetch regions for Asian continental outflow to the Pacific Basin within the boundary layer are shown to be distinct from corresponding tropospheric outflow events. Analysis of the hourly radon time series in conjunction with back trajectory analysis indicates the presence of a large localised radon source in south eastern China

  3. Critical Mass has become a tradition for the Bike2Work campaign at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2018-01-01

    Critical Mass is a cycling event typically held on the last Friday of every month; its purpose is not usually formalized beyond the direct action of meeting at a set location and time and traveling as a group through city or town streets on bikes. The event originated in 1992 in San Francisco; by the end of 2003, the event was being held in over 300 cities around the world. At CERN it is held once a year in conjunction with the national Swiss campaing "Bike to work".

  4. Social marketing techniques for public health communication: a review of syphilis awareness campaigns in 8 US cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Miriam Y; Roland, Eric L

    2005-10-01

    To describe the social marketing approaches used to increase syphilis awareness in 8 US cities. We reviewed the typical academic approach for developing social marketing campaigns and interviewed health department staff responsible for social marketing campaigns in each city. Using social marketing techniques such as target segmentation, concept testing of materials, and formative evaluation, campaign planners throughout the 8 cities developed a variety of approaches to reach their target audiences. Preliminary results suggest 71% to 80% of men who have sex with men interviewed were aware of the campaigns, and 45% to 53% of them reported they were tested due to the campaigns. Campaigns should address the local epidemic and target audience with culturally appropriate messages.

  5. Report on a Round Table "Communication 1980" on Mass Communication Research and Policy. Hanko, Finland, April 9-11, 1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnish Broadcasting Co., Helsinki.

    The papers presented at the conference fall into three main categories: 1) outlines for critical research into mass communication, 2) international perspectives in broadcasting, and 3) the functions and goals of mass communication, together with problems of democratic control over broadcasting. All papers have been translated into English, as have…

  6. “This Is Public Health: Recycling Counts!” Description of a Pilot Health Communications Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.Chase, Nancy; Dominick, Gregory M.; Trepal, Amy; Bailey, Leanne S.; Friedman, Daniela B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of a pilot recycling campaign. The goal of the campaign was to increase people’s awareness and knowledge about recycling and the link between a healthy environment and the public’s health. A total of 258 individuals attended campaign week events and completed an initial survey. Results identified inconvenience of recycling facility locations as a key barrier to recycling. Post-campaign survey results revealed increased recycling of paper, plastic, glass, and cans (p recycling (88.4%) and their recycling efforts increased (61.6%). PMID:20049239

  7. Youth audience segmentation strategies for smoking-prevention mass media campaigns based on message appeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Brian S; Worden, John K; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Dorwaldt, Anne L; Connolly, Scott W; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2007-08-01

    Mass media interventions are among the strategies recommended for youth cigarette smoking prevention, but little is known about optimal methods for reaching diverse youth audiences. Grades 4 through 12 samples of youth from four states (n = 1,230) rated smoking-prevention messages in classroom settings. Similar proportions of African American, Hispanic, and White youth participated. Impact of audience characteristics on message appeal ratings was assessed to provide guidance for audience segmentation strategies. Age had a strong effect on individual message appeal. The effect of gender also was significant. Message ratings were similar among the younger racial/ethnic groups, but differences were found for older African American youth. Lower academic achievement was associated with lower appeal scores for some messages. Age should be a primary consideration in developing and delivering smoking-prevention messages to youth audiences. The unique needs of boys and girls and older African American adolescents should also be considered.

  8. Multi-country comparison of delivery strategies for mass campaigns to achieve universal coverage with insecticide-treated nets: what works best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegers de Beyl, Celine; Koenker, Hannah; Acosta, Angela; Onyefunafoa, Emmanuel Obi; Adegbe, Emmanuel; McCartney-Melstad, Anna; Selby, Richmond Ato; Kilian, Albert

    2016-02-03

    The use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) is widely recognized as one of the main interventions to prevent malaria. High ITN coverage is needed to reduce transmission. Mass distribution campaigns are the fastest way to rapidly scale up ITN coverage. However, the best strategy to distribute ITNs to ensure household coverage targets are met is still under debate. This paper presents results from 14 post-campaign surveys in five African countries to assess whether the campaign strategy used had any effect on distribution outcome. Data from 13,901 households and 14 campaigns from Ghana, Nigeria, Senegal, South Sudan and Uganda, were obtained through representative cross-sectional questionnaire surveys, conducted three to 16 months after ITN distribution. All evaluations used a multi-stage sampling approach and similar methods for data collection. Key outcomes examined were the proportion of households having received a net from the campaign and the proportion of households with one net for every two people. Household registration rates proved to be the most important determinant of a household receiving any net from the campaign (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 74.8; 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 55.3-101.1) or had enough ITNs for all household members (adjusted OR 19.1; 95 % CI: 55.34-101.05). Factors that positively influenced registration were larger household size (adjusted OR 1.7; 95 % CI: 1.5-2.1) and families with children under five (adjusted OR 1.4; 95 % CI: 1.2-1.6). Urban residence was negatively associated with receipt of a net from the campaign (adjusted OR 0.73; 95 % CI: 0.58-0.92). Registration was equitable in most campaigns except for Uganda and South Sudan, where the poorest wealth quintiles were less likely to have been reached. After adjusting for other factors, delivery strategy (house-to-house vs. fixed point) and distribution approach (integrated versus stand-alone) did not show a systematic impact on registration or owning any ITN. Campaigns that

  9. Mass Communications in Israel: A Bibliography of Articles, Pamphlets, and Books Written in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotliffe, Harvey

    This bibliography on mass communications in Israel contains articles, pamphlets, and books written in English covering the areas of advertising, Arab mass communications, broadcast authority, censorship, culture and communication, film, press and propaganda, publishing writers, radio, commercial and educational television, and the theatre arts.…

  10. Litigation, Mass Media, and the Campaign to Criminalize the Firearms Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William T. Haltom

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article extends the co-authors’ researches on mass media coverage of crusades against manufacturers and marketers of tobacco products in the United States to media coverage of similar crusades against manufacturers and marketers of firearms in the United States. The major contention of the article is that firearms-reformers have used civil suits and allied publicity outside courts to depict firearms producers and retailers as criminals. A major tactic that has unified reformers’ efforts inside and outside courts is deployment of crimtorts, civil litigation for torts that includes elements of criminal prosecution. Crimtorts and publicity through entertainment media enabled opponents of firearms companies to lose case after case yet to damage the reputations or brands of firearms makers and marketers. The firearms interests fended off crusaders in civil action after civil action yet became portrayed as outright criminals owing mostly to crimtorts. Este artículo amplia las investigaciones de los autores sobre la cobertura mediática de las cruzadas contra productores y vendedores de tabaco en los Estados Unidos hacia la cobertura mediática de cruzadas similares contra productores y vendedores de armas de fuego en Estados Unidos. El argumento principal del artículo sostiene que los que buscan la reforma de la legislación sobre armas de fuego han utilizado las demandas civiles y la publicidad externa a los tribunales para representar a los productores y vendedores de armas de fuego como criminales. Una táctica principal que ha unido los esfuerzos de los reformistas dentro y fuera de los tribunales es el uso de crimtorts, juicios civiles para acciones por responsabilidad civil extracontractual que incluyen elementos de procesos criminales. A pesar de perder caso tras caso, los crimtorts y la publicidad en los medios de entretenimiento permitió a los oponentes a las compañías armamentísticas perjudicar la reputación o las marcas de

  11. Association of Mass Media Communication with Contraceptive Use in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Meta-Analysis of Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, Stella; Figueroa, Maria-Elena; Krenn, Susan

    2017-11-01

    Literature abounds with evidence on the effectiveness of individual mass media interventions on contraceptive use and other health behaviors. There have been, however, very few studies summarizing effect sizes of mass media health communication campaigns in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, we used meta-analytic techniques to pool data from 47 demographic and health surveys conducted between 2005 and 2015 in 31 sub-Saharan African countries and estimate the prevalence of exposure to family planning-related mass media communication. We also estimated the average effect size of exposure to mass media communication after adjusting for endogeneity. We performed meta-regression to assess the moderating role of selected variables on effect size. On average, 44% of women in sub-Saharan Africa were exposed to family planning-related mass media interventions in the year preceding the survey. Overall, exposure was associated with an effect size equivalent to an odds ratio of 1.93. More recent surveys demonstrated smaller effect sizes than earlier ones, while the effects were larger in lower contraceptive prevalence settings than in higher prevalence ones. The findings have implications for designing communication programs, setting expectations about communication impact, and guiding decisions about sample size estimation for mass media evaluation studies.

  12. The Uses of Mass Communications: Current Perspectives on Gratifications Research. Sage Annual Reviews of Communication Research Volume III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumler, Jay G., Ed.; Katz, Elihu, Ed.

    The essays in this volume examine the use of the mass media and explore the findings of the gratifications approach to mass communication research. Part one summaries the achievements in this area of mass media research and proposes an agenda for discussion of the future direction of this research in terms of a set of theoretical, methodological,…

  13. Costs of Illness Due to Cholera, Costs of Immunization and Cost-Effectiveness of an Oral Cholera Mass Vaccination Campaign in Zanzibar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaetti, Christian; Weiss, Mitchell G.; Ali, Said M.; Chaignat, Claire-Lise; Khatib, Ahmed M.; Reyburn, Rita; Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J.; Hutubessy, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) as a supplementary tool to conventional prevention of cholera. Dukoral, a killed whole-cell two-dose OCV, was used in a mass vaccination campaign in 2009 in Zanzibar. Public and private costs of illness (COI) due to endemic cholera and costs of the mass vaccination campaign were estimated to assess the cost-effectiveness of OCV for this particular campaign from both the health care provider and the societal perspective. Methodology/Principal Findings Public and private COI were obtained from interviews with local experts, with patients from three outbreaks and from reports and record review. Cost data for the vaccination campaign were collected based on actual expenditure and planned budget data. A static cohort of 50,000 individuals was examined, including herd protection. Primary outcome measures were incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) per death, per case and per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted. One-way sensitivity and threshold analyses were conducted. The ICER was evaluated with regard to WHO criteria for cost-effectiveness. Base-case ICERs were USD 750,000 per death averted, USD 6,000 per case averted and USD 30,000 per DALY averted, without differences between the health care provider and the societal perspective. Threshold analyses using Shanchol and assuming high incidence and case-fatality rate indicated that the purchase price per course would have to be as low as USD 1.2 to render the mass vaccination campaign cost-effective from a health care provider perspective (societal perspective: USD 1.3). Conclusions/Significance Based on empirical and site-specific cost and effectiveness data from Zanzibar, the 2009 mass vaccination campaign was cost-ineffective mainly due to the relatively high OCV purchase price and a relatively low incidence. However, mass vaccination campaigns in Zanzibar to control endemic cholera may meet criteria for cost

  14. Using a mass media campaign to raise women's awareness of the link between alcohol and cancer: cross-sectional pre-intervention and post-intervention evaluation surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Helen G; Pratt, Iain S; Scully, Maree L; Miller, Jessica R; Patterson, Carla; Hood, Rebecca; Slevin, Terry J

    2015-03-11

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a population-based, statewide public health intervention designed to improve women's awareness and knowledge of the link between alcohol and cancer. Cross-sectional tracking surveys conducted pre-intervention and post-intervention (waves I and III of campaign). Western Australia. Cross-sectional samples of Western Australian women aged 25-54 years before the campaign (n=136) and immediately after wave I (n=206) and wave III (n=155) of the campaign. The 'Alcohol and Cancer' mass media campaign ran from May 2010 to May 2011 and consisted of three waves of paid television advertising with supporting print advertisements. Campaign awareness; knowledge of drinking guidelines and the link between alcohol and cancer; intentions towards drinking. Prompted recognition of the campaign increased from 67% following wave I to 81% following wave III (adjusted OR (adj OR)=2.31, 95% CI 1.33 to 4.00, p=0.003). Improvements in women's knowledge that drinking alcohol on a regular basis increases cancer risk were found following wave I (adj OR=2.60, 95% CI 1.57 to 4.30, pawareness of links between alcohol and cancer, and knowledge of drinking guidelines. However, a single campaign may be insufficient to measurably curb drinking behaviour in a culture where pro-alcohol social norms and product marketing are pervasive. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Impact of community-delivered SMS alerts on dog-owner participation during a mass rabies vaccination campaign, Haiti 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaton, Julie M; Wallace, Ryan M; Crowdis, Kelly; Gibson, Andy; Monroe, Benjamin; Ludder, Fleurinord; Etheart, Melissa D; Natal Vigilato, Marco Antonio; King, Alasdair

    2018-04-19

    Haiti has historically vaccinated between 100,000 and 300,000 dogs annually against rabies, however national authorities have not been able to reach and maintain the 70% coverage required to eliminate the canine rabies virus variant. Haiti conducts massive dog vaccination campaigns on an annual basis and utilizes both central point and door-to-door methods. These methods require that dog owners are aware of the dates and locations of the campaign. To improve this awareness among dog owners, 600,000 text messages were sent to phones in two Haitian communes (Gonaives and Saint-Marc) to remind dog owners to attend the campaign. Text messages were delivered on the second day and at the mid-point of the campaign. A post-campaign household survey was conducted to assess dog owner's perception of the text messages and the impact on their participation in the vaccination campaign. Overall, 147 of 160 (91.9%) text-receiving dog owners indicated the text was helpful, and 162 of 187 (86.6%) responding dog owners said they would like to receive text reminders during future rabies vaccination campaigns. In areas hosting one-day central point campaigns, dog owners who received the text were 2.0 (95% CI 1.1, 3.6) times more likely to have participated in the campaign (73.1% attendance among those who received the text vs 36.4% among those who did not). In areas incorporating door-to-door vaccination over multiple days there was no significant difference in participation between dog owners who did and did not receive a text. Text message reminders were well-received and significantly improved campaign attendance, indicating that short message service (SMS) alerts may be a successful strategy in low resource areas with large free roaming dog populations. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. THEORETICAL FEATURES REGARDING THE EVOLUTION OVER TIME OF THE MAIN COMMUNICATION MODELS USED FOR THE STUDY OF MASS COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina IOSUB

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of increasingly accelerated development of technology and particularly of the Internet, mass communication acquires new meanings. This article proposes a brief theoretical approach to the study of mass communication as it was treated in the specific literature of the 50s and 60s, when there was little talk about new technologies. However, many features identified since then still retain their topicality and for this reason it is interesting to note the evolution over time of the main communication models that were and some of them still are used for the study of mass communication. They are relevant to the context in which a complete study of mass communication is required, not only from the perspective of the present, but also from the period in which it was outlined. Thus, this article is divided into three main sections: the first part represents the meaning of communication in a general sense, so that the second part to represent the mass communication process and its characteristics, and the last part to represent the main models of communication in the order in which they have occurred, and especially aiming at new features that each of them brought.

  17. Evaluation of the impact of the image used in a communication campaign to raise awareness about the effects of alcohol use during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzo, Stefania; Battistella, Giuseppe; Riscica, Patrizia; Moino, Giuliana; Marini, Francesco; Geromel, Mariasole; Czerwinsky, Loredana

    2012-01-01

    To assess the impact of the advertising image used in the health communication campaign 'Mummy Drinks Baby Drinks', aimed to raise awareness about the effects of drinking alcohol during pregnancy in the childbearing-aged population of the Local Health Authority of Treviso (Italy). The image depicted a foetus inside a glass of a local alcoholic drink. A survey using a semi-structured self-reported questionnaire was carried out. The questionnaire was administered to a consecutive series of 690 parents or caregivers who accompanied children aged 0-2 years in the vaccination clinics of the Local Health Unit, during a 30-day period 1 year after the start of the campaign. The questionnaire measured the level of exposure to the image, emotional reactions and awareness of the health messages conveyed by the image. Overall, 84% of the respondents said that they remembered the image. Almost all (93%) recalled the warning message and 53% recalled the health behaviours suggested by the campaign. The image generally seemed to arouse a high emotive impact: 38% indicated distress and 40% liking as a general opinion, while ∼50% expressed distress emotions and 13% were pleasantly affected when reflecting on the feelings evoked. We did not find unequivocal relationships between the level and kind of emotional reactions and the recalling of the health behaviours. The image obtained a high level of visibility. It was effective in spreading the health message conveyed by the campaign, regardless of the level and kind of emotive impact evoked.

  18. Characterizing K2 Candidate Planetary Systems Orbiting Low-Mass Stars. I. Classifying Low-Mass Host Stars Observed During Campaigns 1-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressing, Courtney D.; Newton, Elisabeth R.; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Charbomeau, David; Krutson, Heather A.; Vanderburg, Andrew; Sinukoff, Evan

    2017-01-01

    We present near-infrared spectra for 144 candidate planetary systems identified during Campaigns 1-7 of the NASA K2 Mission. The goal of the survey was to characterize planets orbiting low-mass stars, but our Infrared Telescope Facility/SpeX and Palomar/TripleSpec spectroscopic observations revealed that 49% of our targets were actually giant stars or hotter dwarfs reddened by interstellar extinction. For the 72 stars with spectra consistent with classification as cool dwarfs (spectral types K3-M4), we refined their stellar properties by applying empirical relations based on stars with interferometric radius measurements. Although our revised temperatures are generally consistent with those reported in the Ecliptic Plane Input Catalog (EPIC), our revised stellar radii are typically 0.13 solar radius (39%) larger than the EPIC values, which were based on model isochrones that have been shown to underestimate the radii of cool dwarfs. Our improved stellar characterizations will enable more efficient prioritization of K2 targets for follow-up studies.

  19. Social and cultural determinants of anticipated acceptance of an oral cholera vaccine prior to a mass vaccination campaign in Zanzibar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaetti, Christian; Chaignat, Claire-Lise; Hutubessy, Raymond; Khatib, Ahmed M; Ali, Said M; Schindler, Christian; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2011-12-01

    Despite improvements in sanitation and water supply, cholera remains a serious public health burden. Vaccination is included among recommendations for cholera control. Cultural concepts of illness are likely to affect vaccine acceptance. This study examined social and cultural determinants of anticipated acceptance of an oral cholera vaccine (OCV) prior to a mass vaccination campaign in Zanzibar. Using a cultural epidemiological approach, 356 unaffected adult residents were studied with vignette-based semi-structured interviews. Anticipated acceptance was high for a free OCV (94%), but declined with increasing price. Logistic regression models examined social and cultural determinants of anticipated acceptance at low (USD 0.9), medium (USD 4.5) and high (USD 9) price. Models including somatic symptoms (low and high price), social impact (low and medium) and perceived causes (medium and high) explained anticipated OCV acceptance better than models containing only socio-demographic characteristics. Identifying thirst with cholera was positively associated with anticipated acceptance of the low-priced OCV, but acknowledging the value of home-based rehydration was negatively associated. Concern about spreading the infection to others was positively associated at low price among rural respondents. Confidence in the health system response to cholera outbreaks was negatively associated at medium price among peri-urban respondents. Identifying witchcraft as cause of cholera was negatively associated at medium and high price. Anticipated acceptance of free OCVs is nearly universal in cholera-endemic areas of Zanzibar; pre-intervention assessments of community demand for OCV should not only consider the social epidemiology, but also examine local socio-cultural features of cholera-like illness that explain vaccine acceptance.

  20. Effects of Find Thirty every day(R): cross-sectional findings from a Western Australian population-wide mass media campaign, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Justine E; Rosenberg, Michael; Bauman, Adrian E; Bull, Fiona C; Giles-Corti, Billie; Shilton, Trevor; Maitland, Clover; Barnes, Rosanne

    2013-08-01

    Internationally, over the last four decades large-scale mass media campaigns have been delivered to promote physical activity and its associated health benefits. In 2002-2005, the first Western Australian statewide adult physical activity campaign Find Thirty. It's Not a Big Exercise was launched. In 2007, a new iteration of the campaign was proposed with new objectives, executions, and tag line Find Thirty every day(®). This article reports on the population-level effects of the Find Thirty every day (®) campaign from 2008 to 2010, with a focus on changes in awareness, intention, and physical activity. Evaluation of the campaign involved pre- and posttest serial cross-sectional surveys. Baseline data were collected in May 2008, and subsequent surveys in 2009 and 2010. Samples sizes were as follows: baseline (n = 972), first follow-up (n = 938), and second follow-up (n = 937). Data were derived from self-reported responses to a random-sample computer-assisted telephone interview. Total awareness increased from 30.4% at baseline to 48.5% at second follow-up. Total awareness was higher in women and low socioeconomic status adults. Intention was 21.0%, double that reported at baseline. There were positive significant changes from baseline to first follow-up across all four categories: walking, moderate, vigorous, and total physical activity. There also were positive significant changes for self-reported walking from baseline to second follow-up. Find Thirty every day (®) resulted in an increase in awareness, intention, walking, vigorous intensity, and total level of physical activity in priority target groups. Campaign effects should be further examined by subgroups to identify the most receptive population segments.

  1. Annual Enrollment Report Number of Students Studying Journalism and Mass Communication at All-time High.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Lee B.; Vlad, Tudor; Huh, Jisu; Prine, Joelle

    2001-01-01

    Finds that journalism and mass communication programs appear to be entering another period of rapid enrollment growth, swept up by overall increases in enrollments at United States universities. Finds that only about four in ten of the journalism and mass communication programs report enrollments by race, suggesting many administrators are not…

  2. The State of Enrollment Management in Journalism and Mass Communication Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlins, Brad L.; Soenksen, Roger; Jensen, Matt

    Some programs in journalism and mass communication have been forced to incorporate limited enrollment strategies, as undergraduate interest in these programs continues to grow. After 4 years of moderate growth, undergraduate enrollments in journalism and mass communication programs increased dramatically in the year 2000. Some of the limited…

  3. Technology-Induced Stressors, Job Satisfaction and Workplace Exhaustion Among Journalism and Mass Communication Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beam, Randal A.; Kim, Eunseong; Voakes, Paul S.

    2003-01-01

    Contends that teaching journalism and mass communication has become a technology-intensive occupation. Reports on results of a national study of the use of technology in journalism and mass communication programs. Examines how technology-induced stress affects two aspects of work-life quality: job satisfaction and work-related exhaustion. (PM)

  4. The Acceptance of Critical-Cultural Scholarship in Mass Communication Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Les; Ryan, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Notes that critical-cultural studies have had little impact on journalism and mass communication education for a number of reasons. Surveys 100 journalism and mass communication programs. Examines how critical-cultural faculty interact with the university community. Finds that scholars, as a whole, were open to critical-cultural perspectives.…

  5. A Profile of Deans of Schools and Colleges of Journalism and Mass Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oneal, Dennis J.; Applegate, Edd

    2001-01-01

    Considers how many people hire persons whose backgrounds reflect their own training and experience. Looks at the backgrounds of those persons that hold the title of "dean" at ACEJMC(Accrediting Council on Education in Journalism and Mass Communications)-accredited colleges and schools of journalism and mass communication. Provides a solid baseline…

  6. Articles on Mass Communication in U.S. and Foreign Journals: A Selected Annotated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKerns, Joseph P.; Delahaye, Alfred N.

    1978-01-01

    Lists and annotates 212 journal articles on mass communication, grouped according to topic. Topics include audience and communicator analysis, broadcasting, communication theory, courts and law, criticism and defense of media, journalism education, government and media, history and biography, international topics, and public relations. (GW)

  7. Evaluating the effects of a youth health media campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Christopher E; Thorson, Esther

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the impact of a socially oriented public health media campaign that aims to influence social indicators among adults as a means to advances in youth health outcomes. Hierarchical regression analyses are conducted on telephone survey data from 18 weekly telephone surveys of adults in Kansas. Media campaign exposure was positively associated with two outcome measures: beliefs about youth development and behaviors toward youth development. In addition, these two outcome measures increased significantly over time, with the dissemination of the campaign's television and newspaper advertisements. Furthermore, these over-time increases were present only among respondents who were exposed to the media campaign. These findings offer support for the campaign's influence on the two social indicators, which would, per other research, be expected to influence improvements in youth health. Findings are discussed in reference to previous research in the areas of public health and mass communication, with implications made for practitioners and researchers.

  8. Freedom to be...in Communication: Part 4, Mass Media in Human Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sharon

    This booklet, a discovery/work text, asks learners to take a careful look at the ways they participate in communication situations, at the form their participation in communication takes, and at the personal and societal consequences of communication. Laboratory activities focus on techniques of communication and on strategies for dealing with…

  9. Linking an Integrative Behavior Model to Elements of Environmental Campaigns: An Analysis of Face-to-Face Communication and Posters against Littering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Hansmann

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Diverse elements of anti-littering campaigns may be effective at addressing different causes of littering. Therefore, a complementary approach combining various elements is needed to ensure the behavioral effectiveness of corresponding campaigns. The present study investigates personal, problem-centered face-to-face conversations compared to three different types of anti-littering posters (witty, authoritarian, environmentally oriented. In total, N = 147 persons participated in the questionnaire-based survey. Pictures of the three anti-littering posters were presented to all respondents, but only 82 of them additionally took part in problem-centered face-to-face conversations. Participants of the latter condition liked the conversations significantly more and judged them more effective for reducing littering than each of the three posters. Intentions for future behavior also improved more in the condition with face-to-face communications than in the reference condition in which only the anti-littering posters were presented. Regarding the posters, it was found that the witty and the environmentally-oriented poster were liked more and judged to be more effective by the respondents than the authoritarian poster. Findings are discussed in relation to the design of campaigns, which combine elements with reference to an integrative behavior model covering a broad range of factors, including processes of justifications, habit formation and reactance.

  10. The Role of the Internet in Political Communication and Encouraging Political Civic Engagement in Croatia: The 2007 Election Campaign on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domagoj Bebić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Undertaking a content analysis and analyzing the literature corresponding both to the role of the Internet in modern election campaigns (cyber campaigning, as well as that which assesses the crisis of public communication and the democratic potential of the Internet, this article explores: a how and to what extent did Croatian political parties utilize the marketing potential of the Internet during the 2007 parliamentary elections; and b how and to what extent did they use the Internet to encourage citizens(on or offline to participate in the political sphere. The results indicate that during the 2007 Croatian Parliamentary elections, political parties only partially utilized the potential advantages of Internet marketing. An analysis of the elements of interactivity revealed that campaigning parties generally did not use the Internet as a means to engage voters. The results in this study, however, confirm a number of trends found in other countries. The use of the Internet as an instrument to engage citizens online and increase political participation has not confirmed the optimistic predictions surrounding this issue.

  11. Controlled cohort evaluation of the LiveLighter mass media campaign's impact on adults' reported consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Belinda C; Niven, Philippa H; Dixon, Helen G; Swanson, Maurice G; McAleese, Alison B; Wakefield, Melanie A

    2018-04-25

    To evaluate the LiveLighter 'Sugary Drinks' campaign impact on awareness, knowledge and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Cohort study with population surveys undertaken in intervention and comparison states at baseline (n=900 each), with 78% retention at follow-up (intervention: n=673; comparison: n=730). Analyses tested interactions by state (intervention, comparison) and time (baseline, follow-up). Adults aged 25-49 years residing in the Australian states of Victoria and South Australia. The 6-week mass media campaign ran in Victoria in October/November 2015. It focused on the contribution of SSBs to the development of visceral 'toxic fat', graphically depicted around vital organs, and ultimately serious disease. Paid television advertising was complemented by radio, cinema, online and social media advertising, and stakeholder and community engagement. Self-reported consumption of SSBs, artificially sweetened drinks and water. Campaign recall and recognition; knowledge of the health effects of overweight and SSB consumption; perceived impact of SSB consumption on body weight and of reduced consumption on health. A significant reduction in frequent SSB consumption was observed in the intervention state (intervention: 31% compared with 22%, comparison: 30% compared with 29%; interaction pinteraction p=0.09) among overweight/obese SSB consumers. This group also showed increased knowledge of the health effects of SSB consumption (intervention: 60% compared with 71%, comparison: 63% compared with 59%; interaction pinteraction p=0.06). The findings provide evidence of reduced SSB consumption among adults in the target age range following the LiveLighter campaign. This is notable in a context where public health campaigns occur against a backdrop of heavy commercial product advertising promoting increased SSB consumption. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial

  12. New Directions in Mass Communications Research: Physiological Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, James E.

    Psychophysiological research into the effects of mass media, specifically the music of the masses, promises increased insight into the control the media exert on all their consumers. Attention and retention of mass media messages can be tested by measuring the receiver's electrodernal activity, pupil dilation, peripheral vasodilation, and heart…

  13. The Highway Safety Mass Media Youth Project: A Media Campaign Aimed at Drunk Driving and Seat Belt Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blosser, Betsy J.; And Others

    To address the issues of drunk driving and failure to use car restraints among teens and young adults, a 21-month-long media campaign has been developed especially for the 15- to 24-year-old audience to compare the effectiveness of paid advertisements and public service announcements. A formative research approach to message design will be used to…

  14. Physical and chemical processes of air masses in the Aegean Sea during Etesians: Aegean-GAME airborne campaign

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tombrou, M.; Bossioli, E.; Kalogiros, J.; Allan, J. D.; Bacak, A.; Biskos, J.G.; Coe, H.; Dandou, A.; Kouvarakis, G.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Percival, C. J.; Protonotariou, A. P.; Szabó-Takács, Beáta

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 506, feb (2015), s. 201-216 ISSN 0048-9697 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Aegean-GAME campaign * Air borne measurements * Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer * Turbulent fluxes * Gas and aerosol composition * Etesian winds Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.976, year: 2015

  15. Using Mobile Health (mHealth) and geospatial mapping technology in a mass campaign for reactive oral cholera vaccination in rural Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Jessica E; Thomson, Dana R; Lascher, Jonathan S; Raymond, Max; Ivers, Louise C

    2014-01-01

    In mass vaccination campaigns, large volumes of data must be managed efficiently and accurately. In a reactive oral cholera vaccination (OCV) campaign in rural Haiti during an ongoing epidemic, we used a mobile health (mHealth) system to manage data on 50,000 participants in two isolated communities. Data were collected using 7-inch tablets. Teams pre-registered and distributed vaccine cards with unique barcodes to vaccine-eligible residents during a census in February 2012. First stored on devices, data were uploaded nightly via Wi-fi to a web-hosted database. During the vaccination campaign between April and June 2012, residents presented their cards at vaccination posts and their barcodes were scanned. Vaccinee data from the census were pre-loaded on tablets to autopopulate the electronic form. Nightly analysis of the day's community coverage informed the following day's vaccination strategy. We generated case-finding reports allowing us to identify those who had not yet been vaccinated. During 40 days of vaccination, we collected approximately 1.9 million pieces of data. A total of 45,417 people received at least one OCV dose; of those, 90.8% were documented to have received 2 doses. Though mHealth required up-front financial investment and training, it reduced the need for paper registries and manual data entry, which would have been costly, time-consuming, and is known to increase error. Using Global Positioning System coordinates, we mapped vaccine posts, population size, and vaccine coverage to understand the reach of the campaign. The hardware and software were usable by high school-educated staff. The use of mHealth technology in an OCV campaign in rural Haiti allowed timely creation of an electronic registry with population-level census data, and a targeted vaccination strategy in a dispersed rural population receiving a two-dose vaccine regimen. The use of mHealth should be strongly considered in mass vaccination campaigns in future initiatives.

  16. The Effects of Source Credibility in the Presence or Absence of Prior Attitudes: Implications for the Design of Persuasive Communication Campaigns1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumkale, G. Tarcan; AlbarracÍn, Dolores; Seignourel, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Most theories of persuasion predict that limited ability and motivation to think about communications should increase the impact of source credibility on persuasion. Furthermore, this effect is assumed to occur, regardless of whether or not the recipients have prior attitudes. In this study, the effects of source credibility, ability, and motivation (knowledge, message repetition, relevance) on persuasion were examined meta-analytically across both attitude formation and change conditions. Findings revealed that the Source Credibility × Ability/Motivation interaction emerged only when participants lacked prior attitudes and were unable to form a new attitude based on the message content. In such settings, the effects of source credibility decayed rapidly. The implications of these findings for applied communication campaigns are discussed. PMID:21625405

  17. The Effects of Source Credibility in the Presence or Absence of Prior Attitudes: Implications for the Design of Persuasive Communication Campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumkale, G Tarcan; Albarracín, Dolores; Seignourel, Paul J

    2010-06-01

    Most theories of persuasion predict that limited ability and motivation to think about communications should increase the impact of source credibility on persuasion. Furthermore, this effect is assumed to occur, regardless of whether or not the recipients have prior attitudes. In this study, the effects of source credibility, ability, and motivation (knowledge, message repetition, relevance) on persuasion were examined meta-analytically across both attitude formation and change conditions. Findings revealed that the Source Credibility × Ability/Motivation interaction emerged only when participants lacked prior attitudes and were unable to form a new attitude based on the message content. In such settings, the effects of source credibility decayed rapidly. The implications of these findings for applied communication campaigns are discussed.

  18. Impact assessment of electronic mass communication in a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proliferation of computer networks and Internet access opened new communication channels such as blogs, websites, e-mail, social media and mobile apps. ... increased use of information technology-based solutions is recommended to ...

  19. Social Communication between Traditional and the New Mass-Media

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea-Maria Tîrziu; Cătălin I. Vrabie

    2014-01-01

    The means of communication, from the most simple and natural ones – such as gestures and voice, to the most complex and developed ones – such as the new electronic media, have constantly brought changes to the society, their own transformation being due to the social environment that generated them. Nowadays, the new media – being in a rapid development unprecedented in the past – is giving new insights of communication and learning to the younger generations which, unlike those f...

  20. Who do we reach? Campaign evaluation of Find Thirty every day® using awareness profiles in a Western Australian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Justine E; Rosenberg, Michael; Bull, Fiona C; Bauman, Adrian E

    2014-01-01

    Mass media campaigns are part of a comprehensive, population-based approach to communicate physical activity behavior change. Campaign awareness is the most frequently reported, short-term comparable measure of campaign effectiveness. Most mass media campaigns report those who were aware with those who are unaware of campaigns. Few campaigns follow awareness in the same respondent, over time, during a mass media campaign to track different patterns of awareness or awareness profiles--"never," "early," "late," or "always"--that may emerge. Using awareness profiles, the authors (a) address any demographic differences between groups and (b) assess changes in physical activity. Find Thirty every day® was a populationwide mass media campaign delivered in Western Australia. The cohort comprised 405 participants, who completed periodic telephone interviews over 2 years. Almost one third (30.4%) were "never aware" of the campaign. More than one third recalled the campaign at one or more time points--"early aware." Ten percent became aware at Time 2 and stayed aware of the campaign across the remaining time. Examining within and across the awareness profiles, only gender was significant. This article provides an approach to profiling awareness, whereby people cycle in and out and few people are "always aware" over a 2-year period. It presents possible implications and considerations for future campaign planners interested in establishing and maintaining campaign awareness with adult populations.

  1. Articles on Mass Communication in U.S. and Foreign Journals: A Selected Annotated Bibliography--April, May, June 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKerns, Joseph P.; Delahaye, Alfred N.

    1979-01-01

    Lists and annotates 200 articles on mass communication, grouped according to topic. Topics include advertising, audience and communicator analysis, broadcasting, courts and law, education for journalism, government and media, international, management, public relations, and visual communication. (GT)

  2. Can mass education and a television campaign change the attitudes towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a rural community?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Møller; Isbye, Dan Lou; Lippert, Freddy Knudsen

    2013-01-01

    Survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is improved when bystanders provide Basic Life Support (BLS). However, bystander BLS does not occur frequently. The aim of this study was to assess the effects on attitudes regarding different aspects of resuscitation of a one-year targeted media...... campaign and widespread education in a rural Danish community. Specifically, we investigated if the proportion willing to provide BLS and deploy an automated external defibrillator (AED) increased....

  3. Social Communication between Traditional and the New Mass-Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea-Maria Tîrziu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The means of communication, from the most simple and natural ones – such as gestures and voice, to the most complex and developed ones – such as the new electronic media, have constantly brought changes to the society, their own transformation being due to the social environment that generated them. Nowadays, the new media – being in a rapid development unprecedented in the past – is giving new insights of communication and learning to the younger generations which, unlike those formed by elder people, manage to quickly assimilate the changes that occur. The purpose of this article is to provide a framework for public institutions for a better interaction with citizens. It shows the literature that focuses on social media statistics. At the end of our study, it is necessary to refer again to the needs of the organizations in which social communication has its origins, to exit the logic of politics and the media and to completely redefine the relationship between them and the social communication itself. We have treated the terms of the relationship between media and social communication, but it is the case to reiterate the importance of this point. In this context, we have identified the social nature still in embryo of a new relationship between media and educational sector; the more fragile the more difficult it is to overcome the stereotype of the “recreational” media.

  4. Effect of cigarette tax increase in combination with mass media campaign on smoking behavior in Mauritius: Findings from the ITC Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday; Burhoo, Premduth; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2015-01-01

    Background Mauritius has made great strides in adopting evidence-based tobacco control measures, including an increase in its cigarette excise tax and anti-tobacco mass media (Sponge) campaign. The primary objective of this study is to examine the combined effect of these measures on smoking behavior. Methods This study used longitudinal data from the International Tobacco Control Mauritius Survey, 2009–2011. Waves 1 and 2 were conducted before the tax increase and wave 3 was conducted shortly after the Sponge campaign and six months after the cigarette excise tax increase. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the effects of these two key tobacco control measures on smoking prevalence and the quantity of cigarettes smoked. Results The results showed that the combination of cigarette tax increase and the Sponge campaign had a significant negative effect on the prevalence of smoking in Mauritius and the number of cigarettes smoked among continuing smokers. Specifically, the measures significantly reduced the odds of being a smoker (AOR 0.88, 95% CI 0.81–0.97). For average daily cigarettes smoked, the measures had a significant reduction in cigarettes per day by about 6% (Incidence-rate ratios 0.94, 95% CI 0.89–0.99). Conclusions The combination of policy measures significantly reduced the consumption of cigarettes in Mauritius. While these results are encouraging, these efforts must be part of a sustained effort to further reduce the smoking prevalence in Mauritius. PMID:25701857

  5. Annual Enrollment Report: Growth in Number of Students Studying Journalism and Mass Communication Slows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Lee B.; Vlad, Tudor; Huh, Jisu; Daniels, George L.

    2002-01-01

    Provides the key findings of the 2001 Annual Survey of Journalism and Mass Communication Enrollments. Shows that undergraduate enrollments continued to grow while graduate enrollments declined. Discusses degrees granted and race, ethnicity, and gender factors. (PM)

  6. Media and interpersonal persuasions in the polio eradication campaign in northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozohu-Suleiman, Yakubu

    2010-09-01

    This study is premised on the increasing global concerns over the widespread resistance to polio eradication campaign in northern Nigeria. It aims to determine the level of campaign acceptance and compare the influences of mass media and interpersonal communication sources in Zaria local government area, being one of the high-risk (WPV-endemic) areas in northern Nigeria, where campaign resistance is known to be high. By way of quantitative survey, the study utilized 10% sample of the populations of eight out of the thirteen Wards in Zaria local government area, with a response rate of 78.6%. Findings reveal close ranks between campaign acceptance and resistance in the local government area, thus further confirming the difficulties still faced in polio eradication campaign in the region. This study also indicates higher performance of Interpersonal than Mass Media sources in influencing campaign acceptance and resistance in the local communities. Contact with friends and relations was rated the most influential interpersonal sources in the acceptance and resistance decision of individuals, while newspapers and magazines were rated most influential media sources that influenced campaign resistance in the local communities. The study concludes that a polio eradication campaign, backed with competent and sufficient communication expertise that utilizes knowledge-based indigenous interpersonal communication strategies will likely result in greater community acceptance in northern Nigeria.

  7. A Large Cross-Sectional Survey Investigating the Knowledge of Cervical Cancer Risk Aetiology and the Predictors of the Adherence to Cervical Cancer Screening Related to Mass Media Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado De Vito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aims of this study were to compare the characteristics of women who got a Pap-test during the mass media campaign, carried out in an Italian region by broadcasts advertising, and two years later and to identify the determinants of knowledge of cervical cancer etiology and of the adherence to the mass media campaign. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was carried out through a self-administered questionnaire. Results. A total of 8570 randomly selected women were surveyed, 823 of these had a Pap-test during the mass media campaign period and 7747 two years later. Higher educational level, being not married, and living in urban areas were the main independent characteristics associated with a higher level of knowledge of cervical cancer etiology, although a previous treatment following a Pap smear abnormality was the strongest predictor (OR = 2.88; 95% CI: 2.43–3.41. During the campaign period women had the Pap-test more frequently as a consequence of the mass media campaign (OR = 8.28; 95% CI; 5.51–12.45. Conclusions. Mass media campaign is a useful tool to foster cervical screening compliance; however, its short-term effect suggests repeating it regularly.

  8. Perceptions and attitudes of students of mass communication toward mental illness in Nigerian Tertiary Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Lateef Olutoyin Oluwole; Adetunji Obadeji; Mobolaji Usman Dada

    2016-01-01

    Background: The power of the modern mass media is not limited to its ability to communicate information and entertain but derives primarily from its ability to define situations, thereby enabling it to construct social reality. Stigma is related to negative stereotyping and prejudicial attitudes that in turn lead to discriminatory practices. Aims: The study sought to know the perceptions of and attitudes of mass communication students towards mental illness and the mentally ill. Settings and ...

  9. Imagining and Feeling: Experiential Learning in Mass Communication Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcells, Frank E.

    Defining the media experience as the media and social interaction involved in any person's viewing of television and the consequences of that viewing for oneself and others, this paper examines how phenomenology and psychodrama--methods of experiential learning focusing on the feeling and imagining functions of communication--can be used to teach…

  10. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (81st, Baltimore, Maryland, August 5-8, 1998). Mass Communication and Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Mass Communication and Society section of the Proceedings contains the following 19 papers: "Talk Radio as Forum and Companion: Listener Attitudes and Uses and Gratifications in Austin, Texas" (John Beatty); "'Willingness to Censor': Developing a Quantitative Measurement across Speech Categories and Types of Media"…

  11. Journalism and Mass Communication Textbook Representations of Verbal Media Skills: Implications for Students with Speech Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Elia M.; Haller, Beth

    2017-01-01

    This study examines representation of disabilities by conducting a qualitative content analysis of how 41 journalism/mass communication textbooks frame the ideal standards of verbal communication for media professionals. Textbooks are integral to students' understanding of professional norms and may influence career decisions. Results show that…

  12. Best Practices for Suicide Prevention Messaging and Evaluating California's "Know the Signs" Media Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Joie; Ramchand, Rajeev; Becker, Amariah

    2017-09-01

    Although communication is a key component of US strategies to prevent suicide and there are a number of marketing campaigns promoting messages that suicide is a preventable public health problem, there has been little evaluation of these campaigns. The study describes the development of a checklist of best practices for suicide prevention communication campaigns and the use of the checklist to evaluate California's investment in "Know the Signs" (KTS-M), a suicide prevention mass media campaign. We conducted a literature review and solicited expert feedback to identify best practices and then used the RAND/UCLA appropriateness method to assess whether KTS-M was consistent with the identified best practices. Overall, experts agreed that KTS-M adhered to most of the 46 checklist items and suggested that the campaign was among the best suicide prevention media campaigns they had observed. The checklist was developed through expert input and literature review and focuses only on media campaigns. Given the nascent state of the evidence about what makes an effective suicide prevention message and the growing number of campaigns, the checklist of best practices reflects one way of promoting quality in this evolving field. The consistency between the experts' comments and their ratings of KTS-M suggests that the checklist may provide important guidance to inform the development of future campaigns and the evaluation of ongoing campaigns.

  13. Mass Communication and Journalism Faculty's Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Email Communication with College Students: A Nationwide Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Bradford L.; Adams, Jennifer Wood; Brunner, Brigitta R.

    2009-01-01

    Nearly 700 US journalism and mass communication faculty (all teaching personnel) reported their perceptions of student email use via a web-based survey. This nationwide study focused on the content of email sent by faculty to students, email's effectiveness, and email's effect on student learning. Comparisons were made based on faculty gender,…

  14. Feasibility of using global system for mobile communication (GSM)-based tracking for vaccinators to improve oral poliomyelitis vaccine campaign coverage in rural Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandir, Subhash; Dharma, Vijay Kumar; Siddiqi, Danya Arif; Khan, Aamir Javed

    2017-09-05

    Despite multiple rounds of immunization campaigns, it has not been possible to achieve optimum immunization coverage for poliovirus in Pakistan. Supplementary activities to improve coverage of immunization, such as door-to-door campaigns are constrained by several factors including inaccurate hand-drawn maps and a lack of means to objectively monitor field teams in real time, resulting in suboptimal vaccine coverage during campaigns. Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) - based tracking of mobile subscriber identity modules (SIMs) of vaccinators provides a low-cost solution to identify missed areas and ensure effective immunization coverage. We conducted a pilot study to investigate the feasibility of using GSM technology to track vaccinators through observing indicators including acceptability, ease of implementation, costs and scalability as well as the likelihood of ownership by District Health Officials. The real-time location of the field teams was displayed on a GSM tracking web dashboard accessible by supervisors and managers for effective monitoring of workforce attendance including 'time in-time out', and discerning if all target areas - specifically remote and high-risk locations - had been reached. Direct access to this information by supervisors eliminated the possibility of data fudging and inaccurate reporting by workers regarding their mobility. The tracking cost per vaccinator was USD 0.26/month. Our study shows that GSM-based tracking is potentially a cost-efficient approach, results in better monitoring and accountability, is scalable and provides the potential for improved geographic coverage of health services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pregnancy Outcomes after a Mass Vaccination Campaign with an Oral Cholera Vaccine in Guinea: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Grout

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010, WHO has recommended oral cholera vaccines as an additional strategy for cholera control. During a cholera episode, pregnant women are at high risk of complications, and the risk of fetal death has been reported to be 2-36%. Due to a lack of safety data, pregnant women have been excluded from most cholera vaccination campaigns. In 2012, reactive campaigns using the bivalent killed whole-cell oral cholera vaccine (BivWC, included all people living in the targeted areas aged ≥ 1 year regardless of pregnancy status, were implemented in Guinea. We aimed to determine whether there was a difference in pregnancy outcomes between vaccinated and non-vaccinated pregnant women.From 11 November to 4 December 2013, we conducted a retrospective cohort study in Boffa prefecture among women who were pregnant in 2012 during or after the vaccination campaign. The primary outcome was pregnancy loss, as reported by the mother, and fetal malformations, after clinical examination. Primary exposure was the intake of the BivWC vaccine (Shanchol during pregnancy, as determined by a vaccination card or oral history. We compared the risk of pregnancy loss between vaccinated and non-vaccinated women through binomial regression analysis. A total of 2,494 pregnancies were included in the analysis. The crude incidence of pregnancy loss was 3.7% (95%CI 2.7-4.8 for fetuses exposed to BivWC vaccine and 2.6% (0.7-4.5 for non-exposed fetuses. The incidence of malformation was 0.6% (0.1-1.0 and 1.2% (0.0-2.5 in BivWC-exposed and non-exposed fetuses, respectively. In both crude and adjusted analyses, fetal exposure to BivWC was not significantly associated with pregnancy loss (adjusted risk ratio (aRR = 1.09 [95%CI: 0.5-2.25], p = 0.818 or malformations (aRR = 0.50 [95%CI: 0.13-1.91], p = 0.314.In this large retrospective cohort study, we found no association between fetal exposure to BivWC and risk of pregnancy loss or malformation. Despite the weaknesses of a

  16. Evaluating MyPlate: an expanded framework using traditional and nontraditional metrics for assessing health communication campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Elyse; Abbatangelo-Gray, Jodie; Mobley, Amy R; McLaughlin, Grant R; Herzog, Jill

    2012-01-01

    MyPlate, the icon and multimodal communication plan developed for the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA), provides an opportunity to consider new approaches to evaluating the effectiveness of communication initiatives. A review of indicators used in assessments for previous DGA communication initiatives finds gaps in accounting for important intermediate and long-term outcomes. This evaluation framework for the MyPlate Communications Initiative builds on well-known and underused models and theories to propose a wide breadth of observations, outputs, and outcomes that can contribute to a fuller assessment of effectiveness. Two areas are suggested to focus evaluation efforts in order to advance understanding of the effectiveness of the MyPlate Communications Initiative: understanding the extent to which messages and products from the initiative are associated with positive changes in social norms toward the desired behaviors, and strategies to increase the effectiveness of communications about DGA in vulnerable populations. Copyright © 2012 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of a mass radio campaign on family behaviours and child survival in Burkina Faso: a repeated cross-sectional, cluster-randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Sarrassat, PhD

    2018-03-01

    cluster was 34 in the control group and 29 in the intervention group. 2269 (82% of 2784 women in the intervention group reported recognising the campaign's radio spots at endline. Post-neonatal under-5 child mortality decreased from 93·3 to 58·5 per 1000 livebirths in the control group and from 125·1 to 85·1 per 1000 livebirths in the intervention group. There was no evidence of an intervention effect (risk ratio 1·00, 95% CI 0·82–1·22; p>0·999. In the first year of the intervention, under-5 consultations increased from 68 681 to 83 022 in the control group and from 79 852 to 111 758 in the intervention group. The intervention effect using interrupted time-series analysis was 35% (95% CI 20–51; p<0·0001. New antenatal care attendances decreased from 13 129 to 12 997 in the control group and increased from 19 658 to 20 202 in the intervention group in the first year (intervention effect 6%, 95% CI 2–10; p=0·004. Deliveries in health facilities decreased from 10 598 to 10 533 in the control group and increased from 12 155 to 12 902 in the intervention group in the first year (intervention effect 7%, 95% CI 2–11; p=0·004. Interpretation: A comprehensive radio campaign had no detectable effect on child mortality. Substantial decreases in child mortality were observed in both groups over the intervention period, reducing our ability to detect an effect. This, nevertheless, represents the first randomised controlled trial to show that mass media alone can change health-seeking behaviours. Funding: Wellcome Trust and Planet Wheeler Foundation.

  18. COMMUNICATION SATELLITES FOR EDUCATION, SCIENCE AND CULTURE. REPORTS AND PAPERS ON MASS COMMUNICATION, NO. 53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCHRAMM, WILBUR

    THE TECHNOLOGY OF COMMUNICATION SATELLITES IS SUFFICIENTLY ADVANCED THAT CONCERNED AGENCIES, SUCH AS UNESCO, SHOULD BEGIN TO PLAN FOR THEIR USE IN EXCHANGE OF DATA, NEWS TRANSMISSION, CULTURAL EXCHANGE, AND EDUCATION. GROUNDWORK IN TECHNOLOGY, IN THE DESIGN OF A SATELLITE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM, IN VALUE JUDGMENTS, IN AGREEMENTS OF COOPERATION AND…

  19. Consumption of Mass Communication--Construction of a Model on Information Consumption Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepstrup, Preben

    A general conceptual model on the consumption of information is introduced. Information as the output of the mass media is treated as a product, and a model on the consumption of this product is developed by merging elements from consumer behavior theory and mass communication theory. Chapter I gives basic assumptions about the individual and the…

  20. Short Communication A near mass stranding of cetaceans in St ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A group of 70 false killer whales Pseudorca crassidens and 124 bottlenose dolphins Tursiops sp., and a separate group of 13 Risso's dolphins Grampus griseus, assembled close inshore off a known mass-stranding site in St Helena Bay, South Africa, in October 2003. However, only a single Risso's dolphin attempted to ...

  1. [Dehiberations over the semantics of mass communication media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martines, R

    1975-09-12

    The radio, cinema and T.V. have developed their own idiolects and aesthetic standards. These in turn have influenced social relationships and education. Their effect is the reduction of society to a common mass, in which no attentuon is paid to individual motive forces.

  2. Mass Communications in the Third World: Some Ethical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, John A.

    In the past five years, unprecedented discussion and analysis have been focused on mass media in the third world. Common topics include development journalism, the New Information Order, cultural invasion and exchange, and ruralization of media. Ethical considerations for first world involvement in third world media have arisen in several areas.…

  3. Social and structural vulnerability as a barrier in HIV and/or AIDS communication campaigns: Perceptions of undergraduate students at a South African tertiary institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Kunguma

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The multicultural nature of a higher academic institution comprising students from different backgrounds can either negatively or positively influence student behaviour. Students might engage in high-risk practices, which in turn can make them vulnerable to HIV infection. Higher academic institutions are then tasked with finding strategies that can help to reduce this risk and vulnerability to HIV and/or AIDS. However, there are many issues and barriers, both from the institution and students, which can impede the success of any communication strategy. The University of the Free State’s main campus was selected for this study. A sample of 402 students from a total of 17 591 undergraduate students participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was randomly distributed to the undergraduate students. The sample was compiled across all faculties, as well as on campus and off campus. A transact walk on campus with an observation checklist was also used for triangulation purposes. The observation checklist helped to collect data on the visibility of male and female condoms in toilet facilities, and HIV and/or AIDS information on noticeboards, bins, stationery, billboards, etc. The main finding indicated that students were not knowledgeable about HIV and/or AIDS campaigns rolled out on campus. To support this, the observational transact walk results indicated that there were no visible campaigns on campus. Also, problems with existing communication and organisational barriers were found not only with the students but also with the implementation office. This study recommends that the university needs to engage with the students by identifying the root cause of their vulnerability. The university should explore and make use of all the available resources for a successful intervention, thereby building students’ resilience in preventing HIV infection.

  4. Oral cholera vaccine coverage in hard-to-reach fishermen communities after two mass Campaigns, Malawi, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvageot, Delphine; Saussier, Christel; Gobeze, Abebe; Chipeta, Sikhona; Mhango, Innocent; Kawalazira, Gift; Mengel, Martin A; Legros, Dominique; Cavailler, Philippe; M'bang'ombe, Maurice

    2017-09-12

    From December 2015 to August 2016, a large epidemic of cholera affected the fishermen of Lake Chilwa in Malawi. A first reactive Oral Cholera Vaccines (OCV) campaign was organized, in February, in a 2km radius of the lake followed by a preemptive one, conducted in November, in a 25km radius. We present the vaccine coverage reached in hard-to-reach population using simplified delivery strategies. We conducted two-stage random-sampling cross-sectional surveys among individuals living in a 2km and 25km radius of Lake Chilwa (islands and floating homes included). Individuals aged 12months and older from Machinga and Zomba districts were sampled: 43 clusters of 14 households were surveyed. Simplified strategies were used for those living in islands and floating homes: self- delivery and community-supervised delivery of the second dose. Vaccine coverage (VC) for at-least-two-doses was estimated taking into account sampling weights and design effects. A total of 1176 households were surveyed (2.7% of non-response). Among the 2833 individuals living in the 2km radius of Lake and the 2915 in the 25km radius: 457 (16.1%) and 239 (8.2%) lived in floating homes or on islands at some point in the year, respectively. For the overall population, VC was 75.6% and 54.2%, respectively. In the 2km radius, VC was 92.2% for those living on the lake at some point of the year: 271 (64.8%) used the simplified strategies. The main reasons for non-vaccination were absence during the campaign and vaccine shortage. Few adverse events occurring in the 24h following vaccination was reported. We reached a high two-dose coverage of the most at-risk population using simplified delivery strategies. Because of the high fishermen mobility, regular catch-up campaigns or another strategy specifically targeting fishermen need to be assessed for more efficient vaccines use. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Increasing evidence for the efficacy of tobacco control mass media communication programming in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Sandra; Prasad, Vinayak; Kaur, Jagdish; Turk, Tahir

    2011-08-01

    Antitobacco mass media campaigns have had good success at changing knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors with respect to smoking in high-income countries provided they are sustained. Mass media campaigns should be a critical component of tobacco control programs in low- and lower-middle-income countries. Mounting evidence shows that graphic campaigns and those that evoke negative emotions run over long periods of time have achieved the most influence. These types of campaigns are now being implemented in low- and middle-income countries. The authors provide 3 case studies of first-ever graphic warning mass media campaigns in China, India, and Russia, 3 priority high-burden countries in the global Bloomberg Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Use. In each of these countries, message testing of core messages provided confidence in messages, and evaluations demonstrated message uptake. The authors argue that given the initial success of these campaigns, governments in low- and middle-income countries should consider resourcing and sustaining these interventions as key components of their tobacco control strategies and programs.

  6. Campaigns Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kasper Møller; Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2014-01-01

    and the external efficacy increase over the course of the campaign, with gains found across different demographic groups, particularly narrowing the gaps in internal efficacy. The news media play a crucial role, as increased knowledge and efficacy are partly driven by media use, although tabloids actually decrease...... external efficacy. The findings suggest that positive campaign effects are universal across various media and party systems.......Election campaigns are more than simple competitions for votes; they also represent an opportunity for voters to become politically knowledgeable and engaged. Using a large-scale web panel (n≈5,000), we track the development of political knowledge, internal efficacy and external efficacy among...

  7. Overview topic paper on mass media energy conservation communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vertinsky, P; Vertinsky, I

    1979-02-01

    The utilization of information diffusion strategies to increase energy conservation knowledge and practices among the general population in Canada is discussed in terms of 5 media functions: information dissemination, remedial behavior modification, lifestyle decisions, initiating conservation action, and crisis management. Each of these functions is critically addressed in terms of media mix, message content and form, timing and intensity, exposure, and specific target populations. The diffusion strategies are then organized into a matrix of policy options to enable the appropriate one to be selected. Four major categories of energy conservation information considered are the nature of the energy problem, methods of conservation, results of conservation, and the individual consumer decision-making process. Heavy television exposure suggests this medium has enormous potential for informing Canadians on conservation issues. Print seems to be the main source of detailed, specialized, and sophisticated kinds of information. However, despite wide media availability, large numbers of the population consistently escape contact with widely reported information. Behavioral modification to change undesirable energy habits is examined from the perspectives of initial change and cultural/social change required to sustain new lifestyles. The use of mass media during crisis situations may be of essential importance for implementation of future energy policies. Information dissemination and responses to the mass media do not appear to have the same patterns during crisis and non-crisis situations. 279 refs.

  8. The impact of TV mass media campaigns on calls to a National Quitline and the use of prescribed nicotine replacement therapy: a structural vector autoregression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghpanahan, Houra; Mackay, Daniel F; Pell, Jill P; Bell, David; Langley, Tessa; Haw, Sally

    2017-07-01

    To estimate (1) the immediate impact; (2) the cumulative impact; and (3) the duration of impact of Scottish tobacco control TV mass media campaigns (MMCs) on smoking cessation activity, as measured by calls to Smokeline and the volume of prescribed nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Multivariate time-series analysis using secondary data on population level measures of exposure to TV MMCs broadcast and smoking cessation activity between 2003 and 2012. Population of Scotland. Adult television viewer ratings (TVRs) as a measure of exposure to Scottish mass media campaigns in the adult population; monthly calls to NHS Smokeline; and the monthly volume of prescribed NRT as measured by gross ingredient costs (GIC). Tobacco control TVRs were associated with an increase in calls to Smokeline but not an increase in the volume of prescribed NRT. A 1 standard deviation (SD) increase of 194 tobacco control TVRs led to an immediate and significant increase of 385.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 171.0, 600.7] calls to Smokeline (unadjusted model) within 1 month. When adjusted for seasonality the impact was reduced, but the increase in calls remained significant (226.3 calls, 95% CI = 37.3, 415.3). The cumulative impact on Smokeline calls remained significant for 6 months after broadcast in the unadjusted model and 18 months in the adjusted model. However, an increase in tobacco control TVRs of 194 failed to have a significant impact on the GIC of prescribed NRT in either the unadjusted (£1361.4, 95% CI = -£9138.0, £11860.9) or adjusted (£6297.1, 95% CI = -£2587.8, £15182.1) models. Tobacco control television mass media campaigns broadcast in Scotland between 2003 and 2012 were effective in triggering calls to Smokeline, but did not increase significantly the use of prescribed nicotine replacement therapy by adult smokers. The impact on calls to Smokeline occurred immediately within 1 month of broadcast and was sustained for at least 6 months. © 2017 The

  9. Lay people's interpretation of ethical values related to mass vaccination; the case of A(H1N1) vaccination campaign in the province of Quebec (French Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, Raymond; Désy, Michel

    2014-12-01

    Pandemic influenza ethics frameworks are based on respect of values and principles such as regard for autonomy, responsibility, transparency, solidarity and social justice. However, very few studies have addressed the way in which the general population views these moral norms. (i) To analyse the receptiveness of the population of French-speaking Quebecers to certain ethical principles promoted by public health authorities during the AH1N1 vaccination campaign. (ii) To add to the limited number of empirical studies that examine the population's perception of ethical values. Eight months after the end of the AH1N1 vaccination campaign in the Province of Quebec (Canada), 100 French-speaking Quebecers were assembled in ten focus groups. Discussions focussed on the level of respect shown by public health authorities for individual autonomy, the limits of appeals for solidarity, the balance between vaccination efficiency and social justice towards non-prioritized subpopulations, vaccination as a demonstration of civic duty and social responsibility. The population acknowledged a high level of individual responsibility towards family members and agreed to vaccination to protect children and ageing parents. However, the concepts of civic duty and solidarity did not elucidate unanimous support, despite the fact that social justice stood out as a dominant value of public morals. The ethical principles promoted in influenza pandemic ethics frameworks are subject to reinterpretation by the population. An ethic of public health must consider their understanding of the fundamental values that legitimize mass vaccination. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Frequency of lymphocytic meningitis associated with mumps before and after a mass campaign for mumps vaccination in children from Salvador, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento-Carvalho Cristiana M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency of lymphocytic meningitis(LM concomitant with mumps, before and after the mumps mass immunization campaign in 1997. METHOD: Demographic, clinical and cerebrospinal fluid(CSF information was collected from the chart of all patients aged from 2 to 59 months, whose CSF exam was performed at the CSF Lab/FJS, between 1989 and 2001. LM was defined as pleocytosis composed by lymphomononuclear cells and negative exams for bacterial or mycologic infection. RESULTS: Of 1,519 patients, 894(58.9% had normal exams. LM was present in 301(19.8% patients, out of which 22(7.3% had concomitant mumps. The frequency of LM ranged from 15.8% in 1989 to 19.7% in 2001 and of LM with concomitant Mumps ranged from 10.5% in 1989 to 4.7% in 1995, when the last cases were registered. CONCLUSION: It is probable that the mumps vaccine campaign has influenced the absence of LM with concomitant Mumps, from 1996 to 2001.

  11. INTEGRATED ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Claudia NEAMŢU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Campaign and especially advertising campaign represents one of the variables of the marketing mix, an important one, being difficult to separate its contribution from the one of the other elements. Irrespective of the specific object that is behind an advertising company, the investment will be retrieved only if the right information is transmitted to the right persons in the right way. This is difficult to accomplish if the advertising responsible in that firm do not understand appropriately: the market nature; the product nature; the distribution channels nature; the communication channels nature – available advertising supports and their features

  12. Report of mass communication Ceylon: October 1969-December 31, 1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    Experience with media usage by the FPA (Family Planning Association of Ceylon between October 1969 and December 1970 is summarized. During this time, the Association purchased 100-200 column inches each of contract advertising space in 26 newspapers. The press has published 268 press release, I.P.P.F., U.N., features and international press clipping in addition to specialized medical articles on family planning methods and 8 articles by FPA office-bearers. In January 1970; the Association launched local radio's first 5-minute daily commercial in Sinhala and Tamil. The program was repeated from April to July 1970. A series of 5 slides on family planning has been shown in movie theathers and more sets are being prepared for viewing. Posters have been used on buses and are currently on display on the National Railways project. Folders, leaflect, and poster calendars have been produced and used. Family Planning stickers have put up in 700 barber saloons. The FPA had stalls in the 1970 3-day National Exhibition at Batticaloa, the 4-day U.N. Poster Exhibition at Badulla, and the 2-week Ceylon Medical College Centenary Exhibition in Colombo. The Information Unit of FPA has answered 18, 541 written inquiries. A family planning communication us regularly dispatched to members of the Cabinet, government and opposition members of parliament, senators, chairmen of local bodies, and key trade union officials.

  13. Sustaining Public Communication of Geoscience in the Mass Media Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    Most public communication about geoscience is either performed as a derivative of a research program or as part of one-off funded outreach activities. Few efforts are structured to both educate the public about geoscience while also attempting to establish a sustainable funding model. EARTH Magazine, a non-profit publications produced by the American Geosciences Institute, is a monthly geoscience news and information magazine geared towards the public. Originally a profession-oriented publication, titled Geotimes, the publication shifted towards public engagement in the 1990s, completing that focus in 1998. Though part of a non-profit institute, EARTH is not a recipient of grants or contributions to offset its costs and thus must strive to "break even" to sustain its operations and further its mission. How "break even" is measured in a mission-based enterprise incorporates a number of factors, including financial, but also community impact and offsets to other investments. A number of strategies and their successes and failures, both editorially in its focus on audience in scope, tone, and design, and from an operational perspective in the rapidly changing world of magazines, will be outlined. EARTH is now focused on exploring alternative distribution channels, new business models, and disaggregation as means towards broader exposure of geoscience to the widest audience possible.

  14. Parent and child interactions with two contrasting anti-obesity advertising campaigns: a qualitative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Samantha L; Olds, Timothy; Pettigrew, Simone; Yeatman, Heather; Hyde, Jim; Dragovic, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Background Social marketing has been proposed as a framework that may be effectively used to encourage behaviour change relating to obesity. Social advertising (or mass media campaigning) is the most commonly used social marketing strategy to address the issue of obesity. While social advertising has the potential to effectively communicate information about obesity, some argue that the current framing and delivery of these campaigns are ineffective, and may cause more harm than good. Methods...

  15. Tweets Win Votes: A Persuasive Communication Perspective on Donald Trump’s Twitter Use During the 2016 US Presidential Election Campaign

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Twitter, a microblogging platform, has been increasingly used as a tool for political election campaigns. In an attempt to persuade people to vote for them, candidates and political parties worldwide have begun to incorporate Twitter in their campaigns to disseminate campaign information, promote themselves, and mobilize voters. In the 2016 U.S presidential election, Donald Trump had actively utilized Twitter to promote his campaign and convince voters to support him, which helped him earn a ...

  16. SPACE COMMUNICATION AND THE MASS MEDIA. A UNESCO REPORT ON THE OCCASION OF THE 1963 SPACE COMMUNICATIONS CONFERENCE. REPORTS AND PAPERS ON MASS COMMUNICATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    THIS REPORT DEFINES AND ANALYZES POTENTIAL ASPECTS OF WORLDWIDE COMMUNICATION BY SATELLITE, LISTS TECHNICAL PROBLEMS, AND SUGGESTS USES OF SPACE COMMUNICATION TO PROMOTE EDUCATION, CULTURAL EXCHANGE, AND INFORMATION FLOW. IT IS AVAILABLE FOR $0.50 FROM NATIONAL DISTRIBUTORS OF UNESCO PUBLICATIONS, OR FROM UNESCO, PLACE DE FONTENDOY, PARIS-7E,…

  17. Molecular Communication over Gas Stream Channels using Portable Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoukos, Stamatios; Marshall, Alan; Taylor, Stephen; Smith, Jeremy

    2017-11-01

    The synthetic generation/coding and transmission of olfactory information over a gas stream or an odor network is a new and unexplored field. Application areas vary from the entertainment or advertisement industry to security and telemedicine. However, current technological limitations frustrate the accurate reproduction of decoded and transmitted olfactory data. This study describes the development, testing, and characterization of a novel odor emitter (OE) that is used to investigate the generation-encoding of gaseous standards with odorous characteristics with a regulatable way, for scent transmission purposes. The calibration and the responses of a developed OE were examined using a portable quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS). Experiments were undertaken for a range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at different temperatures and flow rates. Individual compounds and mixtures were tested to investigate periodic and dynamic transmission characteristics within two different size tubular containers for distances up to 3 m. Olfactory information transmission is demonstrated using MS as the main molecular sensor for odor detection and monitoring and for the first time spatial encryption of olfactory information is shown. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  18. Molecular Communication over Gas Stream Channels using Portable Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoukos, Stamatios; Marshall, Alan; Taylor, Stephen; Smith, Jeremy

    2017-07-01

    The synthetic generation/coding and transmission of olfactory information over a gas stream or an odor network is a new and unexplored field. Application areas vary from the entertainment or advertisement industry to security and telemedicine. However, current technological limitations frustrate the accurate reproduction of decoded and transmitted olfactory data. This study describes the development, testing, and characterization of a novel odor emitter (OE) that is used to investigate the generation-encoding of gaseous standards with odorous characteristics with a regulatable way, for scent transmission purposes. The calibration and the responses of a developed OE were examined using a portable quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS). Experiments were undertaken for a range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at different temperatures and flow rates. Individual compounds and mixtures were tested to investigate periodic and dynamic transmission characteristics within two different size tubular containers for distances up to 3 m. Olfactory information transmission is demonstrated using MS as the main molecular sensor for odor detection and monitoring and for the first time spatial encryption of olfactory information is shown.

  19. Impact of mass distribution of free long-lasting insecticidal nets on childhood malaria morbidity: The Togo National Integrated Child Health Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sodahlon Yao K

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An evaluation of the short-term impact on childhood malaria morbidity of mass distribution of free long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs to households with children aged 9-59 months as part of the Togo National Integrated Child Health Campaign. Methods The prevalence of anaemia and malaria in children aged zero to 59 months was measured during two cross-sectional household cluster-sample surveys conducted during the peak malaria transmission, three months before (Sept 2004, n = 2521 and nine months after the campaign (Sept 2005, n = 2813 in three districts representative of Togo's three epidemiological malaria transmission regions: southern tropical coastal plains (Yoto, central fertile highlands (Ogou and northern semi-arid savannah (Tone. Results In households with children 65% in all 3 districts. Reported ITN use by children during the previous night was 35.9%, 43.8% and 80.6% in Yoto, Ogou and Tone, respectively. Rainfall patterns were comparable in both years. The overall prevalence of moderate to severe anaemia (Hb The effect was predominantly seen in children aged 18-59 months and in the two southern districts: PR (95% CI for moderate to severe anaemia and clinical malaria: Yoto 0.62 (0.44-0.88 and 0.49 (0.35-0.75; Ogou 0.54 (0.37-0.79 and 0.85 (0.57-1.27, respectively. Similar reductions occurred in children Conclusions A marked reduction in childhood malaria associated morbidity was observed in the year following mass distribution of free LLINs in two of the three districts in Togo. Sub-national level impact evaluations will contribute to a better understanding of the impact of expanding national malaria control efforts.

  20. Using mass-media communications to increase population usage of Australia’s Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Hara Blythe J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global obesity prevalence is increasing and population health programs are required to support changes to modifiable lifestyle risk factors. Such interventions benefit from mass-communications to promote their use. The Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service ® (GHS utilised mass-reach media advertising to recruit participants to an Australian state-wide program. Methods A stand alone population survey collected awareness, knowledge and behavioural variables before the first advertising phase, (n = 1,544; August -September 2010, during (n = 1,500; February - March 2011 and after the advertising period (n = 1,500; June-July 2011. GHS usage data (n = 6,375 was collated during July 2010 – June 2011. Results The results showed that television-lead mass-media significantly increased unprompted awareness (0% to 31.8%, p  Conclusions GHS mass-communications campaigns are effective at increasing awareness and usage of the GHS, especially among hard-to-reach population groups. Television advertising provides universal reach, but should be supplemented by health professional referrals and targeted mail-out information to recruit participants to the intensive GHS coaching program.

  1. Measurements of HNO3 and N2O5 using ion drift-chemical ionization mass spectrometry during the MILAGRO/MCMA-2006 campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, J.; Zhang, R.; Fortner, E. C.; Volkamer, R. M.; Molina, L.; Aiken, A. C.; Jimenez, J. L.; Gaeggeler, K.; Dommen, J.; Dusanter, S.; Stevens, P. S.; Tie, X.

    2008-11-01

    An ion drift-chemical ionization mass spectrometer (ID-CIMS) was deployed in Mexico City between 7 and 31 March to measure gas-phase nitric acid (HNO3) and dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5 during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA)-2006 field campaign. The observation site was located at the Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo in the northern part of Mexico City urban area with major emissions of pollutants from residential, vehicular and industrial sources. Diurnally, HNO3 was less than 200 parts per trillion (ppt) during the night and early morning. The concentration of HNO3 increased steadily from around 09:00 a.m. central standard time (CST), reached a peak value of 0.5 to 3 parts per billion (ppb) in the early afternoon, and then declined sharply to less than half of the peak value near 05:00 p.m. CST. An inter-comparison between the ID-CIMS and an ion chromatograph/mass spectrometer (ICMS) showed a good agreement between the two HNO3 measurements (R2=0.75). The HNO3 mixing ratio was found to anti-correlate with submicron-sized aerosol nitrate, suggesting that the gas-particle partitioning process was a major factor in determining the gaseous HNO3 concentration. Losses by irreversible reactions with mineral dust and via dry deposition also could be important at this site. Most of the times during the MCMA 2006 field campaign, N2O5 was found to be below the detection limit (about 30 ppt for a 10 s integration time) of the ID-CIMS, because of high NO mixing ratio at the surface (>100 ppb) during the night. An exception occurred on 26 March 2006, when about 40 ppt N2O5 was observed during the late afternoon and early evening hours under cloudy conditions before the build-up of NO at the surface site. The results revealed that during the MCMA-2006 field campaign HNO3 was primarily produced from the reaction of OH with NO2 and regulated by gas/particle transfer and dry deposition. The production of HNO3 from N2O5 hydrolysis during the nighttime was small because of

  2. Articles on Mass Communication in U.S. and Foreign Journals: A Selected Annotated Bibliography--January, February, March 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKerns, Joseph P.; Delahaye, Alfred N.

    1979-01-01

    Lists and annotates more than 200 articles on mass communication, grouped according to topic. Topics include advertising, broadcasting, courts and law, government and media, history and biography, international, management, public relations, and visual communication. (GT)

  3. Articles on Mass Communication in U.S. and Foreign Journals: A Selected Annotated Bibliography--October, November, December 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKerns, Joseph P.; Delahaye, Alfred N.

    1980-01-01

    Lists and annotates more than 200 articles on mass communication, grouped according to topic. Topics include advertising, broadcasting, courts and law, criticism and defense of media, history and biography, international, public relations, visual communication, and women and media. (GT)

  4. Articles on Mass Communication in U.S. and Foreign Journals: A Selected Annotated Bibliography--July, August, September 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahaye, Alfred N.; McKerns, Joseph P.

    1979-01-01

    Lists and annotates more than 200 articles on mass communication, grouped according to topic. Topics include advertising, broadcasting, courts and law, journalism education, history and biography, international, public relations, visual communication, and women and media. (GT)

  5. Articles on Mass Communication in U.S. and Foreign Journals: A Selected Annotated Bibliography--October, November, December 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKerns, Joseph P.; Delahaye, Alfred N.

    1979-01-01

    Lists and annotates more than 200 articles on mass communication, grouped according to topic. Topics include advertising, broadcasting, courts and law, education for journalism, international, management, public relations, and visual communications. (GT)

  6. Physical aerosol properties and their relation to air mass origin at Monte Cimone (Italy during the first MINATROC campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Van Dingenen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol physical properties were measured at the Monte Cimone Observatory (Italy from 1 June till 6 July 2000. The measurement site is located in the transition zone between the continental boundary layer and the free troposphere (FT, at the border between the Mediterranean area and Central Europe, and is exposed to a variety of air masses. Sub-μm number size distributions, aerosol hygroscopicity near 90% RH, refractory size distribution at 270°C and equivalent black carbon mass were continuously measured. Number size distributions and hygroscopic properties indicate that the site is exposed to aged continental air masses, however during daytime it is also affected by upslope winds. The mixing of this transported polluted boundary layer air masses with relatively clean FT air leads to frequent nucleation events around local noon. Night-time size distributions, including fine and coarse fractions for each air mass episode, have been parameterized by a 3-modal lognormal distribution. Number and volume concentrations in the sub-μm modes are strongly affected by the air mass origin, with highest levels in NW-European air masses, versus very clean, free tropospheric air coming from the N-European sector. During a brief but distinct dust episode, the coarse mode is clearly enhanced. The observed hygroscopic behavior of the aerosol is consistent with the chemical composition described by Putaud et al. (2004, but no closure between known chemical composition and measured hygroscopicity could be made because the hygroscopic properties of the water-soluble organic matter (WSOM are not known. The data suggest that WSOM is slightly-to-moderately hygroscopic (hygroscopic growth factor GF at 90% relative humidity between 1.05 and 1.51, and that this property may well depend on the air mass origin and history. External mixing of aerosol particles is observed in all air masses through the occurrence of two hygroscopicity modes (average GF of 1.22 and 1

  7. Is this health campaign really social marketing? A checklist to help you decide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Josephine Y; McGill, Bronwyn; Thomas, Margaret M; Carroll, Tom E; Bellew, William; Bauman, Adrian; Grunseit, Anne C

    2018-04-01

    Social marketing (SM) campaigns can be a powerful disease prevention and health promotion strategy but health-related campaigns may simply focus on the "promotions" communication activities and exclude other key characteristics of the SM approach. This paper describes the application of a checklist for identifying which lifestyle-related chronic disease prevention campaigns reported as SM actually represent key SM principles and practice. A checklist of SM criteria was developed, reviewed and refined by SM and mass media campaign experts. Papers identified in searches for "social marketing" and "mass media" for obesity, diet and physical activity campaigns in the health literature were classified using the checklist. Using the checklist, 66.6% of papers identified in the "SM" search and 39% of papers identified from the "mass media" search were classified as SM campaigns. Inter-rater agreement for classification using the abstract only was 92.1%. Health-related campaigns that self-identify as "social marketing" or "mass media" may not include the key characteristics of a SM approach. Published literature can provide useful guidance for developing and evaluating health-related SM campaigns, but health promotion professionals need to be able to identify what actually comprises SM in practice. SO WHAT?: SM could be a valuable strategy in comprehensive health promotion interventions, but it is often difficult for non-experts to identify published campaigns that represent a true SM approach. This paper describes the application of a checklist to assist policy makers and practitioners in appraising evidence from campaigns reflecting actual SM in practice. The checklist could also guide reporting on SM campaigns. © 2017 Australian Health Promotion Association.

  8. Effectiveness of a mass immunization campaign against serogroup C meningococci in children in the Federal State of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupek Emil

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to vaccine efficacy studies, there is a pressing need to evaluate vaccine effectiveness in a way that takes into account the limitations of health care systems in certain settings. An attempt to reach this objective was exemplified by a vaccination campaign against serogroup C meningococci in the federal state of Santa Catarina, in Brazil. A polysaccharide vaccine against serogroup C meningococci was administered to all individuals between 6 months and 14 years of age in March, 1996, in the municipalities that had the highest incidence of meningococcal disease in the previous year. All cases of the disease due to this serogroup observed in Santa Catarina during a 1-year period before and after the vaccination were included in the analysis. The cumulative incidence rate ratio was calculated for the unvaccinated compared to the vaccinated area. As a second step, the ratio of this quantity for the period before and after the vaccination, i.e. the ratio of the rate ratios (RRR, was calculated. One minus RRR was used to estimate the vaccine effectiveness. In the general population, the vaccine effectiveness was 74.3% (95% confidence intervals 52.7% to 99.6%. In children 6 months to 14 years, vaccine effectiveness was 93.1% (85.2% to 100%. Vaccine effectiveness could not be confirmed within more specific age bands, probably due to the lack of statistical power. It is concluded that group C meningococcal vaccine is effective in reducing the occurrence of meningococcal disease in children 6 months to 14 years of age, and that the ratio of rate ratios (RRR in a useful method to evaluate vaccine effectiveness.

  9. Effectiveness of a mass immunization campaign against serogroup C meningococci in children in the Federal State of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Kupek

    Full Text Available In addition to vaccine efficacy studies, there is a pressing need to evaluate vaccine effectiveness in a way that takes into account the limitations of health care systems in certain settings. An attempt to reach this objective was exemplified by a vaccination campaign against serogroup C meningococci in the federal state of Santa Catarina, in Brazil. A polysaccharide vaccine against serogroup C meningococci was administered to all individuals between 6 months and 14 years of age in March, 1996, in the municipalities that had the highest incidence of meningococcal disease in the previous year. All cases of the disease due to this serogroup observed in Santa Catarina during a 1-year period before and after the vaccination were included in the analysis. The cumulative incidence rate ratio was calculated for the unvaccinated compared to the vaccinated area. As a second step, the ratio of this quantity for the period before and after the vaccination, i.e. the ratio of the rate ratios (RRR, was calculated. One minus RRR was used to estimate the vaccine effectiveness. In the general population, the vaccine effectiveness was 74.3% (95% confidence intervals 52.7% to 99.6%. In children 6 months to 14 years, vaccine effectiveness was 93.1% (85.2% to 100%. Vaccine effectiveness could not be confirmed within more specific age bands, probably due to the lack of statistical power. It is concluded that group C meningococcal vaccine is effective in reducing the occurrence of meningococcal disease in children 6 months to 14 years of age, and that the ratio of rate ratios (RRR in a useful method to evaluate vaccine effectiveness.

  10. Mass Media and Consensus Politics: A Critical Evaluation of the Coverage of the 1980 Presidential Election Campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Charles; Stovall, Jim

    Presidential candidates in the United States tend to seek consensus rather than to try to discover new answers to problems and to convince voters that they should be elected to implement those answers. Reporters in the mass media emphasize objectivity and fairness in their reporting. This emphasis produces an intense interest in the…

  11. Communication & Mass Media Complete. Guía básica

    OpenAIRE

    Biblioteca de la Universidad de Málaga

    2016-01-01

    Communication & Mass Media Complete (CMMC) es una de las bases de datos mas completa en lo que a ciencias sociales y humanidades se refiere, dando cobertura a más de 850 títulos, la gran mayoría a texto completo. Surge de la fusión de la base de datos CommSearch y Mass Media Articles Index.

  12. Characterization of ambient aerosols in Mexico City during the MCMA-2003 campaign with Aerosol Mass Spectrometry: results from the CENICA Supersite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Salcedo

    2006-01-01

    of the time; however, there were some periods when there was not enough ammonium to completely neutralize the nitrate, chloride and sulfate present. The diurnal cycle and size distributions of nitrate suggest local photochemical production. On the other hand, sulfate appears to be produced on a regional scale. There are indications of new particle formation and growth events when concentrations of SO2 were high. Although the sources of chloride are not clear, this species seems to condense as ammonium chloride early in the morning and to evaporate as the temperature increases and RH decreases. The total and speciated mass concentrations and diurnal cycles measured during MCMA-2003 are similar to measurements during a previous field campaign at a nearby location.

  13. Mass Media in Society: The Need of Research. Reports and Papers on Mass Communication, Number 59.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    More and better research should be undertaken, nationally and internationally, on the effect of mass media upon society. Prior to such research, there needs to be an awareness of the realities of society today and of broadcasting structure. There should also be an understanding of the research that has already been done and of the gaps in that…

  14. Symposium: Compliance or Concern? Institutional Review Boards in Journalism and Mass Communication Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Brandon; Yekel, Candice A.; Blanchard, Margaret A.; Elliott, Deni; Youm, Kyu Ho

    2002-01-01

    Considers if the very principles of freedom of expression and the First Amendment that underlie much of the scholarship in journalism and mass communication education is placed at risk by federal regulations that require prior approval of research designs. Presents four senior scholars' deliberations on the rationale, contradictions, ethics, and…

  15. 2013 Annual Survey of Journalism Mass Communication Enrollments: Enrollments Decline for Third Consecutive Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Lee Bernard; Vlad, Tudor; Simpson, Holly Anne

    2014-01-01

    Enrollments in journalism and mass communication programs in the United States in the fall of 2013 were down from a year earlier for the third year in a row. Enrollments dropped at the bachelor's, master's, and doctoral levels, and the number of freshmen and sophomores were down dramatically from a year earlier. Enrollments in the…

  16. Preparing Tomorrow's Leaders: Integrating Leadership Development in Journalism and Mass Communication Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstein, Carolyn; Fitzpatrick, Kathy R.

    2015-01-01

    New journalism and mass communication curricula must prepare students to lead the media revolutions of the twenty-first century. Journalism, public relations, and advertising are being transformed by new media platforms and entrepreneurship, and these fields are now defined by rapid, radical change. Yet, the corresponding--and urgent--need to…

  17. Forgive Me Now, Fire Me Later: Mass Communication Students' Ethics Gap Concerning School and Journalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Mike; Groshek, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Survey data on mass communication students' perceptions of plagiarism and fabrication indicate an ethics gap in which students are more concerned about ethical breaches in journalism than in academics. Further analyses found that the ethics gap increases among students near graduation who had higher levels of concern and suggested harsher…

  18. The Association of Schools of Journalism and mass communication journalist-in-space project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    During the summer of 1985, NASA asked the Association of Schools of Journalism and Mass Communication (ASJMC) to select a U. S. journalist who could ride aboard the space shuttle and report the experience to the American public. Eligibility critieria and selection procedures are discussed. The forty semifinalists are listed.

  19. A Literature Review of Computers and Pedagogy for Journalism and Mass Communication Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoag, Anne M.; Bhattacharya, Sandhya; Helsel, Jeffrey; Hu, Yifeng; Lee, Sangki; Kim, Jinhee; Kim, Sunghae; Michael, Patty Wharton; Park, Chongdae; Sager, Sheila S.; Seo, Sangho; Stark, Craig; Yeo, Benjamin

    2003-01-01

    Notes that a growing body of scholarship on computers and pedagogy encompasses a broad range of topics. Focuses on research judged to have implications within journalism and mass communication education. Discusses literature which considers computer use in course design and teaching, student attributes in a digital learning context, the role of…

  20. Uses and Gratification of the Internet among Mass Communication Students in Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olise, Festus; Makka, Emotongha Job

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the uses and gratification of the Internet among students in the Department of Mass Communication, Delta State University (DELSU) Abraka. The study became necessary following the influx of and increase in the use of the Internet in education, which portends functional as well as dysfunctional roles on students if not…

  1. Predictors of Diversification of Journalism & Mass Communication Faculties 1989-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Lee B.; Huh, Jisu; Vlad, Tudor

    2003-01-01

    Examines three different factors that could explain the variability in attempts to diversify journalism and mass communication faculties: the characteristics of the region in which the journalism program is located, the characteristics of the university that houses the program, and the characteristics of the journalism program itself. Outlines…

  2. Diffusion of Courses with World Wide Web Features: Perceptions of Journalism and Mass Communication Program Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Patrick J.

    2003-01-01

    Examines perceptions of top administrators concerning courses with Web features at Association of Schools of Journalism and Mass Communication (ASJMC) programs. Studies the imperatives and pressures to implement courses with Web features as well as resistances to implementation. Suggests that administrators perceive an extensive set of needs and…

  3. Assessing the Merits of International Service-Learning in Developing Professionalism in Mass Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motley, Phillip; Sturgill, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This project assessed how an international service-learning course affected mass communication students' knowledge of professionalism. Using written reflections and focus group transcripts from four courses that took place in Central America, we observed that placing students in immersive environments, where they are able to work on authentic…

  4. Be My Guest: A Survey of Mass Communication Students' Perception of Guest Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, Patrick F.; Craig, Clay

    2017-01-01

    The use of guest speakers as a pedagogical technique across disciplines at the college level is hardly novel. However, empirical assessment of journalism and mass communication students' perceptions of this practice has not previously been conducted. To fill this gap, this article presents results from an online survey specifically administered to…

  5. Measuring Student Self-Perceptions of Writing Skills in Programs of Journalism and Mass Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingwall, Andrew; Kuehn, Scott

    2013-01-01

    This study explored student self-perceptions of writing skills in journalism and mass communication programs at thirteen public state universities in the mid-Atlantic region. Factor analysis revealed seven sets of perceptions among 860 students. A Media Writing Self-Perception Scale was constructed and found to be reliable. The authors propose…

  6. NORDICOM. Bibliography of Nordic Mass Communication Literature. Document List/Index 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordic Documentation Center for Mass Communication Research, Aarhus (Denmark).

    This second annual bibliography registers and indexes all literature on mass communication publications in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden for 1976. The Document List is an arbitrary register of 880 bibliographic references arranged by country of publication. Books, journal articles, duplicated and mimeographed materials, and working papers…

  7. NORDICOM. Bibliography of Nordic Mass Communication Literature. Document List/Index 1975:1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordic Documentation Center for Mass Communication Research, Aarhus (Denmark).

    This first annual bibliography of mass communications literature of Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden includes documents published from 1970 to 1975. The Document List contains arbitrary entries for 758 books, periodicals, and publications of untraditional form--e.g., duplicated and mimeographed materials and working papers. Arranged by…

  8. Mass Customization in Wireless Communication Services: Individual Service Bundles and Tariffs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Chen (Hong); L-F. Pau (Louis-François)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents results on mass customization of wireless communications services and tariffs. It advocates for a user-centric view of wireless service configuration and pricing as opposed to present-day service catalog options. The focus is on design methodology and tools for such

  9. ScienceToGo.org: The Strengths and Weaknesses of Communicating Climate Change through Mass Transit Advertising Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustick, D. S.; Lohmeier, J.; Chen, R. F.; Wilson, R.; Rabkin, D.; Thompson, S. R.

    2016-02-01

    Engaging urban populations with climate change science is a difficult challenge since cities can seem so removed from the `natural environment.' However, mass transit provides an inherent means of communicating environmental messages with a cross section of the urban population. The Out of Home Media (OHM) spaces found on platforms and inside train cars provide a potentially effective means of bringing informal science learning opportunities directly to an underserved STEM audience. Our team felt that any messaging curriculum for a coastal urban subway system must complement the scary reality of the impacts of a changing climate (i.e. rising sea levels) with current examples of how the city is preparing for a more sustainable future. Urban areas such as Boston must develop adaptation and mitigation strategies that will help them not only survive, but thrive in a changing environment. In 2013-14, ScienceToGo.org ran a series of 12 engaging posters and placards staring `Ozzie the Ostrich' on the Massachusetts Bay Transit Authority's Red and Orange subway lines targeting an audience of more than 400,000 riders per day. The 12 month curriculum was divided into three phases: reality, relevance, and hope. During the presentation, we will present the results of our quasi-experimental research which identifies, quantifies, and explains the observed impacts of the campaign on adult riders. The strengths and weaknesses of the communication strategy will be discussed. Finally, we will conclude with some recommendations for how this work could improve and inform other urban informal science learning initiatives.

  10. Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15: Hydroxyl Radical (OH) Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Saewung [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The University of California, Irvine, science team (Dr. Saewung Kim, Dr. Roger Seco, Dr. Alex Guenther, and Dr. Jim Smith) deployed a chemical ionization mass spectrometer system for hydroxyl radical (OH) and sulfuric acid quantifications. As part of the GoAmazon 2014/15 field campaign. Hydroxyl radical determines tropospheric oxidation capacity and had been expected to be very low in the pristine rain forest region such as the Brazilian Amazon because of the presence of significant levels of highly reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds and very low levels of NO, which is an OH recycling agent. However, several recent in situ OH observations provided by a laser-induced fluorescence system reported unaccountably high OH concentrations. To address this discrepancy, a series of laboratory and theoretical studies has postulated chemical reaction mechanisms of isoprene that may regenerate OH in photo-oxidation processes. Along with these efforts, potential artifacts on the laser induced fluorescence system from isoprene and its oxidation products also have been explored. Therefore, the first chemical ionization mass spectrometer observations at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s T3 site in Manacapuru, Brazil, are expected to provide a critical experimental constraint to address uncertainty in constraining oxidation capacity over pristine rain forest environments. In addition, we deployed a National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer to characterize atmospheric volatile organic compound levels, especially isoprene and its oxidation products, which are critical input parameters for box modeling to simulate OH with different isoprene photo-oxidation schemes. As there has been no report on noticeable new particle formation events, our first in situ sulfuric acid observations in the Amazon rain forest were expected to constrain the

  11. Investigation of the CCN Activity, BC and UVBC Mass Concentrations of Biomass Burning Aerosols during the 2013 BASELInE Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Ye, Wei-Cheng; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Tsay, Si-Chee; Chen, Wei-Nai; Lin, Neng-Huei; Lee, Chung-Te; Hung, Hui-Ming; Chuang, Ming-Tung; Chantara, Somporn

    2015-01-01

    Biomass-burning (BB) aerosols, acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), can influence cloud microphysical and radiative properties. In this study, we present CCN measured near the BB source regions over northern Southeast Asia (Doi Ang Khang, Thailand) and at downwind receptor areas (Lulin Atmospheric Background Station, Taiwan), focusing exclusively on 13-20 March 2013 as part of 2013 spring campaign of the Seven SouthEast Asian Studies (7-SEAS) intensive observation. One of the campaigns objectives is to characterize BB aerosols serving as CCN in SouthEast Asia (SEA). CCN concentrations were measured by a CCN counter at 5 supersaturation (SS) levels: 0.15%, 0.30%, 0.45%, 0.60%, and 0.75%. In addition, PM2.5 and black carbon mass concentrations were analyzed by using a tapered element oscillating microbalance and an aethalometer. It was found the number-size distributions and the characteristics of hygroscopicity (e.g., activation ratio and k) of BB aerosols in SEA have a strong diurnal pattern, and different behaviors of patterns were characterized under two distinct weather systems. The overall average value was low (0.05-0.1) but comparable with previous CCN studies in other BB source regions. Furthermore, a large fraction of UV-absorbing organic material (UVBC) and high Delta-C among BB aerosols were also observed, which suggest the existence of substantial particulate organic matter in fresh BB aerosols. These data provide the most extensive characterization of BB aerosols in SEA until now.

  12. The alfalfa “almost darks” campaign: Pilot VLA HI observations of five high mass-to-light ratio systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, John M.; Martinkus, Charlotte P.; Leisman, Lukas; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Hallenbeck, Gregory; Jones, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We present new Very Large Array (VLA) H i spectral line imaging of five sources discovered by the ALFALFA extragalactic survey. These targets are drawn from a larger sample of systems that were not uniquely identified with optical counterparts during ALFALFA processing, and as such have unusually high H i mass to light ratios. The candidate “Almost Dark” objects fall into four broad categories: (1) objects with nearby H i neighbors that are likely of tidal origin; (2) objects that appear to be part of a system of multiple H i sources, but which may not be tidal in origin; (3) objects isolated from nearby ALFALFA H i detections, but located near a gas-poor early type galaxy; (4) apparently isolated sources, with no object of coincident redshift within ∼400 kpc. Roughly 75% of the 200 objects without identified counterparts in the α.40 database (Haynes et al. 2011) fall into category 1 (likely tidal), and were not considered for synthesis follow-up observations. The pilot sample presented here (AGC193953, AGC208602, AGC208399, AGC226178, and AGC233638) contains the first five sources observed as part of a larger effort to characterize H i sources with no readily identifiable optical counterpart at single dish resolution (3.′5). These objects span a range of H i mass [7.41 < log(M Hi ) < 9.51] and H i mass to B-band luminosity ratios (3 < M Hi /L B < 9). We compare the H i total intensity and velocity fields to optical imaging drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and to ultraviolet imaging drawn from archival GALEX observations. Four of the sources with uncertain or no optical counterpart in the ALFALFA data are identified with low surface brightness optical counterparts in Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging when compared with VLA H i intensity maps, and appear to be galaxies with clear signs of ordered rotation in the H i velocity fields. Three of these are detected in far-ultraviolet GALEX images, a likely indication of star formation within the last few

  13. The alfalfa “almost darks” campaign: Pilot VLA HI observations of five high mass-to-light ratio systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, John M.; Martinkus, Charlotte P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Leisman, Lukas; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Hallenbeck, Gregory; Jones, Michael, E-mail: jcannon@macalester.edu, E-mail: cmartink@macalester.edu, E-mail: leisman@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: riccardo@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: hallenbg@union.edu, E-mail: jonesmg@astro.cornell.edu [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); and others

    2015-02-01

    We present new Very Large Array (VLA) H i spectral line imaging of five sources discovered by the ALFALFA extragalactic survey. These targets are drawn from a larger sample of systems that were not uniquely identified with optical counterparts during ALFALFA processing, and as such have unusually high H i mass to light ratios. The candidate “Almost Dark” objects fall into four broad categories: (1) objects with nearby H i neighbors that are likely of tidal origin; (2) objects that appear to be part of a system of multiple H i sources, but which may not be tidal in origin; (3) objects isolated from nearby ALFALFA H i detections, but located near a gas-poor early type galaxy; (4) apparently isolated sources, with no object of coincident redshift within ∼400 kpc. Roughly 75% of the 200 objects without identified counterparts in the α.40 database (Haynes et al. 2011) fall into category 1 (likely tidal), and were not considered for synthesis follow-up observations. The pilot sample presented here (AGC193953, AGC208602, AGC208399, AGC226178, and AGC233638) contains the first five sources observed as part of a larger effort to characterize H i sources with no readily identifiable optical counterpart at single dish resolution (3.′5). These objects span a range of H i mass [7.41 < log(M{sub Hi}) < 9.51] and H i mass to B-band luminosity ratios (3 < M{sub Hi}/L{sub B} < 9). We compare the H i total intensity and velocity fields to optical imaging drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and to ultraviolet imaging drawn from archival GALEX observations. Four of the sources with uncertain or no optical counterpart in the ALFALFA data are identified with low surface brightness optical counterparts in Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging when compared with VLA H i intensity maps, and appear to be galaxies with clear signs of ordered rotation in the H i velocity fields. Three of these are detected in far-ultraviolet GALEX images, a likely indication of star formation within

  14. Television campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Virginia Hospital Center embarked on a branding effort in hopes of raising customer awareness of the hospital's state-of-the-art technologies in advanced medical care. The campaign launched a new phase of TV spots that highlight the facility's advanced services, such as the computed tomography angiogram, the argon plasma coagulator, and heart valve replacement surgery.

  15. Targeted mass media interventions promoting healthy behaviours to reduce risk of non-communicable diseases in adult, ethnic minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosdøl, Annhild; Lidal, Ingeborg B; Straumann, Gyri H; Vist, Gunn E

    2017-02-17

    Physical activity, a balanced diet, avoidance of tobacco exposure, and limited alcohol consumption may reduce morbidity and mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Mass media interventions are commonly used to encourage healthier behaviours in population groups. It is unclear whether targeted mass media interventions for ethnic minority groups are more or less effective in changing behaviours than those developed for the general population. To determine the effects of mass media interventions targeting adult ethnic minorities with messages about physical activity, dietary patterns, tobacco use or alcohol consumption to reduce the risk of NCDs. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ERIC, SweMed+, and ISI Web of Science until August 2016. We also searched for grey literature in OpenGrey, Grey Literature Report, Eldis, and two relevant websites until October 2016. The searches were not restricted by language. We searched for individual and cluster-randomised controlled trials, controlled before-and-after studies (CBA) and interrupted time series studies (ITS). Relevant interventions promoted healthier behaviours related to physical activity, dietary patterns, tobacco use or alcohol consumption; were disseminated via mass media channels; and targeted ethnic minority groups. The population of interest comprised adults (≥ 18 years) from ethnic minority groups in the focal countries. Primary outcomes included indicators of behavioural change, self-reported behavioural change and knowledge and attitudes towards change. Secondary outcomes were the use of health promotion services and costs related to the project. Two authors independently reviewed the references to identify studies for inclusion. We extracted data and assessed the risk of bias in all included studies. We did not pool the results due to heterogeneity in comparisons made, outcomes, and study designs. We describe the results narratively and present them in 'Summary of findings

  16. A Motivational Perspective on Mass Communication Students' Satisfaction with Their Major: Investigating Antecedents and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Ed; Hopp, Toby; Santana, Arthur D.; Stansberry, Kathleen

    2018-01-01

    This study used self-determination theory (SDT) to investigate the motivations for selecting a major among mass communication and media majors at 18 colleges and universities across the United States. Specifically, 669 mass communication majors were queried on their intrinsic and extrinsic motivations for choosing a major, their degree of major…

  17. Educational and(or manipulative function of the means of mass communication in a global society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Petar M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The means of communication underwent a fast development in the twenty-first century, largely contributing to creating the society which gets a characteristic of a mass society. According to the mass society of "le Bone's psychology" and the development of the means of mass communication, with all positive options that it offers, many questions and dilemmas arise. From the point of culture the two most important ones are the following: despite the fact that the means of communication represent the social need, what is the level to which they can be a direct danger to the quality and value of national culture; and what is the level to which unselective and uncritical accepting of the imported content distance people from their own culture. The expansion of the means of mass communication also carries negative and bad influences because human state in the sea of information can be confused and distorted. On account of the enlarged range of available information, entertainment shows, especially the imported ones, societies are being slowly homogenized. Also the members of societies are slowly being cut off from everyday life, under the influence of media that are interfered in their life. It is not a rear case that the influence of television has a power of breaking man's connection with cultural practice, social system of values, norms (moral and legal, behaviour and individual ambitions. Imported information and entertainment shows can radically change social order which reflects on tradition and economical and social flows. The means of communication are an inseparable part of acculturation of a social system, but can also be an instrument of manipulation with people and the means for destruction of the national identity, what is actually happening.

  18. Vectors into the Future of Mass and Interpersonal Communication Research: Big Data, Social Media, and Computational Social Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappella, Joseph N

    2017-10-01

    Simultaneous developments in big data, social media, and computational social science have set the stage for how we think about and understand interpersonal and mass communication. This article explores some of the ways that these developments generate 4 hypothetical "vectors" - directions - into the next generation of communication research. These vectors include developments in network analysis, modeling interpersonal and social influence, recommendation systems, and the blurring of distinctions between interpersonal and mass audiences through narrowcasting and broadcasting. The methods and research in these arenas are occurring in areas outside the typical boundaries of the communication discipline but engage classic, substantive questions in mass and interpersonal communication.

  19. Using Communication Strategies to Promote Sexual Health: Can Mass Media Get in Bed with the "Female" Condom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Sarah Mariel; Austin, S. Bryn

    2010-01-01

    Many public health students receive little, if any, formal training in communicating health information to the public. Public health practitioners, however, are regularly asked to use communication strategies to convey health information. The lesson plan was designed to teach students mass communication strategies in the context of sexual health…

  20. A Rhetorical Approach to Non-Discursive Messages in Information Campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Kathleen

    Public information campaigns serve a primary role in contemporary American society to promote more active citizen involvement. When the U.S. government seeks to influence its citizens, it can use mass media to help produce systematic social change, particularly visual communication derived from rhetoric. Rhetorical criticism includes…

  1. Exploring the potential for a mass media campaign to influence support for a ban on tobacco promotion at the point of sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jane A; Davis, K C; Kamyab, K; Farrelly, M C

    2015-02-01

    This study explores whether exposure to advertisements that focus on the negative effects of tobacco industry advertising and promotion at the point of sale (anti-POS advertising) influence: (i) attitude toward POS advertising; (ii) perceived impact of POS advertising on youth smoking; and (iii) support for a ban on tobacco promotion at the POS among adult non-smokers in New York. Data are from a split-sample, experimental study, using an online media tracking survey with embedded TV, radio and print advertising. Exposure to anti-POS advertising was associated with higher odds of holding a negative attitude toward POS advertising (OR 2.43, P promotion at the POS (OR 1.77, P advertisements on youth smoking. Findings suggest the possibility that a mass media campaign could be used to influence public attitude toward POS advertising and support for a ban on tobacco promotion at the POS. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Linking mass media campaigns to pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages: a cross-sectional study to evaluate effects among Mexican smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F; Murukutla, Nandita; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Alday, Jorge; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Cedillo, Claudia; Gutierrez, Juan Pablo

    2013-05-01

    This study assessed the effects of pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) and a linked media campaign in Mexico. Cross-sectional data were collected from a population-based sample of 1756 adult smokers, aged 18-55 years, during the initial implementation of pictorial HWLs, which some smokers had seen on cigarette packages while others had seen only the text-based HWLs. Exposure to the campaign and pictorial HWLs was assessed with aided recall methods, and other questions addressed attention and cognitive impact of HWLs, knowledge related to HWL and campaign content, and quit-related thoughts and behaviours. Logistic and linear regression models were estimated to determine associations between key outcomes and intervention exposure. In bivariate and multivariate adjusted models, recall of pictorial HWLs and of the campaign were positively associated with greater attention to and cognitive impact of HWLs, whereas only pictorial HWL exposure was associated with having refrained from smoking due to HWLs. Both recall of pictorial HWLs and of the campaign were independently associated with greater knowledge of secondhand smoke harms and toxic tobacco constituents. Smokers who recalled only the pictorial HWLs were more likely to try to quit than smokers who recalled neither the pictorial HWLs nor the campaign (17% vs 6%, pmedia campaign was associated with independent additive effects on campaign-related knowledge, and it enhanced psychosocial responses to pictorial HWLs.

  3. Mass media and marketing communication promoting primary and secondary cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Peggy; Lloyd, Gareth P; Viswanath, K; Smith, Tenbroeck; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Vernon, Sally W; Turner, Gina; Hesse, Bradford W; Crammer, Corinne; von Wagner, Christian; Backinger, Cathy L

    2009-01-01

    People often seek and receive cancer information from mass media (including television, radio, print media, and the Internet), and marketing strategies often inform cancer information needs assessment, message development, and channel selection. In this article, we present the discussion of a 2-hour working group convened for a cancer communications workshop held at the 2008 Society of Behavioral Medicine meeting in San Diego, CA. During the session, an interdisciplinary group of investigators discussed the current state of the science for mass media and marketing communication promoting primary and secondary cancer prevention. We discussed current research, new research areas, methodologies and theories needed to move the field forward, and critical areas and disciplines for future research.

  4. Lessons and implications from a mass immunization campaign in squatter settlements of Karachi, Pakistan: an experience from a cluster-randomized double-blinded vaccine trial [NCT00125047

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu-Elyazeed Remon

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To determine the safety and logistic feasibility of a mass immunization strategy outside the local immunization program in the pediatric population of urban squatter settlements in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods A cluster-randomized double blind preventive trial was launched in August 2003 in 60 geographic clusters covering 21,059 children ages 2 to 16 years. After consent was obtained from parents or guardians, eligible children were immunized parenterally at vaccination posts in each cluster with Vi polysaccharide or hepatitis A vaccine. Safety, logistics, and standards were monitored and documented. Results The vaccine coverage of the population was 74% and was higher in those under age 10 years. No life-threatening serious adverse events were reported. Adverse events occurred in less than 1% of all vaccine recipients and the main reactions reported were fever and local pain. The proportion of adverse events in Vi polysaccharide and hepatitis A recipients will not be known until the end of the trial when the code is broken. Throughout the vaccination campaign safe injection practices were maintained and the cold chain was not interrupted. Mass vaccination in slums had good acceptance. Because populations in such areas are highly mobile, settlement conditions could affect coverage. Systemic reactions were uncommon and local reactions were mild and transient. Close community involvement was pivotal for information dissemination and immunization coverage. Conclusion This vaccine strategy described together with other information that will soon be available in the area (cost/effectiveness, vaccine delivery costs, etc will make typhoid fever control become a reality in the near future.

  5. Design and globalization can graphic design in mass communication inspire a global culture?

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, V. (V.); Prebys, C. (C.)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I deliver four points which support my assertion that graphic design in mass communication can inspire a global culture informed by Christianity. First, I argue that the environment in which people consistently find themselves will over time influence and affect the interior dispositions of the person, and when occurring in great numbers, the culture. I argue for the importance of graphic design as a vital component in the development of culture and how as visual ...

  6. Mass Communication, Advertising, and Marketing Research at the Strategic and Operational Levels of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-05

    EBSCOhost (accessed November 4, 2012): 157. 43 Ibid., 156. 44 Ibid., 163. 45 Chang, Chun-Tuan. 2011. “Guilt appeals in cause-related marketing ...Mass Communication, Advertising, and Marketing Research at the Strategic and Operational Levels of War by Colonel Ralph...Education of the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools, 3624 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, (215) 662-5606. The Commission on

  7. Perceptions and attitudes of students of mass communication toward mental illness in Nigerian Tertiary Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lateef Olutoyin Oluwole

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The power of the modern mass media is not limited to its ability to communicate information and entertain but derives primarily from its ability to define situations, thereby enabling it to construct social reality. Stigma is related to negative stereotyping and prejudicial attitudes that in turn lead to discriminatory practices. Aims: The study sought to know the perceptions of and attitudes of mass communication students towards mental illness and the mentally ill. Settings and Design: The study population comprised of final year Diploma students of Mass Communication of a foremost tertiary institution in Nigeria. Methods and Material: The World Psychiatric Association questionnaire measuring attitudes towards Schizophrenia was modified and administered to the students. Results: Study also showed only one-fifth of all respondents had contact with either an advert or a promotion about mental illness. About three-quarter (74.1% of those who had come in contact with information on mental illness had done so through audiovisuals including television and radio. More than half of the students ranked environmental factors foremost among causes of mental illness. Majority of the students (85.9% would definitely not marry someone with mental illness. Conclusions: The enormous potential and influence the media has on mental health issues would require that mental health professionals provide great input into the enlightenment program for these young and mental health-naïve potential image makers.

  8. Radhealth campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, Tony.

    1985-01-01

    The report by the National Radiological Protection Board in the Medical Research Council's study of some of the UKAEA workers is criticized. It is argued that the cancer risk estimates of the International Commission on Radiological Protection are seriously wrong, and that as they are used as a basis for radiation protection standards in the UK, these standards now need revising. The subject is discussed under the headings: broad-based campaign; all radiation is a hazard; building networks (of scientific and medical expertise). (U.K.)

  9. Mass communication in Asia and the Pacific. Recent trends and developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, J A

    1989-01-01

    1 of the current trends in Asian mass communication discernbile in 1964-65 was mass media evolution as a big business. 25 years ago the makings of big business journalism already were evident. At this time, Asia is deeply involved in corporate journalism, and in recent years newspaper groups have become affiliated with multinational corporations such as Dow Jones and Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation. Combines of government, local business, and regional conglomerates have purchased chunks of broadcast stations and newspapers in at least Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea, Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, and India. Although government control of mass media is not new to Asia, the manner of control differs from 25 years ago. Overt repressive actions still persist but not as frequently or blatantly as a generation ago. Less noisy forms of control are preferred in many countries, which resort to suspensions, arrests, or direct censorship when subtle means are ineffective. An irony of Asian mass communication is that authorities do not always shut out more pernicious outside channels and messages, while rather effectively curbing the foreign media's role in and impact upon their societies. The speed with which much of the new technology has been introduced and expanded in Asia has brought undesired consequences, e.g., much dialogue previously focused on development journalism, ethics, or freedom of expression has shifted to information hardware.

  10. Social Franchising and a Nationwide Mass Media Campaign Increased the Prevalence of Adequate Complementary Feeding in Vietnam: A Cluster-Randomized Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Rahul; Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Tran, Lan Mai; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Nguyen, Huan Van; Baker, Jean; Frongillo, Edward A; Ruel, Marie T; Menon, Purnima

    2017-04-01

    Background: Rigorous evaluations of health system-based interventions in large-scale programs to improve complementary feeding (CF) practices are limited. Alive & Thrive applied principles of social franchising within the government health system in Vietnam to improve the quality of interpersonal counseling (IPC) for infant and young child feeding combined with a national mass media (MM) campaign and community mobilization (CM). Objective: We evaluated the impact of enhanced IPC + MM + CM (intensive) compared with standard IPC + less-intensive MM and CM (nonintensive) on CF practices and anthropometric indicators. Methods: A cluster-randomized, nonblinded evaluation design with cross-sectional surveys ( n = ∼500 children aged 6-23.9 mo and ∼1000 children aged 24-59.9 mo/group) implemented at baseline (2010) and endline (2014) was used. Difference-in-difference estimates (DDEs) of impact were calculated for intent-to-treat (ITT) analyses and modified per-protocol analyses (MPAs; mothers who attended the social franchising at least once: 62%). Results: Groups were similar at baseline. In ITT analyses, there were no significant differences between groups in changes in CF practices over time. In the MPAs, greater improvements in the intensive than in the nonintensive group were seen for minimum dietary diversity [DDE: 6.4 percentage points (pps); P franchising approach to improve IPC, delivered through the existing health care system, significantly improved CF practices, but not child growth, among mothers who used counseling services at least once. A greater impact may be achieved with strategies designed to increase service utilization. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01676623.

  11. Population immunity to measles virus and the effect of HIV-1 infection after a mass measles vaccination campaign in Lusaka, Zambia: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowther, Sara A; Curriero, Frank C; Kalish, Brian T; Shields, Timothy M; Monze, Mwaka; Moss, William J

    2009-03-21

    Measles control efforts are hindered by challenges in sustaining high vaccination coverage, waning immunity in HIV-1-infected children, and clustering of susceptible individuals. Our aim was to assess population immunity to measles virus after a mass vaccination campaign in a region with high HIV prevalence. 3 years after a measles supplemental immunisation activity (SIA), we undertook a cross-sectional survey in Lusaka, Zambia. Households were randomly selected from a satellite image. Children aged 9 months to 5 years from selected households were eligible for enrolment. A questionnaire was administered to the children's caregivers to obtain information about measles vaccination history and history of measles. Oral fluid samples were obtained from children and tested for antibodies to measles virus and HIV-1 by EIA. 1015 children from 668 residences provided adequate specimens. 853 (84%) children had a history of measles vaccination according to either caregiver report or immunisation card. 679 children (67%) had antibodies to measles virus, and 64 (6%) children had antibodies to HIV-1. Children with antibodies to HIV-1 were as likely to have no history of measles vaccination as those without antibodies to HIV-1 (odds ratio [OR] 1.17, 95% CI 0.57-2.41). Children without measles antibodies were more likely to have never received measles vaccine than those with antibodies (adjusted OR 2.50, 1.69-3.71). In vaccinated children, 33 (61%) of 54 children with antibodies to HIV-1 also had antibodies to measles virus, compared with 568 (71%) of 796 children without antibodies to HIV-1 (p=0.1). 3 years after an SIA, population immunity to measles was insufficient to interrupt measles virus transmission. The use of oral fluid and satellite images for sampling are potential methods to assess population immunity and the timing of SIAs.

  12. Social Franchising and a Nationwide Mass Media Campaign Increased the Prevalence of Adequate Complementary Feeding in Vietnam: A Cluster-Randomized Program Evaluation123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Rahul; Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Tran, Lan Mai; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Nguyen, Huan Van; Baker, Jean; Frongillo, Edward A; Ruel, Marie T; Menon, Purnima

    2017-01-01

    Background: Rigorous evaluations of health system–based interventions in large-scale programs to improve complementary feeding (CF) practices are limited. Alive & Thrive applied principles of social franchising within the government health system in Vietnam to improve the quality of interpersonal counseling (IPC) for infant and young child feeding combined with a national mass media (MM) campaign and community mobilization (CM). Objective: We evaluated the impact of enhanced IPC + MM + CM (intensive) compared with standard IPC + less-intensive MM and CM (nonintensive) on CF practices and anthropometric indicators. Methods: A cluster-randomized, nonblinded evaluation design with cross-sectional surveys (n = ∼500 children aged 6–23.9 mo and ∼1000 children aged 24–59.9 mo/group) implemented at baseline (2010) and endline (2014) was used. Difference-in-difference estimates (DDEs) of impact were calculated for intent-to-treat (ITT) analyses and modified per-protocol analyses (MPAs; mothers who attended the social franchising at least once: 62%). Results: Groups were similar at baseline. In ITT analyses, there were no significant differences between groups in changes in CF practices over time. In the MPAs, greater improvements in the intensive than in the nonintensive group were seen for minimum dietary diversity [DDE: 6.4 percentage points (pps); P franchising approach to improve IPC, delivered through the existing health care system, significantly improved CF practices, but not child growth, among mothers who used counseling services at least once. A greater impact may be achieved with strategies designed to increase service utilization. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01676623. PMID:28179488

  13. Contextual Influences and Campaign Awareness Among Young Adults: Evidence from the National truth® Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallone, Donna M; Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Xiao, Haijun; Cantrell, Jennifer; Rath, Jessica; Hair, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Mass media campaigns have been found to shape the public's knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavior around tobacco. This study examines the influence of contextual factors with respect to awareness of the national truth® campaign, a mass media, branded tobacco use prevention campaign, among a sample of young adults (n = 2,804) aged 24-34 years old; these respondents were within the age range for both the primary and secondary targets of the campaign during the period (2000-2007) when the campaign was airing television advertising at consistently high levels. Mulitvariable models reveal lower educational attainment and Hispanic ethnicity as significant contextual factors predictive of lower campaign awareness, controlling for media use. In contrast, gender, state tobacco control policy, sensation-seeking, current smoking status, and community-level SES variables were not significantly associated with campaign awareness. Further research is needed to identify the mechanisms through which public education campaigns operate, particularly among disadvantaged communities.

  14. Risk communication considerations to facilitate the screening of mass populations for potential contamination with radioactive material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, R J; Sprau, D D; Morecook, R C

    2008-11-01

    Experience gained during a field training exercise with a Medical Reserve Corps unit on the screening of large groups of individuals for possible contamination with radioactive material revealed that while exercise participants were generally attentive to the proper use of protective equipment and detectors, they tended to overlook important basic risk communications aspects. For example, drill participants did not actively communicate with the persons waiting in line for screening, a step which would provide re-assurance, possibly minimize apprehension, and would clarify expectations. When questioned on this issue of risk communication, drill participants were often able to craft ad hoc messages, but the messages were inconsistent and likely would not have significantly helped diminish anxiety and maintain crowd control. Similar difficulties were encountered regarding messaging for persons determined to be contaminated, those departing the screening center, and those to be delivered to the media. Based on these experiences, the need for a suggested list of risk communication points was identified. To address this need, a set of risk communication templates were developed that focused on the issues likely to be encountered in a mass screening event. The points include issues such as the importance of remaining calm, steps for minimizing possible intake or uptake, considerations for those exhibiting acute injuries, expected screening wait times, the process to be followed and the information to be collected, the process to be undertaken for those exhibiting contamination, and symptoms to watch for after departure. Drill participants indicated in follow-up discussions that such pre-established risk communication templates would serve to enhance their ability to assist in times of emergency and noted the potential broader applicably of the approach for use in responses for other disasters types as well.

  15. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (79th, Anaheim, CA, August 10-13, 1996). Mass Communication and Society Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The mass communication and society section of the Proceedings contains the following 17 papers: "Deviance in News Coverage of On-Line Communications: A Print Media Comparison" (Lisa M. Weidman); "Political Tolerance of Environmental Protest: The Roles of Generalized and Specialized Information" (Catherine A. Steele and Carol M.…

  16. Smoke-free São Paulo: a campaign evaluation and the case for sustained mass media investment Sao Paulo libre de humo de tabaco: evaluación de una campaña y el caso para una inversión sostenida en medios masivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alday

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although evidence from high-income countries suggests that mass media campaigns can increase knowledge of tobacco harms and encourage smoking cessation, there is little evidence of this from developing countries, particularly related to campaigns that seek to increase support for smoke-free places and laws. Two campaigns that ran in São Paulo, Brazil during implementation of a smoke-free law in São Paulo were evaluated to assess their effectiveness in changing attitudes and creating support for the law. The campaigns were evaluated through street-intercept surveys conducted in early July and late August in São Paulo (Ns= 603; 615. Findings reveal that mass communications can generate support for smoke-free laws and underscore the importance of running campaigns that are both well-funded and that use harder-hitting, more graphic messages.Aunque la evidencia de los países de altos ingresos sugiere que las campañas de los medios masivos de comunicación pueden elevar el conocimiento de los daños del tabaco y alentar a dejar de fumar, hay poca evidencia de esto en los países en desarrollo, particularmente en relación con las campañas que tratan de dar más apoyo a los lugares libres de humo de tabaco y a las leyes. Dos campañas que se transmitieron en São Paulo, Brasil durante la ejecución de la ley libre de humo en São Paulo fueron evaluadas para determinar su eficacia en el cambio de actitudes y su contribución al aumento de apoyo a esta la ley. Las campañas fueron evaluadas a través de encuestas realizadas en la calle a principios de julio y finales de agosto en São Paulo (N= 603 615. Los hallazgos revelan que la comunicación masiva puede generar apoyo a las leyes antitabaco y subrayan la importancia de la realización de campañas que estén bien financiadas, así como el uso de mensajes gráficos más fuertes.

  17. Framatome's 1997 advertisement campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonnac, Alain de

    1998-01-01

    As many other companies involved in the nuclear business, Framatome was initially concentrating on corporate advertisements in business newspapers and magazines. The first goal was to concentrate on our traditional nuclear core business, while selecting the protection of the environment at large, and particularly the greenhouse effect, one of the most sensible issues of the moment. The 1997 campaign was shaped around the need to motivate European decision makers, while maintaining a domestic consensus towards nuclear power for the future resumption of constructions. The brief elaborated for Ad agencies was roughly threefold: elaborate simple messages, unquestionable, and explained with serenity; put emphasis on the benefits of nuclear power for the environment; establish a balanced comparison between nuclear and fossil fuels. A pre-test was conducted with about 100 people, half of which from the energy sector, and politicians, mainly members of the French and European Parliaments, the other half from the general public. Being accustomed to a usually discrete, if not 'ashamed' nuclear communication, people were generally surprised by such an optimistic tone about nuclear power, but agreed, on average. The campaign lasted one month (spread over June-July 97), and the three selected ads appeared successively in the form of a colour double page. Beyond nuclear magazines, the media plan included French daily newspapers le Figaro, le Monde, les Echos, Liberation, and weekly magazines: le Point, le Nouvel Observateur, I'Express, etc. All of them are intended for middle to high social class readers. In addition, some advertisements were inserted in The European Voice, a weekly publication reaching Brussels Commission and European parliament members. As an average, the campaign was perceived as dynamic (69%), and original (61%). But credibility and conviction were poor (resp 33%, 26%), probably because it was coincident with La Hague being on the carpet. On the other hand

  18. Articles on Mass Communication in U.S. and Foreign Journals: A Selected Annotated Bibliography--January, February, March 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKerns, Joseph P.; Delahaye, Alfred N.

    1980-01-01

    Lists and annotates more than 250 articles on mass communication, grouped according to topic. Topics include advertising, audience and communicator analysis, broadcasting, community journalism, courts and law, criticism and defense of media, education for journalism, history and biography, international, management, public relations, visual…

  19. 2015 Survey of Journalism and Mass Communication Enrollments: Challenges and Opportunities for a Changing and Diversifying Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotlieb, Melissa R.; McLaughlin, Bryan; Cummins, R. Glenn

    2017-01-01

    As with previous years, enrollments in journalism and mass communication programs in the United States have continued to decline. In 2015, such decline among undergraduate student enrollments was particularly prevalent in journalism sequences; in contrast, undergraduate enrollments in strategic communication sequences have seen some growth since…

  20. Peer-to-peer and mass communication effect on opinion shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, A.; Solomon, S.; Stauffer, D.

    2013-02-01

    Opinion dynamics is studied through a minimal Ising model with three main influences (fields): personal conservatism (power-law distributed), inter-personal and group pressure, and a global field incorporating peer-to-peer and mass communications, which is generated bottom-up from the faction supporting the new opinion. A rich phase diagram appears separating possible terminal stages of the opinion diffusion, characterizing failure phases by the features of the individuals who had changed their opinion. An exhaustive solution of the model is produced, allowing predictions to be made on the opinion’s assimilation in the society.

  1. Mass Media’s Perspective on the Challenges of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junaidi

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the challenges of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Indonesia based on mass media’s perspective. The challenges of ICT on mass media’s perspective are very complex. Some of these challenges include the consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of ICT, threats to the unity of the country, cultural problems, regulation, business competition among operators, Pokemon Go booming, the existence of social media which triggers hostility between people and the increasing rate of the interconnection cost. Among the main reasons to this phenomenon is a need of massive investment to build the infrastructures. This study used Robert N. Entman framing model to analyze the headlines of Majalah ICT (an ICT magazine).

  2. A mass vaccination campaign targeting adults and children to prevent typhoid fever in Hechi; Expanding the use of Vi polysaccharide vaccine in Southeast China: A cluster-randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hong-hui

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the goals of this study was to learn the coverage, safety and logistics of a mass vaccination campaign against typhoid fever in children and adults using locally produced typhoid Vi polysaccharide (PS and group A meningococcal PS vaccines in southern China. Methods The vaccination campaign targeted 118,588 persons in Hechi, Guangxi Province, aged between 5 to 60 years, in 2003. The study area was divided into 107 geographic clusters, which were randomly allocated to receive one of the single-dose parenteral vaccines. All aspects regarding vaccination logistics, feasibility and safety were documented and systematically recorded. Results of the logistics, feasibility and safety are reported. Results The campaign lasted 5 weeks and the overall vaccination coverage was 78%. On average, the 30 vaccine teams gave immunizations on 23 days. Vaccine rates were higher in those aged ≤ 15 years (90% than in adolescents and young adults (70%. Planned mop-up activities increased the coverage by 17%. The overall vaccine wastage was 11%. The cold chain was maintained and documented. 66 individuals reported of adverse events out of all vaccinees, where fever (21%, malaise (19% and local redness (19% were the major symptoms; no life-threatening event occurred. Three needle-sharp events were reported. Conclusion The mass immunization proved feasible and safe, and vaccine coverage was high. Emphasis should be placed on: injection safety measures, community involvement and incorporation of mop-up strategies into any vaccination campaign. School-based and all-age Vi mass immunizations programs are potentially important public health strategies for prevention of typhoid fever in high-risk populations in southern China.

  3. Tragedy prompts depression awareness, suicide prevention campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, T

    1998-01-01

    The tragic suicide of Robert C. Goltz prompted associates at the integrated marketing and communications company he founded in Green Bay, Wis., to develop two multimedia campaigns, one focusing on depression awareness and the other on suicide prevention.

  4. Intentions to perform non-pharmaceutical protective behaviors during influenza outbreaks in Sweden: a cross-sectional study following a mass vaccination campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpka, Toomas; Spreco, Armin; Gursky, Elin; Eriksson, Olle; Dahlström, Örjan; Strömgren, Magnus; Ekberg, Joakim; Pilemalm, Sofie; Karlsson, David; Hinkula, Jorma; Holm, Einar

    2014-01-01

    -pharmaceutical health actions in the Swedish outlined context, and that variations in threat appraisal played a smaller role in these models despite scientific uncertainties surrounding a recent mass vaccination campaign.

  5. Intentions to perform non-pharmaceutical protective behaviors during influenza outbreaks in Sweden: a cross-sectional study following a mass vaccination campaign.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toomas Timpka

    -pharmaceutical health actions in the Swedish outlined context, and that variations in threat appraisal played a smaller role in these models despite scientific uncertainties surrounding a recent mass vaccination campaign.

  6. Comparing effectiveness of mass media campaigns with price reductions targeting fruit and vegetable intake on US cardiovascular disease mortality and race disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson-Stuttard, Jonathan; Bandosz, Piotr; Rehm, Colin D; Afshin, Ashkan; Peñalvo, Jose L; Whitsel, Laurie; Danaei, Goodarz; Micha, Renata; Gaziano, Tom; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Capewell, Simon; Mozaffarian, Dariush; O'Flaherty, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Background: A low intake of fruits and vegetables (F&Vs) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the United States. Both mass media campaigns (MMCs) and economic incentives may increase F&V consumption. Few data exist on their comparative effectiveness. Objective: We estimated CVD mortality reductions potentially achievable by price reductions and MMC interventions targeting F&V intake in the US population. Design: We developed a US IMPACT Food Policy Model to compare 3 policies targeting F&V intake across US adults from 2015 to 2030: national MMCs and national F&V price reductions of 10% and 30%. We accounted for differences in baseline diets, CVD rates, MMC coverage, MMC duration, and declining effects over time. Outcomes included cumulative CVD (coronary heart disease and stroke) deaths prevented or postponed and life-years gained (LYGs) over the study period, stratified by age, sex, and race. Results: A 1-y MMC in 2015 would increase the average national F&V consumption by 7% for 1 y and prevent ∼18,600 CVD deaths (95% CI: 17,600, 19,500), gaining ∼280,100 LYGs by 2030. With a 15-y MMC, increased F&V consumption would be sustained, yielding a 3-fold larger reduction (56,100; 95% CI: 52,400, 57,700) in CVD deaths. In comparison, a 10% decrease in F&V prices would increase F&V consumption by ∼14%. This would prevent ∼153,300 deaths (95% CI: 146,400, 159,200), gaining ∼2.51 million LYGs. For a 30% price decrease, resulting in a 42% increase in F&V consumption, corresponding values would be 451,900 CVD deaths prevented or postponed (95% CI: 433,100, 467,500) and 7.3 million LYGs gained. Effects were similar by sex, with a smaller proportional effect and larger absolute effects at older ages. A 1-y MMC would be 35% less effective in preventing CVD deaths in non-Hispanic blacks than in whites. In comparison, price-reduction policies would have equitable proportional effects. Conclusion: Both national MMCs and price-reduction policies

  7. Intentions to Perform Non-Pharmaceutical Protective Behaviors during Influenza Outbreaks in Sweden: A Cross-Sectional Study following a Mass Vaccination Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpka, Toomas; Spreco, Armin; Gursky, Elin; Eriksson, Olle; Dahlström, Örjan; Strömgren, Magnus; Ekberg, Joakim; Pilemalm, Sofie; Karlsson, David; Hinkula, Jorma; Holm, Einar

    2014-01-01

    -pharmaceutical health actions in the Swedish outlined context, and that variations in threat appraisal played a smaller role in these models despite scientific uncertainties surrounding a recent mass vaccination campaign. PMID:24608557

  8. Marketing campaigns and politics – british experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halida Sarajlić

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available By gaining political power, individuals and political par¬ties at the same time gain the power to shape not only political but also public life. An accelerated growth of mass media communication has led to the development of various means and techniques of political marketing. This in turn requires certain adjustments to political campaigns and programs, out of which only those adapted to the new communication environment may succeed. Marketing in terms of politics and especially negative comparative advertising, which is becoming increasingly more present and intense in political campaigning, opens a series of ethical questions. Among others, these include whether such advertising in politics is effective, to what extent and what its consequences are. The goal of this paper is to present the main characteristics of political marketing, the effectiveness of the methods and techniques used in the course of elect¬ion campaigning, their consequences and basic differences between political marketing and products and services marketing. A special emphasis will be placed on the presentation of political marketing of Great Britain, which has a long tradition in utilizing marketing methods and techniques in the political arena. Moreover, political moves made by politicians and political parties in Great Britain certainly make a good starting point for shaping an optimal political strategy in other countries, while at the same time taking into account the particulars of a specific political and social environment. Content analysis methodology was used in the preparation of this paper and all the data were gathered from secondary sources.

  9. Delivery cost analysis of a reactive mass cholera vaccination campaign: a case study of Shanchol™ vaccine use in Lake Chilwa, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilboudo, Patrick G; Le Gargasson, Jean-Bernard

    2017-12-19

    Cholera is a diarrheal disease that produces rapid dehydration. The infection is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity. Oral cholera vaccine (OCV) has been propagated for the prevention of cholera. Evidence on OCV delivery cost is insufficient in the African context. This study aims to analyze Shanchol vaccine delivery costs, focusing on the vaccination campaign in response of a cholera outbreak in Lake Chilwa, Malawi. The vaccination campaign was implemented in two rounds in February and March 2016. Structured questionnaires were used to collect costs incurred for each vaccination related activity, including vaccine procurement and shipment, training, microplanning, sensitization, social mobilization and vaccination rounds. Costs collected, including financial and economic costs were analyzed using Choltool, a standardized cholera cost calculator. In total, 67,240 persons received two complete doses of the vaccine. Vaccine coverage was higher in the first round than in the second. The two-dose coverage measured with the immunization card was estimated at 58%. The total financial cost incurred in implementing the campaign was US$480275 while the economic cost was US$588637. The total financial and economic costs per fully vaccinated person were US$7.14 and US$8.75, respectively, with delivery costs amounting to US$1.94 and US$3.55, respectively. Vaccine procurement and shipment accounted respectively for 73% and 59% of total financial and economic costs of the total vaccination campaign costs while the incurred personnel cost accounted for 13% and 29% of total financial and economic costs. Cost for delivering a single dose of Shanchol was estimated at US$0.97. This study provides new evidence on economic and financial costs of a reactive campaign implemented by international partners in collaboration with MoH. It shows that involvement of international partners' personnel may represent a substantial share of campaign's costs, affecting unit and vaccine

  10. Russian and Brazil media systems at the modern stage of mass communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippova Viktoria Alexandrovna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main characteristics of modern mass communication and media systems in Russia and Brazil. The so-called first-level media - are of elite character, aimed at the ruling classes. They are strengthening their position in the global space and almost are blurring geographical and cultural boundaries. Media audience of the second level is national, they usually focus on the middle and lower segment of the audience, if to divide it by income, education and culture. Informatization and digitalization of media lead to the formation of hybrid media systems, where there is a growing role of new media, in particular, social networks and Twitter. It is important to emphasize that the nature of the social, spiritual and cultural changes caused by informatization, depends not only on information technology, but also on the social conditions of the socioeconomic system where the implemented processes of mass communication are realized. The paper discusses the factors that determine the possibility of functioning of media systems at the present stage: the willingness of the reader to consume information and pay for it by the example of Russia and Brazil, describes the processes of globalization, information technology and digitalization of society and the media. It is presented media preferences and trust in the media in Russia and Brazil in the XXI century, as well as the main indicators of the advertising market in these countries.

  11. [Effect of mass communication media in food purchasing at the family level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya de Sifontes, M Z; Dehollain, P L

    1986-03-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of mass media advertisement of food products (TV, radio and the press), particularly in pre-school and school-age children, as well as the concomitant impact these age groups have on the family food buying patterns. To test the hypothesis that the impact of mass media advertising on foods varied in the different socioeconomic levels of a community, a stratified sample of all children below 13 years of age, who attended the Francisco Fajardo school in the central coast of Venezuela, was drawn. Mass media contact, food and nutrition knowledge and other socioeconomic characteristics were related to the family's food-buying patterns. More specifically, the age, working status and educational level of the mother in regard to beliefs concerning the nutritional value of advertized food products, were related. A semi-structured questionnaire was designed, tested and applied to the housewife or whoever performed this role within the family. Findings revealed that families of low socioeconomic status are prone to be most influenced by mass media food product advertising. This is reflected not only in food purchasing practices but also in food consumption patterns at the family level. Chocolate drinks, cereals, jello, sausages, and ice cream are the most popular products among pre-school and school-aged children, without social class distinction. Furthermore, results revealed that the degree of exposure to mass communication media--television, radio and newspapers--is a determining factor in children's food preferences at all socioeconomic levels, and that television is the media exerting the greatest influence.

  12. Delivering Vitamin A Supplements to Children Aged 6 to 59 Months: Comparing Delivery Through Mass Campaign and Through Routine Health Services in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatobu, Sospeter; Horton, Susan; Kiflie Aleyamehu, Yibeltal; Abraham, Gelila; Birhanu, Negalign; Greig, Alison

    2017-12-01

    The delivery of vitamin A supplements in Ethiopia has been shifting from Child Health Days (campaigns) to routine delivery via the community health services. The objective of this study was to compare the cost and effectiveness of these 2 delivery methods. No previous studies have done this. A mixed method approach was used. Quantitative data on costs were collected from interviews with key staff and coverage data from health facility records. Qualitative data on the 2 modalities were collected from key informants and community members from purposefully sampled communities using the 2 modalities. Communities appreciated the provision of vitamin A supplements to their under 5-year-old children. The small drop in coverage that occurred as a result of the change in modality can be attributed to normal changes that occur with any system change. Advantages of campaigns included greater ease of mobilization and better coverage of older children from more remote communities. Advantages of routine delivery included not omitting children who happened to miss the 1 day per round that supplementation occurred and not disrupting the availability of other health services for the 5 to 6 days each campaign requires. The cost of routine delivery is not easy to measure nor is the cost of disruption to normal services entailed by campaigns. Cost-effectiveness likely depends more on effectiveness than on cost. Overall, the routine approach can achieve good coverage and is sustainable in the long run, as long as the transition is well planned and implemented.

  13. The relationship between campaigning on Twitter and electoral support: present or absent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruikemeier, S.; van Noort, G.; Vliegenthart, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the content characteristics of political communication on Twitter during an election campaign and the relationship between candidates’ style of online campaigning (i.e., politically personalized and interactive communication) and electoral support for those candidates.

  14. The impact of a state-sponsored mass media campaign on use of telephone quitline and web-based cessation services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Jennifer C; Mann, Nathan; Davis, Kevin C; MacMonegle, Anna; Allen, Jane; Porter, Lauren

    2014-12-24

    Most US smokers do not use evidence-based interventions as part of their quit attempts. Quitlines and Web-based treatments may contribute to reductions in population-level tobacco use if successfully promoted. Currently, few states implement sustained media campaigns to promote services and increase adult smoking cessation. This study examines the effects of Florida's tobacco cessation media campaign and a nationally funded media campaign on telephone quitline and Web-based registrations for cessation services from November 2010 through September 2013. We conducted multivariable analyses of weekly media-market-level target rating points (TRPs) and weekly registrations for cessation services through the Florida Quitline (1-877-U-CAN-NOW) or its Web-based cessation service, Web Coach (www.quitnow.net/florida). During 35 months, 141,221 tobacco users registered for cessation services through the Florida Quitline, and 53,513 registered through Web Coach. An increase in 100 weekly TRPs was associated with an increase of 7 weekly Florida Quitline registrants (β = 6.8, P Web Coach registrants (β = 1.7, P = .003) in an average media market. An increase in TRPs affected registrants from multiple demographic subgroups similarly. When state and national media campaigns aired simultaneously, approximately one-fifth of Florida's Quitline registrants came from the nationally advertised portal (1-800-QUIT-NOW). Sustained, state-sponsored media can increase the number of registrants to telephone quitlines and Web-based cessation services. Federally funded media campaigns can further increase the reach of state-sponsored cessation services.

  15. Communication about scientific uncertainty in environmental nanoparticle research - a comparison of scientific literature and mass media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidmann, Ilona; Milde, Jutta

    2014-05-01

    The research about the fate and behavior of engineered nanoparticles in the environment is despite its wide applications still in the early stages. 'There is a high level of scientific uncertainty in nanoparticle research' is often stated in the scientific community. Knowledge about these uncertainties might be of interest to other scientists, experts and laymen. But how could these uncertainties be characterized and are they communicated within the scientific literature and the mass media? To answer these questions, the current state of scientific knowledge about scientific uncertainty through the example of environmental nanoparticle research was characterized and the communication of these uncertainties within the scientific literature is compared with its media coverage in the field of nanotechnologies. The scientific uncertainty within the field of environmental fate of nanoparticles is by method uncertainties and a general lack of data concerning the fate and effects of nanoparticles and their mechanisms in the environment, and by the uncertain transferability of results to the environmental system. In the scientific literature, scientific uncertainties, their sources, and consequences are mentioned with different foci and to a different extent. As expected, the authors in research papers focus on the certainty of specific results within their specific research question, whereas in review papers, the uncertainties due to a general lack of data are emphasized and the sources and consequences are discussed in a broader environmental context. In the mass media, nanotechnology is often framed as rather certain and positive aspects and benefits are emphasized. Although reporting about a new technology, only in one-third of the reports scientific uncertainties are mentioned. Scientific uncertainties are most often mentioned together with risk and they arise primarily from unknown harmful effects to human health. Environmental issues itself are seldom mentioned

  16. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (84th, Washington, DC, August 5-8, 2001). Minorities and Communication Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Minorities and Communication section of the proceedings contains the following 4 selected papers: "Differences in Media by Online Business in Black- and White-Targeted Magazines: The Potential Impact of the Digital Divide on Ad Placement" (Osei Appiah and Matthew Wagner); "Racial Stereotyping and Mass Mediated Contact"…

  17. The Public Health Impact of the So-Called "Fluad Effect" on the 2014/2015 Influenza Vaccination Campaign in Italy: Ethical Implications for Health-Care Workers and Health Communication Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselli, Roberto; Martini, Mariano; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Watad, Abdulla

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal influenza, causing complications, hospitalizations and deaths, generates a serious socio-economic burden, especially among elderly and high-risk subjects, as well as among adult individuals. Despite the availability and active free-of charge offer of influenza vaccines, vaccine coverage rates remain low and far from the target established by the Ministry of Health. Notwithstanding their effectiveness, vaccines are victims of prejudices and false myths, that contribute to the increasing phenomenon of vaccine hesitancy and loss of confidence. Media and, in particular, new media and information and communication technologies (ICTs) play a major role in disseminating health-related information. They are extremely promising devices for delivering health education and promoting disease prevention, including immunization. However, they can also have a negative impact on population's health attitudes and behaviors when channeling wrong, misleading information. During the 2014/2015 influenza vaccination campaign, the report of four deaths allegedly caused by administration of an adjuvanted influenza vaccine, Fluad - the so-called "Fluad case" - received an important media coverage, which contributed to the failure of the vaccination campaign, dramatically reducing the influenza vaccine uptake. In the extant literature, there is a dearth of information concerning the effect of the "Fluad case". The current study aims at quantifying the impact of the "Fluad effect" at the level of the Local Health Unit 3 (LHU3) ASL3 Genovese, Genoa, Italy. Ethical implications for health-care workers and health communication practitioners are also envisaged.

  18. Campaigning for Children's Oral Health: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Arguably, the ultimate application of evidenced-based communications is translating the research recommendations into a full-fledged media campaign. This article explains the development and implementation of Watch Your Mouth, a campaign based on FrameWorks Institute's research on children's oral health. To date, this innovative campaign has been…

  19. Communication and mass vaccination strategies after pertussis outbreak in rural Amish communities-Illinois, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Marino, Andrew; Reynolds, Debra; Finley, Carol; Hays, Susan; Jones, Jane; Soyemi, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    During January 2010, 2 infants from an Amish community in east-central Illinois were hospitalized with pertussis. The local health department (LDH) intervened to control disease transmission, identify contributing factors, and determine best communications methods to improve vaccination coverage. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using public health surveillance data to determine the extent of the outbreak; the standard Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists case definition for pertussis was used. The standardized Illinois Department of Public Health pertussis patient interview form was used to collect demographic, symptom, vaccination history, and treatment history information. To control disease transmission, LDH staff worked with the Amish community to promote a vaccination campaign during February 6-April 30, 2010. Forty-seven cases were identified, with onsets during December 2009-March 2010. Median age was 7 (interquartile range 1-12) years. Nineteen (40%) patients were male; 39 (83%) were aged communication and outreach resulted in a successful vaccine campaign and long-running monthly vaccination clinic. Amish do not universally reject vaccines, and their practices regarding vaccination are not static. No claim to original US government works.

  20. Field Campaign Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, J. W. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Chapman, L. A. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This document establishes a common set of guidelines for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility for planning, executing, and closing out field campaigns. The steps that guide individual field campaigns are described in the Field Campaign Tracking System and are specifically tailored to meet the scope of each field campaign.

  1. The barriers associated with emergency medical service use for acute coronary syndrome: the awareness and influence of an Australian public mass media campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartledge, Susie; Finn, Judith; Straney, Lahn; Ngu, Phillip; Stub, Dion; Patsamanis, Harry; Shaw, James; Bray, Janet

    2017-07-01

    Emergency medical services (EMS) transport to hospital is recommended in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) guidelines, but only half of patients with ACS currently use EMS. The recent Australian Warning Signs campaign conducted by the Heart Foundation addressed some of the known barriers against using EMS. Our aim was to examine the influence of awareness of the campaign on these barriers in patients with ACS. Interviews were conducted with patients admitted to an Australian tertiary hospital between July 2013 and April 2014 with a diagnosis of ACS. Patient selection criteria included: aged 35-75 years, competent to provide consent, English speaking, not in residential care and medically stable. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with EMS use. Only 54% of the 199 patients with ACS interviewed used EMS for transport to hospital. Overall 64% of patients recalled seeing the campaign advertising, but this was not associated with increased EMS use (52.0%vs56.9%, p=0.49) or in the barriers against using EMS. A large proportion of patients (43%) using other transport thought it would be faster. Factors associated with EMS use for ACS were: age >65 years, ST-elevation myocardial infarction, a sudden onset of pain and experiencing vomiting. In medically stable patients with ACS, awareness of the Australian Warning Signs campaign was not associated with increased use of EMS or a change in the barriers for EMS use. Future education strategies could emphasise the clinical role that EMS provide in ACS. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Evaluation of a federally funded mass media campaign and smoking cessation in pregnant women: a population-based study in three states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Lucinda; Tong, Van T; Rockhill, Karilynn; Hsia, Jason; McAfee, Tim; Patel, Deesha; Rupp, Katelin; Conrey, Elizabeth J; Valdivieso, Claudia; Davis, Kevin C

    2017-12-19

    In 2012, theCenters for Disease Control and Prevention initiated a national anti-smoking campaign, Tips from Former Smokers ( Tips ). As a result of the campaign, quit attempts among smokers increased in the general population by 3.7 percentage points. In the current study, we assessed the effects of Tips on smoking cessation in pregnant women. We used 2009-2013 certificates of live births in three US states: Indiana, Kentucky and Ohio. Smoking cessation by the third trimester of pregnancy was examined among women who smoked in the 3 months prepregnancy. Campaign exposure was defined as overlap between the airing of Tips 2012 (March 19-June 10) and the prepregnancy and pregnancy periods. Women who delivered before Tips 2012 were not exposed. Adjusted logistic regression was used to determine whether exposure to Tips was independently associated with smoking cessation. Cessation rates were stable during 2009-2011 but increased at the time Tips 2012 aired and remained elevated. Overall, 32.9% of unexposed and 34.7% of exposed smokers quit by the third trimester (pwomen. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. The synergy between mass-media and public management: a positive perspective for the Departments of Communication and Public Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Prodan (Mocanu) Ana-Maria

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to emphasize the major role the departments of communication and public relations detains in the synergy process between mass-media and public institutions, starting from a series of short-circuits which have occurred in Romanian public sector and led to the misunderstanding of messages, due to an unprofessional communication. Synergy, on its basic meaning, represents a simultaneous action oriented in the same direction, which involves several agents who have the sa...

  4. Impact of French advertising campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaussade, Jean-Pierre; Ansel, Philippe

    1993-01-01

    'Today, some 75 % of France's electricity is generated by nuclear plants'. This was the theme of the advertising campaign launched for the second time in May 1992 by Electricite de France in national daily newspapers and magazines, in regional publications, on cinema and on TV. Compared to 1991 the second campaign was a new step in communication: first, was the wish to inform better the public. A Minitel program '3614 EDF' was created and connected by general public including a lot of information about nuclear energy and the way to visit a nuclear plant; secondly, was the use of TV media to target a larger population. The TV spot, 'the nuclear drill', uses humor to get more impact on the public. The campaign received an encouraging reception from the press, which admired its boldness and originality. As far as the general public is concerned, the campaign achieved its goals, as illustrated by the results of post-campaign surveys carried out to measure its effect. The segment of population targeted by campaign was mainly the so called 'pragmatics'. 'Pragmatics', who account for 25 % of the French population, are young, have a good education and are well informed. This category was selected as it shows a subtle attitude towards nuclear power, with more doubts than certainties. Moreover, this segment of the population has proven to be open to information issued by EDF and also plays a key role in influencing social trends. 63% of the segment targeted by the campaign (pragmatics) and 56% of the whole french population saw the ads

  5. Would you Find Thirty online? Website use in a Western Australian physical activity campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, J E; Rosenberg, M; Barnes, R; Bauman, A; Bull, F C

    2013-08-01

    Mass media campaigns have used a range of traditional media (television, radio and print) to communicate health messages. In the past decade the Internet has added to these traditional methods with Web 2.0, smart phone technology and interactive media. 'Find Thirty every day(®)', a Western Australia population-wide mass media campaign delivered over 2 years, used a combination of traditional mass media, a website, online resources and banner advertising. The aim of the present study is to describe the use of the Find Thirty every day(®) website during the campaign media activities of May 2008-June 2010. Cross-sectional self-reported survey data were collected from a random sample of adults using a computer-assisted telephone interview over the period February-March 2010. Objective online analytical measures of unique visits to the Find Thirty every day(®) website were collected between June 2008 and June 2010. Monthly visitors to the Find Thirty every day(®) website increased from 3193 in 2009 to 4374 in 2010. During the last two media waves (October 2009 and February 2010), site visits were 5388 and 5272 per month, respectively. The impact of the Find Thirty every day(®) website was a positive outcome, considering the minimal online presence. SO WHAT? Health communication campaign planners should maximise the potential synergy of traditional mass media and new social media in future campaigns. Accordingly, a multidisciplinary approach that includes communication researchers, experts in information systems and a creative team experienced in online environments will need to be the way forward.

  6. Benefits of using vaccines out of the cold chain: delivering meningitis A vaccine in a controlled temperature chain during the mass immunization campaign in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipursky, Simona; Djingarey, Mamoudou Harouna; Lodjo, Jean-Claude; Olodo, Laifoya; Tiendrebeogo, Sylvestre; Ronveaux, Olivier

    2014-03-14

    In October 2012, the Meningococcal A conjugate vaccine MenAfriVac was granted a label variation to allow for its use in a controlled temperature chain (CTC), at temperatures of up to 40°C for not more than four days. This paper describes the first field use of MenAfriVac in a CTC during a campaign in Benin, December 2012, and assesses the feasibility and acceptability of the practice. We implemented CTC in one selected district, Banikoara (target population of 147,207; 1-29 years of age), across 14 health facilities and 150 villages. We monitored the CTC practice using temperature indicators and daily monitoring sheets. At the end of the campaign we conducted a face-to-face survey to assess vaccinators' and supervisors' experience with CTC. A mix of strategies were implemented in the field to maximize the benefits from CTC practice, depending on the distance from health centre to populations and the availability of a functioning refrigerator in the health centre. Coverage across Banikoara was 105.7%. Over the course of the campaign only nine out of approx. 15,000 vials were discarded due to surpassing the 4 day CTC limit and no vial was discarded because of exposure to a temperature higher than 40°C or due to the Vaccine Vial Monitor (VVM) reaching its endpoint. Overall confidence and perceived usefulness of the CTC approach were very high among vaccinators and supervisors. Vaccinators and supervisors see clear benefits from the CTC approach in low income settings, especially in hard-to-reach areas or where cold chain is weak. Taking advantage of the flexibility offered by CTC opens the door for the implementation of new immunization strategies to ensure all those at risk are protected. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Leader-based and self-organized communication: modelling group-mass recruitment in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collignon, Bertrand; Deneubourg, Jean Louis; Detrain, Claire

    2012-11-21

    For collective decisions to be made, the information acquired by experienced individuals about resources' location has to be shared with naïve individuals through recruitment. Here, we investigate the properties of collective responses arising from a leader-based recruitment and a self-organized communication by chemical trails. We develop a generalized model based on biological data drawn from Tetramorium caespitum ant species of which collective foraging relies on the coupling of group leading and trail recruitment. We show that for leader-based recruitment, small groups of recruits have to be guided in a very efficient way to allow a collective exploitation of food while large group requires less attention from their leader. In the case of self-organized recruitment through a chemical trail, a critical value of trail amount has to be laid per forager in order to launch collective food exploitation. Thereafter, ants can maintain collective foraging by emitting signal intensity below this threshold. Finally, we demonstrate how the coupling of both recruitment mechanisms may benefit to collectively foraging species. These theoretical results are then compared with experimental data from recruitment by T. caespitum ant colonies performing group-mass recruitment towards a single food source. We evidence the key role of leaders as initiators and catalysts of recruitment before this leader-based process is overtaken by self-organised communication through trails. This model brings new insights as well as a theoretical background to empirical studies about cooperative foraging in group-living species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reforming Iraqi Journalism and Mass Communication Higher Education: Adapting the UNESCO Model Curricula for Journalism Education to Iraqi Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlik, John V.; Laufer, Peter D.; Burns, David P.; Ataya, Ramzi T.

    2012-01-01

    Journalism and mass communication higher education in Iraq is well established but largely isolated from global developments since the 1970s. In the post-Iraq war period, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) implemented a multiyear project to work with the leadership of Iraqi higher education to help update…

  9. Ranking Journalism and Mass Communications Programs: Administrators and Faculty Approve of the Idea and Assess Potential Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Rankings of universities and colleges are common and controversial. However, few rankers produce useful lists that assess and compare journalism and mass communications programs. The few currently available involve superficial reputational surveys or are less than transparent about their methodology. To determine potential criteria for a useful…

  10. 2012 Annual Survey of Journalism and Mass Communication Enrollments: Enrollments Decline for Second Year in a Row

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Lee B.; Vlad, Tudor; Simpson, Holly Anne

    2013-01-01

    Enrollments in journalism and mass communication programs in the United States have declined over the last two years, reversing a pattern of growth that has sustained the field for twenty years. It is a decline at a time of continued growth in enrollments at universities generally. It is a decline at a time when enrollments have been growing in…

  11. Selection of Universities by Students in Journalism and Mass Communication Courses: Do Criteria Differ between Caucasian and Minority Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Masudul; Perkins, Lyle; Izard, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    This study measures the significance of factors used by minority students in their selection of universities/colleges. This web survey was conducted mainly on 778 students enrolled in journalism/mass communication courses representing five historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and twelve other universities. Differences were found…

  12. Subjective Norms as a Driver of Mass Communication Students' Intentions to Adopt New Media Production Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Toby M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the impact of subjective norms on mass communication students' intentions to adopt new media production technologies was explored. The results indicated that subjective norms play an instrumental role in explaining behavioral intentions to adopt new media technologies. Moreover, the data indicated that public relations students…

  13. Enhancing Student Learning in Knowledge-Based Courses: Integrating Team-Based Learning in Mass Communication Theory Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gang; Newell, Jay

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the adoption of the team-based learning (TBL) method in knowledge-based and theory-oriented journalism and mass communication (J&MC) courses. It first reviews the origin and concept of TBL, the relevant theories, and then introduces the TBL method and implementation, including procedures and assessments, employed in an…

  14. Interpersonal communication as an indirect pathway for the effect of antismoking media content on smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Putte, Bas; Yzer, Marco; Southwell, Brian G; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Willemsen, Marc C

    2011-05-01

    In the context of health campaigns, interpersonal communication can serve at least 2 functions: (a) to stimulate change through social interaction and (b) in a secondary diffusion process, to further disseminate message content. In a 3-wave prospective study of 1,079 smokers, the authors demonstrate that mass media messages (antismoking campaigns and news coverage relevant to smoking cessation) have an indirect effect on smoking cessation intention and behavior via interpersonal communication. Exposure to campaigns and news coverage prompts discussion about the campaigns, and, in turn, about smoking cessation. Interpersonal communication regarding smoking cessation then influences intention to quit smoking and attempts to quit smoking. The study finds evidence not only for the social interaction function of interpersonal communication, but also for the secondary diffusion function. A substantial number of smokers who are not directly exposed to the antismoking campaigns are nevertheless indirectly exposed via communication with people who have seen these campaigns. These results imply that encouragement of interpersonal communication can be an important campaign objective.

  15. Collision Repair Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Collision Repair Campaign targets meaningful risk reduction in the Collision Repair source category to reduce air toxic emissions in their communities. The Campaign also helps shops to work towards early compliance with the Auto Body Rule.

  16. The "Know Stroke" Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section The "Know Stroke" Campaign Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Javascript on. NINDS is conducting a public awareness campaign across the United States to educate people about ...

  17. PERBANDINGAN IMPLEMENTASI ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Francisca Hanna , Febrianti

    2013-01-01

    Advertising campaign merupakan serangkaian bentuk iklan melalui berbagai media dan berpusat pada satu tema dalam satu waktu. Tujuan utama advertising campaign adalah menyampaikan pesan dalam suatu tema yang diluncurkan kepada masyarakat sehingga tema tersebut menjadi ciri khas produk. Peluncuran tema campaign oleh Coca Cola dan Pepsi yang merupakan rival dalam kategori beverage merupakan obyek dari penelitian ini. Kesuksesan sebuah tema advertising campaign dilihat dengan menggunakan paramet...

  18. The Sprite 2003 Campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neubert, T.; Laursen, S.; Rasmussen, I. L.

    2003-01-01

    During the northern hemisphere summer of 2003, from July 18 to September 18, a sprite observation campaign was conducted with measurements from Southern Europe, coordinated with measurements from the magnetically conjugate region in South Africa. The goal of the campaign was to investigate...... emissions. The presentation will give an overview of the campaign, the meteorological conditions, and present some first results....

  19. Evaluation of a brief anti-stigma campaign in Cambridge: do short-term campaigns work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henderson Claire

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In view of the high costs of mass-media campaigns, it is important to understand whether it is possible for a media campaign to have significant population effects over a short period of time. This paper explores this question specifically in reference to stigma and discrimination against people with mental health problems using the Time to Change Cambridge anti-stigma campaign as an example. Methods 410 face-to-face interviews were performed pre, during and post campaign activity to assess campaign awareness and mental health-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. Results Although campaign awareness was not sustained following campaign activity, significant and sustained shifts occurred for mental health-related knowledge items. Specifically, there was a 24% (p If a friend had a mental health problem, I know what advice to give them to get professional help, following the campaign. Additionally, for the statement: Medication can be an effective treatment for people with mental health problems, there was a 10% rise (p = 0.05 in the proportion of interviewees responding 'agree' or 'strongly agree' following the campaign. These changes, however, were not evident for attitudinal or behaviour related questions. Conclusions Although these results only reflect the impact of one small scale campaign, these preliminary findings suggest several considerations for mass-media campaign development and evaluation strategies such as: (1 Aiming to influence outcomes pertaining to knowledge in the short term; (2 Planning realistic and targeted outcomes over the short, medium and long term during sustained campaigns; and (3 Monitoring indirect campaign effects such as social discourse or other social networking/contact in the evaluation.

  20. Evaluation of a brief anti-stigma campaign in Cambridge: do short-term campaigns work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Lacko, Sara; London, Jillian; Little, Kirsty; Henderson, Claire; Thornicroft, Graham

    2010-06-14

    In view of the high costs of mass-media campaigns, it is important to understand whether it is possible for a media campaign to have significant population effects over a short period of time. This paper explores this question specifically in reference to stigma and discrimination against people with mental health problems using the Time to Change Cambridge anti-stigma campaign as an example. 410 face-to-face interviews were performed pre, during and post campaign activity to assess campaign awareness and mental health-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. Although campaign awareness was not sustained following campaign activity, significant and sustained shifts occurred for mental health-related knowledge items. Specifically, there was a 24% (p mental health problem, I know what advice to give them to get professional help, following the campaign. Additionally, for the statement: Medication can be an effective treatment for people with mental health problems, there was a 10% rise (p = 0.05) in the proportion of interviewees responding 'agree' or 'strongly agree' following the campaign. These changes, however, were not evident for attitudinal or behaviour related questions. Although these results only reflect the impact of one small scale campaign, these preliminary findings suggest several considerations for mass-media campaign development and evaluation strategies such as: (1) Aiming to influence outcomes pertaining to knowledge in the short term; (2) Planning realistic and targeted outcomes over the short, medium and long term during sustained campaigns; and (3) Monitoring indirect campaign effects such as social discourse or other social networking/contact in the evaluation.

  1. Designing environmental campaigns by using agent-based simulations: strategies for changing environmental attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosler, Hans-Joachim; Martens, Thomas

    2008-09-01

    Agent-based computer simulation was used to create artificial communities in which each individual was constructed according to the principles of the elaboration likelihood model of Petty and Cacioppo [1986. The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion. In: Berkowitz, L. (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. Academic Press, New York, NY, pp. 123-205]. Campaigning strategies and community characteristics were varied systematically to understand and test their impact on attitudes towards environmental protection. The results show that strong arguments influence a green (environmentally concerned) population with many contacts most effectively, while peripheral cues have the greatest impact on a non-green population with fewer contacts. Overall, deeper information scrutiny increases the impact of strong arguments but is especially important for convincing green populations. Campaigns involving person-to-person communication are superior to mass-media campaigns because they can be adapted to recipients' characteristics.

  2. Impact of mass media and interpersonal health communication on smoking cessation attempts: a study in North Karelia, 1989-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, T; Uutela, A; Korhonen, H J; Puska, P

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes an impact evaluation of the North Karelia Project (Finnish CINDI program) on smoking cessation attempts. During the period 1989-1996, data were collected by annual surveys, with response rates varying from 66% to 76%. This study included 1,694 adult current smokers or persons who had quit smoking during the past year, out of a total of 6,011 respondents. Smoking cessation attempts during the past 12 months were examined as a dependent variable. Reported exposures to mass media and interpersonal health communication were examined as possible determinants of smoking cessation. Weekly exposure to mass media health messages was significantly associated with cessation attempts among men only. In contrast, interpersonal health communication, or social influence, was a significant determinant of cessation attempts among both sexes. Exposure to both mass media and interpersonal health communication had an even stronger impact on cessation attempts. Thus, interpersonal communication appears to be an important catalyst of community programs, and its inclusion should be emphasized to obtain a higher impact with community programs.

  3. A Case Study for Evaluating the Diffusion of Computing Technology in Teaching Undergraduates by a Faculty in a Journalism and Mass Communication Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Janet L.; Geske, Joel

    A case study investigated how journalism and mass communication faculty members diffused and used computing technology in teaching. Subjects, 21 tenured and tenure-track faculty members in a mid-sized journalism and mass communication department, completed an indepth questionnaire designed to measure the general attitude of the faculty towards…

  4. Working together for the children. New Children’s Hospital 2017 fundraising campaign on Facebook and the communication of charity work.

    OpenAIRE

    Uoti, Jaakko

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aims to examine the communication of charity work on social media. The thesis takes on the fundraising efforts of Finnish charity organization New Children’s Hospital 2017 (Uusi Lastensairaala 2017) and its Facebook Page posts over the course of twelve months. The research problem is to look at what kinds of charity work ULS 2017 Facebook Page promotes and what discourses of responsibility and solidarity can be seen as inscribed into these forms of charity work. The subject matter...

  5. The Effects of Source Credibility in the Presence or Absence of Prior Attitudes: Implications for the Design of Persuasive Communication Campaigns1

    OpenAIRE

    Kumkale, G. Tarcan; AlbarracÍn, Dolores; Seignourel, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Most theories of persuasion predict that limited ability and motivation to think about communications should increase the impact of source credibility on persuasion. Furthermore, this effect is assumed to occur, regardless of whether or not the recipients have prior attitudes. In this study, the effects of source credibility, ability, and motivation (knowledge, message repetition, relevance) on persuasion were examined meta-analytically across both attitude formation and change conditions. Fi...

  6. Mass communication and cultural identity: the unresolved issue of national sovereignty and cultural autonomy in the wake of new communication technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uche, L U

    1988-01-01

    The trend in modern mass communication appears to be toward the imposition of the cultural, economic, and political values of the societies with the most advanced communication and information technologies and media sources. The consequence of this reality is that the cultural values, national aspirations, economic needs, and political independence of developing countries are not taken into consideration. Thus, the national interests of African states make it imperative for them to carefully evaluate, assess, and examine the development of their present media structures and ownership patterns. If the mass media is privatized, their owners serve as mouthpieces for multinational corporations. This phenomenon can severely undermine African goals of self-sufficiency in food production and industrialization, political stability that guarantees territorial integrity, and preservation of the African culture. It is imperative that African governments do not allow big multinationals to take over the molding and control of public opinion. Although modern systems of communication are exceedingly expensive and sophisticated, ways must be found to make the media public utilities.

  7. A varying coefficient model to measure the effectiveness of mass media anti-smoking campaigns in generating calls to a Quitline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Quang M; Huggins, Richard M; Hwang, Wen-Han; White, Victoria; Erbas, Bircan

    2010-01-01

    Anti-smoking advertisements are an effective population-based smoking reduction strategy. The Quitline telephone service provides a first point of contact for adults considering quitting. Because of data complexity, the relationship between anti-smoking advertising placement, intensity, and time trends in total call volume is poorly understood. In this study we use a recently developed semi-varying coefficient model to elucidate this relationship. Semi-varying coefficient models comprise parametric and nonparametric components. The model is fitted to the daily number of calls to Quitline in Victoria, Australia to estimate a nonparametric long-term trend and parametric terms for day-of-the-week effects and to clarify the relationship with target audience rating points (TARPs) for the Quit and nicotine replacement advertising campaigns. The number of calls to Quitline increased with the TARP value of both the Quit and other smoking cessation advertisement; the TARP values associated with the Quit program were almost twice as effective. The varying coefficient term was statistically significant for peak periods with little or no advertising. Semi-varying coefficient models are useful for modeling public health data when there is little or no information on other factors related to the at-risk population. These models are well suited to modeling call volume to Quitline, because the varying coefficient allowed the underlying time trend to depend on fixed covariates that also vary with time, thereby explaining more of the variation in the call model.

  8. Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  9. Aerosol optical properties derived from the DRAGON-NE Asia campaign, and implications for a single-channel algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical depth in spring from Meteorological Imager (MI on-board the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An aerosol model optimized for northeast Asia is updated with the inversion data from the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON-northeast (NE Asia campaign which was conducted during spring from March to May 2012. This updated aerosol model was then applied to a single visible channel algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD from a Meteorological Imager (MI on-board the geostationary meteorological satellite, Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS. This model plays an important role in retrieving accurate AOD from a single visible channel measurement. For the single-channel retrieval, sensitivity tests showed that perturbations by 4 % (0.926 ± 0.04 in the assumed single scattering albedo (SSA can result in the retrieval error in AOD by over 20 %. Since the measured reflectance at the top of the atmosphere depends on both AOD and SSA, the overestimation of assumed SSA in the aerosol model leads to an underestimation of AOD. Based on the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET inversion data sets obtained over East Asia before 2011, seasonally analyzed aerosol optical properties (AOPs were categorized by SSAs at 675 nm of 0.92 ± 0.035 for spring (March, April, and May. After the DRAGON-NE Asia campaign in 2012, the SSA during spring showed a slight increase to 0.93 ± 0.035. In terms of the volume size distribution, the mode radius of coarse particles was increased from 2.08 ± 0.40 to 2.14 ± 0.40. While the original aerosol model consists of volume size distribution and refractive indices obtained before 2011, the new model is constructed by using a total data set after the DRAGON-NE Asia campaign. The large volume of data in high spatial resolution from this intensive campaign can be used to improve the representative aerosol model for East Asia. Accordingly, the new AOD data sets retrieved from a single-channel algorithm, which uses a precalculated look-up table (LUT with the new aerosol model

  10. Aerosol Optical Properties Derived from the DRAGON-NE Asia Campaign, and Implications for a Single-Channel Algorithm to Retrieve Aerosol Optical Depth in Spring from Meteorological Imager (MI) On-Board the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M.; Kim, J.; Jeong, U.; Kim, W.; Hong, H.; Holben, B.; Eck, T. F.; Lim, J.; Song, C.; Lee, S.; hide

    2016-01-01

    An aerosol model optimized for northeast Asia is updated with the inversion data from the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON)-northeast (NE) Asia campaign which was conducted during spring from March to May 2012. This updated aerosol model was then applied to a single visible channel algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) from a Meteorological Imager (MI) on-board the geostationary meteorological satellite, Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS). This model plays an important role in retrieving accurate AOD from a single visible channel measurement. For the single-channel retrieval, sensitivity tests showed that perturbations by 4 % (0.926 +/- 0.04) in the assumed single scattering albedo (SSA) can result in the retrieval error in AOD by over 20 %. Since the measured reflectance at the top of the atmosphere depends on both AOD and SSA, the overestimation of assumed SSA in the aerosol model leads to an underestimation of AOD. Based on the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) inversion data sets obtained over East Asia before 2011, seasonally analyzed aerosol optical properties (AOPs) were categorized by SSAs at 675 nm of 0.92 +/- 0.035 for spring (March, April, and May). After the DRAGON-NE Asia campaign in 2012, the SSA during spring showed a slight increase to 0.93 +/- 0.035. In terms of the volume size distribution, the mode radius of coarse particles was increased from 2.08 +/- 0.40 to 2.14 +/- 0.40. While the original aerosol model consists of volume size distribution and refractive indices obtained before 2011, the new model is constructed by using a total data set after the DRAGON-NE Asia campaign. The large volume of data in high spatial resolution from this intensive campaign can be used to improve the representative aerosol model for East Asia. Accordingly, the new AOD data sets retrieved from a single-channel algorithm, which uses a precalculated look-up table (LUT) with the new aerosol model, show

  11. Place and Role of Mass Media Institution in the Context of the Political Communication System in the XXth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia S. Yufereva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the analysis of classical approaches of foreign scientists (U. Lippman, G. Laswell, etc. and Russian scientists (N.Biryukov, V.Borev, etc.. The purpose is to determine the role of the of mass media institution in context of the political communication system. In order to achieve this aim the information was gathered from books, monographs, scientific articles, etc. In this research the corresponding method was used to get reliable results. The method of historical analyses was implied to study the crucial stages of understanding the phenomenon of mass media in the context of the political communication system. In particular the author studies both foreign and national approaches to conduct an extensive analysis of this topic. The article describes as well the basic principles and areas of analysis, which allow to identify several areas in the understanding of the problem.

  12. A Political Campaign Strategy and Campaign Theme : How to Win a Political Campaign

    OpenAIRE

    河村, 直幸; Kawamura, Naoyuki

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this research paper is to introduce a political campaign strategy. A political campaign should do on a scientific system and needs effective strategy. Before political campaign begin, a candidate and its campaigner needs to analyze election district and sample voter opinion. An election campaign needs campaign theme. The creation of campaign theme needs careful and elaborate planning. A style of campaign varies according to incumbent or challenger. The developing of an effective po...

  13. Communication & Mass Media Complete. Guía básica (Versión 2017)

    OpenAIRE

    Biblioteca de la Universidad de Málaga

    2017-01-01

    Dentro de las Ciencias de la Comunicación, una de las bases de datos más importante y completa es Communication & Mass Media Complete, que de alguna manera viene a sustituir en nuestro catálogo Jábega a Comunication Abstracts, ya que da acceso a casi los mismos títulos que esta última, pero además ofrece el texto completo en PDF de la mayoría de ellos.

  14. Management of In-Field Patient Tracking and Triage by Using Near-Field Communication in Mass Casualty Incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Po-Liang; Su, Yung-Cheng; Hou, Chung-Hung; Chang, Po-Lun

    2017-01-01

    Near field communications (NFC) is an emerging technology that may potentialy assist with disaster management. A smartphone-based app was designed to help track patient flow in real time. A table-drill was held as a brief evaluation and it showed significant imporvement in both efficacy and accuracy of patient management. It is feasible to use NFC-embedded smartphones to clarify the ambiguous and chaotic patient flow in a mass casualty incident.

  15. The synergy between mass-media and public management: a positive perspective for the Departments of Communication and Public Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodan (Mocanu Ana-Maria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to emphasize the major role the departments of communication and public relations detains in the synergy process between mass-media and public institutions, starting from a series of short-circuits which have occurred in Romanian public sector and led to the misunderstanding of messages, due to an unprofessional communication. Synergy, on its basic meaning, represents a simultaneous action oriented in the same direction, which involves several agents who have the same purposes (DEI, 1999. In the present context, I define synergy as intensifying two activities with a determinant role in the proper functioning of public management which contributes, to a large extent, on informing and educating the general public. The premises I start with are that crisis situations occur because of a faulty communication department and these could be avoided if there would be a permanent and efficient relationship between mass-media and public institutions. In other words, an efficiently organized department of communication could enhance company’s activity starting from the partnership between media and public institutions. Through collaboration, both units could present advantages to be felt at the organizational, social, economic and cultural levels.

  16. The Influence of Mass Media and Interpersonal Communication on Societal and Personal Risk Judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Cynthia-Lou.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the influence of mass media, interpersonal channels, and self-efficacy on risk judgment. Confirms that mass media channels influence social-level risk judgments. Finds that personal-level risk was influenced to some degree by mass media channels and that interpersonal channels and self-efficacy account for some variance on social-level…

  17. The Role of the Mass Media in Shaping Public Opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael J.

    This discussion of agenda setting reviews early theories of mass communication and traces the beginnings of agenda setting theory to the 1968 United States presidential campaign, during which researchers found a high correlation between what the media were saying about issues and what the people thought were important issues. The results of more…

  18. The Sprite 2005 Observation Campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chanrion, Olivier Arnaud; Crosby, Norma; Armone, Enrico

    2007-01-01

    The four year "Coupling of Atmospheric Layers (CAL)" EU FP5 Research Training Network project studied unanswered questions related to transient luminous events (sprites, jets and elves) in the upper atmosphere. Consisting of ten scientific work-packages CAL also included intensive training and ou......, to develop their organisational skills, and to enhance their ability to communicate their activities. The campaign was a unique opportunity to train and strengthen skills that will be an asset to their future careers and, overall, was most successful....

  19. Combining Power and Data using Powerline Communication for Harness Simplification and Mass Reduction

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The challenge of this task is to eliminate dedicated communication wires to powered instruments and electronic devices. It will demonstrate realistic data and power...

  20. Understanding Crisis-based Communication on Environmental Protection in China : Mass Media and Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Bo; Yabe, Mitsuyasu; Xia, Wei; Zeng, Yinchu; 矢部, 光保

    2010-01-01

    Beijing has been frequently stroked by sandstorms. During the occurrence of sandstorms, related information increased dramatically due to mass media. How did the mass media in China react to the sandstorm crisis? Did the crisis arouse public awareness of environmental protection? Were the majority willing to pay an environmental tax for air quality improvement? In response to these questions, the purpose of this study is to analyze the impacts of a short-term information explosion from mass m...

  1. White Dwarf Rotation as a Function of Mass and a Dichotomy of Mode Line Widths: Kepler  Observations of 27 Pulsating DA White Dwarfs through K2 Campaign 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermes, J. J.; Fanale, S. M.; Dennihy, E.; Fuchs, J. T.; Dunlap, B. H.; Clemens, J. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Gänsicke, B. T.; Greiss, S.; Tremblay, P.-E.; Fusillo, N. P. Gentile; Raddi, R.; Chote, P.; Marsh, T. R. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Kawaler, Steven D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Bell, Keaton J.; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Redfield, S., E-mail: jjhermes@unc.edu [Wesleyan University Astronomy Department, Van Vleck Observatory, 96 Foss Hill Drive, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States)

    2017-10-01

    We present photometry and spectroscopy for 27 pulsating hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarfs (DAVs; a.k.a. ZZ Ceti stars) observed by the Kepler space telescope up to K2 Campaign 8, an extensive compilation of observations with unprecedented duration (>75 days) and duty cycle (>90%). The space-based photometry reveals pulsation properties previously inaccessible to ground-based observations. We observe a sharp dichotomy in oscillation mode line widths at roughly 800 s, such that white dwarf pulsations with periods exceeding 800 s have substantially broader mode line widths, more reminiscent of a damped harmonic oscillator than a heat-driven pulsator. Extended Kepler coverage also permits extensive mode identification: we identify the spherical degree of 87 out of 201 unique radial orders, providing direct constraints of the rotation period for 20 of these 27 DAVs, more than doubling the number of white dwarfs with rotation periods determined via asteroseismology. We also obtain spectroscopy from 4 m-class telescopes for all DAVs with Kepler photometry. Using these homogeneously analyzed spectra, we estimate the overall mass of all 27 DAVs, which allows us to measure white dwarf rotation as a function of mass, constraining the endpoints of angular momentum in low- and intermediate-mass stars. We find that 0.51–0.73 M {sub ⊙} white dwarfs, which evolved from 1.7–3.0 M {sub ⊙} ZAMS progenitors, have a mean rotation period of 35 hr with a standard deviation of 28 hr, with notable exceptions for higher-mass white dwarfs. Finally, we announce an online repository for our Kepler data and follow-up spectroscopy, which we collect at http://k2wd.org.

  2. The Eurosprite 2005 campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnone, Enrico; Berg, Peter; Boberg, Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    In this report we give an overview of the Eurosprite observation programme and present the results of the Eurosprite 2005 campaign. These campaigns search for occurrences of transient luminous events, such as red sprites, above thunderstorms in France, Spain, northern Italy, Switzerland and south...

  3. Third world campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpin, P

    1988-10-22

    Your readers may be interested in knowing that VSO will be holding a publicity campaign in Scotland in November and December. The campaign is a chance for people to come and talk to us about the opportunities available to them to work in Third World countries. We have a wide range of interesting and challenging jobs in long-term development in health work.

  4. Novel Semi-Direct OH Reactivity (kOH) Measurements by Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry during a Chamber Instrument Comparison Campaign and Continuous Ambient Air Sampling at a Central European GAW Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, J.; Kubistin, D.; Elste, T.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Claude, A.; Englert, J.; Holla, R.; Fuchs, H.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Holland, F.; Novelli, A.; Tillmann, R.; Wegener, R.; Rohrer, F.; Yu, Z.; Bohn, B.; Williams, J.; Pfannerstill, E.; Edtbauer, A.; Kluepfel, T.

    2016-12-01

    Total OH reactivity (kOH) has been recognized as a useful measure to gauge the potential atmospheric oxidation capacity and a few different in-situ measurement techniques have been developed over the last 15 years. Here results are presented from a novel semi-direct method developed by the German Weather Service (DWD) utilizing a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS). Recently in April 2016, the CIMS system participated in a half-blind kOH instrument comparison campaign at the Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) SAPHIR chamber. Experiments provided controlled conditions with a range of different VOC mixtures and varying NOx levels, representing environments dominated by biogenic or urban emissions. Alongside CIMS, kOH was also measured by systems using the comparative reactivity method (CRM) and the pump-probe technique with OH detection. The intercomparison revealed a good performance of CIMS at lower OH reactivities (0-15 s-1), a range for which the instrumental set up was optimized. Limitations of the CIMS system consist of an upper limit for kOH detection and the need for applying a chemical correction function as a result of instrument-internal HOx recycling. Findings and instrument parameters obtained from the FZJ SAPHIR campaign and flow tube experiments are then applied to ambient air kOH measurements at the Meteorological Observatory Hohenpeissenberg (MOHp), Germany. The CIMS instrument is used there for long-term measurements of OH, H2SO4, ROx and kOH. Here, we show ambient air kOH measurements, interpreted in conjunction with volatile organic compounds (VOC) and inorganic trace gases also measured at the GAW station Hohenpeissenberg. These observations provide a unique dataset to investigate turnover rates and seasonal cycles of reactive trace gases, i.e. sources that make up total OH reactivity in this central European, rural setting.

  5. Atmospheric measurements of gas-phase HNO3 and SO2 using chemical ionization mass spectrometry during the MINATROC field campaign 2000 on Monte Cimone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hanke

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The EU-project MINATROC (MINeral dust And TROpospheric Chemistry aims at enabling an estimation of the influence of mineral dust, a major, but to date largely ignored component of tropospheric aerosol, on tropospheric oxidant cycles. Within the scope of this project continuous atmospheric measurements of gas-phase HNO3 and SO2 were conducted in June and July 2000 at the CNR WMO station, situated on Monte Cimone (MTC (44°11' N --10°42' E, 2165 m asl, Italy. African air transporting dust is occasionally advected over the Mediterranean Sea to the site, thus mineral aerosol emitted from Africa will encounter polluted air masses and provide ideal conditions to study their interactions. HNO3 and SO2 were measured with an improved CIMS (chemical ionization mass spectrometry system for ground-based measurements that was developed and built at MPI-K Heidelberg. Since HNO3  is a very sticky compound special care was paid for the air-sampling and background-measurement system. Complete data sets could be obtained before, during and after major dust intrusions. For the first time these measurements might provide a strong observational indication of efficient uptake of gas-phase HNO3 by atmospheric mineral-dust aerosol particles.

  6. Work and “Mass Personal” Communication as Means of Navigating Nutrition and Exercise Concerns in an Online Cancer Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Thompson, Charee; Crook, Brittani; Donovan-Kicken, Erin

    2013-01-01

    Background Health and psychosocial outcomes for young adults affected by cancer have improved only minimally in decades, partially due to a lack of relevant support and information. Given significant unmet needs involving nutrition and exercise, it is important to understand how this audience handles information about food and fitness in managing their cancer experiences. Objective Using the theory of illness trajectories as a framework, we explored how four lines of work associated with living with a chronic illness such as cancer (illness, everyday life, biographical, and the recently explicated construct of communication work) impacts and is impacted by nutrition and exercise concerns. Methods Following a search to extract all nutrition- and exercise-related content from the prior 3 years (January 2008 to February 2011), a sample of more than 1000 posts from an online support community for young adults affected by cancer were qualitatively analyzed employing iterative, constant comparison techniques. Sensitized by illness trajectory research and related concepts, 3 coders worked over 4 months to examine the English-language, de-identified text files of content. Results An analysis of discussion board threads in an online community for young adults dealing with cancer shows that nutrition and exercise needs affect the young adults’ illness trajectories, including their management of illness, everyday life, biographical, and communication work. Furthermore, this paper helps validate development of the “communication work” variable, explores the “mass personal” interplay of mediated and interpersonal communication channels, and expands illness trajectory work to a younger demographic than investigated in prior research. Conclusions Applying the valuable concepts of illness, everyday life, biographical, and communication work provides a more nuanced understanding of how young adults affected by cancer handle exercise and nutrition needs. This knowledge can

  7. Work and "mass personal" communication as means of navigating nutrition and exercise concerns in an online cancer community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Brad; M Thompson, Charee; Crook, Brittani; Donovan-Kicken, Erin

    2013-05-31

    Health and psychosocial outcomes for young adults affected by cancer have improved only minimally in decades, partially due to a lack of relevant support and information. Given significant unmet needs involving nutrition and exercise, it is important to understand how this audience handles information about food and fitness in managing their cancer experiences. Using the theory of illness trajectories as a framework, we explored how four lines of work associated with living with a chronic illness such as cancer (illness, everyday life, biographical, and the recently explicated construct of communication work) impacts and is impacted by nutrition and exercise concerns. Following a search to extract all nutrition- and exercise-related content from the prior 3 years (January 2008 to February 2011), a sample of more than 1000 posts from an online support community for young adults affected by cancer were qualitatively analyzed employing iterative, constant comparison techniques. Sensitized by illness trajectory research and related concepts, 3 coders worked over 4 months to examine the English-language, de-identified text files of content. An analysis of discussion board threads in an online community for young adults dealing with cancer shows that nutrition and exercise needs affect the young adults' illness trajectories, including their management of illness, everyday life, biographical, and communication work. Furthermore, this paper helps validate development of the "communication work" variable, explores the "mass personal" interplay of mediated and interpersonal communication channels, and expands illness trajectory work to a younger demographic than investigated in prior research. Applying the valuable concepts of illness, everyday life, biographical, and communication work provides a more nuanced understanding of how young adults affected by cancer handle exercise and nutrition needs. This knowledge can help provide support and interventional guidance for the

  8. First in situ measurement of the vertical distribution of ice volume in a mesospheric ice cloud during the ECOMA/MASS rocket-campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, M.; Strelnikova, I.; Strelnikov, B. [Leibniz-Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Kuehlungsborn (DE)] (and others)

    2009-07-01

    We present in situ observations of mesospheric ice particles with a new particle detector which combines a classical Faraday cup with the active photoionization of particles and subsequent detection of photoelectrons. Our observations of charged particles and free electrons within a decaying PMSE-layer reveal that the presence of charged particles is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the presence of PMSE. That is, additional requirements like a sufficiently large electron density - which we here estimate to be on the order of {proportional_to}100 cm{sup -3} - and the presence of small scale structures (commonly assumed to be caused by turbulence) need to be satisfied. Our photoelectron measurements reveal a very strong horizontal structuring of the investigated ice layer, i.e., a very broad layer (82-88 km) seen on the upleg is replaced by a narrow layer from 84.5-86 km only 50 km apart on the downleg of the rocket flight. Importantly, the qualitative structure of these photoelectron profiles is in remarkable qualitative agreement with photometer measurements on the same rocket thus demonstrating the reliability of this new technique. We then show that the photoelectron currents are a unique function of the ice particle volume density (and hence ice mass) within an uncertainty of only 15% and we derive corresponding altitude profiles of ice volume densities. Derived values are in the range {proportional_to}2-8 x 10{sup -14} cm{sup 3}/cm{sup 3} (corresponding to mass densities of {proportional_to}20-80 ng/m{sup 3}, and water vapor mixing ratios of 3-12 ppm) and are the first such estimates with the unique spatial resolution of an in situ measurement. (orig.)

  9. First in situ measurement of the vertical distribution of ice volume in a mesospheric ice cloud during the ECOMA/MASS rocket-campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rapp

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We present in situ observations of mesospheric ice particles with a new particle detector which combines a classical Faraday cup with the active photoionization of particles and subsequent detection of photoelectrons. Our observations of charged particles and free electrons within a decaying PMSE-layer reveal that the presence of charged particles is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the presence of PMSE. That is, additional requirements like a sufficiently large electron density – which we here estimate to be on the order of ~100 cm−3 – and the presence of small scale structures (commonly assumed to be caused by turbulence need to be satisfied. Our photoelectron measurements reveal a very strong horizontal structuring of the investigated ice layer, i.e., a very broad layer (82–88 km seen on the upleg is replaced by a narrow layer from 84.5–86 km only 50 km apart on the downleg of the rocket flight. Importantly, the qualitative structure of these photoelectron profiles is in remarkable qualitative agreement with photometer measurements on the same rocket thus demonstrating the reliability of this new technique. We then show that the photoelectron currents are a unique function of the ice particle volume density (and hence ice mass within an uncertainty of only 15% and we derive corresponding altitude profiles of ice volume densities. Derived values are in the range ~2–8×10−14 cm3/cm3 (corresponding to mass densities of ~20–80 ng/m3, and water vapor mixing ratios of 3–12 ppm and are the first such estimates with the unique spatial resolution of an in situ measurement.

  10. First in situ measurement of the vertical distribution of ice volume in a mesospheric ice cloud during the ECOMA/MASS rocket-campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rapp

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We present in situ observations of mesospheric ice particles with a new particle detector which combines a classical Faraday cup with the active photoionization of particles and subsequent detection of photoelectrons. Our observations of charged particles and free electrons within a decaying PMSE-layer reveal that the presence of charged particles is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the presence of PMSE. That is, additional requirements like a sufficiently large electron density – which we here estimate to be on the order of ~100 cm−3 – and the presence of small scale structures (commonly assumed to be caused by turbulence need to be satisfied. Our photoelectron measurements reveal a very strong horizontal structuring of the investigated ice layer, i.e., a very broad layer (82–88 km seen on the upleg is replaced by a narrow layer from 84.5–86 km only 50 km apart on the downleg of the rocket flight. Importantly, the qualitative structure of these photoelectron profiles is in remarkable qualitative agreement with photometer measurements on the same rocket thus demonstrating the reliability of this new technique. We then show that the photoelectron currents are a unique function of the ice particle volume density (and hence ice mass within an uncertainty of only 15% and we derive corresponding altitude profiles of ice volume densities. Derived values are in the range ~2–8×10−14 cm3/cm3 (corresponding to mass densities of ~20–80 ng/m3, and water vapor mixing ratios of 3–12 ppm and are the first such estimates with the unique spatial resolution of an in situ measurement.

  11. Learning Alone, Together: Closed-Cohort Structure in an Online Journalism and Mass Communication Graduate Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Justin C.; Gibson, Rhonda

    2016-01-01

    In a closed-cohort educational program design, students enter a program together, take the same courses together, and, ideally, graduate together. In an effort to increase interaction and communication among students, it has been utilized more and more for online graduate programs. This article surveyed students in one of the few closed-cohort…

  12. Advancements in Curricular Design: Web-Assisted Courseware Applications in Mass Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppert, James E.

    Interactive courseware applications are becoming more prevalent as instructional tools in the communication classroom. Prometheus, developed by George Washington University, allows instructors to post syllabi, course outlines, lecture notes, and tests online, in addition to giving students access to discussions and chat sessions. Other popular…

  13. Articles on Mass Communication in U.S. and Foreign Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKerns, Joseph P.; And Others, Eds.

    1984-01-01

    Annotates a number of journal articles dealing with a variety of subjects, including (1) advertising, (2) audience and communicatory analysis, (3) broadcasting, (4) communication theory, (5) courts and the law, (6) media criticism, (7) editorial policy and methods, (8) journalism education, (9) government and media, and (10) technology. (FL)

  14. Proposal and realization advertising campaign

    OpenAIRE

    RYCHLÁ, Marie

    2008-01-01

    The Bachelor Paper contains proposal and realization advertising campaign, including make charge for cost amount. The advertising campaign is made for chosen product of firm. Advertising campaign is planning by the medium of broadsheet and advertising on the Internet.

  15. Profiling the metabolic signals involved in chemical communication between microbes using imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasulli, Nikolas M; Shank, Elizabeth A

    2016-11-01

    The ability of microbes to secrete bioactive chemical signals into their environment has been known for over a century. However, it is only in the last decade that imaging mass spectrometry has provided us with the ability to directly visualize the spatial distributions of these microbial metabolites. This technology involves collecting mass spectra from multiple discrete locations across a biological sample, yielding chemical ‘maps’ that simultaneously reveal the distributions of hundreds of metabolites in two dimensions. Advances in microbial imaging mass spectrometry summarized here have included the identification of novel strain- or coculture-specific compounds, the visualization of biotransformation events (where one metabolite is converted into another by a neighboring microbe), and the implementation of a method to reconstruct the 3D subsurface distributions of metabolites, among others. Here we review the recent literature and discuss how imaging mass spectrometry has spurred novel insights regarding the chemical consequences of microbial interactions.

  16. EMERGING POLLUTANTS, MASS SPECTROMETRY, AND COMMUNICATING SCIENCE: PHARMACEUTICALS IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historically fundamental to amassing our understanding of environmental processes and chemical pollution is the realm of mass spectrometry (MS) - the mainstay of analytical chemistry - the workhorse that supplies definitive data that environmental scientists and engineers...

  17. Political Campaigns Of The Stalin Period: Their Content, Peculiarities And Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Anna S. Kimerling

    2014-01-01

    The article examines the content, peculiarities and procedures of mass political campaigns that took place between 1946 and 1953 as part of Stalinist policy. The author analyzes the term 'campaign', describes the role of 'letters to the authorities' (complaints) and examines two types of political campaigns: 1) campaigns mobilizing the population for 'the construction of Socialism' and 2) repressive campaigns to eliminate enemies. Archive and newspaper materials help reconstruct the procedure...

  18. Mass media communication of emergency issues and countermeasures in a nuclear accident: Fukushima reporting in European newspapers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego, Eduardo; Cantone, Marie Claire; Oughton, Deborah H.; Tomkiv, Yevgeniya; Perko, Tanja; Prezelj, Iztok

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a large study of 1340 articles published by two major newspapers in six European countries (Belgium, Italy, Norway, Slovenia, Spain and Russia) in the first 2 months after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. The focus of the analysis is on the application and overall impact of protective actions, both during the emergency phase and later, how the newspapers describe those actions, which differences were apparent between countries and what recommendations can be extracted in order to improve general communication about these issues. A clear lesson is that, even under uncertainty and recognising limitations, responsible authorities need to provide transparent, clear and understandable information to the public and the mass media right from the beginning of the early phase of any nuclear emergency. Clear, concise messages should be given. Mass media could play a key role in reassuring the public if the countermeasures are clearly explained. (authors)

  19. NEW COMMUNICATION MEANS AND THE ECONOMIC CHALLENGES BROUGHT IN MASS-MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel BURTIC

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Analogic technology, the old ways of production, distribution, consume and economic fundaments of the mass-media industry are left behind by the new demands and requirements of the creative economy in the digitalization context of the mass-media system. In fact, not only mass-media goes through this transformation, but the whole society. The implications of the digital era are far long to be over and they will affect all mass-media segments: written press, audiovisual, on-line press and social media. The economic aspects, as well as the technical ones, editorial, distribution and final consumers aspects, all will be different from what we experienced in media industry until digitalization. The question is, are we ready to enter into a new economy: the digital economy? Are we ready to enter into a new culture: the digital culture? We entered in the smart world, but do we understand what is happening? The editorial teams that experience a fundamental change of thinking, will be able to overcome this times challenges? These are some of the questions that bothered us along this research. We tried to block in the logic of the system with the new varieties and variables determined by the digital era in order to understand it. We tried to discover the elements whereby mass-media industry and economy can profit more of the digitalization advantages. We tried to find economic solutions for the negative consequences produced in the process of media industry digitalization to be attenuated.

  20. COMMUNICATIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor and D. Barney

    2010-01-01

    CMS Centres, Outreach and the 7 TeV Media Event The new CMS Communications group is now established and is addressing three areas that are critical to CMS as it enters the physics operations phase: - Communications Infrastructure, including almost 50 CMS Centres Worldwide, videoconferencing systems, and CERN meeting rooms - Information systems, including the internal and external Web sites as well as the document preparation and management systems - Outreach and Education activities, including working with print, radio and TV media, visits to CMS, and exhibitions. The group has been active in many areas, with the highest priority being accorded to needs of CMS operations and preparations for the major media event planned for 7 TeV collisions. Unfortunately the CMS Centre@CERN suffered a major setback when, on 21st December, a cooling water pipe froze and burst on the floor above the CMS Centre main room. Water poured through the ceiling, flooding the floor and soaking some of the consoles, before e...

  1. COMMUNICATIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Petrilli

    2013-01-01

    The organisation of the Open Days at the end of September was the single biggest effort of the CMS Communications Group this year. We would like to thank all volunteers for their hard work to show our Point 5 facilities and explain science and technology to the general public. During two days more than 5,000 people visited the CMS detector underground and profited from the surface activities, which included an exhibition on CMS, a workshop on superconductivity, and an activity for our younger visitors involving wooden Kapla blocks. The Communications Group took advantage of the preparations to produce new CMS posters that can be reused at other venues. Event display images have been produced not just for this occasion but also for other exhibits, education purposes, publications etc. During the Open Days, Gilles Jobin, 2012 winner of CERN Collide@CERN prize, performed his Quantum show in Point 5, with the light installation of German artist Julius von Bismarck. Image 3: CERN Open Days at CMS wel...

  2. Find Cancer Early: Evaluation of a Community Education Campaign to Increase Awareness of Cancer Signs and Symptoms in People in Regional Western Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Jane Croager

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionCancer outcomes for people living in rural and remote areas are worse than for those living in urban areas. Although access to and quality of cancer treatment are important determinants of outcomes, delayed presentation has been observed in rural patients.MethodsFormative research with people from rural Western Australia (WA led to the Find Cancer Early campaign. Find Cancer Early was delivered in three regions of WA, with two other regions acting as controls. Staff delivered the campaign using a community engagement approach, including promotion in local media. Television communications were not used to minimize contamination in the control regions. The campaign evaluation was undertaken at 20 months via a computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI survey comparing campaign and control regions. The primary outcome variable was knowledge of cancer signs and symptoms.ResultsRecognition and recall of Find Cancer Early and symptom knowledge were higher in the campaign regions. More than a quarter of those who were aware of the campaign reported seeing the GP as a result of their exposure.ConclusionDespite limited use of mass media, Find Cancer Early successfully improved knowledge of cancer symptoms and possibly led to changes in behavior. Social marketing campaigns using community development can raise awareness and knowledge of a health issue in the absence of television advertising.

  3. Find Cancer Early: Evaluation of a Community Education Campaign to Increase Awareness of Cancer Signs and Symptoms in People in Regional Western Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croager, Emma Jane; Gray, Victoria; Pratt, Iain Stephen; Slevin, Terry; Pettigrew, Simone; Holman, C D'arcy; Bulsara, Max; Emery, Jon

    2018-01-01

    Cancer outcomes for people living in rural and remote areas are worse than for those living in urban areas. Although access to and quality of cancer treatment are important determinants of outcomes, delayed presentation has been observed in rural patients. Formative research with people from rural Western Australia (WA) led to the Find Cancer Early campaign. Find Cancer Early was delivered in three regions of WA, with two other regions acting as controls. Staff delivered the campaign using a community engagement approach, including promotion in local media. Television communications were not used to minimize contamination in the control regions. The campaign evaluation was undertaken at 20 months via a computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) survey comparing campaign and control regions. The primary outcome variable was knowledge of cancer signs and symptoms. Recognition and recall of Find Cancer Early and symptom knowledge were higher in the campaign regions. More than a quarter of those who were aware of the campaign reported seeing the GP as a result of their exposure. Despite limited use of mass media, Find Cancer Early successfully improved knowledge of cancer symptoms and possibly led to changes in behavior. Social marketing campaigns using community development can raise awareness and knowledge of a health issue in the absence of television advertising.

  4. Primary emissions and chemical oxidation of volatile organic compounds emitted from laboratory biomass burning sources during the 2016 FIREX FireLab campaign: measurements from a H3O+ chemical ionization mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggon, M. M.; Warneke, C.; Koss, A.; Sekimoto, K.; Yuan, B.; Lim, C. Y.; Hagan, D. H.; Kroll, J. H.; Cappa, C. D.; Gilman, J.; Lerner, B. M.; Jimenez, J. L.; Yokelson, R. J.; Roberts, J. M.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Non-methane organic gases (NMOG) emitted by biomass burning constitute a large source of reactive carbon in the atmosphere. Once emitted, these compounds may undergo series of reactions with the OH radical and nitrogen oxides to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA), ozone, or other health-impacting products. The complex emission profile and strong variability of biomass burning NMOG play an important, yet understudied, role in the variability of air quality outcomes such as SOA and ozone. In this study, we summarize measurements of biomass burning volatile organic compounds (VOCs) conducted using a H3O+ chemical ionization mass spectrometer (H3O+-CIMS) during the 2016 FIREX laboratory campaign in Missoula, MT. Specifically, we will present data demonstrating the chemical evolution of biomass burning VOCs artificially aged in a field-deployable photooxidation chamber and an oxidation flow reactor. More than 50 OH-oxidation experiments were conducted with biomass types representing a range of North American fuels. Across many fuel types, VOCs with high SOA and ozone formation potential, such as aromatics and furans, were observed to quickly react with the OH radical while oxidized species were generated. We compare the calculated OH reactivity of the primary emissions to the calculated OH reactivity used in many photochemical models and highlight areas requiring additional research in order to improve model/measurement comparisons.

  5. Factors influencing public risk-benefit considerations of nanotechnology: Assessing the effects of mass media, interpersonal communication, and elaborative processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shirley S; Scheufele, Dietram A; Corley, Elizabeth A

    2013-07-01

    This study examines the influence of mass media, interpersonal communication, and elaborative processing on public perception of benefits and risks of nanotechnology, based on a large-scale nationally representative telephone survey of U.S. adult citizens. Results indicate that cognitive processes in the form of news elaboration had a significant positive main effect on benefits outweigh risks perception. The influences of attention to science in newspapers, attention to science news on television, and interpersonal communication about science on public perception of benefits outweigh risks were moderated by elaborative processing, after controlling for socio-demographic variables, religious beliefs, trust in scientists, and scientific knowledge. The findings highlight the importance of elaborative processing when it comes to understanding how the mass media differentially influence public benefits outweigh risks perception of emerging technologies. Specifically, high elaborative processing emphasizes higher levels of perceived benefits outweigh risks than low elaborative processing. This study explores explanations for this phenomenon and offers implications for future research and policy.

  6. Patient-centered communication of community treatment assistants in Tanzania predicts coverage of future mass drug administration for trachoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenson, Alexander; Roter, Debra L; Mkocha, Harran; Munoz, Beatriz; West, Sheila

    2018-06-01

    Prevention of Trachoma, the leading cause of infectious blindness, requires community treatment assistants (CTAs) to perform mass drug administration (MDA) of azithromycin. Previous research has shown that female CTAs have higher MDA coverage, but no studies have focused on the content of conversation. We hypothesize that female CTAs had more patient-centered communication and higher MDA coverage. In 2011, CTAs from 23 distribution sites undergoing MDA as part of the Partnership for Rapid Elimination of Trachoma were selected. CTA - villager interactions were audio recorded. Audio was analyzed using an adaptation of the Roter Interaction Analysis System. The outcome of interest was the proportion of adults receiving MDA in 2011 who returned in 2012. 58 CTAs and 3122 interactions were included. Sites with female CTAs had significantly higher patient-centeredness ratio (0.548 vs 0.400) when compared to sites with male CTAs. Sites with more patient-centered interactions had higher proportion of patients return (p = 0.009). Female CTAs had higher proportion of patient-centered communication. Patient centered communication was associated with higher rates of return for MDA. Greater patient-centered connection with health care providers affects participation in public health efforts, even when those providers are lay health workers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Impact of Mass Communication on Consumer Decision-Making among the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ruth; And Others

    Elderly residents of a large southern city were surveyed in a study designed to examine the effects of media advertising on the elderly's perceptions. The 91 subjects completed a questionnaire on social factors such as the subjects' self-image, their perceptions of the elderly as portrayed by the mass media, product brand preferences, sex role…

  8. Young people's comparative recognition and recall of an Australian Government Sexual Health Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Megan S C; Gold, Judy; Bowring, Anna L; Pedrana, Alisa E; Hellard, Margaret E

    2015-05-01

    In 2009, the Australian Government's National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program launched a multi-million dollar sexual health campaign targeting young people. We assessed campaign recognition among a community sample of young people. Individuals aged 16-29 years self-completed a questionnaire at a music festival. Participants were asked whether they recognised the campaign image and attempted to match the correct campaign message. Recognition of two concurrent campaigns, GlaxoSmithKline's The Facts genital herpes campaign (targeting young women) and the Drama Downunder campaign (targeting gay men) were assessed simultaneously. Among 471 participants, just 29% recognised the National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign. This compared to 52% recognising The Facts and 27% recognising Drama Downunder. Of 134 who recognised the National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign, 27% correctly recalled the campaign messages compared to 61% of those recognising the Facts campaign, and 25% of those recognising the Drama Downunder campaign. There was no difference in National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign recognition by gender or age. Campaign recognition and message recall of the National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign was comparatively low. Future mass media sexual health campaigns targeting young people can aim for higher recognition and recall rates than that achieved by the National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign. Alternative distribution channels and message styles should be considered to increase these rates. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. How Do Online Citizens Persuade Fellow Voters? Using Twitter During the 2012 Dutch Parliamentary Election Campaign

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dayican, B.; Amrit, Chintan Amrit; Aarts, Kees; Dassen, A.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how Twitter was used by voters to participate in electoral campaigning during the Dutch election campaign of 2012. New social media networks like Twitter are believed to be efficient tools of communication between electoral candidates and voters during electoral campaign

  10. Integrating Public Relations with Advertising: An Exercise for Students in the College Public Relations Campaigns Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Reginald Ford

    2012-01-01

    Today's public relations (PR) campaigns courses give students the opportunity to research, analyze, plan, and, in many cases, execute a campaign for a real client. Even so, today's campaigns courses may leave students with a weak understanding of how PR can best partner with other tools in the communication mix, namely advertising. Educators may…

  11. The impact of exposure to mass media campaigns and social support on levels and trends of HIV-related stigma and discrimination in Nigeria: tools for enhancing effective HIV prevention programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakolade, R; Adebayo, S B; Anyanti, J; Ankomah, A

    2010-05-01

    People living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHAs) often face stigma and discrimination, especially in developing countries. HIV-related stigma is expressed through social ostracism, personal rejection, direct and indirect discrimination, and denial from families and friends. Consequently, it is associated with reduced adoption of preventive and care behaviours, including condom use, seeking for HIV test and care-seeking behaviour subsequent to diagnosis. Ignorance about the epidemiology of the disease on modes of transmission and prevention aggravates HIV-related stigma in Nigeria. Behaviour change communication activities through mass media have been shown to be an effective approach in improving people's knowledge about the disease. This paper monitors trends in the level of accepting attitudes towards PLWHAs in Nigeria between 2003 and 2007. It also evaluates the impact of exposure to mass media and social support on the levels of accepting attitudes towards PLWHAs. A significant and positive trend was evident between 2003 and 2007 (pmedia communications on HIV and AIDS issues and social support were significantly related to the reduced stigma and discrimination against PLWHAs (p<0.0001).

  12. Impact of a Rural Domestic Violence Prevention Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadomski, Anne M.; Tripp, Maria; Wolff, Debra A.; Lewis, Carol; Jenkins, Paul

    2001-01-01

    A 7-month public health information campaign used radio advertising, mass media articles, mailings, and posters to address attitudes and behavioral intentions toward domestic violence in a rural county. The campaign raised public awareness, particularly among men; increased stated intentions to intervene in a neighbor's domestic violence; and…

  13. Unsustainability of a measles immunisation campaign - rise in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 1990 national mass measles immunisation campaign resulted in a marked reduction in measles incidence in Natal/KwaZulu in the first 6 months after the campaign. Data from the measles ward admissions book at Clairwood Hospital were collated for the period 1 January 1989 to 31 May 1992 to assess the ...

  14. Single Thai women's interpersonal communication and mass media reception on AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Y; Schunck, M

    1997-04-01

    This research examines young unmarried women's ways of talking about AIDS, AIDS prevention, and its relationship to mass media AIDS messages in Thailand. Data were derived from a survey conducted in four districts of Kanchanaburi province. Three hundred ninety-seven unmarried women were extracted from the approximately 1,800 original subjects for this analysis. Respondents were asked about the subjects and extent of their conversations about AIDS, the choice of discussion partners, considerations of social appropriateness in talking about the disease, as well as their risk perception. Important findings were that (a) women tend to talk about AIDS primarily with friends and siblings, (b) their reception level of mass media messages is related to the number of topics discussed and frequency of talks by the subjects, and (c) socioeconomic status and age are related to the variety and frequency of talking about AIDS. Implications for AIDS education are discussed.

  15. Increasingly artful. Applying commercial marketing communication techniques to family planning communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J R

    1992-08-01

    Family planning (FP) and social marketing messages must utilize the rules concerning artfulness developed in the private sector for effective communication in the mass media around the world. They have to compete for the attention of television program viewers accustomed to receiving hundreds of 30-second messages. There are some rules essential to any effective communication program: 1) Command attention. In the US over 1350 different mass media messages vie for attention every single day. FP messages are sensitive, but dullness and passivity is not a requisite. 2) Clarify the message, and keep it simple and direct. Mixed messages equal less effective communication. 3) Communicate a benefit. Consumers do not only buy products, they buy expectations of benefits. 4) Consistency counts. The central message should remain consistent to allow the evaluation of its effectiveness, but execution should vary from time to time and medium to medium. 5) Cater to the heart and the head. Effective communication offers real emotional values. 6) Create trust. Words, graphics, sounds, and casting in the campaign should support 1 central key promise to a single prime prospect. 7) Call for action. Both commercial and social marketing campaigns can calculate results by quantifiable measurement of sales (of condoms) transactions (the number of IUD insertions), floor traffic (clinic visits), attitude shifts, and behavior change. The PRO-PATER Vasectomy Campaign of 1988 in Sao Paulo, Brazil successfully used the above rules for effective communication. During the 1st 2 months of the campaign, phone calls increased by over 300%, new clients by 97%, and actual vasectomies performed by 79%.

  16. Nonfatal road traffic injuries: can road safety campaigns prevent hazardous behavior? An Italian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampetti, R; Messina, G; Quercioli, C; Vencia, F; Genco, L; Di Bartolomeo, L; Nante, N

    2013-01-01

    Road traffic injuries are a widespread problem and are very difficult to prevent. The purpose of this study was to verify whether intensive versus basic road safety education programs are associated with different incidence and severity of nonfatal road injuries. The study had an ecological design and involved Local Health Authority One (LHA1) in Salerno, Italy, which includes 20 municipalities. Data on nonfatal road injuries occurring in the periods June to August 2003 and June to August 2008 were obtained from trained operators through the information system of the emergency department. All 20 municipalities received a basic community road safety education program (publicity campaign using bill-posting, brochures, mass media communication with press conferences, articles in local papers, radio and television interviews, and a dedicated LHA1 web site), and 12 municipalities also received an intensive education campaign (in secondary schools, community conferences, and activities organized by police and firefighters). The incidence and severity of nonfatal road traffic injuries were compared between June to August 2003 (before the campaign) and June to August 2008. The total number of injuries in all 20 municipalities in 2003 and 2008 was 907 and 755, respectively. The incidence of injuries decreased in the study period both in the 8 municipalities where only the basic campaign was run (difference in incidence = -0.4; P = .053) and in the 12 municipalities where the intensive campaign was implemented (difference in incidence = -0.5; P road safety education. This does not mean that such campaigns are useless (they are important to raise awareness) but that they should be supplemented with complementary activities in order to be really effective.

  17. [Research on China railway health campaign in 1930s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huaping

    2015-01-01

    The motivation factors of China's railway health campaign in 1930s included avocation by the government, mass media mobilization, railway authorities' hygiene awareness and the systematization of the construction of organization. During the health campaign, the railway authorities adopted various approaches for its formation, including the rally speeches, distribution of materials, cleaning and vaccination etc. Unfortunately, the actual effect of railway health campaign was not satisfactory, yet, it enhanced theoretically railway employees' health knowledge and contributed to the promotion of modernization of hygienic knowledge. Meanwhile, there still existed many problems in the railway health campaign, for example, lack of funds, formalism and uneven development among the railway bureaus.

  18. In Search of the Campaign Fan: Media Use and Caucus Participation in the 1980 Primary Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droge, David; Davis, Kristine

    High turnout for the 1980 Iowa caucuses and conflicting explanations for that high turnout formed the background for an investigation of the relationship between media uses and gratifications, involvement in the local community, and caucus participation. Campaign fan gratifications--either excitement seeking or communicative utility--were…

  19. The Impact of Modern Information and Communication Technologies on Social Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konieczny, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have empowered non-state social actors, notably, social movements. They were quick to seize ICTs in the past (printing presses, television, fax machines), which was a major factor in their successes. Mass email campaigns, blogs, their audio- and video- variants (the podcasts and the videocasts),…

  20. Anti-idling campaign : Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-11-01

    The efficient use of transportation fuels and other petroleum products is being promoted by the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute. The Institute was busy during the past year in attempting to gain an understanding of the measures that could be adopted to assist motorists clearly identify the relationship between fuel consumption, personal transportation spending, and environmental impacts. The Institute undertook these efforts with Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) Office of Energy Efficiency (which both provided funding) and the Public Policy Forum. A first step proposed was the development of an anti-idling public awareness campaign. It was recognized that idling a vehicle for more than ten seconds costs money and wastes fuel, while simultaneously contributing to air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and climate change. The campaign also involved Esso, Shell, Petro-Canada, Canadian Tire and Sunoco for the development and implementation phases over the last two weeks of August 2002. A pilot campaign was tested in Mississauga, Ontario. Various materials were used for this campaign, such as posters, banners, cling vinyl window decals, air fresheners and information cards. The main successes of the campaign were: testing the methods of communicating the anti-idling message to drivers at gasoline retailing sites, increasing awareness among the driving public concerning the problems resulting from excessive idling, and encouraging the reduction of idling whenever and wherever it takes place. 1 tab.

  1. Advanced Fuels Campaign Execution Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemal Pasamehmetoglu

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) Execution Plan is to communicate the structure and management of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program. Included in this document is an overview of the FCRD program, a description of the difference between revolutionary and evolutionary approaches to nuclear fuel development, the meaning of science-based development of nuclear fuels, and the “Grand Challenge” for the AFC that would, if achieved, provide a transformational technology to the nuclear industry in the form of a high performance, high reliability nuclear fuel system. The activities that will be conducted by the AFC to achieve success towards this grand challenge are described and the goals and milestones over the next 20 to 40 year period of research and development are established.

  2. Advanced Fuels Campaign Execution Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemal Pasamehmetoglu

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) Execution Plan is to communicate the structure and management of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program. Included in this document is an overview of the FCRD program, a description of the difference between revolutionary and evolutionary approaches to nuclear fuel development, the meaning of science-based development of nuclear fuels, and the 'Grand Challenge' for the AFC that would, if achieved, provide a transformational technology to the nuclear industry in the form of a high performance, high reliability nuclear fuel system. The activities that will be conducted by the AFC to achieve success towards this grand challenge are described and the goals and milestones over the next 20 to 40 year period of research and development are established.

  3. Evaluation of a Marketing Campaign: A Case Study of Company X

    OpenAIRE

    Moisio, Ada

    2015-01-01

    This thesis concentrates on evaluating a marketing campaign for the case Company X in Finland. The thesis will present the importance of thoroughly understanding different stages of the process of implementing a public communication campaign. Systematic evaluation of marketing campaigns can provide the case company with invaluable information. The reason for elaborating this research was the authors aspiration in cooperation with case companies management to evaluate campaign data from a ...

  4. Short communication. Incidence of the OLIPE mass-trapping on olive non-target arthropods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcel, M.; Ruano, F.; Sanllorente, O.; Caballero, J. A.; Campos, M.

    2009-07-01

    Due to the widespread of mass-trapping systems for Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) (Diptera: Tephritidae) control in organic olive cropping, an assessment of the impact on arthropods of the olive agroecosystem was undertaken for the OLIPE trap type. The sampling was carried out in Los Pedroches valley (Cordoba, southern Spain) in three different organic orchard sites. Six OLIPE traps baited with diammonium phosphate were collected from each site (18 in total) from July to November 2002 every 15 days on average. Additionally, in the latest sampling dates, half the traps were reinforced with pheromone to assess its impact on non-target arthropods. From an average of 43.0 catches per trap (cpt) of non-target arthropods during the whole sampling period, the highest number of captures corresponds to the Order Diptera (that represents a 68.5%), followed distantly by the family Formicidae (12.9%) and the Order Lepidoptera (10.4%). Besides the impact on ant populations, other beneficial groups were recorded such as parasitoids (Other Hymenoptera: 2.6%) and predators (Araneae: 1.0%; Neuroptera s.l.: 0.4%). Concerning the temporal distribution of catches, total captures peaked on July and had a slight increase at the beginning of autumn. No significant differences were observed between traps with and without pheromone. The results evidence that a considerable amount of non-specific captures could be prevented by improving the temporal planning of the mass-trapping system. (Author) 25 refs.

  5. Brief communication: Hair density and body mass in mammals and the evolution of human hairlessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandel, Aaron A

    2013-09-01

    Humans are unusual among mammals in appearing hairless. Several hypotheses propose explanations for this phenotype, but few data are available to test these hypotheses. To elucidate the evolutionary history of human "hairlessness," a comparative approach is needed. One previous study on primate hair density concluded that great apes have systematically less dense hair than smaller primates. While there is a negative correlation between body size and hair density, it remains unclear whether great apes have less dense hair than is expected for their body size. To revisit the scaling relationship between hair density and body size in mammals, I compiled data from the literature on 23 primates and 29 nonprimate mammals and conducted Phylogenetic Generalized Least Squares regressions. Among anthropoids, there is a significant negative correlation between hair density and body mass. Chimpanzees display the largest residuals, exhibiting less dense hair than is expected for their body size. There is a negative correlation between hair density and body mass among the broader mammalian sample, although the functional significance of this scaling relationship remains to be tested. Results indicate that all primates, and chimpanzees in particular, are relatively hairless compared to other mammals. This suggests that there may have been selective pressures acting on the ancestor of humans and chimpanzees that led to an initial reduction in hair density. To further understand the evolution of human hairlessness, a systematic study of hair density and physiology in a wide range of species is necessary. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Les Médias de Masse au Service de la Communication de Guerre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrano, Yeny

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cet article propose une réflexion autour de la question Comment lesmédias de masse informent-ils les citoyens à propos d'une confrontation armée et quelles variables interviennent dans la mis-e en discours d'une guerre par les médias? Nous faisons l'hypothèse que ce travail informatif est déterminé non seulement par des variables propres aux médias mais aussi par les contraintes propres à une situation de guerre. Cette hypothèse, qui semblerait a priori évidente, met l'accent sur le fait que la production de l'information, en situation de guerre, ne dépend pas exclusivement des intentions et du travail des professionnels de l'information. En effet, de nombreuses contraintes militaires et stratégiques entrent en contradiction avec les principes de "neutralité", d"impartialité", etc. défendus par les médias de masse et leurs professionnels.

  7. Stephen Hawking, the Grand Design and the mass media communication: Philosophy, Science and Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Sequeiros

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The return of summer vacances 2010 coincide with the notice concerning the inminent publication of a provocative and scandalous book by the eminent Phisicist Stephen Hawking. The Grand Design came out on September 7 in EE.UU. and on 9 in United Kingdom. On November 15th, the Spanish edition have been issued. The Spanish newpapers have published some fragments, which apparently show Hawking intends to prove scientifically that God not exists. The communications media remark by different ways the scarce frangments of the text: «God is not necessary», «Hawking proves God not exists», «Creator God is a destroyed mith», «Hawking scientifically proves God not exists», «God expeled of the Universe»… We have tracked more than hundred web-pages in which the contents of Hawking book are comment. Rationalists and religious sectors have standed in the debate. But, what has Hawking really defended in The Grand Design?

  8. Participatory design of mass health communication in three languages for seniors and people with disabilities on Medicaid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, Linda; Rothschild, Beccah; Graham, Carrie; Ivey, Susan L; Konishi, Susana

    2009-12-01

    We used participatory design methods to develop and test guidebooks about health care choices intended for 600 000 English-, Spanish-, and Chinese-speaking seniors and people with disabilities receiving Medicaid in California. Design and testing processes were conducted with consumers and professionals; they included 24 advisory group interviews, 36 usability tests, 18 focus groups (105 participants), 51 key informant interviews, guidebook readability and suitability testing, linguistic adaptation, and iterative revisions of 4 prototypes. Participatory design processes identified preferences of intended audiences for guidebook content, linguistic adaptation, and format; guidebook readability was scored at the sixth- to eighth-grade level and suitability at 95%. These findings informed the design of a separate efficacy study that showed high guidebook usage and satisfaction, and better gains in knowledge, confidence, and intended behaviors among intervention participants than among control participants. Participatory design can be used effectively in mass communication to inform vulnerable audiences of health care choices. The techniques described can be adapted for a broad range of health communication interventions.

  9. Effective responder communication improves efficiency and psychological outcomes in a mass decontamination field experiment: implications for public behaviour in the event of a chemical incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Holly; Drury, John; Amlôt, Richard; Rubin, G James; Williams, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The risk of incidents involving mass decontamination in response to a chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear release has increased in recent years, due to technological advances, and the willingness of terrorists to use unconventional weapons. Planning for such incidents has focused on the technical issues involved, rather than on psychosocial concerns. This paper presents a novel experimental study, examining the effect of three different responder communication strategies on public experiences and behaviour during a mass decontamination field experiment. Specifically, the research examined the impact of social identity processes on the relationship between effective responder communication, and relevant outcome variables (e.g. public compliance, public anxiety, and co-operative public behaviour). All participants (n = 111) were asked to visualise that they had been involved in an incident involving mass decontamination, before undergoing the decontamination process, and receiving one of three different communication strategies: 1) 'Theory-based communication': Health-focused explanations about decontamination, and sufficient practical information; 2) 'Standard practice communication': No health-focused explanations about decontamination, sufficient practical information; 3) 'Brief communication': No health-focused explanations about decontamination, insufficient practical information. Four types of data were collected: timings of the decontamination process; observational data; and quantitative and qualitative self-report data. The communication strategy which resulted in the most efficient progression of participants through the decontamination process, as well as the fewest observations of non-compliance and confusion, was that which included both health-focused explanations about decontamination and sufficient practical information. Further, this strategy resulted in increased perceptions of responder legitimacy and increased identification with

  10. Effective responder communication improves efficiency and psychological outcomes in a mass decontamination field experiment: implications for public behaviour in the event of a chemical incident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Carter

    Full Text Available The risk of incidents involving mass decontamination in response to a chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear release has increased in recent years, due to technological advances, and the willingness of terrorists to use unconventional weapons. Planning for such incidents has focused on the technical issues involved, rather than on psychosocial concerns. This paper presents a novel experimental study, examining the effect of three different responder communication strategies on public experiences and behaviour during a mass decontamination field experiment. Specifically, the research examined the impact of social identity processes on the relationship between effective responder communication, and relevant outcome variables (e.g. public compliance, public anxiety, and co-operative public behaviour. All participants (n = 111 were asked to visualise that they had been involved in an incident involving mass decontamination, before undergoing the decontamination process, and receiving one of three different communication strategies: 1 'Theory-based communication': Health-focused explanations about decontamination, and sufficient practical information; 2 'Standard practice communication': No health-focused explanations about decontamination, sufficient practical information; 3 'Brief communication': No health-focused explanations about decontamination, insufficient practical information. Four types of data were collected: timings of the decontamination process; observational data; and quantitative and qualitative self-report data. The communication strategy which resulted in the most efficient progression of participants through the decontamination process, as well as the fewest observations of non-compliance and confusion, was that which included both health-focused explanations about decontamination and sufficient practical information. Further, this strategy resulted in increased perceptions of responder legitimacy and increased

  11. Characterizing Organic Aerosol Processes and Climatically Relevant Properties via Advanced and Integrated Analyses of Aerosol Mass Spectrometry Datasets from DOE Campaigns and ACRF Measurements. Final report for DE-SC0007178

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qi [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2017-05-21

    Organic aerosols (OA) are an important but poorly characterized component of the earth’s climate system. Enormous complexities commonly associated with OA composition and life cycle processes have significantly complicated the simulation and quantification of aerosol effects. To unravel these complexities and improve understanding of the properties, sources, formation, evolution processes, and radiative properties of atmospheric OA, we propose to perform advanced and integrated analyses of multiple DOE aerosol mass spectrometry datasets, including two high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS) datasets from intensive field campaigns on the aerosol life cycle and the Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) datasets from long-term routine measurement programs at ACRF sites. In this project, we will focus on 1) characterizing the chemical (i.e., composition, organic elemental ratios), physical (i.e., size distribution and volatility), and radiative (i.e., sub- and super-saturated growth) properties of organic aerosols, 2) examining the correlations of these properties with different source and process regimes (e.g., primary, secondary, urban, biogenic, biomass burning, marine, or mixtures), 3) quantifying the evolutions of these properties as a function of photochemical processing, 4) identifying and characterizing special cases for important processes such as SOA formation and new particle formation and growth, and 5) correlating size-resolved aerosol chemistry with measurements of radiative properties of aerosols to determine the climatically relevant properties of OA and characterize the relationship between these properties and processes of atmospheric aerosol organics. Our primary goal is to improve a process-level understanding of the life cycle of organic aerosols in the Earth’s atmosphere. We will also aim at bridging between observations and models via synthesizing and translating the results and insights generated from this

  12. Online Political Campaigning during the 2014 Regional Elections in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Baranowski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the analysis and evaluation of political communication on a regional level. Without any doubt, the Internet revolution affected electoral campaigning on every level. Online campaigning before local elections is often marginalized by political scientists and other scholars researching political marketing. However, the question emerges: are the candidates aware of the possibilities that new media has brought to political communication? Content analysis of all the major online communication tools has allowed the author to analyze the patterns of using websites, official Facebook profiles and Twitter accounts of candidates during the 2014 Lower Silesian Regional assembly elections. The Lower Silesian Voivodeship is among the fastest developing regions in Poland with high Internet penetration rate. Is the Internet campaign treated as a second-class way to communicate with potential voters, or is it perceived as an opportunity to reach electorate online?

  13. MASS MEDIA COMMUNICATION OF EMERGENCY ISSUES AND COUNTERMEASURES IN A NUCLEAR ACCIDENT: FUKUSHIMA REPORTING IN EUROPEAN NEWSPAPERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Eduardo; Cantone, Marie Claire; Oughton, Deborah H; Perko, Tanja; Prezelj, Iztok; Tomkiv, Yevgeniya

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents the results of a large study of 1340 articles published by two major newspapers in six European countries (Belgium, Italy, Norway, Slovenia, Spain and Russia) in the first 2 months after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. The focus of the analysis is on the application and overall impact of protective actions, both during the emergency phase and later, how the newspapers describe those actions, which differences were apparent between countries and what recommendations can be extracted in order to improve general communication about these issues. A clear lesson is that, even under uncertainty and recognising limitations, responsible authorities need to provide transparent, clear and understandable information to the public and the mass media right from the beginning of the early phase of any nuclear emergency. Clear, concise messages should be given. Mass media could play a key role in reassuring the public if the countermeasures are clearly explained. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. New computer security campaign

    CERN Multimedia

    Alizée Dauvergne

    2010-01-01

    A new campaign is taking shape to promote computer security. The slogan “SEC_RITY is not complete without U!” reminds users of the importance of their contribution. The campaign kicks off on 10 June with a public awareness day in the Council Chamber.   The new campaign, organised by CERN’s computer security team, will focus on prevention and involving the user. “This is an education and awareness-raising campaign for all users at CERN,” explains Stefan Lueders, in charge of computer security. “Every day, we register thousands of computer attacks against CERN: there are attempts to tamper with web pages, hack into user accounts, take over servers, and much more. A successful attack could mean confidential user information being divulged, services being interrupted or data being lost. It could even affect operations at CERN. Another factor is the damage that a successful attack could inflict on the Organization’s reputation. &...

  15. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    Tuesday 19 March 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion sanguine of Geneva If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  16. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion Sanguine of Geneva will be held at CERN on Tuesday 13 March 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  17. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Wednesday 13 November 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs will be held a blood donors campaign, organized by the Etablissement de Transfusion de Haute-Savoie If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  18. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Établissement de Transfusion de Rhône-Alpes will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2000 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  19. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion d'Annemasse will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  20. Campaign Finance: Reporter Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Campaign finance might seem like the exclusive province of political reporters, but there are many good reasons why authors should be paying attention--both in races for education positions and in other key races at the local, state, and federal levels with implications for education. Basic math is a necessary skill and familiarity with a…