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Sample records for mass chest screening

  1. Mass chest screening in Luxembourg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayser, P.

    1987-01-01

    At the present time, all the groups of people examined are not belonging to high risk groups or groups capable of spreading the disease either among colleagues of the profession or users of products or services they are providing. Consequently it will be important to better select in the future the high risk groups. It will be probably necessary to abrogate the examination of future couples. There is presently a project to be adopted in the near future stipulating that mass radiological examinations for prevention of diseases have to be approved by the Ministry of Health, only if they are medically and epidemiologically justified

  2. Estimation of population doses from chest mass screening, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashizume, Tadashi; Maruyama, Takashi

    1977-01-01

    The population doses in mass photofluorography of the chest were estimated on the basis of nation-wide radiological survey. A total frequency of photofluorographic examinations for the chest mass survey was 18.3 million for males and 15.0 million for females, with a total of 33.3 million. Mass surveys of the chest during the school age are carried out only at the time of admission into the primary school (5 or 6 years old) and at the second class of the junior high school (13 or 14 years old). The gonad doses were determined with an ionization chamber placed at the position of gonad in tissue-equivalent phantoms. The active bone marrow was subdivided into 72 elements. The dose contribution to the marrow arising from the particular exposure conditions was calculated at each site within the elements, using the depth-dose curves experimentally determined and the proportion of the total active bone marrow present at that site. The resultant genetically significant dose for males and females was 0.07 and 0.025 mrad per person per year, respectively, with a total of 0.032 mrad per person per year. The per Caput mean marrow dose for male and female was 5.5 and 4.2 mrad per year, respectively, with a total of 9.7 mrad per year. The leukemia significant dose was calculated from the per Caput mean marrow dose by adopting weighting factor, that is leukemia significant factor. The resultant leukemia significant factor for male and female was 5.2 and 4.1 mrad per person per year, respectively. (auth.)

  3. Cost-effectiveness and radiological risk associated with mass chest screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stieve, F.E.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents in summary the cost effectiveness and radiological risks associated with mass chest tuberculosis screening in major European countries. The state of tuberculosis in west Europe, the cost effectiveness of mass screening, international standards regarding radiation doses as well as the need for quality control are addressed

  4. X-ray chest mass screening for pulmonary tuberculosis in Friuli Venezia Giulia region, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbina, V.; Contento, G.; Padovani, R.; Pitzalis, G.; Nigris, C.

    1987-01-01

    Since 1980, the law which instituted the National Health Service (NHS) in Italy, attributing both the organization and the administration of all public health services to local government bodies referred to as 'Regioni', is being gradually enforced. One result is that the mass screening services are now set up on local basis, involving important practice and regulatory changes. These in particular concern chest X-ray mass screening centers, which were formerly organized as Provincial Antituberculosis Services, supervised by the Ministry of Health and dealing almost exclusively with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Today, chest X-ray mass screening is carried on the 'Centri Sociali di Pneumologia', which in some case inherited the staff and diagnostic facilities of Provincial Antituberculosis Services, but are directed by the Councillorship of Health of the 'Regioni' and, in most cases, deal with the diagnosis and care of general pulmonary diseases. Therefore, regulations and practices of mass screening are eventually different in most Italian 'Regioni', depending on different economic and social situations. In this connection, this paper reports up-to-date information and data on frequency, effectiveness, cost and radiation risks of chest X-ray screening in the 'Regione Autonoma Friuli Venezia Giulia' (FVG), North-East Italy, population 1,300,000

  5. Notes on a local study on effectiveness and risk of X-ray mass chest screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbina, V.; Leonardi, M.

    1987-01-01

    This contribution consists of some special remarks, which may be of general interest, on the results of a local investigation on effectiveness and radiological risk of mass chest screening carried out in Friuli Venezia Giulia, an area of North-East Italy limited by well defined geographical and administrative borders. Population is about 1,300,000, ten percent of which is undergoing X-ray chest screening each year. The results of the study are in the working report of the technical workshop on mass screening organized on 4-5 December 1984 in Luxembourg by CEC and CEA. The study itself does not intend to have any character of generality. It has been proposed as an example of syntetic methodology for other similar local investigations which could possibly constitute a reliable basis for putting together larger ones, of national range, as already mentioned in the report. The conclusions on the results of this study seem obvious to us, however, we are aware that any obvious conclusion must be considered very carefully especially when dealing with a very complex matter as epidemiologic statistic, and particularly if we consider the previous papers on this subject as well as other reports presented in the workshop. Finally, we hope that our remarks may at least contribute as a good background for further discussion

  6. Mass chest radiography in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papavasiliou, C.

    1987-01-01

    In Greece mass chest radiography has been performed regularly on various population groups as a measure to control tuberculosis. Routine chest radiography is performed in most Greek hospitals on admission. In this report available data-admittedly inadequate-directly or indirectly addressing the problem of benefit versus the risk or cost associated with this examination is presented

  7. Imaging of fetal chest masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Richard A. [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Prenatal imaging with high-resolution US and rapid acquisition MRI plays a key role in the accurate diagnosis of congenital chest masses. Imaging has enhanced our understanding of the natural history of fetal lung masses, allowing for accurate prediction of outcome, parental counseling, and planning of pregnancy and newborn management. This paper will focus on congenital bronchopulmonary malformations, which account for the vast majority of primary lung masses in the fetus. In addition, anomalies that mimic masses and less common causes of lung masses will be discussed. (orig.)

  8. Practice and regulations of radiological chest screening in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, O.; Hjardemaal, O.

    1987-01-01

    Mass chest screening by means of photofluorography was initiated in Denmark in the first years after World War II. The number of persons examined yearly increased continually to a maximum of 900.000 (a fourth of the whole population) in 1972. At this time efforts were made to reduce mass chest screening to small specific risk groups in the population, resulting in a gradual reduction until 1983 when mass chest screening was totally abolished. The technical provisions for photofluorographic X-ray equipment and for X-ray rooms as well as the provisions for the inspection of the installations are stated. Finally results of surveys regarding exposure measurements on photofluorografic equipment are shown and a maximum permissible level of the exposure measured at the entrance plane of the equipment is recommended. (author)

  9. Improving screen-film chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, N.; Baker, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Traditionally symmetric screens and double emulsion symmetric films with medium to wide latitutde are used for radiography of the chest. Beacuse of mismatch of transmitted exposure through the chest with limited latitude of the film, most of the dense areas of the chest are underexposed. Kodak's recent innovation of a unique asymmetry screen-film system (InSight) alleviates this problem. Our phantom measurement indicates that the InSight system offers wider recording range, and the flexible grid permits more positional latitude than conventional grids. Our five-year extensive clinical experience indicates that dense anatomic structures, such as mediastinum, retrocardiac and subdiaphragmatic, are more visible in the InSight system than in the conventional symmetric system. Similarly, a substantial improvement in image quality in portable chest imaging is realized by use of flexible grids because of scatter rejection and invisible grid lines. (author)

  10. Pennsylvania's experience in mass screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerusky, T.M.

    1975-01-01

    A policy statement issued in 1972 by the Assistant Secretary for Health and Scientific Affairs of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare recommended that community chest x-ray surveys should not be used as a screening procedure for the detection of cardiopulmonary disorders and that when chest x-ray screening programs are justified for selected population groups, the full size photograph, rather than the miniature film, is preferred. A survey conducted in 1974--75 revealed that chest x rays were required for prisoners, prison employees, school employees, food handlers, and students who wished to participate in sports. Meetings were held with medical associations in the hope of stopping the local mass-screening operations. Of 27 groups in Pennsylvania involved in tuberculosis screening, 12 groups refused or were unwilling to phase out their photofluorographic procedures. The problem will be resolved by regulation

  11. Cost-effectiveness and risk associated with radiological chest screening programmes illustrated at the results of mass-screening in Bavaria/Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Th.; Stieve, F.E.

    1987-01-01

    In 1975 the German Central Committee on combating tuberculosis, in accordance with international recommendations, proposed to continue non-selected mass surveys as long as more than 4 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis are detected in a total of 10,000 persons whose disease has not yet been detected by other means. In December 1977 the same recommendation was repeated. Meantime, however, the incidence and mortality of pulmonary tuberculosis has decreased so much, that the concentration of an increased morbidity rate has already been limited to a few districts of the Federal Republic of Germany. In 1982 new cases of pulmonary tuberculosis decreased from 19 to 70 per 100,000 with a mean value of about 30. The number of deaths because of pulmonary tuberculosis came to approximately 2.0 per 100,000 inhabitants. Besides regional differences there are great ones between the native population and foreigners. The latter group is much more concerned with the total incidence as well as with regard to the age of the people affected. Therefore it will be necessary to think- over the practice of chest radiographic examination - in accordance the the recommendations of the International Radiation Commission discussed in 1977 and 1982 and the recommendations of the World Health Organisation (WHO) published in 1983

  12. Radiological mass screening in the Irish Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, B.

    1987-01-01

    Mass chest screening was first introduced to Ireland in the late 1940's. Routine mammography has never been used in the Irish Republic. For some years it has been customary to carry our routine clinical screening for congenital dislocation of hips on new born babies. Pre-- employment and pre- surgery x-ray screening were also being practiced

  13. Low-dosage helical CT applications for chest medical checkup and lung cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ping; Cui Fa; Liang Huanqing; Zheng Minfei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: A discussion on low-dosage helical CT applications on chest medical checkup and lung cancer screening. Methods: On the 100 chest medical check up with three different of protocols, including standard-dosage (the tube current was 230 mAs) were compared with low-dose (tube current was 50 mAs or 30 mAs). Results: Low-dosage helical CT scan provides excellent images. In 100 chest medical checkup, 39 nodules or masses were revealed, enlarged lymph node was noted in 1 case; emphysema or bullae was demonstrated in 3 segments; thickening of bronchial wall was shown in 2 cases; and localized pleural thickening was found in 1 case. Conclusion: In chest checkup or lung cancer screening low-dosage helical CT (tube current 30 mAs) will not only guarantee image quality but also reduce the radiation dose during the examination. (authors)

  14. Chest x-ray screening practices: an annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torchia, M.; DuChez, J.

    1980-03-01

    This annotated bibliography is a review of the scientific literature on the selection of asymptomatic patients for chest x-ray screening examinations. Selected articles cover a period of time from 1969 through 1979. The articles are organized under 10 main topics which correspond to various categories of chest x-ray screening examinations performed in the United States today. Within each main topic, the articles are presented in chronological order. To aid the reader in identifying specific citations, an author index and a list of citations by journal have been included for user reference. The standard format for each citation includes the title of each article, the author(s), journal, volume, page, date, and abstract

  15. Comparing deep learning models for population screening using chest radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaramakrishnan, R.; Antani, Sameer; Candemir, Sema; Xue, Zhiyun; Abuya, Joseph; Kohli, Marc; Alderson, Philip; Thoma, George

    2018-02-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), tuberculosis (TB) remains the most deadly infectious disease in the world. In a 2015 global annual TB report, 1.5 million TB related deaths were reported. The conditions worsened in 2016 with 1.7 million reported deaths and more than 10 million people infected with the disease. Analysis of frontal chest X-rays (CXR) is one of the most popular methods for initial TB screening, however, the method is impacted by the lack of experts for screening chest radiographs. Computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) tools have gained significance because they reduce the human burden in screening and diagnosis, particularly in countries that lack substantial radiology services. State-of-the-art CADx software typically is based on machine learning (ML) approaches that use hand-engineered features, demanding expertise in analyzing the input variances and accounting for the changes in size, background, angle, and position of the region of interest (ROI) on the underlying medical imagery. More automatic Deep Learning (DL) tools have demonstrated promising results in a wide range of ML applications. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), a class of DL models, have gained research prominence in image classification, detection, and localization tasks because they are highly scalable and deliver superior results with end-to-end feature extraction and classification. In this study, we evaluated the performance of CNN based DL models for population screening using frontal CXRs. The results demonstrate that pre-trained CNNs are a promising feature extracting tool for medical imagery including the automated diagnosis of TB from chest radiographs but emphasize the importance of large data sets for the most accurate classification.

  16. Mass screening in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strax, P.

    1977-01-01

    Some questions about mass screening in breast cancer are answered it being concluded that: 1. mass screening for the detection of early breast cancer is the only means with proven potential for lowering the death rate of the disease; 2. mammography is an importante - if not the most important modality in mass screening; 3. new film - screen combinations generally available are capable of producing mammograms of excelent quality with radiation doses down to .1 rad into the body of breast. The risk of malignant changes from such dosage - even when given periodically is negligeable. New equipment, to be available, shortly, will use the new film - screen combinations in an automated manner with must reduce cost in time, filme, personnel and processing - of more than 50%. This would make mass screening more practical. (M.A.) [pt

  17. Local-global classifier fusion for screening chest radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Meng; Antani, Sameer; Jaeger, Stefan; Xue, Zhiyun; Candemir, Sema; Kohli, Marc; Thoma, George

    2017-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a severe comorbidity of HIV and chest x-ray (CXR) analysis is a necessary step in screening for the infective disease. Automatic analysis of digital CXR images for detecting pulmonary abnormalities is critical for population screening, especially in medical resource constrained developing regions. In this article, we describe steps that improve previously reported performance of NLM's CXR screening algorithms and help advance the state of the art in the field. We propose a local-global classifier fusion method where two complementary classification systems are combined. The local classifier focuses on subtle and partial presentation of the disease leveraging information in radiology reports that roughly indicates locations of the abnormalities. In addition, the global classifier models the dominant spatial structure in the gestalt image using GIST descriptor for the semantic differentiation. Finally, the two complementary classifiers are combined using linear fusion, where the weight of each decision is calculated by the confidence probabilities from the two classifiers. We evaluated our method on three datasets in terms of the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. The evaluation demonstrates the superiority of our proposed local-global fusion method over any single classifier.

  18. The mass miniature chest radiography programme in Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Tuberculosis (TB) control programmes rely mainly on passive detection of symptomatic individuals. The resurgence of TB has rekindled interest in active case finding. Cape Town (South Africa) had a mass miniature radiography (MMR) screening programme from 1948 to 1994. Objective. To evaluate screening ...

  19. Computed tomographic evaluation of pulmonary mass lesion in chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Kyu Ok

    1984-01-01

    Until recently, solitary coin lesion of pulmonary disease has been a conspicuous problem in radiologic diagnosis. It is now well informed that CT has offered high resolution with its objective CT numbers to provide additional information in terms of anatomic and pathologic changes. Here by the aid of CT, the authors has retrospectively patients with various shape of round masses thus illustrating the advantage of it over conventional X-ray in diagnosis. 1. Total 53 patients, including 34 males and 19 females, aging between 19 to 76 years old with nodule or mass of any size ranging 1 to 13 cm in diameter were observed. 2. On plain chest X-ray they were identified where 50 patients has single round nodular or mass, only one had two masses which were ecchinococcal cysts, and the rest two had invisible lesions, only detected by CT. 3. With philips tomoscan 310, CT scan was taken 12 mm thicken slice during quiet respiration. Using the ROI cursor the average CT number of the central area was calculated 1.0 cm in side the outer border of the mass. 4. As a consequence of their pathologic features, they were itemized to 4 group as 36 solid, 9 cystic, 4 consolidative and 4 cavitary lesions. 5. Correct diagnosis of 3 cystic lesions, 4 diffuse calcification, 1 A-V malformation were available by CT densitometry. 6. By the aid of better resolution and additional cross-sectional orientation of CT, 3 extrapulmonary lesions, 3 segmental consolidations, 2 bronchocele, and 2 solitary metastasis, were helpful in diagnosis. 7. Also helpful in determining the extent of intrathoracic extent of bronchogenic carcinoma for the same reason but given clues were not more than the ordinary. 8. However, the limitation of the CT densitometry led to miss diagnosis of 3 examples of cystic vs.solid lesions, and CT density of noncalcified granuloma together with bronchogenic carcinoma, did not have a clear cut separation in between.

  20. Utility of screening computed tomography of chest, abdomen and pelvis in patients after heart transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasari, Tarun W.; Pavlovic-Surjancev, Biljana; Dusek, Linda; Patel, Nilamkumar; Heroux, Alain L.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Malignancy is a late cause of mortality in heart transplant recipients. It is unknown if screening computed tomography scan would lead to early detection of such malignancies or serious vascular anomalies post heart transplantation. Methods: This is a single center observational study of patients undergoing surveillance computed tomography of chest, abdomen and pelvis atleast 5 years after transplantation. Abnormal findings, included pulmonary nodules, lymphadenopathy and intra-thoracic and intra-abdominal masses and vascular anomalies such as abdominal aortic aneurysm. The clinical follow up of each of these major abnormal findings is summarized. Results: A total of 63 patients underwent computed tomography scan of chest, abdomen and pelvis at least 5 years after transplantation. Of these, 54 (86%) were male and 9 (14%) were female. Mean age was 52 ± 9.2 years. Computed tomography revealed 1 lung cancer (squamous cell) only. Non specific pulmonary nodules were seen in 6 patients (9.5%). The most common incidental finding was abdominal aortic aneurysms (N = 6 (9.5%)), which necessitated follow up computed tomography (N = 5) or surgery (N = 1). Mean time to detection of abdominal aortic aneurysms from transplantation was 14.6 ± 4.2 years. Mean age at the time of detection of abdominal aortic aneurysms was 74.5 ± 3.2 years. Conclusion: Screening computed tomography scan in patients 5 years from transplantation revealed only one malignancy but lead to increased detection of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Thus the utility is low in terms of detection of malignancy. Based on this study we do not recommend routine computed tomography post heart transplantation.

  1. Optimization of chest radiography. Experimental and clinical studies using rare earths screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergonzini, R; Robecchi, D; Amato, M; Gallini, R; Giugni, V

    1986-01-01

    The optimization of chest radiography is a still unresolved problem, as it must answer to various clinical requirements. Even if sometimes the choice is not difficult, it becomes hard when the best film-screen combination is needed. In order to assess the optimization image quality and exposition, different experimental and clinical conditions have been investigated referring to the various combination of screen, film and tension. The Trimax system has been chosen for our investigations, performed in two different phases: the former on an anthropomorphous chest phantom, the latter on 25 patients affected by lung interstitial diseases, mainly nodular. The results are discussed.

  2. Multi-Detector CT Findings of Palpable Chest Wall Masses in Children: A Pictorial Essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan Ho; Kim, Young Tong [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Hyun Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    A wide variety of diseases manifest as palpable chest wall masses in children. These include normal variation, congenital anomalies, trauma, infection, axillary lymphadenopathies, soft tissue tumors and bone tumors. Given that most of these diseases are associated with chest wall deformity, diagnosis is difficult by physical examination or ultrasonography alone. However, multi-detector CT with three dimensional reconstruction is useful in the characterization and differential diagnosis of palpable chest wall lesions. In this article, we review the spectrum of palpable chest wall diseases and illustrate their multi-detector CT presentation.

  3. Low Yield of Chest Radiography in a Large Tuberculosis Screening Program1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Nira R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the frequency and spectrum of abnormalities on routine screening chest radiographs in the pre-employment evaluation of health care workers with positive tuberculin skin test (TST) results. Materials and Methods: The institutional review board approved this HIPAA-compliant retrospective study and waived the need for written informed patient consent. Chest radiographic reports of all 2586 asymptomatic individuals with positive TST results who underwent pre-employment evaluation between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2007, were evaluated to determine the frequency of detection of evidence of active tuberculosis (TB) or latent TB infection (LTBI) and the spectrum of imaging findings. All chest radiographs interpreted as positive were reviewed by an experienced board-certified radiologist. If there was a discrepancy between the two readings, a second experienced radiologist served as an independent and final arbiter. Any follow-up chest radiographs or computed tomographic images that had been acquired by employee health services or by the employee’s private physician as a result of a suspected abnormality detected at initial screening were also evaluated. Results: Of the 159 (6.1%) chest radiographic examinations that yielded abnormal results, there were no findings that were consistent with active TB. There were 92 cases of calcified granulomas, calcified lymph nodes, or both; 25 cases of apical pleural thickening; 16 cases of fibrous scarring; and 31 cases of noncalcified nodules. All cases of fibrous scarring involved an area smaller than 2 cm2. All noncalcified nodules were 4 mm in diameter or smaller, with the exception of one primary lung malignancy and one necrotizing granuloma (negative for acid-fast bacilli) that grew Mycobacterium kansasii on culture. Conclusion: Universal chest radiography in a large pre-employment TB screening program was of low yield in the detection of active TB or increased LTBI reactivation risk, and it provided

  4. Value of the asymmetric film-screen system InSight HC in chest imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeussler, M.D.; Lenzen, H.; Reckels, C.; Peters, P.E.

    1994-01-01

    The asymmetric film-screen system InSight HC represents a development to optimize chest imaging. The purpose of the study was to compare the exposure range and the image quality of this new system with a conventional film-screen system. The optical density of images in both techniques was measured and the image quality of 100 chest images from 50 intensive-care patients was evaluated. 4 observers graded the image quality of organic, non-organic and pathological structures. Statistical evaluation was performed by interobserver analysis. The asymmetric film-screen system shows a larger exposure range and a superior image quality in the mediastinal field. The image quality in the peripheral field must be judged critically and improved especially because of the poor recognizability of pneumothoraces. (orig.) [de

  5. [TUBERCULOSIS SCREENING BY CHEST RADIOGRAPHY AMONG INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS AT JAPANESE LANGUAGE SCHOOLS IN OSAKA CITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Yuko; Matsumoto, Kenji; Komukai, Jun; Furukawa, Kanae; Saito, Kazumi; Shimouchi, Akira

    2015-10-01

    With a broader aim of controlling pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) among foreigners, here, we have reported the findings of chest radiography screening for TB among international students at Japanese language schools in Osaka city. Between April 2011 and December 2013, 4,529 international students from 19 Japanese language schools in Osaka city underwent chest radiography for TB screening. The chest radiographs were studied in reference to the student's sex, age, nationality, and date of entry to Japan as well as any health conditions present at the time of screening. We further analyzed the bacterial information and pulmonary TB classification based on chest radiography findings of students who were identified to be positive for TB. Information on the implementation of health education was also gathered. The results revealed that 52.5% of the students who underwent chest radiography came from China, 20.3 % from South Korea, and 16.3% from Vietnam. Of the students, 52.9% were male and 47.1% were female. The median age of students was 23 years (range: 14-70 years). The median number of days from the first date of entry to Japan up until the radiography screening was 63 days. Based on the chest radiography findings, 71 students (1.6%) were suspected to have TB; however, further detailed examination confirmed that 19 students (0.4%) had active TB. This percentage is significantly higher than the 0.1% TB identification rate among residents in Osaka city of the same time period (Pschools (for a total of 12 times) in the 3-year period. A total of 257 language school staff and students attended the health education seminars. The identification rate of TB positive students in Japanese language schools was higher than that of the general residents in Osaka city. In addition, most of these students came to Japan within 1 year. It is also important to note that the majority of TB positive students had sputum smear negative results. This study proves that medical examination after

  6. The relationship of over density to overexposure each film/screen systems in chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Min; Huo Joon [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Taro, Hayash; Yuji, Ishida; Tatsuya, Sakurai [The Chemotherapeutic Istitute Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    This study is to calculate the exposed radiation dose using Bit method, NDD calculation method and monogram method without dosimeter. In addition,we can calculate the radiation dose from x-ray film density as a film badge. The authors examined the entrance skin dose from 2 {approx} 3 intercostal chest x-ray film density. We also studied the relationship between film density and equivalent dose in the each screen film system under the different radiation quality and the poor geometry condition of grid ratio. As results, we established the deductive method to define the entrance skin dose from chest x-ray film density. The error range was found in the range -13 percent {approx} +17 percent for between deductive entrance skin dose and the 2 {approx} 3 inter coastal chest x-ray film density to actual detective radiation dose with dosimeter. (author)

  7. The mass miniature chest radiography programme in Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Canada, the UK and France combined.[1] ... [3] Before effective chemotherapy became available in .... of Europeans was not deemed cost-effective and screening policy was .... screening coverage threshold exists above which TB transmission.

  8. Torsed pulmonary sequestration presenting as a painful chest mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Ricki; Carver, Terrence W.; Rivard, Douglas C.

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary sequestration is a congenital abnormality that can be divided into intralobar or extralobar types. Both types are characterized by pulmonary tissue that does not communicate with the bronchial tree or pulmonary arteries and typically has its arterial supply arising from the descending aorta. We report a case of an 11-year-old girl with extralobar sequestration who presented with torsion causing abdominal pain and pleuritic chest pain. (orig.)

  9. The utility of chest X-ray as a screening tool for blunt thoracic aortic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Adam; Inaba, Kenji; Siboni, Stefano; Effron, Zachary; Haltmeier, Tobias; Jaffray, Paul; Reddy, Sravanthi; Lofthus, Alexander; Benjamin, Elizabeth; Dubose, Joseph; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2016-01-01

    The early and accurate identification of patients with blunt thoracic aortic injury (BTAI) remains a challenge. Traditionally, a portable AP chest X-ray (CXR) is utilized as the initial screening modality for BTAI, however, there is controversy surrounding its sensitivity. The purpose of this study was to assess the sensitivity of CXR as a screening modality for BTAI. After IRB approval, all adult (≥18 yo) blunt trauma patients admitted to LAC+USC (01/2011-12/2013) who underwent CXR and chest CT were retrospectively reviewed. Final radiology attending CXR readings were reviewed for mediastinal abnormalities (widened mediastinum, mediastinal to chest width ratio greater than 0.25, irregular aortic arch, blurred aortic contour, opacification of the aortopulmonary window, and apical pleural haematoma) suggestive of aortic injury. Chest CT final attending radiologist readings were utilized as the gold standard for diagnosis of BTAI. The primary outcome analyzed was CXR sensitivity. A total of 3728 patients were included in the study. The majority of patients were male (72.6%); mean age was 43 (SD 20). Median ISS was 9 (IQR 4-17) and median GCS was 15 (IQR 14-15). The most common mechanism of injury was MVC (48.0%), followed by fall (20.6%), and AVP (16.9%). The total number of CXRs demonstrating a mediastinal abnormality was 200 (5.4%). Widened mediastinum was present on 191 (5.1%) of CXRs, blurred aortic contour on 10 (0.3%), and irregular aortic arch on 4 (0.1%). An acute aortic injury confirmed by chest CT was present in 17 (0.5%) patients. Only 7 of these with CT-confirmed BTAI had a mediastinal abnormality identified on CXR, for a sensitivity of 41% (95% CI: 19-67%). The results from this study suggest that CXR alone is not a reliable screening modality for BTAI. A combination of screening CXR and careful consideration of other factors, such as mechanism of injury, will be required to effectively discriminate between those who should and should not undergo chest

  10. Mass spectrometry for fragment screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Daniel Shiu-Hin; Whitehouse, Andrew J; Coyne, Anthony G; Abell, Chris

    2017-11-08

    Fragment-based approaches in chemical biology and drug discovery have been widely adopted worldwide in both academia and industry. Fragment hits tend to interact weakly with their targets, necessitating the use of sensitive biophysical techniques to detect their binding. Common fragment screening techniques include differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) and ligand-observed NMR. Validation and characterization of hits is usually performed using a combination of protein-observed NMR, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and X-ray crystallography. In this context, MS is a relatively underutilized technique in fragment screening for drug discovery. MS-based techniques have the advantage of high sensitivity, low sample consumption and being label-free. This review highlights recent examples of the emerging use of MS-based techniques in fragment screening. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  11. Screening strategies for tuberculosis prevalence surveys: the value of chest radiography and symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna H van't Hoog

    Full Text Available We conducted a tuberculosis (TB prevalence survey and evaluated the screening methods used in our survey, to assess if screening in TB prevalence surveys could be simplified, and to assess the accuracy of screening algorithms that may be applicable for active case finding.All participants with a positive screen on either a symptom questionnaire, chest radiography (CXR and/or sputum smear microscopy submitted sputum for culture. HIV status was obtained from prevalent cases. We estimated the accuracy of modified screening strategies with bacteriologically confirmed TB as the gold standard, and compared these with other survey reports. We also assessed whether sequential rather than parallel application of symptom, CXR and HIV screening would substantially reduce the number of participants requiring CXR and/or sputum culture.Presence of any abnormality on CXR had 94% (95%CI 88-98 sensitivity (92% in HIV-infected and 100% in HIV-uninfected and 73% (95%CI 68-77 specificity. Symptom screening combinations had significantly lower sensitivity than CXR except for 'any TB symptom' which had 90% (95%CI 84-95 sensitivity (96% in HIV-infected and 82% in HIV-uninfected and 32% (95%CI 30-34 specificity. Smear microscopy did not yield additional suspects, thus the combined symptom/CXR screen applied in the survey had 100% (95%CI 97-100 sensitivity. Specificity was 65% (95%CI 61-68. Sequential application of first a symptom screen for 'any symptom', followed by CXR-evaluation and different suspect criteria depending on HIV status would result in the largest reduction of the need for CXR and sputum culture, approximately 36%, but would underestimate prevalence by 11%.CXR screening alone had higher accuracy compared to symptom screening alone. Combined CXR and symptom screening had the highest sensitivity and remains important for suspect identification in TB prevalence surveys in settings where bacteriological sputum examination of all participants is not

  12. Measurement of Heart size by mass chest X-ray in Medical students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wai, Khin San; Mon, Khin Aye [Department of Physiology, Institute of Medicine, Mandalay (Myanmar)

    1971-07-01

    Mass miniature P-A view chest X-ray films of 83 students were taken at the TB clinic and were used for measuring the heart size. Measurements taken on 70 mm film were changed to the equivalent values for standard 6 foot chest films, by multiplying with a factor 5.23 which is the ratio between 70 mm mass miniature X-ray film and 6 foot chest film. Frontal cardiac area was also calculated. The mean heart diameters and frontal cardiac area for 54 male students were transverse diameter-11.30 cm, length-11.98 cm, breadth-10.32 cm, frontal area-106.50 sq cm and aortic diameter-5.31 cm. Those for 28 female students were:transverse diameter-10.27 cm, length-11.56, breadth-9.45 cm, frontal area-88.70 sq cm and aortic diameter-4.75 cm.

  13. Measurement of Heart size by mass chest X-ray in Medical students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khin San Wai; Khin Aye Mon

    1971-01-01

    Mass miniature P-A view chest X-ray films of 83 students were taken at the TB clinic and were used for measuring the heart size. Measurements taken on 70 mm film were changed to the equivalent values for standard 6 foot chest films, by multiplying with a factor 5.23 which is the ratio between 70 mm mass miniature X-ray film and 6 foot chest film. Frontal cardiac area was also calculated. The mean heart diameters and frontal cardiac area for 54 male students were transverse diameter-11.30 cm, length-11.98 cm, breadth-10.32 cm, frontal area-106.50 sq cm and aortic diameter-5.31 cm. Those for 28 female students were:transverse diameter-10.27 cm, length-11.56, breadth-9.45 cm, frontal area-88.70 sq cm and aortic diameter-4.75 cm

  14. Radiation fibrosis : differentiation from true hilar mass on plain chest film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Jun Hyun; Ahn, Kook Jin; Park, Seog Hee; Shinn, Kyung Sub

    1996-01-01

    Radiation-induced fibrotic mass might masquerade as a true hilar tumor mass on a plain chest radiograph. We attempted to differentiate radiation fibrosis from a true hilar tumor using only a plain radiograph. Plain chest radiographs were obtained from seven patients who had developed radiation fibrosis simulating hilar mass after radiation therapy for lung cancer, and from 19 patients with lung cancer, a comparison group, who had not received radiation therapy. They were reviewed for the obliteration of the overlapped mediastinal and hilar anatomical silhouettes by the mass : pulmonary artery, heart or aorta border, and paraspinal line. All seven patients with radiation-induced fibrotic mass(bilateral lesion in two patients) showed obliteration of all three overlapped anatomical silhouettes of the mediastinum and hilum on chest radiographs. In the comparison group of 19 patients with a true hilar mass, there was, however, no case which demonstrated obliteration of all landmarks, Obliteration of all anatomical landmarks at the hilum and mediastinum may be a helpful clue in the differential diagnosis of radiation-induced fibrotic mass from true hilar mass on a plain radiograph, particularly when clinical information on previous radiation therapy is unavailable

  15. Experiences with a new film-screen system in pediatric chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leenen, A.; Brandt, G.A.; Riebel, T.; Marciniak, H.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the X-ray images made by the Kodak InSight Pediatric Imaging System (InSight P) with conventional film-screen systems in pediatric chest radiography. Material and methods: The comparison involved chest radiographs made using Quanta-Fast-Detail/Cronex 4 (DuPont), Trimax 16/XDA (3 M) and DuPont UVR/UVL systems. The image quality of critical structures and the physical parameters of quantum interference, contrast and resolution were assessed. The energy path of the system was assessed by preparing density curves. Test conditions were in accordance with the latest guidelines of the Bundesaerztekammer (German Physicians' Association). Results: The mediastinal area, retrocardiac and paravertebral spaces and the peripheral vessels of the lung were all displayed more distinctly using InSight P. The reason for this seems to be a lower degree of quantum interference associated with this system. With tube voltages between 60 and 80 kV, InSight P displayed a relatively low degree of sensitivity. Conclusion: InSight P can be used to produce predominantly high quality chest radiographs on infants between one and five years of age. However, this system has limited sensitivity in the tube voltage range recommended by the German Physicians' Association. (orig.) [de

  16. Extra-Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Presenting as an Anterior Chest Wall Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghyeon Lim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A 71-year-old man was referred for an anterior chest wall mass. Chest computed tomography (CT and positron emission tomography-CT suggested a malignant tumor. Surgical biopsy through a vertical subxiphoid incision revealed an extra-gastrointestinal stromal tumor (EGIST. En bloc resection of the tumor, including partial resection of the sternum, costal cartilage, pericardium, diaphragm, and peritoneum, was performed. Pathologic evaluation revealed a negative resection margin and confirmed the tumor as an EGIST. On postoperative day 17, the patient was discharged without any complications. At the 2-week follow-up, the patient was doing well and was asymptomatic.

  17. The strategies of mass screen culture

    OpenAIRE

    Vorozheikin Yevhen Petrovich

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with strategies of mass screen culture aimed at manipulation with images of death and violence. The author highlights the main ways of implementation of these strategies, their relationship with contemporary cultural trends. Also the article observes negative consequences of such strategy as screen “anesthesia” of human feelings through transformation of images of death and violence in a way of exception of moral evaluation of the act of violence and death deprivation in met...

  18. Metastatic Sarcomatoid Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix Presenting with Chest Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilit Karapetyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sarcomatoid squamous cell carcinoma is a rare and aggressive form of cervical cancer. We report a case of metastatic sarcomatoid squamous cell carcinoma (SSCC of cervix that presented with an anterior chest wall mass. Case. A 43-year-old Hispanic female presented with a two-month history of a central chest wall mass. The patient’s only past medical history was SSCC of the cervix, stage IIB, diagnosed two years priorly. She underwent neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT with cisplatin followed by radical hysterectomy. Surgical margins were positive which led to adjuvant CRT with carboplatin and paclitaxel. PET scan 4 months after the postoperative treatment was negative for recurrence and metastatic disease. On current presentation, the CT chest revealed anterior mediastinal destructive soft tissue mass involving sternum, and the biopsy showed SSCC. The patient received palliative radiation therapy to her chest with improvement in pain and ability to swallow. After discussing the prognosis she refused further chemotherapy and decided on hospice care. Conclusion. Despite good response to first-line therapy, SSCC tends to recur early and does not respond to second-line therapy. Radiation therapy seems to be the most effective modality for treatment, but randomized controlled trials of therapy are impractical.

  19. Radiological mass screening in The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pater, J. de

    1987-01-01

    Shortly after the end of the Second World War radiological mass screening was introduced in the Netherlands to detect tuberculosis of the lungs. A secondary effect was that by the same procedure lung tumours could also be detected. However as tuberculosis became less common the need for regular X-ray screening declined. The question at this point was whether routine screening should nevertheless be continued for the early detection of lung cancer. The Health Council opposed this suggestion in 1974 as it was doubtful whether early detection would improve the prognosis

  20. Prospective evaluation of cinefluoroscopy and chest radiography for Riata lead defects: implications for future lead screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorvidhaya, Peem; Mendoza, Ivan; Sehli, Sharmila; Atalay, Michael K; Kim, Michael H

    2013-11-01

    Lead insulation defects with externalization of the conductors exist in Riata defibrillator leads. Cinefluoroscopy is currently the gold standard to detect such defects. Prospective evaluation of alternative screening options such as chest radiography (CXR), which has been recommended by the FDA, is not well described. Patients with Riata leads underwent cinefluoroscopy, CXR, and device interrogation. Leads were classified as abnormal (clear cable separation), borderline, or normal by independent evaluation of cinefluoroscopy and CXR. CXR evaluation was done in two ways as follows: (1) routine CXR read by daily staff radiologists for lead screening and (2) CXR evaluation by a radiologist educated about the lead defect. One hundred two patients were evaluated at our institution. Cinefluoroscopy showed externalized conductors in 33 patients (32 %). Twenty-five of 33 patients (76 %) who had abnormal cinefluoroscopic findings had abnormal CXR findings on blinded review by the educated radiologist. All 25 patients with abnormal CXR had abnormal findings on cinefluoroscopy. Daily staff radiologists without direct education other than prompts for lead screening detected CXR abnormalities in only 8 out of 102 (8 %) cases. Cinefluoroscopy appears to be more sensitive than CXR for the detection of Riata cable extrusion. Interpretation of CXR by a radiologist with education in lead defects correlates highly with cinefluoroscopy with very high specificity. Depending on available resources for screening, CXR may be a reasonable alternative to cinefluoroscopy. Multidisciplinary collaboration across specialties (radiology and electrophysiology) can lead to improved diagnostic capability and thus the potential for enhanced quality of care.

  1. Study of incidence and causes of repeated mass miniature radiography of chest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandan, S; Bhargava, S K; Sharma, H M; Ved, P K; Singh, Dhan [T.B. Demonstration and Training Centre, Agra (India)

    1976-01-01

    A study has been conducted to find out the retake rate of mass miniature radiography of chest and causes of retake. The rate has been found to be 1.96% and common causes of retake are too light or dark film and movement (motion) other than respiratory. Precautionary measures against these causes should prevent unnecessary exposure of patients to radiation and also ensure economy.

  2. Effect of Body Mass Index on Postoperative Transfusions and 24-Hour Chest-Tube Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Heather R.; Ramaiah, Chandrashekhar

    2011-01-01

    An increasing obese population in the United States focuses attention on the effect of obesity on surgical outcomes. Our objective was to see if obesity, determined by body mass index (BMI), contributed to bleeding in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery as measured by intraoperative and postoperative packed red blood cell transfusion frequency and amount and 24-hour chest-tube output. A retrospective chart review examined 150 subjects undergoing single-surgeon off-pump or on-pump CABG surgery between September 2006 and April 2009. BMI groups included normal-weight (BMI trend based on BMI group (p = 0.054). The percentage of subjects receiving transfusions in the combined intraoperative or 72-hour postoperative period showed a decreasing linear trend based on BMI group (p = 0.054). The transfusion amount during the 72-hour postoperative period varied significantly between BMI groups (p = 0.021), and the test for a linear decrease across groups was significant (p = 0.020). Twenty-four hour chest-tube output showed variation across all three BMI categories (p = 0.018) with chest-tube output decreasing with increasing obesity in a linear fashion (p = 0.006). Transfusion rate and amount indicate total blood loss is decreased in the obese, and chest-tube output findings give a direct measurable indicator of blood loss from the surgical site indicating increasing BMI is linearly correlated with decreasing postoperative bleeding. PMID:22654469

  3. The strategies of mass screen culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorozheikin Yevhen Petrovich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with strategies of mass screen culture aimed at manipulation with images of death and violence. The author highlights the main ways of implementation of these strategies, their relationship with contemporary cultural trends. Also the article observes negative consequences of such strategy as screen “anesthesia” of human feelings through transformation of images of death and violence in a way of exception of moral evaluation of the act of violence and death deprivation in metaphysical and existential sense.

  4. Accuracy of an automated system for tuberculosis detection on chest radiographs in high-risk screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, J; Hogeweg, L; Sánchez, C I; Philipsen, R H H M; Aldridge, R W; Hayward, A C; Abubakar, I; van Ginneken, B; Story, A

    2018-05-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) screening programmes can be optimised by reducing the number of chest radiographs (CXRs) requiring interpretation by human experts. To evaluate the performance of computerised detection software in triaging CXRs in a high-throughput digital mobile TB screening programme. A retrospective evaluation of the software was performed on a database of 38 961 postero-anterior CXRs from unique individuals seen between 2005 and 2010, 87 of whom were diagnosed with TB. The software generated a TB likelihood score for each CXR. This score was compared with a reference standard for notified active pulmonary TB using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and localisation ROC (LROC) curve analyses. On ROC curve analysis, software specificity was 55.71% (95%CI 55.21-56.20) and negative predictive value was 99.98% (95%CI 99.95-99.99), at a sensitivity of 95%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.90 (95%CI 0.86-0.93). Results of the LROC curve analysis were similar. The software could identify more than half of the normal images in a TB screening setting while maintaining high sensitivity, and may therefore be used for triage.

  5. Chest x-ray as a screening tool for blunt thoracic trauma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanchar, Natalie L; Woo, Kenneth; Brennan, Maureen; Palmer, Cameron S; Zs Ee, Michael; Sweeney, Brian; Crameri, Joe

    2013-10-01

    With the increasing use of thoracic computed tomography (CT) to screen for injuries in pediatric blunt thoracic trauma (BTT), we determined whether chest x-ray (CXR) and other clinical and epidemiologic variables could be used to predict significant thoracic injuries, to inform the selective use of CT in pediatric BTT. We further queried if these were discrepant from factors associated with the decision to obtain a thoracic CT. This retrospective cohort study included cases of BTT from three Level I pediatric trauma centers between April 1999 and March 2008. Pre-CT epidemiologic, clinical, and radiologic variables associated with CT findings of any thoracic injury or a significant thoracic injury as well as the decision to obtain a thoracic CT were determined using logistic regression. Of 425 patients, 40% patients had a significant thoracic injury, 49% had nonsignificant thoracic injury, and 11% had no thoracic injury at all. Presence of hydrothorax and/or pneumothorax on CXR significantly increased the likelihood of significant chest injury visualized by CT (adjusted odds ratio 10.8; 95% confidence interval, 6.5-18), as did the presence of isolated subcutaneous emphysema (adjusted odds ratio, 19.8; 95% confidence interval, 2.3-168). Although a normal CXR finding was not statistically associated with a reduced risk of significant thoracic injury, 8 of the 9 cases with normal CXR findings and significant injuries involved occult pneumothoraces or hemothoraces not requiring intervention. Converse to features suggesting increased risk of significant injury, the decision to obtain a thoracic CT was only associated with later period in the study and obtaining a CT scan of another body region. CXR can be used to screen for significant thoracic injuries and direct the selective use of thoracic CT in pediatric BTT. Prospective studies are needed to validate these findings and develop guidelines that include CXR to define indications for thoracic CT in pediatric BTT

  6. Air trapping on chest CT is associated with worse ventilation distribution in infants with cystic fibrosis diagnosed following newborn screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham L Hall

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In school-aged children with cystic fibrosis (CF structural lung damage assessed using chest CT is associated with abnormal ventilation distribution. The primary objective of this analysis was to determine the relationships between ventilation distribution outcomes and the presence and extent of structural damage as assessed by chest CT in infants and young children with CF. METHODS: Data of infants and young children with CF diagnosed following newborn screening consecutively reviewed between August 2005 and December 2009 were analysed. Ventilation distribution (lung clearance index and the first and second moment ratios [LCI, M(1/M(0 and M(2/M(0, respectively], chest CT and airway pathology from bronchoalveolar lavage were determined at diagnosis and then annually. The chest CT scans were evaluated for the presence or absence of bronchiectasis and air trapping. RESULTS: Matched lung function, chest CT and pathology outcomes were available in 49 infants (31 male with bronchiectasis and air trapping present in 13 (27% and 24 (49% infants, respectively. The presence of bronchiectasis or air trapping was associated with increased M(2/M(0 but not LCI or M(1/M(0. There was a weak, but statistically significant association between the extent of air trapping and all ventilation distribution outcomes. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that in early CF lung disease there are weak associations between ventilation distribution and lung damage from chest CT. These finding are in contrast to those reported in older children. These findings suggest that assessments of LCI could not be used to replace a chest CT scan for the assessment of structural lung disease in the first two years of life. Further research in which both MBW and chest CT outcomes are obtained is required to assess the role of ventilation distribution in tracking the progression of lung damage in infants with CF.

  7. A Clinical Study on a 5 Decades Tuberculosis Screening Program Based on Chest Radiography(CXR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ham Gyun

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzed decade-based statistic data which had been collected from the reports of annual radiographic pulmonary tuberculosis screening program initiated by the Korean National Tuberculosis Association (KNTA) for last 5 decades (from 1956 to 2005). We analyzed only the content of annual statistic report to preserve the characteristic of statistic data and the contents of original copy by focusing on the analysis of tuberculosis cases where age and sex were excluded. The results of the disease-based analysis on the tuberculosis cases from cumulative subjects of chest radiography (CXR) from 1956 to 2005 are summarized as follows. 1. The cumulative number of subjects who were examined under annual chest radiography over last 5 decades totaled 54,938,875 persons. 2. The cumulative number of pulmonary tuberculosis cases during same period totaled 958,251 persons (1.74%). 3. The cumulative number of subjects treated during same period totaled 465,082 persons (0.85%). 4. The cumulative number of mild pulmonary tuberculosis cases during same period totaled 229,615 persons (0.42%). 5. The cumulative number of moderate pulmonary tuberculosis cases during same period totaled 144,247 persons (0.26%). 6. The cumulative number of severe pulmonary tuberculosis cases during same period totaled 74,066 persons (0.13%). 7. The cumulative number of exudative pleurisy cases during same period totaled 17,154 persons (0.03%). 8. The cumulative number of subjects under monitoring during same period totaled 493,169 persons (0.90%). 9. The cumulative number of uncertain activity cases during same period totaled 78,214 persons (0.14%). 10. The cumulative number of pseudo-pulmonary tuberculosis cases during same period totaled 272,349 persons (0.50%).

  8. [Mass neonatal screening using biological testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardaillou, R; Le Gall, J-Y

    2007-04-01

    possible due to technical progresses such as the tandem mass spectrometry that can detect about 50 diseases in an only testing. In addition of its cost and of the difficulty to ensure an efficient organization, increasing the number of the screened diseases will raise ethical problems including how the parents will be informed of an incurable disease or a late-onset disease or an entirely asymptomatic disease. It is unanimously admitted that only mendelian diseases should be detected excluding genetic polymorphisms. Analysis of the present situation suggests the following developments: 1) to actualize the guidelines for deciding of a new neonatal screening; 2) to experiment on a local scale any new screening before its extension to the whole country; 3) to create an evaluation committee including paediatricians and epidemiologists and to evaluate on the long term the future of the children; 4) to precisely define the conditions in which the heterozygous carriers will be informed following a familial investigation; 5) to store in a resource biological centre the blood samples in order to utilize this bank for epidemiology studies.

  9. Malignant Mesothelioma Presenting as a Giant Chest, Abdominal and Pelvic Wall Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Zhi Hong; Gao, Xiao Long; Yi, Xiang Hua; Wang, Pei Jun [Tongji Hospital of Tongji University, Shanghai (China)

    2011-11-15

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a relatively rare carcinoma of the mesothelial cells, and it is usually located in the pleural or peritoneal cavity. Here we report on a unique case of MM that developed in the chest, abdominal and pelvic walls in a 77-year-old female patient. CT and MRI revealed mesothelioma that manifested as a giant mass in the right flank and bilateral pelvic walls. The diagnosis was confirmed by the pathology and immunohistochemistry. Though rare, accurate investigation of the radiological features of a body wall MM may help make an exact diagnosis.

  10. Malignant Mesothelioma Presenting as a Giant Chest, Abdominal and Pelvic Wall Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Zhi Hong; Gao, Xiao Long; Yi, Xiang Hua; Wang, Pei Jun

    2011-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a relatively rare carcinoma of the mesothelial cells, and it is usually located in the pleural or peritoneal cavity. Here we report on a unique case of MM that developed in the chest, abdominal and pelvic walls in a 77-year-old female patient. CT and MRI revealed mesothelioma that manifested as a giant mass in the right flank and bilateral pelvic walls. The diagnosis was confirmed by the pathology and immunohistochemistry. Though rare, accurate investigation of the radiological features of a body wall MM may help make an exact diagnosis.

  11. Radiological mass screening within the Member States of the European Community. Regulations, practices, effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochard, J. (ed.)

    1987-01-01

    Proceedings of the seminar ''Radiological mass screening within the Member States of the European Community'' organized by the Commission of the European Community in collaboration with the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique and the Centre d'etude sur l'Evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucleaire, France, from 3 to 4 December 1985. Part I presents rapporteurs' papers which summarize the salient points concerning: the status of regulations and practices in the different countries, mass chest screening, mammography screening and infants' hip dysplasia screening. Part II presents all the technical papers contributed by the participants. The overall conclusions of the seminar pointed up the importance of assessing the effectiveness of screening or prevention practices more systematically. Although some aspects of the problems associated with radiological mass screening were only qualitatively addressed, the papers presented did explain why the use of certain medical practices must be justified. It is hoped that these proceedings will be useful to national experts and bodies in the planning of future public health programmes which, in the light of current practices, will have to take account of the medical, economic and social dimension of mass screening.

  12. Unlocking nature’s treasure-chest: screening for oleaginous algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocombe, Stephen P.; Zhang, QianYi; Ross, Michael; Anderson, Avril; Thomas, Naomi J.; Lapresa, Ángela; Rad-Menéndez, Cecilia; Campbell, Christine N.; Black, Kenneth D.; Stanley, Michele S.; Day, John G.

    2015-01-01

    Micro-algae synthesize high levels of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins photoautotrophically, thus attracting considerable interest for the biotechnological production of fuels, environmental remediation, functional foods and nutraceuticals. Currently, only a few micro-algae species are grown commercially at large-scale, primarily for “health-foods” and pigments. For a range of potential products (fuel to pharma), high lipid productivity strains are required to mitigate the economic costs of mass culture. Here we present a screen concentrating on marine micro-algal strains, which if suitable for scale-up would minimise competition with agriculture for water. Mass-Spectrophotometric analysis (MS) of nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) was subsequently validated by measurement of total fatty acids (TFA) by Gas-Chromatography (GC). This identified a rapid and accurate screening strategy based on elemental analysis. The screen identified Nannochloropsis oceanica CCAP 849/10 and a marine isolate of Chlorella vulgaris CCAP 211/21A as the best lipid producers. Analysis of C, N, protein, carbohydrate and Fatty Acid (FA) composition identified a suite of strains for further biotechnological applications e.g. Dunaliella polymorpha CCAP 19/14, significantly the most productive for carbohydrates, and Cyclotella cryptica CCAP 1070/2, with utility for EPA production and N-assimilation. PMID:26202369

  13. Is chest x-ray an adequate screening tool for the diagnosis of blunt thoracic aortic injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekeh, Akpofure Peter; Peterson, Wylan; Woods, Randy J; Walusimbi, Mbaga; Nwuneli, Nancy; Saxe, Jonathan M; McCarthy, Mary C

    2008-11-01

    Blunt thoracic aortic injuries (BTAI) have a high mortality rate. For survivors, chest X-ray (CXR) findings are used to determine the need for further diagnostic testing with chest computerized tomography with angiography (CTA) or conventional angiography. We set to determine the adequacy of utilizing CXR alone as a screening tool for BTAI. All patients diagnosed with BTAI at a level I trauma-center during a 7-year-period were identified. CXRs of these patients and those of a control group of blunt trauma patients with an injury severity score >15 were reviewed by four trauma surgeons blinded to the diagnosis. Based on each CXR viewed, the surgeons decided if they would have proceeded to chest CTA, angiography, or required no further studies to rule out BTAI. In the 7-year-period, 83 patients had BTAI. CXRs were available in 45 patients. The four surgeons viewed 96 CXRs including those of 51 controls. Based on the CXR appearance in patients with BTAI, the surgeons chose to proceed to chest CTA in 38 patients (84.4%), conventional aortography in two patients (4.4%), and no further testing in five patients (11.2%). A widened mediastinum (75%) and loss of the aorto-pulmonary window (40%) were the most frequent CXR abnormalities. Patients with BTAI were more likely to have an abnormal CXR-40 of 45 (88.8%) patients when compared with the controls-25 of 51 (49%)patients-p < 0.001. Although CXR is a sensitive screening modality, it failed to identify the possibility of BTAI in 11% of patients. The liberal use of chest CTA after high speed motor vehicle crashes is recommended to minimize the incidence of missed BTAI.

  14. Digital chest radiography system with amorphous selenium flat-panel detectors: qualitative and dosimetric comparison with a dedicated film-screen system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prato, Antonio; Fava Cesare; Ropolo, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the quality and radiation dose of a conventional film-screen system and a digital system with amorphous selenium detectors in the study of the chest, by verifying overall performance and exposure levels for the main chest structures in patients of different sizes. Materials and methods. An analogic system (Chest Changer, Dupont, Day-light model 1000) and a digital system (Directray Rad 1000C, Hologic) were tested on a total of 1000 patients randomly assigned to one of two groups of 500 subjects.The patients were further subdivided according to BMI (Body Mass Index). Image quality was determined by two chest radiologists who evaluated eight anatomical structures. The entrance surface dose (skin-dose), calculated based on the exposure parameters, was taken as the patient dose. Results. Mean dose delivered was very similar for both techniques in the PA view (0.28 mGy), but it was greater in the LL projections obtained with the digital system (1.20 rnGy versus 0.83 mGy). The highest overall scores were assigned to 43% and 23.2% analogic radiograms and 64% and 70.2% digital radiograms, for the PA and LL projections respectively. The scores assigned to the various anatomical structures confirmed the better performance of the digital system in almost all of the regions considered. Conclusions. The mean quality of radiograms is definitely higher with the digital system, in particular in the LL projections, where the higher patient doses are counterbalanced by fewer repeated scans. The greater level of exposure in the digital system appears nonetheless tolerable on account of the greater informativeness and therefore diagnostic gain and also considering the possibilities for improving the system [it

  15. A study on the digital image transfer application mass chest X-ray system up-grade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Chil; Park, Jong Sam; Lee, Jon Il

    2003-01-01

    By converting movable indirect mass chest X-ray devices for vehicles into digital systems and upgrading it to share information with the hospital's medical image information system, excellencies have been confirmed as a result of installing and running this type of system and are listed hereinafter. Upgrading analog systems, such as indirect mass chest X-ray devices dependent on printed film, to digital systems allows them to be run and managed much more efficiently, contributing to the increase in the stability and the efficiency of the system. Unlike existing images, communication based on DICOM standards allow images to be compatible with the hospital's outer and inner network PACS systems, extending the scope of the radiation departments information system. Assuming chest-exclusive indirect mass chest X-rays, a linked development of CAD (Computer Aided Diagnosis, Detector) becomes possible. By applying wireless Internet, Web-PACS for movable indirect mass chest X-ray devices for vehicles will become possible. Research in these fields must continue and if the superior image quality and convenience of digital systems are confirmed, I believe that the conversion of systems still dependent on analog images to modernized digital systems is a must

  16. Conceptus radiation dose and risk from chest screen-film radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damilakis, John; Perisinakis, Kostas; Dimovasili, Evangelia; Prassopoulos, Panos; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas; Varveris, Haralambos

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to (a) estimate the conceptus radiation dose and risks for pregnant women undergoing posteroanterior and anteroposterior (AP) chest radiographs, (b) study the conceptus dose as a function of chest thickness of the patient undergoing chest radiograph, and (c) investigate the possibility of a conceptus to receive a dose of more than 10 mGy, the level above which specific measurements of conceptus doses may be necessary. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were used for dose measurements in anthropomorphic phantoms simulating pregnancy at the three trimesters of gestation. The effect of chest thickness on conceptus dose and risk was studied by adding slabs of lucite on the anterior and posterior surface of the phantom chest. The conceptus risk for radiation-induced childhood fatal cancer and hereditary effects was calculated based on appropriate risk factors. The average AP chest dimension (d a ) was estimated for 51 women of childbearing age from chest CT examinations. The value of d a was estimated to be 22.3 cm (17.4-27.2 cm). The calculated maximum conceptus dose was 107 x 10 -3 mGy for AP chest radiographs performed during the third trimester of pregnancy with maternal chest thickness of 27.2 cm. This calculation was based on dose data obtained from measurements in the phantoms and d a estimated from the patient group. The corresponding average excess of childhood cancer was 10.7 per million patients. The risk for hereditary effects was 1.1 per million births. Radiation dose for a conceptus increases exponentially as chest thickness increases. The conceptus dose at the third trimester is higher than that of the second and first trimesters. The results of the current study suggest that chest radiographs carried out in women at any time during gestation will result in a negligible increase in risk of radiation-induced harmful effects to the unborn child. After a properly performed maternal chest X-ray, there is no need for

  17. Conceptus radiation dose and risk from chest screen-film radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damilakis, John; Perisinakis, Kostas; Prassopoulos, Panos; Dimovasili, Evangelia; Varveris, Haralambos; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas

    2003-02-01

    The objectives of the present study were to (a) estimate the conceptus radiation dose and risks for pregnant women undergoing posteroanterior and anteroposterior (AP) chest radiographs, (b) study the conceptus dose as a function of chest thickness of the patient undergoing chest radiograph, and (c) investigate the possibility of a conceptus to receive a dose of more than 10 mGy, the level above which specific measurements of conceptus doses may be necessary. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were used for dose measurements in anthropomorphic phantoms simulating pregnancy at the three trimesters of gestation. The effect of chest thickness on conceptus dose and risk was studied by adding slabs of lucite on the anterior and posterior surface of the phantom chest. The conceptus risk for radiation-induced childhood fatal cancer and hereditary effects was calculated based on appropriate risk factors. The average AP chest dimension (d(a)) was estimated for 51 women of childbearing age from chest CT examinations. The value of d(a) was estimated to be 22.3 cm (17.4-27.2 cm). The calculated maximum conceptus dose was 107 x 10(-3) mGy for AP chest radiographs performed during the third trimester of pregnancy with maternal chest thickness of 27.2 cm. This calculation was based on dose data obtained from measurements in the phantoms and d(a) estimated from the patient group. The corresponding average excess of childhood cancer was 10.7 per million patients. The risk for hereditary effects was 1.1 per million births. Radiation dose for a conceptus increases exponentially as chest thickness increases. The conceptus dose at the third trimester is higher than that of the second and first trimesters. The results of the current study suggest that chest radiographs carried out in women at any time during gestation will result in a negligible increase in risk of radiation-induced harmful effects to the unborn child. After a properly performed maternal chest X-ray, there is no need for

  18. Conceptus radiation dose and risk from chest screen-film radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damilakis, John; Perisinakis, Kostas; Dimovasili, Evangelia [Department of Medical Physics, University of Crete, Faculty of Medicine, P.O. Box 1393, 714 09 Iraklion, Crete (Greece); Prassopoulos, Panos; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas [Department of Radiology, University of Crete, Faculty of Medicine, P.O. Box 1393, 714 09 Iraklion, Crete (Greece); Varveris, Haralambos [Department of Radiotherapy, University of Crete, Faculty of Medicine, P.O. Box 1393, 714 09 Iraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2003-02-01

    The objectives of the present study were to (a) estimate the conceptus radiation dose and risks for pregnant women undergoing posteroanterior and anteroposterior (AP) chest radiographs, (b) study the conceptus dose as a function of chest thickness of the patient undergoing chest radiograph, and (c) investigate the possibility of a conceptus to receive a dose of more than 10 mGy, the level above which specific measurements of conceptus doses may be necessary. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were used for dose measurements in anthropomorphic phantoms simulating pregnancy at the three trimesters of gestation. The effect of chest thickness on conceptus dose and risk was studied by adding slabs of lucite on the anterior and posterior surface of the phantom chest. The conceptus risk for radiation-induced childhood fatal cancer and hereditary effects was calculated based on appropriate risk factors. The average AP chest dimension (d{sub a}) was estimated for 51 women of childbearing age from chest CT examinations. The value of d{sub a} was estimated to be 22.3 cm (17.4-27.2 cm). The calculated maximum conceptus dose was 107 x 10{sup -3} mGy for AP chest radiographs performed during the third trimester of pregnancy with maternal chest thickness of 27.2 cm. This calculation was based on dose data obtained from measurements in the phantoms and d{sub a} estimated from the patient group. The corresponding average excess of childhood cancer was 10.7 per million patients. The risk for hereditary effects was 1.1 per million births. Radiation dose for a conceptus increases exponentially as chest thickness increases. The conceptus dose at the third trimester is higher than that of the second and first trimesters. The results of the current study suggest that chest radiographs carried out in women at any time during gestation will result in a negligible increase in risk of radiation-induced harmful effects to the unborn child. After a properly performed maternal chest X-ray, there is

  19. MULTIPLE MYELOMA PRESENTED AS AN ANTERIOR CHEST WALL MASS DIAGNOSED BY CYTOLOGICAL EXAMINATION : A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvathi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Myeloma is a malignancy of terminally differentiated B cells (plasma cells that produce a complete and / or partial monoclonal immunoglobulin protein. Myeloma accounts for approximately 1% of all malignancies and 10% of haematological tumors. It becomes difficult to arrive at early diagnosis because myeloma manifests itself in different forms. The disease usually presents as bone pains, pathological fractures and anemia but can also present as swelling in jaw, orbit, rib, sternoclavicular area, scalp, paraspinal region and tonsil. We present a case of multiple myeloma in 63 year old male which presented as a soft tissue mass on anterior chest wall and diagnosed by FNAC . This case is presented because diagnosis was made on cytology and not many cases have been reported in literature where FNAC helped in making the diagnosis. This increases the hope of early diagnosis so that treatment can be advocated

  20. Chest Computed Tomographic Image Screening for Cystic Lung Diseases in Patients with Spontaneous Pneumothorax Is Cost Effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nishant; Langenderfer, Dale; McCormack, Francis X; Schauer, Daniel P; Eckman, Mark H

    2017-01-01

    Patients without a known history of lung disease presenting with a spontaneous pneumothorax are generally diagnosed as having primary spontaneous pneumothorax. However, occult diffuse cystic lung diseases such as Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD), lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) can also first present with a spontaneous pneumothorax, and their early identification by high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) chest imaging has implications for subsequent management. The objective of our study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of HRCT chest imaging to facilitate early diagnosis of LAM, BHD, and PLCH. We constructed a Markov state-transition model to assess the cost-effectiveness of screening HRCT to facilitate early diagnosis of diffuse cystic lung diseases in patients presenting with an apparent primary spontaneous pneumothorax. Baseline data for prevalence of BHD, LAM, and PLCH and rates of recurrent pneumothoraces in each of these diseases were derived from the literature. Costs were extracted from 2014 Medicare data. We compared a strategy of HRCT screening followed by pleurodesis in patients with LAM, BHD, or PLCH versus conventional management with no HRCT screening. In our base case analysis, screening for the presence of BHD, LAM, or PLCH in patients presenting with a spontaneous pneumothorax was cost effective, with a marginal cost-effectiveness ratio of $1,427 per quality-adjusted life-year gained. Sensitivity analysis showed that screening HRCT remained cost effective for diffuse cystic lung diseases prevalence as low as 0.01%. HRCT image screening for BHD, LAM, and PLCH in patients with apparent primary spontaneous pneumothorax is cost effective. Clinicians should consider performing a screening HRCT in patients presenting with apparent primary spontaneous pneumothorax.

  1. Deep convolutional neural networks for automatic coronary calcium scoring in a screening study with low-dose chest CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessmann, Nikolas; Išgum, Ivana; Setio, Arnaud A. A.; de Vos, Bob D.; Ciompi, Francesco; de Jong, Pim A.; Oudkerk, Matthjis; Mali, Willem P. Th. M.; Viergever, Max A.; van Ginneken, Bram

    2016-03-01

    The amount of calcifications in the coronary arteries is a powerful and independent predictor of cardiovascular events and is used to identify subjects at high risk who might benefit from preventive treatment. Routine quantification of coronary calcium scores can complement screening programs using low-dose chest CT, such as lung cancer screening. We present a system for automatic coronary calcium scoring based on deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs). The system uses three independently trained CNNs to estimate a bounding box around the heart. In this region of interest, connected components above 130 HU are considered candidates for coronary artery calcifications. To separate them from other high intensity lesions, classification of all extracted voxels is performed by feeding two-dimensional 50 mm × 50 mm patches from three orthogonal planes into three concurrent CNNs. The networks consist of three convolutional layers and one fully-connected layer with 256 neurons. In the experiments, 1028 non-contrast-enhanced and non-ECG-triggered low-dose chest CT scans were used. The network was trained on 797 scans. In the remaining 231 test scans, the method detected on average 194.3 mm3 of 199.8 mm3 coronary calcifications per scan (sensitivity 97.2 %) with an average false-positive volume of 10.3 mm3 . Subjects were assigned to one of five standard cardiovascular risk categories based on the Agatston score. Accuracy of risk category assignment was 84.4 % with a linearly weighted κ of 0.89. The proposed system can perform automatic coronary artery calcium scoring to identify subjects undergoing low-dose chest CT screening who are at risk of cardiovascular events with high accuracy.

  2. Screening Strategies for Tuberculosis Prevalence Surveys: The Value of Chest Radiography and Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van't Hoog, Anna H.; Meme, Helen K.; Laserson, Kayla F.; Agaya, Janet A.; Muchiri, Benson G.; Githui, Willie A.; Odeny, Lazarus O.; Marston, Barbara J.; Borgdorff, Martien W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: We conducted a tuberculosis (TB) prevalence survey and evaluated the screening methods used in our survey, to assess if screening in TB prevalence surveys could be simplified, and to assess the accuracy of screening algorithms that may be applicable for active case finding. Methods: All

  3. Cost-effectiveness of interferon-γ release assay versus chest X-ray for tuberculosis screening of employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowada, Akiko

    2011-12-01

    Currently, an annual chest X-ray examination (CXR) for detection of active tuberculosis (TB) in employees aged ≥40 years is recommended in the guidelines of the Japan Industrial Safety and Health Law. Interferon-γ release assays are new alternatives to the tuberculin skin test for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, with higher specificity than the tuberculin skin test and without cross-reactivity with the Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine. This study aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of employee TB screening using QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) versus CXR. Markov models were constructed. The target population was a hypothetical cohort of immunocompetent 40-year-old individuals, using a societal perspective and a lifetime horizon. All costs and clinical benefits were discounted at a fixed annual rate of 3%. In a base-case analysis, the QFT strategy was the most cost-effective ($US 262.84; 22.87049 quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]) compared with no screening ($448.38; 22.85452 QALYs) and CXR ($543.50; 22.85453 QALYs) [year 2009 values]. The QFT strategy is currently robust for screening Bacille Calmette-Guérin- vaccinated employees in Japan. There appears to be little role for CXR. These findings may be applicable to other countries in terms of choosing optimal TB screening for employees. Copyright © 2011 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mass spectrometry-assisted protease substrate screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlüter, Hartmut; Rykl, Jana; Thiemann, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    -phase chromatography they are analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry and the substrates identified by database searching. The proof of principle in this study is demonstrated by incubating immobilized human plasma proteins with thrombin and by identifying by tandem mass spectrometry the fibrinopeptides, released...

  5. Practices and regulations of radiological mass screening in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    The only radiological mass screening undertaken in the UK was the mass miniature radiography service for detection of tuberculosis by chest x-ray. Mass miniature radiographic (MMR) units were set up when tuberculosis was a common illness. However, by 1969 the detection rate of tuberculosis was so low that it was no longer cost-effective as a preventive health measure. In the last decade there has also been an increased awareness that people should only be exposed to radiation for medical purposes if it is judged to be clinically desirable. For some years, therefore, the Department's policy has been to discourage self-referral to these units and to advise people to consult their doctor should they be concerned about symptoms. Health authorities have been made aware of the need to continue to review the level of provision of MMR services and to integrate these facilities with hospital radiological departments as far as possible. To secure further information on the costs and benefits of radiological procedures, the Department is financially supporting research by the Royal College of Radiologists' Working Party on the Effective use of Diagnostic Radiology. Research is taking place in a number of areas and the work done on the use of preoperative chest x-ray in hospital is particularly germane

  6. Combining automatic tube current modulation with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction for low-dose chest CT screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Hong Chen

    Full Text Available To reduce radiation dose while maintaining image quality in low-dose chest computed tomography (CT by combining adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR and automatic tube current modulation (ATCM.Patients undergoing cancer screening (n = 200 were subjected to 64-slice multidetector chest CT scanning with ASIR and ATCM. Patients were divided into groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 (n = 50 each, with a noise index (NI of 15, 20, 30, and 40, respectively. Each image set was reconstructed with 4 ASIR levels (0% ASIR, 30% ASIR, 50% ASIR, and 80% ASIR in each group. Two radiologists assessed subjective image noise, image artifacts, and visibility of the anatomical structures. Objective image noise and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR were measured, and effective dose (ED was recorded.Increased NI was associated with increased subjective and objective image noise results (P<0.001, and SNR decreased with increasing NI (P<0.001. These values improved with increased ASIR levels (P<0.001. Images from all 4 groups were clinically diagnosable. Images with NI = 30 and 50% ASIR had average subjective image noise scores and nearly average anatomical structure visibility scores, with a mean objective image noise of 23.42 HU. The EDs for groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 2.79 ± 1.17, 1.69 ± 0.59, 0.74 ± 0.29, and 0.37 ± 0.22 mSv, respectively. Compared to group 1 (NI = 15, the ED reductions were 39.43%, 73.48%, and 86.74% for groups 2, 3, and 4, respectively.Using NI = 30 with 50% ASIR in the chest CT protocol, we obtained average or above-average image quality but a reduced ED.

  7. Combining automatic tube current modulation with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction for low-dose chest CT screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiang-Hong; Jin, Er-Hu; He, Wen; Zhao, Li-Qin

    2014-01-01

    To reduce radiation dose while maintaining image quality in low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) by combining adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and automatic tube current modulation (ATCM). Patients undergoing cancer screening (n = 200) were subjected to 64-slice multidetector chest CT scanning with ASIR and ATCM. Patients were divided into groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 (n = 50 each), with a noise index (NI) of 15, 20, 30, and 40, respectively. Each image set was reconstructed with 4 ASIR levels (0% ASIR, 30% ASIR, 50% ASIR, and 80% ASIR) in each group. Two radiologists assessed subjective image noise, image artifacts, and visibility of the anatomical structures. Objective image noise and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were measured, and effective dose (ED) was recorded. Increased NI was associated with increased subjective and objective image noise results (PASIR levels (PASIR had average subjective image noise scores and nearly average anatomical structure visibility scores, with a mean objective image noise of 23.42 HU. The EDs for groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 2.79 ± 1.17, 1.69 ± 0.59, 0.74 ± 0.29, and 0.37 ± 0.22 mSv, respectively. Compared to group 1 (NI = 15), the ED reductions were 39.43%, 73.48%, and 86.74% for groups 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Using NI = 30 with 50% ASIR in the chest CT protocol, we obtained average or above-average image quality but a reduced ED.

  8. Eliciting population preferences for mass colorectal cancer screening organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayaradou, Maximilien; Berchi, Célia; Dejardin, Olivier; Launoy, Guy

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of mass colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is a public health priority. Population participation is fundamental for the success of CRC screening as for any cancer screening program. The preferences of the population may influence their likelihood of participation. The authors sought to elicit population preferences for CRC screening test characteristics to improve the design of CRC screening campaigns. A discrete choice experiment was used. Questionnaires were compiled with a set of pairs of hypothetical CRC screening scenarios. The survey was conducted by mail from June 2006 to October 2006 on a representative sample of 2000 inhabitants, aged 50 to 74 years from the northwest of France, who were randomly selected from electoral lists. Questionnaires were sent to 2000 individuals, each of whom made 3 or 4 discrete choices between hypothetical tests that differed in 7 attributes: how screening is offered, process, sensitivity, rate of unnecessary colonoscopy, expected mortality reduction, method of screening test result transmission, and cost. Complete responses were received from 656 individuals (32.8%). The attributes that influenced population preferences included expected mortality reduction, sensitivity, cost, and process. Participants from high social classes were particularly influenced by sensitivity. The results demonstrate that the discrete choice experiment provides information on patient preferences for CRC screening: improving screening program effectiveness, for instance, by improving test sensitivity (the most valued attribute) would increase satisfaction among the general population with regard to CRC screening programs. Additional studies are required to study how patient preferences actually affect adherence to regular screening programs.

  9. Applications of ambient mass spectrometry in high-throughput screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Ping; Feng, Bao-Sheng; Yang, Jian-Wang; Chang, Cui-Lan; Bai, Yu; Liu, Hu-Wei

    2013-06-07

    The development of rapid screening and identification techniques is of great importance for drug discovery, doping control, forensic identification, food safety and quality control. Ambient mass spectrometry (AMS) allows rapid and direct analysis of various samples in open air with little sample preparation. Recently, its applications in high-throughput screening have been in rapid progress. During the past decade, various ambient ionization techniques have been developed and applied in high-throughput screening. This review discusses typical applications of AMS, including DESI (desorption electrospray ionization), DART (direct analysis in real time), EESI (extractive electrospray ionization), etc., in high-throughput screening (HTS).

  10. Benefit-risk evaluation of mammographic mass screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Nobuo; Ogura, Toshihiro

    1990-01-01

    This study evaluated the benefit-risk balance of mammography in mass screening by using survival rates from 3000 breast cancer patients at the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research Institute Hospital. Because the number of participants in mammographic mass screening was small, asymptomatic patients with pathologically proven early breast cancer were categorized as the screenee group. Symptomatic patients were categorized as the patient group. Survival rates were compared in both the screenee and the patient groups. Based on the difference in areas of survival curves between screenees and patients, the ratio of person-year gain (PYG) to person-year lost (PYL) was obtained. The ratio of PYG to PYL was multiplied by the detection rate resulting from a particular screening program to obtain the benefit/risk ratio. The detection rate of nonpalpable breast cancer was 15 times higher in the screenee group than the patient group. Breast cancer was detected in 7 (0.85%) of 824 patients in the screenee group. Even when mammographic mass screening was started at the age of 30, the benefit of mammography was far superior to the risk. The number of participants in mass screening stratified by age may be required for the conclusion of the benefit-risk balance of mammography in mass screening. (N.K.)

  11. Guidelines for Mass Screening of Congenital Hypothyroidism (2014 revision)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasaki, Keisuke; Minamitani, Kanshi; Anzo, Makoto; Adachi, Masanori; Ishii, Tomohiro; Onigata, Kazumichi; Kusuda, Satoshi; Harada, Shohei; Horikawa, Reiko; Minagawa, Masanori; Mizuno, Haruo; Yamakami, Yuji; Fukushi, Masaru; Tajima, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of developing the guidelines: Mass screening for congenital hypothyroidism started in 1979 in Japan, and the prognosis for intelligence has been improved by early diagnosis and treatment. The incidence was about 1/4000 of the birth population, but it has increased due to diagnosis of subclinical congenital hypothyroidism. The disease requires continuous treatment, and specialized medical facilities should make a differential diagnosis and treat subjects who are positive in mass screening to avoid unnecessary treatment. The Guidelines for Mass Screening of Congenital Hypothyroidism (1998 version) were developed by the Mass Screening Committee of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology in 1998. Subsequently, new findings on prognosis and problems in the adult phase have emerged. Based on these new findings, the 1998 guidelines were revised in the current document (hereinafter referred to as the Guidelines). Target disease/conditions: Primary congenital hypothyroidism. Users of the Guidelines: Physician specialists in pediatric endocrinology, pediatric specialists, physicians referring patients to pediatric practitioners, general physicians, laboratory technicians in charge of mass screening, and patients. PMID:26594093

  12. Osteoporosis markers on low-dose lung cancer screening chest computed tomography scans predict all-cause mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckens, C.F. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Radiology Department, Utrecht (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands); Graaf, Y. van der [University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands); Verkooijen, H.M.; Mali, W.P.; Jong, P.A. de [University Medical Center Utrecht, Radiology Department, Utrecht (Netherlands); Isgum, I.; Mol, C.P. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands); Verhaar, H.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Geriatric Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Vliegenthart, R.; Oudkerk, M. [Medical Center Groningen, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Aalst, C.M. van; Koning, H.J. de [Erasmus MC Rotterdam, Department of Public Health, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-01-15

    Further survival benefits may be gained from low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) by assessing vertebral fractures and bone density. We sought to assess the association between CT-measured vertebral fractures and bone density with all-cause mortality in lung cancer screening participants. Following a case-cohort design, lung cancer screening trial participants (N = 3,673) who died (N = 196) during a median follow-up of 6 years (inter-quartile range: 5.7-6.3) were identified and added to a random sample of N = 383 from the trial. We assessed vertebral fractures using Genant and acute;s semiquantative method on sagittal reconstructions and measured bone density (Hounsfield Units (HU)) in vertebrae. Cox proportional hazards modelling was used to determine if vertebral fractures or bone density were independently predictive of mortality. The prevalence of vertebral fractures was 35 % (95 % confidence interval 30-40 %) among survivors and 51 % (44-58 %) amongst cases. After adjusting for age, gender, smoking status, pack years smoked, coronary and aortic calcium volume and pulmonary emphysema, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for vertebral fracture was 2.04 (1.43-2.92). For each 10 HU decline in trabecular bone density, the adjusted HR was 1.08 (1.02-1.15). Vertebral fractures and bone density are independently associated with all-cause mortality. (orig.)

  13. Osteoporosis markers on low-dose lung cancer screening chest computed tomography scans predict all-cause mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckens, C.F.; Graaf, Y. van der; Verkooijen, H.M.; Mali, W.P.; Jong, P.A. de; Isgum, I.; Mol, C.P.; Verhaar, H.J.; Vliegenthart, R.; Oudkerk, M.; Aalst, C.M. van; Koning, H.J. de

    2015-01-01

    Further survival benefits may be gained from low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) by assessing vertebral fractures and bone density. We sought to assess the association between CT-measured vertebral fractures and bone density with all-cause mortality in lung cancer screening participants. Following a case-cohort design, lung cancer screening trial participants (N = 3,673) who died (N = 196) during a median follow-up of 6 years (inter-quartile range: 5.7-6.3) were identified and added to a random sample of N = 383 from the trial. We assessed vertebral fractures using Genant and acute;s semiquantative method on sagittal reconstructions and measured bone density (Hounsfield Units (HU)) in vertebrae. Cox proportional hazards modelling was used to determine if vertebral fractures or bone density were independently predictive of mortality. The prevalence of vertebral fractures was 35 % (95 % confidence interval 30-40 %) among survivors and 51 % (44-58 %) amongst cases. After adjusting for age, gender, smoking status, pack years smoked, coronary and aortic calcium volume and pulmonary emphysema, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for vertebral fracture was 2.04 (1.43-2.92). For each 10 HU decline in trabecular bone density, the adjusted HR was 1.08 (1.02-1.15). Vertebral fractures and bone density are independently associated with all-cause mortality. (orig.)

  14. Study of mammography in mass screening for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitada, Masahiro; Sakai, Hiroko; Kubo, Yoshihiko; Samejima, Natsuki; Kurowarabi, Kunio; Iwabuchi, Shuji.

    1995-01-01

    In order to examine the rate of correct diagnosis by mammography at initial mass screening for breast cancer, we carried out a retrospective study of mammography findings in 267 cases of breast cancer detected at Asahikawa Cancer Screening Center. The screening was performed by physical examination, and in cases where disease was suspected, mammography, ultrasonography, and needle biopsy were done. Mammographically, 172 cases (64.4%) were cancer-positive, 58 cases (21.7%) were suspicious for cancer, and 37 cases (13.9%) were cancer-negative. Patients below 50 years of age and those with tumors of small diameter (<20 mm) showed a significantly lower rate of cancer positivity than patients aged 50 years or more and those with tumors 20 mm or more in diameter. Mammographic abnormalities were not specific, since these changes were also found in normal subjects and patients with benign diseases. Therefore, we concluded that mammography without physical examination at initial mass screening has a high risk of missing breast cancer. Mass screening for breast cancer should be performed by physical examination involving inspection and palpation at the first instance. If any suspicious findings are obtained, mammography, ultrasonography, and needle biopsy should be done. (author)

  15. Yield of chest X-ray tuberculosis screening of immigrants during the European refugee crisis of 2015: a single-centre experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinrich, Julius Matthias; Sauer, Markus; Henes, Frank Oliver; Adam, Gerhard; Bannas, Peter [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Hamburg (Germany); Diel, Roland [University Medical Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Airway Research Center North (ARCN), Institute for Epidemiology, Kiel (Germany); Meywald-Walter, Karen [Public Health Department Hamburg Central, Hamburg (Germany); Schoen, Gerhard [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    Our aim was to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB), the number needed to screen (NNS), and the diagnostic accuracy of chest X-ray (CXR) screening to detect active pulmonary TB during the 2015 European refugee crisis. We evaluated data of all refugees who underwent CXR screening in a single-centre of one German metropolitan area in 2015. We determined the prevalence of TB, NNS, and accuracy of CXR to detect active pulmonary TB. Reference method for active TB was the database of all definite TB cases registered at the Department of Public Health. A total of 17,487 immigrants underwent single-centre CXR screening in 2015; prevalence of definite pulmonary TB was 0.103%. The NNS for detecting one case of active pulmonary TB was 1749. CXR had a sensitivity of 55.6% 95% confidence interval (CI 30.8-78.5%) and a specificity 98.3% (CI 98.1-98.5%) to reveal one case of active TB. Our single-centre study indicates that chest X-ray screening for TB during the 2015 European refugee crisis was of low yield due the low prevalence of TB and high number needed to screen, thus implicating the need for improved screening algorithms adapted to the overwhelming number of refugees. (orig.)

  16. Yield of chest X-ray tuberculosis screening of immigrants during the European refugee crisis of 2015: a single-centre experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinrich, Julius Matthias; Sauer, Markus; Henes, Frank Oliver; Adam, Gerhard; Bannas, Peter; Diel, Roland; Meywald-Walter, Karen; Schoen, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB), the number needed to screen (NNS), and the diagnostic accuracy of chest X-ray (CXR) screening to detect active pulmonary TB during the 2015 European refugee crisis. We evaluated data of all refugees who underwent CXR screening in a single-centre of one German metropolitan area in 2015. We determined the prevalence of TB, NNS, and accuracy of CXR to detect active pulmonary TB. Reference method for active TB was the database of all definite TB cases registered at the Department of Public Health. A total of 17,487 immigrants underwent single-centre CXR screening in 2015; prevalence of definite pulmonary TB was 0.103%. The NNS for detecting one case of active pulmonary TB was 1749. CXR had a sensitivity of 55.6% 95% confidence interval (CI 30.8-78.5%) and a specificity 98.3% (CI 98.1-98.5%) to reveal one case of active TB. Our single-centre study indicates that chest X-ray screening for TB during the 2015 European refugee crisis was of low yield due the low prevalence of TB and high number needed to screen, thus implicating the need for improved screening algorithms adapted to the overwhelming number of refugees. (orig.)

  17. A rapid and simple chemiluminescence method for screening levels of inosine and hypoxanthine in non-traumatic chest pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farthing, Don E; Sica, Domenic; Hindle, Michael; Edinboro, Les; Xi, Lei; Gehr, Todd W B; Gehr, Lynne; Farthing, Christine A; Larus, Terri L; Fakhry, Itaf; Karnes, H Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A rapid and simple chemiluminescence method was developed for detection of inosine and hypoxanthine in human plasma. The method utilized a microplate luminometer with direct injectors to automatically dispense reagents during sample analysis. Enzymatic conversions of inosine to hypoxanthine, followed by hypoxanthine to xanthine to uric acid, generated superoxide anion radicals as a useful metabolic by-product. The free radicals react with Pholasin(®) , a sensitive photoprotein used for chemiluminescence detection, to produce measurable blue-green light. The use of Pholasin(®) and a chemiluminescence signal enhancer, Adjuvant-K™, eliminated the need for plasma clean-up steps prior to analysis. The method used 20 μL of heparinized plasma, with complete analysis of total hypoxanthine levels (inosine is metabolized to hypoxanthine using purine nucleoside phosphorylase) in approximately 3.7 min. The rapid chemiluminescence method demonstrated the capability of differentiating total hypoxanthine levels between healthy individuals, and patients presenting with non-traumatic chest pain and potential acute cardiac ischemia. The results support the potential use of chemiluminescence methodology as a diagnostic tool to rapidly screen for elevated levels of inosine and hypoxanthine in human plasma, potential biomarkers of acute cardiac ischemia. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. An evaluation of automated chest radiography reading software for tuberculosis screening among public- and private-sector patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Toufiq; Codlin, Andrew J; Rahman, Md Mahfuzur; Nahar, Ayenun; Reja, Mehdi; Islam, Tariqul; Qin, Zhi Zhen; Khan, Md Abdus Shakur; Banu, Sayera; Creswell, Jacob

    2017-05-01

    Computer-aided reading (CAR) of medical images is becoming increasingly common, but few studies exist for CAR in tuberculosis (TB). We designed a prospective study evaluating CAR for chest radiography (CXR) as a triage tool before Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert).Consecutively enrolled adults in Dhaka, Bangladesh, with TB symptoms received CXR and Xpert. Each image was scored by CAR and graded by a radiologist. We compared CAR with the radiologist for sensitivity and specificity, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), and calculated the potential Xpert tests saved.A total of 18 036 individuals were enrolled. TB prevalence by Xpert was 15%. The radiologist graded 49% of CXRs as abnormal, resulting in 91% sensitivity and 58% specificity. At a similar sensitivity, CAR had a lower specificity (41%), saving fewer (36%) Xpert tests. The AUC for CAR was 0.74 (95% CI 0.73-0.75). CAR performance declined with increasing age. The radiologist grading was superior across all sub-analyses.Using CAR can save Xpert tests, but the radiologist's specificity was superior. Differentiated CAR thresholds may be required for different populations. Access to, and costs of, human readers must be considered when deciding to use CAR software. More studies are needed to evaluate CAR using different screening approaches. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  19. Yield of chest X-ray tuberculosis screening of immigrants during the European refugee crisis of 2015: a single-centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrich, Julius Matthias; Diel, Roland; Sauer, Markus; Henes, Frank Oliver; Meywald-Walter, Karen; Adam, Gerhard; Schön, Gerhard; Bannas, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Our aim was to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB), the number needed to screen (NNS), and the diagnostic accuracy of chest X-ray (CXR) screening to detect active pulmonary TB during the 2015 European refugee crisis. We evaluated data of all refugees who underwent CXR screening in a single-centre of one German metropolitan area in 2015. We determined the prevalence of TB, NNS, and accuracy of CXR to detect active pulmonary TB. Reference method for active TB was the database of all definite TB cases registered at the Department of Public Health. A total of 17,487 immigrants underwent single-centre CXR screening in 2015; prevalence of definite pulmonary TB was 0.103%. The NNS for detecting one case of active pulmonary TB was 1749. CXR had a sensitivity of 55.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 30.8-78.5%) and a specificity 98.3% (CI 98.1-98.5%) to reveal one case of active TB. Our single-centre study indicates that chest X-ray screening for TB during the 2015 European refugee crisis was of low yield due the low prevalence of TB and high number needed to screen, thus implicating the need for improved screening algorithms adapted to the overwhelming number of refugees. • Prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) among refugees in 2015 was low (0.103%). • The number needed to screen to detect one case of active pulmonary TB was 1749. • Tuberculosis X-ray screening resulted in a low sensitivity and high specificity. • Tuberculosis X-ray screening during the European refugee crisis is of low yield. • Improved screening algorithms are needed due to the overwhelming the number of refugees.

  20. Risk-benefit analysis for mass screening of breast cancer utilizing mammography as a screening test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iinuma, T.A.; Tateno, Yukio

    1989-01-01

    Incidence of breast cancers in Japanese women is increasing steadily. Mass screening of breast cancer was started in Japan under auspices of Adult Health Promotion Act of the Japanese Government from 1987. As the first screening method, the palpation of breasts is employed at present, but it is expected to be replaced by the mammography. In this report, the risk-benefit analysis is presented between risk of breast carcinogenesis due to radiation and benefit of mass screening of breast cancer. The benefit of mass screening is taken as the net elongation of average life expectancy of women due to survival from breast cancers. The risk of mammography is taken as the net loss of average life expectancy of women due to breast carcinogenesis. In the latter, the latency time and plateau period of radiation carcinogenesis were taken into consideration in the calculation. The results show that the ages at which the benefit and risk become equal are between 30 and 35 years old when dose equivalent of mammography is between 10 and 20 mSv, that are conventionally used. However, the critical age will be reduced to 20 years old if the dose equivalent becomes 1 mSv. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that a low dose mammographic system should be developed in order to achieve 1 mSv for the mass screening of breast cancer of Japanese women. In author's opinion, this is quite feasible by employing a new digital radiography with imaging plate. (author)

  1. High-resolution storage phosphor imaging of the chest: Comparison with conventional screen-film systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhrman, C.R.; Good, B.; Feist, J.; Gur, D.; Darby, J.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental high-resolution storage phosphor imaging system (Eastman Kodak) has been used to evaluate the image quality and impact on diagnostic interpretation of storage phosphor images relative to conventional screen-film images of the same patients. The elements of the system include a high-resolution laser scanner (4K X 5K X 12 bit); an image processing system; and a high-resolution (4K X 5K X 12 bit) laser printer. Each case was digitally printed onto film in two different formats: a full-size (14 X 14-inch) and a half-size format of four processed, minified images (7 X 7-inches each). The multiformat image includes an original, an unsharp-masked, a reversed (black bone) unsharp-masked, and a high-contrast unsharp-masked image. The results of this preliminary study (11 cases, eight readers) clearly indicate that after minimal adjustment, radiologists do not object to making diagnoses from minified images. Unsharp masked images were considered preferable to unprocessed images, and processed storage phosphor images were rated significantly better than conventional film images

  2. Radiological diagnosis of chest wall tuberculosis: CT versus chest radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fugeng; Pan Jishu; Chen Qihang; Zhou Cheng; Yu Jingying; Tang Dairong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of CT or Chest radiograph in diagnosis of chest wall tuberculosis. Methods: The study population included 21 patients with chest wall tuberculosis confirmed by operation or biopsy. Chest radiograph and plain CT were performed in all eases, while enhanced CT in 9 cases, and all images were reviewed by 2 radiologists. Results: Single soft tissue mass of the chest wall was detected in all cases on CT, but not on chest radiograph(χ 2 =42.000, P 2 =4.421, P<0.05). Conclusion: CT, especially enhanced CT scan is the first choice in the diagnosis of chest wall tuberculosis. (authors)

  3. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... primarily used to assess abnormal masses such as cancer and determine the size, extent and degree of ... chest is performed to: assess abnormal masses, including cancer of the lungs or other tissues, which either ...

  4. A 51-Year-Old Woman With an Increasing Chest Wall Mass Years After Resection of an Early Stage Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Ajay; Chen, Hongbin; Dexter, Elisabeth U

    2017-12-01

    A 51-year-old woman was found to have a new 14 × 6 mm soft tissue mass under the right serratus muscle on a CT scan of the chest performed for routine surveillance due to her history of stage I lung cancer. A follow-up CT scan performed 4 months later showed that the mass had increased in size to 22 × 8 mm. The patient presents to the oncology clinic to discuss the results of the CT scan. She has no pain or swelling on the right lateral chest and no cough, fever, or shortness of breath. She is at her baseline health with good appetite and functional status. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Coronary calcium screening with dual-source CT: reliability of ungated, high-pitch chest CT in comparison with dedicated calcium-scoring CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutt, Antoine; Faivre, Jean-Baptiste; Remy, Jacques; Remy-Jardin, Martine [CHRU et Universite de Lille, Department of Thoracic Imaging, Hospital Calmette (EA 2694), Lille (France); Duhamel, Alain; Deken, Valerie [CHRU et Universite de Lille, Department of Biostatistics (EA 2694), Lille (France); Molinari, Francesco [Centre Hospitalier General de Tourcoing, Department of Radiology, Tourcoing (France)

    2016-06-15

    To investigate the reliability of ungated, high-pitch dual-source CT for coronary artery calcium (CAC) screening. One hundred and eighty-five smokers underwent a dual-source CT examination with acquisition of two sets of images during the same session: (a) ungated, high-pitch and high-temporal resolution acquisition over the entire thorax (i.e., chest CT); (b) prospectively ECG-triggered acquisition over the cardiac cavities (i.e., cardiac CT). Sensitivity and specificity of chest CT for detecting positive CAC scores were 96.4 % and 100 %, respectively. There was excellent inter-technique agreement for determining the quantitative CAC score (ICC = 0.986). The mean difference between the two techniques was 11.27, representing 1.81 % of the average of the two techniques. The inter-technique agreement for categorizing patients into the four ranks of severity was excellent (weighted kappa = 0.95; 95 % CI 0.93-0.98). The inter-technique differences for quantitative CAC scores did not correlate with BMI (r = 0.05, p = 0.575) or heart rate (r = -0.06, p = 0.95); 87.2 % of them were explained by differences at the level of the right coronary artery (RCA: 0.8718; LAD: 0.1008; LCx: 0.0139; LM: 0.0136). Ungated, high-pitch dual-source CT is a reliable imaging mode for CAC screening in the conditions of routine chest CT examinations. (orig.)

  6. Screening for distant metastases in head and neck cancer patients by chest CT or whole body FDG-PET: A prospective multicenter trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senft, Asaf; Bree, Remco de; Hoekstra, Otto S.; Kuik, Dirk J.; Golding, Richard P.; Oyen, Wim J.G.; Pruim, Jan; Hoogen, Frank J. van den; Roodenburg, Jan L.N.; Leemans, C. Rene

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: The aim of the study was to define the added value of whole body FDG-PET in screening for distant metastases in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and risk factors. Materials and methods: In a multi-center prospective study between 1998 and 2003, 145 consecutive HNSCC patients with risk factors for distant metastases underwent chest CT and whole body FDG-PET for screening of distant metastases. The data of 92 evaluable patients who developed distant metastases or who had a follow-up of at least 12 months were analyzed. Besides their performance in clinical practice, the operational characteristics of PET and CT using ROC analyses were investigated. Results: Pretreatment screening identified distant metastases in 19 patients (21%). FDG-PET had a higher sensitivity (53% vs. 37%) and positive predictive value (80% vs. 75%) than CT. The combination of CT and FDG-PET had the highest sensitivity (63%). The ROC analyses of the five point ordinal scales revealed that the 'area under the curve' (AUC) of FDG-PET was significantly higher as compared to CT. Conclusion: In HNSCC patients with risk factors, pretreatment screening for distant metastases by chest CT is improved by FDG-PET

  7. Screening of carnitine and biotin deficiencies on tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Shin-Ichiro; Kubota, Mitsuru; Nambu, Ryusuke; Kagimoto, Seiichi

    2017-04-01

    It is important to assess pediatric patients for nutritional deficiency when they are receiving specific interventions, such as enteral feeding. We focused on measurement of C0 and 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine (C5-OH) with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), which is performed as part of the newborn mass screening. The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of MS/MS for screening carnitine and biotin deficiencies. Forty-two children (24 boys, 18 girls) were enrolled between December 2013 and December 2015. Blood tests, including measurement of serum free carnitine via the enzyme cycling method, and acylcarnitine analysis on MS/MS of dried blood spot (DBS), were performed for the evaluation of nutrition status. Median patient age was 2 years (range, 2 months-14 years). Mean serum free carnitine was 41.8 ± 19.2 μmol/L. In six of the 42 patients, serum free carnitine was 1.00 nmol/L. Therapy-resistant eczema was improved by treatment with additional biotin and a non-hydrolyzed formula. C0 and C5-OH, measured on MS/MS of DBS, were useful for screening carnitine and biotin deficiencies. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  8. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... chest is performed to: assess abnormal masses, including cancer of the lungs or other tissues, which either cannot be assessed ... in diagnosing a broad range of conditions, including cancer, heart and ... tissues, except for lung abnormalities where Chest CT is a preferred imaging ...

  9. Factors Associated with Participation in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Screening Using Chest X-Ray among Diabetes Mellitus Type II Patients in Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, I Gusti Ngurah Edi; Astuti, Putu Ayu Swandewi; Suarjana, I Ketut; Mulyawan, Ketut Hari; Duana, I Made Kerta; Kurniasari, Ni Made Dian; Putra, I Wayan Gede Artawan Eka

    2018-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) increases the risk of developing pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) disease. Therefore, pulmonary TB screening among DM patients is essential. This study aimed to identify factors associated with participation of DM type II patients in pulmonary TB screening using chest X-ray. This was a cross-sectional analytic study and was part of TB-DM screening study in Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia. The sample consisted of 365 DM type II patients selected by quota sampling among DM type II patients joining the screening program from January until March 2016 in 11 public health centres in Denpasar. Data were collected via structured interviews. The contributing factors were determined by modified Poisson regression test for cross-sectional data. From the findings, less than half (45.48%) of DM type II patients participated in chest X-ray examination for TB. Factors associated with participation in pulmonary TB screening were having a higher educational level [APR = 1.34, 95% CI (1.07-1.67)], having family member who developed pulmonary TB disease [APR = 1.47, 95% CI (1.12-1.93)], the travel time to referral hospital for screening being ≤ 15 minutes [APR = 1.6, 95% CI (1.26-2.03)], having health insurance [APR = 2.69, 95% CI (1.10-6.56)], and receiving good support from health provider [APR = 1.35, 95% CI (1.06-1.70)]. Therefore, training for health provider on providing counselling, involvement of family members in screening process, and improving the health insurance coverage and referral system are worth considering.

  10. Regional improvement of signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios in dual-screen CR chest imaging - a phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinming; Shaw, Chris C.

    2001-01-01

    The improvement of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in dual-screen computed radiography (CR) has been investigated for various regions in images of an anthropomorphic chest phantom. With the dual-screen CR technique, two image plates are placed in a cassette and exposed together during imaging. The exposed plates are separately scanned to form a front image and a back image, which are then registered and superimposed to form a composite image with improved SNRs and CNRs. The improvement can be optimized by applying specifically selected weighting factors during superimposition. In this study, dual-screen CR images of an anthropomorphic chest phantom were acquired and formed with four different combinations of standard resolution (ST) and high-resolution (HR) screens: ST-ST, ST-HR, HR-ST, and HR-HR. SNRs and their improvements were measured and compared over twelve representative regions-of-interest (ROIs) in these images. A 19.1%-45.7% increase of the SNR was observed, depending on the ROI and screen combination used. The optimal weighting factors were found to vary by only 4.5%-12.4%. Largest improvement was found in the lung field for all screen combinations. Improvement of CNRs was investigated over two ROIs in the lung field using the rib bones as the contrast objects and a 29.2%-43.9% improvement of the CNR was observed. Among the four screen combinations, ST-ST resulted in the most SNR and CNR improvement, followed in order by HR-ST, HR-HR, and ST-HR. The HR-ST combination yielded the lowest spatial variation of the optimal weighting factors with improved SNRs and CNRs close to those of the ST-ST combination

  11. Factors Associated with Participation in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Screening Using Chest X-Ray among Diabetes Mellitus Type II Patients in Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ngurah Edi Putra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM increases the risk of developing pulmonary tuberculosis (TB disease. Therefore, pulmonary TB screening among DM patients is essential. This study aimed to identify factors associated with participation of DM type II patients in pulmonary TB screening using chest X-ray. This was a cross-sectional analytic study and was part of TB-DM screening study in Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia. The sample consisted of 365 DM type II patients selected by quota sampling among DM type II patients joining the screening program from January until March 2016 in 11 public health centres in Denpasar. Data were collected via structured interviews. The contributing factors were determined by modified Poisson regression test for cross-sectional data. From the findings, less than half (45.48% of DM type II patients participated in chest X-ray examination for TB. Factors associated with participation in pulmonary TB screening were having a higher educational level [APR = 1.34, 95% CI (1.07–1.67], having family member who developed pulmonary TB disease [APR = 1.47, 95% CI (1.12–1.93], the travel time to referral hospital for screening being ≤ 15 minutes [APR = 1.6, 95% CI (1.26–2.03], having health insurance [APR = 2.69, 95% CI (1.10–6.56], and receiving good support from health provider [APR = 1.35, 95% CI (1.06–1.70]. Therefore, training for health provider on providing counselling, involvement of family members in screening process, and improving the health insurance coverage and referral system are worth considering.

  12. Body mass index and participation in organized mammographic screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmann, Sophie Sell; Njor, Sisse Helle; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the leading cancer among women, and early diagnosis is essential for future prognosis. Evidence from mainly cross-sectional US studies with self-reported exposure and outcome found positive association of body mass index (BMI) with non-participation in mammographic...... with normal weight. This association was limited to postmenopausal women (Wald test p = 0.08), with enhanced non-participation in underweight (2.83: 1.52-5.27) and obese women of class II and III (1.84: 1.15-2.95; 2.47: 1.20-5.06) as compared to normal weight postmenopausal women. There was no effect...... modification by HT, previous screening participation, or morbidities, besides suggestive evidence of enhanced non-participation in diabetic overweight and obese women. CONCLUSIONS: Underweight and very obese postmenopausal women were significantly less likely to participate in mammographic screening than women...

  13. Fluid Collection in the Right Lateral Portion of the Superior Aortic Recess Mimicking a Right Mediastinal Mass: Assessment with Chest Posterior Anterior and MDCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shn, Dong Rock; Ryu, Dae Shick; Park, Man Soo; Jung, Seung Mun; Ahn, Jae Hong; Lee, Jong Hyeog; Choi, Soo Jung

    2012-01-01

    We observed patients in whom the fluid collection in the right lateral portion of the superior aortic recess on computed tomography (CT) scans mimicked a right anterior mediastinal mass on chest PA radiographs. The purpose of this study was to assess chest PA and CT features of these patients. All chest PA radiographs and CT scans in 9 patients were reviewed by two radiologists on a consensus basis; for the presence of pleural effusion, pulmonary edema and heart size on chest PA radiographs. For the portion of the fluid collection in the superior aortic recess (SAR), a connection between the right lateral portion of the SAR (rSAR) and posterior portion of the SAR (pSAR) on CT scans, and the distance between the right lateral margin of the rSAR and the right lateral margin of the superior vena cava. Fluid collection in the rSAR on CT scans caused a right anterior mediastinal mass or a bulging contour on chest PA radiographs in all women patients. All patients showed cardiomegaly, five patients had pleural effusion, and two patients had mild pulmonary edema. Further, eight patients showed a connection between the rSAR and the pSAR. The characteristic features of these patients are the right anterior mediastinal mass-like opacity due to fluid collection in the rSAR, are bulging contour with a smooth margin and cardiomegaly regardless of pulmonary edema on the chest PA radiographs, and fluid connection between the rSAR and the pSAR on CT scans

  14. Fluid Collection in the Right Lateral Portion of the Superior Aortic Recess Mimicking a Right Mediastinal Mass: Assessment with Chest Posterior Anterior and MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shn, Dong Rock; Ryu, Dae Shick; Park, Man Soo; Jung, Seung Mun; Ahn, Jae Hong; Lee, Jong Hyeog; Choi, Soo Jung [Dept. of Radiology, Gangneung Asan Hospital, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    We observed patients in whom the fluid collection in the right lateral portion of the superior aortic recess on computed tomography (CT) scans mimicked a right anterior mediastinal mass on chest PA radiographs. The purpose of this study was to assess chest PA and CT features of these patients. All chest PA radiographs and CT scans in 9 patients were reviewed by two radiologists on a consensus basis; for the presence of pleural effusion, pulmonary edema and heart size on chest PA radiographs. For the portion of the fluid collection in the superior aortic recess (SAR), a connection between the right lateral portion of the SAR (rSAR) and posterior portion of the SAR (pSAR) on CT scans, and the distance between the right lateral margin of the rSAR and the right lateral margin of the superior vena cava. Fluid collection in the rSAR on CT scans caused a right anterior mediastinal mass or a bulging contour on chest PA radiographs in all women patients. All patients showed cardiomegaly, five patients had pleural effusion, and two patients had mild pulmonary edema. Further, eight patients showed a connection between the rSAR and the pSAR. The characteristic features of these patients are the right anterior mediastinal mass-like opacity due to fluid collection in the rSAR, are bulging contour with a smooth margin and cardiomegaly regardless of pulmonary edema on the chest PA radiographs, and fluid connection between the rSAR and the pSAR on CT scans.

  15. The utility of computed tomography as a screening tool for the evaluation of pediatric blunt chest trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markel, Troy A; Kumar, Rajiv; Koontz, Nicholas A; Scherer, L R; Applegate, Kimberly E

    2009-07-01

    There is a growing concern that computed tomography (CT) is being unnecessarily overused for the evaluation of pediatric patients. The purpose of this study was to analyze the trends and utility of chest CT use compared with chest X-ray (CXR) for the evaluation of children with blunt chest trauma. A 4-year retrospective review was performed for pediatric patients who underwent chest CT within 24 hours of sustaining blunt trauma at a Level-I trauma center. Trends in the use of CT and CXR were documented, and results of radiology reports were analyzed and compared with clinical outcomes. Three hundred thirty-three children, mean age 11 years, had chest CTs, increasing from 5.5% in 2001-2002 to 10.5% in 2004-2005 (p tool to analyze which patients may require CT evaluation. A multidisciplinary approach is warranted to develop guidelines that standardize the use of CT and thereby decreases unnecessary radiation exposure to pediatric patients.

  16. Non-invasive coronary angiography for patients with acute atypical chest pain discharged after negative screening including maximal negative treadmill stress test. A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonello, L; Armero, S; Jacquier, A; Com, O; Sarran, A; Sbragia, P; Panuel, M; Arques, S; Paganelli, F

    2009-05-01

    Among patients admitted in the emergency department for acute atypical chest pain those with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who are mistakenly discharged home have high mortality. A recent retrospective study has demonstrated that multislice computed tomography (MSCT) coronary angiography could improve triage of these patients. We aimed to prospectively confirm these data on patients with a negative screening including maximal treadmill stress. 30 patients discharged from the emergency department after negative screening for an ACS were included. All patients underwent MSCT angiography of the coronary artery. Patients with coronary atheroma on MSCT had an invasive coronary angiography to confirm these findings. Seven patients (23%) had obstructive coronary artery disease on MSCT. Invasive coronary angiography (ICA) confirmed the diagnosis in all patients. In patients with no previously known coronary artery disease admitted to the emergency department with atypical acute chest pain and discharged after negative screening, including maximal treadmill stress test, MSCT coronary angiography is useful for the diagnosis of obstructive coronary artery disease.

  17. Newborn screening by tandem mass spectrometry: ethical and social issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avard, Denise; Vallance, Hilary; Greenberg, Cheryl; Potter, Beth

    2007-01-01

    Emerging technologies like Tandem Mass Spectrometry (TMS) enable multiple tests on a single blood sample and allow the expansion of Newborn Screening (NBS) to include various metabolic diseases. Introducing TMS for NBS raises important social and ethical questions: what are the criteria for adding disorders to screening panels? What evidence justifies expansion of screening? How can equity in NBS access and standards be ensured? How can policy standards be set, given the multiplicity of stakeholders? To address emerging issues, policy-makers, patient advocates, clinicians and researchers had a workshop during the 2005 Garrod Symposium. The participants received a summary of the discussion and understood the workshop's goal was to provide a basis for further discussion. This article contributes to this ongoing discussion. Several proposed recommendations assert the centrality of including social and ethical issues in the assessment of whether or not to introduce TMS. The article outlines five key recommendations for advancing the NBS agenda: national public health leadership; transparency; increased national consistency in NBS strategy, including minimum standards; collaboration between the federal and provincial/territorial governments and diverse stakeholders; and supporting research and/or programs based on effectiveness, which integrate ethical and social issues into assessment.

  18. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... detailed pictures of the structures within the chest. It is primarily used to assess abnormal masses such ... and determine the size, extent and degree of its spread to adjacent structures. It’s also used to ...

  19. Concepts of optimisation and justification consequences for radiological mass screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmichael, J.H.E.

    1987-01-01

    Mass radiological screening campaigns have been mounted in many countries for different conditions and the needs of one country are not necessarily those of another. However, in the European community there is a reasonable uniformity about disease patterns and therefore, a mass screening situation applicable to one country is probably equally applicable throughout the Community. In radiation protection terms, all these potential surveys must be looked at under the same factors. In radiation protection, one thinks first of all justification of the practice. Then one follows it by optimisation of the technique used, so as to obtain the best balance between benefit and detriment, and at this point one must remember that the radiation protection concept of optimisation includes a financial element as well as a purely clinical element and this must lead us on eventually to touch on cost effectiveness. The last portion of the ICRP system is the actual setting of dose limits. Now these are really only applicable to workers not to patients. One cannot set an upper limit on the dose one is prepared to use in a diagnostic radiological examination, but one can say that the dose per examination, should be examined and that the dose range of that examination between various institutions should be ascertained. This should enable any one institution to see where their dose range lies in the larger dose range, and to see that their radiological practice is giving as low a dose as is reasonably achievable

  20. Expanded newborn screening by mass spectrometry: New tests, future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombrone, Daniela; Giocaliere, Elisa; Forni, Giulia; Malvagia, Sabrina; la Marca, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has become a leading technology used in clinical chemistry and has shown to be particularly sensitive and specific when used in newborn screening (NBS) tests. The success of tandem mass spectrometry is due to important advances in hardware, software and clinical applications during the last 25 years. MS/MS permits a very rapid measurement of many metabolites in different biological specimens by using filter paper spots or directly on biological fluids. Its use in NBS give us the chance to identify possible treatable metabolic disorders even when asymptomatic and the benefits gained by this type of screening is now recognized worldwide. Today the use of MS/MS for second-tier tests and confirmatory testing is promising especially in the early detection of new disorders such as some lysosomal storage disorders, ADA and PNP SCIDs, X-adrenoleucodistrophy (X-ALD), Wilson disease, guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency (GAMT), and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The new challenge for the future will be reducing the false positive rate by using second-tier tests, avoiding false negative results by using new specific biomarkers and introducing new treatable disorders in NBS programs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Screening for lung cancer with digital chest radiography: sensitivity and number of secondary work-up CT examinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoop, Bartjan; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia; Gietema, Hester A.; de Jong, Pim A.; van Ginneken, Bram; van Klaveren, Rob J.; Prokop, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    To estimate the performance of digital chest radiography for detection of lung cancer. The study had ethics committee approval, and a nested case-control design was used and included 55 patients with lung cancer detected at computed tomography (CT) and confirmed with histologic examination and a

  2. Chest MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resonance imaging - chest; NMR - chest; MRI of the thorax; Thoracic MRI Patient Instructions ... Gotway MB, Panse PM, Gruden JF, Elicker BM. Thoracic radiology. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et ...

  3. Mapping HL7 CDA R2 Formatted Mass Screening Data to OpenEHR Archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shinji; Kume, Naoto; Yoshihara, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Mass screening of adults was performed to manage employee healthcare. The screening service defined the data collection format as HL7 Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) R2. To capture mass screening data for nationwide electronic health records (her), we programmed a model within the CDA format and mapped the data items to the ISO13606/openEHR archetype for semantic interoperabiilty.

  4. Mass Media Campaign Improves Cervical Screening across All Socio-Economic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jenny O.; Mullins, Robyn M.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Spittal, Matthew J.; Wakefield, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    Low socio-economic status (SES) has been associated with lower cervical screening rates. Mass media is one known strategy that can increase cervical screening participation. This study sought to determine whether a mass media campaign conducted in Victoria, Australia, in 2005 was effective in encouraging women across all SES groups to screen. Data…

  5. An evaluation of automated chest radiography reading software for tuberculosis screening among public- and private-sector patients

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Md Toufiq; Codlin, Andrew J.; Rahman, Md Mahfuzur; Nahar, Ayenun; Reja, Mehdi; Islam, Tariqul; Qin, Zhi Zhen; Khan, Md Abdus Shakur; Banu, Sayera; Creswell, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Computer-aided reading (CAR) of medical images is becoming increasingly common, but few studies exist for CAR in tuberculosis (TB). We designed a prospective study evaluating CAR for chest radiography (CXR) as a triage tool before Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert). Consecutively enrolled adults in Dhaka, Bangladesh, with TB symptoms received CXR and Xpert. Each image was scored by CAR and graded by a radiologist. We compared CAR with the radiologist for sensitivity and specificity, area under the receive...

  6. Practice and regulations of radiological mass screening in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indovina, P.L.; Romagnoli, S.; Paganini Fioratti, M.

    1987-01-01

    The law setting up the National Health Service in Italy came into force in 1978. This law attributes many public health responsibilities to local government bodies, and these have also power to issue decrees and circulars with regulatory effect. It therefore proved difficult to obtain a complete picture of the regulations in the short time available. However, those laws, decrees and circulars have been traced which impose radiological examinations on individual members of the population as a condition of their carrying out particular activities in work or study. The statistical data on the total number of persons subjected to such examinations each year have been supplied by the Central Institute of Statistics (ISTAT). In some cases it has not been possible to trace any up-to-date statistics. We have understood the term 'mass radiological screening' in a rather wide sense, not as solely mass examination prescribed on the basis of specific regulations. It is for this reason that we have included in the analyses the scoliosis examinations advised by the authorities concerned in only some areas of Italy. For the same reason radiological examination of the dental apparatus has also been taken into consideration, since it is widespread among the population even though there are no regulations on the subject

  7. High throughput reaction screening using desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wleklinski, Michael; Loren, Bradley P; Ferreira, Christina R; Jaman, Zinia; Avramova, Larisa; Sobreira, Tiago J P; Thompson, David H; Cooks, R Graham

    2018-02-14

    We report the high throughput analysis of reaction mixture arrays using methods and data handling routines that were originally developed for biological tissue imaging. Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS) is applied in a continuous on-line process at rates that approach 10 4 reactions per h at area densities of up to 1 spot per mm 2 (6144 spots per standard microtiter plate) with the sprayer moving at ca. 10 4 microns per s. Data are analyzed automatically by MS using in-house software to create ion images of selected reagents and products as intensity plots in standard array format. Amine alkylation reactions were used to optimize the system performance on PTFE membrane substrates using methanol as the DESI spray/analysis solvent. Reaction times can be screening of processes like N -alkylation and Suzuki coupling reactions as reported herein. Products and by-products were confirmed by on-line MS/MS upon rescanning of the array.

  8. High-Throughput Screening Using Mass Spectrometry within Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohman, Mattias; Wingfield, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    In order to detect a biochemical analyte with a mass spectrometer (MS) it is necessary to ionize the analyte of interest. The analyte can be ionized by a number of different mechanisms, however, one common method is electrospray ionization (ESI). Droplets of analyte are sprayed through a highly charged field, the droplets pick up charge, and this is transferred to the analyte. High levels of salt in the assay buffer will potentially steal charge from the analyte and suppress the MS signal. In order to avoid this suppression of signal, salt is often removed from the sample prior to injection into the MS. Traditional ESI MS relies on liquid chromatography (LC) to remove the salt and reduce matrix effects, however, this is a lengthy process. Here we describe the use of RapidFire™ coupled to a triple-quadrupole MS for high-throughput screening. This system uses solid-phase extraction to de-salt samples prior to injection, reducing processing time such that a sample is injected into the MS ~every 10 s.

  9. Mass spectrometry in clinical chemistry: the case of newborn screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    la Marca, Giancarlo

    2014-12-01

    Newborn screening (NBS) program is a complex and organized system consisting of family and personnel education, biochemical tests, confirmatory biochemical and genetic tests, diagnosis, therapy, and patient follow up. The program identifies treatable metabolic disorders possibly when asymptomatic by using dried blood spot (DBS). During the last 20 years tandem mass spectrometry (TMS) has become the leading technology in NBS programs demonstrating to be versatile, sensitive and specific. There is consistent evidence of benefits from NBS for many disorders detected by TMS as well as for congenital hypothyroidism, cystic fibrosis, congenital adrenal hyperplasia by immune-enzymatic methods. Real time PCR tests have more recently been proposed for the detection of some severe combined immunodeficiences (SCID) along with the use of TMS for ADA and PNP SCID; a first evaluation of their cost-benefit ratio is still ongoing. Avoiding false negative results by using specific biomarkers and reducing the false positive rate by using second tier tests, is fundamental for a successful NBS program. The fully integration of NBS and diagnostic laboratories with clinical service is crucial to have the best effectiveness in a comprehensive NBS system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos ... x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and chest wall and may be used to ...

  11. MASS SPECTROMETRY PROTEOMICS METHOD AS A RAPID SCREENING TOOL FOR BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION OF FOOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    MASS SPECTROMETRY PROTEOMICS METHOD AS A RAPID SCREENING TOOL FOR BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION OF FOOD ECBC-TR...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Mass Spectrometry Proteomics Method as a Rapid Screening Tool for Bacterial Contamination of Food 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...the MSPM to correctly classify whether or not food samples were contaminated with Salmonella enterica serotype Newport in this blinded pilot study

  12. Low-Dose Chest Computed Tomography for Lung Cancer Screening Among Hodgkin Lymphoma Survivors: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wattson, Daniel A.; Hunink, M.G. Myriam; DiPiro, Pamela J.; Das, Prajnan; Hodgson, David C.; Mauch, Peter M.; Ng, Andrea K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors face an increased risk of treatment-related lung cancer. Screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) may allow detection of early stage, resectable cancers. We developed a Markov decision-analytic and cost-effectiveness model to estimate the merits of annual LDCT screening among HL survivors. Methods and Materials: Population databases and HL-specific literature informed key model parameters, including lung cancer rates and stage distribution, cause-specific survival estimates, and utilities. Relative risks accounted for radiation therapy (RT) technique, smoking status (>10 pack-years or current smokers vs not), age at HL diagnosis, time from HL treatment, and excess radiation from LDCTs. LDCT assumptions, including expected stage-shift, false-positive rates, and likely additional workup were derived from the National Lung Screening Trial and preliminary results from an internal phase 2 protocol that performed annual LDCTs in 53 HL survivors. We assumed a 3% discount rate and a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of $50,000 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Results: Annual LDCT screening was cost effective for all smokers. A male smoker treated with mantle RT at age 25 achieved maximum QALYs by initiating screening 12 years post-HL, with a life expectancy benefit of 2.1 months and an incremental cost of $34,841/QALY. Among nonsmokers, annual screening produced a QALY benefit in some cases, but the incremental cost was not below the WTP threshold for any patient subsets. As age at HL diagnosis increased, earlier initiation of screening improved outcomes. Sensitivity analyses revealed that the model was most sensitive to the lung cancer incidence and mortality rates and expected stage-shift from screening. Conclusions: HL survivors are an important high-risk population that may benefit from screening, especially those treated in the past with large radiation fields including mantle or involved-field RT. Screening

  13. Low-Dose Chest Computed Tomography for Lung Cancer Screening Among Hodgkin Lymphoma Survivors: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wattson, Daniel A., E-mail: dwattson@partners.org [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hunink, M.G. Myriam [Departments of Radiology and Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands and Center for Health Decision Science, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); DiPiro, Pamela J. [Department of Imaging, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Das, Prajnan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hodgson, David C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Mauch, Peter M.; Ng, Andrea K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors face an increased risk of treatment-related lung cancer. Screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) may allow detection of early stage, resectable cancers. We developed a Markov decision-analytic and cost-effectiveness model to estimate the merits of annual LDCT screening among HL survivors. Methods and Materials: Population databases and HL-specific literature informed key model parameters, including lung cancer rates and stage distribution, cause-specific survival estimates, and utilities. Relative risks accounted for radiation therapy (RT) technique, smoking status (>10 pack-years or current smokers vs not), age at HL diagnosis, time from HL treatment, and excess radiation from LDCTs. LDCT assumptions, including expected stage-shift, false-positive rates, and likely additional workup were derived from the National Lung Screening Trial and preliminary results from an internal phase 2 protocol that performed annual LDCTs in 53 HL survivors. We assumed a 3% discount rate and a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of $50,000 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Results: Annual LDCT screening was cost effective for all smokers. A male smoker treated with mantle RT at age 25 achieved maximum QALYs by initiating screening 12 years post-HL, with a life expectancy benefit of 2.1 months and an incremental cost of $34,841/QALY. Among nonsmokers, annual screening produced a QALY benefit in some cases, but the incremental cost was not below the WTP threshold for any patient subsets. As age at HL diagnosis increased, earlier initiation of screening improved outcomes. Sensitivity analyses revealed that the model was most sensitive to the lung cancer incidence and mortality rates and expected stage-shift from screening. Conclusions: HL survivors are an important high-risk population that may benefit from screening, especially those treated in the past with large radiation fields including mantle or involved-field RT. Screening

  14. Low-dose chest computed tomography for lung cancer screening among Hodgkin lymphoma survivors: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattson, Daniel A; Hunink, M G Myriam; DiPiro, Pamela J; Das, Prajnan; Hodgson, David C; Mauch, Peter M; Ng, Andrea K

    2014-10-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors face an increased risk of treatment-related lung cancer. Screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) may allow detection of early stage, resectable cancers. We developed a Markov decision-analytic and cost-effectiveness model to estimate the merits of annual LDCT screening among HL survivors. Population databases and HL-specific literature informed key model parameters, including lung cancer rates and stage distribution, cause-specific survival estimates, and utilities. Relative risks accounted for radiation therapy (RT) technique, smoking status (>10 pack-years or current smokers vs not), age at HL diagnosis, time from HL treatment, and excess radiation from LDCTs. LDCT assumptions, including expected stage-shift, false-positive rates, and likely additional workup were derived from the National Lung Screening Trial and preliminary results from an internal phase 2 protocol that performed annual LDCTs in 53 HL survivors. We assumed a 3% discount rate and a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of $50,000 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Annual LDCT screening was cost effective for all smokers. A male smoker treated with mantle RT at age 25 achieved maximum QALYs by initiating screening 12 years post-HL, with a life expectancy benefit of 2.1 months and an incremental cost of $34,841/QALY. Among nonsmokers, annual screening produced a QALY benefit in some cases, but the incremental cost was not below the WTP threshold for any patient subsets. As age at HL diagnosis increased, earlier initiation of screening improved outcomes. Sensitivity analyses revealed that the model was most sensitive to the lung cancer incidence and mortality rates and expected stage-shift from screening. HL survivors are an important high-risk population that may benefit from screening, especially those treated in the past with large radiation fields including mantle or involved-field RT. Screening may be cost effective for all smokers but possibly not

  15. The mass miniature chest radiography programme in Cape Town, South Africa, 1948-1994: The impact of active tuberculosis case finding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, S. M.; Andrews, J. R.; Bekker, L.-G.; Wood, R.

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) control programmes rely mainly on passive detection of symptomatic individuals. The resurgence of TB has rekindled interest in active case finding. Cape Town (South Africa) had a mass miniature radiography (MMR) screening programme from 1948 to 1994. To evaluate screening coverage,

  16. FLAIL CHEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Crnjac

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Major thoracic trauma is consistent with high mortality rate because of associated injuries of vital thoracic organs and dangerous complications. The flail chest occurs after disruption of the skeletal continuity of chest wall and demands because of its pathophysiological complexity rapid and accurate diagnosis and treatment.Conclusions. Basic pathophysiological mechanism of the flail chest is respiratory distress, which is provoked by pulmonary contusions and paradoxical chest wall motion. The treatment should be pointed to improvement and support of respiratory functions and include aggressive pain control, pulmonary physiotherapy and selective mechanical ventilation. Views about operative fixation of the flail chest are still controversial. Neither mortality rate neither long-term disability are improved after operative fixation.

  17. Small median tumor diameter at cure threshold (lung cancers in male smokers predicts both chest X-ray and CT screening outcomes in a novel simulation framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwasser, Deborah L; Kimmel, Marek

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of population-wide lung cancer screening strategies depends on the underlying natural course of lung cancer. We evaluate the expected stage distribution in the Mayo CT screening study under an existing simulation model of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) progression calibrated to the Mayo lung project (MLP). Within a likelihood framework, we evaluate whether the probability of 5-year NSCLC survival conditional on tumor diameter at detection depends significantly on screening detection modality, namely chest X-ray and computed tomography. We describe a novel simulation framework in which tumor progression depends on cellular proliferation and mutation within a stem cell compartment of the tumor. We fit this model to randomized trial data from the MLP and produce estimates of the median radiologic size at the cure threshold. We examine the goodness of model fit with respect to radiologic tumor size and 5-year NSCLC survival among incident cancers in both the MLP and Mayo CT studies. An existing model of NSCLC progression under-predicts the number of advanced-stage incident NSCLCs among males in the Mayo CT study (p-value = 0.004). The probability of 5-year NSCLC survival conditional on tumor diameter depends significantly on detection modality (p-value = 0.0312). In our new model, selected solution sets having a median tumor diameter of 16.2-22.1 mm at cure threshold among aggressive NSCLCs predict both MLP and Mayo CT outcomes. We conclude that the median lung tumor diameter at cure threshold among aggressive NSCLCs in male smokers may be small (<20 mm). Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  18. Chest radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    This book is a reference in plain chest film diagnosis provides a thorough background in the differential diagnosis of 22 of the most common radiologic patterns of chest disease. Each chapter is introduced with problem cases and a set of questions, followed by a tabular listing of the appropriate differential considerations. The book emphasizes plain films, CT and some MR scans are integrated to demonstrate how these modalities enhance the work of a case

  19. Mass or high-risk screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Henneberg, E W; Fasting, H

    1997-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is known to be associated with various diseases, especially hypertension, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), and intermittent claudication. These associations have led to a debate about whether screening of older men for AAA...

  20. Computer-assisted optimization of chest fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korolyuk, I.P.; Filippova, N.V.; Kirillov, L.P.; Momsenko, S.F.

    1987-01-01

    The main trends in the use of computer for the optimization of chest fluorography among employees and workers of a large industrial enterprise are considered. The following directions were determined: automatted sorting of fluorograms, formalization of X-ray signs in describing fluorograms, organization of a special system of fluorographic data management. Four levels of algorithms to solve the problems of fluorography were considered: 1) shops, personnel department, etc.; 2) an automated center for mass screening and a medical unit; 3) a computer center and 4) planning and management service. The results of computer use over a 3-year period were analyzed. The efficacy of computer was shown

  1. Performance of ultralow-dose CT with iterative reconstruction in lung cancer screening: limiting radiation exposure to the equivalent of conventional chest X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Adrian [University Hospital Inselspital Bern, Department of Diagnostic, Interventional and Paediatric Radiology, Bern (Switzerland); University Hospital Pitie-Salpetriere, Department of Polyvalent and Oncological Radiology, Paris (France); Landau, Julia; Buetikofer, Yanik; Leidolt, Lars; Brela, Barbara; May, Michelle; Heverhagen, Johannes; Christe, Andreas [University Hospital Inselspital Bern, Department of Diagnostic, Interventional and Paediatric Radiology, Bern (Switzerland); Ebner, Lukas [University Hospital Inselspital Bern, Department of Diagnostic, Interventional and Paediatric Radiology, Bern (Switzerland); Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-10-15

    To investigate the detection rate of pulmonary nodules in ultralow-dose CT acquisitions. In this lung phantom study, 232 nodules (115 solid, 117 ground-glass) of different sizes were randomly distributed in a lung phantom in 60 different arrangements. Every arrangement was acquired once with standard radiation dose (100 kVp, 100 references mAs) and once with ultralow radiation dose (80 kVp, 6 mAs). Iterative reconstruction was used with optimized kernels: I30 for ultralow-dose, I70 for standard dose and I50 for CAD. Six radiologists examined the axial 1-mm stack for solid and ground-glass nodules. During a second and third step, three radiologists used maximum intensity projection (MIPs), finally checking with computer-assisted detection (CAD), while the others first used CAD, finally checking with the MIPs. The detection rate was 95.5 % with standard dose (DLP 126 mGy*cm) and 93.3 % with ultralow-dose (DLP: 9 mGy*cm). The additional use of either MIP reconstructions or CAD software could compensate for this difference. A combination of both MIP reconstructions and CAD software resulted in a maximum detection rate of 97.5 % with ultralow-dose. Lung cancer screening with ultralow-dose CT using the same radiation dose as a conventional chest X-ray is feasible. (orig.)

  2. Development of an imaging-planning program for screen/film and computed radiography mammography for breasts with short chest wall to nipple distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, S L; Su, J L; Yeh, Y H; Chu, T C; Lin, Y C; Chuang, K S

    2011-04-01

    Imaging breasts with a short chest wall to nipple distance (CWND) using a traditional mammographic X-ray unit is a technical challenge for mammographers. The purpose of this study is the development of an imaging-planning program to assist in determination of imaging parameters of screen/film (SF) and computed radiography (CR) mammography for short CWND breasts. A traditional mammographic X-ray unit (Mammomat 3000, Siemens, Munich, Germany) was employed. The imaging-planning program was developed by combining the compressed breast thickness correction, the equivalent polymethylmethacrylate thickness assessment for breasts and the tube loading (mAs) measurement. Both phantom exposures and a total of 597 exposures were used for examining the imaging-planning program. Results of the phantom study show that the tube loading rapidly decreased with the CWND when the automatic exposure control (AEC) detector was not fully covered by the phantom. For patient exposures with the AEC fully covered by breast tissue, the average fractional tube loadings, defined as the ratio of the predicted mAs using the imaging-planning program and mAs of the mammogram, were 1.10 and 1.07 for SF and CR mammograms, respectively. The predicted mAs values were comparable to the mAs values, as determined by the AEC. By applying the imaging-planning program in clinical practice, the experiential dependence of the mammographer for determination of the imaging parameters for short CWND breasts is minimised.

  3. [Chest trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freixinet Gilart, Jorge; Ramírez Gil, María Elena; Gallardo Valera, Gregorio; Moreno Casado, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Chest trauma is a frequent problem arising from lesions caused by domestic and occupational activities and especially road traffic accidents. These injuries can be analyzed from distinct points of view, ranging from consideration of the most severe injuries, especially in the context of multiple trauma, to the specific characteristics of blunt and open trauma. In the present article, these injuries are discussed according to the involvement of the various thoracic structures. Rib fractures are the most frequent chest injuries and their diagnosis and treatment is straightforward, although these injuries can be severe if more than three ribs are affected and when there is major associated morbidity. Lung contusion is the most common visceral lesion. These injuries are usually found in severe chest trauma and are often associated with other thoracic and intrathoracic lesions. Treatment is based on general support measures. Pleural complications, such as hemothorax and pneumothorax, are also frequent. Their diagnosis is also straightforward and treatment is based on pleural drainage. This article also analyzes other complex situations, notably airway trauma, which is usually very severe in blunt chest trauma and less severe and even suitable for conservative treatment in iatrogenic injury due to tracheal intubation. Rupture of the diaphragm usually causes a diaphragmatic hernia. Treatment is always surgical. Myocardial contusions should be suspected in anterior chest trauma and in sternal fractures. Treatment is conservative. Other chest injuries, such as those of the great thoracic and esophageal vessels, are less frequent but are especially severe. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neumología y Cirugía Torácica. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Relativistic mean-field approximation with density-dependent screening meson masses in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Baoxi; Lu, Xiaofu; Shen, Pengnian; Zhao, Enguang

    2003-01-01

    The Debye screening masses of the σ, ω and neutral ρ mesons and the photon are calculated in the relativistic mean-field approximation. As the density of the nucleon increases, all the screening masses of mesons increase. A different result with Brown–Rho scaling is shown, which implies a reduction in the mass of all the mesons in the nuclear matter, except the pion. Replacing the masses of the mesons with their corresponding screening masses in the Walecka-1 model, five saturation properties of the nuclear matter are fixed reasonably, and then a density-dependent relativistic mean-field model is proposed without introducing the nonlinear self-coupling terms of mesons. (author)

  5. Semiautomated radioimmunoassay for mass screening of drugs of abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulkowski, T.S.; Lathrop, G.D.; Merritt, J.H.; Landez, J.H.; Noe, E.R.

    1975-01-01

    A rapid, semiautomated radioimmunoassay system for detection of morphine, barbiturates, and amphetamines is described. The assays are applicable to large drug abuse screening programs. The heart of the system is the automatic pipetting station which can accomplish 600 pipetting operations per hour. The method uses 15 to 30 μl for the amphetamine and combined morphine/barbiturate assays. A number of other drugs were tested for interference with the assays and the results are discussed

  6. Chest X-Ray (Chest Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Chest Chest x-ray uses a very small dose ... Radiography? What is a Chest X-ray (Chest Radiography)? The chest x-ray is the most commonly performed diagnostic ...

  7. Chest pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez A, Juan Carlos; Saenz M, Oscar; Martinez M, Camilo; Gonzales A Francisco; Nicolas R, Jose; Vergara V, Erika P; Pereira G, Alberto M

    2010-01-01

    In emergency departments, chest pain is one of the leading motives of consultation. We thus consider it important to review aspects such as its classification, causes, and clinical profiles. Initial assessment should include a full clinical history comprising thorough anamnesis and physical examination. Adequate interpretation of auxiliary tests, ordered in accordance with suspected clinical conditions, should lead to accurate diagnosis. We highlight certain symptoms and clinical signs, ECG and X-ray findings, cardiac bio markers, arterial blood gases, and CT-scanning. Scores of severity and prognosis such as TIMI are assessed. Optimal treatment of the clinical conditions leading to chest pain depends on adequate initial approach and assessment.

  8. [Pap smear for mass screening: Results of an African experiment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somé, O-R; Zongo, N; Ka, S; Wardini, R; Dem, A

    2016-06-01

    To assess the impact of smear test in the fight against cervix uteri cancer in Senegal. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of 1836 Pap smears performed in patients over 15 years during several screening campaigns in Senegal conducted between June 2010 and June 2012. We analyzed epidemiological data, pathological smears, and the proposed management. In 69% of cases, the women were less than 45 years old. They were mostly multiparous and did not use contraceptive methods before. The smears were interpreted in 91.4% (n=1661) and were pathological in 5.2% of cases. They revealed mainly atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, squamous intraepithelial low-grade lesions, and squamous intraepithelial high-grade lesions, respectively in 2.5% (n=46), 1.7% (n=30) and 1% (n=19) of cases. Multiparity, early marriages were the main risk factors. Patients with pathological smars had colposcopy with cryotherapy (23 cases), and colposcopy and biopsy (13 cases). A hysterectomy was performed in 4 cases. The pathological smear rate found in this study confirms the interest to continue cervical cancer screening with this practice. Strengthening of its geographical and financial access through a national prevention program will effectively help to lower cases of cervical cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... talk with you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the ... treatment for a variety of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray ...

  10. Differential Rapid Screening of Phytochemicals by Leaf Spray Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Thomas; Graham Cooks, R. [Univ. of Innsbruck, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2014-03-15

    Ambient ionization can be achieved by generating an electrospray directly from plant tissue ('leaf spray'). The resulting mass spectra are characteristic of ionizable phytochemicals in the plant material. By subtracting the leaf spray spectra recorded from the petals of two hibiscus species H. moscheutos and H. syriacus one gains rapid access to the metabolites that differ most in the two petals. One such compound was identified as the sambubioside of quercitin (or delphinidin) while others are known flavones. Major interest centered on a C{sub 19}H{sub 29}NO{sub 5} compound that occurs only in the large H. moscheutos bloom. Attempts were made to characterize this compound by mass spectrometry alone as a test of such an approach. This showed that the compound is an alkaloid, assigned to the polyhydroxylated pyrrolidine class, and bound via a C{sub 3} hydrocarbon unit to a monoterpene.

  11. Differential Rapid Screening of Phytochemicals by Leaf Spray Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Thomas; Graham Cooks, R.

    2014-01-01

    Ambient ionization can be achieved by generating an electrospray directly from plant tissue ('leaf spray'). The resulting mass spectra are characteristic of ionizable phytochemicals in the plant material. By subtracting the leaf spray spectra recorded from the petals of two hibiscus species H. moscheutos and H. syriacus one gains rapid access to the metabolites that differ most in the two petals. One such compound was identified as the sambubioside of quercitin (or delphinidin) while others are known flavones. Major interest centered on a C 19 H 29 NO 5 compound that occurs only in the large H. moscheutos bloom. Attempts were made to characterize this compound by mass spectrometry alone as a test of such an approach. This showed that the compound is an alkaloid, assigned to the polyhydroxylated pyrrolidine class, and bound via a C 3 hydrocarbon unit to a monoterpene

  12. Ultrasonography of chest wall lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cheol Min; Kim, C. H.; Cha, I. H.; Chung, K. B.; Ser, W. H.; Choi, Y. H. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-12-15

    Thirty-one patients with chest wall diseases were studied with ultrasound to evaluate its role in chest wall lesions. There were eight infectious conditions, 9 benign tumors, 11 malignant lesions and 3 miscellaneous cases. Diffuse chest wall thickening with heterogeneous echogenicity and obliteration of subcutaneous fat layer are findings of acute infection. In cases of tuberculous smpyema necessitates, pleural abnormality extended to the chest wall through intercostal space. Benign tumors were well demarcated, except in 4 cases of lipoma/lipomatosis. Malignant lesions showed irregular soft tissue masses, bone destruction, pleural effusion and subcutaneous invasion. Multiple enlarged lymph nodes were also shown. Ultrasound can demonstrate te internal structure, extent, depth and associated findings such as pleural effusion, bone destruction and peripheral lung involvement. Ultrasound is not only safe, non-invasive and an effective diagnostic imaging modality for chest wall disease, but can also guide aspiration or biopsy for pathologic diagnosis

  13. Ultrasonography of chest wall lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Cheol Min; Kim, C. H.; Cha, I. H.; Chung, K. B.; Ser, W. H.; Choi, Y. H.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-one patients with chest wall diseases were studied with ultrasound to evaluate its role in chest wall lesions. There were eight infectious conditions, 9 benign tumors, 11 malignant lesions and 3 miscellaneous cases. Diffuse chest wall thickening with heterogeneous echogenicity and obliteration of subcutaneous fat layer are findings of acute infection. In cases of tuberculous smpyema necessitates, pleural abnormality extended to the chest wall through intercostal space. Benign tumors were well demarcated, except in 4 cases of lipoma/lipomatosis. Malignant lesions showed irregular soft tissue masses, bone destruction, pleural effusion and subcutaneous invasion. Multiple enlarged lymph nodes were also shown. Ultrasound can demonstrate te internal structure, extent, depth and associated findings such as pleural effusion, bone destruction and peripheral lung involvement. Ultrasound is not only safe, non-invasive and an effective diagnostic imaging modality for chest wall disease, but can also guide aspiration or biopsy for pathologic diagnosis

  14. Reevaluation of benefit and risk of mass screening for stomach cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iinuma, Takeshi; Tateno, Yukio

    1990-01-01

    Mass screening for stomach cancer has been performed widely because of the the most prevalent malignancy in Japan. Since X-ray diagnosis is used in stomach cancer screening, the risk of X-ray exposure must be considered by comparing the benefit of mass screening. We have reported in the previous article in 1977 that the benefit and risk of stomach cancer mass screening become equal at the age of 40 yr. Since then, various conditions of the mass screening for stomach cancer have changed so that reevaluation of the benefit and risk relationship is necessary. The risk coefficient of radiation-induced stomach cancer has been revised drastically in the report of United Nations Scientific Committee on the effects of radiation in 1988. In this report, the benefit of mass screening of stomach cancer is defined as the net elongation of average life expectancy due to the life saved, and the risk of the screening is defined as the net shortage of average life expectancy due to the radiation-induced stomach cancer and leukemia. Since the benefit increases rapidly and the risk decreases with age, an appropriate age when the benefit and risk become identical is required, and under this age the mass screening is not justified to be performed. Assuming X-ray dose equivalent to stomach of 10 mSv and risk coefficient of stomach cancer of 12.6x10 -3 Sv -1 from the United Nations report, the critical age is found to be about 35 yr. for men and women. It is strongly recommended that the dose equivalent should be lowered less than 5 mSv. In a calculation of the risk of endoscopic examination in mass screening using reported figures of fatal accident (1.6x10 -5 ) and severe injury (48x10 -5 ) of the stomach endoscopic examination, the critical ages are found to be 40 yr for men and 45 yr for women which are higher than those with X-rays. A screening test using stomach endoscopy cannot be accepted. (J.P.N.)

  15. Three-dimensional Mass Measurement of Subsolid Pulmonary Nodules on Chest CT: Intra and Inter-observer Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiting LIU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Subsolid pulmonary nodules tend to exhibit considerably slower growth rates than solid lesions, nevertheless, higher malignancy probability. The diagnosis of indeterminate nodules largely depends on the growth evaluation during follow-up. The growth can manifested as an increase in size or the appearance and/or subsequent increase of solid components. The mass reflect the product of volume and density and can be more sensitive in growth evaluation. However, the repeatability needs a further validation. The purpose of this study is to assess the intra and inter-observer variability of mass measurement for subsolid nodules. Methods 80 subsolid nodules in 44 patients were retrospectively enrolled. Both the volume and mass were measured by two radiologists using blind method independently. Intra-observer and inter-observer variability were analyzed and compared by Bland-Altman method intra-class correlation test and Wilcoxon test. Results Software achieved satisfied segmentation for 92.5% nodules. Of them, 35% underwent manual modification. The 95% limits of agreement for intra-observer variability were -11.5%-10.4% for mass and -8.4%-8.8% for volume. The 95% limits of agreement for inter-observer variability were -17.4%-19.3% for mass and -17.9%-19.4% for volume.The intra-class correlation foefficients between volume and mass measument was 0.95 and 0.93 (both P<0.001 and no significant differences (P=0.78, 0.09 was found for intra- and inter-observer variability. Manual modification of the segmentation caused the worse mass measurement repeatability in spite of the reader satisfaction. Conclusion The repeatability of mass measurement has no significant difference with that of volume measurement and may act as a reliable method in the follow-up of subsolid nodules.

  16. Critical Evaluation of Native Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Fragment-Based Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göth, Melanie; Badock, Volker; Weiske, Jörg; Pagel, Kevin; Kuropka, Benno

    2017-08-08

    Fragment-based screening presents a promising alternative to high-throughput screening and has gained great attention in recent years. So far, only a few studies have discussed mass spectrometry as a screening technology for fragments. Herein, we report the application of native electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (MS) for screening defined sets of fragments against four different target proteins. Fragments were selected from a primary screening conducted with a thermal shift assay (TSA) and represented different binding categories. Our data indicated that, beside specific complex formation, many fragments show extensive multiple binding and also charge-state shifts. Both of these factors complicate automated data analysis and decrease the attractiveness of native MS as a primary screening tool for fragments. A comparison of the hits identified by native MS and TSA showed good agreement for two of the proteins. Furthermore, we discuss general challenges, including the determination of an optimal fragment concentration and the question of how to rank fragment hits according to their affinity. In conclusion, we consider native MS to be a highly valuable tool for the validation and deeper investigation of promising fragment hits rather than a method for primary screening. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Interpretation of chest radiographs with a high-resolution (2,000 x 2,000 x 12 bit) display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, G.G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of high-resolution (2K x 2Kx 12 bit) display for interpretation of chest radiographs. Three radiologists chose a total of 165 chest radiographs to ensure representation of nine signs: apical pleural scarring, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, interstitial processes, atelectasis, pneumothorax, hilar mass, pleural effusion, pneumonia, and nodules. Each chest film was digitized to 4Kx 4Kx 12 bit and averaged to 2Kx 2Kx 12 bit and printed on a laser film printer. The 2K x 2K x 12-bit images were displayed and interactively windowed on a 2K x 2K x 12-bit high-resolution gray-scale cathode ray tube display. Six radiologists, none of whom participated in the case selection process, then interpreted a mixture of the screen film chest radiographs, the laser printed 2K chest radiographs, and the high resolution displayed 2K images

  18. Lattice artifacts in the non-Abelian Debye screening mass in one-loop order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaste, P.; Rothe, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    We compute the electric screening mass in lattice QCD with Wilson fermions at finite temperature and chemical potential to one-loop order, and show that lattice artifacts arising from a finite lattice spacing result in an enhancement of the screening mass as compared to the continuum. We discuss the magnitude of this enhancement as a function of the temperature and chemical potential for lattices with a different number of lattice sites in the temporal direction that can be implemented in lattice simulations. Most of the enhancement is found to be due to the fermion loop contribution. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  19. Estimation of population doses from stomach mass screening, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, T; Kato, Y; Maruyama, T [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Kamata, R; Urahashi, S

    1977-06-01

    The population dose from mass photofluorography of stomach have been estimated on the basis of nation wide radiological survey. The number of photofluorographic examinations was 2.38 million for male and 1.74 million for female, with a total of 4.12 million. The gonad doses were determined with an ionization chamber, using a tissue equivalent phantom. The gonad dose for male was 10.4 mrad per examination and for female was 150 mrad per examination. The active bone marrow doses at 32 points of bone marrow in the whole body were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeter. The mean marrow dose per photofluorographic examination was 450 mrad for male and 390 mrad for female. The child expectancy factor and the leukemia significant factor were calculated based on the Vital Statistics 1975. The genetically significant dose (GSD) and per caput mean marrow dose (CMD) were calculated by the formulae presented from the United Nations Scientific Comittee of Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). The resultant GSD was 0.15 mrad per person per year. The CMD was 16.5 mrad per person per year. The leukemia significant dose (LSD) was determined by adopting a weight factor, that is leukemia significant factor. The resultant LSD was 14.5 mrad per person per year. These population doses were compared with those from diagnostic medical x-ray examinations in 1974.

  20. Screening halogenated environmental contaminants in biota based on isotopic pattern and mass defect provided by high resolution mass spectrometry profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cariou, Ronan, E-mail: laberca@oniris-nantes.fr; Omer, Elsa; Léon, Alexis; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2016-09-14

    In the present work, we addressed the question of global seeking/screening organohalogenated compounds in a large panel of complex biological matrices, with a particular focus on unknown chemicals that may be considered as potential emerging hazards. A fishing strategy was developed based on untargeted profiling among full scan acquisition datasets provided by high resolution mass spectrometry. Since large datasets arise from such profiling, filtering useful information stands as a central question. In this way, we took advantage of the exact mass differences between Cl and Br isotopes. Indeed, our workflow involved an innovative Visual Basic for Applications script aiming at pairing features according to this mass difference, in order to point out potential organohalogenated clusters, preceded by an automated peak picking step based on the centWave function (xcms package of open access R programming environment). Then, H/Cl-scale mass defect plots were used to visualize the datasets before and after filtering. The filtering script was successfully applied to a dataset generated upon liquid chromatography coupled to ESI(−)-HRMS measurement from one eel muscle extract, allowing for realistic manual investigations of filtered clusters. Starting from 9789 initial obtained features, 1994 features were paired in 589 clusters. Hexabromocyclododecane, chlorinated paraffin series and various other compounds have been identified or tentatively identified, allowing thus broad screening of organohalogenated compounds in this extract. Although realistic, manual review of paired clusters remains time consuming and much effort should be devoted to automation. - Highlights: • We address the screening of halogenated compounds in large Full Scan HRMS datasets. • The workflow involves peak picking, pairing script and review of paired features. • The pairing script is based on exact mass differences between Cl and Br isotopes. • H/Cl scale mass defect plots are used to

  1. Screening halogenated environmental contaminants in biota based on isotopic pattern and mass defect provided by high resolution mass spectrometry profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cariou, Ronan; Omer, Elsa; Léon, Alexis; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, we addressed the question of global seeking/screening organohalogenated compounds in a large panel of complex biological matrices, with a particular focus on unknown chemicals that may be considered as potential emerging hazards. A fishing strategy was developed based on untargeted profiling among full scan acquisition datasets provided by high resolution mass spectrometry. Since large datasets arise from such profiling, filtering useful information stands as a central question. In this way, we took advantage of the exact mass differences between Cl and Br isotopes. Indeed, our workflow involved an innovative Visual Basic for Applications script aiming at pairing features according to this mass difference, in order to point out potential organohalogenated clusters, preceded by an automated peak picking step based on the centWave function (xcms package of open access R programming environment). Then, H/Cl-scale mass defect plots were used to visualize the datasets before and after filtering. The filtering script was successfully applied to a dataset generated upon liquid chromatography coupled to ESI(−)-HRMS measurement from one eel muscle extract, allowing for realistic manual investigations of filtered clusters. Starting from 9789 initial obtained features, 1994 features were paired in 589 clusters. Hexabromocyclododecane, chlorinated paraffin series and various other compounds have been identified or tentatively identified, allowing thus broad screening of organohalogenated compounds in this extract. Although realistic, manual review of paired clusters remains time consuming and much effort should be devoted to automation. - Highlights: • We address the screening of halogenated compounds in large Full Scan HRMS datasets. • The workflow involves peak picking, pairing script and review of paired features. • The pairing script is based on exact mass differences between Cl and Br isotopes. • H/Cl scale mass defect plots are used to

  2. Chest radiography after minor chest trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossen, B.; Laursen, N.O.; Just, S.

    The results of chest radiography in 581 patients with blunt minor thoracic trauma were reviewed. Frontal and lateral views of the chest indicated pathology in 72 patients (12.4%). Pneumothorax was present in 16 patients; 4 had hemothorax. The physical examination and the results of chest radiography were not in accordance because in 6(30%) of the 20 patients with hemo/-pneumothorax the physical examination was normal. Consequently there is wide indication for chest radiography after minor blunt chest trauma.

  3. Benefit-risk analysis for mass screening of stomach cancer in Japan, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iinuma, Takeshi; Tateno, Yukio; Umegaki, Yoichiro; Hashizume, Tadashi; Kitabatake, Takashi.

    1978-01-01

    Mass screening of stomach cancer is one of the largest screening systems in Japan. In the previous paper, we have described the benefit-risk analysis in terms of life-saving due to early detection of stomach cancer and loss of life due to late induction of cancer by radiation. In this paper, we report the genetic effect of x-ray diagnosis used in the mass screening and cost-effectiveness for the screening program. The former is calculated by the product of genetically significant dose and rate of induction for genetic effects. Since the genetically significant dose in woman is about 10 times larger than that in man, the genetic risk is greater in woman accordingly. It is also found that the genetic risk over 40 years old is only 3% of the risk in the whole population and that it is almost neglected if the screening is performed only over age of 40. Cost of the screening is estimated to be yen 3,000/person which includes that of photofluorography and a part of other detailed examinations. Since total population screened is about 4 million in 1975, the total amount of cost is 1.2 x 10 10 yen/year. Cost per person-year is mainly dependent upon the age of the person: for one person-year in man or woman of 15 - 19 years old, the cost is about 20 million yen, but it is about 150,000 yen for man of 70 - 74 years old. These information is useful in the decision on the mass screening policy for stomach cancer in Japan. (auth.)

  4. Regional differences as barriers to body mass index screening described by Ohio school nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalter, Ann M; Chaudry, Rosemary V; Polivka, Barbara J

    2011-08-01

    Body mass index (BMI) screening is advocated by the National Association of School Nurses (NASN). Research identifying barriers to BMI screening in public elementary school settings has been sparse. The purpose of the study was to identify barriers and facilitating factors of BMI screening practices among Ohio school nurses working in suburban, rural, and urban public elementary schools. This descriptive study used focus groups with 25 school nurses in 3 geographic regions of Ohio. An adapted Healthy People 2010 model guided the development of semistructured focus group questions. Nine regional themes related to BMI screening emerged specific to suburban, rural, and/or urban school nurses' experiences with BMI screening practice, policy, school physical environment, school social environment, school risk/protection, and access to quality health care. Key facilitating factors to BMI screening varied by region. Key barriers to BMI screening were a lack of privacy, time, policy, and workload of school nurses. Regionally specific facilitating factors to BMI screening in schools provide opportunities for schools to accentuate the positive and to promote school health. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  5. Screening of Maritime Containers to Intercept Weapons of Mass Destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manatt, D R; Sleaford, B; Schaffer, T; Accatino, M R; Slaughter, D; Mauger, J; Newmark, R; Prussin, S; Luke, J; Frank, M; Bernstein, A; Alford, O; Mattesich, G; Stengel, J; Hall, J; Descalle, M A; Wolford, J; Hall, H; Loshak, A; Sale, K; Trombino, D; Dougan, A D; Pohl, B; Dietrich, D; Weirup, D; Walling, R; Rowland, M; Johnson, D; Hagmann, C; Hankins, D

    2004-01-01

    The goal of our research was to address the problem of detection of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) materials within containers in common use on commercial cargo trafficking. LLNL has created an experimental test bed for researching potential solutions using (among other techniques) active interrogation with neutrons. Experiments and computational modeling were used to determine the effectiveness of the technique. Chemical weapons materials and high explosives can be detected using neutron activation and simple geometries with little or no intervening material. However in a loaded container there will be nuisance alarms from conflicting signatures resulting from the presence of material between the target and the detector (and the interrogation source). Identifying some elements may require long counting times because of the increased background. We performed some simple signature measurements and simulations of gamma-ray spectra from several chemical simulants. We identified areas where the nuclear data was inadequate to perform detailed computations. We concentrated on the detection of SNM in cargo containers, which will be emphasized here. The goal of the work reported here is to develop a concept for an active neutron interrogation system that can detect small targets of SNM contraband in cargo containers, roughly 5 kg HEU or 1 kg Pu, even when well shielded by a thick cargo. It is essential that the concept be reliable and have low false-positive and false-negative error rates. It also must be rapid to avoid interruption of commerce, completing the analysis in minutes. A potentially viable concept for cargo interrogation has been developed and its components have been evaluated experimentally. A new radiation signature unique to SNM has been identified that utilizes high-energy, fission-product gamma rays. That signature due to γ-radiation in the range 3-6 MeV is distinct from normal background radioactivity that does not extend above 2.6 MeV. It's short

  6. Optimal dose levels in screening chest CT for unimpaired detection and volumetry of lung nodules, with and without computer assisted detection at minimal patient radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Christe

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this phantom study was to minimize the radiation dose by finding the best combination of low tube current and low voltage that would result in accurate volume measurements when compared to standard CT imaging without significantly decreasing the sensitivity of detecting lung nodules both with and without the assistance of CAD. METHODS: An anthropomorphic chest phantom containing artificial solid and ground glass nodules (GGNs, 5-12 mm was examined with a 64-row multi-detector CT scanner with three tube currents of 100, 50 and 25 mAs in combination with three tube voltages of 120, 100 and 80 kVp. This resulted in eight different protocols that were then compared to standard CT sensitivity (100 mAs/120 kVp. For each protocol, at least 127 different nodules were scanned in 21-25 phantoms. The nodules were analyzed in two separate sessions by three independent, blinded radiologists and computer-aided detection (CAD software. RESULTS: The mean sensitivity of the radiologists for identifying solid lung nodules on a standard CT was 89.7% ± 4.9%. The sensitivity was not significantly impaired when the tube and current voltage were lowered at the same time, except at the lowest exposure level of 25 mAs/80 kVp [80.6% ± 4.3% (p = 0.031]. Compared to the standard CT, the sensitivity for detecting GGNs was significantly lower at all dose levels when the voltage was 80 kVp; this result was independent of the tube current. The CAD significantly increased the radiologists' sensitivity for detecting solid nodules at all dose levels (5-11%. No significant volume measurement errors (VMEs were documented for the radiologists or the CAD software at any dose level. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a CT protocol with 25 mAs and 100 kVp is optimal for detecting solid and ground glass nodules in lung cancer screening. The use of CAD software is highly recommended at all dose levels.

  7. Current role of liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in clinical toxicology screening methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viette, Véronique; Fathi, Marc; Rudaz, Serge; Hochstrasser, Denis; Veuthey, Jean-Luc

    2011-07-01

    Abstract Toxicological screening is the analysis of a biological specimen to detect and identify compounds in patients admitted to the hospital with acute intoxication of unknown origin. The screening of a wide range of toxicologically relevant compounds in biological samples is a serious challenge for clinical laboratories. The high selectivity and sensitivity of liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry or tandem mass spectrometry technology provides an attractive alternative to the current methods. For these reasons, an increasing number of applications for multi-target screening or general screening of unknown compounds in biological matrices are being published. This paper is an overview of sample clean-up, chromatographic separation and mass spectrometry detection procedures which can be combined to obtain screening methods adapted to the constraints and needs of various laboratories, and none specifically in clinical toxicology. Currently the techniques are in the hands of specialists, principally in academic institutes. However, the evolution in technology should allow application of the techniques as a tool in toxicology laboratories and thus more widespread exploitation of their potential.

  8. Evaluation of a mass screening of breast cancer with mammography in personnel of regional public schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Yoshihiro; Muto, Taisei; Asanuma, Taku; Horikoshi, Akira; Tsuchihara, Katsuo

    2009-01-01

    We have examined a total of 15,224 women in our hospital aiming at a mass screening of breast cancer with mammography (MMG) during the last 8 years. Subjected women were teachers or staffs of public schools in six prefectures in the Tohoku area. More than 90% of them were under 50 years old and women younger than 49 accounted for about half of them. A recall rate was 3.8%, and breast cancer was found in 55 women (0.36%) and the ratio of cancers diagnosed among recalled women was 9.5%. Twenty-one point eight percent of detected cancers were associated with calcification. The average diameter of the detected tumors in the screening group was 1.6 cm, whereas that of outpatients (controls) was 2.5 cm. Stage 0 and I cancer cases in the screening group accounted for 82.0%, whereas those in the outpatient group, 49.6%, indicating a significant increase in detection rate of early breast cancer in the screening compared to the outpatients group. However, detection rate of breast masses was 76.7% of all cases of breast tumor by means of MMG, versus 86.0% by means of physical examination. These results suggest that the mass screening by using physical examination and MMG, as well as ultrasonography, may provide a better clinical application for precise diagnosis, when it is done for working women in the regional public schools who are younger. (author)

  9. Development of a PCR assay suitable for Campylobacter spp. mass screening programs in broiler production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Dang Duong; Pedersen, Karl; Madsen, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most common cause of human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. In order to comply with the demands of consumers for food free of bacterial pathogens, a mass screening program for Campylobacter in Danish broilers has been carried out based on conventional bacterial...

  10. [Application of liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry in toxicological screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Wen; Shen, Bao-Hua; Zhuo, Xian-Yi

    2011-10-01

    Due to the diversity of toxicologically relevant substances, the uncertainty of target compounds and the specificity of samples, toxicological screening techniques have always been valued by the forensic toxicologists. Depending on its powerful separation ability, superhigh resolution and accurate mass measurement, combined with the two levels spectrum database matching and abundance ratio of isotope ion, the liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) analyzers have increasingly advantage in screening and identification of chemical compound. This review focuses on the applications of LC-HRMS in screening and identification of drug-of-abuse, prescription drugs, pesticide and stimulant. The prospect of LC-HRMS in forensic toxicology analysis is also included.

  11. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most commonly performed x-ray exams and use a very small dose of ... of the inside of the chest. A chest x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and ...

  12. A pilot investigation on impact of participation in a long-term follow-up clinic (LTFU) on breast cancer and cardiovascular screening among women who received chest radiation for Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxstrom, K; Peterson, B A; Lee, C; Vogel, R I; Blaes, A H

    2018-02-07

    Women treated with chest radiation for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) are at significantly increased risk of breast cancer and cardiovascular disease. HL survivors are recommended to have annual dual screening with mammogram (MMG) and breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). They are also recommended to undergo echocardiogram (echo) 5 years after completion of radiation. We performed a pilot study to characterize the women who are and are not receiving proper dual screening for breast cancer and baseline echo, and to examine the impact of a LTFU clinic consultation on screening. A retrospective chart review of 114 women treated for HL at University of Minnesota (UMN) between 1993 and 2009 was performed. Demographics, disease and treatment history (age at diagnosis, stage, radiation dose and field, chemotherapy, recurrence) were assessed, as well as screening practices (MMG, MRI, both and echo), participation in LTFU clinic, and recommendations from providers. Data was summated in yes/no (y/n) format; statistical analysis was performed using chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests. Breast cancer and cardiovascular screening outcomes were compared by participation in the LTFU clinic (y/n) using Fisher's exact tests. P values getting the proper dual screening for breast cancer despite their increased risk, with only 36.6% of our study sample getting dual screening. Having a consultation in a LTFU clinic increases dual screening for breast cancer and echo screening for cardiovascular disease. Proper screening allows for detection of secondary breast cancer at earlier stages where treatment can be local therapy. Diagnosing CV disease early could allow for proper preventative treatment or intervention.

  13. Magnetic Microbead Affinity Selection Screening (MagMass) of Botanical Extracts for Inhibitors of 15-Lipoxygenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Michael D.; Walker, Elisabeth M.; Burton, Tristesse; van Breemen, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    To expedite the identification of active natural products in complex mixtures such as botanical extracts, a Magnetic Microbead Affinity Selection Screening (MagMASS) procedure was developed. This technique utilizes target proteins immobilized on magnetic beads for rapid bioaffinity isolation of ligands from complex mixtures. A MagMASS method was developed and validated for 15-lipoxygenase. As a proof of concept, several North American prairie plants used medicinally by Native Americans were extracted with MeOH and screened. A hit from an extract of Proserpinaca palustris, also known as mermaid weed, was flagged for further characterization using high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry, dereplication, and identification using XCMS online. Through the application of high-resolution product ion tandem mass spectrometry, comparison with natural product databases and confirmation using standards, the hit was identified as quercitrin, which is a known inhibitor of 15-lipoxygenase. The overall workflow of MagMASS is faster and more amendable to automation than alternative methods designed for screening botanical extracts or complex mixtures of combinatorial libraries. PMID:27802026

  14. Direct mass spectrometric screening of antibiotics from bacterial surfaces using liquid extraction surface analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Marco; González, Ignacio; Genilloud, Olga; Singh, Sheo B; Svatoš, Aleš

    2012-10-30

    There is a need to find new antibiotic agents to fight resistant pathogenic bacteria. To search successfully for novel antibiotics from bacteria cultivated under diverse conditions, we need a fast and cost-effective screening method. A combination of Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis (LESA), automated chip-based nanoelectrospray ionization, and high-resolution mass or tandem mass spectrometry using an Orbitrap XL was tested as the screening platform. Actinobacteria, known to produce well-recognized thiazolyl peptide antibiotics, were cultivated on a plate of solid medium and the antibiotics were extracted by organic solvent mixtures from the surface of colonies grown on the plate and analyzed using mass spectrometry (MS). LESA combined with high-resolution MS is a powerful tool with which to extract and detect thiazolyl peptide antibiotics from different Actinobacteria. Known antibiotics were correctly detected with high mass accuracy (antibiotics in particular and natural products in general. The method described in this paper is suitable for (1) screening the natural products produced by bacterial colonies on cultivation plates within the first 2 min following extraction and (2) detecting antibiotics at high mass accuracy; the cost is around 2 Euro per sample. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Obesity Increases the Risk of Chest Wall Pain From Thoracic Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsh, James; Thomas, Jimmy; Shah, Deep; Allen, Pamela K.; Wei, Xiong; Mitchell, Kevin; Gao, Song; Balter, Peter; Komaki, Ritsuko; Chang, Joe Y.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is increasingly being used to treat thoracic tumors. We attempted here to identify dose-volume parameters that predict chest wall toxicity (pain and skin reactions) in patients receiving thoracic SBRT. Patients and Methods: We screened a database of patients treated with SBRT between August 2004 and August 2008 to find patients with pulmonary tumors within 2.5 cm of the chest wall. All patients received a total dose of 50 Gy in four daily 12.5-Gy fractions. Toxicity was scored according to the NCI-CTCAE V3.0. Results: Of 360 patients in the database, 265 (268 tumors) had tumors within 30 , or volume of the chest wall receiving 30 Gy. Body mass index (BMI) was also strongly associated with the development of chest pain: patients with BMI ≥29 had almost twice the risk of chronic pain (p = 0.03). Among patients with BMI >29, diabetes mellitus was a significant contributing factor to the development of chest pain. Conclusion: Safe use of SBRT with 50 Gy in four fractions for lesions close to the chest wall requires consideration of the chest wall volume receiving 30 Gy and the patient's BMI and diabetic state.

  16. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... gives detailed pictures of structures within the chest cavity, including the mediastinum , chest wall, pleura, heart and ... helpful to assess the vessels of the chest cavity (arteries and veins). MRA can also demonstrate an ...

  17. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to produce detailed pictures of organs, soft tissues, bone and virtually all other internal body structures. MRI ... of the chest. assess disorders of the chest bones (vertebrae, ribs and sternum) and chest wall soft ...

  18. Mathematical simulation for estimating reduction of breast cancer mortality in mass screening using mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iinuma, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Tohru; Tateno, Yukio

    1999-01-01

    In Japan it is considered that mammography should be introduced with physical examination for the mass screening of breast cancer instead of physical examination alone, which is performed at present. Before the introduction of mammography, a mathematical simulation should be performed to show the reduction in breast cancer mortality by mass screening compared with an unscreened population. A mathematical model of cancer screening devised by the authors was used to estimate the number of deaths due to breast cancer (A) in the screened group and those (B) in the unscreened group within the same population. Then the relative risk (RR) and attributable risk (RD) were calculated as (A/B) and (B-A) respectively. Three methods of mass screening were compared: (1) physical examination (1-year interval), (2) mammography with physical examination (1-year interval), (3) mammography with physical examination (2-year interval). The calculated RR values were 0.85 for (1), 0.60 for (2) and 0.69 for (3). Assuming that the incidence of breast cancer was 100/10 5 person-years, the calculated RD values were 3.0, 8.1 and 6.2 persons/10 5 person-years for (1), (2) and (3), respectively. The 95% confidence interval of RR for three methods was over 1.0, and thus the reduction of breast cancer mortality was not statistically significant in the present population. In conclusion, mammography with physical examination may reduce breast cancer mortality in comparison with physical examination alone, but a larger number of women must be screened in order to obtain a significant RR value. (author)

  19. Chest radiography after minor chest trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossen, B.; Laursen, N.O.; Just, S.

    1987-01-01

    The results of chest radiography in 581 patients with blunt minor thoracic trauma were reviewed. Frontal and lateral views of the chest indicated pathology in 72 patients (12.4%). Pneumothorax was present in 16 patients; 4 had hemothorax. The physical examination and the results of chest radiography were not in accordance because in 6(30%) of the 20 patients with hemo/-pneumothorax the physical examination was normal. Consequently there is wide indication for chest radiography after minor blunt chest trauma. (orig.)

  20. Rapid screening of pharmaceutical drugs using thermal desorption – SALDI mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grechnikov, A A; Kubasov, A E; Borodkov, A S; Georgieva, V B; Nikiforov, S M; Simanovsky, Ya O; Alimpiev, S S

    2012-01-01

    A novel approach to the rapid screening of pharmaceutical drugs by surface assisted laser desorption-ionization (SALDI) mass spectrometry with the rotating ball interface coupled with temperature programmed thermal desorption has been developed. Analytes were thermally desorbed and deposited onto the surface of amorphous silicon substrate attached to the rotating ball. The ball was rotated and the deposited analytes were analyzed using SALDI. The effectiveness of coupling SALDI mass spectrometry with thermal desorption was evaluated by the direct and rapid analysis of tablets containing lidocaine, diphenhydramine and propranolol without any sample pretreatment. The overall duration of the screening procedure was 30÷40 sec. Real urine samples were studied for drug analysis. It is shown that with simple preparation steps, urine samples can be quantitatively analyzed using the proposed technique with the detection limits in the range of 0.2÷0.5 ng/ml.

  1. Integration of Family Planning Counselling to Mass Screening Campaign for Cervical Cancer: Experience from Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. A. Leno

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess feasibility of integrating family planning counselling into mass screening for cervical cancer in Guinea. Methodology. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted over a month in Guinea regional capital cities. The targeted population comprised women aged 15 to 49 years. Nearly 4000 women were expected for the screening campaigns that utilized VIA and VIL methods with confirmation of positive tests through biopsy. A local treatment was immediately performed when the patient was eligible. Results. Overall 5673 women aged 15 to 60 years were received, a surplus of 42% of the expected population. 92.3% of women were aged 15–49 years and 90.1% were 25–49 years. Long-acting methods were the most utilized (89.2% of family planning users. 154 precancerous and cancerous lesions were screened, a global positivity rate of 2.7%. Conclusion. Integration of counselling and family planning services provision during cervical cancer mass screening is a feasible strategy. A cost-effective analysis of this approach would help a better planning of future campaigns and its replication in other contexts.

  2. The inclusion of ADA-SCID in expanded newborn screening by tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    la Marca, Giancarlo; Giocaliere, Elisa; Malvagia, Sabrina; Funghini, Silvia; Ombrone, Daniela; Della Bona, Maria Luisa; Canessa, Clementina; Lippi, Francesca; Romano, Francesca; Guerrini, Renzo; Resti, Massimo; Azzari, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency due to adenosine-deaminase defect (ADA-SCID) is usually deadly in childhood because of severe recurrent infections. When clinical diagnosis is done, permanent damages due to infections or metabolite accumulation are often present. Gene therapy, bone marrow transplantation or enzyme replacement therapy may be effective if started early. The aim of this study was to set-up a robust method suitable for screening with a minimized preparation process and with inexpensive running costs, for diagnosing ADA-SCID by tandem mass spectrometry. ADA-SCID satisfies all the criteria for inclusion in a newborn screening program. We describe a protocol revised to incorporate adenosine and 2-deoxyadenosine testing into an expanded newborn screening program. We assessed the effectiveness of this approach testing dried blood spots from 4 genetically confirmed early-onset and 5 delayed-onset ADA-SCID patients. Reference values were established on 50,000 healthy newborns (deoxyadenosine ADA) gene. The results show that the method having great simplicity, low cost and low process preparations can be fully applicable to a mass screening program. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of high-resolution mass spectrometry for urine toxicology screening in a pain management setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, Bridgit O; Pesce, Amadeo J; West, Robert; Nguyen, Hugh; Fitzgerald, Robert L

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HR-MS) for urine toxicology screening, 29 analytes were quantitated in 152 urine specimens from patients with chronic pain using two unique mass spectrometry platforms. De-identified specimens were quantitated in April of 2011 by liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) and by full-scan LC-HR-MS at Millennium Laboratories. Considering LC-MS-MS as the reference method, false positive results were identified in 19 specimens measured by LC-HR-MS. Application of relative retention times using deuterium labeled internal standards improved the rate of false positive detection to only five specimens, with four occurring for the same analyte. Ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry (R = 100,000 at m/z 200) showed no improvement over high-resolution mass spectrometry (R = 10,000 at m/z 200) in the number of false positives detected. Quantitative results measured by LC-MS-MS and LC-HR-MS showed good agreement over four orders of dynamic range. This study demonstrates that LC-HR-MS is a suitable platform for toxicology screening for a pain management population and that quantitative accuracy and sensitivity are comparable to that achieved with LC-MS-MS. The specificity of LC-HR-MS is improved by the addition of deuterium labeled internal standards and the implementation of relative retention time matching.

  4. Screening newborns for metabolic disorders based on targeted metabolomics using tandem mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Hye-Ran

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of newborn screening is to diagnose genetic, metabolic, and other inherited disorders, at their earliest to start treatment before the clinical manifestations become evident. Understanding and tracing the biochemical data obtained from tandem mass spectrometry is vital for early diagnosis of metabolic diseases associated with such disorders. Accordingly, it is important to focus on the entire diagnostic process, including differential and confirmatory diagnostic options, and ...

  5. High-Throughput and Rapid Screening of Low-Mass Hazardous Compounds in Complex Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Qian; Gao, Yan; Wang, Yawei; Guo, Liangqia; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-07-07

    Rapid screening and identification of hazardous chemicals in complex samples is of extreme importance for public safety and environmental health studies. In this work, we report a new method for high-throughput, sensitive, and rapid screening of low-mass hazardous compounds in complex media without complicated sample preparation procedures. This method is achieved based on size-selective enrichment on ordered mesoporous carbon followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis with graphene as a matrix. The ordered mesoporous carbon CMK-8 can exclude interferences from large molecules in complex samples (e.g., human serum, urine, and environmental water samples) and efficiently enrich a wide variety of low-mass hazardous compounds. The method can work at very low concentrations down to part per trillion (ppt) levels, and it is much faster and more facile than conventional methods. It was successfully applied to rapidly screen and identify unknown toxic substances such as perfluorochemicals in human serum samples from athletes and workers. Therefore, this method not only can sensitively detect target compounds but also can identify unknown hazardous compounds in complex media.

  6. A groundwater mass flux model for screening the groundwater-to-indoor-air exposure pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, T.; Blanc, P.C. de; Connor, J. [Groundwater Services Inc, Houston, TX (United States)

    2003-07-01

    The potential for human exposure via volatilisation of groundwater contaminants into indoor air has been a focus of increasing concern in recent years. At a small number of sites, elevated indoor vapour concentrations have been measured within buildings overlying shallow groundwater contaminated with chlorinated solvents, causing public concern over the potential for similar problems at other corrective action sites. In addition, use of the screening-levelmodel developed by Johnson and Ettinger (1991) for the groundwater-to-indoor-air exposure pathway has suggested that low microgram per litre (ug/L)-range concentrations of either chlorinated or non-chlorinated volatile organic compounds dissolved in groundwater could result in indoor vapour concentrations in excess of applicable risk-based exposure limits. As an alternative screening tool, this paper presents a groundwater mass flux model for evaluation of transport to indoor air. The mass flux model is intended to serve as a highly conservative screening tool that over-predicts groundwater-to-indoor-air mass flux, yet still provides sufficient sensitivity to identify sites for which the groundwater-to-indoor air exposure pathway is not a concern. (orig.)

  7. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... I’d like to talk with you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most ... far outweighs any risk. For more information about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot org. Thank you for your time! ...

  8. Chest Pain: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Chest pain: First aid Chest pain: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Causes of chest pain can vary from minor problems, such as indigestion ... 26, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-chest-pain/basics/ART-20056705 . Mayo ...

  9. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... d like to talk with you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x- ...

  10. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most commonly performed ...

  11. Affinity selection-mass spectrometry and its emerging application to the high throughput screening of G protein-coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehurst, Charles E; Annis, D Allen

    2008-07-01

    Advances in combinatorial chemistry and genomics have inspired the development of novel affinity selection-based screening techniques that rely on mass spectrometry to identify compounds that preferentially bind to a protein target. Of the many affinity selection-mass spectrometry techniques so far documented, only a few solution-based implementations that separate target-ligand complexes away from unbound ligands persist today as routine high throughput screening platforms. Because affinity selection-mass spectrometry techniques do not rely on radioactive or fluorescent reporters or enzyme activities, they can complement traditional biochemical and cell-based screening assays and enable scientists to screen targets that may not be easily amenable to other methods. In addition, by employing mass spectrometry for ligand detection, these techniques enable high throughput screening of massive library collections of pooled compound mixtures, vastly increasing the chemical space that a target can encounter during screening. Of all drug targets, G protein coupled receptors yield the highest percentage of therapeutically effective drugs. In this manuscript, we present the emerging application of affinity selection-mass spectrometry to the high throughput screening of G protein coupled receptors. We also review how affinity selection-mass spectrometry can be used as an analytical tool to guide receptor purification, and further used after screening to characterize target-ligand binding interactions, enabling the classification of orthosteric and allosteric binders.

  12. The chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdon, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    Radiographic interpretation of chest films of newborns in respiratory distress remains one of the most difficult aspects of pediatric radiology. Complex pulmonary and cardiac adjustments to extrauterine life are rapidly taking place. The small, fluid-filled fetal lung must rid itself of fluid and fill with air. The high vascular resistance of the fetal pulmonary bed and the open ductus arteriosus allow shunting of blood in both directions. Films taken in this period of time may show lungs that resemble those seen in congestive heart failure or fluid overload. When these findings are observed in infants who may appear dusky or even cyanotic, the result may be the diagnosis of disease in normal infants passing through a stormy transition period. To make things worse, the films are taken as portable surpine films, usually in an isolette in the intensive care unit (ICU). The phase of respiration is difficult, if not impossible, to control, and lateral films are usually not obtained. Many of the infants are on assisted ventilation either by tube or nasal prongs-nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)-and lungs can appear over-inflated or whited out, depending on the pressures used and the phase of the respiratory cycle. Prolonged crying itself can make lungs appear semiopaque; the next breath may show such a dramatic reinflation that it is hard to believe the two films are of the same infant, made only seconds apart. Is the heart large? Or is it the thymus? Are the lungs ''wet''? Is there infection? Is there pulmonary vascular engorgement? Why are these films so hard to interpret? They have no easy answers. The radiologist must realize that the neonatal intensive care personnel, armed though they may be with blood gas values, are no better at interpreting films. If anything, they read into them what they wish to see

  13. [Standard chest x-ray: from film to all digital!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducou Le Pointe, H

    2000-04-01

    Conventional imaging will be totally replaced by digital imaging because of the lower exposure dosage and the clear advantages in terms of image processing, transfer and storage. Reports in the literature have demonstrated that a 2.5 pl/mm spatial resolution is satisfactory to detect a pneumothorax, a parenchymal nodule or a mediastinal mass. For most authors, this resolution is also sufficient to detect an interstitial syndrome. Digitalization by amplification or by particle detectors using wire chambers are not, for the time being, acceptable for interpretation of a simple chest image because of the low spatial resolution. The selenium cylinder is an adapted technology dedicated to chest imaging. Memory display screens can be used to digitalize the entire radiology unit. They are perfectly adapted for bedside imaging. Flat detectors are based on direct or indirect conversion of the X photons into an electrical signal during the clinical evaluation. The early results appear most promising.

  14. Screens

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This Sixth volume in the series The Key Debates. Mutations and Appropriations in European Film Studies investigates the question of screens in the context both of the dematerialization due to digitalization and the multiplication of media screens. Scholars offer various infomations and theories of topics such as the archeology of screen, film and media theories, contemporary art, pragmatics of new ways of screening (from home video to street screening).

  15. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry: A powerful high throughput screening tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smentkowski, Vincent S.; Ostrowski, Sara G.

    2007-01-01

    Combinatorial materials libraries are becoming more complicated; successful screening of these libraries requires the development of new high throughput screening methodologies. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is a surface analytical technique that is able to detect and image all elements (including hydrogen which is problematic for many other analysis instruments) and molecular fragments, with high mass resolution, during a single measurement. Commercial ToF-SIMS instruments can image 500 μm areas by rastering the primary ion beam over the region of interest. In this work, we will show that large area analysis can be performed, in one single measurement, by rastering the sample under the ion beam. We show that an entire 70 mm diameter wafer can be imaged in less than 90 min using ToF-SIMS stage (macro)rastering techniques. ToF-SIMS data sets contain a wealth of information since an entire high mass resolution mass spectrum is saved at each pixel in an ion image. Multivariate statistical analysis (MVSA) tools are being used in the ToF-SIMS community to assist with data interpretation; we will demonstrate that MVSA tools provide details that were not obtained using manual (univariate) analysis

  16. Nationwide survey of extended newborn screening by tandem mass spectrometry in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Dau-Ming; Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Chiang, Chuan-Chi; Ho, Hui-Chen; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Kao, Shu-Min; Chiang, Szu-Hui; Kao, Chuan-Hong; Liu, Tze-Tze; Chiang, Hung; Hsiao, Kwang-Jen

    2010-10-01

    In Taiwan, during the period March 2000 to June 2009, 1,495,132 neonates were screened for phenylketonuria (PKU) and homocystinuria (HCU), and 1,321,123 neonates were screened for maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), methylmalonic academia (MMA), medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency, isovaleric academia (IVA), and glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA-1) using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). In a pilot study, 592,717 neonates were screened for citrullinemia, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency (3-MCC) and other fatty acid oxidation defects in the MS/MS newborn screening. A total of 170 newborns and four mothers were confirmed to have inborn errors of metabolism. The overall incidence was approximately 1/5,882 (1/6,219 without mothers). The most common inborn errors were defects of phenylalanine metabolism [five classic PKU, 20 mild PKU, 40 mild hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA), and 13 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase (PTPS) deficiency]. MSUD was the second most common amino acidopathy and, significantly, most MSUD patients (10/13) belonged to the Austronesian aboriginal tribes of southern Taiwan. The most frequently detected among organic acid disorders was 3-MCC deficiency (14 newborns and four mothers). GA-1 and MMA were the second most common organic acid disorders (13 and 13 newborns, respectively). In fatty acid disorders, five carnitine transport defect (CTD), five short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SCAD), and two medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency were confirmed. This is the largest case of MS/MS newborn screening in an East-Asian population to date. We hereby report the incidences and outcomes of metabolic inborn error diseases found in our nationwide MS/MS newborn screening program.

  17. Comparison of Diagnostic Accuracy of Breast Masses Using Digitized Images Versus Screen-Film Mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhigang Liang; Xiangying Du; Jiabin Liu; Xinyu Yao; Yanhui Yang; Kuncheng Li

    2008-01-01

    Background: Medical film digitizers play an important transitory role as digital-analogue bridges in radiology. Digitized mammograms require evaluation of performance to assure medical image quality. Purpose: To compare the diagnostic accuracy in the interpretation of breast masses using original screen-film mammograms versus digitized images. Material and Methods: A total of 72 female patients between 55 and 81 years of age suspected of having breast cancer were selected by two non-observing radiologists. Of these, 31 cases were benign lesions and 41 cases were cancer. The mammography films were digitized using a laser film digitizer. Three radiologists, each with more than 10 years of experience in mammography, interpreted the screen-film mammograms and digitized images respectively. The time interval was 4 weeks. A four-point malignancy scale was used, with 1 defined as definitely not malignant, 2 as probably not malignant, 3 as probably malignant, and 4 as definitely malignant. Receiver operating characteristic (Roc) curves, sensitivity, and specificity were compared. Results: The average area-under-the-curve (Az) value of the original screen-film mammograms was 0.921, and the average Az value of the digitized images was 0.859. This difference was not statistically significant (P=0.131). The detection specificity of extremely dense breasts was lower than that for other breast compositions for both digitized images and screen-film mammograms. No statistical significance in sensitivity and specificity was observed between digitized images and mammograms for each breast composition. Original screen-film mammograms were observed to perform better than digitized images. Conclusion: Digitized images with a spatial resolution of 175 μm can be used instead of screen-film mammograms in the diagnosis of breast cancer

  18. Screening newborns for metabolic disorders based on targeted metabolomics using tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Ran Yoon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of newborn screening is to diagnose genetic, metabolic, and other inherited disorders, at their earliest to start treatment before the clinical manifestations become evident. Understanding and tracing the biochemical data obtained from tandem mass spectrometry is vital for early diagnosis of metabolic diseases associated with such disorders. Accordingly, it is important to focus on the entire diagnostic process, including differential and confirmatory diagnostic options, and the major factors that influence the results of biochemical analysis. Compared to regular biochemical testing, this is a complex process carried out by a medical physician specialist. It is comprised of an integrated program requiring multidisciplinary approach such as, pediatric specialist, expert scientist, clinical laboratory technician, and nutritionist. Tandem mass spectrometry is a powerful tool to improve screening of newborns for diverse metabolic diseases. It is likely to be used to analyze other treatable disorders or significantly improve existing newborn tests to allow broad scale and precise testing. This new era of various screening programs, new treatments, and the availability of detection technology will prove to be beneficial for the future generations.

  19. Current advances in screening for bioactive components from medicinal plants by affinity ultrafiltration mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guilin; Huang, Bill X; Guo, Mingquan

    2018-05-21

    Medicinal plants have played an important role in maintaining human health for thousands of years. However, the interactions between the active components in medicinal plants and some certain biological targets during a disease are still unclear in most cases. To conduct the high-throughput screening for small active molecules that can interact with biological targets, which is of great theoretical significance and practical value. The ultrafiltration mass spectrometry (UF-LC/MS) is a powerful bio-analytical method by combining affinity ultrafiltration and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS), which could rapidly screen and identify small active molecules that bind to biological targets of interest at the same time. Compared with other analytical methods, affinity UF-LC/MS has the characteristics of fast, sensitive and high throughput, and is especially suitable for the complicated extracts of medicinal plants. In this review, the basic principle, characteristics and some most recent challenges in UF-LC/MS have been demonstrated. Meanwhile, the progress and applications of affinity UF-LC/MS in the discovery of the active components from natural medicinal plants and the interactions between small molecules and biological target proteins are also briefly summarised. In addition, the future directions for UF-LC/MS are also prospected. Affinity UF-LC/MS is a powerful tool in studies on the interactions between small active molecules and biological protein targets, especially in the high-throughput screening of active components from the natural medicinal plants. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Novel Acoustic Loading of a Mass Spectrometer: Toward Next-Generation High-Throughput MS Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Ian; Stearns, Rick; Pringle, Steven; Wingfield, Jonathan; Datwani, Sammy; Hall, Eric; Ghislain, Luke; Majlof, Lars; Bachman, Martin

    2016-02-01

    High-throughput, direct measurement of substrate-to-product conversion by label-free detection, without the need for engineered substrates or secondary assays, could be considered the "holy grail" of drug discovery screening. Mass spectrometry (MS) has the potential to be part of this ultimate screening solution, but is constrained by the limitations of existing MS sample introduction modes that cannot meet the throughput requirements of high-throughput screening (HTS). Here we report data from a prototype system (Echo-MS) that uses acoustic droplet ejection (ADE) to transfer femtoliter-scale droplets in a rapid, precise, and accurate fashion directly into the MS. The acoustic source can load samples into the MS from a microtiter plate at a rate of up to three samples per second. The resulting MS signal displays a very sharp attack profile and ions are detected within 50 ms of activation of the acoustic transducer. Additionally, we show that the system is capable of generating multiply charged ion species from simple peptides and large proteins. The combination of high speed and low sample volume has significant potential within not only drug discovery, but also other areas of the industry. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  1. Native State Mass Spectrometry, Surface Plasmon Resonance, and X-ray Crystallography Correlate Strongly as a Fragment Screening Combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Lucy A; Dolezal, Olan; Ren, Bin; Ryan, John H; Peat, Thomas S; Poulsen, Sally-Ann

    2016-03-10

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) is contingent on the development of analytical methods to identify weak protein-fragment noncovalent interactions. Herein we have combined an underutilized fragment screening method, native state mass spectrometry, together with two proven and popular fragment screening methods, surface plasmon resonance and X-ray crystallography, in a fragment screening campaign against human carbonic anhydrase II (CA II). In an initial fragment screen against a 720-member fragment library (the "CSIRO Fragment Library") seven CA II binding fragments, including a selection of nonclassical CA II binding chemotypes, were identified. A further 70 compounds that comprised the initial hit chemotypes were subsequently sourced from the full CSIRO compound collection and screened. The fragment results were extremely well correlated across the three methods. Our findings demonstrate that there is a tremendous opportunity to apply native state mass spectrometry as a complementary fragment screening method to accelerate drug discovery.

  2. High-throughput screening of small molecule libraries using SAMDI mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurard-Levin, Zachary A; Scholle, Michael D; Eisenberg, Adam H; Mrksich, Milan

    2011-07-11

    High-throughput screening is a common strategy used to identify compounds that modulate biochemical activities, but many approaches depend on cumbersome fluorescent reporters or antibodies and often produce false-positive hits. The development of "label-free" assays addresses many of these limitations, but current approaches still lack the throughput needed for applications in drug discovery. This paper describes a high-throughput, label-free assay that combines self-assembled monolayers with mass spectrometry, in a technique called SAMDI, as a tool for screening libraries of 100,000 compounds in one day. This method is fast, has high discrimination, and is amenable to a broad range of chemical and biological applications.

  3. Screening and confirmation criteria for hormone residue analysis using liquid chromatography accurate mass time-of-flight, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and orbitrap mass spectrometry techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M.W.F.; Engelen, M.C. van; Zuiderent, R.; Ramaker, R.

    2007-01-01

    An emerging trend is recognised in hormone and veterinary drug residue analysis from liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) based screening and confirmation towards accurate mass alternatives such as LC coupled with time-of-flight (TOF), Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance

  4. Risk communication considerations to facilitate the screening of mass populations for potential contamination with radioactive material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, R J; Sprau, D D; Morecook, R C

    2008-11-01

    Experience gained during a field training exercise with a Medical Reserve Corps unit on the screening of large groups of individuals for possible contamination with radioactive material revealed that while exercise participants were generally attentive to the proper use of protective equipment and detectors, they tended to overlook important basic risk communications aspects. For example, drill participants did not actively communicate with the persons waiting in line for screening, a step which would provide re-assurance, possibly minimize apprehension, and would clarify expectations. When questioned on this issue of risk communication, drill participants were often able to craft ad hoc messages, but the messages were inconsistent and likely would not have significantly helped diminish anxiety and maintain crowd control. Similar difficulties were encountered regarding messaging for persons determined to be contaminated, those departing the screening center, and those to be delivered to the media. Based on these experiences, the need for a suggested list of risk communication points was identified. To address this need, a set of risk communication templates were developed that focused on the issues likely to be encountered in a mass screening event. The points include issues such as the importance of remaining calm, steps for minimizing possible intake or uptake, considerations for those exhibiting acute injuries, expected screening wait times, the process to be followed and the information to be collected, the process to be undertaken for those exhibiting contamination, and symptoms to watch for after departure. Drill participants indicated in follow-up discussions that such pre-established risk communication templates would serve to enhance their ability to assist in times of emergency and noted the potential broader applicably of the approach for use in responses for other disasters types as well.

  5. Fast screening of analytes for chemical reactions by reactive low-temperature plasma ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Huang, Guangming

    2015-11-15

    Approaches for analyte screening have been used to aid in the fine-tuning of chemical reactions. Herein, we present a simple and straightforward analyte screening method for chemical reactions via reactive low-temperature plasma ionization mass spectrometry (reactive LTP-MS). Solution-phase reagents deposited on sample substrates were desorbed into the vapor phase by action of the LTP and by thermal desorption. Treated with LTP, both reagents reacted through a vapor phase ion/molecule reaction to generate the product. Finally, protonated reagents and products were identified by LTP-MS. Reaction products from imine formation reaction, Eschweiler-Clarke methylation and the Eberlin reaction were detected via reactive LTP-MS. Products from the imine formation reaction with reagents substituted with different functional groups (26 out of 28 trials) were successfully screened in a time of 30 s each. Besides, two short-lived reactive intermediates of Eschweiler-Clarke methylation were also detected. LTP in this study serves both as an ambient ionization source for analyte identification (including reagents, intermediates and products) and as a means to produce reagent ions to assist gas-phase ion/molecule reactions. The present reactive LTP-MS method enables fast screening for several analytes from several chemical reactions, which possesses good reagent compatibility and the potential to perform high-throughput analyte screening. In addition, with the detection of various reactive intermediates (intermediates I and II of Eschweiler-Clarke methylation), the present method would also contribute to revealing and elucidating reaction mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Effect of some additives on mass transfer coefficient at a vibrating horizontal screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosier, S.A.; El-Abd, M.Z. [Chemical Engineering Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria Univ. (Egypt); Zaki, M.M. [Environmental Engineering Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig Univ. (Egypt)

    1998-01-01

    The addition of small amounts of high molecular weight substances, such as polymers and surface-active agents, to fluids can produce significant reduction of friction in turbulent flow. The objectiv of the present work is to study the effect of drag-reducing additives such as Polyox WSR 301 and sodium lauryl sulfate (anionic surfactant) on the rate of mass transfer at a vibrating horizontal screen. The variables studied were the concentration of polymer and surfactant, frequency of vibration and amplitude of vibration. (orig.)

  7. Screening masses in the SU(3) pure gauge theory and universality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcone, R.; Fiore, R.; Gravina, M.; Papa, A.

    2007-01-01

    We determine from Polyakov loop correlators the screening masses in the deconfined phase of the (3+1)d SU(3) pure gauge theory at finite temperature near the transition, for two different channels of angular momentum and parity. Their ratio is compared with that of the massive excitations with the same quantum numbers in the 3d 3-state Potts model in the broken phase near the transition point at zero magnetic field. Moreover we study the inverse decay length of the correlation between the real parts and between the imaginary parts of the Polyakov loop and compare the results with expectations from perturbation theory and mean-field Polyakov loop models

  8. Uncertainty of mass discharge estimation from contaminated sites at screening level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Nanna Isbak; Troldborg, M.; McKnight, Ursula S.

    Contaminated sites threaten groundwater resources worldwide. The number of contaminated sites is large and there are too few economic resources available to ensure a thorough investigation and remediation of them all. Risk assessment must already be done at a screening level in order to ensure...... consider possible source and hydrogeological descriptions, where each model is believed to be a realistic representation of the given site, based on the current level of information. Parameter uncertainty is quantified using Monte Carlo simulations. For each conceptual model we calculate a transient mass...

  9. Thermal spectrum of pseudo-scalar glueballs and Debye screening mass from holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Nelson R.F.; Ferreira, Luiz F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-10-15

    The finite temperature spectrum of pseudo-scalar glueballs in a plasma is studied using a holographic model. The 0{sup -+} glueball is represented by a pseudo-scalar (axion) field living in a five dimensional geometry that comes from a solution of Einstein equations for gravity coupled with a dilaton scalar field. The spectral function obtained from the model shows a clear peak corresponding to the quasi-particle ground state. Analyzing the variation of the position of the peak with temperature, we describe the thermal behavior of the Debye screening mass of the plasma. As a check of consistency, the zero temperature limit of the model is also investigated. The glueball masses obtained are consistent with previous lattice results. (orig.)

  10. Screening masses in quenched (2+1)d Yang-Mills theory: Universality from dynamics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frigori, Rafael B.

    2010-01-01

    We compute the spectrum of gluonic screening-masses in the 0 ++ channel of quenched 3d Yang-Mills theory near the phase-transition. Our finite-temperature lattice simulations are performed at scaling region, using state-of-art techniques for thermalization and spectroscopy, which allows for thorough data extrapolations to thermodynamic limit. Ratios among mass-excitations with the same quantum numbers on the gauge theory, 2d Ising and λφ 4 models are compared, resulting in a nice agreement with predictions from universality. In addition, a gauge-to-scalar mapping, previously employed to fit QCD Green's functions at deep IR, is verified to dynamically describe these universal spectroscopic patterns.

  11. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a ... posted: How to Obtain and Share ...

  12. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and chest wall and may be used to help evaluate shortness of breath, persistent cough, fever, chest ... or injury. It may also be useful to help diagnose and monitor treatment for a variety of ...

  13. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of MRI of the Chest? What is MRI of the Chest? Magnetic resonance imaging ( ... heart, valves, great vessels, etc.). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR ...

  14. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breath, persistent cough, fever, chest pain or injury. It may also be useful to help diagnose and ... have some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to ...

  15. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to assess the anatomy and function of the heart and its blood flow. Tell your doctor about ... chest cavity, including the mediastinum , chest wall, pleura, heart and vessels, from almost any angle. MRI also ...

  16. Chest tube insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest drainage tube insertion; Insertion of tube into chest; Tube thoracostomy; Pericardial drain ... Be careful there are no kinks in your tube. The drainage system should always sit upright and be placed ...

  17. Comparison of Model Predictions of Image Quality with Results of Clinical Trials in Chest and Lumbar Spine Screen-film Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandborg, M.; McVey, G.; Dance, D.R.; Carlsson, G.A.

    2000-01-01

    The ability to predict image quality from known physical and technical parameters is a prerequisite for making successful dose optimisation. In this study, imaging systems have been simulated using a Monte Carlo model of the imaging systems. The model includes a voxelised human anatomy and quantifies image quality in terms of contrast and signal-to-noise ratio for 5-6 anatomical details included in the anatomy. The imaging systems used in clinical trials were simulated and the ranking of the systems by the model and radiologists compared. The model and the results of the trial for chest PA both show that using a high maximum optical density was significantly better than using a low one. The model predicts that a good system is characterised by a large dynamic range and a high contrast of the blood vessels in the retrocardiac area. The ranking by the radiologists and the model agreed for the lumbar spine AP. (author)

  18. Droplet electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for high throughput screening for enzyme inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuwen; Kennedy, Robert T

    2014-09-16

    High throughput screening (HTS) is important for identifying molecules with desired properties. Mass spectrometry (MS) is potentially powerful for label-free HTS due to its high sensitivity, speed, and resolution. Segmented flow, where samples are manipulated as droplets separated by an immiscible fluid, is an intriguing format for high throughput MS because it can be used to reliably and precisely manipulate nanoliter volumes and can be directly coupled to electrospray ionization (ESI) MS for rapid analysis. In this study, we describe a "MS Plate Reader" that couples standard multiwell plate HTS workflow to droplet ESI-MS. The MS plate reader can reformat 3072 samples from eight 384-well plates into nanoliter droplets segmented by an immiscible oil at 4.5 samples/s and sequentially analyze them by MS at 2 samples/s. Using the system, a label-free screen for cathepsin B modulators against 1280 chemicals was completed in 45 min with a high Z-factor (>0.72) and no false positives (24 of 24 hits confirmed). The assay revealed 11 structures not previously linked to cathepsin inhibition. For even larger scale screening, reformatting and analysis could be conducted simultaneously, which would enable more than 145,000 samples to be analyzed in 1 day.

  19. Chest computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loeve, Martine; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Rosenfeld, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    are not suitable to study CF lung disease in young children. Chest computed tomography (CT) holds great promise for use as a sensitive surrogate endpoint in CF. A large body of evidence has been produced to validate the use of chest CT as primary endpoint to study CF lung disease. However, before chest CT can...

  20. Qualitative screening of undesirable compounds from feeds to fish by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nácher-Mestre, Jaime; Ibáñez, María; Serrano, Roque; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Hernández, Félix

    2013-03-06

    This paper describes the development, validation, and application of a rapid screening method for the detection and identification of undesirable organic compounds in aquaculture products. A generic sample treatment was applied without any purification or preconcentration step. After extraction of the samples with acetonitrile/water 80:20 (0.1% formic acid), the extracts were centrifuged and directly injected in the LC-HRMS system, consisting of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF MS). A qualitative validation was carried out for over 70 representative compounds, including antibiotics, pesticides, and mycotoxins, in fish feed and fish fillets spiked at 20 and 100 μg/kg. At the highest level, the great majority of compounds were detected (using the most abundant ion, typically the protonated molecule) and unequivocally identified (on the basis of the presence of two accurate-mass measured ions). At the 20 μg/kg level, many contaminants could already be detected, although identification using two ions was not fully reached for some of them, mainly in fish feed due to the complexity of this matrix. Subsequent application of this screening methodology to aquaculture samples made it possible to find several compounds from the target list, such as the antibiotic ciprofloxacin, the insecticide pirimiphos-methyl, and the mycotoxins fumonisin B2 and zearalenone. A retrospective analysis of accurate-mass full-spectrum acquisition data provided by QTOF MS was also made, without either reprocessing or injecting the samples. This allowed the detection and tentative identification of other organic undesirables different from those included in the validated list.

  1. American College of Chest Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foundation Participate in the e-Community Get Social Career Connection Publications CHEST Journal CHEST SEEK Guidelines & Consensus Statements CHEST Physician CHEST NewsBrief Coding for Chest Medicine Tobacco Dependence Toolkit (3rd Ed.) Mobile Websites and Apps CHEST Journal ...

  2. Gauge-invariant screening masses and static quark free energies in Nf=2 +1 QCD at nonzero baryon density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, Michele; Bonati, Claudio; D'Elia, Massimo; Mesiti, Michele; Negro, Francesco; Rucci, Andrea; Sanfilippo, Francesco

    2018-03-01

    We discuss the extension of gauge-invariant electric and magnetic screening masses in the quark-gluon plasma to the case of a finite baryon density, defining them in terms of a matrix of Polyakov loop correlators. We present lattice results for Nf=2 +1 QCD with physical quark masses, obtained using the imaginary chemical potential approach, which indicate that the screening masses increase as a function of μB. A separate analysis is carried out for the theoretically interesting case μB/T =3 i π , where charge conjugation is not explicitly broken and the usual definition of the screening masses can be used for temperatures below the Roberge-Weiss transition. Finally, we investigate the dependence of the static quark free energy on the baryon chemical potential, showing that it is a decreasing function of μB, which displays a peculiar behavior as the pseudocritical transition temperature at μB=0 is approached.

  3. Digital radiography of the chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Kenji; Hachiya, Junichi; Korenaga, Tateo; Nitatori, Toshiaki; Miyasaka, Yasuo; Furuya, Yoshiro

    1984-01-01

    Initial clinical experience in digital chest radiography utilizing photostimulable phosphor and scanning laser stimulated luminescence was reported. Image quality of conventional film/screen radiography and digital radiography was compared in 30 normal cases. Reflecting wide dynamic range of the system, improved image quality was confirmed in all 30 cases, particularly in visibility of various mediastinal structures and pulmonary vessels. High sensor sensitivity of the system enabled digital radiography to reduce radiation dose requirement significantly. Diagnostically acceptable chest images were obtained with approximately 1/5 of routine dose for conventional radiography without significant image quality degradation. Some artifact created by digital processing were mostly overcome by a routine use of simultaneous display of two different types of image processing and therefore was not an actual drawback from diagnostic standpoint. Further technical advancement of the system to be seen for digital storage, retrieval and tranceference of images. (author)

  4. OBLITERATION OF COSTOPHRENIC ANGTE IN A PLAIN X - RAY CHEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Obliteration of Costophrenicangle can be a pleural effusion in a majority of cases but other causes of mediastinal masses , aortic aneurysm , postpneumonectomy , lung and pleural masses and consolidation and collapse of the lung can cause shadows mimicking pleural effusion. It is always essential to take the help of later al and decubitus films , ultrasonography of chest and CT scan chest to come to a proper diagnosis. Inadvertent pleural aspiration basing on chest x - ray PA alone can have disastrous consequences

  5. Preliminary ten year results from a randomised single centre mass screening trial for abdominal aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Juul, Søren; Fasting, H

    2006-01-01

    At present, several regions and countries are considering screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). However, The Chichester Aneurysms Screening Trial has reported poor long term benefit of screening for AAA. We therefore supplement previously published data with a preliminary analysis...

  6. Computer-aided detection of breast masses: Four-view strategy for screening mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Jun; Chan Heangping; Zhou Chuan; Wu Yita; Sahiner, Berkman; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Roubidoux, Marilyn A.; Helvie, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the performance of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system for mass detection by using four-view information in screening mammography. Methods: The authors developed a four-view CAD system that emulates radiologists' reading by using the craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique views of the ipsilateral breast to reduce false positives (FPs) and the corresponding views of the contralateral breast to detect asymmetry. The CAD system consists of four major components: (1) Initial detection of breast masses on individual views, (2) information fusion of the ipsilateral views of the breast (referred to as two-view analysis), (3) information fusion of the corresponding views of the contralateral breast (referred to as bilateral analysis), and (4) fusion of the four-view information with a decision tree. The authors collected two data sets for training and testing of the CAD system: A mass set containing 389 patients with 389 biopsy-proven masses and a normal set containing 200 normal subjects. All cases had four-view mammograms. The true locations of the masses on the mammograms were identified by an experienced MQSA radiologist. The authors randomly divided the mass set into two independent sets for cross validation training and testing. The overall test performance was assessed by averaging the free response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curves of the two test subsets. The FP rates during the FROC analysis were estimated by using the normal set only. The jackknife free-response ROC (JAFROC) method was used to estimate the statistical significance of the difference between the test FROC curves obtained with the single-view and the four-view CAD systems. Results: Using the single-view CAD system, the breast-based test sensitivities were 58% and 77% at the FP rates of 0.5 and 1.0 per image, respectively. With the four-view CAD system, the breast-based test sensitivities were improved to 76% and 87% at the corresponding FP rates, respectively

  7. [Variations in the diagnostic confirmation process between breast cancer mass screening units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natal, Carmen; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Torá-Rocamora, Isabel; Tardón, Adonina; Castells, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    To analyse variations in the diagnostic confirmation process between screening units, variations in the outcome of each episode and the relationship between the use of the different diagnostic confirmation tests and the lesion detection rate. Observational study of variability of the standardised use of diagnostic and lesion detection tests in 34 breast cancer mass screening units participating in early-detection programmes in three Spanish regions from 2002-2011. The diagnostic test variation ratio in percentiles 25-75 ranged from 1.68 (further appointments) to 3.39 (fine-needle aspiration). The variation ratio in detection rates of benign lesions, ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive cancer were 2.79, 1.99 and 1.36, respectively. A positive relationship between rates of testing and detection rates was found with fine-needle aspiration-benign lesions (R(2): 0.53), fine-needle aspiration-invasive carcinoma (R(2): 0 28), core biopsy-benign lesions (R(2): 0.64), core biopsy-ductal carcinoma in situ (R(2): 0.61) and core biopsy-invasive carcinoma (R(2): 0.48). Variation in the use of invasive tests between the breast cancer screening units participating in early-detection programmes was found to be significantly higher than variations in lesion detection. Units which conducted more fine-needle aspiration tests had higher benign lesion detection rates, while units that conducted more core biopsies detected more benign lesions and cancer. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Newborn screening of inherited metabolic disorders by tandem mass spectrometry: past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Scaturro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Inborn errors of metabolism are inherited biochemical disorders caused by lack of a functional enzyme, transmembrane transporter, or similar protein, which then results in blockage of the corresponding metabolic pathway. Taken individually, inborn errors of metabolism are rare. However, as a group these diseases are relatively frequent and they may account for most of neonatal mortality and need of health resources. The detection of genetic metabolic disorders should occur in a pre-symptomatic phase. Recently, the introduction of the tandem mass spectrometric methods for metabolite analysis has changed our ability to detect intermediates of metabolism in smaller samples and provides the means to detect a large number of metabolic disorders in a single analytical run. Screening panels now include a large number of disorders that may not meet all the criteria that have been used as a reference for years. The rationale behind inclusion or exclusion of a respective disorder is difficult to understand in most cases and it may impose an ethical dilemma. The current organization is an important tool of secondary preventive medicine, essential for children’s healthcare, but the strong inhomogeneity of the regional models of screening applied today create in the Italian neonatal population macroscopic differences with regards to healthcare, which is in effect mainly diversified by the newborn’s place of birth, in possible violation of the universal criterion of the equality of all citizens. Carefully weighed arguments are urgently needed since patient organizations, opinion leaders and politicians are pressing to proceed with expansion of neonatal population screening.

  9. Current use of high-resolution mass spectrometry in drug screening relevant to clinical and forensic toxicology and doping control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojanperä, Ilkka; Kolmonen, Marjo; Pelander, Anna

    2012-05-01

    Clinical and forensic toxicology and doping control deal with hundreds or thousands of drugs that may cause poisoning or are abused, are illicit, or are prohibited in sports. Rapid and reliable screening for all these compounds of different chemical and pharmaceutical nature, preferably in a single analytical method, is a substantial effort for analytical toxicologists. Combined chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques with standardised reference libraries have been most commonly used for the purpose. In the last ten years, the focus has shifted from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, because of progress in instrument technology and partly because of the polarity and low volatility of many new relevant substances. High-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), which enables accurate mass measurement at high resolving power, has recently evolved to the stage that is rapidly causing a shift from unit-resolution, quadrupole-dominated instrumentation. The main HRMS techniques today are time-of-flight mass spectrometry and Orbitrap Fourier-transform mass spectrometry. Both techniques enable a range of different drug-screening strategies that essentially rely on measuring a compound's or a fragment's mass with sufficiently high accuracy that its elemental composition can be determined directly. Accurate mass and isotopic pattern acts as a filter for confirming the identity of a compound or even identification of an unknown. High mass resolution is essential for improving confidence in accurate mass results in the analysis of complex biological samples. This review discusses recent applications of HRMS in analytical toxicology.

  10. A high throughput mass spectrometry screening analysis based on two-dimensional carbon microfiber fractionation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Biao; Zou, Yilin; Xie, Xuan; Zhao, Jinhua; Piao, Xiangfan; Piao, Jingyi; Yao, Zhongping; Quinto, Maurizio; Wang, Gang; Li, Donghao

    2017-06-09

    A novel high-throughput, solvent saving and versatile integrated two-dimensional microscale carbon fiber/active carbon fiber system (2DμCFs) that allows a simply and rapid separation of compounds in low-polar, medium-polar and high-polar fractions, has been coupled with ambient ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-Q-TOF-MS and ESI-QqQ-MS) for screening and quantitative analyses of real samples. 2DμCFs led to a substantial interference reduction and minimization of ionization suppression effects, thus increasing the sensitivity and the screening capabilities of the subsequent MS analysis. The method has been applied to the analysis of Schisandra Chinensis extracts, obtaining with a single injection a simultaneous determination of 33 compounds presenting different polarities, such as organic acids, lignans, and flavonoids in less than 7min, at low pressures and using small solvent amounts. The method was also validated using 10 model compounds, giving limit of detections (LODs) ranging from 0.3 to 30ngmL -1 , satisfactory recoveries (from 75.8 to 93.2%) and reproducibilities (relative standard deviations, RSDs, from 1.40 to 8.06%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mass spectrometric-based stable isotopic 2-aminobenzoic acid glycan mapping for rapid glycan screening of biotherapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prien, Justin M; Prater, Bradley D; Qin, Qiang; Cockrill, Steven L

    2010-02-15

    Fast, sensitive, robust methods for "high-level" glycan screening are necessary during various stages of a biotherapeutic product's lifecycle, including clone selection, process changes, and quality control for lot release testing. Traditional glycan screening involves chromatographic or electrophoretic separation-based methods, and, although reproducible, these methods can be time-consuming. Even ultrahigh-performance chromatographic and microfluidic integrated LC/MS systems, which work on the tens of minute time scale, become lengthy when hundreds of samples are to be analyzed. Comparatively, a direct infusion mass spectrometry (MS)-based glycan screening method acquires data on a millisecond time scale, exhibits exquisite sensitivity and reproducibility, and is amenable to automated peak annotation. In addition, characterization of glycan species via sequential mass spectrometry can be performed simultaneously. Here, we demonstrate a quantitative high-throughput MS-based mapping approach using stable isotope 2-aminobenzoic acid (2-AA) for rapid "high-level" glycan screening.

  12. Active renin mass concentration to determine aldosterone-to-renin ratio in screening for primary aldosteronism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corbin F

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available François Corbin1, Pierre Douville2, Marcel Lebel3 1Division of Biochemistry, l'Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada; 2Division of Biochemistry; 3Division of Nephrology, L'Hôtel-Dieu de Québec Hospital and l'Université Laval, Quebec, CanadaBackground: Active renin mass concentration (ARC is independent of the endogenous level of angiotensinogen, and less variable and more reproducible than plasma renin activity. Reference values for the aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR using ARC are still undefined. The objective of the present study was to determine the threshold of ARR using ARC measurement to screen for primary aldosteronism.Methods: A total of 211 subjects were included in the study, comprising 78 healthy normotensive controls, 95 patients with essential hypertension, and 38 patients with confirmed primary aldosteronism (20 with surgery-confirmed aldosterone-producing adenoma and 18 with idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia. Blood samples were drawn from ambulatory patients and volunteers in the mid-morning without specific dietary restriction for measuring plasma aldosterone concentration, ARC, and serum potassium.Results: Most normotensive controls and essential hypertension patients had ARR results below 100 pmol/ng, a value which corresponded to 3.3 times the median of these two groups.Conclusion: Patients with ARR values above this level should be considered for further investigation (confirmatory tests or for repeat testing should ARR values be borderline. This study indicates that ARC can be used reliably in determining ARR for primary aldosteronism screening.Keywords: primary aldosteronism, active renin mass concentration, aldosterone-to-renin ratio

  13. Budget impact analysis of chronic kidney disease mass screening test in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Masahide; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Hoshi, Shu-Ling; Saito, Chie; Asahi, Koichi; Moriyama, Toshiki; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Konta, Tsuneo; Fujimoto, Shouichi; Narita, Ichiei; Kimura, Kenjiro; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2014-12-01

    Our recently published cost-effectiveness study on chronic kidney disease mass screening test in Japan evaluated the use of dipstick test, serum creatinine (Cr) assay or both in specific health checkup (SHC). Mandating the use of serum Cr assay additionally, or the continuation of current policy mandating dipstick test only was found cost-effective. This study aims to examine the affordability of previously suggested reforms. Budget impact analysis was conducted assuming the economic model would be good for 15 years and applying a population projection. Costs expended by social insurers without discounting were counted as budgets. Annual budget impacts of mass screening compared with do-nothing scenario were calculated as ¥79-¥-1,067 million for dipstick test only, ¥2,505-¥9,235 million for serum Cr assay only and ¥2,517-¥9,251 million for the use of both during a 15-year period. Annual budget impacts associated with the reforms were calculated as ¥975-¥4,129 million for mandating serum Cr assay in addition to the currently used mandatory dipstick test, and ¥963-¥4,113 million for mandating serum Cr assay only and abandoning dipstick test. Estimated values associated with the reform from ¥963-¥4,129 million per year over 15 years are considerable amounts of money under limited resources. The most impressive finding of this study is the decreasing additional expenditures in dipstick test only scenario. This suggests that current policy which mandates dipstick test only would contain medical care expenditure.

  14. Comparison of the image quality of digital radiography system and film screen system - Radiologist' rating of the visibility of normal anatomic - Structures in chest PA, Skull radiograph and K. U. B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kounn Sik; Kim, Young Goo; Lee, Jong Beum; Kim, Kun Sang

    1987-01-01

    Digital image acquisition and display is widely used in computed tomography, ultrasonography, digital subtraction angiography, nuclear medicine and magnetic resonance image. But most of the radiological examinations performed in radiology department are made by using conventional system. The development of the digital radiography system is essential if totally digitized radiology department is desired. The advantages of digitizing the radiographic information are usually discussed in terms of PACS (picture archiving and communication system), furthermore there are many other advantages such as contrast modification, spatial filtering subtraction and superimposition of the images through the image processing by computer. Currently several approaches are under development or in clinical use, the most promising approach is the use of imaging plate composed of photostimulate phosphors such as barium fluorohalide crystal read with a He-Ne laser to produce digital radiographic images. Another promising approach is scan projection radiography. The authors performed the clinical study of comparing the image qualities of digital radiography system using scanning laser luminescence (FCR) and conventional film-screen system in chest PA, skull radiography and K. U. B. in terms of the visibility of the normal anatomic structure rating those (qualities) on a scale of 0 to 3 and obtained the following results. Normal contrast digital images are comparable to conventional film-screen images, but the images of high frequency enhancement is far superior to conventional film-screen especially in peripherally located structures such as skin, subcutaneous fat, musculoskeletal systems, nasal bone, inner and outer table of the skull including the diploic space, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx and larynx, trachea and main bronchi, mediastinal structures, retrocardiac and subphrenic vascular markings. Another promising aspects of digital radiography system is its wide exposure latitude and

  15. An audit of 3859 preadmission chest radiographs of apparently ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chest radiographs are routinely requested as part of the medical screening process prior to admission to institutions. Literature on the yield of such an exercise is sparse especially in the Nigerian setting. This study was therefore carried out to assess the usefulness of routine chest radiography for students at ...

  16. Blunt chest trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Daphne J

    2014-01-01

    Blunt chest trauma is associated with a wide range of injuries, many of which are life threatening. This article is a case study demonstrating a variety of traumatic chest injuries, including pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Literature on the diagnosis and treatment was reviewed, including both theoretical and research literature, from a variety of disciplines. The role of the advance practice nurse in trauma is also discussed as it relates to assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with traumatic chest injuries.

  17. Calculation of the Cardiothoracic Ratio from Portable Anteroposterior Chest Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Sung Bin; Oh, Won Sup; Cho, Jun Hwi; Kim, Sam Soo

    2011-01-01

    Cardiothoracic ratio (CTR), the ratio of cardiac diameter (CD) to thoracic diameter (TD), is a useful screening method to detect cardiomegaly, but is reliable only on posteroanterior chest radiography (chest PA). We performed this cross-sectional 3-phase study to establish reliable CTR from anteroposterior chest radiography (chest AP). First, CDChest PA/CDChest AP ratios were determined at different radiation distances by manipulating chest computed tomography to simulate chest PA and AP. CDChest PA was inferred from multiplying CDChest AP by this ratio. Incorporating this CD and substituting the most recent TDChest PA, we calculated the 'corrected' CTR and compared it with the conventional one in patients who took both the chest radiographies. Finally, its validity was investigated among the critically ill patients who performed portable chest AP. CDChest PA/CDChest AP ratio was {0.00099 × (radiation distance [cm])} + 0.79 (n = 61, r = 1.00, P chest AP with an available previous chest PA. This might help physicians detect congestive cardiomegaly for patients undergoing portable chest AP. PMID:22065900

  18. CT of chest trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, P.C.

    1986-01-01

    There appears to be a limited role for computed tomography in the evaluation of chest trauma. The literature contains few papers specifically addressing the use of CT in the setting of chest trauma. Another series of articles relates anecdotal experiences in this regard. This paucity of reports attests to the remarkable amount of information present on conventional chest radiographs as well as the lack of clear indications for CT in the setting of chest trauma. In this chapter traumatic lesions of various areas of the thorax are discussed. The conventional radiographic findings are briefly described and the potential or proven application of CT is addressed

  19. An Analysis of Mass Screening Strategies Using a Mathematical Model: Comparison of Breast Cancer Screening in Japan and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunematsu, Miwako; Kakehashi, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Background Although the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) downgraded their recommendation for breast cancer screening for women aged 40–49 years in 2009, Japanese women in their 40s have been encouraged to attend breast cancer screenings since 2004. The aim of this study is to examine whether these different mass-screening strategies are justifiable by the different situations of these countries and to provide evidence for suitable judgment. Methods Performance of screening strategies (annual/biennial intervals; initiating/terminating ages) was evaluated using a mathematical model based on the natural history of breast cancer and the transition between its stages. Benefits (reduced number of deaths and extended average life expectancy) and harm (false-positives) associated with these strategies were calculated. Results Additional average life expectancy by including women in their 40s as participants were 13 days (26%) and 25 days (22%) in Japan and the United States, respectively, under the biennial screening condition; however, the respective increases in numbers of false-positive cases were 65% and 53% in Japan and the United States. Moreover, the number of screenings needed to detect one diagnosis or to avert one death was smaller when participants were limited to women of age 50 or over than when women in their 40s were included. The validity of including women in their 40s in Japan could not be determined without specifying the weight of harms compared to benefits. Conclusions Whether screening of women in their 40s in Japan is justifiable must be carefully determined based the quantitative balance of benefits and harms. PMID:25483105

  20. Present status and issues regarding X-ray medical checkup vehicles in preventive medicine. Usefulness of mass screening for lung cancer by an X-ray medical checkup vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yasuyuki; Yamada, Takaki; Doi, Masaya; Tamanoi, Toshio; Murase, Ken-ya; Mochizuki, Teruhito

    2005-01-01

    Although the prevention of habituation-related diseases has become an important topic in Japan, the early detection of cancers such as lung, gastric, and breast cancers is an important issue for x-ray-related imaging modalities. High cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness are necessary to perform mass screenings such as those for lung cancer. In order to assess cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness, a total of 100 institutions nationwide were investigated, with a 41% of recovery rate. There were at least one or two institutions in each prefecture. Cost-benefit analysis was based on factors including the price of the medical check-up vehicle, its service life, and income from the examinations. The mean price of medical check-up vehicles used for chest X-ray examinations was 4,445,000 yen. Cost-effectiveness analysis was based on the expense incurred to discover one lung cancer. According to our research, the cost-effectiveness involved in detecting one lung cancer by conventional chest X-ray examination was about 2,270,167 yen/person. Since this amount seems unduly high, it is necessary to improve cost-effectiveness. (author)

  1. Comparison of LAMP and PCR for molecular mass screening of sand flies for Leishmania martiniquensis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Kato, Hirotomo; Yeewa, Ranchana; Muengpan, Amontip; Polseela, Raxsina; Leelayoova, Saovanee

    2017-02-01

    Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania martiniquensis infection has been reported in human and domestic animals of Martinique Island, Germany, Switzerland, USA, Myanmar and Thailand. The peculiar clinical features of disseminated cutaneous and visceral forms co-existence render the urgent need of specific diagnostic tool to identify the natural sand fly vectors for effective prevention and control strategies. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of 18S rRNA gene as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of minicircle kinetoplast DNA gene (PCR-mkDNA) have never been applied to detect L. martiniquensis and L. siamensis in sand fly vectors. The present study was aimed to validate malachite green-LAMP (MG-LAMP) and PCR-mkDNA techniques to detect L. martiniquensis in sand fly vectors, compared with the conventional PCR of internal transcribed spacer 1 (PCR-ITS1). We compared the validity of LAMP of 18S rRNA gene and PCR-mkDNA, to PCR-ITS1 in simulation model of L. martiniquensis infection in Sergentomyia gemmea sand flies. Attributable to the sensitivity and specificity, PCR-mkDNA was consecutively applied to detect L. martiniquensis in 380 female sand fly individuals captured in the newly identified affected region of Lamphun Province, Thailand. Results showed that PCR-mkDNA could detect at least one promastigote per sand fly, which was 10-time superior to LAMP and PCR-ITS1. In addition, PCR-mkDNA was more specific, able to differentiate L. martiniquensis from other viscerotropic Leishmania species, such as L. siamensis, L. (L.) donovani, and L. (L.) infantum. Consecutively, mass screening of L. martiniquensis in 380 female sand fly individuals by PCR-mkDNA was implemented in a new affected area of Thailand where a patient with leishmaniasis/HIV co-infection resides; however Leishmania DNA was undetected. In conclusion, PCR-mkDNA is a promising tool for molecular mass screening of L. martiniquensis infection in outbreak areas where several species of Leishmania

  2. Comparison of LAMP and PCR for molecular mass screening of sand flies for Leishmania martiniquensis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Kato, Hirotomo; Yeewa, Ranchana; Muengpan, Amontip; Polseela, Raxsina; Leelayoova, Saovanee

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania martiniquensis infection has been reported in human and domestic animals of Martinique Island, Germany, Switzerland, USA, Myanmar and Thailand. The peculiar clinical features of disseminated cutaneous and visceral forms co-existence render the urgent need of specific diagnostic tool to identify the natural sand fly vectors for effective prevention and control strategies. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of 18S rRNA gene as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of minicircle kinetoplast DNA gene (PCR-mkDNA) have never been applied to detect L. martiniquensis and L. siamensis in sand fly vectors. OBJECTIVE The present study was aimed to validate malachite green-LAMP (MG-LAMP) and PCR-mkDNA techniques to detect L. martiniquensis in sand fly vectors, compared with the conventional PCR of internal transcribed spacer 1 (PCR-ITS1). METHODS We compared the validity of LAMP of 18S rRNA gene and PCR-mkDNA, to PCR-ITS1 in simulation model of L. martiniquensis infection in Sergentomyia gemmea sand flies. Attributable to the sensitivity and specificity, PCR-mkDNA was consecutively applied to detect L. martiniquensis in 380 female sand fly individuals captured in the newly identified affected region of Lamphun Province, Thailand. FINDINGS AND MAIN CONCLUSIONS Results showed that PCR-mkDNA could detect at least one promastigote per sand fly, which was 10-time superior to LAMP and PCR-ITS1. In addition, PCR-mkDNA was more specific, able to differentiate L. martiniquensis from other viscerotropic Leishmania species, such as L. siamensis, L. (L.) donovani, and L. (L.) infantum. Consecutively, mass screening of L. martiniquensis in 380 female sand fly individuals by PCR-mkDNA was implemented in a new affected area of Thailand where a patient with leishmaniasis/HIV co-infection resides; however Leishmania DNA was undetected. In conclusion, PCR-mkDNA is a promising tool for molecular mass screening of L. martiniquensis

  3. Digital chest radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debess, Jeanne Elisabeth; Johnsen, Karen Kirstine; Thomsen, Henrik

    on collimation and dose reduction in digital chest radiography Methods and Materials A retrospective study of digital chest radiography is performed to evaluate the primary x-ray tube collimation of the PA and lateral radiographs. Data from one hundred fifty self-reliant female patients between 15 and 55 years...

  4. Clinical validation of cutoff target ranges in newborn screening of metabolic disorders by tandem mass spectrometry : A worldwide collaborative project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McHugh, David M. S.; Cameron, Cynthia A.; Abdenur, Jose E.; Abdulrahman, Mahera; Adair, Ona; Al Nuaimi, Shahira Ahmed; Ahlman, Henrik; Allen, Jennifer J.; Antonozzi, Italo; Archer, Shaina; Au, Sylvia; Auray-Blais, Christiane; Baker, Mei; Bamforth, Fiona; Beckmann, Kinga; Pino, Gessi Bentz; Berberich, Stanton L.; Binard, Robert; Boemer, Francois; Bonham, Jim; Breen, Nancy N.; Bryant, Sandra C.; Caggana, Michele; Caldwell, S. Graham; Camilot, Marta; Campbell, Carlene; Carducci, Claudia; Cariappa, Rohit; Carlisle, Clover; Caruso, Ubaldo; Cassanello, Michela; Miren Castilla, Ane; Castineiras Ramos, Daisy E.; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Chandrasekar, Ram; Ramos, Alfredo Chardon; Cheillan, David; Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Childs, Thomas A.; Chrastina, Petr; Sica, Yuri Cleverthon; Cocho de Juan, Jose Angel; Elena Colandre, Maria; Cornejo Espinoza, Veronica; Corso, Gaetano; Currier, Robert; Cyr, Denis; Czuczy, Noemi; D'Apolito, Oceania; Davis, Tim; de Sain-Van der Velden, Monique G.; Delgado Pecellin, Carmen; Di Gangi, Iole Maria; Di Stefano, Cristina Maria; Dotsikas, Yannis; Downing, Melanie; Downs, Stephen M.; Dy, Bonifacio; Dymerski, Mark; Rueda, Inmaculada; Elvers, Bert; Eaton, Roger; Eckerd, Barbara M.; El Mougy, Fatma; Eroh, Sarah; Espada, Mercedes; Evans, Catherine; Fawbush, Sandy; Fijolek, Kristel F.; Fisher, Lawrence; Franzson, Leifur; Frazier, Dianne M.; Garcia, Luciana R. C.; Garcia-Valdecasas Bermejo, Maria Sierra; Gavrilov, Dimitar; Gerace, Rosemarie; Giordano, Giuseppe; Irazabal, Yolanda Gonzalez; Greed, Lawrence C.; Grier, Robert; Grycki, Elyse; Gu, Xuefan; Gulamali-Majid, Fizza; Hagar, Arthur F.; Han, Lianshu; Hannon, W. Harry; Haslip, Christa; Hassan, Fayza Abdelhamid; He, Miao; Hietala, Amy; Himstedt, Leslie; Hoffman, Gary L.; Hoffman, William; Hoggatt, Philis; Hopkins, Patrick V.; Hougaard, David M.; Hughes, Kerie; Hunt, Patricia R.; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Hynes, June; Ibarra-Gonzalez, Isabel; Ingham, Cindy A.; Ivanova, Maria; Jacox, Ward B.; John, Catharine; Johnson, John P.; Jonsson, Jon J.; Karg, Eszter; Kasper, David; Klopper, Brenda; Katakouzinos, Dimitris; Khneisser, Issam; Knoll, Detlef; Kobayashi, Hirinori; Koneski, Ronald; Kozich, Viktor; Kouapei, Rasoul; Kohlmueller, Dirk; Kremensky, Ivo; la Marca, Giancarlo; Lavochkin, Marcia; Lee, Soo-Youn; Lehotay, Denis C.; Lemes, Aida; Lepage, Joyce; Lesko, Barbara; Lewis, Barry; Lim, Carol; Linard, Sharon; Lindner, Martin; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele A.; Lorey, Fred; Loukas, Yannis L.; Luedtke, Julie; Maffitt, Neil; Magee, J. Fergall; Manning, Adrienne; Manos, Shawn; Marie, Sandrine; Hadachi, Sonia Marchezi; Marquardt, Gregg; Martin, Stephen J.; Matern, Dietrich; Gibson, Stephanie K. Mayfield; Mayne, Philip; McCallister, Tonya D.; McCann, Mark; McClure, Julie; McGill, James J.; McKeever, Christine D.; McNeilly, Barbara; Morrissey, Mark A.; Moutsatsou, Paraskevi; Mulcahy, Eleanor A.; Nikoloudis, Dimitris; Norgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Oglesbee, Devin; Oltarzewski, Mariusz; Ombrone, Daniela; Ojodu, Jelili; Papakonstantinou, Vagelis; Reoyo, Sherly Pardo; Park, Hyung-Doo; Pasquali, Marzia; Pasquini, Elisabetta; Patel, Pallavi; Pass, Kenneth A.; Peterson, Colleen; Pettersen, Rolf D.; Pitt, James J.; Poh, Sherry; Pollak, Arnold; Porter, Cory; Poston, Philip A.; Price, Ricky W.; Queijo, Cecilia; Quesada, Jonessy; Randell, Edward; Ranieri, Enzo; Raymond, Kimiyo; Reddic, John E.; Reuben, Alejandra; Ricciardi, Charla; Rinaldo, Piero; Rivera, Jeff D.; Roberts, Alicia; Rocha, Hugo; Roche, Geraldine; Greenberg, Cheryl Rochman; Egea Mellado, Jose Maria; Jess Juan-Fita, Maria; Ruiz, Consuelo; Ruoppolo, Margherita; Rutledge, S. Lane; Ryu, Euijung; Saban, Christine; Sahai, Inderneel; Salazar Garcia-Blanco, Maria Isabel; Santiago-Borrero, Pedro; Schenone, Andrea; Schoos, Roland; Schweitzer, Barb; Scott, Patricia; Seashore, Margretta R.; Seeterlin, Mary A.; Sesser, David E.; Sevier, Darrin W.; Shone, Scott M.; Sinclair, Graham; Skrinska, Victor A.; Stanley, Eleanor L.; Strovel, Erin T.; Jones, April L. Studinski; Sunny, Sherlykutty; Takats, Zoltan; Tanyalcin, Tijen; Teofoli, Francesca; Thompson, J. Robert; Tomashitis, Kathy; Domingos, Mouseline Torquado; Torres, Jasmin; Torres, Rosario; Tortorelli, Silvia; Turi, Sandor; Turner, Kimberley; Tzanakos, Nick; Valiente, Alf G.; Vallance, Hillary; Vela-Amieva, Marcela; Vilarinho, Laura; von Doebeln, Ulrika; Vincent, Marie-Francoise; Vorster, B. Chris; Watson, Michael S.; Webster, Dianne; Weiss, Sheila; Wilcken, Bridget; Wiley, Veronica; Williams, Sharon K.; Willis, Sharon A.; Woontner, Michael; Wright, Katherine; Yahyaoui, Raquel; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Yssel, Melissa; Zakowicz, Wendy M.

    Purpose: To achieve clinical validation of cutoff values for newborn screening by tandem mass spectrometry through a worldwide collaborative effort. Methods: Cumulative percentiles of amino acids and acylcarnitines in dried blood spots of approximately 25-30 million normal newborns and 10,742

  5. Gas chromatographic quadrupole time-of-flight full scan high resolution mass spectrometric screening of human urine in antidoping analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abushareeda, Wadha; Lyris, Emmanouil; Kraiem, Suhail; Wahaibi, Aisha Al; Alyazidi, Sameera; Dbes, Najib; Lommen, Arjen; Nielen, Michel; Horvatovich, Peter L.; Alsayrafi, Mohammed; Georgakopoulos, Costas

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the development and validation of a high-resolution full scan (FS) electron impact ionization (EI) gas chromatography coupled to quadrupole Time-of-Flight mass spectrometry (GC/QTOF) platform for screening anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) in human urine samples. The World

  6. Gas chromatographic quadrupole time-of-flight full scan high resolution mass spectrometric screening of human urine in antidoping analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abushareeda, Wadha; Lyris, Emmanouil; Kraiem, Suhail; Wahaibi, Aisha Al; Alyazidi, Sameera; Dbes, Najib; Lommen, Arjen; Nielen, Michel; Horvatovich, Peter L.; Alsayrafi, Mohammed; Georgakopoulos, Costas

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the development and validation of a high-resolution full scan (FS) electron impact ionization (EI) gas chromatography coupled to quadrupole Time-of-Flight mass spectrometry (GC/QTOF) platform for screening anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) in human urine samples. The World

  7. Variations in IBD (ACAD8) in children with elevated C4-carnitine detected by tandem mass spectrometry newborn screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christina B; Bischoff, Claus; Christensen, Ernst

    2006-01-01

    or compound heterozygous for variations in the IBD gene have been reported. We present IBD deficiency in an additional four newborns with elevated C(4)-carnitine identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) screening in Denmark and the United States. Three showed urinary excretions of isobutyryl...

  8. High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based acetylcholinesterase assay for the screening of inhibitors in natural extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, C.F.; Derks, R.J.E.; Bruyneel, B.; Niessen, W.M.A.; Irth, H.

    2006-01-01

    The present paper describes a High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methodology for the screening of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors in natural extracts. AChE activity of sample components is monitored by a post-column biochemical assay that is based on the

  9. Desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry: A rapid screening tool for veterinary drug preparations and forensic samples from hormone crime investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M.W.F.; Hooijerink, H.; Claassen, F.C.; Engelen, M.C.; Beek, van T.A.

    2009-01-01

    Hormone and veterinary drug screening and forensics can benefit from the recent developments in desorption electrospray ionisation (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS). In this work the feasibility of DESI application has been studied. Using a linear ion trap or quadrupole time-of-flight (TOF) MS

  10. Affinity imaging mass spectrometry (AIMS): high-throughput screening for specific small molecule interactions with frozen tissue sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimi, T; Kawabata, S; Taira, S; Okuno, A; Mikawa, R; Murayama, S; Tanaka, K; Takikawa, O

    2015-11-07

    A novel screening system, using affinity imaging mass spectrometry (AIMS), has been developed to identify protein aggregates or organ structures in unfixed human tissue. Frozen tissue sections are positioned on small (millimetre-scale) stainless steel chips and incubated with an extensive library of small molecules. Candidate molecules showing specific affinity for the tissue section are identified by imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). As an example application, we screened over a thousand compounds against Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain tissue and identified several compounds with high affinity for AD brain sections containing tau deposits compared to age-matched controls. It should also be possible to use AIMS to isolate chemical compounds with affinity for tissue structures or components that have been extensively modified by events such as oxidation, phosphorylation, acetylation, aggregation, racemization or truncation, for example, due to aging. It may also be applicable to biomarker screening programs.

  11. Radiological mass screening within the Member States of the European Community. Regulations, practices, effectiveness. Proceedings of a seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.

    1987-01-01

    Under the Euratom Treaty it is the task of the Commission of the European Community to ensure the health protection of workers and the general public against the dangers of ionizing radiation. Dose limits and the principals of radiation protection were first laid down in a Council Directive of 1959, and have since been repeatedly adapted. The specific problems of radiation protection of persons undergoing medical examination or treatment are the subject of a separate Council Directive of 3 September 1984. This directive specifies that 'all medical exposures must be medically justified and kept as low as reasonably achievable'. The concept of justification is particularly critical in the case of mass-screening activities. For some diseases with low prevalence the radiological detriment to the population resulting from radiological mass-screening procedures might be greater than the individual benefit of the diagnosis. In addition the costs of public health care are rising in all Member States of the European Community and the effectiveness of public health care programmes like mass-screening must be carefully examined. A technical workshop on practices and regulations in the field of radiological mass-screening within the Member States (Luxembourg, 4-5 December 1984) and a seminar on the same subject (Luxembourg, 3-4 December 1985) were therefore organized by the Commission of the European Communities in cooperation with the Commissariat a l'energie Atomique, CEA, and the Centre d'etude sur l'evaluation de la protection dans le domaine nucleaire, CEPN (France). The workshop provided up-to-date information on effectiveness and cost of radiological mass-screening programmes in the Member States. The seminar provided the representatives of the national authorities responsible for radiation protection, public health and occupational medicine with an opportunity to discuss mass-screening practices with experts. This publication contains the papers presented at the

  12. Body Mass Index and Cancer Screening in Older American Indian and Alaska Native Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muus, Kyle J.; Baker-Demaray, Twyla; McDonald, Leander R.; Ludtke, Richard L.; Allery, Alan J.; Bogart, T. Andy; Goldberg, Jack; Ramsey, Scott D.; Buchwald, Dedra S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Regular screenings are important for reducing cancer morbidity and mortality. There are several barriers to receiving timely cancer screening, including overweight/obesity. No study has examined the relationship between overweight/obesity and cancer screening among American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). Purpose: To describe the…

  13. Effect of implementation of the mass breast cancer screening programme in older women in the Netherlands: population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Glas, Nienke A; de Craen, Anton J M; Bastiaannet, Esther; Op 't Land, Ester G; Kiderlen, Mandy; van de Water, Willemien; Siesling, Sabine; Portielje, Johanneke E A; Schuttevaer, Herman M; de Bock, Geertruida Truuske H; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Liefers, Gerrit-Jan

    2014-09-14

    To assess the incidence of early stage and advanced stage breast cancer before and after the implementation of mass screening in women aged 70-75 years in the Netherlands in 1998. Prospective nationwide population based study. National cancer registry, the Netherlands. Patients aged 70-75 years with a diagnosis of invasive or ductal carcinoma in situ breast cancer between 1995 and 2011 (n=25,414). Incidence rates were calculated using population data from Statistics Netherlands. Incidence rates of early stage (I, II, or ductal carcinoma in situ) and advanced stage (III and IV) breast cancer before and after implementation of screening. Hypotheses were formulated before data collection. The incidence of early stage tumours significantly increased after the extension for implementation of screening (248.7 cases per 100,000 women before screening up to 362.9 cases per 100,000 women after implementation of screening, incidence rate ratio 1.46, 95% confidence interval 1.40 to 1.52, Pbreast cancers decreased to a far lesser extent (58.6 cases per 100,000 women before screening to 51.8 cases per 100,000 women after implementation of screening, incidence rate ratio 0.88, 0.81 to 0.97, Pbreast cancer, while that of early stage tumours has strongly increased. © de Glas et al 2014.

  14. Screening new psychoactive substances in urban wastewater using high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Mariño, Iria; Gracia-Lor, Emma; Bagnati, Renzo; Martins, Claudia P B; Zuccato, Ettore; Castiglioni, Sara

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of drug residues in urban wastewater could complement epidemiological studies in detecting the use of new psychoactive substances (NPS), a continuously changing group of drugs hard to monitor by classical methods. We initially selected 52 NPS potentially used in Italy based on seizure data and consumption alerts provided by the Antidrug Police Department and the National Early Warning System. Using a linear ion trap-Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometer, we designed a suspect screening and a target method approach and compared them for the analysis of 24 h wastewater samples collected at the treatment plant influents of four Italian cities. This highlighted the main limitations of these two approaches, so we could propose requirements for future research. A library of MS/MS spectra of 16 synthetic cathinones and 19 synthetic cannabinoids, for which analytical standards were acquired, was built at different collision energies and is available on request. The stability of synthetic cannabinoids was studied in analytical standards and wastewater, identifying the best analytical conditions for future studies. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first stability data on NPS. Few suspects were identified in Italian wastewater samples, in accordance with recent epidemiological data reporting a very low prevalence of use of NPS in Italy. This study outlines an analytical approach for NPS identification and measurement in urban wastewater and for estimating their use in the population.

  15. Modelling the cost-effectiveness of mass screening and treatment for reducing Plasmodium falciparum malaria burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crowell Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Past experience and modelling suggest that, in most cases, mass treatment strategies are not likely to succeed in interrupting Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission. However, this does not preclude their use to reduce disease burden. Mass screening and treatment (MSAT is preferred to mass drug administration (MDA, as the latter involves massive over-use of drugs. This paper reports simulations of the incremental cost-effectiveness of well-conducted MSAT campaigns as a strategy for P. falciparum malaria disease-burden reduction in settings with varying receptivity (ability of the combined vector population in a setting to transmit disease and access to case management. Methods MSAT incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs were estimated in different sub-Saharan African settings using simulation models of the dynamics of malaria and a literature-based MSAT cost estimate. Imported infections were simulated at a rate of two per 1,000 population per annum. These estimates were compared to the ICERs of scaling up case management or insecticide-treated net (ITN coverage in each baseline health system, in the absence of MSAT. Results MSAT averted most episodes, and resulted in the lowest ICERs, in settings with a moderate level of disease burden. At a low pre-intervention entomological inoculation rate (EIR of two infectious bites per adult per annum (IBPAPA MSAT was never more cost-effective than scaling up ITNs or case management coverage. However, at pre-intervention entomological inoculation rates (EIRs of 20 and 50 IBPAPA and ITN coverage levels of 40 or 60%, respectively, the ICER of MSAT was similar to that of scaling up ITN coverage further. Conclusions In all the transmission settings considered, achieving a minimal level of ITN coverage is a “best buy”. At low transmission, MSAT probably is not worth considering. Instead, MSAT may be suitable at medium to high levels of transmission and at moderate ITN coverage

  16. Inferior hilar window on lateral chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C.K.; Webb, W.R.; Klein, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper determines the accuracy of lateral chest radiography in the detection of masses in the inferior hilar window, a normally avascular hilar region anterior to the lower lobe bronchi. Fifty patients with normal thoracic CT scans and 25 with hilar masses/adenopathy were selected retrospectively. The 75 corresponding lateral chest radiographs were blindly evaluated for visibility of the anterior walls of the lower lobe bronchi and the presence and laterality of abnormal soft tissue (>1 cm) in the inferior hilar window. Only a 7 x 7-cm square of the lateral radiograph was viewed

  17. A comparative study of breast cancer mass screening using ultrasonography and mammography at a single institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uemura, Tsuguo; Takahashi, Naohiko; Ueda, Kuniaki

    2011-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasonic screening for breast cancer (US group) in comparison with mammographic screening (MMG group), we analyzed 78,214 breast screening examinees presenting between 2007 and 2008 at our institution. The cancer detection rate in the US group was lower than that in the MMG group. However, the average age in the US group was significantly younger than that in the MMG group, and the rate of annual screening was significantly higher in the former than in the latter. In the US subgroup who underwent annual screening, the recall rate and the cancer detection rate were significantly lower, and the rate of detection of early breast cancers was significantly higher than that in the subgroup who underwent screening biennially or at longer intervals, and there was no significant inter-group difference in the cancer detection rate between women in their 40s and those aged 50 or above who underwent annual screening. The proportion of early breast cancers detected was almost the same in the both groups. In summary, US screening as well as MMG screening seems to be useful for detection of early breast cancer. Although a high recall rate for US screening has been reported previously, annual screening and sufficient quality control based on the guidelines proposed by the Japan Association of Breast and Thyroid Sonology (JABTS) are considered to reduce the recall rate. (author)

  18. [Screening differentially expressed plasma proteins in cold stress rats based on iTRAQ combined with mass spectrometry technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-zhi; Guo, Jing-ru; Peng, Meng-ling; Ma, Li; Zhen, Li; Ji, Hong; Yang, Huan-min

    2015-09-01

    Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) combined with mass spectrometry were used to screen differentially expressed plasma proteins in cold stress rats. Thirty health SPF Wistar rats were randomly divided into cold stress group A and control group B, then A and B were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 5): A1, A2, A3 and B1, B2, B3. The temperature of room raising was (24.0 +/- 0.1) degrees C, and the cold stress temperature was (4.0 +/- 0.1) degrees C. The rats were treated with different temperatures until 12 h. The abdominal aortic blood was collected with heparin anticoagulation suction tube. Then, the plasma was separated for protein extraction, quantitative, enzymolysis, iTHAQ labeling, scx fractionation and mass spectrometry analysis. Totally, 1085 proteins were identified in the test, 39 differentially expressed proteins were screened, including 29 up-regulated proteins and 10 down-regulated proteins. Three important differentially expressed proteins related to cold stress were screened by bioinfonnatics analysis (Minor histocompatihility protein HA-1, Has-related protein Rap-1b, Integrin beta-1). In the experiment, the differentially expressed plasma proteins were successfully screened in cold stress rats. iTRAQ technology provided a good platform to screen protein diaguostic markers on cold stress rats, and laid a good foundation for further. study on animal cold stress mechanism.

  19. Practical application of in silico fragmentation based residue screening with ion mobility high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Anton; Butcher, Patrick; Maden, Kathry; Walker, Stephan; Widmer, Mirjam

    2017-07-15

    A screening concept for residues in complex matrices based on liquid chromatography coupled to ion mobility high-resolution mass spectrometry LC/IMS-HRMS is presented. The comprehensive four-dimensional data (chromatographic retention time, drift time, mass-to-charge and ion abundance) obtained in data-independent acquisition (DIA) mode was used for data mining. An in silico fragmenter utilizing a molecular structure database was used for suspect screening, instead of targeted screening with reference substances. The utilized data-independent acquisition mode relies on the MS E concept; where two constantly alternating HRMS scans (low and high fragmentation energy) are acquired. Peak deconvolution and drift time alignment of ions from the low (precursor ion) and high (product ion) energy scan result in relatively clean product ion spectra. A bond dissociation in silico fragmenter (MassFragment) supplied with mol files of compounds of interest was used to explain the observed product ions of each extracted candidate component (chromatographic peak). Two complex matrices (fish and bovine liver extract) were fortified with 98 veterinary drugs. Out of 98 screened compounds 94 could be detected with the in silico based screening approach. The high correlation among drift time and m/z value of equally charged ions was utilized for an orthogonal filtration (ranking). Such an orthogonal ion mobility based filter removes multiply charged ions (e.g. peptides and proteins from the matrix) as well as noise and artefacts. Most significantly, this filtration dramatically reduces false positive findings but hardly increases false negative findings. The proposed screening approach may offer new possibilities for applications where reference compounds are hardly or not at all commercially available. Such areas may be the analysis of metabolites of drugs, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, marine toxins, derivatives of sildenafil or novel designer drugs (new psychoactive substances

  20. Long-term health and quality-of-life consequences of mass screening for childhood celiac disease: A 10-year follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppen, E.J. van; Schweizer, J.J.; Csizmadia, C.G.D.S.; Krom, Y.; Hylkema, H.B.; Geel, A.M. van; Koopman, H.M.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Mearin, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Mass screening for celiac disease is controversial. The objective of this study was to determine whether detection of childhood celiac disease by mass screening improves long-term health status and health-related quality of life. METHODS.We conducted a prospective 10-year follow-up study

  1. Screening for exogenous androgen anabolic steroids in human hair by liquid chromatography/orbitrap-high resolution mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strano-Rossi, Sabina; Castrignanò, Erika; Anzillotti, Luca; Odoardi, Sara; De-Giorgio, Fabio; Bermejo, Ana; Pascali, Vincenzo L.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •LC–HRMS screening method for the detection of a variety of anabolics in hair. •Detection of unmetabolized anabolic steroids and their esters in hair matrix by simple keratin pretreatment. •Identification of target compounds by retention time, accurate mass and isotopic cluster. •Quantitative determination of detected compounds. •Possibility to a retrospective re-analysis of the acquired datafile in case a further analyte is to be screened. -- Abstract: A method for the screening of various anabolic steroids and their esters in human hair, based on liquid-chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry using an Exactive benchtop Orbitrap mass spectrometer, has been set up and validated. This method involved methanolic incubation of 30 mg of hair and analysis of the relevant extract in HPLC using a C18 column. The mass detector, with nominal resolving power of 100,000, operated in full scan mode in APCI under positive ionization mode. Analytes were identified by exact mass, correspondence of isotopic cluster and retention times. The limits of detection obtained varied from 10 to 50 pg mg −1 , and limits of quantitation were 0.5 ng mg −1 for all compounds. The method was linear for all analytes in the ranges from the LOQ to 6 ng mg −1 , giving correlation coefficients >0.99 for all analytes. Also accuracy (intended as %E) and repeatability (%CV) were always lower than 15%. Specificity was assessed by analysing ten blank samples and fifteen samples from polidrug abusers. This method was applied to a real-life case, resulting in the identification of testosterone undecanoate in the hair of a suspect. The analyte identity was confirmed by the analysis of its in-source fragmentation and comparison to a certified standard. Thanks to the scan acquisition, this method also enables retrospective re-analysis of the acquired datafile in case a further analyte needs to be screened

  2. Screening for exogenous androgen anabolic steroids in human hair by liquid chromatography/orbitrap-high resolution mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strano-Rossi, Sabina, E-mail: sabina.stranorossi@rm.unicatt.it [Institute of Legal Medicine, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, L.go F. Vito, 1, 00168 Rome (Italy); Castrignanò, Erika; Anzillotti, Luca; Odoardi, Sara; De-Giorgio, Fabio [Institute of Legal Medicine, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, L.go F. Vito, 1, 00168 Rome (Italy); Bermejo, Ana [Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Santiago de Compostela, Av S. Francisco s/n, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pascali, Vincenzo L. [Institute of Legal Medicine, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, L.go F. Vito, 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)

    2013-09-02

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •LC–HRMS screening method for the detection of a variety of anabolics in hair. •Detection of unmetabolized anabolic steroids and their esters in hair matrix by simple keratin pretreatment. •Identification of target compounds by retention time, accurate mass and isotopic cluster. •Quantitative determination of detected compounds. •Possibility to a retrospective re-analysis of the acquired datafile in case a further analyte is to be screened. -- Abstract: A method for the screening of various anabolic steroids and their esters in human hair, based on liquid-chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry using an Exactive benchtop Orbitrap mass spectrometer, has been set up and validated. This method involved methanolic incubation of 30 mg of hair and analysis of the relevant extract in HPLC using a C18 column. The mass detector, with nominal resolving power of 100,000, operated in full scan mode in APCI under positive ionization mode. Analytes were identified by exact mass, correspondence of isotopic cluster and retention times. The limits of detection obtained varied from 10 to 50 pg mg{sup −1}, and limits of quantitation were 0.5 ng mg{sup −1} for all compounds. The method was linear for all analytes in the ranges from the LOQ to 6 ng mg{sup −1}, giving correlation coefficients >0.99 for all analytes. Also accuracy (intended as %E) and repeatability (%CV) were always lower than 15%. Specificity was assessed by analysing ten blank samples and fifteen samples from polidrug abusers. This method was applied to a real-life case, resulting in the identification of testosterone undecanoate in the hair of a suspect. The analyte identity was confirmed by the analysis of its in-source fragmentation and comparison to a certified standard. Thanks to the scan acquisition, this method also enables retrospective re-analysis of the acquired datafile in case a further analyte needs to be screened.

  3. Onsite well screening with a transportable gas chromatography/mass spectrometer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossabi, J.; Eckenrode, B.A.; Owens, B.

    1992-01-01

    The number of hazardous waste site operations continue to multiply. The requirements for efficient chemical assessment and monitoring of these sites become more stringent daily. As more samples are required, the time required for cleanup operations also increases and may make analytical costs prohibitive. Thus improvements in operation efficiency and reduction of cost in evaluating specific sites to minimize or eliminate their toxic effects on the surrounding environment are critical. For many years a formal policy did not exist for the disposal of waste solvents and other chemicals, thus many of these compounds were disposed of ensite. So long as these materials were contained onsite they were not considered to pose a threat to the surrounding environment. We have since determined that many of these compounds found their way into the groundwater. Contaminants such as trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene, which were heavily used for cleaning and degreasing purposes, must be monitored. Groundwater wells can be used to define the location and extent of the migration of any contaminant plume and aid in the determination of required cleanup. The major problem is that monitoring of hundreds of wells may be necessary, requiring several hundred samples on a quarterly basis to characterize the degree and extent of any contamination. Onsite analysis of monitoring wells for this characterization of waste operations could provide time savings and significant cost reduction. Field analyses can provide the required analytical results quickly and at a reduced cost without compromising either sample integrity or data quality. By using onsite analytical instrumentation, such as a field-transportable gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS), screening analyses can be performed to eliminate retturning to the laboratory with meaningless samples. Onsite GC/MS will provide qualitative or semi-quantitative information that can significantly simplify subsequent laboratory analyses

  4. Role of urbanization and air pollution in adolescent asthma: a mass screening in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, R S; Sung, F C; Huang, S L; Gou, Y L; Ko, Y C; Gou, H W; Shaw, C K

    2001-10-01

    The prevalence of asthma in school children in Taiwan is increasing. This study used mass screening among middle school children in Taiwan to determine the prevalence of asthma and related factors. Data were collected from parents using a self-reported questionnaire and from children using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) video questionnaire. Six study teams conducted the survey nationwide in 1995-1996, with the assistance of middle school nurses and teachers. Among the 1,018,031 students at 795 middle schools who returned questionnaires, 8.5% had a history of asthma (ranging in prevalence from 4.2% to 13% in 25 areas). The prevalence of asthma was higher in boys than in girls (10.0% vs 7%) and was highest in more urbanized areas (11.2%), followed by moderately urbanized areas (7.4%) and less urbanized and rural areas (6.5%). Controlling for age, family smoking, family incense burning, and parental education level, multivariate logistic regression models indicated that children living in an area with heavy air pollution were more likely to have asthma than those in an area with no or light pollution (odds ratio, OR = 2.01 and 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.94-2.09 based on parental ranking of pollution level, or OR = 1.30 and 95% CI = 1.18-1.42 based on pollution level reported by the Environmental Protection Administration). Adolescent asthma in Taiwan is most prevalent in the most urbanized areas and decreases in prevalence in less urbanized areas. This study also found that higher parental education level and higher area air pollution were associated with higher adolescent asthma prevalence.

  5. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a risk, depending on their nature and the strength of the MRI magnet. Many implanted devices will ... abnormalities where Chest CT is a preferred imaging test. MR imaging can assess blood flow without risking ...

  6. Chest X-Ray

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    Full Text Available ... Disorders Video: The Basketball Game: An MRI Story Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, I’m Dr. Geoffrey ...

  7. Learning chest imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrozo Pupo, John C. (ed.) [Magdalena Univ., Santa Maria (Colombia). Respire - Inst. for Respiratory Care

    2013-03-01

    Useful learning tool for practitioners and students. Overview of the imaging techniques used in chest radiology. Aid to the correct interpretation of chest X-ray images. Radiology of the thorax forms an indispensable element of the basic diagnostic process for many conditions and is of key importance in a variety of medical disciplines. This user-friendly book provides an overview of the imaging techniques used in chest radiology and presents numerous instructive case-based images with accompanying explanatory text. A wide range of clinical conditions and circumstances are covered with the aim of enabling the reader to confidently interpret chest images by correctly identifying structures of interest and the causes of abnormalities. This book, which will be an invaluable learning tool, forms part of the Learning Imaging series for medical students, residents, less experienced radiologists, and other medical staff. Learning Imaging is a unique case-based series for those in professional education in general and for physicians in prarticular.

  8. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... to a CD or uploaded to a digital cloud server. MRI of the chest gives detailed pictures ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits MRI is a noninvasive imaging ...

  9. Chest x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pain from a chest injury (with a possible rib fracture or lung complication) or from heart problems Coughing ... arteries Evidence of heart failure In the bones: Fractures or other problems of the ribs and spine Osteoporosis

  10. Chest X-Ray

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    Full Text Available ... evaluate shortness of breath, persistent cough, fever, chest pain or injury. It may also be useful to ... of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. For more information about ...

  11. MRI of the Chest

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  12. Chest X-Ray

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    Full Text Available ... also be useful to help diagnose and monitor treatment for a variety of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

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  15. Chest X-Ray

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    Full Text Available ... X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, I’m Dr. Geoffrey Rubin, a radiologist ... about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot org. Thank you for your time! Spotlight Recently posted: ...

  16. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... sternum) and chest wall soft tissue (muscles and fat). assess for pericardial (thin sac around the heart) ... prior to your scheduled examination. Infants and young children usually require sedation or anesthesia to complete an ...

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    Full Text Available ... sternum) and chest wall soft tissue (muscles and fat). assess for pericardial (thin sac around the heart) ... on the child's age, intellectual development and the type of exam. Moderate and conscious sedation can be ...

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    Full Text Available ... or headphones during the exam. MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played ... the limitations of MRI of the Chest? High-quality images are assured only if you are able ...

  19. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... etc.). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the chest ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ...

  20. Chest X-Ray

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    Full Text Available ... An MRI Story Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray ... posted: How to Obtain and Share Your Medical Images Movement Disorders Video: The Basketball Game: An MRI ...

  1. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... determine the presence of certain diseases. The images can then be examined on a computer monitor, transmitted ... of the chest cavity (arteries and veins). MRA can also demonstrate an abnormal ballooning out of the ...

  2. Chest X-Ray

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    Full Text Available ... accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. For more information about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot ... Inc. (RSNA). To help ensure current and accurate information, we do not permit copying but encourage linking ...

  3. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... MRI) of the chest uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed ... there’s a possibility you are pregnant. The magnetic field is not harmful, but it may cause some ...

  4. Chest X-Ray

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    Full Text Available ... Site Index A-Z Spotlight Recently posted: Pancreatic Cancer The Limitations of Online Dose Calculators Video: The ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  5. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... etc.). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the chest ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  6. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... a computer to produce detailed pictures of the structures within the chest. It is primarily used to ... extent and degree of its spread to adjacent structures. It’s also used to assess the anatomy and ...

  7. MRI of the Chest

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  9. Chest X-Ray

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  10. Chest X-Ray

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    Full Text Available ... However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. ...

  11. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... heart) and myocardial infarct (scar in the heart muscle due to prior obstruction of blood flow). determine ... ribs and sternum) and chest wall soft tissue (muscles and fat). assess for pericardial (thin sac around ...

  12. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... have a history of kidney disease or liver transplant, it will be necessary to perform a blood ... cancer, heart and vascular disease, heart valve abnormalities, bone and other soft tissue abnormalities of the chest. ...

  13. Chest X-Ray

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    Full Text Available ... June is Men's Health Month Recently posted: Pancreatic Cancer The Limitations of Online Dose Calculators Video: The ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  14. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... around the heart) disease. characterize mediastinal or pleural lesions seen by other imaging modalities, such as chest ... ports artificial limbs or metallic joint prostheses implanted nerve stimulators metal pins, screws, plates, stents or surgical ...

  15. The Courtrai chest from New College, Oxford, re-examined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.T.

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the age estimation of the Courtrai chest from New College Oxford, using the accelerator mass spectrometer method. Radiocarbon dating of the wood in the chest revealed a date around 1280, which is in agreement with dates determined using the dendrochronological technique. (UK)

  16. Digital chest radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debess, Jeanne Elisabeth; Vejle-Sørensen, Jens Kristian; Thomsen, Henrik

    ,3 mAs and SID SID of 180 centimetres using a phantom and lithium fluoride thermo luminescence dosimeter (TLD). Dose to risk organs mamma, thyroid and colon are measured at different collimations with one-centimetre steps. TLD results are used to estimate dose reduction for different collimations...... at the conference. Conclusion: Collimation improvement in basic chest radiography can reduce the radiation to female patients at chest x-ray examinations....

  17. A method to detect occult pneumothorax with chest radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Shokei; Kishikawa, Masanobu; Hayakawa, Koichi; Narumi, Atsushi; Matsunami, Katsutoshi; Kitano, Mitsuhide

    2011-04-01

    Small pneumothoraces are often not visible on supine screening chest radiographs because they develop anteriorly to the lung. These pneumothoraces are termed occult. Occult pneumothoraces account for an astonishingly high 52% to 63% of all traumatic pneumothoraces. A 19-year-old obese woman was involved in a head-on car accident. The admission anteroposterior chest radiographs were unremarkable. Because of the presence of right chest tenderness and an abrasion, we suspected the presence of a pneumothorax. Thus, we decided to take a supine oblique chest radiograph of the right side of the thorax, which clearly revealed a visceral pleural line, consistent with a diagnosis of traumatic pneumothorax. A pneumothorax may be present when a supine chest radiograph reveals either an apparent deepening of the costophrenic angle (the "deep sulcus sign") or the presence of 2 diaphragm-lung interfaces (the "double diaphragm sign"). However, in practice, supine chest radiographs have poor sensitivity for occult pneumothoraces. Oblique chest radiograph is a useful and fast screening tool that should be considered for cases of blunt chest trauma, especially when transport of critically ill patients to the computed tomographic suite is dangerous or when imminent transfer to another hospital is being arranged and early diagnosis of an occult pneumothorax is essential. Copyright © 2010 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Online screening of homogeneous catalyst performance using reaction detection mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martha, C.T.; Elders, N.; Krabbe, J.G.; Kool, J.; Niessen, W.M.A.; Orru, R.V.A.; Irth, H.

    2008-01-01

    An integrated online screening system was developed to rapidly screen homogeneous catalysts for activity toward a selected synthesis. The continuous-flow system comprises standard HPLC pumps for the delivery of substrates, an HPLC autosampler for the injection of homogeneous catalysts, a

  19. Utility of Chest Computed Tomography after a "Normal" Chest Radiograph in Patients with Thoracic Stab Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Brian M; Plurad, David; Abrishami, Sadaf; Neville, Angela; Putnam, Brant; Kim, Dennis Y

    2015-10-01

    Chest computed tomography (CCT) is used to screen for injuries in hemodynamically stable patients with penetrating injury. We aim to determine the incidence of missed injuries detected on CCT after a negative chest radiograph (CXR) in patients with thoracic stab wounds. A 10-year retrospective review of a Level I trauma center registry was performed on patients with thoracic stab wounds. Patients who were hemodynamically unstable or did not undergo both CXR and CCT were excluded. Patients with a negative CXR were evaluated to determine if additional findings were diagnosed on CCT. Of 386 patients with stab wounds to the chest, 154 (40%) underwent both CXR and CCT. One hundred and fifteen (75%) had a negative screening CXR. CCT identified injuries in 42 patients (37%) that were not seen on CXR. Pneumothorax and/or hemothorax occurred in 40 patients (35%), of which 14 patients underwent tube thoracostomy. Two patients had hemopericardium on CCT and both required operative intervention. Greater than one-third of patients with a normal screening CXR were found to have abnormalities on CCT. Future studies comparing repeat CXR to CCT are required to further define the optimal diagnostic strategy in patients with stab wounds to chest after normal screening CXR.

  20. Rapid screening for drugs of abuse in biological fluids by ultra high performance liquid chromatography/Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagerdeo, Eshwar; Schaff, Jason E

    2016-08-01

    We present a UPLC(®)-High Resolution Mass Spectrometric method to simultaneously screen for nineteen benzodiazepines, twelve opiates, cocaine and three metabolites, and three "Z-drug" hypnotic sedatives in both blood and urine specimens. Sample processing consists of a high-speed, high-temperature enzymatic hydrolysis for urine samples followed by a rapid supported liquid extraction (SLE). The combination of ultra-high resolution chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry allows all 38 analytes to be uniquely detected with a ten minute analytical run. Limits of detection for all target analytes are 3ng/mL or better, with only 0.3mL of specimen used for analysis. The combination of low sample volume with fast processing and analysis makes this method a suitable replacement for immunoassay screening of the targeted drug classes, while providing far superior specificity and better limits of detection than can routinely be obtained by immunoassay. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Dataset and standard operating procedure for newborn screening of six lysosomal storage diseases: By tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Elliott

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this data article we provide a detailed standard operating procedure for performing a tandem mass spectrometry, multiplex assay of 6 lysosomal enzymes for newborn screening of the lysosomal storage diseases Mucopolysaccharidosis-I, Pompe, Fabry, Niemann-Pick-A/B, Gaucher, and Krabbe, (Elliott, et al., 2016 [1]. We also provide the mass spectrometry peak areas for the product and internal standard ions typically observed with a dried blood spot punch from a random newborn, and we provide the daily variation of the daily mean activities for all 6 enzymes.

  2. High Throughput Screening Method for Systematic Surveillance of Drugs of Abuse by Multisegment Injection-Capillary Electrophoresis-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBattista, Alicia; Rampersaud, Dianne; Lee, Howard; Kim, Marcus; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2017-11-07

    New technologies are urgently required for reliable drug screening given a worldwide epidemic of prescription drug abuse and its devastating socioeconomic impacts on public health. Primary screening of drugs of abuse (DoA) currently relies on immunoassays that are prone to bias and are not applicable to detect an alarming array of psychoactive stimulants, tranquilizers, and synthetic opioids. These limitations impact patient safety when monitoring for medication compliance, drug substitution, or misuse/abuse and require follow-up confirmatory testing by more specific yet lower throughput instrumental methods. Herein, we introduce a high throughput platform for nontargeted screening of a broad spectrum of DoA and their metabolites based on multisegment injection-capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (MSI-CE-MS). We demonstrate that MSI-CE-MS enables serial injections of 10 samples within a single run (high resolution MS with full-scan data acquisition. Unambiguous drug identification was achieved by four or more independent parameters, including comigration with a deuterated internal standard or in silico prediction of electromigration behavior together with accurate mass, most likely molecular formula, as well as MS/MS as required for confirmation testing. Acceptable precision was demonstrated for over 50 DoA at 3 concentration levels over 4 days (median coefficient of variance = 13%, n = 117) with minimal ion suppression, isobaric interferences, and sample carry-over (screening cutoff levels in human urine while allowing for systematic surveillance, specimen verification, and retrospective testing of designer drugs that elude conventional drug tests.

  3. Estimation of the exposure and a risk-benefit analysis for a CT system designed for a lung cancer mass screening unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, K.; Matsumoto, T.; Sakashita, K.; Tateno, Y.; Miyamoto, T.; Iwai, K.; Shimura, A.; Takagi, H.

    1996-01-01

    Organ or tissue doses from examination by a computed tomography system called LSCT were determined by in-phantom measurement. LSCT has been developed for lung cancer screening, with spiral scanning capability. Dose measurements were performed under the actual screening conditions of the chest CT examination. The effective dose recommended by ICRP 60 was evaluated using the organ or tissue doses. Risk-benefit analysis in the LSCT screening was also performed. The resultant effective dose per LSCT examination was 3.6 mSv and surface dose was 7.6 mGy. It was half to a third lower than the doses by traditional CT systems. The risk-benefit analysis of LSCT showed that the benefit will exceed the risk for Japanese over forty years for men and over forty-five for women. (Author)

  4. Nontargeted Screening Method for Illegal Additives Based on Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yanqing; Zhou, Zhihui; Kong, Hongwei; Lu, Xin; Zhao, Xinjie; Chen, Yihui; Chen, Jia; Wu, Zeming; Xu, Zhiliang; Zhao, Chunxia; Xu, Guowang

    2016-09-06

    Identification of illegal additives in complex matrixes is important in the food safety field. In this study a nontargeted screening strategy was developed to find illegal additives based on ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS). First, an analytical method for possible illegal additives in complex matrixes was established including fast sample pretreatment, accurate UHPLC separation, and HRMS detection. Second, efficient data processing and differential analysis workflow were suggested and applied to find potential risk compounds. Third, structure elucidation of risk compounds was performed by (1) searching online databases [Metlin and the Human Metabolome Database (HMDB)] and an in-house database which was established at the above-defined conditions of UHPLC-HRMS analysis and contains information on retention time, mass spectra (MS), and tandem mass spectra (MS/MS) of 475 illegal additives, (2) analyzing fragment ions, and (3) referring to fragmentation rules. Fish was taken as an example to show the usefulness of the nontargeted screening strategy, and six additives were found in suspected fish samples. Quantitative analysis was further carried out to determine the contents of these compounds. The satisfactory application of this strategy in fish samples means that it can also be used in the screening of illegal additives in other kinds of food samples.

  5. Experimental study on desulfurization efficiency and gas-liquid mass transfer in a new liquid-screen desulfurization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Zhongwei; Wang, Shengwei; Zhou, Qulan; Hui, Shi'en

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new liquid-screen gas-liquid two-phase flow pattern with discarded carbide slag as the liquid sorbent of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) in a wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) system. On the basis of experimental data, the correlations of the desulfurization efficiency with flue gas flow rate, slurry flow rate, pH value of slurry and liquid-gas ratio were investigated. A non-dimensional empirical model was developed which correlates the mass transfer coefficient with the liquid Reynolds number, gas Reynolds number and liquid-gas ratio (L/G) based on the available experimental data. The kinetic reaction between the SO 2 and the carbide slag depends on the pressure distribution in this desulfurizing tower, gas liquid flow field, flue gas component, pH value of slurry and liquid-gas ratio mainly. The transient gas-liquid mass transfer involving with chemical reaction was quantified by measuring the inlet and outlet SO 2 concentrations of flue gas as well as the characteristics of the liquid-screen two-phase flow. The mass transfer model provides a necessary quantitative understanding of the hydration kinetics of sulfur dioxide in the liquid-screen flue gas desulfurization system using discarded carbide slag which is essential for the practical application. (author)

  6. Primary Chest Wall Abscess Mimicking a Breast Tumor That Occurred after Blunt Chest Trauma: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Norikazu; Yasojima, Hiroyuki; Mizutani, Makiko; Nakamori, Shoji; Kanazawa, Toru; Kuriyama, Keiko; Mano, Masayuki; Sekimoto, Mitsugu

    2014-01-01

    Primary chest wall abscess occurring after blunt chest trauma is rare. We present the case of a 50-year-old woman who presented with a swelling in her left breast. The patient had experienced blunt chest trauma 2 months back. Needle aspiration revealed pus formation in the patient's chest. Computed tomography revealed a mass in the lower region of the left mammary gland, with thickening of the parietal pleura and skin and fracture of the fifth rib under the abscess. Following antibiotic administration and irrigation of the affected region, surgical debridement was performed. During surgery, we found that the pectoralis major muscle at the level of the fifth rib was markedly damaged, although the necrotic tissue did not contact the mammary gland. We diagnosed the lesion as a chest wall abscess that occurred in response to blunt chest trauma. Her postoperative course was uneventful. There has been no recurrence for six months after surgery. PMID:24660001

  7. Primary Chest Wall Abscess Mimicking a Breast Tumor That Occurred after Blunt Chest Trauma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Yamaoka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary chest wall abscess occurring after blunt chest trauma is rare. We present the case of a 50-year-old woman who presented with a swelling in her left breast. The patient had experienced blunt chest trauma 2 months back. Needle aspiration revealed pus formation in the patient’s chest. Computed tomography revealed a mass in the lower region of the left mammary gland, with thickening of the parietal pleura and skin and fracture of the fifth rib under the abscess. Following antibiotic administration and irrigation of the affected region, surgical debridement was performed. During surgery, we found that the pectoralis major muscle at the level of the fifth rib was markedly damaged, although the necrotic tissue did not contact the mammary gland. We diagnosed the lesion as a chest wall abscess that occurred in response to blunt chest trauma. Her postoperative course was uneventful. There has been no recurrence for six months after surgery.

  8. Ultrasonographic examination in chest disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, K.O.; Lee, J.D.; Yoo, H.S. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-12-15

    Ultrasonographic examination is not widely applied to chest disease, but is may give useful information when the acoustic window for a lesion exist. We did perform ultrasound examination in 68 cases of chest disease. 1. The cases of pleural diseases was predominant; pleural effusion 35 cases, pleural metastatic tumor 2 case, mesothelioma 2 cases and fibrous thickening 1 case, total 40 cases. It was useful to differentiate pleural effusion and fibrous thickening or parenchymal lesion simulating pleural disease, to localize the optimal aspiration site for a loculated empyema, to detect pleural bumorhidden by effusion such as metastatic tumor or mesothelioma. 2. 15 cases of parenchymal lesion and 2 cases of extra pleural mass was examined. The echo pattern of consolidation and atelectasis shows typical multiple tubular streaks within the echogenic area. The echogenicity of the peripheral mass due to primary bronchogenic carcinoma, parenchymal or extrapleural metastatic tumor and granuloma were compared. 3. In the cases of pleural or parenchymal cystic lesions, such as loculated empyema or lung abscess, because of strong reverberation artifact from posterior border of the lesion, the prediction of cystic and solid lesion is sometimes difficult. 4. In 7 cases of mediastinal lesion, cystic lesion show free echo and posterior enhancement. In contrast, solid or fat component show characteristic echo pattern. 5. In the cases of juxta diaphragmatic lesion, sonogram can confirm the underlying intraabdominal pathology, in this case subphrenic abscess

  9. Ultrasonographic examination in chest disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, K.O.; Lee, J.D.; Yoo, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    Ultrasonographic examination is not widely applied to chest disease, but is may give useful information when the acoustic window for a lesion exist. We did perform ultrasound examination in 68 cases of chest disease. 1. The cases of pleural diseases was predominant; pleural effusion 35 cases, pleural metastatic tumor 2 case, mesothelioma 2 cases and fibrous thickening 1 case, total 40 cases. It was useful to differentiate pleural effusion and fibrous thickening or parenchymal lesion simulating pleural disease, to localize the optimal aspiration site for a loculated empyema, to detect pleural bumorhidden by effusion such as metastatic tumor or mesothelioma. 2. 15 cases of parenchymal lesion and 2 cases of extra pleural mass was examined. The echo pattern of consolidation and atelectasis shows typical multiple tubular streaks within the echogenic area. The echogenicity of the peripheral mass due to primary bronchogenic carcinoma, parenchymal or extrapleural metastatic tumor and granuloma were compared. 3. In the cases of pleural or parenchymal cystic lesions, such as loculated empyema or lung abscess, because of strong reverberation artifact from posterior border of the lesion, the prediction of cystic and solid lesion is sometimes difficult. 4. In 7 cases of mediastinal lesion, cystic lesion show free echo and posterior enhancement. In contrast, solid or fat component show characteristic echo pattern. 5. In the cases of juxta diaphragmatic lesion, sonogram can confirm the underlying intraabdominal pathology, in this case subphrenic abscess

  10. A novel tandem mass spectrometry method for first-line screening of mainly beta-thalassemia from dried blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chaowen; Huang, Shuodan; Wang, Ming; Zhang, Juan; Liu, Hao; Yuan, Zhaojian; Wang, Xingbin; He, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jie; Zou, Lin

    2017-02-10

    Traditional methods for thalassemia screening are time-consuming and easily affected by cell hemolysis or hemoglobin degradation in stored blood samples. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) proved to be an effective technology for sickle cell disorders (SCD) screening. Here, we developed a novel MS/MS method for β-thalassemia screening from dried blood spots (DBS). Stable isotopic-labeled peptides were used as internal standards for quantification and calculation of the α:β-globin ratios. We used the α:β-globin ratio cutoffs to differentiate between normal individuals and patients with thalassemia. About 781 patients and 300 normal individuals were analyzed. The α:β-globin ratios showed significant difference between normal and β-thalassemia patients (Pthalassemia mutation. In the parallel study, all cases screened for suspected thalassemia from six hundred DBS samples by using this MS/MS method were successfully confirmed by genotyping. The intra-assay and inter-assay CVs of the ratios ranged from 2.4% to 3.9% and 4.7% to 7.1%, and there was no significant sample carryover or matrix effect for this MS/MS method. Combined with SCD screening, this MS/MS method could be used as a first-line screening assay for both structural and expression abnormalities of human hemoglobin. Traditional methods for thalassemia screening were depending on the structural integrity of tetramers and could be affected by hemolysis and degradation of whole blood samples, especially when stored. We used proteospecific peptides produced by the tryptic digestion of each globin to evaluate the production ratio between α- and β-globin chains, which turned out to be quite stable even when stored for more than two months. Though most of the peptides were specific to α-globin or β-globin, we only chose four most informative peptides and its stable isotopic-labeled peptides as internal standards for analysis, which could obtain a high accuracy. Currently, we are the first to address the

  11. Added value of shear-wave elastography for evaluation of breast masses detected with screening US imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Hyun; Chang, Jung Min; Kim, Won Hwa; Bae, Min Sun; Seo, Mirinae; Koo, Hye Ryoung; Chu, A Jung; Gweon, Hye Mi; Cho, Nariya; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the additional value of shear-wave elastography (SWE) to B-mode ultrasonography (US) and to determine an appropriate guideline for the combined assessment of screening US-detected breast masses. This study was conducted with institutional review board approval, and written informed consent was obtained. From March 2010 to February 2012, B-mode US and SWE were performed in 159 US-detected breast masses before biopsy. For each lesion, Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category on B-mode US images and the maximum stiffness color and elasticity values on SWE images were assessed. A guideline for adding SWE data to B-mode US was developed with the retrospective cohort to improve diagnostic performance in sensitivity and specificity and was validated in a distinct prospective cohort of 207 women prior to biopsy. Twenty-one of 159 masses in the development cohort and 12 of 207 breast masses in the validation cohort were malignant. In the development cohort, when BI-RADS category 4a masses showing a dark blue color or a maximum elasticity value of 30 kPa or less on SWE images were downgraded to category 3, specificity increased from 9.4% (13 of 138) to 59.4% (82 of 138) and 57.2% (79 of 138) (P breast masses. BI-RADS category 4a masses detected at US screening that showed a dark blue color or a maximum elasticity value of 30 kPa or less on SWE images can be safely followed up instead of performing biopsy. © RSNA, 2014.

  12. Why x-ray chests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.W.S.

    1979-06-01

    In order to assess the validity of screening chest radiography at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, the yield of occult major disease and its significance to the afflicted employees have been examined over a ten year period. The study suggests that the incidence rate of occult disease which in retrospect proved to have been of major or life-threatening importance to the afflicted employee approximates 1 per 1000 population per annum. Major benefit accrued only to about 1 in 3 of these employees, the remainder gaining little more than that which would have followed treatment had their diseases presented symptomatically. These results are considered in relation to the health surveillance needs of a population generally and selectively exposed to diverse health hazards within the nuclear industry. (auth)

  13. Screening for exogenous androgen anabolic steroids in human hair by liquid chromatography/orbitrap-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano-Rossi, Sabina; Castrignanò, Erika; Anzillotti, Luca; Odoardi, Sara; De-Giorgio, Fabio; Bermejo, Ana; Pascali, Vincenzo L

    2013-09-02

    A method for the screening of various anabolic steroids and their esters in human hair, based on liquid-chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry using an Exactive benchtop Orbitrap mass spectrometer, has been set up and validated. This method involved methanolic incubation of 30 mg of hair and analysis of the relevant extract in HPLC using a C18 column. The mass detector, with nominal resolving power of 100,000, operated in full scan mode in APCI under positive ionization mode. Analytes were identified by exact mass, correspondence of isotopic cluster and retention times. The limits of detection obtained varied from 10 to 50 pg mg(-1), and limits of quantitation were 0.5 ng mg(-1) for all compounds. The method was linear for all analytes in the ranges from the LOQ to 6 ng mg(-1), giving correlation coefficients >0.99 for all analytes. Also accuracy (intended as %E) and repeatability (%CV) were always lower than 15%. Specificity was assessed by analysing ten blank samples and fifteen samples from polidrug abusers. This method was applied to a real-life case, resulting in the identification of testosterone undecanoate in the hair of a suspect. The analyte identity was confirmed by the analysis of its in-source fragmentation and comparison to a certified standard. Thanks to the scan acquisition, this method also enables retrospective re-analysis of the acquired datafile in case a further analyte needs to be screened. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. In vivo comparison of screen-film mammography and xeromammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagan, R.; Skubic, S.E.; Oravec, D.; Green, H.Y.

    1987-01-01

    In vivo comparison of film-screen with grid and xeromammography was performed in 97 patients by three mammographers experienced with both modalities. The results show that file-screen modality is superior to xeromammography in the following areas: (1) in identifying of microcalcifications and determining their topographic characteristics; (2) in visualizing masses; and (3) in visualizing the nipple and entire skin line without artifacts. Both methods were equal in imaging of the parenchyma of dense breasts. The chest wall is somewhat better visualized with xeromammography, without providing any clinical advantage in the cases reviewed. The authors conclude that film-screen mammography with antiscatter grid is the preferred method in breast evaluation

  15. Validation of a new mass screening tool for cognitive impairment: Cognitive Assessment for Dementia, iPad version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onoda K

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Keiichi Onoda,1 Tsuyoshi Hamano,2 Yoko Nabika,1 Atsuo Aoyama,1 Hiroyuki Takayoshi,1 Tomonori Nakagawa,1 Masaki Ishihara,1 Shingo Mitaki,1 Takuya Yamaguchi,1 Hiroaki Oguro,1 Kuninori Shiwaku,3 Shuhei Yamaguchi1 1Department of Neurology, 2Center for Community-Based Health Research and Education, Shimane University, Izumo, 3Shimane University, Matsue, Shimane, Japan Background: We have developed a new screening test for dementia that runs on an iPad and can be used for mass screening, known as the Cognitive Assessment for Dementia, iPad version (CADi. The CADi consists of items involving immediate recognition memory for three words, semantic memory, categorization of six objects, subtraction, backward repetition of digits, cube rotation, pyramid rotation, trail making A, trail making B, and delayed recognition memory for three words. The present study examined the reliability and validity of the CADi. Methods: CADi evaluations were conducted for patients with dementia, healthy subjects selected from a brain checkup system, and community-dwelling elderly people participating in health checkups. Results: CADi scores were lower for dementia patients than for healthy elderly individuals and correlated significantly with Mini-Mental State Examination scores. Cronbach’s alpha values for the CADi were acceptable (over 0.7, and test–retest reliability was confirmed via a significant correlation between scores separated by a one-year interval. Conclusion: These results suggest that the CADi is a useful tool for mass screening of dementia in Japanese populations. Keywords: dementia, mass screening, early detection, iPad

  16. Suspected-target pesticide screening using gas chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry with high resolution deconvolution and retention index/mass spectrum library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Wang, Haoyang; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Jing; Fan, Ruojing; Yu, Chongtian; Wang, Wenwen; Guo, Yinlong

    2014-10-01

    A strategy for suspected-target screening of pesticide residues in complicated matrices was exploited using gas chromatography in combination with hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-QTOF MS). The screening workflow followed three key steps of, initial detection, preliminary identification, and final confirmation. The initial detection of components in a matrix was done by a high resolution mass spectrum deconvolution; the preliminary identification of suspected pesticides was based on a special retention index/mass spectrum (RI/MS) library that contained both the first-stage mass spectra (MS(1) spectra) and retention indices; and the final confirmation was accomplished by accurate mass measurements of representative ions with their response ratios from the MS(1) spectra or representative product ions from the second-stage mass spectra (MS(2) spectra). To evaluate the applicability of the workflow in real samples, three matrices of apple, spinach, and scallion, each spiked with 165 test pesticides in a set of concentrations, were selected as the models. The results showed that the use of high-resolution TOF enabled effective extractions of spectra from noisy chromatograms, which was based on a narrow mass window (5 mDa) and suspected-target compounds identified by the similarity match of deconvoluted full mass spectra and filtering of linear RIs. On average, over 74% of pesticides at 50 ng/mL could be identified using deconvolution and the RI/MS library. Over 80% of pesticides at 5 ng/mL or lower concentrations could be confirmed in each matrix using at least two representative ions with their response ratios from the MS(1) spectra. In addition, the application of product ion spectra was capable of confirming suspected pesticides with specificity for some pesticides in complicated matrices. In conclusion, GC-QTOF MS combined with the RI/MS library seems to be one of the most efficient tools for the analysis of suspected-target pesticide residues

  17. Radiology in chest trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenz, W.; Kloehn, I.; Wolfart, W.; Freiburg Univ.

    1979-01-01

    In chest trauma, a routine chest film, preferably in the lateral as well as the frontal projection, is the basic part of the work-up. Occasionally valuable additional methods are fluoroscopy, tomography, bronchography, contrast studies of the GI Tract and angiography and angiocardiography. In 679 chest trauma patients, traffic accidents and falls were the main reason for the trauma. There were 248 fractures; then - in order of frequency - hemopneumothorax (76), lung contusion (58), subcutaneous emphysema (33) cardiac (16) and vascular trauma (12) and damage to other organs. While 20-30% mistakes are made in diagnosing rib fractures in acute trauma, there is high accuracy in the diagnosis of the other injuries. Many cases are shown to demonstrate the value of diagnostic radiology. (orig.) [de

  18. A study on computer-aided diagnosis based on temporal subtraction of sequential chest radiographs (in Japanese)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kano, Akiko

    2001-01-01

    An automated digital image subtraction technique for use with pairs of temporally sequential chest radiographs has been developed to aid radiologists in the detection of interval changes. Automated image registration based on nonlinear geometric warping is performed prior to subtraction in order to deal with complicated radiographic misregistration. Processing includes global matching, to achieve rough registration between the entire lung fields in the two images, and local matching, based on a cross-correlation method, to determine local shift values for a number of small regions. A proper warping of x,y-coordinates is determined by fitting two-dimensional polynomials to the distributions of the shift values. One image is warped and then subtracted from the other. The resultant subtraction images were able to enhance the conspicuity of various types of interval changes. Improved global matching based on a weighted template matching method achieved robust registration even with photofluorographs taken in chest mass screening programs, which had previously presented us with a relatively large number of poor-registration images. The new method was applied to 129 pairs of chest mass screening images, and offered registration accuracy as good as manual global matching. An observer test using 114 cases including 57 lung cancer cases presented better sensitivity and specificity on average compared to conventional comparison readings. In addition, newly developed image processing that eliminates the rib edge artifacts in subtraction images was applied to 26 images having pathological interval changes; results showed the potential for application to automated schemes for the detection of interval change patterns. With its capacity to improve the diagnostic accuracy of chest radiographs, the chest temporal subtraction technique promises to become an important element of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems

  19. Mass media as a population-level intervention tool for Chlamydia trachomatis screening: report of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, M Kim; Grimley, Diane M; Merchant, Jeanne S; Brown, Pernell R; Cecil, Heather; Hook, Edward W

    2002-07-01

    To determine the feasibility and affect of mass media use in a population-level intervention for chlamydia screening promotion. A population-level chlamydia intervention protocol was field tested. The intervention, targeting 15-25-year-old individuals, was designed to: (a) increase awareness of personal risk for chlamydial infection; (b) facilitate dissemination of chlamydia knowledge by use of a telephone hot line; and (c) promote care-seeking behavior (report for a chlamydia screening program). The intervention activities included: (a) mail outreach, (b) a television and radio campaign, (c) a prerecorded Check-It-Out chlamydia hot line, (d) a staffed chlamydia Options information line, and (e) a free confidential urine ligase chain reaction (LCR) test for chlamydia. Mass mailings were scheduled at intervals, starting two-weeks before the beginning of the television advertisement. The 30-second television advertisement was aired on local television stations 130 times in a 6-week period. The outcome measures were quantity and characteristics of incoming calls to the automated hot line and staffed chlamydia information phone line in response to the chlamydia campaign, and response to the urine screening program. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were used to evaluate the outcomes. The hot line was called 642 times during the monitoring period (November 1, 1999 to March 8, 2000), the majority (92%) during the 6 weeks of television advertisement, with an average of 99 calls per week, compared with an average of 9 calls per week after the commercial ended. Each bulk mailing was accompanied by a boost in the incoming hot line calls. The research staff triaged 133 calls to the "Options" phone line, 81% in the 6 weeks of the TV ad. The mean age of the 133 callers was 23.9 +/- 7.7 years (range 14-49 years). A majority called for screening information; 67% of callers were females and 84% of female callers were under age 26 years. Five percent of callers identified

  20. Chest sonography. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathis, Gebhard (ed.)

    2008-07-01

    Chest sonography is an established procedure in the stepwise imaging diagnosis of pulmonary and pleural disease. It is the method of choice to distinguish between solid and liquid lesions and allows the investigator to make an unequivocal diagnosis without exposing the patient to costly and stressful procedures. This book presents the state of the art in chest investigation by means of ultrasonography. A number of excellent illustrations and the compact text provide concise and easy-to-assimilate information about the diagnostic procedure. Basic elements such as indications, investigation techniques and image artifacts are detailed in separate chapters. (orig.)

  1. Chest sonography. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathis, Gebhard

    2008-01-01

    Chest sonography is an established procedure in the stepwise imaging diagnosis of pulmonary and pleural disease. It is the method of choice to distinguish between solid and liquid lesions and allows the investigator to make an unequivocal diagnosis without exposing the patient to costly and stressful procedures. This book presents the state of the art in chest investigation by means of ultrasonography. A number of excellent illustrations and the compact text provide concise and easy-to-assimilate information about the diagnostic procedure. Basic elements such as indications, investigation techniques and image artifacts are detailed in separate chapters. (orig.)

  2. High-throughput bioaffinity mass spectrometry for screening and identification of designer anabolic steroids in dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqai, Payam; Cevik, Ebru; Gerssen, Arjen; Haasnoot, Willem; Nielen, Michel W F

    2013-03-19

    A generic high-throughput bioaffinity liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (BioMS) approach was developed and applied for the screening and identification of known and unknown recombinant human sex hormone-binding globulin (rhSHBG)-binding designer steroids in dietary supplements. For screening, a semi-automated competitive inhibition binding assay was combined with fast ultrahigh-performance-LC-electrospray ionization-triple-quadrupole-MS (UPLC-QqQ-MS). 17β-Testosterone-D3 was used as the stable isotope label of which the binding to rhSHBG-coated paramagnetic microbeads was inhibited by any other binding (designer) steroid. The assay was performed in a 96-well plate and combined with the fast LC-MS, 96 measurements could be performed within 4 h. The concentration-dependent inhibition of the label by steroids in buffer and dietary supplements was demonstrated. Following an adjusted bioaffinity isolation procedure, suspect extracts were injected into a chip-UPLC(NanoTile)-Q-time-of-flight-MS system for full-scan accurate mass identification. Next to known steroids, 1-testosterone was identified in three of the supplements studied and the designer steroid tetrahydrogestrinone was identified in a spiked supplement. The generic steroid-binding assay can be used for high-throughput screening of androgens, estrogens, and gestagens in dietary supplements to fight doping. When combined with chip-UPLC-MS, it is a powerful tool for early warning of unknown emerging rhSHBG bioactive designer steroids in dietary supplements.

  3. The Evolution of MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry toward Ultra-High-Throughput Screening: 1536-Well Format and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Carl; Hellicar, John; Dunn, Adrian; Fuetterer, Arne; Hardy, Neil; Marshall, Peter; Paape, Rainer; Pemberton, Michelle; Resemannand, Anja; Leveridge, Melanie

    2016-02-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) offers a label-free, direct-detection method, in contrast to fluorescent or colorimetric methodologies. Over recent years, solid-phase extraction-based techniques, such as the Agilent RapidFire system, have emerged that are capable of analyzing samples in high-throughput screening (HTS). Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) offers an alternative for high-throughput MS detection. However, sample preparation and deposition onto the MALDI target, as well as interference from matrix ions, have been considered limitations for the use of MALDI for screening assays. Here we describe the development and validation of assays for both small-molecule and peptide analytes using MALDI-TOF coupled with nanoliter liquid handling. Using the JMJD2c histone demethylase and acetylcholinesterase as model systems, we have generated robust data in a 1536 format and also increased sample deposition to 6144 samples per target. Using these methods, we demonstrate that this technology can deliver fast sample analysis time with low sample volume, and data comparable to that of current RapidFire assays. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  4. A gas/liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric method for the rapid screening of 250 pesticides in aqueous matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandramouli, B.; Harvan, D.; Brittain, S.; Hass, R. [Eno River Labs, LLC. Durham, NC (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Pesticide residues in food present a potentially serious and significant cause for concern. Many pesticides have been associated with significant health effects to the nervous and endocrine systems and some have been deemed carcinogenic. There are many well-established techniques for pesticide analysis. However, commercial pesticide methods have traditionally only been available for specific pesticide families, such as chlorinated pesticides or herbicides, and at detection limits ranging from 0.05 ppb to 1 ppm in aqueous matrices. Techniques that can quickly screen for the presence/absence of pesticide residues in food matrices are critical in ensuring the safety of food and water. This paper outlines a combined Gas Chromatographic-High Resolution Mass Spectrometric (GC-HRMS) and Liquid Chromatographic Tandem Mass Spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) screening assay for 250 pesticides that was developed for use in water, and soda samples at screening levels ranging from 0.1-5 ppb. The pesticides selected have been identified by the European Union as being of concern and the target of possible legislation. The list encompasses a variety of pesticide classes and compound groupings.

  5. Metabolic Toxicity Screening Using Electrochemiluminescence Arrays Coupled with Enzyme-DNA Biocolloid Reactors and Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvastkovs, Eli G.; Schenkman, John B.; Rusling, James F.

    2012-01-01

    New chemicals or drugs must be guaranteed safe before they can be marketed. Despite widespread use of bioassay panels for toxicity prediction, products that are toxic to a subset of the population often are not identified until clinical trials. This article reviews new array methodologies based on enzyme/DNA films that form and identify DNA-reactive metabolites that are indicators of potentially genotoxic species. This molecularly based methodology is designed in a rapid screening array that utilizes electrochemiluminescence (ECL) to detect metabolite-DNA reactions, as well as biocolloid reactors that provide the DNA adducts and metabolites for liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. ECL arrays provide rapid toxicity screening, and the biocolloid reactor LC-MS approach provides a valuable follow-up on structure, identification, and formation rates of DNA adducts for toxicity hits from the ECL array screening. Specific examples using this strategy are discussed. Integration of high-throughput versions of these toxicity-screening methods with existing drug toxicity bioassays should allow for better human toxicity prediction as well as more informed decision making regarding new chemical and drug candidates. PMID:22482786

  6. Fluorographene as a Mass Spectrometry Probe for High-Throughput Identification and Screening of Emerging Chemical Contaminants in Complex Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiu; Liu, Qian; Huang, Xiaoyu; Nie, Zhou; Ruan, Ting; Du, Yuguo; Jiang, Guibin

    2017-01-17

    Mass spectrometry techniques for high-throughput analysis of complex samples are of profound importance in many areas such as food safety, omics studies, and environmental health science. Here we report the use of fluorographene (FG) as a new mass spectrometry probe for high-throughput identification and screening of emerging chemical contaminants in complex samples. FG was facilely synthesized by one-step exfoliation of fluorographite. With FG as a matrix or probe in matrix-assisted or surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI- or SELDI-TOF MS), higher sensitivity (detection limits at ppt or subppt levels), and better reproducibility were achieved than with other graphene-based materials due to the unique chemical structure and self-assembly properties of FG. The method was validated with different types of real complex samples. By using FG as a SELDI probe, we could easily detect trace amount of bisphenol S in paper products and high-fat canned food samples. Furthermore, we have successfully identified and screened as many as 28 quaternary ammonium halides in sewage sludge samples collected from municipal wastewater treatment plants. These results demonstrate that FG probe is a powerful tool for high-throughput analysis of complex samples by MS.

  7. Screening and identification of steroidal saponins from Anemarrhena asphodeloides employing UPLC tandem triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yong-Gang; Guo, Xin-Dong; Liang, Jun; Yang, Bing-You; Kuang, Hai-Xue

    2017-09-01

    This study presents a practical and valid strategy for the screening and structural characterization of Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bge steroidal saponins (SSs) using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry. The whole analytical protocols integrate four-step procedures in the positive mode: (1) rational deduction of mass fragmentation pathways of A. asphodeloides SSs; (2) untargeted screening of potential A. asphodeloides SSs by multiple-ion monitoring-information-dependent-acquiring-enhanced product ion (MIM-IDA-EPI) scan through reverse phase liquid chromatography; (3) comprehensive construction of an ammoniated precursor ion database by combining untargeted MIM-IDA-EPI scans and data literature; and (4) structural interpretation of targeted A. asphodeloides SSs using MIM-IDA-EPI and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-IDA-EPI with an energy-resolved technique. The protocols were used to analyze SSs in A. asphodeloides; of the 87 detected SSs that were unambiguously characterized or tentatively identified, 19 compounds were the first to be reported from A. asphodeloides and 13 ones were characterized as potential new compounds. Accuracy of the analytical procedure was demonstrated by structural identification of three SSs by NMR spectroscopy. The proposed schemes hold an excellent promise in the structural prediction and interpretation of complex SSs from plant medicines by mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Fractal analysis of visual search activity for mass detection during mammographic screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamudun, Folami; Yoon, Hong-Jun; Hudson, Kathleen B; Morin-Ducote, Garnetta; Hammond, Tracy; Tourassi, Georgia D

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the complexity of human visual search activity during mammographic screening using fractal analysis and to investigate its relationship with case and reader characteristics. The study was performed for the task of mammographic screening with simultaneous viewing of four coordinated breast views as typically done in clinical practice. Eye-tracking data and diagnostic decisions collected for 100 mammographic cases (25 normal, 25 benign, 50 malignant) from 10 readers (three board certified radiologists and seven Radiology residents), formed the corpus for this study. The fractal dimension of the readers' visual scanning pattern was computed with the Minkowski-Bouligand box-counting method and used as a measure of gaze complexity. Individual factor and group-based interaction ANOVA analysis was performed to study the association between fractal dimension, case pathology, breast density, and reader experience level. The consistency of the observed trends depending on gaze data representation was also examined. Case pathology, breast density, reader experience level, and individual reader differences are all independent predictors of the complexity of visual scanning pattern when screening for breast cancer. No higher order effects were found to be significant. Fractal characterization of visual search behavior during mammographic screening is dependent on case properties and image reader characteristics. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  9. Tandem Mass Neonatal Screening in Taiwan—Report from One Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Po Huang

    2006-01-01

    Conclusion: We found that MS/MS neonatal screening was valuable in the early diagnosis of severe and treatable inborn errors of metabolism such as organic acidemias and urea cycle disorders. It also detected less severe disorders that required only observation.

  10. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Imaging (MRI) - Chest Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ... links: For the convenience of our users, RadiologyInfo .org provides links to relevant websites. RadiologyInfo.org , ACR ...

  11. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... transplant, it will be necessary to perform a blood test to determine whether the kidneys are functioning adequately. ... abnormalities where Chest CT is a preferred imaging test. MR imaging can assess blood flow without risking the side effects of conventional ( ...

  12. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... internal body structures. MRI does not use ionizing radiation (x-rays). Detailed MR images allow physicians to evaluate various ... seen by other imaging modalities, such as chest x-ray or CT. A special form of MRI called ...

  13. MRI of the Chest

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    Full Text Available ... of which shows a thin slice of the body. The images can then be studied from different angles by ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media MR ... Images related to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Chest Sponsored ...

  14. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body structures. MRI does not use ionizing radiation (x-rays). Detailed MR images allow physicians to evaluate various ... seen by other imaging modalities, such as chest x-ray or CT. A special form of MRI called ...

  15. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... computer to produce detailed pictures of organs, soft tissues, bone and virtually all other internal body structures. MRI ... cancer, heart and vascular disease, heart valve abnormalities, bone and other soft tissue abnormalities of the chest. MRI is also useful ...

  16. Chest X-Ray

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    Full Text Available ... change into a gown. You may have some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to ... You Sponsored by About Us | Contact Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | Site Map Copyright © 2018 ...

  17. Image processing in digital chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manninen, H.; Partanen, K.; Lehtovirta, J.; Matsi, P.; Soimakallio, S.

    1992-01-01

    The usefulness of digital image processing of chest radiographs was evaluated in a clinical study. In 54 patients, chest radiographs in the posteroanterior projection were obtained by both 14 inch digital image intensifier equipment and the conventional screen-film technique. The digital radiographs (512x512 image format) viewed on a 625 line monitor were processed in 3 different ways: 1.standard display; 2.digital edge enhancement for the standard display; 3.inverse intensity display. The radiographs were interpreted independently by 3 radiologists. Diagnoses were confirmed by CT, follow-up radiographs and clinical records. Chest abnormalities of the films analyzed included 21 primary lung tumors, 44 pulmonary nodules, 16 cases with mediastinal disease, 17 with pneumonia /atelectasis. Interstitial lung disease, pleural plaques, and pulmonary emphysema were found in 30, 18 and 19 cases respectively. Sensitivity of conventional radiography when averaged overall findings was better than that of digital techniques (P<0.001). Differences in diagnostic accuracy measured by sensitivity and specificity between the 3 digital display modes were small. Standard image display showed better sensitivity for pulmonary nodules (0.74 vs 0.66; P<0.05) but poorer specificity for pulmonary emphysema (0.85 vs 0.93; P<0.05) compared with inverse intensity display. It is concluded that when using 512x512 image format, the routine use of digital edge enhancement and tone reversal at digital chest radiographs is not warranted. (author). 12 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  18. Screening Samples for Arsenic by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry for Treaty Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    quality system in accordance with International Organization for Standardization/International Electrotechnical Commission ( ISO / IEC ) 17025 :2005...plasma-mass spectrometry ISO / IEC International Organization for Standardization/International Electrotechnical Commission L lewisite MDL method

  19. Desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry: A rapid screening tool for veterinary drug preparations and forensic samples from hormone crime investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielen, M.W.F.; Hooijerink, H.; Claassen, F.C.; Engelen, M.C. van; Beek, T.A. van

    2009-01-01

    Hormone and veterinary drug screening and forensics can benefit from the recent developments in desorption electrospray ionisation (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS). In this work the feasibility of DESI application has been studied. Using a linear ion trap or quadrupole time-of-flight (TOF) MS instrument both full-scan and data-dependent collision-induced dissociation MS n spectra were acquired in seconds without sample preparation. Preliminary data are presented for the rapid screening of (pro)hormone supplement samples, an illegal steroid cocktail and forensic samples from veterinary drug investigations. The potential of this DESI approach is clearly demonstrated since compounds observed could be independently confirmed by liquid chromatography/TOFMS with accurate mass measurement, and/or proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Specific concerns related to false-positive and false-negative findings due to limitations in quantification and memory-effects are briefly discussed. It is envisaged that DESI will achieve a prominent role in hormone and veterinary drug analysis in the near future

  20. Desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry: A rapid screening tool for veterinary drug preparations and forensic samples from hormone crime investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielen, M.W.F. [RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Dreijenplein 8, 6703 HB Wageningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: michel.nielen@wur.nl; Hooijerink, H. [RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Claassen, F.C. [Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Dreijenplein 8, 6703 HB Wageningen (Netherlands); Engelen, M.C. van [RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Beek, T.A. van [Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Dreijenplein 8, 6703 HB Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2009-04-01

    Hormone and veterinary drug screening and forensics can benefit from the recent developments in desorption electrospray ionisation (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS). In this work the feasibility of DESI application has been studied. Using a linear ion trap or quadrupole time-of-flight (TOF) MS instrument both full-scan and data-dependent collision-induced dissociation MS{sup n} spectra were acquired in seconds without sample preparation. Preliminary data are presented for the rapid screening of (pro)hormone supplement samples, an illegal steroid cocktail and forensic samples from veterinary drug investigations. The potential of this DESI approach is clearly demonstrated since compounds observed could be independently confirmed by liquid chromatography/TOFMS with accurate mass measurement, and/or proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Specific concerns related to false-positive and false-negative findings due to limitations in quantification and memory-effects are briefly discussed. It is envisaged that DESI will achieve a prominent role in hormone and veterinary drug analysis in the near future.

  1. Rapid screening of basic colorants in processed vegetables through mass spectrometry using an interchangeable thermal desorption electrospray ionization source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yu-Ying; Chen, Yen-Ling; Lin, Hong-Yi; Huang, Yeou-Lih

    2018-06-20

    Thermal desorption electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (TD-ESI-MS) employing a quickly interchangeable ionization source is a relatively new ambient ionization mass spectrometric technique that has had, to date, only a limited number of applications related to food safety control. With reallocation of resources, this direct-analysis technique has had wider use in food analysis when operated in dual-working mode (pretreatment-free qualitative screening and conventional quantitative confirmation) after switching to an ambient ionization source from a traditional atmospheric pressure ionization source. Herein, we describe the benefits and challenges associated with the use of a TD-ESI source to detect adulterants in processed vegetables (PVs), as a proof-of-concept for the detection of basic colorants. While TD-ESI can offer direct qualitative screening analyses for PVs with detection capabilities lower than those provided with liquid chromatography/UV detection within 30 s, the use of TD-ESI for semi-quantification is applicable only for homogeneous food matrices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Tri-Ponderal Mass Index vs. Fat Mass/Height3 as a Screening Tool for Metabolic Syndrome Prediction in Colombian Children and Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tri-ponderal mass index (TMI and fat mass index (FMI have been proposed as alternative approaches for assessing body fat since BMI does not ensure an accurate screening for obesity and overweight status in children and adolescents. This study proposes thresholds of the TMI and FMI for the prediction of metabolic syndrome (MetS in children and young people. For this purpose, a cross-sectional study was conducted on 4673 participants (57.1% females, who were 9–25 years of age. As part of the study, measurements of the subjects’ weight, waist circumference, serum lipid indices, blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose were taken. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA. The TMI and FMI were calculated as weight (kg/height (m3 and fat mass (kg/height (m3, respectively. Following the International Diabetes Federation (IDF definition, MetS is defined as including three or more metabolic abnormalities. Cohort-specific thresholds were established to identify Colombian children and young people at high risk of MetS. The thresholds were applied to the following groups: (i a cohort of children where the girls’ TMI ≥ 12.13 kg/m3 and the boys’ TMI ≥ 12.10 kg/m3; (ii a cohort of adolescents where the girls’ TMI ≥ 12.48 kg/m3 and the boys’ TMI ≥ 11.19 kg/m3; (iii a cohort of young adults where the women’s TMI ≥ 13.21 kg/m3 and the men’s TMI ≥ 12.19 kg/m3. The FMI reference cut-off values used for the different groups were as follows: (i a cohort of children where the girls’ FMI ≥ 2.59 fat mass/m3 and the boys’ FMI ≥ 1.98 fat mass/m3; (ii a cohort of adolescents where the girls’ FMI ≥ 3.12 fat mass/m3 and the boys’ FMI ≥ 1.46 fat mass/m3; (iii a cohort of adults where the women’s FMI ≥ 3.27 kg/m3 and the men’s FMI ≥ 1.65 kg/m3. Our results showed that the FMI and TMI had a moderate discriminatory power to detect MetS in Colombian children, adolescents, and young adults.

  3. Tri-Ponderal Mass Index vs. Fat Mass/Height³ as a Screening Tool for Metabolic Syndrome Prediction in Colombian Children and Young People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Carrillo, Hugo Alejandro; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline; Correa-Rodríguez, María; García-Hermoso, Antonio; González-Ruíz, Katherine

    2018-03-27

    Tri-ponderal mass index (TMI) and fat mass index (FMI) have been proposed as alternative approaches for assessing body fat since BMI does not ensure an accurate screening for obesity and overweight status in children and adolescents. This study proposes thresholds of the TMI and FMI for the prediction of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children and young people. For this purpose, a cross-sectional study was conducted on 4673 participants (57.1% females), who were 9-25 years of age. As part of the study, measurements of the subjects' weight, waist circumference, serum lipid indices, blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose were taken. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). The TMI and FMI were calculated as weight (kg)/height (m³) and fat mass (kg)/height (m³), respectively. Following the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definition, MetS is defined as including three or more metabolic abnormalities. Cohort-specific thresholds were established to identify Colombian children and young people at high risk of MetS. The thresholds were applied to the following groups: (i) a cohort of children where the girls' TMI ≥ 12.13 kg/m³ and the boys' TMI ≥ 12.10 kg/m³; (ii) a cohort of adolescents where the girls' TMI ≥ 12.48 kg/m³ and the boys' TMI ≥ 11.19 kg/m³; (iii) a cohort of young adults where the women's TMI ≥ 13.21 kg/m³ and the men's TMI ≥ 12.19 kg/m³. The FMI reference cut-off values used for the different groups were as follows: (i) a cohort of children where the girls' FMI ≥ 2.59 fat mass/m³ and the boys' FMI ≥ 1.98 fat mass/m³; (ii) a cohort of adolescents where the girls' FMI ≥ 3.12 fat mass/m³ and the boys' FMI ≥ 1.46 fat mass/m³; (iii) a cohort of adults where the women's FMI ≥ 3.27 kg/m³ and the men's FMI ≥ 1.65 kg/m³. Our results showed that the FMI and TMI had a moderate discriminatory power to detect MetS in Colombian children, adolescents, and young adults.

  4. Combine body mass index and body fat percentage measures to improve the accuracy of obesity screening in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Shang-Ping; Chen, Ching-Yu; Guo, Fei-Ran; Chang, Ching-I; Jan, Chyi-Feng

    Obesity screening among young adult groups is meaningful. Body mass index (BMI) is limited to discriminate between fat and lean mass. Asian young adult group tends to have lower BMI and higher body fat percentage (BFP) than other ethnic groups. Accuracy of obesity screening by commonly used BMI criteria is unclear in young Taiwanese population. A total of 894 young adults (447 males and 447 females) aged 20-26 were recruited. BMI, regional fat percentage and BFP determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) were measured. BMI cutoff points were based on the criteria adopted by the Ministry of Health and Welfare in Taiwan. Cutoff points of low or high BFP were defined as 24% in men and 31.4% in women. Prevalence of BFP defining obesity was 14.8% in young men and 27.3% in young women. 23.2% of young men and only 8.3% of young women were classified to overweight or obesity categories according to the BMI criteria. Disagreement was noticed mainly among overweight males and normal weight females. 68.7% of BMI defining overweight young men had low BFP; however, 29.7% of young women of BMI defining normal group had high BFP. Up to 69.7% of young women with high BFP would be missed by BMI category only. Disagreement between BMI and BFP was significant among young adults, especially young women. We suggest combining BMI and BIA for obesity and overweight screening in Asian young adults. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sandstorm in the chest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talluri MR

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A 32 year old female presented with dry cough and progressive breathlessness of one year duration. There was no history suggestive of collagen vascular disease, lung parenchymal infection or allergic airway disease. Clinical evaluation showed basal fine inspiratory crepitations. Radiographic examination of the chest revealed a black pleura line and lung parenchymal calcification. CT scan of the chest demonstrated nodular calcification of lung parenchyma with a “crazy pavement” pattern, which is suggestive of alveolar calcification. Pulmonary function test showed a severe restrictive defect. On transbronchial lung biopsy calcific spherules suggestive of the alveolar microlithiasis were seen. Diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis was made and symptomatic treatment was given, as there is no specific therapy available. The case illustrates an unusual cause of shortness of breath in a young female with striking radiographic features.

  6. Pediatric digital chest imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, R D; Cohen, M; Broderick, N J; Conces, D J

    1990-01-01

    The Philips Computed Radiography system performs well with pediatric portable chest radiographs, handling the throughout of a busy intensive care service 24 hours a day. Images are excellent and routinely provide a conventional (unenhanced) image and an edge-enhanced image. Radiation dose is decreased by the lowered frequency of repeat examinations and the ability of the plates to respond to a much lower dose and still provide an adequate image. The high quality and uniform density of serial PCR portable radiographs greatly enhances diagnostic content of the films. Decreased resolution has not been a problem clinically. Image manipulation and electronic transfer to remote viewing stations appear to be helpful and are currently being evaluated further. The PCR system provides a marked improvement in pediatric portable chest radiology.

  7. Pediatric digital chest imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarver, R.D.; Cohen, M.; Broderick, N.J.; Conces, D.J. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The Philips Computed Radiography system performs well with pediatric portable chest radiographs, handling the throughout of a busy intensive care service 24 hours a day. Images are excellent and routinely provide a conventional (unenhanced) image and an edge-enhanced image. Radiation dose is decreased by the lowered frequency of repeat examinations and the ability of the plates to respond to a much lower dose and still provide an adequate image. The high quality and uniform density of serial PCR portable radiographs greatly enhances diagnostic content of the films. Decreased resolution has not been a problem clinically. Image manipulation and electronic transfer to remote viewing stations appear to be helpful and are currently being evaluated further. The PCR system provides a marked improvement in pediatric portable chest radiology

  8. Trauma of the chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the typical radiologic findings in chest trauma, and the value of conventional radiography, CT, MRI, and aortography is discussed. Conventional radiography rather than cross-sectional imaging is the mainstay in diagnosing thoracic trauma. During the critical phase with often concomitant shock, pelvic and spinal injuries tailored raiographic views or even upright chest radiographs are impractical. The severely traumatized patient is usually radiographed in the supine position and suboptimal roentgenograms may have to be accepted for several reasons. It is well documented that many abnormalities detected on CT were not apparent on conventional radiographs, but CT is reserved for hemodynamical stable patients. Nevertheless certain situations like aortic rupture require further evaluation by CT and aortography. (orig./MG)

  9. Low field pulsed NMR- a mass screening tool in agricultural research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, P.N.

    1994-01-01

    One of the main requirements in agricultural research is to analyse large number of samples for their one or more chemical constituents and physical properties. In plant breeding programmes and germplasm evaluation, it is necessary that the analysis is fast as many samples are to be analysed. Pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a potential tool for developing rapid and nondestructive method of analysis. Various applications of low resolution pulsed NMR in agricultural research, which are generally used as screening method are briefly described. 25 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  10. A SIMPLE AND RAPID MATRIX-ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION/IONIZATION TIME OF FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETRY METHOD TO SCREEN FISH PLASMA SAMPLES FOR ESTROGEN-RESPONSIVE BIOMARKERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we describe and evaluate the performance of a simple and rapid mass spectral method for screening fish plasma for estrogen-responsive biomarkers using matrix assisted laster desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) couopled with a short...

  11. Facilitating high resolution mass spectrometry data processing for screening of environmental water samples: An evaluation of two deconvolution tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bade, Richard [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat s/n, E-12071 Castellón (Spain); Causanilles, Ana; Emke, Erik [KWR Watercycle Research Institute, Chemical Water Quality and Health, P.O. Box 1072, 3430 BB Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Bijlsma, Lubertus; Sancho, Juan V.; Hernandez, Felix [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat s/n, E-12071 Castellón (Spain); Voogt, Pim de, E-mail: w.p.devoogt@uva.nl [KWR Watercycle Research Institute, Chemical Water Quality and Health, P.O. Box 1072, 3430 BB Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 94248, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-11-01

    A screening approach was applied to influent and effluent wastewater samples. After injection in a LC-LTQ-Orbitrap, data analysis was performed using two deconvolution tools, MsXelerator (modules MPeaks and MS Compare) and Sieve 2.1. The outputs were searched incorporating an in-house database of > 200 pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs or ChemSpider. This hidden target screening approach led to the detection of numerous compounds including the illicit drug cocaine and its metabolite benzoylecgonine and the pharmaceuticals carbamazepine, gemfibrozil and losartan. The compounds found using both approaches were combined, and isotopic pattern and retention time prediction were used to filter out false positives. The remaining potential positives were reanalysed in MS/MS mode and their product ions were compared with literature and/or mass spectral libraries. The inclusion of the chemical database ChemSpider led to the tentative identification of several metabolites, including paraxanthine, theobromine, theophylline and carboxylosartan, as well as the pharmaceutical phenazone. The first three of these compounds are isomers and they were subsequently distinguished based on their product ions and predicted retention times. This work has shown that the use deconvolution tools facilitates non-target screening and enables the identification of a higher number of compounds. - Highlights: • A hidden target non-target screening method is utilised using two databases • Two software (MsXelerator and Sieve 2.1) used for both methods • 22 compounds tentatively identified following MS/MS reinjection • More information gleaned from this combined approach than individually.

  12. Parents of elementary school students weigh in on height, weight, and body mass index screening at school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Martha Y; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Story, Mary; Rieland, Gayle

    2006-12-01

    School-based body mass index (BMI) screening and parent notification programs have been recommended as a childhood overweight prevention strategy. However, there are little empirical data available to guide decision making about the acceptability and safety of programs. A pilot study was conducted using a quasiexperimental research design. In fall 2004, children in 4 suburban elementary schools (kindergarten to sixth grade) in the St Paul/Minneapolis, MN, metropolitan area completed height/weight screening. The following spring, parents in 2 schools received letters containing height/weight and BMI results. A self-administered post-only survey examined parents' opinions and beliefs regarding school-based BMI screening and parent notification programs (response rate: 790/1133 = 70%). The chi2 test of significance was used to examine differences in program support by treatment condition, child's weight status, and sociodemographic characteristics. Among all parents, 78% believed it was important for schools to assess student's height/weight annually and wanted to receive height, weight, and BMI information yearly. Among parents receiving the letter, 95% read most/all of the letter. Most parents (80%) and children (83%) reported comfort with the information in the letter. Parents of overweight children were more likely to report parental discomfort as well as child discomfort with letter content. There was considerable parental support for school-based BMI screening and parent notification programs. Programs may be a useful overweight prevention tool for children. However, continued attention to how best to support parents and children affected by overweight is required.

  13. Facilitating high resolution mass spectrometry data processing for screening of environmental water samples: An evaluation of two deconvolution tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bade, Richard; Causanilles, Ana; Emke, Erik; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Sancho, Juan V.; Hernandez, Felix; Voogt, Pim de

    2016-01-01

    A screening approach was applied to influent and effluent wastewater samples. After injection in a LC-LTQ-Orbitrap, data analysis was performed using two deconvolution tools, MsXelerator (modules MPeaks and MS Compare) and Sieve 2.1. The outputs were searched incorporating an in-house database of > 200 pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs or ChemSpider. This hidden target screening approach led to the detection of numerous compounds including the illicit drug cocaine and its metabolite benzoylecgonine and the pharmaceuticals carbamazepine, gemfibrozil and losartan. The compounds found using both approaches were combined, and isotopic pattern and retention time prediction were used to filter out false positives. The remaining potential positives were reanalysed in MS/MS mode and their product ions were compared with literature and/or mass spectral libraries. The inclusion of the chemical database ChemSpider led to the tentative identification of several metabolites, including paraxanthine, theobromine, theophylline and carboxylosartan, as well as the pharmaceutical phenazone. The first three of these compounds are isomers and they were subsequently distinguished based on their product ions and predicted retention times. This work has shown that the use deconvolution tools facilitates non-target screening and enables the identification of a higher number of compounds. - Highlights: • A hidden target non-target screening method is utilised using two databases • Two software (MsXelerator and Sieve 2.1) used for both methods • 22 compounds tentatively identified following MS/MS reinjection • More information gleaned from this combined approach than individually

  14. Screening of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in snake venom by electrospray mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liesener, A.; Perchuc, Anna-Maria; Schöni, Reto; Schebb, Nils Helge; Wilmer, Marianne; Karst, U.

    2007-01-01

    An electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (ESI/MS)-based assay for the determination of acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-inhibiting activity in snake venom was developed. It allows the direct monitoring of the natural AChE substrate acetylcholine (AC) and the respective product choline. The assay

  15. Exudate detection in color retinal images for mass screening of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiwei; Thibault, Guillaume; Decencière, Etienne; Marcotegui, Beatriz; Laÿ, Bruno; Danno, Ronan; Cazuguel, Guy; Quellec, Gwénolé; Lamard, Mathieu; Massin, Pascale; Chabouis, Agnès; Victor, Zeynep; Erginay, Ali

    2014-10-01

    The automatic detection of exudates in color eye fundus images is an important task in applications such as diabetic retinopathy screening. The presented work has been undertaken in the framework of the TeleOphta project, whose main objective is to automatically detect normal exams in a tele-ophthalmology network, thus reducing the burden on the readers. A new clinical database, e-ophtha EX, containing precisely manually contoured exudates, is introduced. As opposed to previously available databases, e-ophtha EX is very heterogeneous. It contains images gathered within the OPHDIAT telemedicine network for diabetic retinopathy screening. Image definition, quality, as well as patients condition or the retinograph used for the acquisition, for example, are subject to important changes between different examinations. The proposed exudate detection method has been designed for this complex situation. We propose new preprocessing methods, which perform not only normalization and denoising tasks, but also detect reflections and artifacts in the image. A new candidates segmentation method, based on mathematical morphology, is proposed. These candidates are characterized using classical features, but also novel contextual features. Finally, a random forest algorithm is used to detect the exudates among the candidates. The method has been validated on the e-ophtha EX database, obtaining an AUC of 0.95. It has been also validated on other databases, obtaining an AUC between 0.93 and 0.95, outperforming state-of-the-art methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Laryngotracheobronchial papillomatosis: chest CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortes, Helena Ribeiro; Zanetti, Glaucia; Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ranke, Felipe Mussi von [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Escuissato, Dante Luiz [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Clinica Medica; Araujo Neto, Cesar Augusto [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador (Brazil). Dept. de Medicina e Apoio Diagnostico; Hochhegger, Bruno [Universidade Federal de Ciencias da Saude de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), RS (Brazil). Diagnostico por Imagem; Irion, Klaus Loureiro [Liverpool Heart and Chest Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Souza, Carolina Althoff [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, The Ottawa Hospital, University of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2017-07-15

    To evaluate the findings on chest CTs in 16 patients (8 men and 8 women) with laryngotracheobronchial papillomatosis. Methods: This was a retrospective study involving patients ranging from 2 to 72 years of age. The evaluation of the CT scans was independently performed by two observers, and discordant results were resolved by consensus. The inclusion criteria were presence of abnormalities on the CT scans, and the diagnosis was confirmed by anatomopathological examination of the papillomatous lesions. Results: The most common symptoms were hoarseness, cough, dyspnea, and recurrent respiratory infections. The major CT findings were nodular formations in the trachea, solid or cavitated nodules in the lung parenchyma, air trapping, masses, and consolidation. Nodular formations in the trachea were observed in 14 patients (87.5%). Only 2 patients had lesions in lung parenchyma without tracheal involvement. Only 1 patient had no pulmonary dissemination of the disease, showing airway involvement only. Solid and cavitated lung nodules were observed in 14 patients (87.5%) and 13 (81.2%), respectively. Masses were observed in 6 patients (37.5%); air trapping, in 3 (18.7%); consolidation in 3 (18.7%); and pleural effusion, in 1 (6.3%). Pulmonary involvement was bilateral in all cases. Conclusions: The most common tomography findings were nodular formations in the trachea, as well as solid or cavitated nodules and masses in the lung parenchyma. Malignant transformation of the lesions was observed in 5 cases. (author)

  17. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database system for chest diagnosis based on multi-helical CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Mori, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutarou; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru; Sasagawa, Michizou

    2006-03-01

    Multi-helical CT scanner advanced remarkably at the speed at which the chest CT images were acquired for mass screening. Mass screening based on multi-helical CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. To overcome this problem, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images and a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification. We also have developed electronic medical recording system and prototype internet system for the community health in two or more regions by using the Virtual Private Network router and Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system for safety of medical information. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have now developed a new computer-aided workstation and database that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. This paper describes basic studies that have been conducted to evaluate this new system. The results of this study indicate that our computer-aided diagnosis workstation and network system can increase diagnostic speed, diagnostic accuracy and safety of medical information.

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms based on five year results from a randomised hospital based mass screening trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Juul, Søren; Fasting, H

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the cost effectiveness of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA).......The aim of this study was to estimate the cost effectiveness of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA)....

  19. [Detection of respiratory tract diseases among rural population during the team-work mass screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, E Z; Galkin, V B; Stepanova, G Ia

    1990-01-01

    A screening complex for the examination of the rural population has been worked out to detect bronchopulmonary pathology and form groups of risk for respiratory diseases. The complex of methods included compulsory questionnaires and ++fluoro-functional examination, spirometry if indicated and bacterial tests. Out of 1, 131 persons examined, 328 were found to have respiratory diseases. Chronic non-specific respiratory diseases were detected in 103 subjects, including 62 of them having obstructive bronchitis. A risk group developing chronic non-specific respiratory diseases, including 202 persons with disturbed ventilation activity of the lungs, post-tuberculous inadequate changes and other pathology. Pulmonary tuberculosis was registered in 7 subjects. The given data indicate the necessity of a complex examination of the population.

  20. Magnetic particles as powerful purification tool for high sensitive mass spectrometric screening procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Jochen F; Otto, Angela M

    2010-02-01

    The effective isolation and purification of proteins from biological fluids is the most crucial step for a successful protein analysis when only minute amounts are available. While conventional purification methods such as dialysis, ultrafiltration or protein precipitation often lead to a marked loss of protein, SPE with small-sized particles is a powerful alternative. The implementation of particles with superparamagnetic cores facilitates the handling of those particles and allows the application of particles in the nanometer to low micrometer range. Due to the small diameters, magnetic particles are advantageous for increasing sensitivity when using subsequent MS analysis or gel electrophoresis. In the last years, different types of magnetic particles were developed for specific protein purification purposes followed by analysis or screening procedures using MS or SDS gel electrophoresis. In this review, the use of magnetic particles for different applications, such as, the extraction and analysis of DNA/RNA, peptides and proteins, is described.

  1. Rapid Screening of Bovine Milk Oligosaccharides in a Whey Permeate Product and Domestic Animal Milks by Accurate Mass Database and Tandem Mass Spectral Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeyoung; Cuthbertson, Daniel J.; Otter, Don E.; Barile, Daniela

    2018-01-01

    A bovine milk oligosaccharide (BMO) library, prepared from cow colostrum, with 34 structures was generated and used to rapidly screen oligosaccharides in domestic animal milks and a whey permeate powder. The novel library was entered into a custom Personal Compound Database and Library (PCDL) and included accurate mass, retention time, and tandem mass spectra. Oligosaccharides in minute-sized samples were separated using nanoliquid chromatography (nanoLC) coupled to a high resolution and sensitive quadrupole-Time of Flight (Q-ToF) MS system. Using the PCDL, 18 oligosaccharides were found in a BMO-enriched product obtained from whey permeate processing. The usefulness of the analytical system and BMO library was further validated using milks from domestic sheep and buffaloes. Through BMO PCDL searching, 15 and 13 oligosaccharides in the BMO library were assigned in sheep and buffalo milks, respectively, thus demonstrating significant overlap between oligosaccharides in bovine (cow and buffalo) and ovine (sheep) milks. This method was shown to be an efficient, reliable, and rapid tool to identify oligosaccharide structures using automated spectral matching. PMID:27428379

  2. Differential screening and mass mapping of proteins from premalignant and cancer cell lines using nonporous reversed-phase HPLC coupled with mass spectrometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, B E; Hamler, R L; Lubman, D M; Ethier, S P; Rosenspire, A J; Miller, F R

    2001-03-15

    Nonporous (NPS) RP-HPLC has been used to rapidly separate proteins from whole cell lysates of human breast cell lines. The nonporous separation involves the use of hard-sphere silica beads of 1.5-microm diameter coated with C18, which can be used to separate proteins ranging from 5 to 90 kDa. Using only 30-40 microg of total protein, the protein molecular weights are detectable on-line using an ESI-oaTOF MS. Of hundreds of proteins detected in this mass range, approxinately 75-80 are more highly expressed. The molecular weight profiles can be displayed as a mass map analogous to a virtual "1-D gel" and differentially expressed proteins can be compared by image analysis. The separated proteins can also be detected by UV absorption and differentially expressed proteins quantified. The eluting proteins can be collected in the liquid phase and the molecular weight and peptide maps determined by MALDI-TOF MS for identification. It is demonstrated that the expressed protein profiles change during neoplastic progression and that many oncoproteins are readily detected. It is also shown that the response of premalignant cancer cells to estradiol can be rapidly screened by this method, demonstrating significant changes in response to an external agent. Ultimately, the proteins can be studied by peptide mapping to search for posttranslational modifications of the oncoproteins accompanying progression.

  3. Tandem mass spectrometry-based newborn screening strategy could be used to facilitate rapid and sensitive lung cancer diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang T

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ting Huang,1,* Yunfeng Cao,1,* Jia Zeng,1 Jun Dong,2 Xiaoyu Sun,2 Jianxing Chen,1 Peng Gao2,3 1Key Laboratory of Contraceptives and Devices Research (NPFPC, Shanghai Engineer and Technology Research Center of Reproductive Health Drug and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research, Shanghai, 2Clinical Laboratory, Dalian Sixth People’s Hospital, 3CASKey Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: Newborn screening (NBS helps in the early detection of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM. The most effective NBS strategy prevailing in clinics is tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS analysis using dried blood spot (DBS samples. Taking lung cancer (LC as an example, this study tried to explore if this technique could be of any assistance for the discovery of tumor metabolite markers.Materials and methods: Twenty-six acylcarnitines and 23 amino acids, which are commonly used in IEM screening, were quantified using DBS samples from 222 LC patients, 118 benign lung disease (LD patients, and 96 healthy volunteers (CONT. Forty-four calculated ratios based on the abovementioned metabolites were also included using MS/MS quantification results.Results: This pilot study led to the findings of 65 significantly changed amino acids, acylcarnitines, and some of their ratios for the LC, LD, and CONT groups. Among the differential parameters, 12 items showed reverse changing trends between the LC and LD groups compared to the CONT group. Regression analysis demonstrated that six of them – Arg, Pro, C10:1, Arg/Orn, Cit/Arg, and C5-OH/C0 – could be used to diagnose LC with a sensitivity of 91.3% and a specificity of 92.7%.Conclusion: This study demonstrated the DBS-based MS/MS strategy was a promising tool for the discovery of tumor metabolite markers. Remarkably, this MS

  4. Digital luminescent radiography: A substitute for conventional chest radiography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neufang, K.F.R.; Krug, B.; Lorenz, R.; Steinbrich, W.

    1990-01-01

    The image quality of digital luminescent radiography (DLR) is sufficient for routine biplane chest radiography and for follow-up studies of heart size, pulmonary congestion, coin lesions, infiltrations, atelectasis, pleural effusions, and mediastinal and hilar lymph node enlargement. Chest radiography in the intensive care unit may in most cases be performed using the DLR technique. there is no need for repeat shots because of incorrect exposure, and the position of catheters, tubes, pacemakers, drains and artificial heart valves, the mediastinum, and the retrocardiac areas of the left lung are more confidently assessed on the edge-enhanced DLR films than on conventional films. Nevertheless, DLR is somewhat inferior to conventional film-screen radiography of the chest as it can demonstrate or rule out subtle pulmonary interstitial disease less confidently. There is no reduction of radiation exposure of the chest in DLR compared with modern film-screen systems. As a consequence, DLR is presently not in a position to replace traditional film-screen radiography of the chest completely. (orig.) [de

  5. Newborn screening by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry based on parylene-matrix chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jo-Il; Noh, Joo-Yoon; Kim, Mira; Park, Jong-Min; Song, Hyun-Woo; Kang, Min-Jung; Pyun, Jae-Chul

    2017-08-01

    Newborn screening for diagnosis of phenylketonuria, homocystinuria, and maple syrup urine disease have been conducted by analyzing the concentration of target amino acids using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF MS) based on parylene-matrix chip. Parylene-matrix chip was applied to MALDI-ToF MS analysis reducing the matrix peaks significantly at low mass-to-charge ratio range (m/z  0.98) and the LODs were ranging from 9.0 to 22.9 μg/mL. Effect of proteins in serum was estimated by comparing MALDI-ToF mass spectra of amino acids-spiked serum before and after the methanol extraction. Interference of other amino acids on analysis of target analyte was determined to be insignificant. From these results, MALDI-ToF MS based on parylene-matrix chip could be applicable to medical diagnosis of neonatal metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  7. Mass prophylactic screening of the organized female populaton using the Thermograph-Computer System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vepkhvadze, R.Ya.; Khvedelidze, E.Sh.

    1984-01-01

    Organizational aspects of the Thermograph Computer System usage have been analyzed. It has been shown that results of thermodiagnosis completely coincide with clinical conclusion, but roentrenological method permits to reveal a disease only for 19 patients from 36 ones. It is possible to examine 120 women for the aim of early diagnosis of mammary gland diseases during the day operating hours with the use of the Thermograph Computer System. A movable thermodiagnostic room simultaneoUsly served as an inspection room to discover visual forms of tumor diseases including diseases of cervix uteri and may be used for mass preventive examination of the organized female population

  8. A radiometric mass flow probe for determining the screen overflow of potato harvesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, M.

    1976-01-01

    A radiometric conveyor balance based on the principle of gamma attenuation is described. Being independent on the electric network, it is suitable for nonstationary operation. Cesium 137 is used as radiation source. Detection is performed through a special system of halogen and ordinary counters. First tests were made under field conditions in order to determine the passing mass (potatoes and soil) and to find out the sieving capacity of the potato harvesters. The maximum throughput is about 50 tons per hour. Potatoes and soil up to about 2 tons may be weighed by means of this balance with a relative error of +- 3.5 %. (author)

  9. Screen Savers. Case Histories of Social Reaction to Mass Media, Children and Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Critcher, Chas

    2013-01-01

    Historically the mass media have often been blamed for causing violent behaviour by children and young people. Two case studies of new media, film and video games, are compared in terms of their emergence, reactions to them and outcomes of the debate, mainly in the USA and Britain. Both cases are used to test the sociological model of moral panic which is found to be of limited appli­cation. It needs to be supplemented by two other concepts, those of media panic and moral regulation. Only the...

  10. A single reagent radioimmunoassay for thyroxine in blood samples absorbed on filter paper for mass screening of neonatal hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, N.; Pillai, M.R.A.; Mani, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    A single reagent radioimmunoassay for thyroxine in blood samples absorbed on filter paper for the mass screening of neonatal hypothyroidism is described. Blood samples were collected by pricking the heel of newborn babies (3 days old) and pressing Whatman 3 filter paper against the wound. 6 mm diameter blood spots were punched out at the time of assay and incubated with 0.4 ml of a preincubated antigen-antibody complex for six hours at 37 deg C. 1 ml of 22% polyethylene glycol is used for the precipitation of antigen-antibody complex. The assay has a sensitivity of 2.2 ng/ml. 500 samples collected from newborns were analyzed in the assay and gave a mean of 117.6+-31.9 ng/ml. (author) 9 refs.; 4 figs

  11. Prostate cell membrane chromatography-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for screening of active constituents from Uncaria rhynchophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jianyu; Han, Shengli; Yang, Fangfang; Zhou, Nan; Wang, Sicen

    2013-01-01

    Uncaria rhynchophylla is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb used to treat hypertension and convulsive disorders such as epilepsy. Rat prostate cell membrane chromatography combined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to identify active constituents from U. rhynchophylla extracts. Four compounds (corynoxeine, isorhynchophylline, isocorynoxeine and rhynchophylline) were discovered. Competitive binding assay results indicated that the four compounds were in direct competition at a single common binding site and interacted with α1A adrenergic receptors (α1A-AR) in a manner similar to tamsulosin. Affinity constant values of the four compounds binding with α1A-AR were also measured using rat prostate cell membrane chromatography (CMC). Finally, their pharmacodynamic effects were tested on rat caudal arteries. This CMC combined LC-MS system offers a means of drug discovery by screening natural medicinal herbs for new pharmacologically active molecules targeting specific receptors.

  12. Highly sensitive capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry for rapid screening and accurate quantitation of drugs of abuse in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Isabelle; Schappler, Julie; Rudaz, Serge

    2013-05-30

    The combination of capillary electrophoresis (CE) and mass spectrometry (MS) is particularly well adapted to bioanalysis due to its high separation efficiency, selectivity, and sensitivity; its short analytical time; and its low solvent and sample consumption. For clinical and forensic toxicology, a two-step analysis is usually performed: first, a screening step for compound identification, and second, confirmation and/or accurate quantitation in cases of presumed positive results. In this study, a fast and sensitive CE-MS workflow was developed for the screening and quantitation of drugs of abuse in urine samples. A CE with a time-of-flight MS (CE-TOF/MS) screening method was developed using a simple urine dilution and on-line sample preconcentration with pH-mediated stacking. The sample stacking allowed for a high loading capacity (20.5% of the capillary length), leading to limits of detection as low as 2 ng mL(-1) for drugs of abuse. Compound quantitation of positive samples was performed by CE-MS/MS with a triple quadrupole MS equipped with an adapted triple-tube sprayer and an electrospray ionization (ESI) source. The CE-ESI-MS/MS method was validated for two model compounds, cocaine (COC) and methadone (MTD), according to the Guidance of the Food and Drug Administration. The quantitative performance was evaluated for selectivity, response function, the lower limit of quantitation, trueness, precision, and accuracy. COC and MTD detection in urine samples was determined to be accurate over the range of 10-1000 ng mL(-1) and 21-1000 ng mL(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. High-throughput untargeted screening of veterinary drug residues and metabolites in tilapia using high resolution orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wei; Chu, Xiaogang; Chang, James; Wang, Perry G; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Feng

    2017-03-08

    An analytical method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of one hundred and thirty-seven veterinary drug residues and metabolites from sixteen different classes in tilapia utilizing an improved fully non-targeted way of data acquisition with fragmentation. The automated on-line extraction procedure was achieved in a simple disposable pipet extraction. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization quadrupole Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC Q-Orbitrap) was used for the separation and detection of all the analytes. The methodology was validated by taking into consideration the guidelines specified in European SANCO/12571/2013 Guideline 2013 and Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The extraction recoveries ranged from 81% to 111%. The limits of decision ranged from 0.01 to 2.73 μg kg -1 and the detection capabilities ranged from 0.01 to 4.73 μg kg -1 . The one hundred and thirty-seven compounds behave dynamic 0.1-500 μg kg -1 , with correlation coefficient >0.99. The fully non-targeted data acquisition way improves both sensitivity and selectivity for the fragments, which is beneficial for screening performance and identification capability. This validated method has been successfully applied on screening of veterinary drug residues and metabolites in muscle of tilapia, an important and intensively produced fish in aquaculture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid evaporative ionisation mass spectrometry and chemometrics for high-throughput screening of growth promoters in meat producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitton, Yann; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Jandova, Renata; Stead, Sara; Takats, Zoltan; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2018-01-17

    In a proof of concept perspective, Rapid Evaporative Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (REIMS) was explored for the direct analysis of meat samples from β-agonist treated livestock. In this context, the combination of REIMS with untargeted metabolomics was investigated to identify carcasses from treated animals on the basis of a modification of indirect metabolites profile. The REIMS analysis generated specific lipid profiles which enabled the differentiation of meat samples collected from pigs treated with ractopamine via their feeding regime. Furthermore, the strategy was found successful when tested on different muscle types (loin, shoulder and thigh), which further expands its applicability. Classification performances were greater than 95% accurate which fully answers requirements of a screening strategy. This research indicates that REIMS implemented in an untargeted-metabolomics workflow can be considered as a high-throughput and accurate strategy for real-time meat classification in relation to ractopamine (and wider β-agonists) treatment in pig production. This approach may subsequently be implemented as a rapid screening test, at the slaughterhouse or at border inspection points, to detect such practice.

  15. Toxic Cyanobacteria in Svalbard: Chemical Diversity of Microcystins Detected Using a Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Precursor Ion Screening Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Kleinteich

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria synthesize a large variety of secondary metabolites including toxins. Microcystins (MCs with hepato- and neurotoxic potential are well studied in bloom-forming planktonic species of temperate and tropical regions. Cyanobacterial biofilms thriving in the polar regions have recently emerged as a rich source for cyanobacterial secondary metabolites including previously undescribed congeners of microcystin. However, detection and detailed identification of these compounds is difficult due to unusual sample matrices and structural congeners produced. We here report a time-efficient liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS precursor ion screening method that facilitates microcystin detection and identification. We applied this method to detect six different MC congeners in 8 out of 26 microbial mat samples of the Svalbard Archipelago in the Arctic. The congeners, of which [Asp3, ADMAdda5, Dhb7] MC-LR was most abundant, were similar to those reported in other polar habitats. Microcystins were also determined using an Adda-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Adda-ELISA. Nostoc sp. was identified as a putative toxin producer using molecular methods that targeted 16S rRNA genes and genes involved in microcystin production. The mcy genes detected showed highest similarities to other Arctic or Antarctic sequences. The LC-MS precursor ion screening method could be useful for microcystin detection in unusual matrices such as benthic biofilms or lichen.

  16. [Multi-residue method for screening of pesticides in crops by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanizawa, Haruna; Shima, Mikie; Ikehara, Chieko; Kobata, Masakazu; Sato, Motoaki

    2005-10-01

    A simple and rapid method was developed for the screening of 82 pesticides/metabolites in a wide variety of crops, using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). After extraction with methanol, the filtered extracts were made up to 100 mL and a 2 mL aliquot was subjected to solid-phase extraction. Co-extractives were removed with a C18 mini-column, while pesticides were retained on 3 kinds of mini-columns (HLB, SAX, activated carbon), and then eluted with acetonitrile. Analysis was performed by LC/MS/MS, and MS acquisition parameters were established in positive and negative ESI modes. The utility of the method was demonstrated by the analysis of 6 crops (carrot, cabbage, onion, spinach, lemon, brown rice) and one mixed vegetable juice. Of 82 compounds tested, 75 in carrot and 62 in lemon were obtained with recoveries ranging from 70-120%. For all samples tested, 75 compounds could be obtained with recoveries of over 50%, and the detection limits of most compounds were lower than 0.01 microg/g. This method provides acceptable performance for analysis of these 75 compounds. Further, by using aliquots of the extracts with small-scale mini-columns, purified samples could be obtained. This proposed method with small matrix effects, is effective and suitable for screening of multiple residual pesticides by using LC/MS/MS.

  17. A sediment extraction and cleanup method for wide-scope multitarget screening by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massei, Riccardo; Byers, Harry; Beckers, Liza-Marie; Prothmann, Jens; Brack, Werner; Schulze, Tobias; Krauss, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies on organic sediment contaminants focused mainly on a limited number of highly hydrophobic micropollutants accessible to gas chromatography using nonpolar, aprotic extraction solvents. The development of liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) permits the spectrum of analysis to be expanded to a wider range of more polar and ionic compounds present in sediments and allows target, suspect, and nontarget screening to be conducted with high sensitivity and selectivity. In this study, we propose a comprehensive multitarget extraction and sample preparation method for characterization of sediment pollution covering a broad range of physicochemical properties that is suitable for LC-HRMS screening analysis. We optimized pressurized liquid extraction, cleanup, and sample dilution for a target list of 310 compounds. Finally, the method was tested on sediment samples from a small river and its tributaries. The results show that the combination of 100 °C for ethyl acetate-acetone (50:50, neutral extract) followed by 80 °C for acetone-formic acid (100:1, acidic extract) and methanol-10 mM sodium tetraborate in water (90:10, basic extract) offered the best extraction recoveries for 287 of 310 compounds. At a spiking level of 1 μg mL -1 , we obtained satisfactory cleanup recoveries for the neutral extract-(93 ± 23)%-and for the combined acidic/basic extracts-(42 ± 16)%-after solvent exchange. Among the 69 compounds detected in environmental samples, we successfully quantified several pharmaceuticals and polar pesticides.

  18. Screening of Carotenoids in Tomato Fruits by Using Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array-Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Alessandra; Caretti, Fulvia; Ventura, Salvatore; Pérez-Fernández, Virginia; Venditti, Alessandro; Curini, Roberta

    2015-08-26

    This paper presents an analytical strategy for a large-scale screening of carotenoids in tomato fruits by exploiting the potentialities of the triple quadrupole-linear ion trap hybrid mass spectrometer (QqQLIT). The method involves separation on C30 reversed-phase column and identification by means of diode array detection (DAD) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS). The authentic standards of six model compounds were used to optimize the separative conditions and to predict the chromatographic behavior of untargeted carotenoids. An information dependent acquisition (IDA) was performed with (i) enhanced-mass scan (EMS) as the survey scan, (ii) enhanced-resolution (ER) scan to obtain the exact mass of the precursor ions (16-35 ppm), and (iii) enhanced product ion (EPI) scan as dependent scan to obtain structural information. LC-DAD-multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) chromatograms were also acquired for the identification of targeted carotenoids occurring at low concentrations; for the first time, the relative abundance between the MRM transitions (ion ratio) was used as an extra tool for the MS distinction of structural isomers and the related families of geometrical isomers. The whole analytical strategy was high-throughput, because a great number of experimental data could be acquired with few analytical steps, and cost-effective, because only few standards were used; when applied to characterize some tomato varieties ('Tangerine', 'Pachino', 'Datterino', and 'Camone') and passata of 'San Marzano' tomatoes, our method succeeded in identifying up to 44 carotenoids in the 'Tangerine'" variety.

  19. Surgical treatment of chest instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitka, M.; Masek, M.

    2015-01-01

    Fractures of the ribs is the most common thoracic injury after blunt trauma. Chest wall instability (flail chest) is a common occurrence in the presence of multiple ribs fracture. Unilateral or bilateral fractures more ribs anteriorly or posteriorly will produce enough instability that paradoxical respiratory motion results in hypoventilation of an unacceptable degree. Open approach and surgical stabilisation of the chest preserved pulmonary function, improved pain control, minimized posttraumatic deformities and shorter back to work time. (author)

  20. Planar chromatography mediated screening of tetracycline and fluoroquinolone antibiotics in milk by fluorescence and mass selective detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yisheng; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2013-10-18

    A rapid and efficient method for preliminary screening of four tetracyclines (tetracycline, chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, doxycline) and three fluoroquinolones (enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, marbofloxacin), mostly detected in milk, by high-performance thin-layer chromatography-fluorescence detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPTLC-FLD-ESI/MS) is highlighted. The optimized separation of the target antibiotics on ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid modified silica gel plates showed marked benefits for screening purposes. Besides, selective and sensitive densitometry in fluorescence mode was established with excitation at 366nm for the tetracyclines, 300nm for enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, and 280nm for marbofloxacin. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) with 95% confidence were in the range of 12-25 and 45-95μg/kg, respectively, in milk samples. Recoveries of target antibiotics from milk samples spiked at three critical levels (50, 100 and 150μg/kg) ranged from 76% to 105%. More importantly, a mass selective detection (MSD) was established as additional tool for confirmatory purposes. Using the elution-head based TLC-MS interface, the optimized elution flow consisting of acetonitrile/ammonium formate buffer (9/1, v/v) at a rate of 0.3mL/min enabled time-dependent resolution of analytes from the major interfering compounds, thus circumventing serious ion suppression effects. The established MSD assay also offered high sensitivity (25μg/kg) for confirmation, meeting Commission Regulation (EU) No. 37/2010. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. An Unusual Cause of Precordial Chest Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevket Ozkaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extraskeletal chondrosarcoma in anterior mediastinum is very rare. A 45-year-old male patient was admitted to the hospital with precordial chest pain. A large and well-shaped mass in the anterior mediastinum was seen radiologically, and there was a clearly compression of the heart by the mass. The lesion was totally resected, and extraskeletal mediastinal chondrosarcoma was histopathologically diagnosed. We aimed to present and discuss the radiologic, clinic, and histopathologic features of unusual presentation of extraskeletal chondrosarcoma in a case.

  2. Comparision between body mass index and abdominal obesity for the screening for diabetes in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gopinath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study about the usefulness of Waist-Height Ratio as a clinical marker in patients with Metabolic Syndrome. Materials and Methods: A clinic-based study of patients attending a secondary level Diabetic Clinic and correlation of their Anthropometry data like waist circumference, height to other parameters namely body mass index (BMI, Waist-Hip Ratio, Blood pressure, Glycemic Control, Lipid Profile, and Duration of Diabetes. Inclusion Criteria: Randomly selected 10 000 patients attending a secondary level diabetic clinic. Exclusion Criteria: Type 1 DM, Gestational Diabetes. Result: Waist-Height Ratio is a better parameter than Waist-Hip Ratio and it is significant in applying for people with different Stature with Normal BMI. Conclusion: Waist-Height Ratio is a better and easier tool when compared with BMI or Waist-Hip Ratio and can be used for assessment of Cardio-metabolic parameter for public health.

  3. Screening of agrochemicals in foodstuffs using low-temperature plasma (LTP) ambient ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Joshua S; García-Reyes, Juan F; Harper, Jason D; Charipar, Nicholas A; Ouyang, Zheng; Cooks, R Graham

    2010-05-01

    Low-temperature plasma (LTP) permits direct ambient ionization and mass analysis of samples in their native environment with minimal or no prior preparation. LTP utilizes dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) to create a low power plasma which is guided by gas flow onto the sample from which analytes are desorbed and ionized. In this study, the potential of LTP-MS for the detection of pesticide residues in food is demonstrated. Thirteen multi-class agricultural chemicals were studied (ametryn, amitraz, atrazine, buprofezin, DEET, diphenylamine, ethoxyquin, imazalil, isofenphos-methyl, isoproturon, malathion, parathion-ethyl and terbuthylazine). To evaluate the potential of the proposed approach, LTP-MS experiments were performed directly on fruit peels as well as on fruit/vegetable extracts. Most of the agrochemicals examined displayed remarkable sensitivity in the positive ion mode, giving limits of detection (LOD) for the direct measurement in the low picogram range. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was used to confirm identification of selected pesticides by using for these experiments spiked fruit/vegetable extracts (QuEChERS, a standard sample treatment protocol) at levels as low as 1 pg, absolute, for some of the analytes. Comparisons of the data obtained by direct LTP-MS were made with the slower but more accurate conventional LC-MS/MS procedure. Herbicides spiked in aqueous solutions were detectable at LODs as low as 0.5 microg L(-1) without the need for any sample preparation. The results demonstrate that ambient LTP-MS can be applied for the detection and confirmation of traces of agrochemicals in actual market-purchased produce and in natural water samples. Quantitative analysis was also performed in a few selected cases and displayed a relatively high degree of linearity over four orders of magnitude.

  4. Esophageal dynamics scintigraphy in noncoronarian chest pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Lemme, E.M. de.; Souto, F.J.D.; Penas, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    A group of 27 patients with noncoronarian chest pain (NCCP) was submitted to radionuclide transit as part of esophageal disorders investigation. Features were compared with radiological examinations: barium swallow (BS) and bread-barium swallow (BBS). Abnormal radionuclide transit was found in 63% of patients and incoordinating pattern was the most frequent finding. Motor disorders were detected in 18.5% and 33% of patients by BS and BBS respectively. We conclude that radionuclide transit is a sensitive method for investigation of esophageal motor disorders and we recommend it as a screening test in NCCP, since it is a simple and very well tolerated technique. (author)

  5. The place of clinical features and standard chest radiography in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and five primary mediastinal masses were seen between 1975 and 1998, at the Cardiothoracic surgical Unit of the University College Hospital Ibadan. These were studied to establish the importance of clinical features and plain chest radiography in preoperative evaluation of these masses. The sources of ...

  6. Novel heparan sulfate assay by using automated high-throughput mass spectrometry: Application to monitoring and screening for mucopolysaccharidoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Tsutomu; Kelly, Joan; LaMarr, William A; van Vlies, Naomi; Yasuda, Eriko; Mason, Robert W; Mackenzie, William; Kubaski, Francyne; Giugliani, Roberto; Chinen, Yasutsugu; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Orii, Kenji E; Fukao, Toshiyuki; Orii, Tadao; Tomatsu, Shunji

    2014-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are caused by deficiency of one of a group of specific lysosomal enzymes, resulting in excessive accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). We previously developed GAG assay methods using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS); however, it takes 4-5 min per sample for analysis. For the large numbers of samples in a screening program, a more rapid process is desirable. The automated high-throughput mass spectrometry (HT-MS/MS) system (RapidFire) integrates a solid phase extraction robot to concentrate and desalt samples prior to direction into the MS/MS without chromatographic separation; thereby allowing each sample to be processed within 10s (enabling screening of more than one million samples per year). The aim of this study was to develop a higher throughput system to assay heparan sulfate (HS) using HT-MS/MS, and to compare its reproducibility, sensitivity and specificity with conventional LC-MS/MS. HS levels were measured in the blood (plasma and serum) from control subjects and patients with MPS II, III, or IV and in dried blood spots (DBS) from newborn controls and patients with MPS I, II, or III. Results obtained from HT-MS/MS showed 1) that there was a strong correlation of levels of disaccharides derived from HS in the blood, between those calculated using conventional LC-MS/MS and HT-MS/MS, 2) that levels of HS in the blood were significantly elevated in patients with MPS II and III, but not in MPS IVA, 3) that the level of HS in patients with a severe form of MPS II was higher than that in an attenuated form, 4) that reduction of blood HS level was observed in MPS II patients treated with enzyme replacement therapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and 5) that levels of HS in newborn DBS were elevated in patients with MPS I, II or III, compared to those of control newborns. In conclusion, HT-MS/MS provides much higher throughput than LC-MS/MS-based methods with similar sensitivity and specificity

  7. Computer-aided detection of masses in full-field digital mammography using screen-film mammograms for training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallenberg, Michiel; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2008-01-01

    It would be of great value when available databases of screen-film mammography (SFM) images can be used to train full-field digital mammography (FFDM) computer-aided detection (CAD) systems, as compilation of new databases is costly. In this paper, we investigate this possibility. Firstly, we develop a method that converts an FFDM image into an SFM-like representation. In this conversion method, we establish a relation between exposure and optical density by simulation of an automatic exposure control unit. Secondly, we investigate the effects of using the SFM images as training samples compared to training with FFDM images. Our FFDM database consisted of 266 cases, of which 102 were biopsy-proven malignant masses and 164 normals. The images were acquired with systems of two different manufacturers. We found that, when we trained our FFDM CAD system with a small number of images, training with FFDM images, using a five-fold crossvalidation procedure, outperformed training with SFM images. However, when the full SFM database, consisting of 348 abnormal cases (including 204 priors) and 810 normal cases, was used for training, SFM training outperformed FFDMA training. These results show that an existing CAD system for detection of masses in SFM can be used for FFDM images without retraining.

  8. ACR appropriateness criteria blunt chest trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jonathan H; Cox, Christian W; Mohammed, Tan-Lucien H; Kirsch, Jacobo; Brown, Kathleen; Dyer, Debra Sue; Ginsburg, Mark E; Heitkamp, Darel E; Kanne, Jeffrey P; Kazerooni, Ella A; Ketai, Loren H; Ravenel, James G; Saleh, Anthony G; Shah, Rakesh D; Steiner, Robert M; Suh, Robert D

    2014-04-01

    Imaging is paramount in the setting of blunt trauma and is now the standard of care at any trauma center. Although anteroposterior radiography has inherent limitations, the ability to acquire a radiograph in the trauma bay with little interruption in clinical survey, monitoring, and treatment, as well as radiography's accepted role in screening for traumatic aortic injury, supports the routine use of chest radiography. Chest CT or CT angiography is the gold-standard routine imaging modality for detecting thoracic injuries caused by blunt trauma. There is disagreement on whether routine chest CT is necessary in all patients with histories of blunt trauma. Ultimately, the frequency and timing of CT chest imaging should be site specific and should depend on the local resources of the trauma center as well as patient status. Ultrasound may be beneficial in the detection of pneumothorax, hemothorax, and pericardial hemorrhage; transesophageal echocardiography is a first-line imaging tool in the setting of suspected cardiac injury. In the blunt trauma setting, MRI and nuclear medicine likely play no role in the acute setting, although these modalities may be helpful as problem-solving tools after initial assessment. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Chest X ray effective doses estimation in computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, Esra Abdalrhman Dfaalla

    2013-06-01

    Conventional chest radiography is technically difficult because of wide in tissue attenuations in the chest and limitations of screen-film systems. Computed radiography (CR) offers a different approach utilizing a photostimulable phosphor. photostimulable phosphors overcome some image quality limitations of chest imaging. The objective of this study was to estimate the effective dose in computed radiography at three hospitals in Khartoum. This study has been conducted in radiography departments in three centres Advanced Diagnostic Center, Nilain Diagnostic Center, Modern Diagnostic Center. The entrance surface dose (ESD) measurement was conducted for quality control of x-ray machines and survey of operators experimental techniques. The ESDs were measured by UNFORS dosimeter and mathematical equations to estimate patient doses during chest X rays. A total of 120 patients were examined in three centres, among them 62 were males and 58 were females. The overall mean and range of patient dosed was 0.073±0.037 (0.014-0.16) mGy per procedure while the effective dose was 3.4±01.7 (0.6-7.0) mSv per procedure. This study compared radiation doses to patients radiographic examinations of chest using computed radiology. The radiation dose was measured in three centres in Khartoum- Sudan. The results of the measured effective dose showed that the dose in chest radiography was lower in computed radiography compared to previous studies.(Author)

  10. Chest tube insertion - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest tubes are inserted to drain blood, fluid, or air and allow full expansion of the lungs. The tube is placed in the pleural space. The area where the tube will be inserted is numbed (local anesthesia). The patient may also be sedated. The chest ...

  11. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site ...

  12. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site ...

  13. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... x-ray contrast material, drugs, food, or the environment, or if you have asthma. The contrast material ... are also screened for safety in the magnetic environment. Children will be given appropriately sized earplugs or ...

  14. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic ...

  15. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index ...

  16. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index ...

  17. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scanner. top of page How does the procedure work? Unlike conventional x-ray examinations and computed tomography ( ... or parent to stay in the room as long as they are also screened for safety in ...

  18. Hybrid quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis with accurate-mass database and parallel reaction monitoring for high-throughput screening and quantification of multi-xenobiotics in honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Zhang, Jinzhen; Jin, Yue; Wang, Lin; Zhao, Wen; Zhang, Wenwen; Zhai, Lifei; Zhang, Yaping; Zhang, Yongxin; Zhou, Jinhui

    2016-01-15

    This study reports a rapid, automated screening and quantification method for the determination of multi-xenobiotic residues in honey using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap) with a user-built accurate-mass database plus parallel reaction monitoring (PRM). The database contains multi-xenobiotic information including formulas, adduct types, theoretical exact mass and retention time, characteristic fragment ions, ion ratios, and mass accuracies. A simple sample preparation method was developed to reduce xenobiotic loss in the honey samples. The screening method was validated based on retention time deviation, mass accuracy via full scan-data-dependent MS/MS (full scan-ddMS2), multi-isotope ratio, characteristic ion ratio, sensitivity, and positive/negative switching performance between the spiked sample and corresponding standard solution. The quantification method based on the PRM mode is a promising new quantitative tool which we validated in terms of selectivity, linearity, recovery (accuracy), repeatability (precision), decision limit (CCα), detection capability (CCβ), matrix effects, and carry-over. The optimized methods proposed in this study enable the automated screening and quantification of 157 compounds in less than 15 min in honey. The results of this study, as they represent a convenient protocol for large-scale screening and quantification, also provide a research approach for analysis of various contaminants in other matrices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Imaging of blunt chest trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosch, H.; Negrin, L.

    2014-01-01

    Blunt chest trauma is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Consequently, all patients should be evaluated radiologically after blunt chest trauma to allow timely and appropriate treatment. Conventional chest radiographs and computed tomography (CT) are proven modalities with which to evaluate patients after blunt chest trauma. Over the last several years extended focused assessment with sonography for trauma (eFAST) has gained increasing importance for the initial assessment of seriously injured patients. In the acute phase of severely injured patients eFAST examinations are helpful to exclude pneumothorax, hemothorax and hemopericardium. Chest radiographs may also be used to diagnose a pneumothorax or hemothorax; however, the sensitivity is limited and CT is the diagnostic modality of choice to evaluate severely injured patients. (orig.) [de

  20. High-Throughput Screening and Quantitation of Target Compounds in Biofluids by Coated Blade Spray-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tascon, Marcos; Gómez-Ríos, Germán Augusto; Reyes-Garcés, Nathaly; Poole, Justen; Boyacı, Ezel; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2017-08-15

    Most contemporary methods of screening and quantitating controlled substances and therapeutic drugs in biofluids typically require laborious, time-consuming, and expensive analytical workflows. In recent years, our group has worked toward developing microextraction (μe)-mass spectrometry (MS) technologies that merge all of the tedious steps of the classical methods into a simple, efficient, and low-cost methodology. Unquestionably, the automation of these technologies allows for faster sample throughput, greater reproducibility, and radically reduced analysis times. Coated blade spray (CBS) is a μe technology engineered for extracting/enriching analytes of interest in complex matrices, and it can be directly coupled with MS instruments to achieve efficient screening and quantitative analysis. In this study, we introduced CBS as a technology that can be arranged to perform either rapid diagnostics (single vial) or the high-throughput (96-well plate) analysis of biofluids. Furthermore, we demonstrate that performing 96-CBS extractions at the same time allows the total analysis time to be reduced to less than 55 s per sample. Aiming to validate the versatility of CBS, substances comprising a broad range of molecular weights, moieties, protein binding, and polarities were selected. Thus, the high-throughput (HT)-CBS technology was used for the concomitant quantitation of 18 compounds (mixture of anabolics, β-2 agonists, diuretics, stimulants, narcotics, and β-blockers) spiked in human urine and plasma samples. Excellent precision (∼2.5%), accuracy (≥90%), and linearity (R 2 ≥ 0.99) were attained for all the studied compounds, and the limits of quantitation (LOQs) were within the range of 0.1 to 10 ng·mL -1 for plasma and 0.25 to 10 ng·mL -1 for urine. The results reported in this paper confirm CBS's great potential for achieving subsixty-second analyses of target compounds in a broad range of fields such as those related to clinical diagnosis, food, the

  1. Rapid screening of mixed edible oils and gutter oils by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Tsz-Tsun; So, Pui-Kin; Zheng, Bo [Food Safety and Technology Research Centre, State Key Laboratory of Chirosciences and Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Food Biological Safety Control and State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology (Incubation), Shenzhen Research Institute of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Shenzhen (China); Yao, Zhong-Ping, E-mail: zhongping.yao@polyu.edu.hk [Food Safety and Technology Research Centre, State Key Laboratory of Chirosciences and Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Food Biological Safety Control and State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology (Incubation), Shenzhen Research Institute of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Shenzhen (China)

    2015-07-16

    Highlights: • Simplified sample preparation method for direct analysis of edible oils by MALDI-MS. • Establishment of a preliminary MALDI-MS spectral database of edible oils. • Rapid screening of mixed edible oils and gutter oils. - Abstract: Authentication of edible oils is a long-term issue in food safety, and becomes particularly important with the emergence and wide spread of gutter oils in recent years. Due to the very high analytical demand and diversity of gutter oils, a high throughput analytical method and a versatile strategy for authentication of mixed edible oils and gutter oils are highly desirable. In this study, an improved matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) method has been developed for direct analysis of edible oils. This method involved on-target sample loading, automatic data acquisition and simple data processing. MALDI-MS spectra with high quality and high reproducibility have been obtained using this method, and a preliminary spectral database of edible oils has been set up. The authenticity of an edible oil sample can be determined by comparing its MALDI-MS spectrum and principal component analysis (PCA) results with those of its labeled oil in the database. This method is simple and the whole process only takes several minutes for analysis of one oil sample. We demonstrated that the method was sensitive to change in oil compositions and can be used for measuring compositions of mixed oils. The capability of the method for determining mislabeling enables it for rapid screening of gutter oils since fraudulent mislabeling is a common feature of gutter oils.

  2. Rapid screening of mixed edible oils and gutter oils by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Tsz-Tsun; So, Pui-Kin; Zheng, Bo; Yao, Zhong-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Simplified sample preparation method for direct analysis of edible oils by MALDI-MS. • Establishment of a preliminary MALDI-MS spectral database of edible oils. • Rapid screening of mixed edible oils and gutter oils. - Abstract: Authentication of edible oils is a long-term issue in food safety, and becomes particularly important with the emergence and wide spread of gutter oils in recent years. Due to the very high analytical demand and diversity of gutter oils, a high throughput analytical method and a versatile strategy for authentication of mixed edible oils and gutter oils are highly desirable. In this study, an improved matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) method has been developed for direct analysis of edible oils. This method involved on-target sample loading, automatic data acquisition and simple data processing. MALDI-MS spectra with high quality and high reproducibility have been obtained using this method, and a preliminary spectral database of edible oils has been set up. The authenticity of an edible oil sample can be determined by comparing its MALDI-MS spectrum and principal component analysis (PCA) results with those of its labeled oil in the database. This method is simple and the whole process only takes several minutes for analysis of one oil sample. We demonstrated that the method was sensitive to change in oil compositions and can be used for measuring compositions of mixed oils. The capability of the method for determining mislabeling enables it for rapid screening of gutter oils since fraudulent mislabeling is a common feature of gutter oils

  3. Implementation of a rapid chest pain protocol in the emergency department: A quality improvement project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Azalea Marie; Leasure, A Renee; Carithers, Cathrin; Burnette, Robert E; Berryman, Michael Scott

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this quality improvement (QI) project is to compare the effectiveness of a rapid 90-min chest pain screening and evaluation protocol to a 120-min screening and evaluation protocol in determining patient readiness for hospital admission or discharge home. The existing chest pain protocol utilized in the emergency department (ED) was revised based on a review of current research changing initial screening and reevaluation times from 120 to 90 min. A prospective comparative study of patients presenting to the ED with chest pain was performed comparing the existing chest pain protocol of 120 min (standard care) with a rapid screening evaluation protocol of 90 min. A total of 128 patients presenting to an ED in Texas with chest pain comprised the sample for this study. There was a significant difference in the number of minutes between the groups for readiness for disposition. The average time from chest pain evaluation to readiness for disposition home, observation, or admission decreased from an average of 191 min in the standard care group to an average of 118 min in the rapid screening group. Use of the rapid screening and evaluation protocol decreased the time to disposition by an average of 73 min, which enhanced ED flow without influencing disposition and patient safety. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  4. Rapid screening of N-oxides of chemical warfare agents degradation products by ESI-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, L; Karthikraj, R; Lakshmi, V V S; Raju, N Prasada; Prabhakar, S

    2014-08-01

    Rapid detection and identification of chemical warfare agents and related precursors/degradation products in various environmental matrices is of paramount importance for verification of standards set by the chemical weapons convention (CWC). Nitrogen mustards, N,N-dialkylaminoethyl-2-chlorides, N,N-dialkylaminoethanols, N-alkyldiethanolamines, and triethanolamine, which are listed CWC scheduled chemicals, are prone to undergo N-oxidation in environmental matrices or during decontamination process. Thus, screening of the oxidized products of these compounds is also an important task in the verification process because the presence of these products reveals alleged use of nitrogen mustards or precursors of VX compounds. The N-oxides of aminoethanols and aminoethylchlorides easily produce [M + H](+) ions under electrospray ionization conditions, and their collision-induced dissociation spectra include a specific neutral loss of 48 u (OH + CH2OH) and 66 u (OH + CH2Cl), respectively. Based on this specific fragmentation, a rapid screening method was developed for screening of the N-oxides by applying neutral loss scan technique. The method was validated and the applicability of the method was demonstrated by analyzing positive and negative samples. The method was useful in the detection of N-oxides of aminoethanols and aminoethylchlorides in environmental matrices at trace levels (LOD, up to 500 ppb), even in the presence of complex masking agents, without the use of time-consuming sample preparation methods and chromatographic steps. This method is advantageous for the off-site verification program and also for participation in official proficiency tests conducted by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), the Netherlands. The structure of N-oxides can be confirmed by the MS/MS experiments on the detected peaks. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was developed for the separation of isomeric N-oxides of aminoethanols and

  5. Occult pneumomediastinum in blunt chest trauma: clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende-Neto, J B; Hoffmann, J; Al Mahroos, M; Tien, H; Hsee, L C; Spencer Netto, F; Speers, V; Rizoli, S B

    2010-01-01

    Thoracic injuries are potentially responsible for 25% of all trauma deaths. Chest X-ray is commonly used to screen patients with chest injury. However, the use of computed tomography (CT) scan for primary screening is increasing, particularly for blunt trauma. CT scans are more sensitive than chest X-ray in detecting intra-thoracic abnormalities such as pneumothoraces and pneumomediastinums. Pneumomediastinum detected by chest X-ray or "overt pneumomediastinum", raises the concern of possible aerodigestive tract injuries. In contrast, there is scarce information on the clinical significance of pneumomediastinum diagnosed by CT scan only or "occult pneumomediastinum". Therefore we investigated the clinical consequences of occult pneumomediastinum in our blunt trauma population. A 2-year retrospective chart review of all blunt chest trauma patients with initial chest CT scan admitted to a level I trauma centre. Data extracted from the medical records include; demographics, occult, overt, or no pneumomediastinum, the presence of intra-thoracic aerodigestive tract injuries (trachea, bronchus, and/or esophagus), mechanism and severity of injury, endotracheal intubation, chest thoracostomy, operations and radiological reports by an attending radiologist. All patients with intra-thoracic aerodigestive tract injuries from 1994 to 2004 were also investigated. Of 897 patients who met the inclusion criteria 839 (93.5%) had no pneumomediastinum. Five patients (0.6%) had overt pneumomediastinum and 53 patients (5.9%) had occult pneumomediastinum. Patients with occult pneumomediastinum had significantly higher ISS and AIS chest (pchest thoracostomy tube was more common (ppneumothorax. None of the patients with occult pneumomediastinum had aerodigestive tract injuries (95%CI 0-0.06). Follow up CT scan of patients with occult pneumomediastinum showed complete resolution in all cases, in average 3 h after the initial exam. Occult pneumomediastinum occurred in approximately 6% of

  6. Development of a broad toxicological screening technique for urine using ultra-performance liquid chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Hon Kit; Ho, Chung Shun; Iu, Yan Ping Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Withdrawal of the support for the REMEDi HS drug profiling system has necessitated its replacement within our laboratories with an alternative broad toxicological screening technique. To this end, a novel method, based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and time-of-flight (TOF) mass...

  7. A Comprehensive Review of School-Based Body Mass Index Screening Programs and Their Implications for School Health: Do the Controversies Accurately Reflect the Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Dominique G.; Bass, Sarah B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Whereas legislation for body mass index (BMI) surveillance and screening programs has passed in 25 states, the programs are often subject to ethical debates about confidentiality and privacy, school-to-parent communication, and safety and self-esteem issues for students. Despite this debate, no comprehensive analysis has been completed…

  8. Influence of natural organic matter on the screening of pharmaceuticals in water by using liquid chromatography with full scan mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrera Rivera, Z.E.; Oosterink, J.E.; Rietveld, L.; Schoutsen, F.; Stolker, A.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of natural organic matter on the screening of pharmaceuticals in water was determined by using high resolution liquid chromatography (HRLC) combined with full scan mass spectrometry (MS) techniques like time of flight (ToF) or Orbitrap MS. Water samples containing different amount of

  9. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of very long chain fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid, phytanic acid and plasmalogen for the screening of peroxisomal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takemoto, Yasuhiko; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Horibe, Ryoko; Shimozawa, Nobuyuki; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Kondo, Naomi

    2003-01-01

    Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), phytanic acid, and plasmalogens are usually measured individually. A novel method for the screening of peroxisomal disorders, using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), was developed. Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids,

  10. High-throughput tandem mass spectrometry multiplex analysis for newborn urinary screening of creatine synthesis and transport disorders, Triple H syndrome and OTC deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auray-Blais, Christiane; Maranda, Bruno; Lavoie, Pamela

    2014-09-25

    Creatine synthesis and transport disorders, Triple H syndrome and ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency are treatable inborn errors of metabolism. Early screening of patients was found to be beneficial. Mass spectrometry analysis of specific urinary biomarkers might lead to early detection and treatment in the neonatal period. We developed a high-throughput mass spectrometry methodology applicable to newborn screening using dried urine on filter paper for these aforementioned diseases. A high-throughput methodology was devised for the simultaneous analysis of creatine, guanidineacetic acid, orotic acid, uracil, creatinine and respective internal standards, using both positive and negative electrospray ionization modes, depending on the compound. The precision and accuracy varied by screening for inherited disorders by biochemical laboratories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Intra-abdominal fat area measurement using chest CT data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, Hiroshi; Midorikawa, Shigeo; Hashimoto, Kouji; Ishii, Akira; Saitou, Kumi; Andou, Tomonori; Kitamura, Naoko; Sakuma, Koutarou

    2007-01-01

    Intra-abdominal fat obesity, which is linked with the metabolic syndrome, is usually characterized by measuring intra-abdominal fat area at the umbilical level of abdominal CT scan. In recent year, the chances of chest CT scanning are increased, as lung cancer screening survey or individual medical examination. Thus, we presented a method of measuring the areas of intra-abdominal fat and subcutaneous fat at the lower slice of chest CT scan. Fat areas found with this method were significantly correlated with those obtained at the umbilical level. (author)

  12. Evaluation of radiation doses delivered in different chest CT protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorycki, Tomasz; Lasek, Iwona; Kamiński, Kamil; Studniarek, Michał

    2014-01-01

    reduction which would permit replacing chest X-ray with low dose CT in certain research screening projects should be encouraged

  13. Endobronchial Tuberculosis and Chest Radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Sasani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Endobronchial tuberculosis and chest radiography I read, with interest, the article entitled “Clinical and Para-clinical Presentations of Endobronchial Tuberculosis” by Ahmadi Hoseini H. S. et al. (1 published in this journal. I would like to focus on some details about the chest X-ray of patients as elaborated by the authors in the results section. Accordingly, the findings of chest radiography in the available patients were as follows: pulmonary consolidation (75%, reduced pulmonary volume (20%, and hilar adenopathy (10%. This is an incomplete statement because the authors did not explain whether there was any normal chest radiography in the study population. In addition, it is not clear whether the X-ray examinations of the patients were normal, how many abnormal plain films yielded the presented data. On the other hand, the fact that the studied patients had no normal chest radiography is  controversial since in the literature, 10-20% of the patients with endobronchial tuberculosis are reported to have normal chest X-ray (2, 3. In fact, this is one of the problems in the diagnosis of the disease, as well as a potential cause of delayed diagnosis and treatment of the patients. Therefore, the absence of normal chest radiographs is in contrast to the available literature, and if not an error, it could be a subject of further investigation.

  14. Rapid Screening and Characterization of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors from Yinhuang Oral Liquid Using Ultrafiltration-liquid Chromatography-electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haomin; Guo, Yinan; Meng, Lingwen; Sun, Hui; Yang, Yinping; Gao, Ying; Sun, Jiaming

    2018-01-01

    At present, approximately 17-25 million people in the world suffer from Alzheimer's disease (AD). The most efficacious and acceptable therapeutic drug clinically are the acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs). Yinhuang oral liquid is a Chinese medicine preparation which contains AChEIs according to the literatures. However, no strategy has been presented for rapid screening and identification of AChEIs from Yinhuang oral liquid. To develop a method for rapid screening and identification of AChEIs from Yinhuang oral liquid using ultrafiltration-liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UF-LC-ESI-MS/MS). In this study, UF incubation conditions such as enzyme concentration, incubation time, and incubation temperature were optimized so as to get better screening results. The AChEIs from Yinhuang oral liquid were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-ESI-MS and the improved Ellman method was used for the AChE inhibitory activity test in vitro . The results showed that Yinhuang oral liquid can inhibit the activity of AChE. We screened and identified seven compounds with potential AChE inhibitory activity from Yinhuang oral liquid, which provided experimental basis for the treatment and prevention of AD. The current technique was used to directly screen the active ingredients with acetylcholinesterase inhibition from complex traditional Chinese medicine, which was simple, rapid, accurate, and suitable for high-throughput screening of AChEI from complex systems. A UF-LC-ESI-MS/MS method for rapid screening and identification of AChEIs from Yinhuang oral liquid was developedSeven compounds were screened and identified with potential AChE inhibitory activity from Yinhuang oral liquidIt provided experimental basis of Yinhuang oral liquid for the treating and preventing AD. Abbreviations used: (AD): Alzheimer's disease; (UF-LC-ESI-MS/MS): ultrafiltration-liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry; (ACh

  15. Rapid Screening and Characterization of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors from Yinhuang Oral Liquid Using Ultrafiltration-liquid Chromatography-electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haomin; Guo, Yinan; Meng, Lingwen; Sun, Hui; Yang, Yinping; Gao, Ying; Sun, Jiaming

    2018-01-01

    Background: At present, approximately 17–25 million people in the world suffer from Alzheimer's disease (AD). The most efficacious and acceptable therapeutic drug clinically are the acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs). Yinhuang oral liquid is a Chinese medicine preparation which contains AChEIs according to the literatures. However, no strategy has been presented for rapid screening and identification of AChEIs from Yinhuang oral liquid. Objective: To develop a method for rapid screening and identification of AChEIs from Yinhuang oral liquid using ultrafiltration–liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UF-LC-ESI-MS/MS). Materials and Methods: In this study, UF incubation conditions such as enzyme concentration, incubation time, and incubation temperature were optimized so as to get better screening results. The AChEIs from Yinhuang oral liquid were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-ESI-MS and the improved Ellman method was used for the AChE inhibitory activity test in vitro. Results: The results showed that Yinhuang oral liquid can inhibit the activity of AChE. We screened and identified seven compounds with potential AChE inhibitory activity from Yinhuang oral liquid, which provided experimental basis for the treatment and prevention of AD. Conclusion: The current technique was used to directly screen the active ingredients with acetylcholinesterase inhibition from complex traditional Chinese medicine, which was simple, rapid, accurate, and suitable for high-throughput screening of AChEI from complex systems. SUMMARY A UF-LC-ESI-MS/MS method for rapid screening and identification of AChEIs from Yinhuang oral liquid was developedSeven compounds were screened and identified with potential AChE inhibitory activity from Yinhuang oral liquidIt provided experimental basis of Yinhuang oral liquid for the treating and preventing AD. Abbreviations used: (AD): Alzheimer's disease; (UF

  16. Mass spectrometry-based phytochemical screening for hypoglycemic activity of Fagioli di Sarconi beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, Raffaella; Bianco, Giuliana; Cataldi, Tommaso R I; Kopplin, Philippe-Schmitt; Bosco, Federica; Vignola, Lisiana; Uhl, Jenny; Lucio, Marianna; Milella, Luigi

    2018-03-01

    The present study deals with the evaluation of antidiabetic activities of Fagioli di Sarconi beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), including 21 ecotypes protected by the European Union with the mark PGI (i.e., Protected Geographical Indication), and cultivated in Basilicata (southern Italy). For this purpose, α-glucosidase and α-amylase assays were assessed; among all bean ecotypes, the tight green seed colour of Verdolino extracts exhibited the highest α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activity with IC 50 =1.1±0.1μg/ml and IC 50 =19.3±1.1μg/ml, respectively. Phytochemical compound screening of all Fagioli di Sarconi beans performed by flow injection-electrospray ionization-ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (uHRMS) and based on the calculation of elemental formulas from accurate m/z values, was helpful to annotate specific compounds, such as alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, and terpenoids, which are most likely responsible for their biological activity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Analytical Validation of a Portable Mass Spectrometer Featuring Interchangeable, Ambient Ionization Sources for High Throughput Forensic Evidence Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Zachary E; Traub, Angelica; Fatigante, William L; Mancias, Jose; O'Leary, Adam E; Hall, Seth E; Wieland, Jamie R; Oberacher, Herbert; Gizzi, Michael C; Mulligan, Christopher C

    2017-06-01

    Forensic evidentiary backlogs are indicative of the growing need for cost-effective, high-throughput instrumental methods. One such emerging technology that shows high promise in meeting this demand while also allowing on-site forensic investigation is portable mass spectrometric (MS) instrumentation, particularly that which enables the coupling to ambient ionization techniques. While the benefits of rapid, on-site screening of contraband can be anticipated, the inherent legal implications of field-collected data necessitates that the analytical performance of technology employed be commensurate with accepted techniques. To this end, comprehensive analytical validation studies are required before broad incorporation by forensic practitioners can be considered, and are the focus of this work. Pertinent performance characteristics such as throughput, selectivity, accuracy/precision, method robustness, and ruggedness have been investigated. Reliability in the form of false positive/negative response rates is also assessed, examining the effect of variables such as user training and experience level. To provide flexibility toward broad chemical evidence analysis, a suite of rapidly-interchangeable ion sources has been developed and characterized through the analysis of common illicit chemicals and emerging threats like substituted phenethylamines. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  18. High throughput nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry screening of microbial growth conditions for maximal β-glucosidase production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoliang; Hiras, Jennifer; Deng, Kai; Bowen, Benjamin; Simmons, Blake A; Adams, Paul D; Singer, Steven W; Northen, Trent R

    2013-01-01

    Production of biofuels via enzymatic hydrolysis of complex plant polysaccharides is a subject of intense global interest. Microbial communities are known to express a wide range of enzymes necessary for the saccharification of lignocellulosic feedstocks and serve as a powerful reservoir for enzyme discovery. However, the growth temperature and conditions that yield high cellulase activity vary widely, and the throughput to identify optimal conditions has been limited by the slow handling and conventional analysis. A rapid method that uses small volumes of isolate culture to resolve specific enzyme activity is needed. In this work, a high throughput nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS)-based approach was developed for screening a thermophilic cellulolytic actinomycete, Thermobispora bispora, for β-glucosidase production under various growth conditions. Media that produced high β-glucosidase activity were found to be I/S + glucose or microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), Medium 84 + rolled oats, and M9TE + MCC at 45°C. Supernatants of cell cultures grown in M9TE + 1% MCC cleaved 2.5 times more substrate at 45°C than at all other temperatures. While T. bispora is reported to grow optimally at 60°C in Medium 84 + rolled oats and M9TE + 1% MCC, approximately 40% more conversion was observed at 45°C. This high throughput NIMS approach may provide an important tool in discovery and characterization of enzymes from environmental microbes for industrial and biofuel applications.

  19. Rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry for high-throughput screening in food analysis: The case of boar taint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanken, Kaat; Stead, Sara; Jandova, Renata; Poucke, Christof Van; Claereboudt, Jan; Bussche, Julie Vanden; Saeger, Sarah De; Takats, Zoltan; Wauters, Jella; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2017-07-01

    Boar taint is a contemporary off-odor present in meat of uncastrated male pigs. As European Member States intend to abandon surgical castration of pigs by 2018, this off-odor has gained a lot of research interest. In this study, rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry (REIMS) was explored for the rapid detection of boar taint in neck fat. Untargeted screening of samples (n=150) enabled discrimination between sow, tainted and untainted boars. The obtained OPLS-DA models showed excellent classification accuracy, i.e. 99% and 100% for sow and boar samples or solely boar samples, respectively. Furthermore, the obtained models demonstrated excellent validation characteristics (R 2 (Y)=0.872-0.969; Q 2 (Y)=0.756-0.917), which were confirmed by CV-ANOVA (phighly accurate and high-throughput (<10s) classification of tainted and untainted boar samples was achieved, rendering REIMS a promising technique for predictive modelling in food safety and quality applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Reference values of amino acids, acylcarnitines and succinylacetone by tandem mass spectrometry for use in newborn screening in southwest Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céspedes, Nora; Valencia, Angela; Echeverry, Carlos Alberto; Arce-Plata, Maria Isabel; Colón, Cristóbal; Castiñeiras, Daisy E; Hurtado, Paula Margarita; Cocho, Jose Angel; Herrera, Sócrates; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam

    2017-09-30

    Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) represent an important public health problem due to current diagnosis and treatment limitations, poor life quality of affected patients, and consequent untimely child death. In contrast to classical methods, tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has allowed simultaneous evaluation of multiple metabolites associated with IEM offering higher sensitivity, low false positive rates and high throughput. Determine concentration levels for amino acids and acylcarnitines in blood of newborns from Colombia, to establish reference values for further use in diagnosis of IEM. Implementation of a method to determine amino acids, acylcarnitines and succinylacetone in newborn dried blood spots using MS/MS, and its application in a cross-sectional study conducted in 891 healthy neonates from Cali and Quibdo cities is described. fifty-seven analytes that allow the diagnosis of more than 40 different pathologies were tested. The method showed to be linear, precise and accurate. Healthy neonates 1-18 days of age were included, 523 from Cali and 368 from Quibdo; 52% male and 48% female. Age-related differences on the concentration levels of amino acids and acylcarnitines were observed whereas no significant differences by gender were found. The study has contributed to reveal the usual concentration levels of amino acids, acylcarnitines and succinylacetone that could be used as reference for the establishment of a newborn metabolic screening program in Colombia.

  1. MR imaging of bone marrow metastasis in patients with neuroblastoma. Comparison between mass-screened cases and clinically detected cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanegawa, Kimio; Akasaka, Yoshinori; Kawasaki, Ryuta; Nishiyama, Shoji; Mabuchi, Osamu; Muraji, Toshihiro

    1999-01-01

    Seventy-six patients with neuroblastoma who underwent bone marrow MRI were divided into two groups: the first group consisted of patients detected by mass screening (M group, n=55), and the second group of patients detected clinically (non-M group, n=21). Bone marrow metastasis was morphologically classified into two types, nodular type and diffuse type. We studied the incidence of bone marrow metastasis, relationship between the patterns of bone marrow metastasis and the presence of bone metastasis, and morphological changes of bone marrow metastasis after chemotherapy. In M group, the incidence of bone marrow metastasis was 7.3% (4 patients) and the patterns of bone marrow metastases were all nodular type not accompanied with bone metastasis and disappeared after chemotherapy. In non-M group, the incidence of bone marrow metastasis was 52.4% (11 patients). Bone marrow metastases had both patterns of metastasis. Forty-five per cent of diffuse type of bone marrow metastasis were accompanied with bone metastasis. All bone marrow metastases disappeared after chemotherapy, but in one of 11, there was recurrence of bone marrow metastasis. (author)

  2. Direct Growth of Bacteria in Headspace Vials Allows for Screening of Volatiles by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Collin M; Lloyd, Evan P; Egan, Amanda; Mariner, Ray; Karig, David

    2018-01-01

    Bacterially produced volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can modify growth patterns of eukaryotic hosts and competing/cohabiting microbes. These compounds have been implicated in skin disorders and attraction of biting pests. Current methods to detect and characterize VOCs from microbial cultures can be laborious and low-throughput, making it difficult to understand the behavior of microbial populations. In this work we present an efficient method employing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with autosampling to characterize VOC profiles from solid-phase bacterial cultures. We compare this method to complementary plate-based assays and measure the effects of growth media and incubation temperature on the VOC profiles from a well-studied Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 system. We observe that P. aeruginosa produces longer chain VOCs, such as 2-undecanone and 2-undecanol in higher amounts at 37°C than 30°C. We demonstrate the throughput of this method by studying VOC profiles from a representative collection of skin bacterial isolates under three parallel growth conditions. We observe differential production of various aldehydes and ketones depending on bacterial strain. This generalizable method will support screening of bacterial populations in a variety of research areas.

  3. Direct Growth of Bacteria in Headspace Vials Allows for Screening of Volatiles by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin M. Timm

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterially produced volatile organic compounds (VOCs can modify growth patterns of eukaryotic hosts and competing/cohabiting microbes. These compounds have been implicated in skin disorders and attraction of biting pests. Current methods to detect and characterize VOCs from microbial cultures can be laborious and low-throughput, making it difficult to understand the behavior of microbial populations. In this work we present an efficient method employing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with autosampling to characterize VOC profiles from solid-phase bacterial cultures. We compare this method to complementary plate-based assays and measure the effects of growth media and incubation temperature on the VOC profiles from a well-studied Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 system. We observe that P. aeruginosa produces longer chain VOCs, such as 2-undecanone and 2-undecanol in higher amounts at 37°C than 30°C. We demonstrate the throughput of this method by studying VOC profiles from a representative collection of skin bacterial isolates under three parallel growth conditions. We observe differential production of various aldehydes and ketones depending on bacterial strain. This generalizable method will support screening of bacterial populations in a variety of research areas.

  4. Simultaneous screening and confirmation of multiple classes of drug residues in fish by liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shani; Gieseker, Charles; Reimschuessel, Renate; Decker, Christie-Sue; Carson, Mary C

    2009-11-13

    LC-ion trap mass spectrometry was used to screen and confirm 38 compounds from a variety of drug classes in four species of fish: trout, salmon, catfish, and tilapia. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile and hexane. The acetonitrile phase was evaporated, redissolved in water and acetonitrile, and analyzed by gradient chromatography on a phenyl column. MS(2) or MS(3) spectra were monitored for each compound. Qualitative method performance was evaluated by the analysis over several days of replicate samples of control fish, fish fortified with a drug mixture at 1 ppm, 0.1 ppm and 0.01 ppm, and fish dosed with a representative from each drug class. Half of the 38 drugs were confirmed at 0.01 ppm, the lowest fortification level. This included all of the quinolones and fluoroquinolones, the macrolides, malachite green, and most of the imidazoles. Florfenicol amine, metronidazole, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, and most of the betalactams were confirmed at 0.1 ppm. Ivermectin and penicillin G were only detectable in the 1 ppm fortified samples. With the exception of amoxicillin, emamectin, metronidazole, and tylosin, residue presence was confirmed in all the dosed fish.

  5. Analytical Validation of a Portable Mass Spectrometer Featuring Interchangeable, Ambient Ionization Sources for High Throughput Forensic Evidence Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Zachary E.; Traub, Angelica; Fatigante, William L.; Mancias, Jose; O'Leary, Adam E.; Hall, Seth E.; Wieland, Jamie R.; Oberacher, Herbert; Gizzi, Michael C.; Mulligan, Christopher C.

    2017-06-01

    Forensic evidentiary backlogs are indicative of the growing need for cost-effective, high-throughput instrumental methods. One such emerging technology that shows high promise in meeting this demand while also allowing on-site forensic investigation is portable mass spectrometric (MS) instrumentation, particularly that which enables the coupling to ambient ionization techniques. While the benefits of rapid, on-site screening of contraband can be anticipated, the inherent legal implications of field-collected data necessitates that the analytical performance of technology employed be commensurate with accepted techniques. To this end, comprehensive analytical validation studies are required before broad incorporation by forensic practitioners can be considered, and are the focus of this work. Pertinent performance characteristics such as throughput, selectivity, accuracy/precision, method robustness, and ruggedness have been investigated. Reliability in the form of false positive/negative response rates is also assessed, examining the effect of variables such as user training and experience level. To provide flexibility toward broad chemical evidence analysis, a suite of rapidly-interchangeable ion sources has been developed and characterized through the analysis of common illicit chemicals and emerging threats like substituted phenethylamines. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. High throughput nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry screening of microbial growth conditions for maximal β-glucosidase production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang eCheng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of biofuels via enzymatic hydrolysis of complex plant polysaccharides is a subject of intense global interest. Microbial communities are known to express a wide range of enzymes necessary for the saccharification of lignocellulosic feedstocks and serve as a powerful reservoir for enzyme discovery. However, the growth temperature and conditions that yield high cellulase activity vary widely, and the throughput to identify optimal conditions has been limited by the slow handling and conventional analysis. A rapid method that uses small volumes of isolate culture to resolve specific enzyme activity is needed. In this work, a high throughput nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS based approach was developed for screening a thermophilic cellulolytic actinomycete, Thermobispora bispora, for β-glucosidase production under various growth conditions. Media that produced high β-glucosidase activity were found to be I/S + glucose or microcrystalline cellulose (MCC, Medium 84 + rolled oats, and M9TE + MCC at 45 °C. Supernatants of cell cultures grown in M9TE + 1% MCC cleaved 2.5 times more substrate at 45 °C than at all other temperatures. While T. bispora is reported to grow optimally at 60 °C in Medium 84 + rolled oats and M9TE + 1% MCC, approximately 40% more conversion was observed at 45 °C. This high throughput NIMS approach may provide an important tool in discovery and characterization of enzymes from environmental microbes for industrial and biofuel applications.

  7. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for rapid mass-screening of sand flies for Leishmania infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzelu, Chukwunonso O; Gomez, Eduardo A; Cáceres, Abraham G; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Martini-Robles, Luiggi; Uezato, Hiroshi; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Katakura, Ken; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Kato, Hirotomo

    2014-04-01

    Entomological monitoring of Leishmania infection in leishmaniasis endemic areas offers epidemiologic advantages for predicting the risk and expansion of the disease, as well as evaluation of the effectiveness of control programs. In this study, we developed a highly sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for the mass screening of sand flies for Leishmania infection based on the 18S rRNA gene. The LAMP technique could detect 0.01 parasites, which was more sensitive than classical PCR. The method was robust and could amplify the target DNA within 1h from a crude sand fly template without DNA purification. Amplicon detection could be accomplished by the newly developed colorimetric malachite green (MG)--mediated naked eye visualization. Pre-addition of MG to the LAMP reaction solution did not inhibit amplification efficiency. The field applicability of the colorimetric MG-based LAMP assay was demonstrated with 397 field-caught samples from the endemic areas of Ecuador and eight positive sand flies were detected. The robustness, superior sensitivity, and ability to produce better visual discriminatory reaction products than existing LAMP fluorescence and turbidity assays indicated the field potential usefulness of this new method for surveillance and epidemiological studies of leishmaniasis in developing countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Study of Grape Polyphenols by Liquid Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC/QTOF and Suspect Screening Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Flamini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Suspect screening analysis is a targeted metabolomics method in which the identification of compounds relies on specific available information, such as their molecular formula and isotopic pattern. This method, coupled to liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry, is effective in the study of grape metabolomics, in particular for characterization of flavonols, stilbene derivatives, and anthocyanins. For identification of compounds expected in the samples, a new database of putative compounds was expressly constructed by using the molecular information on potential metabolites of grape and wine from the literature and other electronic databases. Currently, this database contains around 1,100 compounds. The method allows identification of several hundred grape metabolites with two analyses (positive and negative ionization modes, and performing of data reprocessing using “untargeted” algorithms also provided the identification of some flavonols and resveratrol trimers and tetramers in grape for the first time. This approach can be potentially used in the study of metabolomics of varieties of other plant species.

  9. Limiting chest computed tomography in the evaluation of pediatric thoracic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Jamie; Isani, Mubina; Bowling, Jordan; Zagory, Jessica; Goodhue, Catherine J; Burke, Rita V; Upperman, Jeffrey S; Gayer, Christopher P

    2016-08-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the chest (chest CT) is overused in blunt pediatric thoracic trauma. Chest CT adds to the diagnosis of thoracic injury but rarely changes patient management. We sought to identify a subset of blunt pediatric trauma patients who would benefit from a screening chest CT based on their admission chest x-ray (CXR) findings. We hypothesize that limiting chest CT to patients with an abnormal mediastinal silhouette identifies intrathoracic vascular injuries not otherwise seen on CXR. All blunt trauma activations that underwent an admission CXR at our Level 1 pediatric trauma center from 2005 to 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who had a chest CT were evaluated for added diagnoses and change in management after CT. An admission CXR was performed in 1,035 patients. One hundred thirty-nine patients had a CT, and the diagnosis of intra-thoracic injury was added in 42% of patients. Chest CT significantly increased the diagnosis of contusion or atelectasis (30.3% vs 60.4%; p pneumothorax (7.2% vs 18.7%; p chest CT. Chest CT changed the management of only 4 patients (2.9%). Two patients underwent further radiologic evaluation that was negative for injury, one had a chest tube placed for an occult pneumothorax before exploratory laparotomy, and one patient had a thoracotomy for repair of aortic injury. Chest CT for select patients with an abnormal mediastinal silhouette on CXR would have decreased CT scans by 80% yet still identified patients with an intrathoracic vascular injury. The use of chest CT should be limited to the identification of intrathoracic vascular injuries in the setting of an abnormal mediastinal silhouette on CXR. Therapeutic study, level IV; diagnostic study, level III.

  10. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info About Us News Physician ... absolutely necessary for medical treatment. See the MRI Safety page for more information about pregnancy and MRI. ...

  11. Chest X-Ray

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Spotlight Recently posted: How ...

  12. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - ...

  13. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that physicians use to diagnose medical conditions. MRI ...

  14. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... be available during the exam for your child's safety. You will be given special ... life personnel who can work with younger children to help avoid the need ...

  15. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... absolutely necessary for medical treatment. See the MRI Safety page for more information about pregnancy and MRI. ...

  16. Radiology illustrated. Chest radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Soo; Han, Joungho; Chung, Man Pyo; Jeong, Yeon Joo

    2014-01-01

    Pattern approach to the diagnosis of lung diseases based on CT scan appearances. Guide to quick and reliable differential diagnosis. CT-pathology correlation. Emphasis on state-of-the-art MDCT. The purpose of this atlas is to illustrate how to achieve reliable diagnoses when confronted by the different abnormalities, or ''disease patterns'', that may be visualized on CT scans of the chest. The task of pattern recognition has been greatly facilitated by the advent of multidetector CT (MDCT), and the focus of the book is very much on the role of state-of-the-art MDCT. A wide range of disease patterns and distributions are covered, with emphasis on the typical imaging characteristics of the various focal and diffuse lung diseases. In addition, clinical information relevant to differential diagnosis is provided and the underlying gross and microscopic pathology is depicted, permitting CT-pathology correlation. The entire information relevant to each disease pattern is also tabulated for ease of reference. This book will be an invaluable handy tool that will enable the reader to quickly and easily reach a diagnosis appropriate to the pattern of lung abnormality identified on CT scans.

  17. Cost-effectiveness analysis of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms based on five year results from a randomised hospital based mass screening trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes S.; Juul, Svend; Fasting, Helge

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to estimate the cost effectiveness of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). MATERIAL AND METHODS: All 12,639 men born in the years 1921-1933 (aged 64-73) living in Viborg County, Denmark, were randomly allocated either to receive an invitation...... to abdominal ultrasound scanning for AAA or to be controls. Costs for screening and surveillance were assessed prospectively. Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) costs from 1999 were used concerning admissions with uncomplicated and complicated operations. Admissions for AAA surgery were retrospectively classified...... group (P = 0.003). The costs were estimated to be Euro 11.23 per scan. The costs per life-year saved were Euro 9057 (Euro 5872-20,063) after 5 years, and were expected to decrease to Euro 2708 (Euro 1758-6031) after 10 years and to Euro 1825 (Euro 1185-4063) after 15 years. CONCLUSION: Screening of 64...

  18. Mass screening for prostate cancer at Ikeda City in Osaka Prefecture. Results of screening with PSA alone between 2003 and 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Hitoshi; Kinouchi, Toshiro; Kinoshita, Tatsuya

    2010-01-01

    Since 2003, screening with prostate specific antigen (PSA) has been conducted to detect prostate cancer. We investigated the results between 2003 and 2007. Screening with PSA alone was performed for males aged over 50 years who desired prostate cancer screening. We used a PSA cutoff value of 4.00 ng per milliliter. In 2003, there were 18,161 males aged over 50 years in Ikeda City. 3,738, 3,905, 4,129, 4,410, and 4,515 of the males underwent PSA screening in 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007. The rate of elevated PSA levels was 7.9%-9.8% (median 9.1%). 161, 81, 70, 75 and 60 of the males visited us for secondary screening, and prostate biopsy was performed in 130 (80.7%), 57 (70.4%), 45 (64.3%), 38 (50.7%), and 42 (70.0%). Prostate cancer was detected in 91, 33, 29, 20 and 25 males, respectively. These values corresponded to 2.43%, 0.85%, 0.70%, 0.45% and 0.55% of the males who underwent primary screening. The incidence of prostate cancer was 0.96% during the 5 years. Clinical stage was B in 137 (69.2%), C in 52 (26.3%), D in 7 (3.5%), and unknown in 2. Surgery was performed in 87 (43.9%), endocrine therapy in 61 (30.8%), irradiation in 37 (18.7%), and follow up without treatment in 7 (3.5%). Treatment for 6 (3.0%) is unknown because they desired treatment at another hospital. 198 males were diagnosed with prostate cancer between 2003 and 2007. The clinical stage B was present in 137 (69.2%), and the early treatment was achieved. This may lead to a future decrease in the mortality rate. (author)

  19. Magnification mammography: a comparison of full-field digital mammography and screen-film mammography for the detection of simulated small masses and microcalcifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, K.P.; Obenauer, S.; Funke, M.; Grabbe, E.H.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was a comparison of a full-field digital mammography (FFDM) system and a conventional screen-film mammography (SFM) system with respect to the detectability of simulated small masses and microcalcifications in the magnification mode. All images were obtained using 1.8 times magnification. The FFDM images were obtained at radiation dose levels of 1.39, 1.0, 0.7, 0.49 and 0.24 times that of the SFM images. A contrast-detail phantom was used to compare the detection of simulated lesions using a four alternative forced-choice reader study with three readers. The correct observation ratio (COR) was calculated as the fraction of correctly identified lesions to the total number of simulated lesions. Soft-copy reading was performed for all digital images. Direct magnification images acquired with the digital system showed a lower object contrast threshold than those acquired with the conventional system. For equal radiation dose, the digital system provided a significantly increased COR (0.95) compared with the screen-film system (0.82). For simulated microcalcifications, the corresponding difference was 0.90 to 0.72. The digital system allowed equal detection to screen-film at 40% of the radiation dose used for screen film. Digital magnification images are superior to screen-film magnification images for the detection of simulated small masses and microcalcifications even at a lower radiation dose. (orig.)

  20. Interpretation of neonatal chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hye Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Kangwon National University Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Plain radiographs for infants in the neonatal intensive care unit are obtained using the portable X-ray equipment in order to evaluate the neonatal lungs and also to check the position of the tubes and catheters used for monitoring critically-ill neonates. Neonatal respiratory distress is caused by a variety of medical or surgical disease conditions. Clinical information about the gestational week, respiratory symptoms, and any events during delivery is essential for interpretation of the neonatal chest radiographs. Awareness of common chest abnormality in the prematurely born or term babies is also very important for chest evaluation in the newborn. Furthermore, knowledge about complications such as air leaks and bronchopulmonary dysplasia following treatment are required to accurately inform the clinicians. The purpose of this article was to briefly review radiographic findings of chest diseases in newborns that are relatively common in daily practice.

  1. Interpretation of neonatal chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hye Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Plain radiographs for infants in the neonatal intensive care unit are obtained using the portable X-ray equipment in order to evaluate the neonatal lungs and also to check the position of the tubes and catheters used for monitoring critically-ill neonates. Neonatal respiratory distress is caused by a variety of medical or surgical disease conditions. Clinical information about the gestational week, respiratory symptoms, and any events during delivery is essential for interpretation of the neonatal chest radiographs. Awareness of common chest abnormality in the prematurely born or term babies is also very important for chest evaluation in the newborn. Furthermore, knowledge about complications such as air leaks and bronchopulmonary dysplasia following treatment are required to accurately inform the clinicians. The purpose of this article was to briefly review radiographic findings of chest diseases in newborns that are relatively common in daily practice

  2. High-throughput screening and confirmation of 22 banned veterinary drugs in feedstuffs using LC-MS/MS and high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xufeng; Liu, Yanghong; Su, Yijuan; Yang, Jianwen; Bian, Kui; Wang, Zongnan; He, Li-Min

    2014-01-15

    A new analytical strategy based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) combined with accurate mass high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry (HR-Orbitrap MS) was performed for high-throughput screening, confirmation, and quantification of 22 banned or unauthorized veterinary drugs in feedstuffs according to Bulletin 235 of the Ministry of Agriculture, China. Feed samples were extracted with acidified acetonitrile, followed by cleanup using solid-phase extraction cartridge. The extracts were first screened by LC-MS/MS in a single selected reaction monitoring mode. The suspected positive samples were subjected to a specific pretreatment for confirmation and quantification of analyte of interest with LC-MS/MS and HR-Orbitrap MS. Mean recoveries for all target analytes (except for carbofuran and chlordimeform, which were about 35 and 45%, respectively) ranged from 52.2 to 90.4%, and the relative standard deviations were screening of real samples obtained from local feed markets and confirmation of the suspected target analytes. It provides a high-throughput, sensitive, and reliable screening, identification, and quantification of banned veterinary drugs in routine monitoring programs of feedstuffs.

  3. CT findings of chest trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Tong; Kim Young Il

    1998-01-01

    Trauma is the third leading cause of death, irrespective of age, and the leading cause of death in persons under 40 persons under 40 years of age. Most pleural, pulmonary, mediastinal, and diaphragmatic injuries are not seen on conventional chest radiographs, or are underestimated. In patients with chest trauma, CT scanning is an effective and sensitive method of detecting thoracic injuries and provides accurate information regarding their pattern and extent. (author). 5 refs., 17 figs

  4. Digital luminescence radiography of the chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehler, M.

    1991-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a digital system in chest radiology compared to the conventional film-screen system. The first studies (1-3) were purely clinical, had two parts, one clinical and one using phantoms, and the 5:th used solely phantoms. Except for the first - pilot - study, the studies were performed as receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. From one exposure, two digital radiographs were obtained, one simulating the film-screen radiograph and one enhanced, using an unsharp mask. The conventional radiograph was compared to this double-image, but in addition to this, even to the simulated normal and enhanced separately (1-3). To evaluate the value of inverted (positive) radiographs, the original digital (negative) radiographs were inverted, and then compared to the originals (4). As digitzation means easy storing and transfer of data and possibility of electronic display, the diagnostic performance of an interactive workstation was assessed (5). In the clinical studies, a variety of chest affections were used: atelectasis, tumor, pneumothorax, fibrosis, mediastinal and bony changes, tuberculosis, incompensations and enlargement of the heart (1), pneumothorax (2), fibrosis (3), and tumor (4). In the phantom studies, test objects simulating tumors (4) and pneumothorax (5) were used. In no study was statistical significant difference seen between the digital and conventional system (p>0.05). Neither in the clinical nor the phantom study did inversion of the radiographs improve diagnostic performance. The workstation performed almost equally well as the radiographs even with a resolution of 1.25 1p/mm compared to the digital radiographs 2.5 and film-screen radiographs 5 1p/mm. (au) (50 refs.)

  5. Utility of compact ultrasound in a mass surgical selection program in Africa: experience of a sonologist at the MV Africa Mercy Hospital Ship's screening day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Robert D; Parker, Gary

    2015-02-01

    Compact ultrasound (US) was introduced in an austere setting with no other available imaging for an annual mass surgical screening day. Compact US examinations were performed on 25 patients from more than 7000 potential patients, as deemed possibly useful by the screening surgeons. Of the 20 patients with recorded data, compact US was helpful in 14 of 20 as a decision-making tool, obviating computed tomography for preoperative planning. Compact US was helpful in most cases, saving resources (computed tomography), technologist time, and radiation risk in this select population. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  6. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is primarily used to assess abnormal masses such as cancer and determine the size, extent and degree ... you are told otherwise, take your regular medications as usual. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, ...

  7. Use of the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) in a cardiac emergency room: chest pain unit

    OpenAIRE

    Soares-Filho, Gastão L. F.; Freire, Rafael C.; Biancha, Karla; Pacheco, Ticiana; Volschan, André; Valença, Alexandre M.; Nardi, Antonio E.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of anxiety and depression in patients complaining of chest pain who seek a chest pain unit attendance. INTRODUCTION: Patients arriving at a Chest Pain Unit may present psychiatric disorders not identified, isolated or co-morbid to the main illness, which may interfere in the patient prognosis. METHODOLOGY: Patients were assessed by the "Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale" as a screening instrument wile following a systematized protocol to rule out the...

  8. Chest and spine radiography abnormality in blunt chest trauma correlated with major vessel injury in an unselected patient population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, G.; Kadir, S.; Encarnacion, C.

    1989-01-01

    To assess the true incidence of major vessel injury, the authors retrospectively reviewed all arch aortograms obtained for blunt chest trauma (BCT) during a 24-month period beginning December 1986. Aortograms were correlated with preangiographic chest radiographic and operative findings. The goals of this review were to examine the usefulness of commonly employed screening criteria for aortography and determine whether thoracic spine fractures imply a decreased likelihood of aortic injury. One hundred twenty aortograms were obtained during this period. The incidence of aortic laceration was 6.7%, and 7.5% had brachiocerebral vascular injury. Only 51% of chest radiographs were suggestive of vascular injury. Two patients with subtle radiographic findings had aortic laceration. One patient with a burst fracture of T-4 had aortic laceration. The results of this review indicate the incidence of great vessel injury is as high as that of injury to the aorta itself and that the presence of spine fractures does not exclude vascular injury

  9. [Screening and confirmation of 24 hormones in cosmetics by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-linear ion trap/orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoyong; Wang, Fengmei; Niu, Zengyuan; Luo, Xin; Zhang, Gang; Chen, Junhui

    2014-05-01

    A method of ultra high performance liquid chromatography-linear ion trap/orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-LTQ/Orbitrap MS) was established to screen and confirm 24 hormones in cosmetics. Various cosmetic samples were extracted with methanol. The extract was loaded onto a Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column (50 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 microm) using a gradient elution of acetonitrile/water containing 0.1% (v/v) formic acid for the separation. The accurate mass of quasi-molecular ion was acquired by full scanning of electrostatic field orbitrap. The rapid screening was carried out by the accurate mass of quasi-molecular ion. The confirmation analysis for targeted compounds was performed with the retention time and qualitative fragments obtained by data dependent scan mode. Under the optimal conditions, the 24 hormones were routinely detected with mass accuracy error below 3 x 10(-6) (3 ppm), and good linearities were obtained in their respective linear ranges with correlation coefficients higher than 0.99. The LODs (S/N = 3) of the 24 compounds were hormones in 50 cosmetic samples. The results demonstrate that the method is a useful tool for the rapid screening and identification of the hormones in cosmetics.

  10. Receptor-based high-throughput screening and identification of estrogens in dietary supplements using bioaffinity liquid-chromatography ion mobility mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqai, Payam; Blesa, Natalia Gómez; Major, Hilary; Pedotti, Mattia; Varani, Luca; Ferrero, Valentina E V; Haasnoot, Willem; Nielen, Michel W F

    2013-11-01

    A high-throughput bioaffinity liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (BioMS) approach was developed and applied for the screening and identification of recombinant human estrogen receptor α (ERα) ligands in dietary supplements. For screening, a semi-automated mass spectrometric ligand binding assay was developed applying (13)C2, (15) N-tamoxifen as non-radioactive label and fast ultra-high-performance-liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-triple-quadrupole-MS (UPLC-QqQ-MS), operated in the single reaction monitoring mode, as a readout system. Binding of the label to ERα-coated paramagnetic microbeads was inhibited by competing estrogens in the sample extract yielding decreased levels of the label in UPLC-QqQ-MS. The label showed high ionisation efficiency in positive electrospray ionisation (ESI) mode, so the developed BioMS approach is able to screen for estrogens in dietary supplements despite their poor ionisation efficiency in both positive and negative ESI modes. The assay was performed in a 96-well plate, and all these wells could be measured within 3 h. Estrogens in suspect extracts were identified by full-scan accurate mass and collision-cross section (CCS) values from a UPLC-ion mobility-Q-time-of-flight-MS (UPLC-IM-Q-ToF-MS) equipped with a novel atmospheric pressure ionisation source. Thanks to the novel ion source, this instrument provided picogram sensitivity for estrogens in the negative ion mode and an additional identification point (experimental CCS values) next to retention time, accurate mass and tandem mass spectrometry data. The developed combination of bioaffinity screening with UPLC-QqQ-MS and identification with UPLC-IM-Q-ToF-MS provides an extremely powerful analytical tool for early warning of ERα bioactive compounds in dietary supplements as demonstrated by analysis of selected dietary supplements in which different estrogens were identified.

  11. Digital radiography of the chest: state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souto, M.; Malagari, K.S.; Tucker, D.; Tahoces, P.G.; Correa, J.; Benakis, V.S.; Roussos, C.; Strigaris, K.A.; Vidal, J.J.; Barnes, G.T.; Fraser, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    Digital image acquisition possesses a number of advantages over conventional systems in radiographic examination of the chest, the most important of which is its greater dynamic range. In addition, once digital images are acquired, they can be processed by computer in ways that cannot be rivalled by conventional analog techniques. Finally, digital images can be stored, retrieved and transmitted to local or remote sites. Here the status of the different digital systems employed in chest radiology and commonly used image processing techniques are reviewed. Also discussed are the current clinical applications of integrating digital chest radiography with a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) along with the difficulties typically encountered. Studies with a variety of digital techniques have been carried out on several fronts. Computed radiography based on photostimulable phosphor (CR) has replaced screen-film imaging in certain applications (i.e. bedside imaging). However, CR has limitations, namely its poor X-ray utilisation efficiency at high X-ray tube voltages and sensitivity to scatter; therefore, it is not ideal for all applications. Recently, a dedicated digital chest unit with excellent X-ray utilisation efficiency at high X-ray tube potentials has been introduced. On the basis of the state-of-the-art capabilities and research during the past decade, recommendations are made regarding the most desirable equipment specifications for dedicated and bedside digital chest radiography. (orig.)

  12. A study of reduction of patient's radiation exposure by using the new ortho screen film systems (4). A study of the possibility of higher developing temperature by observation of chest phantom radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Hirofumi; Fukui, Toshihito; Yasutomo, Motokatsu; Takashima, Koosuke; Kuroda, Tokue; Nishitani, Hiromu.

    1995-01-01

    Recently, some new ortho screen-film systems (Konica EX system, Fuji AD system and Kodak IEF system) are being developed. The granulalities of these systems have been greatly improved and gross fogs are lower than those of traditional ortho screen-film systems. Even if the radiographs with the new ortho screen-film are processed at higher temperature than with the old ortho system such as Lanex Medium/TMC-RA (Eastman Kodak), the deterioration in the image quality is negligible. Furthermore, the speed of the screen-film systems increases as the developing temperature rises. Therefore, there may be the potential to reduce patients' radiation exposure without greatly decreasing the image quality. At that time, the problem arises how to determine the appropriate developing temperature. The limit of developing temperature for the new ortho system was determined as the temperature for getting the same gross fog in old ortho-system. In this report, phantom radiographs were made at various developing temperatures and the comments about the higher limit of the developing temperature were solicited from medical doctors who evaluated them. Consequently, it has been confirmed there are sufficient image quality in the radiographs which were developed at the higher developing temperature than at the temperature used in many faculties now. (author)

  13. A Community-acquired Lung Abscess Attributable to Streptococcus pneumoniae which Extended Directly into the Chest Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Yuki; Tobino, Kazunori; Yasuda, Yuichiro; Sueyasu, Takuto; Nishizawa, Saori; Yoshimine, Kouhei; Munechika, Miyuki; Asaji, Mina; Yamaji, Yoshikazu; Tsuruno, Kosuke; Miyajima, Hiroyuki; Mukasa, Yosuke; Ebi, Noriyuki

    We herein report the case of 75-year-old Japanese female with a community-acquired lung abscess attributable to Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. penumoniae) which extended into the chest wall. The patient was admitted to our hospital with a painful mass on the left anterior chest wall. A contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography scan showed a lung abscess in the left upper lobe which extended into the chest wall. Surgical debridement of the chest wall abscess and percutaneous transthoracic tube drainage of the lung abscess were performed. A culture of the drainage specimen yielded S. pneumoniae. The patient showed a remarkable improvement after the initiation of intravenous antibiotic therapy.

  14. Usefulness of routine computed tomography in the evaluation of penetrating war injuries to the chest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Bassam; Mahfouz, Mohammad Z; Izzat, Mohammad Bashar

    2018-05-02

    This review was conducted to compare the contributions of chest X-ray (CXR) and computed tomography (CT) towards detecting intrathoracic damage in patients with penetrating war injuries to the chest and to determine whether identification of additional injuries by chest CT will have an impact on the choice of therapeutic interventions and clinical outcomes. We reviewed records of 449 patients (374 men, mean age 29.3 ± 14.8 years) who were admitted to our hospital with penetrating war injuries to the chest over a 7-year period. Collected data included mechanisms of injury, associated injuries, results of CXRs and chest CTs, methods of management, in-hospital stays, complications and mortalities. Immediate screening CXRs were obtained in all patients not requiring emergent thoracotomies, of which 91.4% showed positive signs of injury. Chest CTs were performed at the discretion of the physicians in 49.4% of patients, and CXR-positive findings were confirmed in all cases, while revealing additional injuries in 11% of patients. Chest CT findings led to additional closed chest drainage in 5.6% of patients but had no impact on treatment strategy in 94.4% of scanned patients. Follow-up CXRs showed new positive findings in 22 patients, leading to additional closed chest drainage in 3 patients and delayed open thoracotomies in 7 other patients. CXRs continue as the primary diagnostic modality in the assessment of patients with penetrating war injuries to the chest. Chest CTs can be omitted in most patients, thus reducing CT imaging case-load substantially, while most clinically significant chest injuries remain sufficiently recognized.

  15. HighResNPS.com – an Internet Database for Liquid Chromatography - High Resolution Mass Spectrometry Screening for New Psychoactive Substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Petur Weihe; Mollerup, Christian Brinch; Mardal, Marie

    /Discussions: . The overlapping entries of the database verify that similar fragment ions can be observed from identical compounds across different LC-HRMS systems. The inclusion of fragment ions from other labs can reduce false positive identifications, when no reference standard is available in-house. HighResNPS can serve......Background/Introduction: The number of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is constantly increasing which makes it challenging to keep the screening libraries updated with the relevant analytical targets. Liquid chromatography coupled High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC-HRMS) screening methods...... with most screening platforms after minor formatting. Results: Currently, 11 users from 9 laboratories in 7 counties have contributed with 318 entries to the database with experimental data containing at least one fragment ion. 66% of the uploaded data were based on reference standards. Synthetic...

  16. Study of frequency of operated chest wall tumors In Al Zahra hospital from 2007 to 2009,Isfahan,Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyed abas Tabatabai

    2011-08-01

    Conclusion: According to the results of this study about 59% of the chest wall tumors were malignant and in the case of being hesitant about existing a mass on the chest wall, needed measurements for treatmentand and on time removal of the mass must be done.

  17. Review: LC coupled to low- and high-resolution mass spectrometry for new psychoactive substance screening in biological matrices - Where do we stand today?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H

    2016-07-13

    The field of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is highly dynamic and the situation changes from year to year. Therefore, the current review provides a timely update about the latest developments to help analysts keep the pace with NPS distribution. It covers PubMed-listed studies published between January 2014 and January 2016 dealing with the application of liquid chromatography (LC) coupled low- and high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) for broad screenings for NPS in clinical (CT) and forensic (FT) toxicology. Latest developments and applications are highlighted and selected papers critically discussed. Comprehensive tables summarizing all discussed articles complete the overview. Finally, an outlook on the future of LC coupled MS in CT and FT is provided and readers will learn why low-resolution mass spectrometry might remain the standard for the next couple of years at least for easy-to-use quantitative screening procedures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Rapid screening the alkaloids of poppy shell in hot pot condiment, beef noodle soup and seasoning by direct analysis in real time-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baile; Gao, Lihong; Xie, Yingshuang; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Xiaofeng; Lei, Chunni; Zhang, Huan

    2017-07-08

    A direct analysis in real time tandem mass spectrometry (DART-MS/MS) method was established for quickly screening five illegally added alkaloids of poppy shell from the hot pot condiment, beef noodle soup and seasoning. The samples were extracted and purified by acetonitrile, and then injected under the conditions of ionization temperature of 300℃, grid electrode voltage of 150 V and sampling rate of 0.8 mm/s using DART in the positive ion mode. The determination was conducted by tandem mass spectrometry in positive ESI mode under multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The method is simple and rapid, and can meet the requirement of rapid screening and analysis of large quantities of samples.

  19. Prospective diagnosis of 2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in the Hmong population by newborn screening using tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matern, Dietrich; He, Miao; Berry, Susan A

    2003-01-01

    but asymptomatic. METHODS: We report 8 additional patients identified by prospective newborn screening using tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Molecular genetic analysis performed for 3 of these patients revealed that all are homozygous for an 1165A>G mutation that causes skipping of exon 10 of the SBCAD gene....... Although there was no obvious consanguinity, all patients belong to the Hmong, an ancient ethnic group that originated in China and constitutes only 0.8% and 0.6% of the Minnesota and Wisconsin population, respectively. Dietary treatment was initiated in the neonatal period. Except for 1 patient who...... developed mild muscle hypotonia, all patients remain asymptomatic at ages ranging from 3 to 14 months of age. CONCLUSIONS: These cases suggest that SBCAD deficiency is another inborn error of metabolism detectable by newborn screening using tandem mass spectrometry. The continued efficacy of long...

  20. Prediction of collision cross section and retention time for broad scope screening in gradient reversed-phase liquid chromatography-ion mobility-high resolution accurate mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Christian Brinch; Mardal, Marie; Dalsgaard, Petur Weihe

    2018-01-01

    artificial neural networks (ANNs). Prediction was based on molecular descriptors, 827 RTs, and 357 CCS values from pharmaceuticals, drugs of abuse, and their metabolites. ANN models for the prediction of RT or CCS separately were examined, and the potential to predict both from a single model......Exact mass, retention time (RT), and collision cross section (CCS) are used as identification parameters in liquid chromatography coupled to ion mobility high resolution accurate mass spectrometry (LC-IM-HRMS). Targeted screening analyses are now more flexible and can be expanded for suspect...

  1. A simpler sampling interface of venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry for high-throughput screening enzyme inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Liu, Yang; Yang, YuHan; He, Lan; Ouyang, Jin

    2016-03-24

    High-throughput screening (HTS) is often required in enzyme inhibitor drugs screening. Mass spectrometry (MS) provides a powerful method for high-throughput screening enzyme inhibitors because its high speed, sensitivity and property of lable free. However, most of the MS methods need complicated sampling interface system. Overall throughput was limited by sample loading in these cases. In this study, we develop a simple interface which coupled droplet segmented system to a venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometer. It is fabricated by using a single capillary to act as both sampling probe and the emitter, which simplifies the construction, reduces the cost and shorten the sampling time. Samples sucked by venturi effect are segmented to nanoliter plugs by air, then the plugs can be detected by MS directly. This system eliminated the need for flow injection which was popular used in classic scheme. The new system is applied to screen angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. High-throughput was achieved in analyzing 96 samples at 1.6 s per sample. The plugs formation was at 0.5s per sample. Carry-over between samples was less than 5%, the peak height RSD was 2.92% (n = 15). Dose-response curves of 3 known inhibitors were also measured to validate its potential in drug discovery. The calculated IC50 agreed well with reported values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Chest tube placement in thorax trauma - comparison chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heim, P.; Maas, R.; Buecheler, E.; Tesch, C.

    1998-01-01

    Estimation of chest tube placement in patients with thoracic trauma with regard to chest tube malposition in chest radiography in the supine position compared to additional computed tomography of the thorax. Material and methods: Apart from compulsory chest radiography after one or multiple chest tube insertions, 31 severely injured patients with thoracic trauma underwent a CT scan of the thorax. These 31 patients with 40 chest tubes constituted the basis for the present analysis. Results: In chest radiography in the supine position there were no chest tube malpositions (n=40); In the CT scans 25 correct positions, 7 pseudo-malpositions, 6 intrafissural and 2 intrapulmonary malpositions were identified. Moreover 16 sufficient, 18 insufficient and 6 indifferent functions of the chest tubes were seen. Conclusion: In case of lasting clinical problems and questionable function of the chest tube, chest radiography should be supplemented by a CT scan of the thorax in order to estimate the position of the chest tube. (orig.) [de

  3. Bidirectional associations between activity-related parenting practices, and child physical activity, sedentary screen-based behavior and body mass index: a longitudinal analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sleddens, Ester F. C.; Gubbels, Jessica S.; Kremers, Stef P. J.; van der Plas, Eline; Thijs, Carel

    2017-01-01

    Background It has been generally assumed that activity-related parenting practices influence children?s activity behavior and weight status. However, vice versa parents may also change their parenting behaviors in response to their perceptions of their child?s activity behavior and weight status. This study examined the bidirectional relationships between activity-related parenting practices, and physical activity, sedentary screen-based behavior, and body mass index (BMI) between children?s ...

  4. Automated image quality assessment for chest CT scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Anthony P; Xie, Yiting; Liu, Shuang

    2018-02-01

    Medical image quality needs to be maintained at standards sufficient for effective clinical reading. Automated computer analytic methods may be applied to medical images for quality assessment. For chest CT scans in a lung cancer screening context, an automated quality assessment method is presented that characterizes image noise and image intensity calibration. This is achieved by image measurements in three automatically segmented homogeneous regions of the scan: external air, trachea lumen air, and descending aorta blood. Profiles of CT scanner behavior are also computed. The method has been evaluated on both phantom and real low-dose chest CT scans and results show that repeatable noise and calibration measures may be realized by automated computer algorithms. Noise and calibration profiles show relevant differences between different scanners and protocols. Automated image quality assessment may be useful for quality control for lung cancer screening and may enable performance improvements to automated computer analysis methods. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  5. Imaging of blunt chest trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicky, S.; Wintermark, M.; Schnyder, P.; Capasso, P.; Denys, A.

    2000-01-01

    In western European countries most blunt chest traumas are associated with motor vehicle and sport-related accidents. In Switzerland, 39 of 10,000 inhabitants were involved and severely injured in road accidents in 1998. Fifty two percent of them suffered from blunt chest trauma. According to the Swiss Federal Office of Statistics, traumas represented in men the fourth major cause of death (4 %) after cardiovascular disease (38 %), cancer (28 %), and respiratory disease (7 %) in 1998. The outcome of chest trauma patients is determined mainly by the severity of the lesions, the prompt appropriate treatment delivered on the scene of the accident, the time needed to transport the patient to a trauma center, and the immediate recognition of the lesions by a trained emergency team. Other determining factors include age as well as coexisting cardiac, pulmonary, and renal diseases. Our purpose was to review the wide spectrum of pathologies related to blunt chest trauma involving the chest wall, pleura, lungs, trachea and bronchi, aorta, aortic arch vessels, and diaphragm. A particular focus on the diagnostic impact of CT is demonstrated. (orig.)

  6. A High-Throughput Mass Spectrometry Assay Coupled with Redox Activity Testing Reduces Artifacts and False Positives in Lysine Demethylase Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigle, Tim J; Swinger, Kerren K; Campbell, John E; Scholle, Michael D; Sherrill, John; Admirand, Elizabeth A; Boriack-Sjodin, P Ann; Kuntz, Kevin W; Chesworth, Richard; Moyer, Mikel P; Scott, Margaret Porter; Copeland, Robert A

    2015-07-01

    Demethylation of histones by lysine demethylases (KDMs) plays a critical role in controlling gene transcription. Aberrant demethylation may play a causal role in diseases such as cancer. Despite the biological significance of these enzymes, there are limited assay technologies for study of KDMs and few quality chemical probes available to interrogate their biology. In this report, we demonstrate the utility of self-assembled monolayer desorption/ionization (SAMDI) mass spectrometry for the investigation of quantitative KDM enzyme kinetics and for high-throughput screening for KDM inhibitors. SAMDI can be performed in 384-well format and rapidly allows reaction components to be purified prior to injection into a mass spectrometer, without a throughput-limiting liquid chromatography step. We developed sensitive and robust assays for KDM1A (LSD1, AOF2) and KDM4C (JMJD2C, GASC1) and screened 13,824 compounds against each enzyme. Hits were rapidly triaged using a redox assay to identify compounds that interfered with the catalytic oxidation chemistry used by the KDMs for the demethylation reaction. We find that overall this high-throughput mass spectrometry platform coupled with the elimination of redox active compounds leads to a hit rate that is manageable for follow-up work. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  7. Characteristics of invasive breast cancer and overall survival of patients eligible for mass breast cancer screening in Guadeloupe compared to those of the preceding age group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhel, Philippe; Borja De Mozota, Daphné; Gaumond, Stéphanie; Deloumeaux, Jacqueline

    2017-10-01

    Mass breast cancer screening is offered to French women between the ages of 50 and 74. In the French overseas department of Guadeloupe, where the population is of mostly African ancestry, a low age at diagnosis of breast cancer has been reported, as for African-Americans. This raises the question of whether breast cancer is more aggressive in the age group preceding that eligible for mass screening (40-49) in Guadeloupe. We compared the tumor-related prognostic factors, first line therapy and overall survival rates of breast cancer cases diagnosed between the 40-49 and 50-74 age groups, based on reports of the cancer registry of Guadeloupe for the period 2008-2013. The characteristics studied, risk of death after breast cancer (HR 0.84 [95% CI: 0.58-1.22] and overall survival, did not differ significantly between the two groups, except for higher tumor size (28.8 vs 24.0; p=0.004) in the younger group. These results do not show a pattern of more aggressive breast cancer in the age group preceding that eligible for mass screening in Guadeloupe. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Inner cell mass incarceration in 8-shaped blastocysts does not increase monozygotic twinning in preimplantation genetic diagnosis and screening patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qin-Wei; Zhang, Shuo-Ping; Lu, Chang-Fu; Gong, Fei; Tan, Yue-Qiu; Lu, Guang-Xiu; Lin, Ge

    2018-01-01

    Background The use of assisted reproductive technology (ART) has been reported to increase the incidence of monozygotic twinning (MZT) compared with the incidence following natural conception. It has been hypothesized that splitting of the inner cell mass (ICM) through a small zona hole may result in MZT. In this study, using a cohort of patients undergoing preimplantation genetic diagnosis/screening (PGD/PGS), we compared the clinical and neonatal outcomes of human 8-shaped blastocysts hatching with ICM incarceration with partially or fully hatched blastocysts, and attempted to verify whether this phenomenon increases the incidence of MZT pregnancy or negatively impact newborns. Methods This retrospective study included 2059 patients undergoing PGD/PGS between March 1, 2013, and December 31, 2015. Clinical and neonatal outcomes were only collected from patients who received a single blastocyst transfer after PGD/PGS (n = 992). A 25- to 30-μm hole was made in the zona of day 3 embryos by laser. The blastocysts were biopsied and vitrified on day 6. The biopsied trophectoderm (TE) cells were analyzed using different genetic methods. One tested blastocyst was thawed and transferred to each patient in the subsequent frozen embryo transfer cycle. All the biopsied blastocysts were divided into three types: 8-shaped with ICM incarceration (type I), partially hatched without ICM incarceration (type II), and fully hatched (type III). ICM/TE grading, clinical and neonatal outcomes were compared between the groups. Results The percentage of grade A ICMs in type I blastocysts (22.2%) was comparable to that in type III blastocysts (20.1%) but higher than that in type II blastocysts (4.5%). The percentage of grade A TEs in type I blastocysts (4.2%) was comparable to that in type II (3.6%) but lower than that in type III (13.5%). There were no significant differences in clinical pregnancy, MZT pregnancy, miscarriage, live birth, MZT births, and neonatal outcomes between the

  9. Immunological screening of drugs of abuse and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric confirmation of opiates and cocaine in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, J; Stramesi, C; Redón, A; Ventura, M; Sanchez, C J; González, G; San, L; Montagna, M

    1999-03-05

    The work presents an analytical strategy to detect drugs of abuse in hair. It involves two sequential steps: a screening by a simple enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methodology to detect opiates, cocaine and its metabolites, and benzodiacepines, followed by confirmation of opiates and cocaine metabolites in positive samples by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In the same GC-MS run other drugs for substitution therapy (e.g. methadone and its main metabolite) can also be detected. After a double washing of hair samples with dichloromethane, hair specimens were cut into small pieces and 10 mg samples were incubated in 2 ml of methanol-trifluoroacetic acid (9:1) mixture, overnight at 37 degrees C. Aliquots of the extract were then evaporated, reconstituted in buffer and analysed according to the ELISA procedure. Confirmation involved solid-phase extraction of another fraction of the extract kept at -20 degrees C, derivatization with heptafluorobutyric anhydride and hexafluoroisopropanol and detection of cocaine, benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methylester, cocaethylene, morphine, codeine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, methadone and 2-ethylidene-1.5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpirrolidine (methadone metabolite) by selective ion monitoring after gas chromatographic separation. During the development of the method it was verified that no more than 10% of cocaine, opiates and benzodiacepines were lost when dichloromethane was used to wash real samples. The results also confirmed the increase of extractability power of TFA when it was added to methanol: the recovery for the analytes (cocaine and its metabolites and opiates) added to methanol-TFA alone was of the order of 90% except for benzoylecgonine (75%), and the recovery for the analytes added to methanol-TFA extract of drug-free hair was about 90% for all analytes except for benzoylecgonine and 6-MAM (around 70%). Regarding the stability of labile compounds, only small amounts of ecgonine methylester (2

  10. [Study on the relations among the screen-based sedentary behaviors, family factors and body mass index of children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dong-mei; Wu, Li-jing; Gao, Ai-yu; Li, Qin; Cheng, Lan; Wang, Hai-jun

    2015-06-18

    To explore the relations among screen-based sedentary behaviors (SSB), family factors and body mass index (BMI) of children, and to study how family factors have effect on BMI through influencing SSB. A total of 1,846 students aged 7-11 years from 12 primary schools in one district of Beijing were included. Their body weight and height were measured to calculate the BMI. The time of SSB and family factors were investigated by using questionnaires. The time of SSB was the total time of watching TV and videos, playing computer games and iPad each day during the past 7 days recalled by children. The family factors included the parents' education, occupation, the parents'time of SSB, whether the parents told their child the harm of SSB, the parents'time limit for the children's SSB. The parents'education and occupation were used for calculating the family socioeconomic score. The median time of SSB for children was 1 hour/day, and the interquartile range was 1 hour/day. The BMI of the children with the parents' time limit for the children's SSB less than 120 min/day were smaller than the children with the parents'time limit not less than 120 min/day, in both the boys (1.63 kg/m2, Peffects of SSB time for children on the association between the parents'time limit for the children's SSB and BMI were -0.222 kg/m2 (95%CI:-0.432, -0.095) for boys and -0.187 kg/m2 (95%CI: -0.507, -0.049) for girls, which accounted for 13.67% of the total effects for boys and 22.11% for girls. The parents' time limit for the children's SSB has effect on their BMI through influencing their SSB time. Parents' supervision on the behaviors of children produces larger benefit for BMI than health education conveyed by parents. Therefore, parents' participation in supervising the behaviors of children are indispensable for preventing and controlling childhood obesity.

  11. Validation of a qualitative screening method for pesticides in fruits and vegetables by gas chromatography quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portolés, T. [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, 12071 Castellón (Spain); RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Akkermaalsbos 2, 6708 WB Wageningen (Netherlands); Mol, J.G.J. [RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Akkermaalsbos 2, 6708 WB Wageningen (Netherlands); Sancho, J.V.; López, Francisco J. [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, 12071 Castellón (Spain); Hernández, F., E-mail: hernandf@uji.es [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, 12071 Castellón (Spain)

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Applicability of GC-(APCI)QTOF MS as new tool for wide-scope screening of pesticides in fruits and vegetables demonstrated. • Validation of screening method according to SANCO/12571/2013. • Detection of the pesticides based on the presence of M+·/MH+ in most cases. • Screening detection limit 0.01 mg kg{sup −1} for 77% of the pesticides investigated. • Successful identification at 0.01 mg kg{sup −1} for 70% of the pesticides/matrix combinations. - Abstract: A wide-scope screening method was developed for the detection of pesticides in fruit and vegetables. The method was based on gas chromatography coupled to a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source (GC-(APCI)QTOF MS). A non-target acquisition was performed through two alternating scan events: one at low collision energy and another at a higher collision energy ramp (MS{sup E}). In this way, both protonated molecule and/or molecular ion together with fragment ions were obtained in a single run. Validation was performed according to SANCO/12571/2013 by analysing 20 samples (10 different commodities in duplicate), fortified with a test set of 132 pesticides at 0.01, 0.05 and 0.20 mg kg{sup −1}. For screening, the detection was based on one diagnostic ion (in most cases the protonated molecule). Overall, at the 0.01 mg kg{sup −1} level, 89% of the 2620 fortifications made were detected. The screening detection limit for individual pesticides was 0.01 mg kg{sup −1} for 77% of the pesticides investigated. The possibilities for identification according to the SANCO criteria, requiring two ions with a mass accuracy ≤±5 ppm and an ion-ratio deviation ≤±30%, were investigated. At the 0.01 mg kg{sup −1} level, identification was possible for 70% of the pesticides detected during screening. This increased to 87% and 93% at the 0.05 and 0.20 mg kg{sup −1} level, respectively. Insufficient sensitivity for the second

  12. Chest Trauma in Athletic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Nicholas R; Kunz, Derek E

    2018-03-01

    While overall sports participation continues at high rates, chest injuries occur relatively infrequently. Many conditions of chest injury are benign, related to simple contusions and strains, but the more rare, severe injuries carry a much higher risk of morbidity and mortality than the typical issues encountered in athletic medicine. Missed or delayed diagnosis can prove to be catastrophic. Sports medicine providers must be prepared to encounter a wide range of traumatic conditions relating to the torso, varying from the benign chest wall contusion to the life-threatening tension pneumothorax. Basic field-side management should be rapid and focused, using the standardized approach of Advanced Traumatic Life Support protocol. Early and appropriate diagnosis and management can help allow safe and enjoyable sports participation.

  13. HAMS: High-Affinity Mass Spectrometry Screening. A High-Throughput Screening Method for Identifying the Tightest-Binding Lead Compounds for Target Proteins with No False Positive Identifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaduwage, Kasun P; Go, Eden P; Zhu, Zhikai; Desaire, Heather

    2016-11-01

    A major challenge in drug discovery is the identification of high affinity lead compounds that bind a particular target protein; these leads are typically identified by high throughput screens. Mass spectrometry has become a detection method of choice in drug screening assays because the target and the ligand need not be modified. Label-free assays are advantageous because they can be developed more rapidly than assays requiring labels, and they eliminate the risk of the label interfering with the binding event. However, in commonly used MS-based screening methods, detection of false positives is a major challenge. Here, we describe a detection strategy designed to eliminate false positives. In this approach, the protein and the ligands are incubated together, and the non-binders are separated for detection. Hits (protein binders) are not detectable by MS after incubation with the protein, but readily identifiable by MS when the target protein is not present in the incubation media. The assay was demonstrated using three different proteins and hundreds of non-inhibitors; no false positive hits were identified in any experiment. The assay can be tuned to select for ligands of a particular binding affinity by varying the quantity of protein used and the immobilization method. As examples, the method selectively detected inhibitors that have K i values of 0.2 μM, 50 pM, and 700 pM. These findings demonstrate that the approach described here compares favorably with traditional MS-based screening methods. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  14. Chest Wall tumor: combined management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao Bhaskar, N.

    1997-01-01

    Cancer is relatively rare disease among children and adolescents. The incidence of solid tumors other than CNS is less than 2/100,000. Tumors of the chest wall can arise either from the somatic tissue or ribs. These are rare, so either institutional reviews or multi institutional studies should determine optimal therapeutic management. Of the bony chest wall, Ewing's sarcoma or the family of tumor (peripheral neuro epithelioma, Askin tumor), are the most common. These lesions are lytic and have associated large extra pleural component. This large extra pleural component often necessitates major chest wall resection (3 or more ribs), and when lower ribs are involved, this entails resection of portion of diaphragm. Despite this resection, survival in the early 1970 was 10-20%. Since 1970 multi agent chemotherapy has increased survival rates. of importance, however, is these regimens have caused significant reduction of these extra pleural components so that major chest wall resections have become a rarity. With improved survival and decreased morbidity preoperative chemotherapy followed by surgery is now the accepted modality of treatment. Another major advantage of this regimen is that potential radiation therapy may be obviated. The most common chest wall lesion is rhabdomyosarcoma. In the IRS study of 1620 RMS patients, in 141 (9%) the primary lesion was in the chest wall. these are primarily alveolar histology. when lesions were superficial, wide local excision with supplemental radiation therapy was associated with low morbidity and good overall survival. however, a majority have significant intra- thoracic components. in these circumstances the resectability rate is less than 30% and the survival poor. Other lesions include non rhabdomyosarcomas, eosinophilic granuloma, chondrosarcoma, and osteomyelitis. The management of these lesions varies according to extent, histology, and patient characteristics

  15. Imaging evaluation of infants with neuroblastoma detected by VMA screening spot test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujioka, M.; Saiki, N.; Aihara, T.; Yamamoto, K.

    1988-01-01

    In the Saitama Prefecture in Japan, VMA (vanillyl manderic acid) screening spot test for detection of neuroblastoma has been performed in 173,046 infants in the years 1981-1986 and 15 infants were found to have neuroblastoma. Two infants had mediastinal tumors and the remainder, 13, had intraabdominal tumors. Only 7 infants had palpable masses. Although CT was documented to be the best imaging procedure to provide sufficient information for treatment, conventional radiographic examinations of the chest and abdomen, and abdominal ultrasonography were able, as initial imaging procedures, to detect reasonably small neuroblastomas in infants with a positive VMA screening test. (orig.)

  16. The measurement of willingness to pay for mass cancer screening with whole-body PET (positron emission tomography)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasunaga, Hideo; Ide, Hiroo; Imamura, Tomoaki; Ohe, Kazuhiko

    2006-01-01

    Recently, we have seen an increase in the number of studies that measured the willingness to pay (WTP) for medical services using the contingent valuation method (CVM) and evaluated the benefits of these services. This study aimed to measure the general public's WTP for cancer screening with positron emission tomography (PET) and to determine consumer characteristics that may affect their WTP. A questionnaire survey of males and females living in Japan aged between 40 and 59 years was conducted via the Internet. A total of 274 individuals accepted the offer to participate and were enrolled in the study. The study participants were divided into two groups: Group A (n=138) and Group B (n=136). Group A was provided only with information about the PET procedure and the high cancer detection rate; Group B was provided with additional information regarding the possibility of ''false negative'' and false positive'' results and the fact that the efficacy of PET screening for reducing mortality has not yet been demonstrated. Participants were then asked to answer their WTP for cancer screening with PET by payment cards approach. The overall average amount consumers were willing to pay for PET cancer screening was $103.7 (n=274). The average value in Group A was $107.3, the average value in Group B was $100.0 and there was no statistically significant difference between the groups. The results of categorical regression analysis showed that household annual income was the only significant factor affecting WTP. Our study showed that household annual income affected the WTP for cancer screening with PET and therefore the demand for PET screening would be limited to the high-income group. Negative information about PET did not reduce the WTP. This finding suggests that test subjects mainly evaluated the high detection rate of PET screening and the reassurance'' value of receiving negative screening results. (author)

  17. Accuracy of chest radiography versus chest computed tomography in hemodynamically stable patients with blunt chest trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chardoli Mojtaba

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: Thoracic injuries are respon- sible for 25% of deaths of blunt traumas. Chest X-ray (CXR is the first diagnostic method in patients with blunt trauma. The aim of this study was to detect the accuracy of CXR versus chest computed tomograpgy (CT in hemodynami- cally stable patients with blunt chest trauma. Methods: Study was conducted at the emergency department of Sina Hospital from March 2011 to March 2012. Hemodynamically stable patients with at least 16 years of age who had blunt chest trauma were included. All patients underwent the same diagnostic protocol which consisted of physical examination, CXR and CT scan respectively. Results: Two hundreds patients (84% male and 16% female were included with a mean age of (37.9±13.7 years. Chin J Traumatol 2013;16(6:351-354 Rib fracture was the most common finding of CXR (12.5% and CT scan (25.5%. The sensitivity of CXR for hemothorax, thoracolumbar vertebra fractures and rib fractures were 20%, 49% and 49%, respectively. Pneumothorax, foreign body, emphysema, pulmonary contusion, liver hematoma and ster- num fracture were not diagnosed with CXR alone. Conclusion: Applying CT scan as the first-line diag- nostic modality in hemodynamically stable patients with blunt chest trauma can detect pathologies which may change management and outcome. Key words: Radiography; Thoracic injuries; Tomography, X-ray computed

  18. Computed tomography of chest trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinkel, E.; Uhl, H.; Reinbold, W.D.; Wimmer, B.; Wenz, W.

    1987-01-01

    Chest CT scans were obtained in 86 patients suffering from serious blunt or penetrating chest trauma. The finding of mediastinal widening was by far the most common CT indication. CT proved to be a more sensitive method for detection of parenchymal lung lesions and occult pneumothorax than bedside radiographs. CT contributed substantially in differentiation of lung abscess and empyema, exclusion of mediastinal pathology and spinal injuries. Aortography is still indicated, even when CT findings are normal, if aortic laceration is clinically suspected. Despite all technical problems combined with CT examinations in the critically ill patient, we consider CT a valuable diagnostic tool for selected problems in the traumatized patient. (orig.) [de

  19. Computed tomography of chest trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinkel, E.; Uhl, H.; Reinbold, W.D.; Wimmer, B.; Wenz, W.

    1987-09-01

    Chest CT scans were obtained in 86 patients suffering from serious blunt or penetrating chest trauma. The finding of mediastinal widening was by far the most common CT indication. CT proved to be a more sensitive method for detection of parenchymal lung lesions and occult pneumothorax than bedside radiographs. CT contributed substantially in differentiation of lung abscess and empyema, exclusion of mediastinal pathology and spinal injuries. Aortography is still indicated, even when CT findings are normal, if aortic laceration is clinically suspected. Despite all technical problems combined with CT examinations in the critically ill patient, we consider CT a valuable diagnostic tool for selected problems in the traumatized patient.

  20. Contemporary management of flail chest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vana, P Geoff; Neubauer, Daniel C; Luchette, Fred A

    2014-06-01

    Thoracic injury is currently the second leading cause of trauma-related death and rib fractures are the most common of these injuries. Flail chest, as defined by fracture of three or more ribs in two or more places, continues to be a clinically challenging problem. The underlying pulmonary contusion with subsequent inflammatory reaction and right-to-left shunting leading to hypoxia continues to result in high mortality for these patients. Surgical stabilization of the fractured ribs remains controversial. We review the history of management for flail chest alone and when combined with pulmonary contusion. Finally, we propose an algorithm for nonoperative and surgical management.

  1. Nuclear imaging of the chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahk, Y.W.

    1998-01-01

    This book provides up-to-the minute information on the diagnostic nuclear imaging of chest disorders. The authors have endeavored to integrate and consolidate the many different subspecialities in order to enable a holistic understanding of chest diseases from the nuclear medicine standpoint. Highlights of the book include in addition to the cardiac scan the description of aerosol lung imaging in COPD and other important pulmonary diseases and the updates on breast and lung cancer imaging, as well as imaging of the bony thorax and esophagus. It is required reading not only for nuclear medicine practitioners and researchers but also for all interested radiologists, traumatologists, pulmonologists, oncologists and cardiologists. (orig.)

  2. Assessment of various hilar measurements on PA chest of Korean normal adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, Hee Jeong; Kim, Hyun; Kang, Si Won; Park, Seog Hee; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1990-01-01

    Appreciation of the normal position of the hila is essential in screening and diagnosis of the diseases of the chest. Many authors assessed the hilar position in normal adults using PA chest roentgenograms. However there have been no previous publication regarding consolidated assessment of various measurements. The authors carried out the present study to evaluate various hilar measurements including hilar points, hilar distances, difference between both hilar heights, hilar height ratio, and the relationship between the level of the clavicle and hila on the 500 normal PA chest roentgenograms

  3. Non-targeted acquisition strategy for screening doping compounds based on GC-EI-hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry: A focus on exogenous anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque Cavalcanti, Gustavo; Rodrigues, Lucas Martins; Dos Santos, Leonardo; Zheng, Xin; Gujar, Amit; Cole, Jason; Padilha, Monica Costa; de Aquino Neto, Francisco Radler

    2018-03-01

    This is a first look at a non-targeted screening method based on Orbitrap gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technology for a large number of banned compounds in sports found in urine, including exogenous anabolic steroids, β-agonists, narcotics, stimulants, hormone modulators, and diuretics. A simple sample preparation was processed in four steps: an enzymatic hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction, evaporation, and trimethylsilylation. All compounds were able to meet the World Anti-Doping Agency's sensitivity criteria with mass accuracies less than 1 ppm and with sufficient points across the peak by running the Orbitrap GC-MS in full-scan mode. In addition, we discuss our initial findings of using a full-scan selected ion monitoring-tandem mass spectrometry (SIM-MS/MS) approach as a way to obtain lower detection limits and reach desirable selectivity for some exogenous anabolic steroids. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Orbitrap technology for comprehensive metabolite-based liquid chromatographic–high resolution-tandem mass spectrometric urine drug screening – Exemplified for cardiovascular drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helfer, Andreas G.; Michely, Julian A.; Weber, Armin A.; Meyer, Markus R.; Maurer, Hans H.

    2015-01-01

    LC–high resolution (HR)-MS well established in proteomics has become more and more important in bioanalysis of small molecules over the last few years. Its high selectivity and specificity provide best prerequisites for its use in broad screening approaches. Therefore, Orbitrap technology was tested for developing a general metabolite-based LC–HR-MS/MS screening approach for urinalysis of drugs necessary in clinical and forensic toxicology. After simple urine precipitation, the drugs and their metabolites were separated within 10 min and detected by a Q-Exactive mass spectrometer in full scan with positive/negative switching, and subsequent data dependent acquisition (DDA) mode. Identification criteria were the presence of accurate precursor ions, isotopic patterns, five most intense fragment ions, and comparison with full HR-MS/MS library spectra. The current library contains over 1900 parent drugs and 1200 metabolites. The method was validated for typical drug representatives and metabolites concerning recovery, matrix effects, process efficiency, and limits showed acceptable results. The applicability was tested first for cardiovascular drugs, which should be screened for in poisoning cases and for medication adherence of hypertension patients. The novel LC–HR-MS/MS method allowed fast, simple, and robust urine screening, particularly for cardiovascular drugs showing the usefulness of Orbitrap technology for drug testing. - Highlights: • First study on the application of Orbitrap technology for comprehensive drug screening in clinical and forensic toxicology. • Simple workup, sufficient separation, and powerful screening and identification using modern high resolution MS. • Validation of the assay according to guidelines for qualitative approaches. • Elucidation of the power of new data evaluation software in combination with a new reference drug and metabolite library. • Great relevance for science and practice in clinical and forensic

  5. Orbitrap technology for comprehensive metabolite-based liquid chromatographic–high resolution-tandem mass spectrometric urine drug screening – Exemplified for cardiovascular drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helfer, Andreas G.; Michely, Julian A.; Weber, Armin A.; Meyer, Markus R.; Maurer, Hans H., E-mail: hans.maurer@uks.eu

    2015-09-03

    LC–high resolution (HR)-MS well established in proteomics has become more and more important in bioanalysis of small molecules over the last few years. Its high selectivity and specificity provide best prerequisites for its use in broad screening approaches. Therefore, Orbitrap technology was tested for developing a general metabolite-based LC–HR-MS/MS screening approach for urinalysis of drugs necessary in clinical and forensic toxicology. After simple urine precipitation, the drugs and their metabolites were separated within 10 min and detected by a Q-Exactive mass spectrometer in full scan with positive/negative switching, and subsequent data dependent acquisition (DDA) mode. Identification criteria were the presence of accurate precursor ions, isotopic patterns, five most intense fragment ions, and comparison with full HR-MS/MS library spectra. The current library contains over 1900 parent drugs and 1200 metabolites. The method was validated for typical drug representatives and metabolites concerning recovery, matrix effects, process efficiency, and limits showed acceptable results. The applicability was tested first for cardiovascular drugs, which should be screened for in poisoning cases and for medication adherence of hypertension patients. The novel LC–HR-MS/MS method allowed fast, simple, and robust urine screening, particularly for cardiovascular drugs showing the usefulness of Orbitrap technology for drug testing. - Highlights: • First study on the application of Orbitrap technology for comprehensive drug screening in clinical and forensic toxicology. • Simple workup, sufficient separation, and powerful screening and identification using modern high resolution MS. • Validation of the assay according to guidelines for qualitative approaches. • Elucidation of the power of new data evaluation software in combination with a new reference drug and metabolite library. • Great relevance for science and practice in clinical and forensic

  6. Chest Fat Quantification via CT Based on Standardized Anatomy Space in Adult Lung Transplant Candidates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubing Tong

    Full Text Available Overweight and underweight conditions are considered relative contraindications to lung transplantation due to their association with excess mortality. Yet, recent work suggests that body mass index (BMI does not accurately reflect adipose tissue mass in adults with advanced lung diseases. Alternative and more accurate measures of adiposity are needed. Chest fat estimation by routine computed tomography (CT imaging may therefore be important for identifying high-risk lung transplant candidates. In this paper, an approach to chest fat quantification and quality assessment based on a recently formulated concept of standardized anatomic space (SAS is presented. The goal of the paper is to seek answers to several key questions related to chest fat quantity and quality assessment based on a single slice CT (whether in the chest, abdomen, or thigh versus a volumetric CT, which have not been addressed in the literature.Unenhanced chest CT image data sets from 40 adult lung transplant candidates (age 58 ± 12 yrs and BMI 26.4 ± 4.3 kg/m2, 16 with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, 16 with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, and the remainder with other conditions were analyzed together with a single slice acquired for each patient at the L5 vertebral level and mid-thigh level. The thoracic body region and the interface between subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT and visceral adipose tissue (VAT in the chest were consistently defined in all patients and delineated using Live Wire tools. The SAT and VAT components of chest were then segmented guided by this interface. The SAS approach was used to identify the corresponding anatomic slices in each chest CT study, and SAT and VAT areas in each slice as well as their whole volumes were quantified. Similarly, the SAT and VAT components were segmented in the abdomen and thigh slices. Key parameters of the attenuation (Hounsfield unit (HU distributions were determined from each chest slice and from the

  7. Imaging of chest wall infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelli Bouaziz, Mouna; Jelassi, Helmi; Chaabane, Skander; Ladeb, Mohamed Fethi; Ben Miled-Mrad, Khaoula

    2009-01-01

    A wide variety of infections can affect the chest wall including pyogenic, tuberculous, fungal, and some other unusual infections. These potentially life-threatening disorders are frequent especially among immunocompromised patients but often misdiagnosed by physical examination and radiographs. The purpose of this article is to describe the clinical and imaging features of these different chest wall infections according to the different imaging modalities with emphasis on ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The outcome of chest wall infection depends on early diagnosis, severity of the immunosuppression, offending organism, and extent of infection. Because clinical findings and laboratory tests may be not contributive in immunocompromised patients, imaging plays an important role in the early detection and precise assessment of the disease. US, CT, and MRI are all useful: bone destruction is more accurately detected with CT whereas soft tissue involvement are better visualized with US and MRI. CT and US are also used to guide percutaneous biopsy and drainage procedures. MR images are helpful in pre-operative planning of extensive chest wall infections. (orig.)

  8. Radiology of blunt chest trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shulman, H.S.; Samuels, T.H. (Sunnybrook Medical Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1983-09-01

    Chest injuries and related complications prove fatal in over half of the victims of multiple trauma. The radiologist's responsibility is twofold: a) to recognize key radiographic signs and b) to guide the clinician in the radiologic investigation and management of the patient. The important diagnoses to be recognized from radiographs are pneumothorax, aortic rupture, bronhcial rupture and diaphragmatic rupture.

  9. Screening antiallergic components from Carthamus tinctorius using rat basophilic leukemia 2H3 cell membrane chromatography combined with high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shengli; Huang, Jing; Cui, Ronghua; Zhang, Tao

    2015-02-01

    Carthamus tinctorius, used in traditional Chinese medicine, has many pharmacological effects, such as anticoagulant effects, antioxidant effects, antiaging effects, regulation of gene expression, and antitumor effects. However, there is no report on the antiallergic effects of the components in C. tinctorius. In the present study, we investigated the antiallergic components of C. tinctorius and its mechanism of action. A rat basophilic leukemia 2H3/cell membrane chromatography coupled online with high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry method was developed to screen antiallergic components from C. tinctorius. The screening results showed that Hydroxysafflor yellow A, from C. tinctorius, was the targeted component that retained on the rat basophilic leukemia 2H3/cell membrane chromatography column. We measured the amount of β-hexosaminidase and histamine released in mast cells and the key markers of degranulation. The release assays showed that Hydroxysafflor yellow A could attenuate the immunoglobulin E induced release of allergic cytokines without affecting cell viability from 1.0 to 50.0 μM. In conclusion, the established rat basophilic leukemia 2H3 cell membrane chromatography coupled with online high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry method successfully screened and identified Hydroxysafflor yellow A from C. tinctorius as a potential antiallergic component. Pharmacological analysis elucidated that Hydroxysafflor yellow A is an effective natural component for inhibiting immunoglobulin E-antigen-mediated degranulation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Instant screening and verification of carbapenemase activity in Bacteroides fragilis in positive blood culture, using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization--time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Åsa; Nagy, Elisabeth; Sóki, József

    2014-08-01

    Rapid identification of isolates in positive blood cultures are of great importance to secure correct treatment of septicaemic patients. As antimicrobial resistance is increasing, rapid detection of resistance is crucial. Carbapenem resistance in Bacteroides fragilis associated with cfiA-encoded class B metallo-beta-lactamase is emerging. In our study we spiked blood culture bottles with 26 B. fragilis strains with various cfiA-status and ertapenem MICs. By using main spectra specific for cfiA-positive and cfiA-negative B. fragilis strains, isolates could be screened for resistance. To verify strains that were positive in the screening, a carbapenemase assay was performed where the specific peaks of intact and hydrolysed ertapenem were analysed with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). We show here that it is possible to correctly identify B. fragilis and to screen for enzymic carbapenem resistance directly from the pellet of positive blood cultures. The carbapenemase assay to verify the presence of the enzyme was successfully performed on the pellet from the direct identification despite the presence of blood components. The result of the procedure was achieved in 3 h. Also the Bruker mass spectrometric β-lactamase assay (MSBL assay) prototype software was proven not only to be based on an algorithm that correlated with the manual inspection of the spectra, but also to improve the interpretation by showing the variation in the dataset. © 2014 The Authors.

  11. Managing a chest tube and drainage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durai, Rajaraman; Hoque, Happy; Davies, Tony W

    2010-02-01

    Intercostal drainage tubes (ie, chest tubes) are inserted to drain the pleural cavity of air, blood, pus, or lymph. The water-seal container connected to the chest tube allows one-way movement of air and liquid from the pleural cavity. The container should not be changed unless it is full, and the chest tube should not be clamped unnecessarily. After a chest tube is inserted, a nurse trained in chest-tube management is responsible for managing the chest tube and drainage system. This entails monitoring the chest-tube position, controlling fluid evacuation, identifying when to change or empty the containers, and caring for the tube and drainage system during patient transport. This article provides an overview of indications, insertion techniques, and management of chest tubes. Copyright 2010 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Screening of HIV-1 Protease Using a Combination of an Ultra-High-Throughput Fluorescent-Based Assay and RapidFire Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Juncai; Lai, Ming-Tain; Munshi, Vandna; Grobler, Jay; McCauley, John; Zuck, Paul; Johnson, Eric N; Uebele, Victor N; Hermes, Jeffrey D; Adam, Gregory C

    2015-06-01

    HIV-1 protease (PR) represents one of the primary targets for developing antiviral agents for the treatment of HIV-infected patients. To identify novel PR inhibitors, a label-free, high-throughput mass spectrometry (HTMS) assay was developed using the RapidFire platform and applied as an orthogonal assay to confirm hits identified in a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based primary screen of > 1 million compounds. For substrate selection, a panel of peptide substrates derived from natural processing sites for PR was evaluated on the RapidFire platform. As a result, KVSLNFPIL, a new substrate measured to have a ~ 20- and 60-fold improvement in k cat/K m over the frequently used sequences SQNYPIVQ and SQNYPIV, respectively, was identified for the HTMS screen. About 17% of hits from the FRET-based primary screen were confirmed in the HTMS confirmatory assay including all 304 known PR inhibitors in the set, demonstrating that the HTMS assay is effective at triaging false-positives while capturing true hits. Hence, with a sampling rate of ~7 s per well, the RapidFire HTMS assay enables the high-throughput evaluation of peptide substrates and functions as an efficient tool for hits triage in the discovery of novel PR inhibitors. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  13. Use of ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry for fast screening in high throughput doping control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musenga, Alessandro; Cowan, David A

    2013-05-03

    We describe a sensitive, comprehensive and fast screening method based on liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry for the detection of a large number of analytes in sports samples. UHPLC coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry with polarity switching capability is applied for the rapid screening of a large number of analytes in human urine samples. Full scan data are acquired alternating both positive and negative ionisation. Collision-induced dissociation with positive ionisation is also performed to produce fragment ions to improve selectivity for some analytes. Data are reviewed as extracted ion chromatograms based on narrow mass/charge windows (±5ppm). A simple sample preparation method was developed, using direct enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronide conjugates, followed by solid phase extraction with mixed mode ion-exchange cartridges. Within a 10min run time (including re-equilibration) the method presented allows for the analysis of a large number of analytes from most of the classes in the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited List, including anabolic agents, β2-agonists, hormone antagonists and modulators, diuretics, stimulants, narcotics, glucocorticoids and β-blockers, and does so while meeting the WADA sensitivity requirements. The high throughput of the method and the fast sample pre-treatment reduces analysis cost and increases productivity. The method presented has been used for the analysis of over 5000 samples in about one month and proved to be reliable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Machine Learning Application Based in Random Forest for Integrating Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomic Data: A Simple Screening Method for Patients With Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Carlos Fernando Odir Rodrigues; Navarro, Luiz Claudio; de Oliveira, Diogo Noin; Guerreiro, Tatiane Melina; Lima, Estela de Oliveira; Delafiori, Jeany; Dabaja, Mohamed Ziad; Ribeiro, Marta da Silva; de Menezes, Maico; Rodrigues, Rafael Gustavo Martins; Morishita, Karen Noda; Esteves, Cibele Zanardi; de Amorim, Aline Lopes Lucas; Aoyagui, Caroline Tiemi; Parise, Pierina Lorencini; Milanez, Guilherme Paier; do Nascimento, Gabriela Mansano; Ribas Freitas, André Ricardo; Angerami, Rodrigo; Costa, Fábio Trindade Maranhão; Arns, Clarice Weis; Resende, Mariangela Ribeiro; Amaral, Eliana; Junior, Renato Passini; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Carolina C; Milanez, Helaine; Moretti, Maria Luiza; Proenca-Modena, Jose Luiz; Avila, Sandra; Rocha, Anderson; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos

    2018-01-01

    Recent Zika outbreaks in South America, accompanied by unexpectedly severe clinical complications have brought much interest in fast and reliable screening methods for ZIKV (Zika virus) identification. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is currently the method of choice to detect ZIKV in biological samples. This approach, nonetheless, demands a considerable amount of time and resources such as kits and reagents that, in endemic areas, may result in a substantial financial burden over affected individuals and health services veering away from RT-PCR analysis. This study presents a powerful combination of high-resolution mass spectrometry and a machine-learning prediction model for data analysis to assess the existence of ZIKV infection across a series of patients that bear similar symptomatic conditions, but not necessarily are infected with the disease. By using mass spectrometric data that are inputted with the developed decision-making algorithm, we were able to provide a set of features that work as a "fingerprint" for this specific pathophysiological condition, even after the acute phase of infection. Since both mass spectrometry and machine learning approaches are well-established and have largely utilized tools within their respective fields, this combination of methods emerges as a distinct alternative for clinical applications, providing a diagnostic screening-faster and more accurate-with improved cost-effectiveness when compared to existing technologies.

  15. Wide-Scope Screening Method for Multiclass Veterinary Drug Residues in Fish, Shrimp, and Eel Using Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnipseed, Sherri B; Storey, Joseph M; Lohne, Jack J; Andersen, Wendy C; Burger, Robert; Johnson, Aaron S; Madson, Mark R

    2017-08-30

    A screening method for veterinary drug residues in fish, shrimp, and eel using LC with a high-resolution MS instrument has been developed and validated. The method was optimized for over 70 test compounds representing a variety of veterinary drug classes. Tissues were extracted by vortex mixing with acetonitrile acidified with 2% acetic acid and 0.2% p-toluenesulfonic acid. A centrifuged portion of the extract was passed through a novel solid phase extraction cartridge designed to remove interfering matrix components from tissue extracts. The eluent was then evaporated and reconstituted for analysis. Data were collected with a quadrupole-Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometer using both nontargeted and targeted acquisition methods. Residues were detected on the basis of the exact mass of the precursor and a product ion along with isotope pattern and retention time matching. Semiquantitative data analysis compared MS 1 signal to a one-point extracted matrix standard at a target testing level. The test compounds were detected and identified in salmon, tilapia, catfish, shrimp, and eel extracts fortified at the target testing levels. Fish dosed with selected analytes and aquaculture samples previously found to contain residues were also analyzed. The screening method can be expanded to monitor for an additional >260 veterinary drugs on the basis of exact mass measurements and retention times.

  16. Screening in veterinary drug analysis and sports doping control based on full-scan, accurate-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, R.J.B.; Stolker, A.A.M.; Mol, J.G.J.; Lommen, A.; Lyris, E.; Angelis, Y.S.; Vonaparti, A.; Stamou, M.; Georgakopoulos, C.G.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2010-01-01

    A common trend in food contaminants and sports doping control is towards a limited number of targeted, full-scan, accurate-mass spectrometry (MS) methods based on time-of-flight (TOF) or Fourier-transform orbital trap (Orbitrap) mass analyzers. Retrospective analysis of the full-scan datasets of

  17. Facilitating high resolution mass spectrometry data processing for screening of environmental water samples: An evaluation of two deconvolution tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bade, R.; Causanilles, A.; Emke, E.; Bijlsma, L.; Sancho, J.V.; Hernandez, F.; de Voogt, P.

    2016-01-01

    A screening approach was applied to influent and effluent wastewater samples. After injection in a LC-LTQ-Orbitrap, data analysis was performed using two deconvolution tools, MsXelerator (modules MPeaks and MS Compare) and Sieve 2.1. The outputs were searched incorporating an in-house database of >

  18. High-throughput screening for various classes of doping agents using a new 'dilute-and-shoot' liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry multi-target approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guddat, S; Solymos, E; Orlovius, A; Thomas, A; Sigmund, G; Geyer, H; Thevis, M; Schänzer, W

    2011-01-01

    A new multi-target approach based on liquid chromatography--electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-(ESI)-MS/MS) is presented to screen for various classes of prohibited substances using direct injection of urine specimens. With a highly sensitive new generation hybrid mass spectrometer classic groups of drugs--for example, diuretics, beta2-agonists--stimulants and narcotics are detectable at concentration levels far below the required limits. Additionally, more challenging and various new target compounds could be implemented. Model compounds of stimulant conjugates were studied to investigate a possible screening without complex sample preparation. As a main achievement, the integration of the plasma volume expanders dextran and hydroxyethyl starch (HES), commonly analyzed in time-consuming, stand-alone procedures, is accomplished. To screen for relatively new prohibited compounds, a common metabolite of the selective androgen receptor modulator (SARMs) andarine, a metabolite of growth hormone releasing peptide (GHRP-2), and 5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxyamide ribonucleoside (AICAR) are analyzed. Following a completely new approach, conjugates of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites are monitored to detect abnormally high levels of plasticizers indicating for illicit blood transfusion. The assay was fully validated for qualitative purposes considering the parameters specificity, intra- (3.2-16.6%) and inter-day precision (0.4-19.9%) at low, medium and high concentration, robustness, limit of detection (1-70 ng/ml, dextran: 30 µg/ml, HES: 10 µg/ml) and ion suppression/enhancement effects. The analyses of post-administration and routine doping control samples demonstrates the applicability of the method for sports drug testing. This straightforward and reliable approach accomplishes the combination of different screening procedures resulting in a high-throughput method that increases the efficiency of the labs daily work. Copyright © 2011 John

  19. Multicomponent mixed dopant optimization for rapid screening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure photoionization high-resolution mass spectrometry

    KAUST Repository

    Sioud, Salim

    2012-05-04

    RATIONALE To enhance the ionization efficiencies in atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry a dopant with favorable ionization energy such as chlorobenzene is typically used. These dopants are typically toxic and difficult to mix with water-soluble organic solvents. In order to achieve a more efficient and less toxic dopant, a multicomponent mixed dopant was explored. METHODS A multicomponent mixed dopant for non-targeted rapid screening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was developed and optimized using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to atmospheric pressure photoionization high-resolution mass spectrometry. Various single and multicomponent mixed dopants consisting of ethanol, chlorobenzene, bromobenzene, anisole and toluene were evaluated. RESULTS Fourteen out of eighteen PAHs were successfully separated and detected at low pg/μL levels within 5 min with high mass accuracy ≤4 ppm. The optimal mixed multicomponent dopant consisted of ethanol/chlorobenzene/bromobenzene/anisole (98.975:0.1:0.9:0.025, v/v %) and it improved the limit of detection (LOD) by 2- to 10-fold for the tested PAHs compared to those obtained with pure chlorobenzene. CONCLUSIONS A novel multicomponent dopant that contains 99% ethanol and 1% mixture of chlorobenzene, bromobenzene and anisole was found to be an effective dopant mixture to ionize PAHs. The developed UPLC multicomponent dopant assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization high-resolution mass spectrometry offered a rapid non targeted screening method for detecting the PAHs at low pg/;μL levels within a 5 min run time with high mass accuracy a;circ4 ppm. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Quantification, confirmation and screening capability of UHPLC coupled to triple quadrupole and hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry in pesticide residue analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimalt, Susana; Sancho, Juan V; Pozo, Oscar J; Hernández, Félix

    2010-04-01

    The potential of three mass spectrometry (MS) analyzers (triple quadrupole, QqQ; time of flight, TOF; and quadrupole time of flight, QTOF) has been investigated and compared for quantification, confirmation and screening purposes in pesticide residue analysis of fruit and vegetable samples. For this purpose, analytical methodology for multiresidue determination of 11 pesticides, taken as a model, has been developed and validated in nine food matrices for the three mass analyzers coupled to ultra high pressure liquid chromatography. In all cases, limits of quantification around 0.01 mg/kg were reached, fulfilling the most restrictive case of baby-food analysis. Regarding absolute sensitivity, the lower limits of detection were obtained, as expected, for QqQ (100 fg), whereas slightly higher limits (300 fg) were obtained for both TOF and QTOF. Confirmative capacity of each analyzer was studied for each analyte based on the identification points (IPs) criterion, useful for a comprehensive comparison. QTOF mass analyzer showed the highest confirmatory capacity, although QqQ normally led to sufficient number of IPs, even at lower concentration levels. The potential of TOF MS was also investigated for screening purposes. To this aim, around 50 commercial fruits and vegetables samples were analyzed, searching for more than 400 pesticides. TOF MS proved to be an attractive analytical tool for rapid detection and reliable identification of a large number of pesticides thanks to the full spectrum acquisition at accurate mass with satisfactory sensitivity. This process is readily boosted when combined with specialized software packages, together with theoretical exact mass databases. Several pesticides (e.g. carbendazim in citrus and indoxacarb in grape) were detected in the samples. Further unequivocal confirmation of the identity was performed using reference standards and/or QTOF MS/MS experiments. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Target analysis of primary aromatic amines combined with a comprehensive screening of migrating substances in kitchen utensils by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis, Yovana; Coscollà, Clara; Roca, Marta; Yusà, Vicent

    2015-06-01

    An analytical strategy including both the quantitative target analysis of 8 regulated primary aromatic amines (PAAs), as well as a comprehensive post-run target screening of 77 migrating substances, was developed for nylon utensils, using liquid chromatography-orbitrap-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) operating in full scan mode. The accurate mass data were acquired with a resolving power of 50,000 FWHM (scan speed, 2 Hz), and by alternating two acquisition events, ESI+ with and without fragmentation. The target method was validated after statistical optimization of the main ionization and fragmentation parameters. The quantitative method presented appropriate performance to be used in official monitoring with recoveries ranging from 78% to 112%, precision in terms of Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) was less than 15%, and the limits of quantification were between 2 and 2.5 µg kg(-1). For post-target screening, a customized theoretical database was built for food contact material migrants, including bisphenols, phthalates, and other amines. For identification purposes, accurate exact mass (<5 ppm) and some diagnostic ions including fragments were used. The strategy was applied to 10 real samples collected from different retailers in the Valencian Region (Spain) during 2014. Six out of eight target PAAs were detected in at least one sample in the target analysis. The most frequently detected compounds were 4,4'-methylenedianiline and aniline, with concentrations ranging from 2.4 to 19,715 µg kg(-1) and 2.5 to 283 µg kg(-1), respectively. Two phthalates were identified and confirmed in the post-run target screening analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Rapid screening for cyclo-dopa and diketopiperazine alkaloids in crude extracts of Portulaca oleracea L. using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jie; Yang, Zijuan; Lv, Beibei; Xiang, Lan

    2008-05-01

    A simple and rapid qualitative liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method was developed and validated for screening cyclo-dopa and diketopiperazine alkaloids in crude extracts of Portulaca oleracea L. at sub-ppm levels. An electrospray ionization orbitrap mass spectrometer, which provides accurate full scan MS and MS/MS data, was used in this study. After simple extraction with ethanol and purification by AB-8 resin, the extracts were subjected to LC/MS/MS analysis. A high mass tolerance (10 ppm) was used in the initial screening to filter the full scan MS data. The cyclo-dopa and diketopiperazine alkaloid standards gave limits of detection (LODs) at or below 5 ng/mL. The results also indicated that the method had an acceptable precision for day-to-day use in the identification of compounds. The alkaloids could be identified based on their MS/MS data, elemental compositions, and retention behavior. This system was used to assay trace amounts of cyclo-dopa and diketopiperazine alkaloids in crude extracts of Portulaca oleracea L., leading to the identification of 5/2 confirmed/unconfirmed cyclo-dopa and 7/6 confirmed/unconfirmed diketopiperazine alkaloids, respectively. The screening method considerably reduces the time and cost involved in the identification of cyclo-dopa and diketopiperazine alkaloids in Portulaca oleracea L., as well as being a simple and convenient approach to the identification of other structural families of natural products. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Screening anti-tumor compounds from Ligusticum wallichii using cell membrane chromatography combined with high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Ding, Yuanyuan; An, Hongli; Feng, Liuxin; Wang, Sicen

    2015-07-14

    Tyrosine 367 Cysteine-fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 cell membrane chromatography combined with high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry was developed. Tyrosine 367 Cysteine-HEK293 cells were used as cell membrane stationary phase. Specificity and reproducibility of the cell membrane chromatography was evaluated using 1-tert-butyl-3-{2-[4-(diethylamino)butylamino]-6-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-yl}urea, Nimodipine and dexamethasone acetate. Then, anti-tumor components acting on Tyrosine 367 Cysteine-fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 were screened and identified from extracts of Ligusticum wallichii. Components from the extract were retained on the cell membrane chromatographic column. The retained fraction was directly eluted into high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry system for separation and identification. Finally, Levistolide A was identified as an active component from Ligusticum wallichii extracts. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide-formazan colorimetric assay revealed that Levistolide A inhibits proliferation of overexpressing the mutated receptor cells with dose-dependent manner. Phosphorylation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 was also decrease under Levistolide A treatment. Flex dock simulation verified that Levistolide A could bind with the tyrosine kinase domain of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4. Therefore, Levistolide A screened by the cell membrane chromatography combined with high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry can arrest cell growth. In conclusion, the two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography method can screen and identify potential anti-tumor ingredients which specifically act on the tyrosine kinase domain of the mutated fibroblast growth factor receptor 4. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of radioimmunoassay as a screen for antibiotics in confined animal feeding operations and confirmation by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M.T.; Bumgarner, J.E.; Varns, J.L.; Daughtridge, J.V.; Thurman, E.M.; Hostetler, K.A.

    2000-01-01

    Approximately one-half of the 50 000000 lb of antibiotics produced in the USA are used in agriculture. Because of the intensive use of antibiotics in the management of confined livestock operations, the potential exists for the transport of these compounds and their metabolites into our nation's water resources. A commercially available radioimmunoassay method, developed as a screen for tetracycline antibiotics in serum, urine, milk, and tissue, was adapted to analyze water samples at a detection level of approximately 1.0 ppb and a semiquantitative analytical range of 1-20 ppb. Liquid waste samples were obtained from 13 hog lagoons in three states and 52 surface- and ground-water samples were obtained primarily from areas associated with intensive swine and poultry production in seven states. These samples were screened for the tetracycline antibiotics by using the modified radioimmunoassay screening method. The radioimmunoassay tests yielded positive results for tetracycline antibiotics in samples from all 13 of the hog lagoons. Dilutions of 10-100-fold of the hog lagoon samples indicated that tetracycline antibiotic concentrations ranged from approximately 5 to several hundred parts per billion in liquid hog lagoon waste. Of the 52 surface- and ground-water samples collected all but two tested negative and these two samples contained tetracycline antibiotic concentrations less than 1 ppb. A new liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method was used to confirm the radioimmunoassay results in 9 samples and also to identify the tetracycline antibiotics to which the radioimmunoassay test was responding. The new liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method with online solid-phase extraction and a detection level of 0.5 ??g/l confirmed the presence of chlorotetracycline in the hog lagoon samples and in one of the surface-water samples. The concentrations calculated from the radioimmunoassay were a factor of 1-5 times less than those calculated by the liquid

  5. Screening of environmental contaminants in honey bee wax comb using gas chromatography-high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ramos, M M; García-Valcárcel, A I; Tadeo, J L; Fernández-Alba, A R; Hernando, M D

    2016-03-01

    This study reports an analytical approach intended to be used for investigation of non-targeted environmental contaminants and to characterize the organic pollution pattern of bee wax comb samples. The method comprises a generic extraction followed by detection with gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS), operated in electron impact ionization (EI) mode. The screening approach for the investigation of non-targeted contaminants consisted of initial peak detection by deconvolution and matching the first-stage mass spectra EI-MS(1) with a nominal mass spectral library. To gain further confidence in the structural characterization of the contaminants under investigation, the molecular formula of representative ions (molecular ion when present in the EI spectrum) and, for at least other two fragment ions, was provided for those with an accurate mass scoring (mass error contaminants in 50 samples of bee wax comb. This approach has allowed the tentative identification of some GC-amenable contaminants belonging to different chemical groups, among them, phthalates and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), along with residues of veterinary treatments used in apiculture.

  6. Chest radiographic findings in bronchogenic carcinoma in pakistani population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suliman, M.I.; Ali, B.; Majeed, H.; Qureshi, F.

    2008-01-01

    To observe the common radiographic findings in histologically confirmed cases of bronchogenic carcinoma. This descriptive study comprised of 35 consecutive histopathologically / cytological confirmed cases of bronchogenic carcinoma that were admitted from January 2000 to April 2003 in Bahawal Victoria Hospital Bahawalpur. Plain chest radiographs were obtained in all cases Two radiologists blinded to the cell types were asked to interpret the radiographs. Hilar mass was the major manifestation in 62.8% cases. Chest radiographs showed 7 different types of lesions in four cell varieties in 35 cases, these included hilar mass in 62% cases of squamous cell carcinoma. Cavitation and rib erosion were found exclusively in squamous cell type carcinoma. In small cell carcinomas, hilar Involvement was present in 83.3% cases. Half of large cell carcinomas and one case of adenocarcinoma presented with a peripheral mass. Hilar mass was seen in 50% cases with adenocarcinoma Wide mediastinum was seen only in cases with small cell carcinoma. The chest radiograph findings in bronchogenic carcinoma has more or less a standard patterns which Can help the physician in better suspicion and diagnosis. (author)

  7. Dual-Energy Contrast-Enhanced Spectral Mammography: Enhancement Analysis on BI-RADS 4 Non-Mass Microcalcifications in Screened Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Chung Cheung

    Full Text Available Mammography screening is a cost-efficient modality with high sensitivity for detecting impalpable cancer with microcalcifications, and results in reduced mortality rates. However, the probability of finding microcalcifications without associated cancerous masses varies. We retrospectively evaluated the diagnosis and cancer probability of the non-mass screened microcalcifications by dual-energy contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (DE-CESM.With ethical approval from our hospital, we enrolled the cases of DE-CESM for analysis under the following inclusion criteria: (1 referrals due to screened BI-RADS 4 microcalcifications; (2 having DE-CESM prior to stereotactic biopsy; (3 no associated mass found by sonography and physical examination; and (4 pathology-based diagnosis using stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsy. We analyzed the added value of post-contrast enhancement on DE-CESM.A total of 94 biopsed lesions were available for analysis in our 87 women, yielding 27 cancers [19 ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS, and 8 invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC], 32 pre-malignant and 35 benign lesions. Of these 94 lesions, 33 showed associated enhancement in DE-CESM while the other 61 did not. All 8 IDC (100% and 16 of 19 DCIS (84.21% showed enhancement, but the other 3 DCIS (15.79% did not. Overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were 88.89%, 86.56%, 72.72%, 95.08% and 87.24%, respectively. The performances of DE-CESM on both amorphous and pleomorphic microcalcifications were satisfactory (AUC 0.8 and 0.92, respectively. The pleomorphous microcalcifications with enhancement showed higher positive predictive value (90.00% vs 46.15%, p = 0.013 and higher cancer probability than the amorphous microcalcifications (46.3% VS 15.1%. The Odds Ratio was 4.85 (95% CI: 1.84-12.82.DE-CESM might provide added value in assessing the non-mass screened breast microcalcification, with enhancement favorable to the

  8. Dual-Energy Contrast-Enhanced Spectral Mammography: Enhancement Analysis on BI-RADS 4 Non-Mass Microcalcifications in Screened Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Yun-Chung; Juan, Yu-Hsiang; Lin, Yu-Ching; Lo, Yung-Feng; Tsai, Hsiu-Pei; Ueng, Shir-Hwa; Chen, Shin-Cheh

    2016-01-01

    Mammography screening is a cost-efficient modality with high sensitivity for detecting impalpable cancer with microcalcifications, and results in reduced mortality rates. However, the probability of finding microcalcifications without associated cancerous masses varies. We retrospectively evaluated the diagnosis and cancer probability of the non-mass screened microcalcifications by dual-energy contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (DE-CESM). With ethical approval from our hospital, we enrolled the cases of DE-CESM for analysis under the following inclusion criteria: (1) referrals due to screened BI-RADS 4 microcalcifications; (2) having DE-CESM prior to stereotactic biopsy; (3) no associated mass found by sonography and physical examination; and (4) pathology-based diagnosis using stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsy. We analyzed the added value of post-contrast enhancement on DE-CESM. A total of 94 biopsed lesions were available for analysis in our 87 women, yielding 27 cancers [19 ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and 8 invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC)], 32 pre-malignant and 35 benign lesions. Of these 94 lesions, 33 showed associated enhancement in DE-CESM while the other 61 did not. All 8 IDC (100%) and 16 of 19 DCIS (84.21%) showed enhancement, but the other 3 DCIS (15.79%) did not. Overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were 88.89%, 86.56%, 72.72%, 95.08% and 87.24%, respectively. The performances of DE-CESM on both amorphous and pleomorphic microcalcifications were satisfactory (AUC 0.8 and 0.92, respectively). The pleomorphous microcalcifications with enhancement showed higher positive predictive value (90.00% vs 46.15%, p = 0.013) and higher cancer probability than the amorphous microcalcifications (46.3% VS 15.1%). The Odds Ratio was 4.85 (95% CI: 1.84-12.82). DE-CESM might provide added value in assessing the non-mass screened breast microcalcification, with enhancement favorable to the

  9. Angular relational signature-based chest radiograph image view classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosh, K C; Wendling, Laurent

    2018-01-22

    In a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system, especially for chest radiograph or chest X-ray (CXR) screening, CXR image view information is required. Automatically separating CXR image view, frontal and lateral can ease subsequent CXR screening process, since the techniques may not equally work for both views. We present a novel technique to classify frontal and lateral CXR images, where we introduce angular relational signature through force histogram to extract features and apply three different state-of-the-art classifiers: multi-layer perceptron, random forest, and support vector machine to make a decision. We validated our fully automatic technique on a set of 8100 images hosted by the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM), National Institutes of Health (NIH), and achieved an accuracy close to 100%. Our method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in terms of processing time (less than or close to 2 s for the whole test data) while the accuracies can be compared, and therefore, it justifies its practicality. Graphical Abstract Interpreting chest X-ray (CXR) through the angular relational signature.

  10. Regionally adaptive histogram equalization of the chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherrier, R.H.; Johnson, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    Advances in digital chest radiography have resulted in the acquisition of high-quality digital images of the human chest. With these advances, there arises a genuine need for image processing algorithms, specific to chest images. The author has implemented the technique of histogram equalization, noting the problems encountered when it is adapted to chest images. These problems have been successfully solved with a regionally adaptive histogram equalization method. Histograms are calculated locally and then modified according to both the mean pixel value of a given region and certain characteristics of the cumulative distribution function. The method allows certain regions of the chest radiograph to be enhanced differentially

  11. Hemorrhagic lesion on the chest wall after trauma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Roche, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    A 59-year-old woman presented with a burning, rapidly progressive mass on the midchest, occurring after a fall, 4 months prior. Examination found a large well-circumscribed mass over the lower xiphisternum (Figs 1 and 2). Results of baseline investigations were normal apart from mildly elevated liver function values. A computerized tomography scan confirmed a 6.4- x 4.9-cm lobulated soft tissue heterogeneous-density mass located in the subcutaneous fat with ill-defined borders and no obvious infiltration of the chest wall. A single focal abnormality\\r\

  12. Examination of segmental average mass spectra from liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) data enables screening of multiple types of protein modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nai-Yu; Lee, Hsiao-Hui; Chang, Zee-Fen; Tsay, Yeou-Guang

    2015-09-10

    It has been observed that a modified peptide and its non-modified counterpart, when analyzed with reverse phase liquid chromatography, usually share a very similar elution property [1-3]. Inasmuch as this property is common to many different types of protein modifications, we propose an informatics-based approach, featuring the generation of segmental average mass spectra ((sa)MS), that is capable of locating different types of modified peptides in two-dimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (LC-MS) data collected for regular protease digests from proteins in gels or solutions. To enable the localization of these peptides in the LC-MS map, we have implemented a set of computer programs, or the (sa)MS package, that perform the needed functions, including generating a complete set of segmental average mass spectra, compiling the peptide inventory from the Sequest/TurboSequest results, searching modified peptide candidates and annotating a tandem mass spectrum for final verification. Using ROCK2 as an example, our programs were applied to identify multiple types of modified peptides, such as phosphorylated and hexosylated ones, which particularly include those peptides that could have been ignored due to their peculiar fragmentation patterns and consequent low search scores. Hence, we demonstrate that, when complemented with peptide search algorithms, our approach and the entailed computer programs can add the sequence information needed for bolstering the confidence of data interpretation by the present analytical platforms and facilitate the mining of protein modification information out of complicated LC-MS/MS data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Primary breast lymphoma: a consideration in an HIV patient when a mass is discovered by screening mammography: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinwande, Olagoke K; Paley, Robert

    2008-12-11

    Primary Breast lymphoma is a rare lesion that has been reported in patients without HIV. However, Primary Breast lymphoma occurring in a patient with HIV has rarely been reported despite the fact that HIV infection is known to increase the propensity to develop certain types of lymphoma. We report a case of an HIV patient with breast lymphoma that was discovered by screening mammography while presenting our argument for more cautionary management in this patient population.

  14. Accurate screening for synthetic preservatives in beverage using high performance liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiuqin; Zhang Feng; Sun Yanyan; Yong Wei; Chu Xiaogang; Fang Yanyan; Zweigenbaum, Jerry

    2008-01-01

    In this study, liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/TOF-MS) is applied to qualitation and quantitation of 18 synthetic preservatives in beverage. The identification by HPLC/TOF-MS is accomplished with the accurate mass (the subsequent generated empirical formula) of the protonated molecules [M + H]+ or the deprotonated molecules [M - H]-, along with the accurate mass of their main fragment ions. In order to obtain sufficient sensitivity for quantitation purposes (using the protonated or deprotonated molecule) and additional qualitative mass spectrum information provided by the fragments ions, segment program of fragmentor voltages is designed in positive and negative ion mode, respectively. Accurate mass measurements are highly useful in the complex sample analyses since they allow us to achieve a high degree of specificity, often needed when other interferents are present in the matrix. The mass accuracy typically obtained is routinely better than 3 ppm. The 18 compounds behave linearly in the 0.005-5.0 mg.kg -1 concentration range, with correlation coefficient >0.996. The recoveries at the tested concentrations of 1.0 mg.kg -1 -100 mg.kg -1 are 81-106%, with coefficients of variation -1 , which are far below the required maximum residue level (MRL) for these preservatives in foodstuff. The method is suitable for routine quantitative and qualitative analyses of synthetic preservatives in foodstuff

  15. Weak cation exchange magnetic beads coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry in screening serum protein markers in osteopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei-Tao; Liang, Bo-Cheng; Shi, Zhen-Yu; Li, Xu-Yun; Li, Chun-Wen; Shi, Xiao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the weak cation magnetic separation technology and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) in screening serum protein markers of osteopenia from ten postmenopausal women and ten postmenopausal women without osteopenia as control group, to find a new method for screening biomarkers and establishing a diagnostic model for primary type I osteoporosis. Serum samples were collected from postmenopausal women with osteopenia and postmenopausal women with normal bone mass. Proteins were extracted from serum samples by weak cation exchange magnetic beads technology, and mass spectra acquisition was done by MALDI-TOF-MS. The visualization and comparison of data sets, statistical peak evaluation, model recognition, and discovery of biomarker candidates were handled by the proteinchip data analysis system software(ZJU-PDAS). The diagnostic models were established using genetic arithmetic based support vector machine (SVM). The SVM result with the highest Youden Index was selected as the model. Combinatorial Peaks having the highest accuracy in distinguishing different samples were selected as potential biomarker. From the two group serum samples, a total of 133 differential features were selected. Ten features with significant intensity differences were screened. In the pair-wise comparisons, processing of MALDI-TOF spectra resulted in the identification of ten differential features between postmenopausal women with osteopenia and postmenopausal women with normal bone mass. The difference of features by Youden index showed that the highest features had a mass to charge ratio of 1699 and 3038 Da. A diagnosis model was established with these two peaks as the candidate marker, and the specificity of the model is 100 %, the sensitivity was 90 % by leave-one-out cross validation test. The two groups of specimens in SVM results on the scatter plot could be clearly distinguished. The peak

  16. Gastric tumors on chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Shozo; Kawanami, Takashi; Russell, W.J.

    1978-04-01

    Gastric neoplasms of three patients protruded into their gas-containing fornices and were first visualized on plain chest radiographs. Endoscopy and/or surgery confirmed these to be a polyp, a leiomyoma, and an adenocarcinoma. The polyp, 1.3 cm in diameter, was the smallest of these three, but smaller lesions may be detectable under suitable conditions. Adequate technique and positioning, sufficiently large lesions in the upper portion of the stomach, a central beam tangential to the tumor, sufficient gas in the stomach, and careful scrutiny by the observer are required. Lesions may be more readily visualized during chest radiography when oral sodium bicarbonate is used to distend the stomach. In chest radiography, exposure limited to the lung fields has been advocated for economy and dose reduction. However, too small an exposure field may result in loss of information potentially beneficial to the patient. Using the smaller of two popular film sizes (35 x 43 cm and 35 x 35 cm), the saving in surface and bone marrow doses is negligible, and the saving in gonad dose may be nil over that when shielding is used. The interest of the observer may be absorbed by a concomitant cardiac or pulmonary lesion. Careful scrutiny of the entire radiograph is therefore essential. (author)

  17. High-Risk Screening for Fabry Disease: Analysis by Tandem Mass Spectrometry of Globotriaosylceramide (Gb3 ) in Urine Collected on Filter Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auray-Blais, Christiane; Lavoie, Pamela; Boutin, Michel; Abaoui, Mona

    2017-04-06

    Fabry disease is a complex, panethnic lysosomal storage disorder. It is characterized by the accumulation of glycosphingolipids in tissues, organs, the vascular endothelium, and biological fluids. The reported incidence in different populations is quite variable, ranging from 1:1400 to 1:117,000. Its complexity lies in the marked genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity. Despite the fact that it is an X-linked disease, more than 600 mutations affect both males and females. In fact, some females may be affected as severely as males. The purpose of this protocol is to focus on the high-risk screening of patients who might have Fabry disease using a simple, rapid, non-invasive high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method for urinary globotriaosylceramide (Gb 3 ) analysis. Urine filter paper samples are easily collected at home by patients and sent by regular mail. This method has been successfully used for high-risk screening of patients with ophthalmologic manifestations and in an on-going study for high-risk screening of Fabry disease in patients with chronic kidney diseases. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  18. Exploring the Potential of a Global Emerging Contaminant Early Warning Network through the Use of Retrospective Suspect Screening with High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alygizakis, Nikiforos A; Samanipour, Saer; Hollender, Juliane; Ibáñez, María; Kaserzon, Sarit; Kokkali, Varvara; van Leerdam, Jan A; Mueller, Jochen F; Pijnappels, Martijn; Reid, Malcolm J; Schymanski, Emma L; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S; Thomas, Kevin V

    2018-04-13

    A key challenge in the environmental and exposure sciences is to establish experimental evidence of the role of chemical exposure in human and environmental systems. High resolution and accurate tandem mass spectrometry (HRMS) is increasingly being used for the analysis of environmental samples. One lauded benefit of HRMS is the possibility to retrospectively process data for (previously omitted) compounds that has led to the archiving of HRMS data. Archived HRMS data affords the possibility of exploiting historical data to rapidly and effectively establish the temporal and spatial occurrence of newly identified contaminants through retrospective suspect screening. We propose to establish a global emerging contaminant early warning network to rapidly assess the spatial and temporal distribution of contaminants of emerging concern in environmental samples through performing retrospective analysis on HRMS data. The effectiveness of such a network is demonstrated through a pilot study, where eight reference laboratories with available archived HRMS data retrospectively screened data acquired from aqueous environmental samples collected in 14 countries on 3 different continents. The widespread spatial occurrence of several surfactants (e.g., polyethylene glycols ( PEGs ) and C12AEO-PEGs ), transformation products of selected drugs (e.g., gabapentin-lactam, metoprolol-acid, carbamazepine-10-hydroxy, omeprazole-4-hydroxy-sulfide, and 2-benzothiazole-sulfonic-acid), and industrial chemicals (3-nitrobenzenesulfonate and bisphenol-S) was revealed. Obtaining identifications of increased reliability through retrospective suspect screening is challenging, and recommendations for dealing with issues such as broad chromatographic peaks, data acquisition, and sensitivity are provided.

  19. Dual-target screening of bioactive components from traditional Chinese medicines by hollow fiber-based ligand fishing combined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Wang, Xin; Liu, Youping; Di, Xin

    2017-09-05

    A novel strategy was developed for dual-target screening of bioactive components from traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). This strategy was based on the use of low-cost microporous hollow fibers filled with target enzymes as baits to "fish out" the ligands in TCM extracts, followed by identification of the ligands dissociated from the target-ligand complexes by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Ganjiang Huangqin Huanglian Renshen Decoction (GHHRD), a classical TCM prescription for diabetes treatment, was chosen as a model sample to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed strategy. Three bioactive components were successfully screened out from GHHRD. Coptisine was identified as the ligand of α-glucosidase and baicalin as the ligand of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Berberine was found to be a dual inhibitor of α-glucosidase and ACE. The results were further verified by enzyme inhibitory assay and molecular docking simulation. The study suggested that our developed strategy would be a powerful tool for screening bioactive components from multi-component and multi-target TCMs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Simultaneous Screening of Major Flame Retardants and Plasticizers in Polymer Materials Using Pyrolyzer/Thermal Desorption Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (Py/TD–GC–MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Yanagisawa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted with the aim of achieving the simultaneous screening of various additives in polymer materials by utilizing a solvent-free pyrolyzer/thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (Py/TD-GC–MS method. As a first step to achieve this goal, simultaneous screening has been examined by selecting major substances representing plasticizers and flame retardants, such as short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs, decabromodiphenyl ether (DecaBDE, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD, and di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP. A quantitative MS analysis was performed to check for the peak areas and sensitivities. Since Py/TD-GC–MS is fraught with the risk of thermal degradation of the sample, temperatures during the analytical process were finely tuned for securing reliable results. The instrumental sensitivity was confirmed by the S/N ratio on each component. The detection limits of all components were less than 50 mg/kg, which are sufficiently lower than the regulatory criteria. With regard to reproducibility, a relative standard deviation (RSD of about 5% was confirmed by employing a spike recovery test on a polystyrene polymer solution containing mixed standard solution (ca. 1000 mg/kg. In conclusion, the results obtained in this study indicate that Py/TD-GC–MS is applicable for the screening of major flame retardants and plasticizers in real samples with sufficient reproducibility at regulatory levels.