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Sample records for martian soil montmorillonite

  1. Survival of microorganisms in smectite clays: Implications for Martian exobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Deborah M.; Vestal, J. Robie

    1992-08-01

    Manned exploration of Mars may result in the contamination of that planet with terrestrial microbes, a situation requiring assessment of the survival potential of possible contaminating organisms. In this study, the survival of Bacillus subtilis, Azotobacter chroococcum, and the enteric bacteriophage MS2 was examined in clays representing terrestrial (Wyoming type montmorillonite) or Martian (Fe 3+-montmorillonite) soils exposed to terrestrial and Martian environmental conditions of temperature and atmospheric pressure and composition, but not to UV flux or oxidizing conditions. Survival of bacteria was determined by standard plate counts and biochemical and physiological measurements over 112 days. Extractable lipid phosphate was used to measure microbial biomass, and the rate of 14C-acetate incorporation into microbial lipids was used to determine physiological activity. MS2 survival was assayed by plaque counts. Both bacterial types survived terrestrial or Martian conditions in Wyoming montmorillonite better than Martian conditions in Fe 3+-montmorillonite. Decreased survival may have been caused by the lower pH of the Fe 3+-montmorillonite compared to Wyoming montmorillonite. MS2 survived simulated Mars conditions better than the terrestrial environment, likely due to stabilization of the virus caused by the cold and dry conditions of the simulated Martian environment. The survival of MS2 in the simulated Martian environment is the first published indication that viruses may be able to survive in Martian type soils. This work may have implications for planetary protection for future Mars missions.

  2. Survival of microorganisms in smectite clays - Implications for Martian exobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Deborah M.; Vestal, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    The survival of Baccillus subtilis, Azotobacter chroococcum, and the enteric bacteriophage MS2 has been examined in clays representing terrestrial (Wyoming type montmorillonite) and Martian (Fe3+ montmorillonite) soils exposed to terrestrial and Martian environmental conditions of temperature and atmospheric composition and pressure. An important finding is that MS2 survived simulated Mars conditions better than the terrestrial environment, probably owing to stabilization of the virus caused by the cold and dry conditions of the simulated Mars environment. This finding, the first published indication that viruses may be able to survive in Mars-type soils, may have important implications for future missions to Mars.

  3. Clay catalyzed RNA synthesis under Martian conditions: Application for Mars return samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Prakash C; Dubey, Krishna; Aldersley, Michael F; Sausville, Meaghen

    2015-06-26

    Catalysis by montmorillonites clay minerals is regarded as a feasible mechanism for the abiotic production and polymerization of key biomolecules on early Earth. We have investigated a montmorillonite-catalyzed reaction of the 5'-phosphorimidazolide of nucleosides as a model to probe prebiotic synthesis of RNA-type oligomers. Here we show that this model is specific for the generation of RNA oligomers despite deoxy-mononucleotides adsorbing equally well onto the montmorillonite catalytic surfaces. Optimum catalytic activity was observed over a range of pH (6-9) and salinity (1 ± 0.2 M NaCl). When the weathering steps of early Earth that generated catalytic montmorillonite were modified to meet Martian soil conditions, the catalytic activity remained intact without altering the surface layer charge. Additionally, the formation of oligomers up to tetramer was detected using as little as 0.1 mg of Na⁺-montmorillonite, suggesting that the catalytic activity of a Martian clay return sample can be investigated with sub-milligram scale samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Adsorptive Stabilization of Soil Cr (VI) Using HDTMA Modified Montmorillonite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-15

    A series of organo-montomorillonites were prepared using Na-montomorillonite and hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (HDTMA). The organo-montomorillonites were then investigated for the remediation of Cr(VI) contaminated soils. FT-IR, XRD, SEM and N2 -BET, CEC, Zeta potential measurement were conducted to understand the structural changes of montmorillonites as different amounts of HDTMAs were added as modifier. The characterization results indicated that the clay interlayer spacing distance increased from 1. 25 nm to 2. 13 nm, the clay surface roughness decreased, the clay surface area reduced from 38.91 m² · g⁻¹ to 0.42 m² · g⁻¹, the clay exchangeable cation amount reduced from 62 cmol · kg⁻¹ to 9.9 cmol · kg⁻¹ and the clay surface charge changed from -29.1 mV to 5.59 mV as the dosage of HDTMA in montmorillonite was increased. The TCLP (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure) was used to evaluate the leachate toxicity of Cr(VI). The effects of the initial soil Cr(VI) concentration, montmorillonites dosage, reaction time and HDTMA modification amount were investigated, respectively. The results revealed that modification of montmorillonites would manifest an attenuated physical adsorptive effect and an enhanced electrostatic adsorptive effect on Cr(VI), suggesting electrostatic effect was the major force that resulted in improved Cr(VI) adsorption onto HDTMA modified montmorillonites.

  5. Physical and chemical properties of the Martian soil: Review of resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, C. R.; Gooding, James L.; Banin, A.; Clark, Benton C.; Roush, Ted

    1991-01-01

    The chemical and physical properties of Martian surface materials are reviewed from the perspective of using these resources to support human settlement. The resource potential of Martian sediments and soils can only be inferred from limited analyses performed by the Viking Landers (VL), from information derived from remote sensing, and from analysis of the SNC meteorites thought to be from Mars. Bulk elemental compositions by the VL inorganic chemical (x ray fluorescence) analysis experiments have been interpreted as evidence for clay minerals (possibly smectites) or mineraloids (palagonite) admixed with sulfate and chloride salts. The materials contained minerals bearing Fe, Ti, Al, Mg and Si. Martian surface materials may be used in many ways. Martian soil, with appropriate preconditioning, can probably be used as a plant growth medium, supplying mechanical support, nutrient elements, and water at optimal conditions to the plants. Loose Martian soils could be used to cover structures and provide radiation shielding for surface habitats. Martian soil could be wetted and formed into abode bricks used for construction. Duricrete bricks, with strength comparable to concrete, can probably be formed using compressed muds made from martian soil.

  6. Smectite clays in Mars soil - Evidence for their presence and role in Viking biology experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banin, A.; Rishpon, J.

    1979-01-01

    Evidence for the presence of smectite clays in Martian soils is reviewed and results of experiments with certain active clays simulating the Viking biology experiments are reported. Analyses of Martian soil composition by means of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and dust storm spectroscopy and Martian geological history strongly suggest the presence of a mixture of weathered ferro-silicate minerals, mainly nontronite and montmorillonite, accompanied by soluble sulphate salts, as major constituents. Samples of montmorillonite and nontronite incubated with (C-14)-formate or the radioactive nutrient medium solution used in the Viking Labeled Release experiment, were found to produce patterns of release of radioactive gas very similar to those observed in the Viking experiments, indicating the iron-catalyzed decomposition of formate as the reaction responsible for the Viking results. The experimental results of Hubbard (1979) simulating the results of the Viking Pyrolytic Release experiment using iron montmorillonites are pointed out, and it is concluded that many of the results of the Viking biology experiments can be explained in terms of the surface activity of smectite clays in catalysis and adsorption.

  7. Effects of Applying Lime and CalciumMontmorillonite on Nitrification Dynamics in Acidic Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Mei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil acidification is known as a natural and slow process along with clay mineral weathering. In recent years however, with inten sive soil utilization in agriculture, soil acidification has increased dramatically and nitrification of ammonium nitrogen fertilizer is one of the main contributors to soil acidification. Lime application is the traditional practice to improve acidic soils but it often makes the soil acidic a gain leading to soil compaction in most cases. Montmorillonite is the main clay mineral component of alkaline or neutral soils, more so it is known to undergo further weathering processes during soil acidification. The laboratory-based incubations were used in this study, and nitri fication was measured while kinetic curves were fitted to check the effects of decreasing soil acidity by lime(Ca-OHand montmorillonite (Ca-Mon nitrification of the acidic soil. The results showed that significant nitrification was observed both in Ca-OH and Ca-M treatments, and the nitrification process was fitted in the first-order kinetic model, NNO3=N0+Np(1-exp(-k1t(P-1·d-1was significantly higher than that of Ca-M treatment(2.381 mg·kg-1·d-1. The potential nitrifi cation rate(Vpwere 6.42, 8.58 mg N·kg-1·d-1 at pH 5.7 and 6.2 respectively, and the average nitrification rate(Vaof Ca-OH treatment were 2.71, 3.88 mg N·kg-1·d-1 respectively, which were significantly greater than those of Ca-M treatment(Vp were 3.40, 4.56 mg N·kg-1·d-1 and Va were 2.36, 3.04 mg N·kg-1·d-1 at pH 5.7 and 6.2 respectively. Therefore the net nitrification rate, potential nitrification rate(Vp and average nitrification rate(Vaof Ca-OH treatment were significantly higher than that of Ca-M treatment, suggesting that the possibili ty and degree of soil reacidification by using lime to improve acidic soil is greater than using calcium montmorillonite. This study will provide a new reference for the improvement of acid soils.

  8. Curiosity analyzes Martian soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy; Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-12-01

    NASA's Mars Curiosity rover has conducted its first analysis of Martian soil samples using multiple instruments, the agency announced at a 3 December news briefing at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco. "These results are an unprecedented look at the chemical diversity in the area," said NASA's Michael Meyer, program scientist for Curiosity.

  9. Activity and stability of a complex bacterial soil community under simulated Martian conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Aviaja Anna; Merrison, Jonathan; Nørnberg, Per; Aagaard Lomstein, Bente; Finster, Kai

    2005-04-01

    A simulation experiment with a complex bacterial soil community in a Mars simulation chamber was performed to determine the effect of Martian conditions on community activity, stability and survival. At three different depths in the soil core short-term effects of Martian conditions with and without ultraviolet (UV) exposure corresponding to 8 Martian Sol were compared. Community metabolic activities and functional diversity, measured as glucose respiration and versatility in substrate utilization, respectively, decreased after UV exposure, whereas they remained unaffected by Martian conditions without UV exposure. In contrast, the numbers of culturable bacteria and the genetic diversity were unaffected by the simulated Martian conditions both with and without UV exposure. The genetic diversity of the soil community and of the colonies grown on agar plates were evaluated by denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) on DNA extracts. Desiccation of the soil prior to experimentation affected the functional diversity by decreasing the versatility in substrate utilization. The natural dominance of endospores and Gram-positive bacteria in the investigated Mars-analogue soil may explain the limited effect of the Mars incubations on the survival and community structure. Our results suggest that UV radiation and desiccation are major selecting factors on bacterial functional diversity in terrestrial bacterial communities incubated under simulated Martian conditions. Furthermore, these results suggest that forward contamination of Mars is a matter of great concern in future space missions.

  10. Methylated silicates may explain the release of chlorinated methane from Martian soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Ebbe N.; Jensen, Svend J. Knak; Nørnberg, Per; Finster, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The only organic compounds that have been detected in the Martian soil are simple chlorinated compounds released from heated surface material. However, the sources of the organic carbon are in dispute. Wind abraded silicates, which are widespread on the Martian surface, can sequester atmospheric methane which generates methylated silicates and thus could provide a mechanism for accumulation of reduced carbon in the surface soil. In this study we show that thermal volatilization of methylated silicates in the presence of perchlorate leads to the production of chlorinated methane. Thus, methylated silicates could be a source of the organic carbon released as chlorinated methane upon thermal volatilization of Martian soil samples. Further, our experiments show that the ratio of the different chlorinated compounds produced is dependent on the mass ratio of perchlorate to organic carbon in the soil.

  11. The chemical reactivity of the Martian soil and implications for future missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zent, Aaron P.; Mckay, Christopher P.

    1994-01-01

    Possible interpretations of the results of the Viking Biology Experiments suggest that greater than 1 ppm of a thermally labile oxidant, perhaps H2O2, and about 10 ppm of a thermally stable oxidant are present in the martian soil. We reexamine these results and discuss implications for future missions, the search for organics on Mars, and the possible health and engineering effects for human exploration. We conclude that further characterization of the reactivity of the martian regolith materials is warrented-although if our present understanding is correct the oxidant does not pose a hazard to humans. There are difficulties in explaining the reactivity of the Martian soil by oxidants. Most bulk phase compounds that are capable of oxidizing H2O to O2 per the Gas Exchange Experiment (GEx) are thermally labile or unstable against reduction by atmospheric CO2. Models invoking trapped O2 or peroxynitrates (NOO2(-)) require an unlikely geologic history for the Viking Lander 2 site. Most suggested oxidants, including H2O2, are expected to decompose rapidly under martian UV. Nonetheless, we conclude that the best model for the martian soil contains oxidants produced by heterogeneous chemical reactions with a photochemically produced atmospheric oxidant. The GEx results may be due to catalytic decomposition of an unstable oxidizing material by H2O. We show that interfacial reaction sites covering less than 1% of the available soil surfaces could explain the Viking Biology Experiments results.

  12. Influence of montmorillonite on antimicrobial activity of tetracycline and ciprofloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Guocheng; Pearce, Cody W.; Gleason, Andrea; Liao, Libing; MacWilliams, Maria P.; Li, Zhaohui

    2013-11-01

    Antibiotics are used not only to fight infections and inhibit bacterial growth, but also as growth promotants in farm livestock. Farm runoff and other farm-linked waste have led to increased antibiotic levels present in the environment, the impact of which is not completely understood. Soil, more specifically clays, that the antibiotic contacts may alter its effectiveness against bacteria. In this study a swelling clay mineral montmorillonite was preloaded with antibiotics tetracycline and ciprofloxacin at varying concentrations and bioassays were conducted to examine whether the antibiotics still inhibited bacterial growth in the presence of montmorillonite. Escherichia coli was incubated with montmorillonite or antibiotic-adsorbed montmorillonite, and then the number of viable bacteria per mL was determined. The antimicrobial activity of tetracycline was affected in the presence of montmorillonite, as the growth of non-resistant bacteria was still found even when extremely high TC doses were used. Conversely, in the presence of montmorillonite, ciprofloxacin did inhibit E. coli bacterial growth at high concentrations. These results suggest that the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents in clayey soils depends on the amount of antibiotic substance present, and on the interactions between the antibiotic and the clays in the soil, as well.

  13. Synthesis of Sol-Gel Precursors for Ceramics from Lunar and Martian Soil Simulars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibille, L.; Gavira-Gallardo, J. A.; Hourlier-Bahloul, D.

    2004-01-01

    Recent NASA mission plans for the human exploration of our Solar System has set new priorities for research and development of technologies necessary to enable a long-term human presence on the Moon and Mars. The recovery and processing of metals and oxides from mineral sources on other planets is under study to enable use of ceramics, glasses and metals by explorer outposts. We report initial results on the production of sol-gel precursors for ceramic products using mineral resources available in martian or lunar soil. The presence of SO2, TiO2, and Al2O3 in both martian (44 wt.% SiO2, 1 wt.% TiO2, 7 wt.% Al2O3) and lunar (48 wt.% SiO2, 1.5 wt.% TiO2, 16 wt.% Al2O3) soils and the recent developments in chemical processes to solubilize silicates using organic reagents and relatively little energy indicate that such an endeavor is possible. In order to eliminate the risks involved in the use of hydrofluoric acid to dissolve silicates, two distinct chemical routes are investigated to obtain soluble silicon oxide precursors from lunar and martian soil simulars. Clear solutions of sol-gel precursors have been obtained by dissolution of silica from lunar soil similar JSC-1 in basic ethylene glycol (C2H4(OH)2) solutions to form silicon glycolates. Similarly, sol-gel solutions produced from martian soil simulars reveal higher contents of iron oxides. Characterization of the precursor molecules and efforts to further concentrate and hydrolyze the products to obtain gel materials will be presented for evaluation as ceramic precursors.

  14. Synthesis of Sol-Gel Precursors for Ceramics from Lunar and Martian Soil Simulars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibille, L.; Gavira-Gallardo, J. A.; Hourlier-Bahloul, D.

    2003-01-01

    Recent NASA mission plans for the human exploration of our Solar System has set new priorities for research and development of technologies necessary to enable a long-term human presence on the Moon and Mars. The recovery and processing of metals and oxides from mineral sources on other planets is under study to enable use of ceramics, glasses and metals by explorer outposts. We report initial results on the production of sol-gel precursors for ceramic products using mineral resources available in martian or lunar soil. The presence of SiO2, TiO2, and Al2O3 in both martian (44 wt.% SiO2, 1 wt.% TiO2,7 wt.% Al2O3) and lunar (48 wt.% SiO2, 1.5 wt.% TiO2, 16 wt.% Al2O3) soils and the recent developments in chemical processes to solubilize silicates using organic reagents and relatively little energy indicate that such an endeavor is possible. In order to eliminate the risks involved in the use of hydrofluoric acid to dissolve silicates, two distinct chemical routes are investigated to obtain soluble silicon oxide precursors from lunar and martian soil simulars. Clear solutions of sol-gel precursors have been obtained by dissolution of silica from lunar soil simular in basic ethylene glycol (C2H4(OH)2) solutions to form silicon glycolates. Similarly, sol-gel solutions produced from martian soil simulars reveal higher contents of iron oxides. The elemental composition and structure of the precursor molecules were characterized. Further concentration and hydrolysis of the products was performed to obtain gel materials for evaluation as ceramic precursors.

  15. Characterizing Martian Soils: Correlating Orbital Observations with Chemistry and Mineralogy from Landed Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    Great advances have been achieved recently in our understanding of the surface of Mars at global scales from orbital missions and at local scales from landed missions. This presentation seeks to provide links between the chemistry and mineralogy observed by landed missions with remote detections of minerals from orbit. Spectral data from CRISM, OMEGA and TES characterize a mostly basaltic planet with some outcrops of hematite, clays, sulfates and carbonates at the surface. Recent alteration of these rocks to form soils has likely been dominated by physical processes; however, martian soils probably also contain relicts of early alteration involving aqueous processes. Clays, hydroxides, sulfates, carbonates and perchlorates are examples of surface components that may have formed early in the planet’s history in the presence of liquid water. Some of these minerals have not been detected in the soil, but all have likely contributed to the current soil composition. The grain size, shape, chemistry, mineralogy, and magnetic properties of Martian soils are similar to altered volcanic ash found at many analog sites on Earth. Reflectance and emission spectra of some of these analog soils are consistent with the basic soil spectral properties observed from orbit. The cemented soil units observed by rovers may have formed through interaction of the soil grains with salts, clays, and hydroxides. Lab experiments have shown that cementing of analog grains darkens the VN reflectance, which could explain the low reflectance of Martian soils compared to analog sites. Reflectance spectra of an analog soil mixture containing altered ash and sulfate are shown in Figure 1. A pellet was made by adding water and allowing the sample to dry in air. Finally, the pellet was crushed and ground again to properties might be.

  16. Origin and Reactivity of the Martian Soil: A 2003 Micromission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Albert S.; Kim, S. Sam; Marshall, John; Murray, Bruce C.

    1999-01-01

    The role of water in the development of the martian surface remains a fundamental scientific question. Did Mars have one or more "warm and wet" climatic episodes where liquid water was stable at the surface? If so, the mineral phases present in the soils should be consistent with a history of aqueous weathering. More generally, the formation of hydrated mineral phases on Mars is a strong indicator of past habitable surface environments. The primary purpose of this investigation is to help resolve the question of whether such aqueous indicators are present on Mars by probing the upper meter for diagnostic mineral species. According to Burns [1993], the formation of the ferric oxides responsible for the visible color of Mars are the result of dissolution of Fe (+2) phases from basalts followed by aqueous oxidation and precipitation of Fe" mineral assemblages. These precipitates likely included iron oxyhydroxides such as goethite (a-FeOOH) and lepidocrocite (g-FeOOH), but convincing evidence for these phases at the surface is still absent. The stability of these minerals is enhanced beneath the surface, and thus we propose a subsurface search for hydroxylated iron species as a test for a large-scale chemical weathering process based on interactions with liquid water. It is also possible that the ferric minerals on Mars are not aqueous alteration products of the rocks. A chemical study of the Pathfinder landing site concluded that the soils are not directly derived from the surrounding rocks and are enhanced in Mg and Fe. The additional source of these elements might be from other regions of Mars and transported by winds, or alternatively, from exogenic sources. Gibson [1970] proposed that the spectral reflectivity of Mars is consistent with oxidized meteoritic material. Yen and Murray [1998] further extend Gibson's idea and show, in the laboratory, that metallic iron can be readily oxidized to maghemite and hematite under present-day martian surface conditions (in the

  17. Controlled release of agrochemicals intercalated into montmorillonite interlayer space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanyika, Harrison

    2014-01-01

    Periodic application of agrochemicals has led to high cost of production and serious environmental pollution. In this study, the ability of montmorillonite (MMT) clay to act as a controlled release carrier for model agrochemical molecules has been investigated. Urea was loaded into MMT by a simple immersion technique while loading of metalaxyl was achieved by a rotary evaporation method. The successful incorporation of the agrochemicals into the interlayer space of MMT was confirmed by several techniques, such as, significant expansion of the interlayer space, reduction of Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) pore volumes and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas, and appearance of urea and metalaxyl characteristic bands on the Fourier-transform infrared spectra of the urea loaded montmorillonite (UMMT) and metalaxyl loaded montmorillonite (RMMT) complexes. Controlled release of the trapped molecules from the matrix was done in water and in the soil. The results reveal slow and sustained release behaviour for UMMT for a period of 10 days in soil. For a period of 30 days, MMT delayed the release of metalaxyl in soil by more than 6 times. It is evident that MMT could be used to improve the efficiency of urea and metalaxyl delivery in the soil.

  18. Production of reactive oxygen species from abraded silicates. Implications for the reactivity of the Martian soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Ebbe N.; Zafirov, Kaloyan; Merrison, Jonathan P.; Jensen, Svend J. Knak; Nørnberg, Per; Gunnlaugsson, Haraldur P.; Finster, Kai

    2017-09-01

    The results of the Labeled Release and the Gas Exchange experiments conducted on Mars by the Viking Landers show that compounds in the Martian soil can cause oxidation of organics and a release of oxygen in the presence of water. Several sources have been proposed for the oxidizing compounds, but none has been validated in situ and the cause of the observed oxidation has not been resolved. In this study, laboratory simulations of saltation were conducted to examine if and under which conditions wind abrasion of silicates, a process that is common on the Martian surface, can give rise to oxidants in the form of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroxyl radicals (ṡOH). We found that silicate samples abraded in simulated Martian atmospheres gave rise to a significant production of H2O2 and ṡOH upon contact with water. Our experiments demonstrated that abraded silicates could lead to a production of H2O2 facilitated by atmospheric O2 and inhibited by carbon dioxide. Furthermore, during simulated saltation the silicate particles became triboelectrically charged and at pressures similar to the Martian surface pressure we observed glow discharges. Electrical discharges can cause dissociation of CO2 and through subsequent reactions lead to a production of H2O2. These results indicate that the reactions linked to electrical discharges are the dominant source of H2O2 during saltation of silicates in a simulated Martian atmosphere, given the low pressure and the relatively high concentration of CO2. Our experiments provide evidence that wind driven abrasion could enhance the reactivity of the Martian soil and thereby could have contributed to the oxidation of organic compounds and the O2 release observed in the Labeled Release and the Gas Exchange experiments. Furthermore, the release of H2O2 and ṡOH from abraded silicates could have a negative effect on the persistence of organic compounds in the Martian soil and the habitability of the Martian surface.

  19. APXS-derived chemistry of the Bagnold dune sands: Comparisons with Gale Crater soils and the global Martian average

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell-Cooper, C. D.; Spray, J. G.; Thompson, L. M.; Gellert, R.; Berger, J. A.; Boyd, N. I.; Desouza, E. D.; Perrett, G. M.; Schmidt, M.; VanBommel, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    We present Alpha-Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) data for the active Bagnold dune field within the Gale impact crater (Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission). We derive an APXS-based average basaltic soil (ABS) composition for Mars based on past and recent data from the MSL and Mars Exploration Rover (MER) missions. This represents an update to the Taylor and McLennan (2009) average Martian soil and facilitates comparison across Martian data sets. The active Bagnold dune field is compositionally distinct from the ABS, with elevated Mg, Ni, and Fe, suggesting mafic mineral enrichment and uniformly low levels of S, Cl, and Zn, indicating only a minimal dust component. A relationship between decreasing grain size and increasing felsic content is revealed. The Bagnold sands possess the lowest S/Cl of all Martian unconsolidated materials. Gale soils exhibit relatively uniform major element compositions, similar to Meridiani Planum and Gusev Crater basaltic soils (MER missions). However, they show minor enrichments in K, Cr, Mn, and Fe, which may signify a local contribution. The lithified eolian Stimson Formation within the Gale impact crater is compositionally similar to the ABS and Bagnold sands, which provide a modern analogue for these ancient eolian deposits. Compilation of APXS-derived soil data reveals a generally homogenous global composition for Martian soils but one that can be locally modified due to past or extant geologic processes that are limited in both space and time.

  20. Fixation of enzyme protein in soil by the clay mineral montmorillonite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, L.H.

    1969-01-01

    Aminosäureverbindungen, die im Boden während des biologischen Abbaus von Kohlehydraten gebildet und vom Tonmineral Montmorillonit stabilisiert werden, haben Enzymcharakter und sind folglich Proteine.......Aminosäureverbindungen, die im Boden während des biologischen Abbaus von Kohlehydraten gebildet und vom Tonmineral Montmorillonit stabilisiert werden, haben Enzymcharakter und sind folglich Proteine....

  1. Break-up of Ca-montmorillonite particles by Na-montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedstroem, Magnus; Birgersson, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the Swedish KBS-3 concept for a geological deep storage of spent nuclear fuel, bentonite of high montmorillonite content is proposed to serve as a buffer surrounding copper canisters containing the spent fuel. Montmorillonite has an exceptional affinity for water which results in the build-up of a swelling pressure when bentonite is placed in a confined volume. However, there is a concern that during and after a glaciation, meltwater of low ionic strength may cause the bentonite to swell extensively into fractures and turn into a sol that could be transported away by the seeping water. It is thus warranted to understand the behaviour of montmorillonite at aqueous condition of low ionic strength. Turbidity measurements were used to a large extent in previous work to follow the free swelling or settling process of montmorillonite in various aqueous solutions and thereby give information regarding sol formation. From theory we know that turbidity of a suspension is proportional to the particle concentration. However turbidity is also proportional to V p 2 where V p is the volume of the scattering particle. Thus the fact that turbidity of a Ca-montmorillonite suspension is higher than the turbidity of a Na- montmorillonite suspension of the same clay concentration indicates that Na-montmorillonite separate into smaller particles than Ca-montmorillonite. In this work we make use this size dependence to quantify the difference between Wyoming, Milos and Kutch montmorillonite in particular with respect to how mixed Ca/Na montmorillonite systems behave. Some Ca/Mg, Mg/Na and Na/K systems are also included for comparison. Figure 1 shows the final (stabilized) turbidity response of mixed Wy-Ca/Na montmorillonite as a function of the fraction of Ca 2+ in the clay. Starting material are suspensions of homo-ionic Wy-Ca and Wy-Na montmorillonite at a concentration of 1 g/l. The turbidity of the suspensions of the homo

  2. Developing a High Fidelity Martian Soil Simulant Based on MSL Measurements: Applications for Habitability, Exploration, and In-Situ Resource Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, K.; Britt, D. T.; Smith, T. M.; Fritsche, R. F.; Covey, S. D.; Batcheldor, D.; Watson, B.

    2017-12-01

    Powerful instruments, that include CheMin and SAM on the MSL Curiosity rover, have provided an unprecedented look into the mineral, chemical, and volatile composition of Martian soils. Interestingly, the bulk chemistry of the Rocknest windblown soil is a close match to similar measurements from the Spirit and Opportunity rovers, suggesting the presence of a global basaltic soil component. The Martian regolith is likely composed of this global soil mixed with locally to regionally derived components that include alteration products and evolved volcanic compositions. Without returned soil samples, researchers have relied on terrestrial simulants to address fundamental Mars science, habitability, in-situ resource utilization, and hardware for future exploration. However, these past simulants have low fidelity compared to actual Martian soils: JSC Mars-1a is an amorphous palagonitic material with spectral similarities to Martian dust, not soil, and Mojave Mars is simply a ground up terrestrial basalt chosen for its convenient location. Based on our experience creating asteroid regolith simulants, we are developing a high fidelity Martian soil simulant (Mars Global) designed ab initio to match the mineralogy, chemistry, and volatile contents of the global basaltic soil on Mars. The crystalline portion of the simulant is based on CheMin measurements of Rocknest and includes plagioclase, two pyroxenes, olivine, hematite, magnetite, anhydrite, and quartz. The amorphous portion is less well constrained, but we are re-creating it with basaltic glass, synthetic ferrihydrite, ferric sulfate, and carbonates. We also include perchlorate and nitrate salts based on evolved gas analyses from the SAM instrument. Analysis and testing of Mars Global will include physical properties (shear strength, density, internal friction angle), spectral properties, magnetic properties, and volatile release patterns. The simulant is initially being designed for NASA agricultural studies, but

  3. Liquid Water in the Extremely Shallow Martian Subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, A.; Shivak, J. N.

    2012-01-01

    Availability of liquid water is one of the major constraints for the potential Martian biosphere. Although liquid water is unstable on the surface of Mars due to low atmospheric pressures, it has been suggested that liquid films of water could be present in the Martian soil. Here we explored a possibility of the liquid water formation in the extremely shallow (1-3 cm) subsurface layer under low atmospheric pressures (0.1-10 mbar) and low ("Martian") surface temperatures (approx.-50 C-0 C). We used a new Goddard Martian simulation chamber to demonstrate that even in the clean frozen soil with temperatures as low as -25C the amount of mobile water can reach several percents. We also showed that during brief periods of simulated daylight warming the shallow subsurface ice sublimates, the water vapor diffuses through porous surface layer of soil temporarily producing supersaturated conditions in the soil, which leads to the formation of additional liquid water. Our results suggest that despite cold temperatures and low atmospheric pressures, Martian soil just several cm below the surface can be habitable.

  4. Unusual Reactivity of the Martian Soil: Oxygen Release Upon Humidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, A. S.

    2002-01-01

    Recent lab results show that oxygen evolves from superoxide-coated mineral grains upon exposure to water vapor. This observation is additional support of the hypothesis that UV-generated O2 is responsible for the reactivity of the martian soil. Discussion of current NASA research opportunities, status of various programs within the Solar System Exploration Division, and employment opportunities within NASA Headquarters to support these programs. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, A. S.; Gellert, Ralf; Schroder, C.; Morris, R.V.; Bell, J.F.; Knudson, A.T.; Clark, B. C.; Ming, D. W.; Crisp, J.A.; Arvidson, R. E.; Blaney, D.; Brückner, J.; Christensen, P.R.; DesMarais, D.J.; De Souza, P.A.; Economou, T.E.; Ghosh, A.; Hahn, B.C.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Haskin, L.A.; Hurowitz, J.A.; Joliff, B.L.; Johnson, J. R.; Klingelhofer, G.; Madsen, M.B.; McLennan, S.M.; McSween, H.Y.; Richter, L.; Rieder, R.; Rodionov, D.; Soderblom, L.; Squyres, S. W.; Tosca, N.J.; Wang, A.; Wyatt, M.; Zipfel, J.

    2005-01-01

    The mineralogical and elemental compositions of the martian soil are indicators of chemical and physical weathering processes. Using data from the Mars Exploration Rovers, we show that bright dust deposits on opposite sides of the planet are part of a global unit and not dominated by the composition of local rocks. Dark soil deposits at both sites have similar basaltic mineralogies, and could reflect either a global component or the general similarity in the compositions of the rocks from which they were derived. Increased levels of bromine are consistent with mobilization of soluble salts by thin films of liquid water, but the presence of olivine in analysed soil samples indicates that the extent of aqueous alteration of soils has been limited. Nickel abundances are enhanced at the immediate surface and indicate that the upper few millimetres of soil could contain up to one per cent meteoritic material.

  6. Martian Soil Plant Growth Experiment: The Effects of Adding Nitrogen, Bacteria, and Fungi to Enhance Plant Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliman, D. M.; Cooper, J. B.; Anderson, R. C.

    2000-01-01

    Plant growth is enhanced by the presence of symbiotic soil microbes. In order to better understand how plants might prosper on Mars, we set up an experiment to test whether symbiotic microbes function to enhance plant growth in a Martian soil simulant.

  7. Simulations of the Viking Gas Exchange Experiment using palagonite and Fe-rich montmorillonite as terrestrial analogs: implications for the surface composition of Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, R; Orenberg, J

    1993-10-01

    Simulations of the Gas Exchange Experiment (GEX), one of the Viking Lander Biology Experiments, were run using palagonite and Fe-rich montmorillonite as terrestrial analogs of the Martian soil. These terrestrial analogs were exposed to a nutrient solution of the same composition as that of the Viking Landers under humid (no contact with nutrient) and wet (intimate contact) conditions. The headspace gases in the GEX sample cell were sampled and then analyzed by gas chromatography under both humid and wet conditions. Five gases were monitored: CO2, N2, O2, Ar, and Kr. It was determined that in order to simulate the CO2 gas changes of the Viking GEX experiment, the mixture of soil analog mineral plus nutrient medium must be slightly (pH = 7.4) to moderately basic (pH = 8.7). This conclusion suggests constraints upon the composition of terrestrial analogs to the Mars soil; acidic components may be present, but the overall mixture must be basic in order to simulate the Viking GEX results.

  8. Cation exchange interaction between antibiotic ciprofloxacin and montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chih-Jen; Li, Zhaohui; Jiang, Wei-Teh; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Liu, Chia-Chuan

    2010-01-01

    Exploring the interactions between antibiotics and soils/minerals is of great importance in resolving their fate, transport, and elimination in the environment due to their frequent detection in wastewater, river water, sewage sludge and soils. This study focused on determining the adsorption properties and mechanisms of interaction between antibiotic ciprofloxacin and montmorillonite (SAz-1), a swelling dioctahedral mineral with Ca 2+ as the main interlayer cation. In acidic and neutral aqueous solutions, a stoichiometric exchange between ciprofloxacin and interlayer cations yielded an adsorption capacity as high as 330 mg/g, corresponding to 1.0 mmol/g. When solution pH was above its pK a2 (8.7), adsorption of ciprofloxacin was greatly reduced due to the net repulsion between the negatively charged clay surfaces and the ciprofloxacin anion. The uptake of ciprofloxacin expanded the basal spacing (d 001 ) of montmorillonite from 15.04 to 17.23 A near its adsorption capacity, confirming cation exchange within the interlayers in addition to surface adsorption. Fourier transform infrared results further suggested that the protonated amine group of ciprofloxacin in its cationic form was electrostatically attracted to negatively charged sites of clay surfaces, and that the carboxylic acid group was hydrogen bonded to the basal oxygen atoms of the silicate layers. The results indicate that montmorillonite is an effective sorbent to remove ciprofloxacin from water.

  9. Cation exchange interaction between antibiotic ciprofloxacin and montmorillonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chih-Jen [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Li, Zhaohui, E-mail: li@uwp.edu [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Geosciences, University of Wisconsin - Parkside, Kenosha, WI 53144 (United States); Jiang, Wei-Teh, E-mail: atwtj@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Liu, Chia-Chuan [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2010-11-15

    Exploring the interactions between antibiotics and soils/minerals is of great importance in resolving their fate, transport, and elimination in the environment due to their frequent detection in wastewater, river water, sewage sludge and soils. This study focused on determining the adsorption properties and mechanisms of interaction between antibiotic ciprofloxacin and montmorillonite (SAz-1), a swelling dioctahedral mineral with Ca{sup 2+} as the main interlayer cation. In acidic and neutral aqueous solutions, a stoichiometric exchange between ciprofloxacin and interlayer cations yielded an adsorption capacity as high as 330 mg/g, corresponding to 1.0 mmol/g. When solution pH was above its pK{sub a2} (8.7), adsorption of ciprofloxacin was greatly reduced due to the net repulsion between the negatively charged clay surfaces and the ciprofloxacin anion. The uptake of ciprofloxacin expanded the basal spacing (d{sub 001}) of montmorillonite from 15.04 to 17.23 A near its adsorption capacity, confirming cation exchange within the interlayers in addition to surface adsorption. Fourier transform infrared results further suggested that the protonated amine group of ciprofloxacin in its cationic form was electrostatically attracted to negatively charged sites of clay surfaces, and that the carboxylic acid group was hydrogen bonded to the basal oxygen atoms of the silicate layers. The results indicate that montmorillonite is an effective sorbent to remove ciprofloxacin from water.

  10. Model of the fine-grain component of martian soil based on Viking lander data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussinov, M.D.; Chernyak, Y.B.; Ettinger, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    A model of the fine-grain component of the Martian soil is proposed. The model is based on well-known physical phenomena, and enables an explanation of the evolution of the gases released in the GEX (gas exchange experiments) and GCMS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometer experiments) of the Viking landers. (author)

  11. Rover's Wheel Churns Up Bright Martian Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit acquired this mosaic on the mission's 1,202nd Martian day, or sol (May 21, 2007), while investigating the area east of the elevated plateau known as 'Home Plate' in the 'Columbia Hills.' The mosaic shows an area of disturbed soil, nicknamed 'Gertrude Weise' by scientists, made by Spirit's stuck right front wheel. The trench exposed a patch of nearly pure silica, with the composition of opal. It could have come from either a hot-spring environment or an environment called a fumarole, in which acidic, volcanic steam rises through cracks. Either way, its formation involved water, and on Earth, both of these types of settings teem with microbial life. Spirit acquired this mosaic with the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters. The view presented here is an approximately true-color rendering.

  12. The Search for Ammonia in Martian Soils with Curiosity's SAM Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, James J.; Archer, P. D.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Franz, H. B.; Freissinet, C.; Glavin, D. P.; Mahaffy, P. R.; McKay, C. P.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen is the second or third most abundant constituent of the Martian atmosphere [1,2]. It is a bioessential element, a component of all amino acids and nucleic acids that make up proteins, DNA and RNA, so assessing its availability is a key part of Curiosity's mission to characterize Martian habitability. In oxidizing desert environments it is found in nitrate salts that co-occur with perchlorates [e.g., 3], inferred to be widespread in Mars soils [4-6]. A Mars nitrogen cycle has been proposed [7], yet prior missions have not constrained the state of surface N. Here we explore Curiosity's ability to detect N compounds using data from the rover's first solid sample. Companion abstracts describe evidence for nitrates [8] and for nitriles (C(triple bond)N) [9]; we focus here on nonnitrile, reduced-N compounds as inferred from bonded N-H. The simplest such compound is ammonia (NH3), found in many carbonaceous chondrite meteorites in NH4(+) salts and organic compounds [e.g., 10].

  13. Chemical and Physical Interactions of Martian Surface Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, J. L.

    1999-09-01

    A model of alteration and maturation of the Martian surface material is described involving both chemical and physical interactions. Physical processes involve distribution and mixing of the fine-grained soil particles across the surface and into the atmosphere. Chemical processes include reaction of sulfate, salt and oxidizing components of the soil particles; these agents in the soils deposited on rocks will chew through the rock minerals forming coatings and will bind surface soils together to form duricrust deposits. Formation of crystalline iron oxide/oxyhydroxide minerals through hydrothermal processes and of poorly crystalline and amorphous phases through palagonitic processes both contribute to formation of the soil particles. Chemical and physical alteration of these soil minerals and phases contribute to producing the chemical, magnetic and spectroscopic character of the Martian soil as observed by Mars Pathfinder and Mars Global Surveyor. Minerals such as maghemite/magnetite and jarosite/alunite have been observed in terrestrial volcanic soils near steam vents and may be important components of the Martian surface material. The spectroscopic properties of several terrestrial volcanic soils containing these minerals have been analyzed and evaluated in terms of the spectroscopic character of the surface material on Mars.

  14. Mineralogic and compositional properties of Martian soil and dust: results from Mars Pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J.F.; McSween, H.Y.; Crisp, J.A.; Morris, R.V.; Murchie, S.L.; Bridges, N.T.; Johnson, J. R.; Britt, D.T.; Golombek, M.P.; Moore, H.J.; Ghosh, A.; Bishop, J.L.; Anderson, R.C.; Brückner, J.; Economou, T.; Greenwood, J.P.; Gunnlaugsson, H.P.; Hargraves, R.M.; Hviid, S.; Knudsen, J.M.; Madsen, M.B.; Reid, R.; Rieder, R.; Soderblom, L.

    2000-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder obtained multispectral, elemental, magnetic, and physical measurements of soil and dust at the Sagan Memorial Station during the course of its 83 sol mission. We describe initial results from these measurements, concentrating on multispectral and elemental data, and use these data, along with previous Viking, SNC meteorite, and telescopic results, to help constrain the origin and evolution of Martian soil and dust. We find that soils and dust can be divided into at least eight distinct spectral units, based on parameterization of Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) 400 to 1000 nm multispectral images. The most distinctive spectral parameters for soils and dust are the reflectivity in the red, the red/blue reflectivity ratio, the near-IR spectral slope, and the strength of the 800 to 1000 nm absorption feature. Most of the Pathfinder spectra are consistent with the presence of poorly crystalline or nanophase ferric oxide(s), sometimes mixed with small but varying degrees of well-crystalline ferric and ferrous phases. Darker soil units appear to be coarser-grained, compacted, and/or mixed with a larger amount of dark ferrous materials relative to bright soils. Nanophase goethite, akaganeite, schwertmannite, and maghemite are leading candidates for the origin of the absorption centered near 900 nm in IMP spectra. The ferrous component in the soil cannot be well-constrained based on IMP data. Alpha proton X-ray spectrometer (APXS) measurements of six soil units show little variability within the landing site and show remarkable overall similarity to the average Viking-derived soil elemental composition. Differences exist between Viking and Pathfinder soils, however, including significantly higher S and Cl abundances and lower Si abundances in Viking soils and the lack of a correlation between Ti and Fe in Pathfinder soils. No significant linear correlations were observed between IMP spectral properties and APXS elemental chemistry. Attempts at constraining

  15. Study of the formation of duricrusts on the martian surface and their effect on sampling equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kömle, Norbert; Pitcher, Craig; Gao, Yang; Richter, Lutz

    2017-01-01

    The Powdered Sample Dosing and Distribution System (PSDDS) of the ExoMars rover will be required to handle and contain samples of Mars regolith for long periods of time. Cementation of the regolith, caused by water and salts in the soil, results in clumpy material and a duricrust layer forming on the surface. It is therefore possible that material residing in the sampling system may cement, and could potentially hinder its operation. There has yet to be an investigation into the formation of duricrusts under simulated Martian conditions, or how this may affect the performance of sample handling mechanisms. Therefore experiments have been performed to create a duricrust and to explore the cementation of Mars analogues, before performing a series of tests on a qualification model of the PSDDS under simulated Martian conditions. It was possible to create a consolidated crust of cemented material several millimetres deep, with the material below remaining powder-like. It was seen that due to the very low permeability of the Montmorillonite component material, diffusion of water through the material was quickly blocked, resulting in a sample with an inhomogeneous water content. Additionally, samples with a water mass content of 10% or higher would cement into a single solid piece. Finally, tests with the PSDDS revealed that samples with a water mass content of just 5% created small clumps with significant internal cohesion, blocking the sample funnels and preventing transportation of the material. These experiments have highlighted that the cementation of regolith in Martian conditions must be taken into consideration in the design of sample handling instruments.

  16. Rover's Wheel Churns Up Bright Martian Soil (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit acquired this mosaic on the mission's 1,202nd Martian day, or sol (May 21, 2007), while investigating the area east of the elevated plateau known as 'Home Plate' in the 'Columbia Hills.' The mosaic shows an area of disturbed soil, nicknamed 'Gertrude Weise' by scientists, made by Spirit's stuck right front wheel. The trench exposed a patch of nearly pure silica, with the composition of opal. It could have come from either a hot-spring environment or an environment called a fumarole, in which acidic, volcanic steam rises through cracks. Either way, its formation involved water, and on Earth, both of these types of settings teem with microbial life. The image is presented here as a vertical projection, as if looking straight down, and in false color, which brings out subtle color differences.

  17. Aggregation and transport of rutile titanium dioxide nanoparticles with montmorillonite and diatomite in the presence of phosphate in porous sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peng; Xu, Nan; Li, Duo; Huangfu, Xinxing; Li, Zuling

    2018-08-01

    Crop soil is inevitably contaminated by the excess of phosphate (P) fertilizers. A large amount of nanoparticle titanium dioxide (nTiO 2 ) entered soils as well due to the wide use of engineered nanomaterials. It is of great urgency and a high priority to investigate the mechanisms of nTiO 2 deposition with the presence of P in crop soils. This study investigated the transport behavior of (1.0 g L -1 ) rutile nTiO 2 with two representative clay particles (montmorillonite or diatomite) in the presence of P through the saturated quartz sand. In 10 mM NaCl electrolyte solution at pH 6.0, the recovery percentage of nTiO 2 was 36.3% from sand column. Nevertheless, it was reduced to 18.6% and 11.1% while montmorillonite and diatomite present in suspensions, respectively. Obviously, the improvement of nTiO 2 retention in sand was more pronounced by diatomite than montmorillonite. The likely mechanism for this result was that large aggregates were formed due to the attachment of nTiO 2 to montmorillonite and diatomite. Moreover, the surface of diatomite with the larger hydrodynamic radius was less negatively charged by comparison with montmorillonite. However, this phenomenon disappeared with the addition of P. P adsorption increases the repulsive force between particles and sand and the fast release of attached nTiO 2 -montmorillonite and diatomite from sand. The two-site kinetic retention model and the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory suggested that the combination of k 1/ k 1d , k 2 and secondary minimum energy can be used to accurately describe the attachment of nTiO 2 -montmorillonite and diatomite to sand in the presence of P. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Rover's Wheel Churns Up Bright Martian Soil (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit acquired this mosaic on the mission's 1,202nd Martian day, or sol (May 21, 2007), while investigating the area east of the elevated plateau known as 'Home Plate' in the 'Columbia Hills.' The mosaic shows an area of disturbed soil, nicknamed 'Gertrude Weise' by scientists, made by Spirit's stuck right front wheel. The trench exposed a patch of nearly pure silica, with the composition of opal. It could have come from either a hot-spring environment or an environment called a fumarole, in which acidic, volcanic steam rises through cracks. Either way, its formation involved water, and on Earth, both of these types of settings teem with microbial life. Multiple images taken with Spirit's panoramic camera are combined here into a stereo view that appears three-dimensional when seen through red-blue glasses, with the red lens on the left.

  19. Martian soil stratigraphy and rock coatings observed in color-enhanced Viking Lander images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, E. L., III

    1979-01-01

    Subtle color variations of martian surface materials were enhanced in eight Viking Lander (VL) color images. Well-defined soil units recognized at each site (six at VL-1 and four at VL-2), are identified on the basis of color, texture, morphology, and contact relations. The soil units at the Viking 2 site form a well-defined stratigraphic sequence, whereas the sequence at the Viking 1 site is only partially defined. The same relative soil colors occur at the two sites, suggesting that similar soil units are widespread on Mars. Several types of rock surface materials can be recognized at the two sites; dark, relatively 'blue' rock surfaces are probably minimally weathered igneous rock, whereas bright rock surfaces, with a green/(blue + red) ratio higher than that of any other surface material, are interpreted as a weathering product formed in situ on the rock. These rock surface types are common at both sites. Soil adhering to rocks is common at VL-2, but rare at VL-1. The mechanism that produces the weathering coating on rocks probably operates planet-wide.

  20. Rover's Wheel Churns Up Bright Martian Soil (False Color)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit acquired this mosaic on the mission's 1,202nd Martian day, or sol (May 21, 2007), while investigating the area east of the elevated plateau known as 'Home Plate' in the 'Columbia Hills.' The mosaic shows an area of disturbed soil, nicknamed 'Gertrude Weise' by scientists, made by Spirit's stuck right front wheel. The trench exposed a patch of nearly pure silica, with the composition of opal. It could have come from either a hot-spring environment or an environment called a fumarole, in which acidic, volcanic steam rises through cracks. Either way, its formation involved water, and on Earth, both of these types of settings teem with microbial life. The image is presented here in false color that is used to bring out subtle differences in color.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of the Hybrid Clay- Based Material Montmorillonite-Melanoidin: A Potential Soil Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V Vilas; B Matthiasch; J Huth; J Kratz; S Rubert de la Rosa; P Michel; T Schäfer

    2011-12-31

    The study of the interactions among metals, minerals, and humic substances is essential in understanding the migration of inorganic pollutants in the geosphere. A considerable amount of organic matter in the environment is associated with clay minerals. To understand the role of organic matter in the environment and its association with clay minerals, a hybrid clay-based material (HCM), montmorillonite (STx-1)-melanoidin, was prepared from L-tyrosine and L-glutamic acid by the Maillard reaction. The HCM was characterized by elemental analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM), and thermal analysis. The presence of organic materials on the surface was confirmed by XPS and STXM. The STXM results showed the presence of organic spots on the surface of the STx-1 and the characterization of the functional groups present in those spots. Thermal analysis confirmed the existence of organic materials in the montmorillonite interlayer, indicating the formation of a composite of melanoidin and montmorillonite. The melanoidin appeared to be located partially between the layers of montmorillonite and partially at the surface, forming a structure that resembles the way a cork sits on the top of a champagne bottle.

  2. Survival of a microbial soil community under Martian conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, A. A.; Noernberg, P.; Merrison, J.; Lomstein, B. Aa.; Finster, K. W.

    2003-04-01

    Because of the similarities between Earth and Mars early history the hypothesis was forwarded that Mars is a site where extraterrestrial life might have and/or may still occur(red). Sample-return missions are planned by NASA and ESA to test this hypothesis. The enormous economic costs and the logistic challenges of these missions make earth-based model facilities inevitable. The Mars simulation system at University of Aarhus, Denmark allows microbiological experiments under Mars analogue conditions. Thus detailed studies on the effect of Mars environmental conditions on the survival and the activity of a natural microbial soil community were carried out. Changes in the soil community were determined with a suite of different approaches: 1) total microbial respiration activity was investigated with 14C-glucose, 2) the physiological profile was investigated by the EcoLog-system, 3) colony forming units were determined by plate counts and 4) the microbial diversity on the molecular level was accessed with Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis. The simulation experiments showed that a part of the bacterial community survived Martian conditions corresponding to 9 Sol. These and future simulation experiments will contribute to our understanding of the possibility for extraterrestrial and terrestrial life on Mars.

  3. Martian Environment Electrostatic Precipitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Michael Owen

    2016-01-01

    As part of the planned manned mission to Mars, NASA has noticed that shipping oxygen as a part of life support to keep the astronauts alive continuously is overly expensive, and impractical. As such, noting that the Martian atmosphere is 95.37% CO2, NASA chemists noted that one could obtain oxygen from the Martian atmosphere. The plan, as part of a larger ISRU (in-situ resource utilization) initiative, would extract water from the regolith, or the Martian soil which can be electrolyzed by solar panel produced voltage into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen can then be used in the Sabatier reaction with carbon dioxide to produce methane and water producing a net reaction that does not lose water and outputs methane and oxygen for use as rocket fuel and breathing.

  4. The acid-base titration of montmorillonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourg, I. C.; Sposito, G.; Bourg, A. C.

    2003-12-01

    Proton binding to clay minerals plays an important role in the chemical reactivity of soils (e.g., acidification, retention of nutrients or pollutants). If should also affect the performance of clay barriers for waste disposal. The surface acidity of clay minerals is commonly modelled empirically by assuming generic amphoteric surface sites (>SOH) on a flat surface, with fitted site densities and acidity constant. Current advances in experimental methods (notably spectroscopy) are rapidly improving our understanding of the structure and reactivity of the surface of clay minerals (arrangement of the particles, nature of the reactive surface sites, adsorption mechanisms). These developments are motivated by the difficulty of modelling the surface chemistry of mineral surfaces at the macro-scale (e.g., adsorption or titration) without a detailed (molecular-scale) picture of the mechanisms, and should be progressively incorporated into surface complexation models. In this view, we have combined recent estimates of montmorillonite surface properties (surface site density and structure, edge surface area, surface electrostatic potential) with surface site acidities obtained from the titration of alpha-Al2O3 and SiO2, and a novel method of accounting for the unknown initial net proton surface charge of the solid. The model predictions were compared to experimental titrations of SWy-1 montmorillonite and purified MX-80 bentonite in 0.1-0.5 mol/L NaClO4 and 0.005-0.5 mol/L NaNO3 background electrolytes, respectively. Most of the experimental data were appropriately described by the model after we adjusted a single parameter (silanol sites on the surface of montmorillonite were made to be slightly more acidic than those of silica). At low ionic strength and acidic pH the model underestimated the buffering capacity of the montmorillonite, perhaps due to clay swelling or to the interlayer adsorption of dissolved aluminum. The agreement between our model and the experimental

  5. Some consequences of a liquid water saturated regolith in early Martian history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, A. O.; Hargraves, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    Flooding of low-lying areas of the Martian regolith may have occurred early in the planet's history when a comparatively dense primitive atmosphere existed. If this model is valid, the following are some pedogenic and mineralogical consequences to be expected. Fluctuation of the water table in response to any seasonal or longer term causes would have resulted in precipitation of ferric oxyhydroxides with the development of a vesicular duricrust (or hardpan). Disruption of such a crust by scarp undercutting or frost heaving accompanied by wind deflation of fines could account for the boulders visible on Utopia Planitia in the vicinity of the second Viking lander site. Laboratory and field evidence on earth suggests that under weakly oxidizing conditions lepidocrocite (rather than goethite) would have preferentially formed in the Martian regolith from the weathering of ferrous silicates, accompanied by montmorillonite, nontronite, and cronstedtite. Maghemite may have formed as a low-temperature dehydrate of lepidocrocite or directly from ferrous precursors.

  6. Infrared Spectroscopic Analyses of Sulfate, Nitrate, and Carbonate-bearing Atacama Desert Soils: Analogs for the Interpretation of Infrared Spectra from the Martian Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, J. B.; Dalton, J. B.; Ewing, S. A.; Amundson, R.; McKay, C. P.

    2005-01-01

    The Atacama Desert of northern Chile is the driest desert on Earth, receiving only a few mm of rain per decade. The Mars climate may, in the past, have been punctuated by short-lived episodes of aqueous activity. The paleo-Martian environment may have had aqueous conditions similar to the current conditions that exist in the Atacama, and Mars soils may have formed with soil chemistry and mineralogy similar to those found in the Atacama. Remote and in-situ analysis of the Martian surface using infrared technology has a long heritage. Future investigations of the subsurface mineralogy are likely to build upon this heritage, and will benefit from real life lessons to be learned from terrestrial analog studies. To that end, preliminary results from a near- and mid-infrared spectroscopic study of Atacama soil profiled at a range of depths are presented.

  7. Degradation of surfactant-modified montmorillonites in HCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madejová, Jana; Pálková, Helena; Jankovič, Ľuboš

    2012-01-01

    The effect of surfactant size on the extent of montmorillonites decomposition in HCl was investigated. Na-SAz montmorillonite and tetraalkylammonium salts of alkyl-chains length increasing from methyl- Me 4 N to pentyl- Pe 4 N were used for organo-montmorillonites preparation. Decreasing intensity of d 001 diffraction proved destruction of montmorillonite structure connected with gradual surfactant release. A shift of the SiO stretching band to 1097 cm −1 confirmed formation of amorphous silica phase. A new band near 7315 cm −1 corresponding to SiOH overtone revealed creation of protonated silica. This band was observed in the spectra of all acid-treated samples, also in those with minor decomposition of the structure. The size of the cations significantly affected decomposition of montmorillonites in HCl. The less stable were Na-SAz and Me 4 N-SAz in which the content of octahedral atoms dropped to ∼5% of their original values upon 8 h treatments. Et 4 N-SAz and Pr 4 N-SAz were slightly more resistant mainly at short times. Bu 4 N-SAz and Pe 4 N-SAz showed the least structural modifications, only 50% and 35% of octahedral atoms, respectively, were released into solution within 8 h treatments. This observation proves that bulky alkylammonium cations covering the inner and outer surfaces of montmorillonite prevent effectively the access of protons to the layers protecting the mineral from degradation in the acid. - Highlights: ► Hybrid materials were prepared from montmorillonite and alkylammonium cations with short alkyl chains. ► The effect of surfactant on organo-montmorillonites dissolution in HCl was studied. ► With increasing size of cation the extent of montmorillonite decomposition decreased. ► Bulky surfactants prevent the access of protons to the layers and thus protect montmorillonite from degradation.

  8. Luminescence Dating of Martian Polar Deposits: Concepts and Preliminary Measurements Using Martian Soil Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepper, K.; Kuhns, C. K.; McKeever, S. W. S.; Sears, D. W. G.

    2000-08-01

    Martian polar deposits have the potential to reveal a wealth of information about the evolution of Mars' climate and surface environment. However, as pointed out by Clifford et al. in the summary of the First International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration, 'The single greatest obstacle to unlocking and interpreting the geologic and climatic record preserved at the [martian] poles is the need for absolute dating.' At that same conference Lepper and McKeever proposed development of luminescence dating as a remote in-situ technique for absolute dating of silicate mineral grains incorporated in polar deposits. Clifford et al. have also acknowledged that luminescence dating is more practical from cost, engineering, and logistical perspectives than other isotope-based methods proposed for in-situ dating on Mars. We report here the results of ongoing experiments with terrestrial analogs of martian surface materials to establish a broad fundamental knowledge base from which robust dating procedures for robotic missions may be developed. This broad knowledge base will also be critical in determining the engineering requirements of remote in-situ luminescence dating equipment intended for use on Mars. Additional information can be found in the original extended abstract.

  9. Fe(III)-EDDHA and -EDDHMA sorption on Ca-montmorillonite, ferrihydrite, and peat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Apaolaza, L; Lucena, J J

    2001-11-01

    The effectiveness of Fe chelates as Fe sources and carriers in soil can be severely limited by the adsorption of Fe chelates or chelating agents in the solid phase. To study this phenomenon, well-characterized peat, Ca-montmorillonite, and ferrihydrite were used as model compounds, and the adsorption of Fe-EDDHA and Fe-EDDHMA chelates were studied. Sorption isotherms for the meso and racemic isomers of these chelates on the soil materials are described. The variability of sorption with pH in peat and ferrihydrite was also determined because both have variable surface charge at different pH values. In montmorillonite, at low concentrations, the retention of Fe from the Fe-EDDHMA chelate is greater than the one of the Fe-EDDHA chelate. As well as the concentration increased, the inverse situation occurs. The behavior of both meso and racemic isomers of chelates in contact with Ca-montmorillonite is similar. The Fe-meso-EDDHA isomer was highly adsorbed on ferrihydrite, but the racemic isomer is not significantly retained by this oxide. For Fe-EDDHMA isomers, the racemic isomer was more retained by the oxide, but a small sorption of the racemic isomer was also observed. Results suggest that Fe-EDDHA chelates were more retained in peat than Fe-EDDHMA chelates. The most retained isomer of Fe-EDDHA was the meso isomer. For Fe-EDDHMA, the adsorption was very low for both racemic and meso isomers.

  10. Ability of Cu2+-montmorillonite to accept an toxic pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janikova, V.; Jona, E.; Janik, R.; Pavlik, V.

    2015-01-01

    It is global problem that toxic pollutants are in the permanent contact to people through soil and water. Nowadays, it is important to eliminate these pollutants for future generations and to keep environment in the health condition. In relation to this article, aromatic organic compounds like benzene, phenol and aniline were chosen. These are used in various branches of industry, mainly in rubber industry or for production of dyes and in addition, phenol is commonly used in cosmetics or in food industry. Montmorillonite is clay mineral consisting of 2:1 sheets (tetrahedral:octahedral) and interlayer space where exchangeable cations and water molecules are present. Due to its structure, montmorillonite is able to accept some compounds or pollutants. This is the reason why it is mainly used as the covering material of radioactive waste in order to remove toxic pollutants. For investigation of toxic pollutants removing, XRD powder diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and thermal analysis were used. Our results show that Cu 2+ -montmorillonite is able to accept toxic benzene ring-based pollutants into interlayer. This mentioned ability can be proven on the basis of the investigation results relating to difference of interlayer distance, typical frequencies of -OH group or -NH 2 group, while these results were supplemented by thermal properties. (authors)

  11. Organic and inorganic interpretations of the martian UV-IR reflectance spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, K D; Ajello, J M [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (USA); Chun, S F.S. [California Univ., San Francisco (USA). School of Medicine; Nansheng, Z [Beijing Planetarium (China); Minji, L [Beijing Glass Institute (China)

    1982-01-07

    The Viking gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis of martian soil samples are discussed, in particular why no organic molecules were detected at the landing sites, whether the sterility of the two sites is representative of the entire planet and if there are locations on Mars more conducive to the formation and preservation of organics. The destruction of organic compounds has been simulated in Mars-like laboratory conditions and the possible planetwide destructive mechanism considered. The UV and IR reflectance spectra of Mars has been re-examined for any evidence of organic molecules and an upper limit on the organic carbon content of average martian soil has been set. The results reveal that the average martian soil is organic-poor, makes an unfavourable habitat for life forms based on carbon chemistry, and there is no reason to believe that organic molecules are preferentially preserved anywhere on the planet.

  12. Organic and inorganic interpretations of the martian UV-IR reflectance spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, K.D.; Ajello, J.M.; Chun, S.F.S.; Minji, L.

    1982-01-01

    The Viking gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis of martian soil samples are discussed, in particular why no organic molecules were detected at the landing sites, whether the sterility of the two sites is representative of the entire planet and if there are locations on Mars more conducive to the formation and preservation of organics. The destruction of organic compounds has been simulated in Mars-like laboratory conditions and the possible planetwide destructive mechanism considered. The UV and IR reflectance spectra of Mars has been re-examined for any evidence of organic molecules and an upper limit on the organic carbon content of average martian soil has been set. The results reveal that the average martian soil is organic-poor, makes an unfavourable habitat for life forms based on carbon chemistry, and there is no reason to believe that organic molecules are preferentially preserved anywhere on the planet. (U.K.)

  13. New insights on the structure of the picloram-montmorillonite surface complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Brown, Jose L; Trinelli, María Alcira; Gaigneaux, Eric M; Sánchez, Rosa M Torres; Afonso, María dos Santos

    2015-04-15

    The environmental mobility and bioavailability of Picloram (PCM) are determined by the amine and carboxylate chemical groups interaction with the soils mineral phases. Clay particles, such as montmorillonite (Mt), and the pH value of the media could play an important role in adsorption processes. Thus, the study of the role of soil components other than organic matter deserves further investigation for a more accurate assessment of the risk of groundwater contamination. Samples with PCM adsorbed on Mt dispersions were prepared at pH 3-9. Subsequently, the dispersions were separated, washed, centrifuged and stored at room temperature. Picloram (PCM) herbicide interaction with surface groups of montmorillonite (Mt) was studied using XRD, DTA, FTIR and XPS techniques. The entrance of PCM into the Mt basal space, in two different arrangements, perpendicular and planar, is proposed and the final arrangement depends on PCM concentration. The interaction of PCM with Mt surface sites through the nitrogen of the pyridine ring and carboxylic group of PCM, forming bidentate and bridge inner-sphere complexes was confirmed by FTIR and XPS analysis. The acidity constant of the PCM adsorbed on the Mt surface was calculated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Glass and Glass-Ceramic Materials from Simulated Composition of Lunar and Martian Soils: Selected Properties and Potential Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, C. S.; Sen, S.; Reis, S. T.; Kim, C. W.

    2005-01-01

    In-situ resource processing and utilization on planetary bodies is an important and integral part of NASA's space exploration program. Within this scope and context, our general effort is primarily aimed at developing glass and glass-ceramic type materials using lunar and martian soils, and exploring various applications of these materials for planetary surface operations. Our preliminary work to date have demonstrated that glasses can be successfully prepared from melts of the simulated composition of both lunar and martian soils, and the melts have a viscosity-temperature window appropriate for drawing continuous glass fibers. The glasses are shown to have the potential for immobilizing certain types of nuclear wastes without deteriorating their chemical durability and thermal stability. This has a direct impact on successfully and economically disposing nuclear waste generated from a nuclear power plant on a planetary surface. In addition, these materials display characteristics that can be manipulated using appropriate processing protocols to develop glassy or glass-ceramic magnets. Also discussed in this presentation are other potential applications along with a few selected thermal, chemical, and structural properties as evaluated up to this time for these materials.

  15. Earth – Mars Similarity Criteria for Martian Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian TRIFU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to select the most efficient kind of a martian exploring vehicle, the similarity criteria are deduced from the equilibrium movement in the terrestrial and martian conditions. Different invariants have been obtained for the existing (entry capsules, parachutes and rovers and potential martian exploring vehicles (lighter-than-air vehicle, airplane, helicopter and Mars Jumper. These similarity criteria, as non dimensional numbers, allow to quickly compare if such a kind of vehicles can operate in the martian environment, the movement performances, the necessary geometrical dimensions and the power consumption. Following this way of study it was concluded what vehicle is most suitable for the near soil Mars exploration. “Mars Rover” has less power consumption on Mars, but due to the rugged terrain the performances are weak. A vacuumed rigid airship is possible to fly with high performances and endurance on Mars, versus the impossibility of such a machine on the Earth. Due to very low density and the low Reynolds numbers in the Mars atmosphere, the power consumption for the martian airplane or helicopter, is substantial higher. The most efficient vehicle for the Mars exploration it seems to be a machine using the in-situ non-chemical propellants: the 95% CO2 atmosphere and the weak solar radiation. A small compressor, electrically driven by photovoltaics, compresses the gas in a storage tank, in time. If the gas is expanded through a nozzle, sufficient lift and control forces are obtained for a VTOL flight of kilometers over the martian soil, in comparison with tens of meters of the actual Mars rovers.

  16. Effect of kaolinite and Ca-montmorillonite on the alleviation of soil water repellency

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dlapa, P.; Doerr, S. H.; Lichner, Ľ.; Šír, Miloslav; Tesař, Miroslav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 8 (2004), s. 358-363 ISSN 0370-663X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3042301; GA AV ČR IBS2060104 Keywords : water repellency * kaolinite * Ca-montmorillonite Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 0.379, year: 2004

  17. Mobility of adsorbed Cry1Aa insecticidal toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) on montmorillonite measured by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helassa, Nordine; Daudin, Gabrielle; Noinville, Sylvie; Janot, Jean-Marc; Déjardin, Philippe; Staunton, Siobhán; Quiquampoix, Hervé

    2010-06-01

    The insecticidal toxins produced by genetically modified Bt crops are introduced into soil through root exudates and tissue decomposition and adsorb readily on soil components, especially on clays. This immobilisation and the consequent concentration of the toxins in "hot spots" could increase the exposure of soil organisms. Whereas the effects on non-target organisms are well documented, few studies consider the migration of the toxin in soil. In this study, the residual mobility of Bt Cry1Aa insecticidal toxin adsorbed on montmorillonite was assessed using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). This technique, which is usually used to study dynamics of cytoplasmic and membrane molecules in live cells, was applied for the first time to a protein adsorbed on a finely divided swelling clay mineral, montmorillonite. No mobility of adsorbed toxin was observed at any pH and at different degrees of surface saturation.

  18. Surface complexation modeling of Cd(II) sorption to montmorillonite, bacteria, and their composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Du, Huihui; Huang, Qiaoyun; Cai, Peng; Rong, Xingmin; Feng, Xionghan; Chen, Wenli

    2016-10-01

    Surface complexation modeling (SCM) has emerged as a powerful tool for simulating heavy metal adsorption processes on the surface of soil solid components under different geochemical conditions. The component additivity (CA) approach is one of the strategies that have been widely used in multicomponent systems. In this study, potentiometric titration, isothermal adsorption, zeta potential measurement, and extended X-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) spectra analysis were conducted to investigate Cd adsorption on 2 : 1 clay mineral montmorillonite, on Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis, and their mineral-organic composite. We developed constant capacitance models of Cd adsorption on montmorillonite, bacterial cells, and mineral-organic composite. The adsorption behavior of Cd on the surface of the composite was well explained by CA-SCM. Some deviations were observed from the model simulations at pH SCM closely coincided with the estimated value of EXAFS at pH 6. The model could be useful for the prediction of heavy metal distribution at the interface of multicomponents and their risk evaluation in soils and associated environments.

  19. Ice nucleation of ammonia gas exposed montmorillonite mineral dust particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Salam

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The ice nucleation characteristics of montmorillonite mineral dust aerosols with and without exposure to ammonia gas were measured at different atmospheric temperatures and relative humidities with a continuous flow diffusion chamber. The montmorillonite particles were exposed to pure (100% and diluted ammonia gas (25 ppm at room temperature in a stainless steel chamber. There was no significant change in the mineral dust particle size distribution due to the ammonia gas exposure. 100% pure ammonia gas exposure enhanced the ice nucleating fraction of montmorillonite mineral dust particles 3 to 8 times at 90% relative humidity with respect to water (RHw and 5 to 8 times at 100% RHw for 120 min exposure time compared to unexposed montmorillonite within our experimental conditions. The percentages of active ice nuclei were 2 to 8 times higher at 90% RHw and 2 to 7 times higher at 100% RHw in 25 ppm ammonia exposed montmorillonite compared to unexposed montmorillonite. All montmorillonite particles are more efficient as ice nuclei with increasing relative humidities and decreasing temperatures. The activation temperature of montmorillonite exposed to 100% pure ammonia was 15°C higher than for unexposed montmorillonite particles at 90% RHw. In the 25 ppm ammonia exposed montmorillonite experiments, the activation temperature was 10°C warmer than unexposed montmorillonite at 90% RHw. Degassing does not reverse the ice nucleating ability of ammonia exposed montmorillonite mineral dust particles suggesting that the ammonia is chemically bound to the montmorillonite particle. This is the first experimental evidence that ammonia gas exposed montmorillonite mineral dust particles can enhance its activation as ice nuclei and that the activation can occur at temperatures warmer than –10°C where natural atmospheric ice nuclei are very scarce.

  20. Montmorillonite-induced Bacteriophage φ6 Disassembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusiak, A.; Gottlieb, P.; Katz, A.; Alimova, A.; Steiner, J. C.; Block, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    It is estimated that there are 1031 virus particles on Earth making viruses an order of magnitude more prevalent in number than prokaryotes with the vast majority of viruses being bacteriophages. Clays are a major component of soils and aquatic sediments and can react with RNA, proteins and bacterial biofilms. The clays in soils serve as an important moderator between phage and their host bacteria, helping to preserve the evolutionary balance. Studies on the effects of clays on viral infectivity have given somewhat contradictory results; possibly a consequence of clay-virus interactions being dependent on the unique structure of particular viruses. In this work, the interaction between montmorillonite and the bacteriophage φ6 is investigated. φ6 is a member of the cystovirus family that infects Pseudomonas syringe, a common plant pathogen. As a member of the cystovirus family with an enveloped structure, φ6 serves as a model for reoviruses, a human pathogen. Experiments were conducted with φ6 suspended in dilute, purified homoionic commercial-grade montmorillonite over a range of virus:clay ratios. At a 1:100000 virus:clay ratio, the clay reduced viral infectivity by 99%. The minimum clay to virus ratio which results in a measurable reduction of P. syringae infection is 1:1. Electron microscopy demonstrates that mixed suspensions of smectite and virus co-aggregate to form flocs encompassing virions within the smectite. Both free viral particles as well as those imbedded in the flocs are seen in the micrographs to be missing the envelope- leaving only the nucleocapsid (NC) intact; indicating that smectite inactivates the virus by envelope disassembly. These results have strong implications in the evolution of both the φ6 virus and its P. syringae host cells. TEM of aggregate showing several disassembled NCs.

  1. Electrochemical and radiochemical material transport examinations in humate-containing montmorillonite a bentonite thin layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antal, K.; Joo, P.

    1999-01-01

    Various humate-containing H-bentonite layers were investigated using 137 Cs ion transport and radio absorption measuring method. These processes can model radioactive contamination migration in soils exposed to acid rains. Experiment using montmorillonite and bentonite layers are discussed, and the results obtained with electrochemical and radioisotope absorption techniques are presented. (R.P.)

  2. Fungal biomineralization of montmorillonite and goethite to short-range-ordered minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan; Hu, Shuijin; Polizzotto, Matthew L.; Chang, Xiaoli; Shen, Qirong; Ran, Wei; Yu, Guanghui

    2016-10-01

    Highly reactive nano-scale minerals, e.g., short-range-ordered minerals (SROs) and other nanoparticles, play an important role in soil carbon (C) retention. Yet, the mechanisms that govern biomineralization from bulk minerals to highly reactive nano-scale minerals remain largely unexplored, which critically hinders our efforts toward managing nano-scale minerals for soil C retention. Here we report the results from a study that explores structural changes during Aspergillus fumigatus Z5 transformation of montmorillonite and goethite to SROs. We examined the morphology and structure of nano-scale minerals, using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, time-resolved solid-state 27Al and 29Si NMR, and Fe K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy combined with two dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D COS) analysis. Our results showed that after a 48-h cultivation of montmorillonite and goethite with Z5, new biogenic intracellular and extracellular reactive nano-scale minerals with a size of 3-5 nm became abundant. Analysis of 2D COS further suggested that montmorillonite and goethite were the precursors of the dominant biogenic nano-scale minerals. Carbon 1s near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra and their deconvolution results demonstrated that during fungus Z5 growth, carboxylic C (288.4-289.1 eV) was the dominant organic group, accounting for approximately 34% and 59% in the medium and aggregates, respectively. This result suggested that high percentage of the production of organic acids during the growth of Z5 was the driving factor for structural changes during biomineralization. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of the structural characterization of nano-scale minerals by 2D COS, highlighting its potential to elucidate biomineralization pathways and thus identify the precursors of nano-scale minerals.

  3. Proton conductive montmorillonite-Nafion composite membranes for direct ethanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiu-Wen; Wu, Nan; Shi, Chun-Qing; Zheng, Zhi-Yuan; Qi, Hong-Bin; Wang, Ya-Fang

    2016-12-01

    The preparation of Nafion membranes modified with montmorillonites is less studied, and most relative works mainly applied in direct methanol fuel cells, less in direct ethanol fuel cells. Organic/inorganic composite membranes are prepared with different montmorillonites (Ca-montmorillonite, Na-montmorillonite, K-montmorillonite, Mg-montmorillonite, and H-montmorillonite) and Nafion solution via casting method at 293 K in air, and with balance of their proton conductivity and ethanol permeability. The ethanol permeability and proton conductivity of the membranes are comparatively studied. The montmorillonites can well decrease the ethanol permeability of the membranes via inserted them in the membranes, while less decrease the proton conductivities of the membranes depending on the inserted amount and type of montmorillonites. The proton conductivities of the membranes are between 36.0 mS/cm and 38.5 mS/cm. The ethanol permeability of the membranes is between 0.69 × 10-6 cm2/s and 2.67 × 10-6 cm2/s.

  4. Effect of Shadowing on Survival of Bacteria under Conditions Simulating the Martian Atmosphere and UV Radiation▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Shariff; Peeters, Zan; La Duc, Myron T.; Mancinelli, Rocco; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2008-01-01

    Spacecraft-associated spores and four non-spore-forming bacterial isolates were prepared in Atacama Desert soil suspensions and tested both in solution and in a desiccated state to elucidate the shadowing effect of soil particulates on bacterial survival under simulated Martian atmospheric and UV irradiation conditions. All non-spore-forming cells that were prepared in nutrient-depleted, 0.2-μm-filtered desert soil (DSE) microcosms and desiccated for 75 days on aluminum died, whereas cells prepared similarly in 60-μm-filtered desert soil (DS) microcosms survived such conditions. Among the bacterial cells tested, Microbacterium schleiferi and Arthrobacter sp. exhibited elevated resistance to 254-nm UV irradiation (low-pressure Hg lamp), and their survival indices were comparable to those of DS- and DSE-associated Bacillus pumilus spores. Desiccated DSE-associated spores survived exposure to full Martian UV irradiation (200 to 400 nm) for 5 min and were only slightly affected by Martian atmospheric conditions in the absence of UV irradiation. Although prolonged UV irradiation (5 min to 12 h) killed substantial portions of the spores in DSE microcosms (∼5- to 6-log reduction with Martian UV irradiation), dramatic survival of spores was apparent in DS-spore microcosms. The survival of soil-associated wild-type spores under Martian conditions could have repercussions for forward contamination of extraterrestrial environments, especially Mars. PMID:18083857

  5. Confirmation of Soluble Sulfate at the Phoenix Landing Site: Implications for Martian Geochemistry and Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounaves, S. P.; Hecht, M. H.; Kapit, J.; Quinn, R. C.; Catling, D. C.; Clark, B. C.; Ming, D. W.; Gospodinova, K.; Hredzak, P.; McElhoney, K.; hide

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades, elemental sulfur in martian soils and rocks has been detected by a number of missions using X-ray spectroscopy [1-3]. Optical spectroscopy has also provided evidence for widespread sulfates on Mars [4,5]. The ubiquitous presence of sulfur in soils has been interpreted as a widely distributed sulfate mineralogy [6]. However, direct confirmation as to the identity and solubility of the sulfur species in martian soil has never been obtained. One goal of the Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) [7] on board the 2007 Phoenix Mars Lander [8] was to determine soluble sulfate in the martian soil. The WCL received three primary samples. Each sample was added to 25 mL of leaching solution and analysed for solvated ionic species, pH, and conductivity [9,10]. The analysis also showed a discrepancy between charge balance, ionic strength, and conductivity, suggesting unidentified anionic species.

  6. Proton conductive montmorillonite-Nafion composite membranes for direct ethanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiu-Wen; Wu, Nan; Shi, Chun-Qing; Zheng, Zhi-Yuan; Qi, Hong-Bin; Wang, Ya-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Composite membranes are prepared with different montmorillonites and nafion solution. • Proton conductivities of the composite membranes are between 36.0 mS/cm and 38.5 mS/cm. • Ethanol permeability is between 0.69 × 10"−"6 cm"2/s and 2.67 × 10"−"6 cm"2/s. • Water uptake is approximately 24.30 mass%. - Abstract: The preparation of Nafion membranes modified with montmorillonites is less studied, and most relative works mainly applied in direct methanol fuel cells, less in direct ethanol fuel cells. Organic/inorganic composite membranes are prepared with different montmorillonites (Ca-montmorillonite, Na-montmorillonite, K-montmorillonite, Mg-montmorillonite, and H-montmorillonite) and Nafion solution via casting method at 293 K in air, and with balance of their proton conductivity and ethanol permeability. The ethanol permeability and proton conductivity of the membranes are comparatively studied. The montmorillonites can well decrease the ethanol permeability of the membranes via inserted them in the membranes, while less decrease the proton conductivities of the membranes depending on the inserted amount and type of montmorillonites. The proton conductivities of the membranes are between 36.0 mS/cm and 38.5 mS/cm. The ethanol permeability of the membranes is between 0.69 × 10"−"6 cm"2/s and 2.67 × 10"−"6 cm"2/s.

  7. Montmorillonite stability. With special respect to KBS-3 conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnland, Ola; Birgersson, Martin

    2006-08-01

    The basic advantageous properties, e.g. low hydraulic conductivity and high swelling pressure, of the bentonite buffer in a KBS- repository stem from a strong interaction between water and the montmorillonite mineral in the bentonite. Minerals similar in structure but with substantially lower mineral-water interaction exist in nature. Transformations from montmorillonite to such minerals are observed e.g. in burial diagenesis and in contact metamorphism. A thermodynamic consideration confirms that medium and low charged montmorillonite is not in chemical equilibrium with quartz. From a safety assessment perspective it is therefore of vital importance to quantify the montmorillonite transformation under KBS- conditions. Silica release from the montmorillonite tetrahedral layers is the initial process for several possible transformations. Replacement of silica by aluminum increases the layer charge but maintains the basic atomic structure. A sufficiently high layer charge results in an irreversible collapse of the clay-water structure, i.e. a non-swelling mineral is formed. Compared to other cations, potassium as counter ion leads to a collapse at lower layer charge and the produced phase is generally termed illite. Montmorillonite-to-illite transformation is the most frequently found alteration process in nature. Three different kinetic illitization models are reviewed and the model proposed by Huang et al. is considered the most suitable for quantification in a KBS- repository, since the kinetic rate expression and its associated parameters are systematically determined by laboratory work. The model takes into account temperature, montmorillonite fraction and potassium concentration, but do not include relevant parameters such as pH, temperature gradients and water content. Calculations by use of the Huang illitization model applied for repository conditions yield insignificant montmorillonite transformation also under very pessimistic assumptions. Other non

  8. Montmorillonite stability. With special respect to KBS-3 conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnland, Ola; Birgersson, Martin [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2006-08-15

    The basic advantageous properties, e.g. low hydraulic conductivity and high swelling pressure, of the bentonite buffer in a KBS- repository stem from a strong interaction between water and the montmorillonite mineral in the bentonite. Minerals similar in structure but with substantially lower mineral-water interaction exist in nature. Transformations from montmorillonite to such minerals are observed e.g. in burial diagenesis and in contact metamorphism. A thermodynamic consideration confirms that medium and low charged montmorillonite is not in chemical equilibrium with quartz. From a safety assessment perspective it is therefore of vital importance to quantify the montmorillonite transformation under KBS- conditions. Silica release from the montmorillonite tetrahedral layers is the initial process for several possible transformations. Replacement of silica by aluminum increases the layer charge but maintains the basic atomic structure. A sufficiently high layer charge results in an irreversible collapse of the clay-water structure, i.e. a non-swelling mineral is formed. Compared to other cations, potassium as counter ion leads to a collapse at lower layer charge and the produced phase is generally termed illite. Montmorillonite-to-illite transformation is the most frequently found alteration process in nature. Three different kinetic illitization models are reviewed and the model proposed by Huang et al. is considered the most suitable for quantification in a KBS- repository, since the kinetic rate expression and its associated parameters are systematically determined by laboratory work. The model takes into account temperature, montmorillonite fraction and potassium concentration, but do not include relevant parameters such as pH, temperature gradients and water content. Calculations by use of the Huang illitization model applied for repository conditions yield insignificant montmorillonite transformation also under very pessimistic assumptions. Other non

  9. Proton conductive montmorillonite-Nafion composite membranes for direct ethanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xiu-Wen, E-mail: wuxw2008@163.com [School of Science, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Wu, Nan; Shi, Chun-Qing; Zheng, Zhi-Yuan; Qi, Hong-Bin; Wang, Ya-Fang [School of Science, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Composite membranes are prepared with different montmorillonites and nafion solution. • Proton conductivities of the composite membranes are between 36.0 mS/cm and 38.5 mS/cm. • Ethanol permeability is between 0.69 × 10{sup −6} cm{sup 2}/s and 2.67 × 10{sup −6} cm{sup 2}/s. • Water uptake is approximately 24.30 mass%. - Abstract: The preparation of Nafion membranes modified with montmorillonites is less studied, and most relative works mainly applied in direct methanol fuel cells, less in direct ethanol fuel cells. Organic/inorganic composite membranes are prepared with different montmorillonites (Ca-montmorillonite, Na-montmorillonite, K-montmorillonite, Mg-montmorillonite, and H-montmorillonite) and Nafion solution via casting method at 293 K in air, and with balance of their proton conductivity and ethanol permeability. The ethanol permeability and proton conductivity of the membranes are comparatively studied. The montmorillonites can well decrease the ethanol permeability of the membranes via inserted them in the membranes, while less decrease the proton conductivities of the membranes depending on the inserted amount and type of montmorillonites. The proton conductivities of the membranes are between 36.0 mS/cm and 38.5 mS/cm. The ethanol permeability of the membranes is between 0.69 × 10{sup −6} cm{sup 2}/s and 2.67 × 10{sup −6} cm{sup 2}/s.

  10. Paloma-radon: atmospheric radon 222 as a geochemical probe for water in the martian subsoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabroux, J.Ch.; Michielsen, N.; Voisin, V.

    2003-01-01

    Radon exhalation from a porous soil is known to depend strongly on the soil moisture content: a minute amount of water, or water ice, in the pore space increases dramatically the possibility for radon to migrate far from its parent mineral. We propose to take advantage of this characteristic by using atmospheric radon 222 as a geochemical probe for water in the Martian soil, at least one order of magnitude deeper than the current Mars Odyssey neutron data. Strong thermal inversions during the Martian night will accumulate radon in the lowest atmospheric boundary layer, up to measurable levels despite the comparatively high environmental (cosmic and solar) background radiation and the assumed low uranium content of the upper crust of the planet. Preliminary studies and development of an instrument for the measurement of the Martian atmospheric alpha radioactivity is part of the CNES supported PALOMA experiment. Two test benches have been implemented, one of them allowing differential measurements of the diffusion of radon in the Martian soil simulant NASA JSC Mars-1, under relevant temperatures and pressures. The other, a 1 m3 radon-dedicated test bench, aims to characterize the instrument that will measure radon in the Mars environment (7 mb CO 2 ). Tests on several nuclear radiation detectors show that semiconductor alpha-particle detectors (PIPS) are the best option. In addition, the detection volume is left open in order to capitalize upon the long (ca. 4 m) alpha track at this low pressure. A stationary diffusion model was developed in order to assess the radon flux at the Mars soil surface. Diffusion of gas in Martian soil is governed by Knudsen diffusion. The radon Knudsen diffusion coefficient was estimated, depending on the soil moisture and relevant structural properties, leading to a radon diffusion length of the order of 20 m. The landed platform PALOMA-Radon instrument will consist of a set of alpha detectors connected to an electronic spectrometer, a

  11. Paloma-radon: atmospheric radon 222 as a geochemical probe for water in the martian subsoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabroux, J.Ch.; Michielsen, N.; Voisin, V

    2003-07-01

    Radon exhalation from a porous soil is known to depend strongly on the soil moisture content: a minute amount of water, or water ice, in the pore space increases dramatically the possibility for radon to migrate far from its parent mineral. We propose to take advantage of this characteristic by using atmospheric radon 222 as a geochemical probe for water in the Martian soil, at least one order of magnitude deeper than the current Mars Odyssey neutron data. Strong thermal inversions during the Martian night will accumulate radon in the lowest atmospheric boundary layer, up to measurable levels despite the comparatively high environmental (cosmic and solar) background radiation and the assumed low uranium content of the upper crust of the planet. Preliminary studies and development of an instrument for the measurement of the Martian atmospheric alpha radioactivity is part of the CNES supported PALOMA experiment. Two test benches have been implemented, one of them allowing differential measurements of the diffusion of radon in the Martian soil simulant NASA JSC Mars-1, under relevant temperatures and pressures. The other, a 1 m3 radon-dedicated test bench, aims to characterize the instrument that will measure radon in the Mars environment (7 mb CO{sub 2}). Tests on several nuclear radiation detectors show that semiconductor alpha-particle detectors (PIPS) are the best option. In addition, the detection volume is left open in order to capitalize upon the long (ca. 4 m) alpha track at this low pressure. A stationary diffusion model was developed in order to assess the radon flux at the Mars soil surface. Diffusion of gas in Martian soil is governed by Knudsen diffusion. The radon Knudsen diffusion coefficient was estimated, depending on the soil moisture and relevant structural properties, leading to a radon diffusion length of the order of 20 m. The landed platform PALOMA-Radon instrument will consist of a set of alpha detectors connected to an electronic spectrometer

  12. Where to search for martian biota?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasch, Paul

    1997-07-01

    Martian Salt. Terrestrial halite containing negative crystals which entrapped drops of viscous fluid yielded viable bacteria. The fluid has a Br/Mg ratio which chemist W.T. Holser characterized as a `Permian bittern.' All relevant salt on Mars should be inspected for negative crystals and possible ancient bacterial tenants. Martian Water. Moist soil in the regolith, cooled hydrothermal fluids, sediments of recurrent oceanic water, and related to inferred strand lines, even limited water in future SNC-type meteorites, upper atmosphere liquid water or water vapor, and North Polar liquid water or ice--all liquid water in any form, wherever, should be collected for microbiological analysis. Vent Fauna. Living or fossil thermophiles as trace fossils, or fauna metallicized in relation to sulphide ores. Iron Bacteria. Limonitized magnetite ore (USSR) in thin section showed structures attributed to iron bacteria. Biogenic magnetite, produced by both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and its significance. Carbonaceous chondrites (non martian) (Ivuna and Orgueil) yielded apparent life forms that could not be attributed to contamination during the given study. Are they extraterrestrial?

  13. Mars Surveyor Program '01 Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment wet chemistry lab: a sensor array for chemical analysis of the Martian soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounaves, Samuel P.; Lukow, Stefan R.; Comeau, Brian P.; Hecht, Michael H.; Grannan-Feldman, Sabrina M.; Manatt, Ken; West, Steven J.; Wen, Xiaowen; Frant, Martin; Gillette, Tim

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) instrument was designed, built, and flight qualified for the now canceled MSP (Mars Surveyor Program) '01 Lander. The MECA package consisted of a microscope, electrometer, material patch plates, and a wet chemistry laboratory (WCL). The primary goal of MECA was to analyze the Martian soil (regolith) for possible hazards to future astronauts and to provide a better understanding of Martian regolith geochemistry. The purpose of the WCL was to analyze for a range of soluble ionic chemical species and electrochemical parameters. The heart of the WCL was a sensor array of electrochemically based ion-selective electrodes (ISE). After 20 months storage at -23 degrees C and subsequent extended freeze/thawing cycles, WCL sensors were evaluated to determine both their physical durability and analytical responses. A fractional factorial calibration of the sensors was used to obtain slope, intercept, and all necessary selectivity coefficients simultaneously for selected ISEs. This calibration was used to model five cation and three anion sensors. These data were subsequently used to determine concentrations of several ions in two soil leachate simulants (based on terrestrial seawater and hypothesized Mars brine) and four actual soil samples. The WCL results were compared to simulant and soil samples using ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The results showed that flight qualification and prolonged low-temperature storage conditions had minimal effects on the sensors. In addition, the analytical optimization method provided quantitative and qualitative data that could be used to accurately identify the chemical composition of the simulants and soils. The WCL has the ability to provide data that can be used to "read" the chemical, geological, and climatic history of Mars, as well as the potential habitability of its regolith.

  14. Spice In Martian Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiferlin, K.; Spohn, T.; Spice Team

    The Netlander mission offers a unique opportunity to study the surface and the inte- rior of Mars at four different locations at the same time. In addition to real "network"- science, where the presence of four stations is a 'must' to address global science as- pects, local, landing site-related instruments can more than double our knowledge of the surface of Mars, compared to the three landing sites (Viking 1 and 2, Pathfinder) we are currently familiar with. The SPICE instrument will characterize the soil at the landing sites. Force sensors integrated into the seismometer legs (three per station) will determine the mechanical strength of the soil. Thermal sensors will measure the local soil temperature, the thermal inertia and the thermal diffusivity independently, thus allowing us to determine the thermal conductivity and the volumetric heat capac- ity of the soil. These properties will tell us about (1) soil cementation ("duricrust"), (2) volatile exchange with the atmosphere, (3) grain size, (4) near-surface stratigra- phy, and (5) will finally provide ground truth for remote sensing data such as that from Mars Global Surveyor's thermal emission spectrometer.

  15. Saltation under Martian gravity and its influence on the global dust distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiolik, Grzegorz; Kruss, Maximilian; Demirci, Tunahan; Schrinski, Björn; Teiser, Jens; Daerden, Frank; Smith, Michael D.; Neary, Lori; Wurm, Gerhard

    2018-05-01

    Dust and sand motion are a common sight on Mars. Understanding the interaction of atmosphere and Martian soil is fundamental to describe the planet's weather, climate and surface morphology. We set up a wind tunnel to study the lift of a mixture between very fine sand and dust in a Mars simulant soil. The experiments were carried out under Martian gravity in a parabolic flight. The reduced gravity was provided by a centrifuge under external microgravity. The onset of saltation was measured for a fluid threshold shear velocity of 0.82 ± 0.04 m/s. This is considerably lower than found under Earth gravity. In addition to a reduction in weight, this low threshold can be attributed to gravity dependent cohesive forces within the sand bed, which drop by 2/3 under Martian gravity. The new threshold for saltation leads to a simulation of the annual dust cycle with a Mars GCM that is in agreement with observations.

  16. Paloma-radon: Atmospheric radon-222 as a geochemical probe for water in the Martian subsoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabroux, J.-C.; Michielsen, N.; Voisin, V.; Ferry, C.; Richon, P.; Pineau, J.-F.; Le Roulley, J.-C.; Chassefière, E.

    2003-04-01

    Radon exhalation from a porous soil is known to depend strongly on the soil moisture content: a minute amount of water, or water ice, in the pore space increases dramatically the possibility for radon to migrate far from its parent mineral. We propose to take advantage of this characteristic by using atmospheric radon-222 as a geochemical probe for water in the Martian soil, at least one order of magnitude deeper than the current Mars Odyssey neutron data. Strong thermal inversions during the Martian night will accumulate radon in the lowest atmospheric boundary layer, up to measurable levels despite the comparatively high environmental (cosmic and solar) background radiation and the assumed low uranium content of the upper crust of the planet. Preliminary studies and development of an instrument for the measurement of the Martian atmospheric alpha radioactivity is part of the CNES-supported PALOMA experiment. Two test benches have been implemented, one of them allowing differential measurements of the diffusion of radon in the Martian soil simulant NASA JSC Mars-1, under relevant temperatures and pressures. The other, a 1 m^3 radon-dedicated test bench, aims to characterize the instrument that will measure radon in the Mars environment (7 mb CO_2). Tests on several nuclear radiation detectors show that semiconductor alpha-particle detectors (PIPS) are the best option (already on board the Mars Pathfinder Rover and other platforms). In addition, the detection volume is left open in order to capitalize upon the long (ca. 4 m) alpha track at this low pressure. A stationary diffusion model was developed in order to assess the radon flux at the Mars soil surface. Diffusion of gas in Martian soil is governed by Knudsen diffusion. The radon Knudsen diffusion coefficient was estimated, depending on the soil moisture and relevant structural properties, leading to a radon diffusion length of the order of 20 m. The landed platform PALOMA-Radon instrument will consist of a

  17. A study of the fixing of phosphoric ions by zirconium-montmorillonite; Etude de la fixation d'ions phosphoriques par la montmorillonite-zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittel, R; Boursat, C; Platzer, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    In connection with the research carried out on the purification of nuclear reactor water, we have undertaken a study of the ion-exchange properties of acid montmorillonite. In a previous paper, we described the preparation of zirconium-montmorillonite small plate. The present article aims to study some of the properties of the clay obtained. We have observed that zirconium-montmorillonite fixes very strongly the phosphorus from solutions of phosphoric acid or of phosphates: on 1 g of clay it is possible to fix 1,2 milli-atoms-gram of zirconium and the zirconium montmorillonite itself fixes 2,1 milli-atoms-gram of phosphorus. An explanation of these experimental results, which is as much chemical as mineralogical, is the hypothesis that the fixing of phosphoric ions modifies the distribution of the ions between the platelets and precipitates a very slightly soluble product of the type diphospho-zirconic acid. (author) [French] En rapport avec des recherches sur I'epuration de l'eau des reacteurs nucleaires nous avons entrepris une etude sur les proprietes d'echangeur d'ions de la montmorillonite-acide. Dans une precedente publication, nous avons decrit la preparation des plaquettes de montmorillonite-zirconium. La presente communication a pour but d'etudier quelques proprietes de l'argile obtenue. Nous avons constate que la montmorilionite-zirconium fixe le phosphore de solutions d'acide phosphorique ou de phosphate avec une grande intensite: sur 1 g d'argile, on peut fixer 1,2 atomes-gramme de zirconium, et la montmorillonite-zirconium fixe a son tour 2,1 milli-atomesgramme de phosphore. Une explication des resultats experimentaux, tant d'ordre chimique que d'ordre mineralogique, consiste en l'hypothese suivant laquelle la fixation d'ions phosphoriques modifierait la repartition des ions entre les feuillets avec precipitation du compose tres peu soluble (type: acide diphosphozirconique). (auteur)

  18. Effects of humidity and interlayer cations on the frictional strength of montmorillonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetsuka, Hiroshi; Katayama, Ikuo; Sakuma, Hiroshi; Tamura, Kenji

    2018-04-01

    We developed a humidity control system in a biaxial friction testing machine to investigate the effect of relative humidity and interlayer cations on the frictional strength of montmorillonite. We carried out the frictional experiments on Na- and Ca-montmorillonite under controlled relative humidities (ca. 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90%) and at a constant temperature (95 °C). Our experimental results show that frictional strengths of both Na- and Ca-montmorillonite decrease systematically with increasing relative humidity. The friction coefficients of Na-montmorillonite decrease from 0.33 (at relative humidity of 10%) to 0.06 (at relative humidity of 93%) and those of Ca-montmorillonite decrease from 0.22 (at relative humidity of 11%) to 0.04 (at relative humidity of 91%). Our results also show that the frictional strength of Na-montmorillonite is higher than that of Ca-montmorillonite at a given relative humidity. These results reveal that the frictional strength of montmorillonite is sensitive to hydration state and interlayer cation species, suggesting that the strength of faults containing these clay minerals depends on the physical and chemical environment.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Preliminary findings of the Viking gas exchange experiment and a model for Martian surface chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, V.I.; Berdahl, B.J.; Carle, G.C.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that O 2 and CO 2 were evolved from humidified Martian soil in the gas exchange experiment on Viking Lander 1. Small changes in N 2 gas were also recorded. A model of the morphology and a hypothesis of the mechanistics of the Martian surface are proposed. (author)

  20. 134cs uptake by plants from soil applying different absorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oncsik, M.

    1998-01-01

    A study of isotope uptake by plants using different zeolite clay minerals (montmorillonite, mordenite, clinoptilolite) was started with a view to reducing the rate of isotope uptake by plants by applying additives given to the soil. In pot experiments, the 134 Cs activity of green peas was reduced by 16% in average as compared to the control in the soils enriched with zeolite (mordenite type). Under field conditions, the radioactivity of millet and carrot yields were investigated in soils ameliorated with montmorillonite clay mineral. The radioactive contamination of the yield in soil treated with zeolite was in average 10% lower for millet and 24% for carrot roots as compared to the control

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Phenolic Resin/Montmorillonite Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Soltan-Dehghan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic resins have been widely used for selective high technology applications due to their excellent ablative properties, structural integrity and thermal stability that make them appropriate for thermal insulation materials, wood products industry, coatings, moulding compounds and composite materials. Polymer layered silicate nanocomposites based on montmorillonite (MMT have attracted a great deal of attention because of enhanced properties in mechanical, thermal, barrier and clarity properties without a significant increase in density, which is not possible with conventional fillers. Phenolic resin/montmorillonite (Cloisite 15A nanocomposite was prepared by a combined route of solution blending and in-situ polymerization. Theoptimized conditions for preparation of nanocomposite were achieved by evaluation of various processing parameters (mechanical mixer, high speed disperser and high energy ultrasonic source, mixing time (0.5, 1, 3, 10, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h and different amounts of montmorillonite (5 and 10 weight percents of montmorillonite relative to resol. X-Ray Diffractometer and thermal gravimetric analyzer were used accordingly to show the degree of nanodispersions of organomontmorillonite in polymeric matrix and the effect of nanofiller on thermal stability of nanocomposite with respect to neatresol. The results of high energy ultrasonic source show that a nanocomposite of phenolic resin with 5 wt% montmorillonite displays the best dispersion of clay layers. Thermal stability of nanocomposite was increased by 27% in comparison with neat resol.

  2. Polymerization of alanine in the presence of a non-swelling montmorillonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paecht-Horowitz, M.; Lahav, N.

    1977-01-01

    Alanine, starting from alanine-adenylate, has been polymerized in the presence of non-swelling Al-montmorillonite. The yield of polymerization is much lower than that obtained in the presence of swelling Na-montmorillonite. The possibility that the changing interlayer spacing in Na-montmorillonite might be responsible for its catalytic properties, is discussed.

  3. Adsorption of ferrous ions onto montmorillonites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Dawei, E-mail: qdw109@163.com [Qilu University of Technology, Jinan, 250353, Shandong (China); Niu, Xia [Qilu University of Technology, Jinan, 250353, Shandong (China); Qiao, Min; Liu, Gang; Li, Hongxin; Meng, Zhenxiao [Shandong SiBang pharmaceutical co., LTD, Jinan, Shandong, 250200 (China)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • Adsorption study of ferrous ions on montmorillonites. • Using ascorbic acid as antioxidants in adsorption process. • Fe (II)-MMT had good affinity for phosphate. - Abstract: The adsorption of Fe (II) onto montmorillonites was investigated through initial concentration, contact time, pH and temperature. During the whole adsorption process, the ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) was added as a kind of antioxidant, at the same time, deionized water (after boiling) and nitrogen protection were also used to avoid oxidation. The Fe{sup 2+}/Fe{sub total} ratio of the iron exists in the Fe-montmorillonites was found more than 95%. Two kinetic models, including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model, were used to analyze the adsorption process of Fe (II) on montmorillonites. The results of our study showed that adsorption process fitted with pseudo-second-order well. Adsorption isotherms showed that Langmuir model was better than Freundlich model. The thermodynamic parameters ΔG{sup 0} and ΔH{sup 0} were 3.696 kJ/mol and 6.689 kJ/mol (we just gave the values at 298 K), respectively. The positive values at different temperatures showed that the adsorption process was non-spontaneous and endothermic. The characteristics of materials were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Surface area and porosity analyzer, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and Zeta potential distribution.

  4. Adsorption of copper ions of natural montmorillonite clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimneva Ludmila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prospects of montmorillonite clay using for the extraction of copper ions from natural and waste waters were determined. Specified chemical and phase composition of natural forms of the montmorillonite clay are shown in the article. Quantitative characteristics of adsorption process of copper ions, the statistical exchange capacity is 1,21 (298 К, 1,25 (313 К, 1,43 (333 К. The authors have studied the balance of copper ions by the method of constructing the isotherms. The description of the adsorption process was carried out by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models. The calculations showed that the best data for the sorption described by Langmuir model. The nature of the interaction of copper ions with montmorillonite clay in natural form is presented. The calculated thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption process, the obtained values of the Gibbs energy have a negative sign -11,5 (298 К, -15,6 (313 К, -16,2 (333 К кJ/mol, that corresponds to a sustainable consolidation of copper ions on the surface of the montmorillonite clay.

  5. Synthesis of a Biglucoside and Its Application as Montmorillonite Hydration Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-chun Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A biglucoside (BG was synthesized with glucose and epichlorohydrin as raw materials. The inhibition of BG against montmorillonite swelling was investigated by various methods including montmorillonite linear expansion test, mud ball immersing test, thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the BG has good inhibition ability to the hydration swelling and dispersion of montmorillonite. Under the same condition, the linear expansion ratio of montmorillonite in BG solution is much lower than that of MEG. The particle distribution measurement, thermogravimetric analysis, FT-IR, and scanning electron microscopy results all prove the efficient inhibition of BG.

  6. Chemosynthesis in deep-sea red-clay: Linking concepts to probable martian life

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Das, A.; Mourya, B.S.; Mamatha, S.S.; Khadge, N.H.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    of microbial biogeochemistry are used in the pres- ent deep-sea analogue studies and would be imple- mented for actual Martian soil samples in future: Microbial abundance in terms of total counts » Diversity of culture dependent and independent Chemos... soils done earlier by Viking I robots [5, Bianciardi et. al, 2012

  7. Hydrothermal effects on montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Karnland, O.

    1988-06-01

    Hydrothermal effects on montmorillonite clay are usually taken to have the form of conversion of this clay mineral to other species, such as illite, disregarding microstructural alteration and cementation caused by precipitation of silica and other compounds. The report is focussed on identification of the primary processes that are involved in such alteration, the release of silica and the microstructural changes associated with heating being of major interest. In the first test phase, Na montmorillonite in distilled water was investigated by XRD, rheology tests and electron microscopy after heating to 60-225 0 C for 0.01 to 1 year. The preliminary conclusions are that heating produces contraction of the particle network to form dense 'branches', the effect being most obvious at the highest temperature but of significance even at 60-100 0 C. Release of substantial amounts of silica gas been documented for temperatures exceeding 150 0 and precipitation of silica was observed on cooling after the hydrothermal testing under the closed conditions that prevailed throughout the tests. The precipitates, which appeared to be amorphous and probably consisted of hydrous silica gels, were concluded to have increased the mechanical strength and caused some brittleness, particularly of the dense clays. The nature of the silica release, which is assumed to be associated with beidellitization, may be closely related to an unstable state of a certain fraction of tetrahedral silica at heat-inducted transfer between two different crystal modes of montmorillonite. (orig.)

  8. Chemical composition of Martian fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B. C.; Baird, A. K.; Weldon, R. J.; Tsusaki, D. M.; Schnabel, L.; Candelaria, M. P.

    1982-01-01

    Of the 21 samples acquired for the Viking X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, 17 were analyzed to high precision. Compared to typical terrestrial continental soils and lunar mare fines, the Martian fines are lower in Al, higher in Fe, and much higher in S and Cl concentrations. Protected fines at the two lander sites are almost indistinguishable, but concentration of the element S is somewhat higher at Utopia. Duricrust fragments, successfully acquired only at the Chryse site, invariably contained about 50% higher S than fines. No elements correlate positively with S, except Cl and possibly Mg. A sympathetic variation is found among the triad Si, Al, Ca; positive correlation occurs between Ti and Fe. Sample variabilities are as great within a few meters as between lander locations (4500 km apart), implying the existence of a universal Martian regolith component of constant average composition. The nature of the source materials for the regolith fines must be mafic to ultramafic.

  9. On different photodecomposition behaviors of rhodamine B on laponite and montmorillonite clay under visible light irradiation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Peng

    2013-12-11

    In this study, laponite and montmorillonite clays were found to be able to decompose rhodamine B upon visible light irradiation (λ>420nm). Very interestingly, it was found that rhodamine B on laponite underwent a stepwise N-deethylation and its decomposition was terminated once rhodamine 110, as a decomposition product, was formed, whereas the same phenomenon was not observed for rhodamine B on montmorillonite, whose decomposition involved chromophore destruction. Mechanistic study revealed that the different photodecomposition behaviors of rhodamine B on laponite and montmorillonite were attributed to the oxidation by different reactive oxygen species, with laponite involving HO2/O2- while montmorillonite involving OH. It was also found that the degradation pathway of rhodamine B on laponite switched from N-deethylation to chromophore destruction when solution pH was changed from 7.0 to 3.0, which was attributed to a much higher fraction of HO2 relative to O2- under pH 3.0 than under pH 7.0. Based on the results, a mechanism of rhodamine dye decomposition on clay under visible light was proposed, involving the clay as an electron acceptor, electron relay between the adsorbed dye molecules and oxygen molecules, and subsequent reactions between the generated dye radical cations and different reactive oxygen species. The results of this study shed light on how to best utilize visible light for organic pollutant degradation on clays within engineered treatment systems as well as on many of naturally occurring pollutant degradation processes in soils and air involving clay. © 2013 King Saud University.

  10. Montmorillonite ameliorates hyperthyroidism of rats and mice attributed to its adsorptive effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yan; Meng, Xin-fang; Cao, Yong-xiao; Lu, Hua; Zhu, Shao-fei; Zhou, Liang-zhen

    2006-12-03

    The present study aims to evaluate the adsorbing effect of montmorillonite on thyroid hormone in the entero-hepatic circulation. The concentration of thyroid hormone in the serum of hyperthyroidism model rats and in solution was measured by radioimmunoassay and ultraviolet spectrometry, respectively. The body weight, temperature, and consumption of food and water were observed in hyperthyroidism model rats. Furthermore, hypoxia tolerance, sodium-pentobarbital-induced sleep time, spontaneous activities were measured on hyperthyroidism model mice after being treated with montmorillonite. Results showed that montmorillonite adsorbed thyroxin (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)) in vitro. Montmorillonite at dosage of 1.0 g/kg and 0.3 g/kg decreased thyroid hormone levels on hyperthyroidism model rats; Montmorillonite (2.0 g/kg and 0.6 g/kg) prolonged the sleep time, improved the hypoxia tolerant capacity and reduced the spontaneous activities of the hyperthyroidism model mice. These results suggest montmorillonite has anti-hyperthyroidism effect attributed to its adsorptive effect.

  11. Experimental demonstration of Martian soil simulant removal from a surface using a pulsed plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticoş, C. M.; Scurtu, A.; Toader, D.; Banu, N.

    2015-03-01

    A plasma jet produced in a small coaxial plasma gun operated at voltages up to 2 kV and working in pure carbon dioxide (CO2) at a few Torr is used to remove Martian soil simulant from a surface. A capacitor with 0.5 mF is charged up from a high voltage source and supplies the power to the coaxial electrodes. The muzzle of the coaxial plasma gun is placed at a few millimeters near the dusty surface and the jet is fired parallel with the surface. Removal of dust is imaged in real time with a high speed camera. Mars regolith simulant JSC-Mars-1A with particle sizes up to 5 mm is used on different types of surfaces made of aluminium, cotton fabric, polyethylene, cardboard, and phenolic.

  12. Experimental demonstration of Martian soil simulant removal from a surface using a pulsed plasma jet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticoş, C M; Scurtu, A; Toader, D; Banu, N

    2015-03-01

    A plasma jet produced in a small coaxial plasma gun operated at voltages up to 2 kV and working in pure carbon dioxide (CO2) at a few Torr is used to remove Martian soil simulant from a surface. A capacitor with 0.5 mF is charged up from a high voltage source and supplies the power to the coaxial electrodes. The muzzle of the coaxial plasma gun is placed at a few millimeters near the dusty surface and the jet is fired parallel with the surface. Removal of dust is imaged in real time with a high speed camera. Mars regolith simulant JSC-Mars-1A with particle sizes up to 5 mm is used on different types of surfaces made of aluminium, cotton fabric, polyethylene, cardboard, and phenolic.

  13. STUDY ON BIODEGRADABILITY OF POLY (3-HYDROXYBUTYRATE-co-3-HYDROXYVALERATE)/ORGANOPHILIC MONTMORILLONITE NANOCOMPOSITES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shufang; SONG Cunjiang; CHEN Guangxin; LIU Jing; YANG Chao; ZHANG Xihui; GUO Tianying; ZHANG Banghua

    2004-01-01

    Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate)/Organophilic montmorillonite (PHBV/OMMT) nanocomposites were prepared and the biodegradability of the PHBV/OMMT nanocomposites was studied by a cultivation degrading method in soil suspension. The relationship between structure and biodegradability of PHBV/OMMT nanocomposites was investigated. The results showed that the biodegradability of PHBV/OMMT nanocomposites decreased with increasing amount of OMMT and it was related to the number of PHBV degrading microorganisms in degradation environment, the anti-microbial property of OMMT and the degree of crystallinity of the nanocomposites.

  14. Preparation and Characterization of Modified Montmorillonite/Paraffin Phase Change Microcapsules for Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIN Sen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The phase change microcapsules of modified montmorillonite/paraffin were prepared by Pickering emulsion method. Analytic techniques of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy(SEM, infrared spectroscopy(FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry(DSC and thermogravimetry(TG were utilized for characterizing chemical structure, morphology and thermal properties. Results show that modified montmorillonite as a new type wall material has excellent performance for protecting core material of paraffin. FTIR spectra of phase change of modified montmorillonite/paraffin microcapsules shows that their characteristic peaks match with corresponding peaks of pure paraffin and modified montmorillonite. DSC results indicate that modified montmorillonite/paraffin microcapsules have similar solid-liquid phase change temperature with pure paraffin. The phase transition enthalpy values of microcapsules with paraffin contents varying from 55% to 80% are 110.5-147.2J/g, indicating that microcapsules have excellent thermal storage performance and the phase change properties can be adjusted by changing contents of paraffin. TG results confirm that modified montmorillonite/paraffin microcapsules have outstanding thermal stability. The presented study indicates that modified montmorillonite is a suitable wall material for preparing paraffin microcapsule. Modified montmorillonite/paraffin microcapsules have advantages of low cost and high performance with a great application potential in the field of thermal storage.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of nanohybrid of montmorillonite and zinc oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chagas, Beatriz S.; Mendes, Luis C.; Brito, Alice S.

    2009-01-01

    Zinc oxide-aluminosilicate nanohybrids through a hydrothermal reaction of a colloidal suspension of exfoliated montmorillonite nanosheets and zinc oxide in acid solution, performed in three different routes, were synthesized. The products were characterized by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). In all routes, it was found that the intercalation of zinc oxide into the host montmorillonite gallery was successfully performed so that the crystalline peaks of the montmorillonite and zinc oxide were suppressed from the X-ray patterns. The use of ultrasound decreased the reaction time.(author)

  16. Novel applications of locally sourced montmorillonite (MMT) clay as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work explores the application of a locally sourced raw material, montmorillonite (MMT) clay, as a disintegrant in the formulation of an analgesic pharmaceutical product - paracetamol. The raw MMT was refined and treated with 0.IM NaCl to yield sodium montmorillonite (NaMMT) and the powder properties established in ...

  17. Salinity dependence of 226Ra adsorption on montmorillonite and kaolinite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuji Tamamura; Takahiro Takada; Seiya Nagao; Masayoshi Yamamoto; Keisuke Fukushi

    2014-01-01

    The effect of NaCl concentration (10.0-1,000 mM) on 226 Ra adsorption was investigated in the presence of montmorillonite and kaolinite. A positive correlation was observed between the dissolved 226 Ra and NaCl concentrations in the presence of these adsorbents. Distribution coefficients decreased from the order of 10 4 to 10 0 (mL g -1 ) with an increase in NaCl concentration. Although the coefficients were higher for montmorillonite than kaolinite at lower NaCl concentrations, the trend was reversed at higher NaCl concentrations (≥500 mM) owing to the sharper reduction of the coefficient for montmorillonite with the increase in NaCl concentration. The rapid reduction was ascribed to higher negative charge density of montmorillonite, which leads the Ra 2+ adsorption mechanism to approach charge-compensating ion exchange. (author)

  18. EFFECT OF ORGANOPHILIZATION AND INTERLAMELLAR SILYLATION OF MONTMORILLONITE ON COMPATIBLIZATION OF POLYMER COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdouh Abdel Rahim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sodium montmorillonite (Na-Mt was modified by cetyltriemethylammoniumbromide (CTAB through cation exchange technique followed by grafting with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APT. The effects of organophillic surface treatments of montmorillonite on compatibilization of natural rubber (NR /acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR blends was investigated. Physico-mechanical properties of rubber nanocomposites compatibilized with organomodified montmorillonite revealed strong nanocomposite with high tensile properties, impact strength and good resistance to flex fatigue, abrasion and compression set. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA revealed a marked increase in storage modulus (E' and lesser damping characteristics of organically modified clay mineral polymer nanocomposites (CPN due to intercalation of organophilic montmorillonite by rubber matrix. The morphology of the blends became homogeneous and smoother with the presence of exofoliated/intercalated organically modified montmorillonite. Organomodified layered silicate sheets of montmorillonite greatly enhanced barrier properties by creating tortuous path that retarded the progress of solvent molecules through rubber matrix.

  19. Adsorption of ferrous ions onto montmorillonites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Dawei; Niu, Xia; Qiao, Min; Liu, Gang; Li, Hongxin; Meng, Zhenxiao

    2015-04-01

    The adsorption of Fe (II) onto montmorillonites was investigated through initial concentration, contact time, pH and temperature. During the whole adsorption process, the ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) was added as a kind of antioxidant, at the same time, deionized water (after boiling) and nitrogen protection were also used to avoid oxidation. The Fe2+/Fetotal ratio of the iron exists in the Fe-montmorillonites was found more than 95%. Two kinetic models, including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model, were used to analyze the adsorption process of Fe (II) on montmorillonites. The results of our study showed that adsorption process fitted with pseudo-second-order well. Adsorption isotherms showed that Langmuir model was better than Freundlich model. The thermodynamic parameters ΔG0 and ΔH0 were 3.696 kJ/mol and 6.689 kJ/mol (we just gave the values at 298 K), respectively. The positive values at different temperatures showed that the adsorption process was non-spontaneous and endothermic. The characteristics of materials were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Surface area and porosity analyzer, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and Zeta potential distribution.

  20. Rheological properties of different minerals and clay soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolgor Khaydapova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rheological properties of kaolinite, montmorillonite, ferralitic soil of the humid subtropics (Norfolk island, southwest of Oceania, alluvial clay soil of arid subtropics (Konyaprovince, Turkey and carbonate loess loam of Russian forest-steppe zone were determined. A parallel plate rheometer MCR-302 (Anton Paar, Austria was used in order to conduct amplitude sweep test. Rheological properties allow to assess quantitatively structural bonds and estimate structural resistance to a mechanical impact. Measurements were carried out on samples previously pounded and capillary humidified during 24 hours. In the amplitude sweep method an analyzed sample was placed between two plates. The upper plate makes oscillating motions with gradually extending amplitude. Software of the device allows to receive several rheological parameters such as elastic modulus (G’, Pa, viscosity modulus (G", Pa, linear viscoelasticity range (G’>>G”, and point of destruction of structure at which the elastic modulus becomes equal to the viscosity modulus (G’=G”- crossover. It was found out that in the elastic behavior at G '>> G " strength of structural links of kaolinite, alluvial clay soil and loess loam constituted one order of 105 Pa. Montmorillonit had a minimum strength - 104 Pa and ferrallitic soil of Norfolk island [has] - a maximum one -106 Pa. At the same time montmorillonite and ferralitic soil were characterized by the greatest plasticity. Destruction of their structure (G '= G" took place only in the cases when strain was reaching 11-12%. Destraction of the kaolinite structure happened at 5% of deformation and of the alluvial clay soil and loess loam - at 4.5%.

  1. Development of Surface Complexation Models of Cr(VI) Adsorption on Soils, Sediments and Model Mixtures of Kaolinite, Montmorillonite, γ-Alumina, Hydrous Manganese and Ferric Oxides and Goethite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koretsky, Carla [Western Michigan University

    2013-11-29

    Hexavalent chromium is a highly toxic contaminant that has been introduced into aquifers and shallow sediments and soils via many anthropogenic activities. Hexavalent chromium contamination is a problem or potential problem in the shallow subsurface at several DOE sites, including Hanford, Idaho National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE, 2008). To accurately quantify the fate and transport of hexavalent chromium at DOE and other contaminated sites, robust geochemical models, capable of correctly predicting changes in chromium chemical form resulting from chemical reactions occurring in subsurface environments are needed. One important chemical reaction that may greatly impact the bioavailability and mobility of hexavalent chromium in the subsurface is chemical binding to the surfaces of particulates, termed adsorption or surface complexation. Quantitative thermodynamic surface complexation models have been derived that can correctly calculate hexavalent chromium adsorption on well-characterized materials over ranges in subsurface conditions, such pH and salinity. However, models have not yet been developed for hexavalent chromium adsorption on many important constituents of natural soils and sediments, such as clay minerals. Furthermore, most of the existing thermodynamic models have been developed for relatively simple, single solid systems and have rarely been tested for the complex mixtures of solids present in real sediments and soils. In this study, the adsorption of hexavalent chromium was measured as a function of pH (3-10), salinity (0.001 to 0.1 M NaNO3), and partial pressure of carbon dioxide(0-5%) on a suite of naturally-occurring solids including goethite (FeOOH), hydrous manganese oxide (MnOOH), hydrous ferric oxide (Fe(OH)3), γ-alumina (Al2O3), kaolinite (Al2Si2O5(OH)4), and montmorillonite (Na3(Al, Mg)2Si4O10(OH)2-nH2O). The results show that all of these materials can bind substantial quantities of

  2. Behind adhesion of uranyl onto montmorillonite surface: A molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, W.; Zaoui, A., E-mail: azaoui@polytech-lille.fr

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • We investigated the adsorption of uranyl onto Montmorillonite surface. • We studied the surface energy between layered Montmorillonite sheets. • We studied the work of adhesion between radionuclide and charged Montmorillonite. -- Abstract: We have performed molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the adsorption of radionuclide elements species onto substituted Montmorillonite (001) surface in the presence of different counterions. The structure and the dynamics of uranyl ion as well as its aquo, chloride ion, and carbonate complexes are analyzed. In addition, we have studied the surface energy between layered Montmorillonite sheets and the work of adhesion between radionuclide and charged Montmorillonite. The clay model used here is a Wyoming-type Montmorillonite with 0.75e negative charge per unit cell resulting from substitutions in Octahedral and Tetrahedral sheets. The system model was constructed based on CLAYFF force field potential model. To evaluate the thermodynamic work of adhesion, each surface and clay layer regions are converted to a thin film model. One and two species of radionuclide elements (UO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 5},UO{sub 2}CO{sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}, and UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}) were deposited near the clay surface in a pseudo-two-dimensional periodic cell. Analysis shows that the uranyl ion structure is preserved with two axial oxygen atoms detected at 1.8 Å. Radial distribution functions results indicate that average U-O{sub w} distances are 2.45–2.61 Å, and 2.29–2.40 Å for U-O{sub c} distance. Average U-Cl distances are 2.78–3.08 Å, which is relatively larger than that of Uranium atom-Oxygen atom because of electrostatic factors.

  3. Glyphosate behavior at soil and mineral-water interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessagno, Romina C.; Torres Sanchez, Rosa M.; Santos Afonso, Maria dos

    2008-01-01

    Adsorption isotherms and surface coverage of glyphosate, N-phosphonomethylglycine (PMG), in aqueous suspensions of three Argentine soils with different mineralogical composition were measured as a function of PMG concentration and pH. Zeta potential curves for PMG/soils system were also determined. Montmorillonite and soil sample surface charges were negative and increased as the amount of adsorbed PMG increased, showing that the surface complexes are more negative than those formed during the surface protonation. PMG adsorption on soils were described using Langmuir isotherms and the affinity constants, and the maximum surface coverage was estimated at pH 4 and 7 using a two-term Langmuir isotherm, the mineralogical composition percentages, and maximum surface coverage and Langmuir constants for pure minerals. The influence of organic matter (OM) and iron content of soils on the PMG adsorption was evaluated. The surface coverage of PMG decreased when the OM and iron content decreased for minerals and soils. - Adsorption isotherms, surface coverage and zeta potential curves of glyphosate in aqueous suspensions of montmorillonite and three Argentine soils were measured as a function of PMG concentration and pH

  4. Glyphosate behavior at soil and mineral-water interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessagno, Romina C. [INQUIMAE and Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria Pabellon II, (C1428EHA) Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: rpessagno@qi.fcen.uba.ar; Torres Sanchez, Rosa M. [CETMIC, CC 49, (B1896ZCA) M.B. Gonnet, Buenos Aires Province (Argentina)], E-mail: rosats@cetmic.unlp.edu.ar; Santos Afonso, Maria dos [INQUIMAE and Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria Pabellon II, (C1428EHA) Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: dosantos@qi.fcen.uba.ar

    2008-05-15

    Adsorption isotherms and surface coverage of glyphosate, N-phosphonomethylglycine (PMG), in aqueous suspensions of three Argentine soils with different mineralogical composition were measured as a function of PMG concentration and pH. Zeta potential curves for PMG/soils system were also determined. Montmorillonite and soil sample surface charges were negative and increased as the amount of adsorbed PMG increased, showing that the surface complexes are more negative than those formed during the surface protonation. PMG adsorption on soils were described using Langmuir isotherms and the affinity constants, and the maximum surface coverage was estimated at pH 4 and 7 using a two-term Langmuir isotherm, the mineralogical composition percentages, and maximum surface coverage and Langmuir constants for pure minerals. The influence of organic matter (OM) and iron content of soils on the PMG adsorption was evaluated. The surface coverage of PMG decreased when the OM and iron content decreased for minerals and soils. - Adsorption isotherms, surface coverage and zeta potential curves of glyphosate in aqueous suspensions of montmorillonite and three Argentine soils were measured as a function of PMG concentration and pH.

  5. Mössbauer study of pH dependence of iron-intercalation in montmorillonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmann, E., E-mail: kuzmann@caesar.elte.hu [Eötvös Loránd University, Institute of Chemistry (Hungary); Garg, V. K.; Singh, H.; Oliveira, A. C. de; Pati, S. S. [University of Brasília, Institute of Physics (Brazil); Homonnay, Z.; Rudolf, M. [Eötvös Loránd University, Institute of Chemistry (Hungary); Molnár, Á. M.; Kovács, E. M. [University of Debrecen, Imre Lajos Isotope Laboratory, Department of Colloid and Environmental Chemistry (Hungary); Baranyai, E. [University of Debrecen, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry (Hungary); Kubuki, S. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Department of Chemistry (Japan); Nagy, N. M.; Kónya, J. [University of Debrecen, Imre Lajos Isotope Laboratory, Department of Colloid and Environmental Chemistry (Hungary)

    2016-12-15

    {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and XRD have successfully been applied to show the incorporation of Fe ion into the interlayer space of montmorillonite via treatment with FeCl {sub 3} in acetone. The 78K {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra of montmorillonite samples reflected magnetically split spectrum part indicating the intercalation of iron into the interlayer of montmorillonite via the treatment with FeCl {sub 3}+acetone and washed with water until the initial pH=2.3 increased to pH=4.14. It was found that the occurrence of intercalated iron in the form of oxide-oxihydroxide in montmorillonite increases with the pH. Intercalation was confirmed by the gradual increase in the basal spacing d{sub 001} with pH.

  6. Preparation and characterization of exfoliated polyaniline/montmorillonite nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, Binitha N.; Koodathil, Ranjana; Gangadharan, Tripti; Yaakob, Zahira; Saidu, Femina K.; Chandralayam, Soumini

    2010-01-01

    Transition metal ions were exchanged with the interlamellar cations of montmorillonite clays and polymerization of aniline was done within the layers. The delaminated clay layers upon ion exchange resulted in exfoliated polyaniline/clay nanocomposite formation which has profound effects on polymer structure, properties and electrical conduction mechanisms. Here we offer polyaniline (PANI)/montmorillonite exfoliated nanocomposite synthesized through a simple, cheap route which need not require complicated and less economical organophilic modification. The prepared composites were characterized using XRD, FTIR, and TG/DTA to prove exfoliation.

  7. Preparation and characterization of exfoliated polyaniline/montmorillonite nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanan, Binitha N., E-mail: binithann@yahoo.co.i [Department of Chemistry, Sree Neelakanta Government Sanskrit College, Pattambi, Palakkad 679306, Kerala (India); Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Koodathil, Ranjana; Gangadharan, Tripti [Department of Chemistry, Sree Neelakanta Government Sanskrit College, Pattambi, Palakkad 679306, Kerala (India); Yaakob, Zahira [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Saidu, Femina K.; Chandralayam, Soumini [Department of Chemistry, Sree Neelakanta Government Sanskrit College, Pattambi, Palakkad 679306, Kerala (India)

    2010-04-15

    Transition metal ions were exchanged with the interlamellar cations of montmorillonite clays and polymerization of aniline was done within the layers. The delaminated clay layers upon ion exchange resulted in exfoliated polyaniline/clay nanocomposite formation which has profound effects on polymer structure, properties and electrical conduction mechanisms. Here we offer polyaniline (PANI)/montmorillonite exfoliated nanocomposite synthesized through a simple, cheap route which need not require complicated and less economical organophilic modification. The prepared composites were characterized using XRD, FTIR, and TG/DTA to prove exfoliation.

  8. Animated Optical Microscope Zoom in from Phoenix Launch to Martian Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animated camera view zooms in from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander launch site all the way to Phoenix's Microscopy and Electrochemistry and C Eonductivity Analyzer (MECA) aboard the spacecraft on the Martian surface. The final frame shows the soil sample delivered to MECA as viewed through the Optical Microscope (OM) on Sol 17 (June 11, 2008), or the 17th Martian day. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. Electrical and dielectric investigation of intercalated polypyrrole montmorillonite nanocomposite prepared by spontaneous polymerization of pyrrole into Fe(III)-montmorillonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zidi, Rabii, E-mail: rabiizidi@gmail.com [Physical Chemistry Laboratory for Mineral Materials and their Applications, National Center for Research in Materials Sciences (CNRSM), B.P.73, 8020 Soliman (Tunisia); Bekri-Abbes, Imene; Sdiri, Nasr [Physical Chemistry Laboratory for Mineral Materials and their Applications, National Center for Research in Materials Sciences (CNRSM), B.P.73, 8020 Soliman (Tunisia); Vimalanandan, Ashokanand; Rohwerder, Michael [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Düsseldorf (Germany); Srasra, Ezzeddine [Physical Chemistry Laboratory for Mineral Materials and their Applications, National Center for Research in Materials Sciences (CNRSM), B.P.73, 8020 Soliman (Tunisia)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • We have prepared and characterized a Fe-MMT/PPy nanocomposites. • Investigate electrical conductivity and dielectric properties of the nanocomposite. • Investigate the temperature and frequency dependencies of alternating current conductivity of nanocomposites. - Abstract: Pyrrole was introduced into Fe(III)-exchanged montmorillonite to spontaneously polymerize within the interlayer resulting in the formation of intercalated polypyrrole-montmorillonite nanocomposite. The molar proportion of pyrrole to interlayer Fe{sup 3+} (R) has been varied from 0.5 to 5. The nanocomposite has been characterized by X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electronic Microscope, FTIR spectroscopy and impedance spectroscopy. It has been shown that intercalated polypyrrole montmorillonite nanocomposite was obtained. The results showed that the dc conductivity and dielectric properties of polypyrrole depend on R. The alternating current (ac) conductivity of the polymer obeys the power law, i.e., σ{sub ac}(ω) = Aω{sup s}. The alternating conductivity of nanocomposite was controlled by the correlated barrier hopping model. The activation energy for alternating current mechanism decreases with increasing frequency which confirms the hopping conduction to the dominant mechanism as compared with the dc activation energy. The dielectric relaxation mechanism was explained on the basis of complex dielectric modulus.

  10. Immobilization of heavy metals on pillared montmorillonite with a grafted chelate ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Loren; Seaton, Kenneth; Mohseni, Ray; Vasiliev, Aleksey

    2013-10-15

    The objective of this work was the development of an efficient adsorbent for irreversible immobilization of heavy metals in contaminated soils. The adsorbent was prepared by pillaring of montmorillonite with silica followed by grafting of a chelate ligand on its surface. Obtained adsorbent was mesoporous with high content of adsorption sites. Its structure was studied by BET adsorption of N2, dynamic light scattering, and scanning electron microscopy. The adsorption capacity of the organoclay was measured by its mixing with contaminated kaolin and soil samples and by analysis of heavy metal contents in leachate. Deionized water and 50% acetic acid were used for leaching of metals from the samples. As it was demonstrated by the experiments, the adsorbent was efficient in immobilization of heavy metals not only in neutral aqueous media but also in the presence of weak acid. As a result, the adsorbent can be used for reduction of heavy metal leaching from contaminated sites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of humidity and interlayer cation on frictional strength of montmorillonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetsuka, H.; Katayama, I.; Sakuma, H.; Tamura, K.

    2016-12-01

    Smectite has been ubiquitously seen in fault gouge (Schleicher et al., 2006; Kuo et al., 2009; Si et al., 2014; Kameda, 2015) and is characteristic by low frictional coefficient (Saffer et al., 2001; Ikari et al., 2007); consequently, it has a key role in fault dynamics. The frictional strength of montmorillonite (a typical type of smectite) is affected by mainly two factors, 1) hydration state and 2) interlayer cation. Previous laboratory experiments have shown that the frictional strength of montmorillonite changes with hydration state (Ikari et al., 2007) and with interlayer cation (Behnsen and Faulkner, 2013). However, experimental study for frictional strengths of interlayer cation-exchanged montmorillonite under controlled hydration state has not been reported. We are developing humidity control system in biaxial friction testing machine and try to investigate the effect of relative humidity and interlayer cation on frictional strength of montmorillonite. The humidity control system consists of two units, 1) the pressure vessel (core holder) unit controlled by a constant temperature and 2) the vapor generating unit controlled by variable temperature. We control relative humidity around sample, which is calculated from the temperature around sample and the vapor pressure at vapor generating unit. Preliminary experiments under controlled humidity show frictional coefficient of montmorillonite decrease with increasing relative humidity. In the meeting, we will report the systematic study of frictional coefficient as function of relative humidity and interlayer cation species.

  12. Diffusion of helium and estimated diffusion coefficients of hydrogen dissolved in water-saturated, compacted Ca-montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashihara, Tomohiro; Sato, Seichi; Ohashi, Hiroshi; Otsuka, Teppei

    2001-01-01

    The diffusion coefficients of hydrogen gas dissolved in water-saturated, compacted montmorillonite are required to estimate the performance of bentonite buffer materials for geological disposal of nuclear waste. As part of the effort to determine the diffusion coefficients, the diffusion coefficients of helium in water-saturated, compacted calcium montmorillonite (Ca-montmorillonite) were determined as a function of dry density, 0.78 to 1.37x10 3 kg m -3 , by a transient diffusion method. The diffusion coefficients were from 8.3x10 -10 m 2 s -1 at 0.78x10 3 kgm -3 to 2.8x10 -10 m 2 s -1 at 1.37x10 3 kgm -3 . The data obtained by this diffusion experiment of helium were highly reproducible. The diffusion coefficients of helium in Ca-montmorillonite were somewhat larger than those previously obtained for helium in sodium montmorillonite (Na-montmorillonite). The diffusion coefficients of hydrogen gas in the montmorillonites were roughly estimated using the diffusion coefficients of helium. These estimates were based on assumptions that both helium and hydrogen molecules are non-adsorptive and that the geometric factors in the compacted montmorillonites are approximately the same for diffusion of helium and diffusion of hydrogen. (author)

  13. Nanocomposites prepared from acrylonitrile butadiene rubber and organically modified montmorillonite with vinyl groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mijeong; Kim, Hoonjung; Kim, Eunkyoung

    2006-01-01

    Nanocomposites were prepared from acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR), vinyl groups containing organically modified montmorillonite and additives, such as zinc oxide, stearic acid, and sulfur. The organically modified montmorillonites used in these nanocomposites were prepared by ion exchange reactions of N,N'-dimethylalkyl-(p-vinylbenzyl)-ammonium chlorides (DAVBAs, alkyl = octyl, dodecyl, and octadecyl) with sodium montmorillonite (Na+-MMT). NBR nanocomposites were obtained by controlling both the mixing and vulcanization conditions, by using a Brabender mixer and hot-press process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows that, depending on the amount of montmorillonite that is added, both exfoliated and intercalated nanocomposite structures are formed. The NBR/DAVBA-MMT nanocomposites exhibit much higher mechanical properties (e.g., tensile strength, Young's modulus, 300% modulus, and hardness) as well as gas barrier properties as compared to NBR Na+-MMT or NBR composites generated from modified montmorillonites without vinyl groups. Consistent with the results of XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the intercalation and exfoliation structures of the nanocomposites coexist and that the DAVBA-MMT layers are well dispersed in NBR.

  14. In situ calibration using univariate analyses based on the onboard ChemCam targets: first prediction of Martian rock and soil compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabre, C.; Cousin, A.; Wiens, R.C.; Ollila, A.; Gasnault, O.; Maurice, S.; Sautter, V.; Forni, O.; Lasue, J.; Tokar, R.; Vaniman, D.; Melikechi, N.

    2014-01-01

    Curiosity rover landed on August 6th, 2012 in Gale Crater, Mars and it possesses unique analytical capabilities to investigate the chemistry and mineralogy of the Martian soil. In particular, the LIBS technique is being used for the first time on another planet with the ChemCam instrument, and more than 75,000 spectra have been returned in the first year on Mars. Curiosity carries body-mounted calibration targets specially designed for the ChemCam instrument, some of which are homgeneous glasses and others that are fine-grained glass-ceramics. We present direct calibrations, using these onboard standards to infer elements and element ratios by ratioing relative peak areas. As the laser spot size is around 300 μm, the LIBS technique provides measurements of the silicate glass compositions representing homogeneous material and measurements of the ceramic targets that are comparable to fine-grained rock or soil. The laser energy and the auto-focus are controlled for all sequences used for calibration. The univariate calibration curves present relatively to very good correlation coefficients with low RSDs for major and ratio calibrations. Trace element calibration curves (Li, Sr, and Mn), down to several ppm, can be used as a rapid tool to draw attention to remarkable rocks and soils along the traverse. First comparisons to alpha-particle X-ray spectroscopy (APXS) data, on selected targets, show good agreement for most elements and for Mg# and Al/Si estimates. SiO 2 estimates using univariate cannot be yet used. Na 2 O and K 2 O estimates are relevant for high alkali contents, but probably under estimated due to the CCCT initial compositions. Very good results for CaO and Al 2 O 3 estimates and satisfactory results for FeO are obtained. - Highlights: • In situ LIBS univariate calibrations are done using the Curiosity onboard standards. • Major and minor element contents can be rapidly obtained. • Trace element contents can be used as a rapid tool along the

  15. Characterisation, in vitro release study, and antibacterial activity of montmorillonite-gentamicin complex material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapacz-Kmita, A.; Bućko, M.M.; Stodolak-Zych, E.; Mikołajczyk, M.; Dudek, P.; nd Department of Surgery, Kopernika 21, 31-501 Krakow (Poland))" data-affiliation=" (Jagiellonian University, Medical College, 2nd Department of Surgery, Kopernika 21, 31-501 Krakow (Poland))" >Trybus, M.

    2017-01-01

    The present paper concerns the potential use of montmorillonite as a drug carrier and focusses on the intercalation of the studied clay with gentamicin (an aminoglycoside antibiotic) at various temperatures (20, 50 and 80 °C). The experiments were performed to identify the temperature required for the optimum intercalation of gentamicin into the interlayer of montmorillonite. The structural and microstructural properties of gentamicin and the potential for introducing it between smectite clay layers were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques, and SEM with EDS analysis. Additionally, the in vitro drug release behaviour of the montmorillonite-gentamicin complex and its antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria was investigated. Based on these studies, the impact of temperature on the intercalation of the drug between layers of smectite was evaluated. It was found that an intercalation temperature of 50 °C resulted in the highest shift in the position of principle peak d (001) as measured by XRD, suggesting, that the greatest amount of gentamicin had been introduced into the interlayer space of montmorillonite at this temperature. Subsequently, the montmorillonite-gentamicin complex material obtained at 50 °C revealed the greatest capacity for killing E. coli bacteria during an in vitro test. - Highlights: • A novel montmorillonite-gentamicin hybrid materials was prepared as potential drug carrier. • Optimal conditions for the intercalation of gentamicin into the interlayer space of montmorillonite were tested. • The MMT-G complex material obtained at 50 °C revealed the greatest capacity for killing E. coli during the inhibitory zone test. • Modulating drug delivery was monitored and confirmed in in vitro drug release study.

  16. Characterisation, in vitro release study, and antibacterial activity of montmorillonite-gentamicin complex material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapacz-Kmita, A., E-mail: kmita@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Bućko, M.M.; Stodolak-Zych, E. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Mikołajczyk, M. [The University Hospital in Krakow, Division of Microbiology, Kopernika 19, 31-501 Krakow (Poland); Dudek, P. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Robotics, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Trybus, M. [Jagiellonian University, Medical College, 2" n" d Department of Surgery, Kopernika 21, 31-501 Krakow (Poland)

    2017-01-01

    The present paper concerns the potential use of montmorillonite as a drug carrier and focusses on the intercalation of the studied clay with gentamicin (an aminoglycoside antibiotic) at various temperatures (20, 50 and 80 °C). The experiments were performed to identify the temperature required for the optimum intercalation of gentamicin into the interlayer of montmorillonite. The structural and microstructural properties of gentamicin and the potential for introducing it between smectite clay layers were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques, and SEM with EDS analysis. Additionally, the in vitro drug release behaviour of the montmorillonite-gentamicin complex and its antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria was investigated. Based on these studies, the impact of temperature on the intercalation of the drug between layers of smectite was evaluated. It was found that an intercalation temperature of 50 °C resulted in the highest shift in the position of principle peak d{sub (001)} as measured by XRD, suggesting, that the greatest amount of gentamicin had been introduced into the interlayer space of montmorillonite at this temperature. Subsequently, the montmorillonite-gentamicin complex material obtained at 50 °C revealed the greatest capacity for killing E. coli bacteria during an in vitro test. - Highlights: • A novel montmorillonite-gentamicin hybrid materials was prepared as potential drug carrier. • Optimal conditions for the intercalation of gentamicin into the interlayer space of montmorillonite were tested. • The MMT-G complex material obtained at 50 °C revealed the greatest capacity for killing E. coli during the inhibitory zone test. • Modulating drug delivery was monitored and confirmed in in vitro drug release study.

  17. Characterization of poly pyrrole/montmorillonite electro polymerised onto Pt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castagno, K.R.L.; Azambuja, D.S.; Dalmoro, V.; Mauller, R.S.

    2010-01-01

    In this study films of polypyrrole/montmorillonite (PPy/MT) were electropolymerized on platinum in order to evaluate the performance of this technique in the preparation of nanocomposite materials and to determine the thermal properties and conductivity of the composites. The films were synthesized from a solution containing pyrrole, dodecylbenzene sulfonate, acid and two types of clays: montmorillonite-Na + (MT-Na) and montmorillonite-30B (MT-M). The characterization of the films we have used FT-IR, TEM, XRD, TGA, DSC and resistivity measurement by the four-point van der Pauw method. The study showed that the adopted method of exfoliation and the electropolymerization method used, allows obtaining nanocomposite materials. Analyses of FT-IR, TEM and XRD show that the clays are exfoliated in the polymer matrix. Thermal analysis of the films indicates that the addition of clay reflects an enhancement in the thermal properties of the matrix of PPy, but decreases the conductivity of the same. (author)

  18. Extraction of Water from Martian Regolith Simulant via Open Reactor Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trunek, Andrew J.; Linne, Diane L.; Kleinhenz, Julie E.; Bauman, Steven W.

    2018-01-01

    To demonstrate proof of concept water extraction from simulated Martian regolith, an open reactor design is presented along with experimental results. The open reactor concept avoids sealing surfaces and complex moving parts. In an abrasive environment like the Martian surface, those reactor elements would be difficult to maintain and present a high probability of failure. A general lunar geotechnical simulant was modified by adding borax decahydrate (Na2B4O7·10H2O) (BDH) to mimic the 3 percent water content of hydrated salts in near surface soils on Mars. A rotating bucket wheel excavated the regolith from a source bin and deposited the material onto an inclined copper tray, which was fitted with heaters and a simple vibration system. The combination of vibration, tilt angle and heat was used to separate and expose as much regolith surface area as possible to liberate the water contained in the hydrated minerals, thereby increasing the efficiency of the system. The experiment was conducted in a vacuum system capable of maintaining a Martian like atmosphere. Evolved water vapor was directed to a condensing system using the ambient atmosphere as a sweep gas. The water vapor was condensed and measured. Processed simulant was captured in a collection bin and weighed in real time. The efficiency of the system was determined by comparing pre- and post-processing soil mass along with the volume of water captured.

  19. A new luminescent montmorillonite/borane nanocomposite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolská, Z.; Matoušek, J.; Čapková, P.; Braborec, Jakub; Benkocká, M.; Černá, H.; Londesborough, Michael Geoffrey Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 118, DEC (2015), s. 295-300 ISSN 0169-1317 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Luminophore * Montmorillonite/borane nanocomposite * X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy * X-ray diffraction * UV–Vis spectra Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.586, year: 2015

  20. Magnetic Particles Are Found In The Martian Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The dark bullseye pattern seen at the top of Viking l's camera calibration chart indicates the presence of magnetic particles in the fine dust in the Martian atmosphere. A tiny magnet is mounted at that spot to catch wind-borne magnetic particles. The particles may have been tossed into the atmosphere surrounding the spacecraft at the time of landing and during the digging and delivery of the Mars soil sample by the surface sampler scoop. This picture was taken August 4.

  1. Atmospheric Modeling of the Martian Polar Regions: CRISM EPF Coverage During the South Polar Spring Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A. J.; McGuire, P.; Wolff, M. J.

    2008-03-01

    We describe efforts to model dust and ice aerosols content and soils and icy surface reflectance in the Martian southern polar region during spring recession (Ls = 152-320) using CRISM emission phase function (EPF) observations.

  2. Solvent Free Preparation of p-Cymene from Limonene Using Vietnamese Montmorillonite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thao-Tran Thi; Duus, Fritz; Le, Thach Ngoc

    2013-01-01

    p-Cymene, an important intermediate in industrial chemistry, has been prepared in good yields by thermally induced dehydrogenation of limonene under solvent-free reaction conditions using Vietnamese montmorillonite as an efficient green catalyst.......p-Cymene, an important intermediate in industrial chemistry, has been prepared in good yields by thermally induced dehydrogenation of limonene under solvent-free reaction conditions using Vietnamese montmorillonite as an efficient green catalyst....

  3. Montmorillonite dissolution kinetics: Experimental and reactive transport modeling interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, Chiara; Yokoyama, Shingo; Cama, Jordi; Huertas, F. Javier

    2018-04-01

    The dissolution kinetics of K-montmorillonite was studied at 25 °C, acidic pH (2-4) and 0.01 M ionic strength by means of well-mixed flow-through experiments. The variations of Si, Al and Mg over time resulted in high releases of Si and Mg and Al deficit, which yielded long periods of incongruent dissolution before reaching stoichiometric steady state. This behavior was caused by simultaneous dissolution of nanoparticles and cation exchange between the interlayer K and released Ca, Mg and Al and H. Since Si was only involved in the dissolution reaction, it was used to calculate steady-state dissolution rates, RSi, over a wide solution saturation state (ΔGr ranged from -5 to -40 kcal mol-1). The effects of pH and the degree of undersaturation (ΔGr) on the K-montmorillonite dissolution rate were determined using RSi. Employing dissolution rates farthest from equilibrium, the catalytic pH effect on the K-montmorillonite dissolution rate was expressed as Rdiss = k·aH0.56±0.05 whereas using all dissolution rates, the ΔGr effect was expressed as a non-linear f(ΔGr) function Rdiss = k · [1 - exp(-3.8 × 10-4 · (|ΔGr|/RT)2.13)] The functionality of this expression is similar to the equations reported for dissolution of Na-montmorillonite at pH 3 and 50 °C (Metz, 2001) and Na-K-Ca-montmorillonite at pH 9 and 80 °C (Cama et al., 2000; Marty et al., 2011), which lends support to the use of a single f(ΔGr) term to calculate the rate over the pH range 0-14. Thus, we propose a rate law that also accounts for the effect of pOH and temperature by using the pOH-rate dependence and the apparent activation energy proposed by Rozalén et al. (2008) and Amram and Ganor (2005), respectively, and normalizing the dissolution rate constant with the edge surface area of the K-montmorillonite. 1D reactive transport simulations of the experimental data were performed using the Crunchflow code (Steefel et al., 2015) to quantitatively interpret the evolution of the released cations

  4. Molecular dynamics as a method to gain understanding in questions concerning montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seppaelae, A.; Vaari, J.; Puhakka, E.; Tanhua-Tyrkkoe, M.; Olin, M.; Kasa, S.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Bentonite is one of the main material components to be used in the KBS-3 concept for safe disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The functional material in bentonite giving its beneficial properties is montmorillonite mineral. Montmorillonite consists of two completely different components: one nano-metre thick and approximately 200-400 nano-metres wide mineral layers carrying constant charge and charge compensating cations very near the mineral surfaces. The first component is more of a passive component while the second can absorb water molecules and change the cationic composition. In addition to montmorillonite bentonite usually contains some salts dissolved into water and accessory minerals. Any bulk bentonite is formed from these components via many scales of which structure is not yet fully known to science. Therefore the beneficial macroscopic properties of bentonite are assumed to follow from the nano-level structure and reactions. In safety studies of spent fuel disposal the time span to be considered extends beyond a hundred thousand years making any straightforward experimenting impossible. However, by modelling it is possible to study even very long periods of time. Unfortunately the model data and reactions are at least implicitly based on our short term experiments and may therefore be biased in some way. One possible solution to this may be the application of molecular chemistry or dynamics to construct the basis for our modelling studies. We have applied molecular chemistry on surface properties of kaolinite clay and biotite mineral but molecular dynamics is a new type of modelling for us. We believe that (during the coming ten years) molecular dynamics could make it easier to understand for example the following topics: How do charge compensating (exchanged) and aqueous cations interact? Why does water expand montmorillonite during wetting? Exact mechanism? How does water leave montmorillonite during

  5. Color Views of Soil Scooped on Sol 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    These three color views show the Robotic Arm scoop from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The image shows a handful of Martian soil dug from the digging site informally called 'Knave of Hearts,' from the trench informally called 'Dodo,' on the ninth Martian day of the mission, or Sol 9 (June 3, 2008). 'Dodo' is the same site as the earlier test trench dug on the seventh Martian day of the mission, or Sol 7 (June 1, 2008). The Robotic Arm Camera took the three color views at different focus positions. Scientists can better study soil structure and estimate how much soil was collected by taking multiple images at different foci. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Soil Diversity and Hydration as Observed by ChemCam at Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meslin, P.-Y.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Schröder, S.; Cousin, A.; Berger, G.; Clegg, S. M.; Lasue, J.; Maurice, S.; Sautter, V.; Le Mouélic, S.; Wiens, R. C.; Fabre, C.; Goetz, W.; Bish, D.; Mangold, N.; Ehlmann, B.; Lanza, N.; Harri, A.-M.; Anderson, R.; Rampe, E.; McConnochie, T. H.; Pinet, P.; Blaney, D.; Léveillé, R.; Archer, D.; Barraclough, B.; Bender, S.; Blake, D.; Blank, J. G.; Bridges, N.; Clark, B. C.; DeFlores, L.; Delapp, D.; Dromart, G.; Dyar, M. D.; Fisk, M.; Gondet, B.; Grotzinger, J.; Herkenhoff, K.; Johnson, J.; Lacour, J.-L.; Langevin, Y.; Leshin, L.; Lewin, E.; Madsen, M. B.; Melikechi, N.; Mezzacappa, A.; Mischna, M. A.; Moores, J. E.; Newsom, H.; Ollila, A.; Perez, R.; Renno, N.; Sirven, J.-B.; Tokar, R.; de la Torre, M.; d'Uston, L.; Vaniman, D.; Yingst, A.; Kemppinen, Osku; Minitti, Michelle; Cremers, David; Bell, James F.; Edgar, Lauren; Farmer, Jack; Godber, Austin; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Wellington, Danika; McEwan, Ian; Newman, Claire; Richardson, Mark; Charpentier, Antoine; Peret, Laurent; King, Penelope; Weigle, Gerald; Schmidt, Mariek; Li, Shuai; Milliken, Ralph; Robertson, Kevin; Sun, Vivian; Baker, Michael; Edwards, Christopher; Farley, Kenneth; Griffes, Jennifer; Miller, Hayden; Newcombe, Megan; Pilorget, Cedric; Rice, Melissa; Siebach, Kirsten; Stack, Katie; Stolper, Edward; Brunet, Claude; Hipkin, Victoria; Marchand, Geneviève; Sánchez, Pablo Sobrón; Favot, Laurent; Cody, George; Steele, Andrew; Flückiger, Lorenzo; Lees, David; Nefian, Ara; Martin, Mildred; Gailhanou, Marc; Westall, Frances; Israël, Guy; Agard, Christophe; Baroukh, Julien; Donny, Christophe; Gaboriaud, Alain; Guillemot, Philippe; Lafaille, Vivian; Lorigny, Eric; Paillet, Alexis; Pérez, René; Saccoccio, Muriel; Yana, Charles; Armiens-Aparicio, Carlos; Rodríguez, Javier Caride; Blázquez, Isaías Carrasco; Gómez, Felipe Gómez; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Hettrich, Sebastian; Malvitte, Alain Lepinette; Jiménez, Mercedes Marín; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Martín-Soler, Javier; Martín-Torres, F. Javier; Jurado, Antonio Molina; Mora-Sotomayor, Luis; Caro, Guillermo Muñoz; López, Sara Navarro; Peinado-González, Verónica; Pla-García, Jorge; Manfredi, José Antonio Rodriguez; Romeral-Planelló, Julio José; Fuentes, Sara Alejandra Sans; Martinez, Eduardo Sebastian; Redondo, Josefina Torres; Urqui-O'Callaghan, Roser; Mier, María-Paz Zorzano; Chipera, Steve; Mauchien, Patrick; Manning, Heidi; Fairén, Alberto; Hayes, Alexander; Joseph, Jonathan; Squyres, Steven; Sullivan, Robert; Thomas, Peter; Dupont, Audrey; Lundberg, Angela; DeMarines, Julia; Grinspoon, David; Reitz, Günther; Prats, Benito; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Genzer, Maria; Haukka, Harri; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kauhanen, Janne; Kemppinen, Osku; Paton, Mark; Polkko, Jouni; Schmidt, Walter; Siili, Tero; Wray, James; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Poitrasson, Franck; Patel, Kiran; Gorevan, Stephen; Indyk, Stephen; Paulsen, Gale; Gupta, Sanjeev; Schieber, Juergen; Geffroy, Claude; Baratoux, David; Cros, Alain; Lee, Qiu-Mei; Pallier, Etienne; Parot, Yann; Toplis, Mike; Brunner, Will; Heydari, Ezat; Achilles, Cherie; Oehler, Dorothy; Sutter, Brad; Cabane, Michel; Coscia, David; Israël, Guy; Szopa, Cyril; Robert, François; Nachon, Marion; Buch, Arnaud; Stalport, Fabien; Coll, Patrice; François, Pascaline; Raulin, François; Teinturier, Samuel; Cameron, James; Dingler, Robert; Jackson, Ryan Steele; Johnstone, Stephen; Little, Cynthia; Nelson, Tony; Williams, Richard B.; Jones, Andrea; Kirkland, Laurel; Treiman, Allan; Baker, Burt; Cantor, Bruce; Caplinger, Michael; Davis, Scott; Duston, Brian; Edgett, Kenneth; Fay, Donald; Hardgrove, Craig; Harker, David; Herrera, Paul; Jensen, Elsa; Kennedy, Megan R.; Krezoski, Gillian; Krysak, Daniel; Lipkaman, Leslie; Malin, Michael; McCartney, Elaina; McNair, Sean; Nixon, Brian; Posiolova, Liliya; Ravine, Michael; Salamon, Andrew; Saper, Lee; Stoiber, Kevin; Supulver, Kimberley; Van Beek, Jason; Van Beek, Tessa; Zimdar, Robert; French, Katherine Louise; Iagnemma, Karl; Miller, Kristen; Summons, Roger; Goesmann, Fred; Hviid, Stubbe; Johnson, Micah; Lefavor, Matthew; Lyness, Eric; Breves, Elly; Fassett, Caleb; Bristow, Thomas; DesMarais, David; Edwards, Laurence; Haberle, Robert; Hoehler, Tori; Hollingsworth, Jeff; Kahre, Melinda; Keely, Leslie; McKay, Christopher; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Bleacher, Lora; Brinckerhoff, William; Choi, David; Conrad, Pamela; Dworkin, Jason P.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Floyd, Melissa; Freissinet, Caroline; Garvin, James; Glavin, Daniel; Harpold, Daniel; Jones, Andrea; Mahaffy, Paul; Martin, David K.; McAdam, Amy; Pavlov, Alexander; Raaen, Eric; Smith, Michael D.; Stern, Jennifer; Tan, Florence; Trainer, Melissa; Meyer, Michael; Posner, Arik; Voytek, Mary; Anderson, Robert C.; Aubrey, Andrew; Beegle, Luther W.; Behar, Alberto; Brinza, David; Calef, Fred; Christensen, Lance; Crisp, Joy A.; Feldman, Jason; Feldman, Sabrina; Flesch, Gregory; Hurowitz, Joel; Jun, Insoo; Keymeulen, Didier; Maki, Justin; Morookian, John Michael; Parker, Timothy; Pavri, Betina; Schoppers, Marcel; Sengstacken, Aaron; Simmonds, John J.; Spanovich, Nicole; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Webster, Christopher R.; Yen, Albert; Cucinotta, Francis; Jones, John H.; Ming, Douglas; Morris, Richard V.; Niles, Paul; Nolan, Thomas; Radziemski, Leon; Berman, Daniel; Dobrea, Eldar Noe; Williams, Rebecca M. E.; Lewis, Kevin; Cleghorn, Timothy; Huntress, Wesley; Manhès, Gérard; Hudgins, Judy; Olson, Timothy; Stewart, Noel; Sarrazin, Philippe; Grant, John; Vicenzi, Edward; Wilson, Sharon A.; Bullock, Mark; Ehresmann, Bent; Hamilton, Victoria; Hassler, Donald; Peterson, Joseph; Rafkin, Scot; Zeitlin, Cary; Fedosov, Fedor; Golovin, Dmitry; Karpushkina, Natalya; Kozyrev, Alexander; Litvak, Maxim; Malakhov, Alexey; Mitrofanov, Igor; Mokrousov, Maxim; Nikiforov, Sergey; Prokhorov, Vasily; Sanin, Anton; Tretyakov, Vladislav; Varenikov, Alexey; Vostrukhin, Andrey; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Wolff, Michael; McLennan, Scott; Botta, Oliver; Drake, Darrell; Bean, Keri; Lemmon, Mark; Schwenzer, Susanne P.; Lee, Ella Mae; Sucharski, Robert; Hernández, Miguel Ángel de Pablo; Ávalos, Juan José Blanco; Ramos, Miguel; Kim, Myung-Hee; Malespin, Charles; Plante, Ianik; Muller, Jan-Peter; Navarro-González, Rafael; Ewing, Ryan; Boynton, William; Downs, Robert; Fitzgibbon, Mike; Harshman, Karl; Morrison, Shaunna; Dietrich, William; Kortmann, Onno; Palucis, Marisa; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Williams, Amy; Lugmair, Günter; Wilson, Michael A.; Rubin, David; Jakosky, Bruce; Balic-Zunic, Tonci; Frydenvang, Jens; Jensen, Jaqueline Kløvgaard; Kinch, Kjartan; Koefoed, Asmus; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane; Boyd, Nick; Campbell, John L.; Gellert, Ralf; Perrett, Glynis; Pradler, Irina; VanBommel, Scott; Jacob, Samantha; Owen, Tobias; Rowland, Scott; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Savijärvi, Hannu; Boehm, Eckart; Böttcher, Stephan; Burmeister, Sönke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; García, César Martín; Mueller-Mellin, Reinhold; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert; Bridges, John C.; Benna, Mehdi; Franz, Heather; Bower, Hannah; Brunner, Anna; Blau, Hannah; Boucher, Thomas; Carmosino, Marco; Atreya, Sushil; Elliott, Harvey; Halleaux, Douglas; Rennó, Nilton; Wong, Michael; Pepin, Robert; Elliott, Beverley; Spray, John; Thompson, Lucy; Gordon, Suzanne; Williams, Joshua; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Bentz, Jennifer; Nealson, Kenneth; Popa, Radu; Kah, Linda C.; Moersch, Jeffrey; Tate, Christopher; Day, Mackenzie; Kocurek, Gary; Hallet, Bernard; Sletten, Ronald; Francis, Raymond; McCullough, Emily; Cloutis, Ed; ten Kate, Inge Loes; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Arvidson, Raymond; Fraeman, Abigail; Scholes, Daniel; Slavney, Susan; Stein, Thomas; Ward, Jennifer; Berger, Jeffrey

    2013-09-01

    The ChemCam instrument, which provides insight into martian soil chemistry at the submillimeter scale, identified two principal soil types along the Curiosity rover traverse: a fine-grained mafic type and a locally derived, coarse-grained felsic type. The mafic soil component is representative of widespread martian soils and is similar in composition to the martian dust. It possesses a ubiquitous hydrogen signature in ChemCam spectra, corresponding to the hydration of the amorphous phases found in the soil by the CheMin instrument. This hydration likely accounts for an important fraction of the global hydration of the surface seen by previous orbital measurements. ChemCam analyses did not reveal any significant exchange of water vapor between the regolith and the atmosphere. These observations provide constraints on the nature of the amorphous phases and their hydration.

  7. Soil diversity and hydration as observed by ChemCam at Gale crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meslin, P.-Y.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Schroder, S.; Cousin, A.; Berger, G.; Clegg, S.M.; Lasue, J.; Maurice, S.; Sautter, V.; Le Mouélic, S.; Wiens, R.C.; Fabre, C.; Goetz, W.; Bish, D.L.; Mangold, N.; Ehlmann, B.; Lanza, N.; Harri, A.-M.; Anderson, Ryan Bradley; Rampe, E.; McConnochie, T.H.; Pinet, P.; Blaney, D.; ,; Archer, D.; Barraclough, B.; Bender, S.; Blake, D.; Blank, J.G.; Bridges, N.; Clark, B. C.; DeFlores, L.; Delapp, D.; Dromart, G.; Dyar, M.D.; Fisk, M. R.; Gondet, B.; Grotzinger, J.; Herkenhoff, K.; Johnson, J.; Lacour, J.-L.; Langevin, Y.; Leshin, L.; Lewin, E.; Madsen, M.B.; Melikechi, N.; Mezzacappa, Alissa; Mischna, M.A.; Moores, J.E.; Newsom, H.; Ollila, A.; ,; Renno, N.; Sirven, J.B.; Tokar, R.; de la Torre, M.; d'Uston, L.; Vaniman, D.; Yingst, A.

    2013-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument, which provides insight into martian soil chemistry at the submillimeter scale, identified two principal soil types along the Curiosity rover traverse: a fine-grained mafic type and a locally derived, coarse-grained felsic type. The mafic soil component is representative of widespread martian soils and is similar in composition to the martian dust. It possesses a ubiquitous hydrogen signature in ChemCam spectra, corresponding to the hydration of the amorphous phases found in the soil by the CheMin instrument. This hydration likely accounts for an important fraction of the global hydration of the surface seen by previous orbital measurements. ChemCam analyses did not reveal any significant exchange of water vapor between the regolith and the atmosphere. These observations provide constraints on the nature of the amorphous phases and their hydration.

  8. Study on intercalation of ionic liquid into montmorillonite and its property evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Chisato; Shirai, Takashi; Fuji, Masayoshi

    2012-01-01

    Present study report fabrication of a solid–liquid intercalated compound using montmorillonite and ionic liquid [IL; 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate; ([BMIM][BF 4 ])]. The intercalation of IL into the interlayer of montmorillonite was revealed by swelling behavior measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and cation exchange capacity (CEC). The crystal swelling structure of intercalation compound was further evidenced by transmission electron microscope (TEM). From these results, the arrangement of [BMIM] + ions (cationic part of IL) into the unit layer were proposed. Furthermore, the montmorillonite showed electrical conductivity with the aid of IL. This demonstrates a successful attempt to fabricate a solid–liquid state nano-structure compound as possible transparent electrically conducting thin film. -- Highlights: ► Direct intercalation of ionic liquid into the montmorillonite was studied. ► The crystal swelling structure in liquid state was successfully characterized by TEM. ► We proposed the atomic arrangement of intercalated compound using ionic liquid. ► Ionic liquid is useful for fabricating an intercalated compound with electrical-conductivity.

  9. Carbon nanotube/paraffin/montmorillonite composite phase change material for thermal energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Guo, Qiangang; Nutt, Steven

    2017-04-01

    A composite phase change material (PCM) comprised of organic montmorillonite (OMMT)/paraffin/grafted multi-walled nanotube (MWNT) is synthesized via ultrasonic dispersion and liquid intercalation. The microstructure of the composite PCM has been characterized to determine the phase distribution, and thermal properties (latent heat and thermal conductivity) have been measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and a thermal constant analyzer. The results show that paraffin molecules are intercalated in the montmorillonite layers and the grafted MWNTs are dispersed in the montmorillonite layers. The latent heat is 47.1 J/g, and the thermal conductivity of the OMMT/paraffin/grafted MWNT composites is 34% higher than that of the OMMT/paraffin composites and 65% higher than that of paraffin.

  10. Processing and properties of polyethylene/montmorillonite nanocomposites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Měřínská, D.; Kubisova, H.; Kalendová, A.; Svoboda, P.; Hromádková, Jiřina

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2012), s. 115-131 ISSN 0892-7057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polymer nanocomposite * montmorillonite * polyethylene Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.750, year: 2012

  11. Mechanism of amitriptyline adsorption on Ca-montmorillonite (SAz-2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Po-Hsiang [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Jiang, Wei-Teh, E-mail: atwtj@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Li, Zhaohui, E-mail: li@uwp.edu [Department of Geosciences, University of Wisconsin – Parkside, 900 Wood Road, Kenosha, WI 53144 (United States); Kuo, Chung-Yih [Department of Public Health, College of Health Care and Management, Chung Shan Medical University, No. 110, Sec. 1, Chien-kuo N Road, Taichung 40242, Taiwan (China); Jean, Jiin-Shuh [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wan-Ru [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Lv, Guocheng [School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-07-30

    Graphical abstract: XRD patterns to show AMI intercalation into SAz-2 vs. direct mixing of the same amount of AMI with SAz-2. - Highlights: • Ca-montmorillonite is proven to be an efficient adsorbent or sink for amitriptyline. • The high adsorption capacity is accompanied with intercalation into interlayers. • The adsorption is mainly governed by a cation exchange mechanism. • Horizontal mono- and bi-layer conformations occur at low and high adsorption levels. • The process is an endothermic physisorption at high adsorption levels. - Abstract: The uptake of amitriptyline (AMI) from aqueous environment by Ca-montmorillonite (SAz-2) was studied in a batch system under different physicochemical conditions. The adsorbent was characterized by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses. The AMI adsorption on SAz-2 obeyed the Langmuir isotherm with a capacity of 330 mg/g (1.05 mmol/g) at pH 6–7. The adsorption kinetics was fast, almost reaching equilibrium in 2 h, and followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Desorption of exchangeable cations correlated with the AMI adsorption well, indicating that cation exchange was the major mechanism. X-ray diffraction patterns showing significant expansions of the d{sub 0} {sub 0} {sub 1} spacing and characteristic FTIR band shifts toward higher frequencies after AMI adsorption onto SAz-2 indicated that the adsorbed AMI molecules were intercalated into the interlayers of the mineral. Thermodynamic parameters based on partitioning coefficients suggested that the AMI adsorption was an endothermic physisorption at high adsorption levels. At low and higher AMI adsorption levels, the intercalated AMI molecules take a horizontal monolayer and bilayer conformation, respectively. The higher adsorption capacity suggested that SAz-2 could be a good candidate to remove AMI from wastewater and would be an important environmental sink for the fate and transport of AMI in soils and groundwater.

  12. Mechanism of amitriptyline adsorption on Ca-montmorillonite (SAz-2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Po-Hsiang; Jiang, Wei-Teh; Li, Zhaohui; Kuo, Chung-Yih; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Chen, Wan-Ru; Lv, Guocheng

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: XRD patterns to show AMI intercalation into SAz-2 vs. direct mixing of the same amount of AMI with SAz-2. - Highlights: • Ca-montmorillonite is proven to be an efficient adsorbent or sink for amitriptyline. • The high adsorption capacity is accompanied with intercalation into interlayers. • The adsorption is mainly governed by a cation exchange mechanism. • Horizontal mono- and bi-layer conformations occur at low and high adsorption levels. • The process is an endothermic physisorption at high adsorption levels. - Abstract: The uptake of amitriptyline (AMI) from aqueous environment by Ca-montmorillonite (SAz-2) was studied in a batch system under different physicochemical conditions. The adsorbent was characterized by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses. The AMI adsorption on SAz-2 obeyed the Langmuir isotherm with a capacity of 330 mg/g (1.05 mmol/g) at pH 6–7. The adsorption kinetics was fast, almost reaching equilibrium in 2 h, and followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Desorption of exchangeable cations correlated with the AMI adsorption well, indicating that cation exchange was the major mechanism. X-ray diffraction patterns showing significant expansions of the d 0 0 1 spacing and characteristic FTIR band shifts toward higher frequencies after AMI adsorption onto SAz-2 indicated that the adsorbed AMI molecules were intercalated into the interlayers of the mineral. Thermodynamic parameters based on partitioning coefficients suggested that the AMI adsorption was an endothermic physisorption at high adsorption levels. At low and higher AMI adsorption levels, the intercalated AMI molecules take a horizontal monolayer and bilayer conformation, respectively. The higher adsorption capacity suggested that SAz-2 could be a good candidate to remove AMI from wastewater and would be an important environmental sink for the fate and transport of AMI in soils and groundwater

  13. Immobilization of heavy metals on pillared montmorillonite with a grafted chelate ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Loren; Seaton, Kenneth; Mohseni, Ray; Vasiliev, Aleksey

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Mesoporous organoclay for immobilization of heavy metal cations was obtained. • The material has a porous structure with high contents of surface adsorption sites. • Leaching of heavy metals from soil reduced in the presence of this adsorbent. • The adsorbent demonstrated high effectiveness in neutral and acidic media. -- Abstract: The objective of this work was the development of an efficient adsorbent for irreversible immobilization of heavy metals in contaminated soils. The adsorbent was prepared by pillaring of montmorillonite with silica followed by grafting of a chelate ligand on its surface. Obtained adsorbent was mesoporous with high content of adsorption sites. Its structure was studied by BET adsorption of N 2 , dynamic light scattering, and scanning electron microscopy. The adsorption capacity of the organoclay was measured by its mixing with contaminated kaolin and soil samples and by analysis of heavy metal contents in leachate. Deionized water and 50% acetic acid were used for leaching of metals from the samples. As it was demonstrated by the experiments, the adsorbent was efficient in immobilization of heavy metals not only in neutral aqueous media but also in the presence of weak acid. As a result, the adsorbent can be used for reduction of heavy metal leaching from contaminated sites

  14. On the in situ aqueous alteration of soils on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, Ronald; Ewing, Stephanie; Dietrich, William; Sutter, Brad; Owen, Justine; Chadwick, Oliver; Nishiizumi, Kunihiko; Walvoord, Michelle; McKay, Christopher

    2008-08-01

    Early (>3 Gy) wetter climate conditions on Mars have been proposed, and it is thus likely that pedogenic processes have occurred there at some point in the past. Soil and rock chemistry of the Martian landing sites were evaluated to test the hypothesis that in situ aqueous alteration and downward movement of solutes have been among the processes that have transformed these portions of the Mars regolith. A geochemical mass balance shows that Martian soils at three landing sites have lost significant quantities of major rock-forming elements and have gained elements that are likely present as soluble ions. The loss of elements is interpreted to have occurred during an earlier stage(s) of weathering that may have been accompanied by the downward transport of weathering products, and the salts are interpreted to be emplaced later in a drier Mars history. Chemical differences exist among the sites, indicating regional differences in soil composition. Shallow soil profile excavations at Gusev crater are consistent with late stage downward migration of salts, implying the presence of small amounts of liquid water even in relatively recent Martian history. While the mechanisms for chemical weathering and salt additions on Mars remain unclear, the soil chemistry appears to record a decline in leaching efficiency. A deep sedimentary exposure at Endurance crater contains complex depth profiles of SO 4, Cl, and Br, trends generally consistent with downward aqueous transport accompanied by drying. While no model for the origin of Martian soils can be fully constrained with the currently available data, a pedogenic origin is consistent with observed Martian geology and geochemistry, and provides a testable hypothesis that can be evaluated with present and future data from the Mars surface.

  15. THERMODINAMIC PARAMETERS ON THE SORPTION OF PHOSPHATE IONS BY MONTMORILLONITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhsan Jaslin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The sorption of phosphate by montmorillonite at 10, 30, and 50 oC were investigated aiming to mainly determine thermodynamic parameters for the formation of surface complexes in the adsorption of phosphate ions by montmorillonite. Data were collected by adsorption edge experiments investigating the effect of pH, adsorption isotherms enabling the effect of sorbate concentration, and acid-base titration calculating protons released or taken up by adsorption process. Data analysis was carried out using surface complexation model to fit the data collected in this study using the parameters obtained from previous study, as well as to calculate the values of ΔH and ΔS. Previous study reported that phosphate ions formed two outer-sphere surface complexes with active sites of montmorillonite through hydrogen bonding. In the first complex,  [(XH0– H2L─]─, the phosphate was held to permanent-charge X─ sites on the tetrahedral siloxane faces, and the second complex, [[(SO─(SOH]– – [H2L]─] 2─ was formed through the interaction between the phosphate and variable charge surface hydroxyl groups at the edges of montmorillonite crystals and on the octahedral alumina faces. The values of ΔH for the first and second reactions are 39.756 and 3.765x10-7 kJ mol‒1 respectively. Since both reactions have positive enthalpy values, it can be concluded that the reactions are endothermic. Large energy for the first reaction is needed by X─  sites (permanent negatively charge sites of montmorillonite to be partially desolvated, on which K+ or other surface cations are replaced by H+ ions in the surface protonated process, and are then ready to interact phosphate ions in the solution. Small values of ΔH for the second reactions indicates that hydrogen bonds formed by phosphate and SOH sites in the second reaction are easily broken out, and the phosphate can easily desorbed from the surface. The values of ΔS for the first and second reactions are

  16. In situ calibration using univariate analyses based on the onboard ChemCam targets: first prediction of Martian rock and soil compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabre, C. [GeoRessources lab, Université de Lorraine, Nancy (France); Cousin, A.; Wiens, R.C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ollila, A. [University of NM, Albuquerque (United States); Gasnault, O.; Maurice, S. [IRAP, Toulouse (France); Sautter, V. [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Paris (France); Forni, O.; Lasue, J. [IRAP, Toulouse (France); Tokar, R.; Vaniman, D. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States); Melikechi, N. [Delaware State University (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Curiosity rover landed on August 6th, 2012 in Gale Crater, Mars and it possesses unique analytical capabilities to investigate the chemistry and mineralogy of the Martian soil. In particular, the LIBS technique is being used for the first time on another planet with the ChemCam instrument, and more than 75,000 spectra have been returned in the first year on Mars. Curiosity carries body-mounted calibration targets specially designed for the ChemCam instrument, some of which are homgeneous glasses and others that are fine-grained glass-ceramics. We present direct calibrations, using these onboard standards to infer elements and element ratios by ratioing relative peak areas. As the laser spot size is around 300 μm, the LIBS technique provides measurements of the silicate glass compositions representing homogeneous material and measurements of the ceramic targets that are comparable to fine-grained rock or soil. The laser energy and the auto-focus are controlled for all sequences used for calibration. The univariate calibration curves present relatively to very good correlation coefficients with low RSDs for major and ratio calibrations. Trace element calibration curves (Li, Sr, and Mn), down to several ppm, can be used as a rapid tool to draw attention to remarkable rocks and soils along the traverse. First comparisons to alpha-particle X-ray spectroscopy (APXS) data, on selected targets, show good agreement for most elements and for Mg# and Al/Si estimates. SiO{sub 2} estimates using univariate cannot be yet used. Na{sub 2}O and K{sub 2}O estimates are relevant for high alkali contents, but probably under estimated due to the CCCT initial compositions. Very good results for CaO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} estimates and satisfactory results for FeO are obtained. - Highlights: • In situ LIBS univariate calibrations are done using the Curiosity onboard standards. • Major and minor element contents can be rapidly obtained. • Trace element contents can be used as a

  17. Hexadimethrine-montmorillonite nanocomposite: Characterization and application as a pesticide adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gámiz, B.; Hermosín, M.C.; Cornejo, J.; Celis, R.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Characterization of hexadimethrine-montmorillonite nanocomposite was appraised. • Comparative studies with traditional HDTMA-montmorillonite were performed. • We investigated the pesticide adsorption mechanisms displayed by the nanocomposites. • Hexadimethrine-nanocomposite showed selective affinity for anionic pesticides. - Abstract: The goal of this work was to prepare and characterize a novel functional material by the modification of SAz-1 montmorillonite with the cationic polymer hexadimethrine (SA-HEXAD), and to explore the potential use of this nanocomposite as a pesticide adsorbent. Comparative preparation and characterization with the well-known hexadecyltrimethylammonium-modified SAz-1 montmorillonite (SA-HDTMA) was also assessed. The characterization was performed by elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), physisorption of N 2 , scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Z potential measurements. The characterization and adsorption experiments showed that the extent of pesticide adsorption was markedly subjected to the structure and features of the surface of each organo-clay and also to the nature of the considered pesticide. SA-HEXAD displayed a high affinity for anionic pesticides which, presumably, were adsorbed by electrostatic attraction on positively-charged ammonium groups of the polymer not directly interacting with the clay. In contrast, SA-HDTMA displayed great adsorption of both uncharged and anionic pesticides with predominance of hydrophobic interactions. This work provided information about the surface properties of a new organic–inorganic nanohybrid material, SA-HEXAD, and its potential as an adsorbent for the removal of anionic organic pollutants from aqueous solutions

  18. Evaluation of particle release from montmorillonite gel by flowing groundwater based on the DLVO theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Susumu; Nagasaki, Shinya; Tanaka, Satoru

    2007-01-01

    Theoretical study has been performed to clarify the ability of colloid release form the montmorillonite gel by the flowing groundwater. Evaluation of montmorillonite colloidal particles release from the bentonite buffer material is important for the performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal because the colloids may influence the radionuclide transport. In this study, the minimum groundwater flow rate required to tear off montmorillonite particles from surface of bentonite buffer was estimated from the shear stress on the gel front, which was calculated by the DLVO theory. The estimated shear force was converted to corresponding groundwater velocity by using Stoke's equation. The results indicated that groundwater velocity in a range of about 10 -5 to 10 -4 m/s would be necessary to release montmorillonite particles. This range is higher than the groundwater flow velocity found generally in deep geological media in Japan. This study suggests that the effect of montmorillonite particles release from the bentonite buffer on radionuclide transport is likely to be negligible in the performance assessment of high-level radioactive waste geological disposal. (author)

  19. Carboxymethyl starch/montmorillonite composite microparticles: Properties and controlled release of isoproturon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilpiszewska, Katarzyna; Spychaj, Tadeusz; Paździoch, Waldemar

    2016-01-20

    Preparation of novel high substituted carboxymethyl starch-based microparticles containing sodium montmorillonite (MMT) by crosslinking with Al(3+) was described. For preparing nanocomposite granules carboxymethyl starch (CMS) from native potato starch as well as CMS from amylopectin has been used. The hydrophilic CMS/MMT composite systems were used for herbicide, i.e. isoproturon encapsulation (ca. 75% encapsulation efficiency). The herbicide release rate from CMS/MMT composites in water was significantly reduced when compared to commercial isoproturon: 95% released after ca. 700 h and ca. 24h, respectively. Leaching in soil from composite systems was relatively slower than release in water. After a series of eight irrigations leached about 10% of isoproturon loaded. The CMS/MMT carriers could reduce the potential leaching of herbicide and beneficially reduce pollution of the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. XRD, TEM, and thermal analysis of Arizona Ca-montmorillonites modified with didodecyldimethylammonium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhiming; Park, Yuri; Zheng, Shuilin; Ayoko, Godwin A; Frost, Ray L

    2013-10-15

    An Arizona SAz-2 calcium montmorillonite was modified by a typical dialkyl cationic surfactant (didodecyldimethylammonium bromide, abbreviated to DDDMA) through direct ion exchange. The obtained organoclays were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), high-resolution thermogravimetric analysis (HR-TG), and infrared emission spectroscopy (IES). The intercalation of surfactants greatly increased the basal spacing of the interlayers and the conformation arrangement of the loaded surfactant were assessed based on the XRD and TEM measurements. This work shows that the dialkyl surfactant can be directly intercalated into the montmorillonite without first undergoing Na(+) exchange. Moreover, the thermal stability of organoclays and the different arrangements of the surfactant molecules intercalated in the SAz-2 Ca-montmorillonite were determined by a combination of TG and IES techniques. The detailed conformational ordering of different intercalated surfactants under different conditions was also studied. The surfactant molecule DDDMA has proved to be thermally stable even at 400°C which indicates that the prepared organoclay is stable to significantly high temperatures. This study offers new insights into the structure and thermal stabilities of SAz-2 Ca-montmorillonite modified with DDDMA. The experimental results also confirm the potential applications of organic SAz-2 Ca-montmorillonites as adsorbents and polymer-clay nanocomposites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mars Gardens in the University - Red Thumbs: Growing Vegetables in Martian regolith simulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, Edward Francis

    2018-01-01

    Over the next few decades NASA and private enterprise missions plan to send manned missions to Mars with the ultimate aim to establish a permanent human presence on this planet. For a self-sustaining colony on Mars it will be necessary to provide food by growing plants in sheltered greenhouses on the Martian surface. As part of an undergraduate student project in Astrobiology at Villanova University, experiments are being carried out, testing how various plants grow in Martian regolith. A wide sample of plants are being grown and tested in Mars regolith simulant commercially available from The Martian Garden (TheMartian Garden.com). This Mars regolith simulant is based on Mojave Mars Simulant (MMS) developed by NASA and JPL for the Mars Phoenix mission. The MMS is based on the Mojave Saddleback basalt similar that used by JPL/NASA. Additional reagents were added to this iron rich basalt to bring the chemical content close to actual Mars regolith. The MMS used is an approximately 90% similar to regolith found on the surface of Mars - excluding poisonous perchlorates commonly found on actual Mars surface.The students have selected various vegetables and herbs to grow and test. These include carrots, spinach, dandelions, kale, soy beans, peas, onions, garlic and of course potatoes and sweet potatoes. Plants were tested in various growing conditions, using different fertilizers, and varying light conditions and compared with identical “control plants” grown in Earth soil / humus. The results of the project will be discussed from an education view point as well as from usefulness for fundamental research.We thank The Martian Garden for providing Martian regolith simulant at education discounted prices.

  2. Application of simplified desorption method to sorption study. (2) Sorption of neptunium (V) on montmorillonite-based mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozai, Naofumi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

    To elucidate the sorption behaviors of radionuclides in multi-mineral systems and the mutual effects of minerals on the sorption, this paper carried out the sorption and desorption experiments of neptunium(V) on montmorillonite-based two-mineral mixtures. The Np sorbed on montmorillonite at pH from 4 to 8 was desorbed with 1M KCl solutions, indicating that the sorption was cation exchange. The Np sorbed on apatite and calcite was nondesorbable with 1M KCl solutions, which is in harmony with the knowledge that Np forms strong complexes with the phosphate groups of apatite and the carbonate groups of calcite. This study utilized these clear distinguishes of the desorption behaviors for examining the two-mineral systems. In montmorillonite-apatite mixtures, the sorption on the montmorillonite was decreased and Np was accumulated on the apatite. In montmorillonite-calcite mixtures, the sorption on the montmorillonite was decreased due to the interference by the calcium and carbonate ions dissolved from calcite while no accumulation of Np to calcite was observed. (author)

  3. Adsorption of Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Their Mixtute by Montmorillonite in the Presence of Water

    KAUST Repository

    Kadoura, Ahmad Salim

    2016-01-16

    Using grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations, we study the adsorption behavior of CH4, CO2, and their mixture at 298.15 K and pressures up to 50 bar in Na-, Cs-, and Ca-montmorillonite clays in the presence of water. Montmorillonite clays in the presence of preadsorbed water, preferentially adsorb CO2 over CH4 during both pure component and mixture adsorption. The atomistic model we have used, gives good agreement with available single-component experimental adsorption isotherms, for CH4 and CO2 molecules adsorbed onto montmorillonite clays in the presence of water. We observe the general trend that the presence of increasing preadsorbed water content in the clay interlayers, reduced adsorption amounts of pure CH4 and CO2 molecules. With a relatively large basal spacing (d= 30 Å), the favorability of adsorption of CO2 by montmorillonite at relatively low pressures and intermediate water contents has been demonstrated using simulations. GCMC simulation is also used to assess the effect of water on the adsorption of N2/CH4, H2 S/CH4, CO2/N2, and CO2/H2 S binary mixtures in Na-montmorillonite clay. The ideal adsorbed solution theory is shown to agree well with the observed adsorption capacities and selectivities of mixtures in Na-montmorillonite clay.

  4. Cryolitozone of Mars- as the climatic indicator of the Martian relict ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozorovich, Y.; Fournier-Sicre, A.; Linkin, V.; Kosov, A.; Skulachev, D.; Gorbatov, S.; Ivanov, A.; Heggy, E.

    2015-10-01

    this approach is - the salt component of subsurface is the global geolectrical marker of the Martian relict ocean in the past. Mars' observations by means of ground and onboard instruments are known to have been conducted in recent years. These observations provided information on Mars' surface mean temperature values and their seasonal variations. Radar measurements allowed to estimate dielectric constant and soil upper layer density values. Mars' surface radiation measurements by a 3,4 cm radiometer aboard Mars-3 and 5 automatic interplanetary stations (1971-1973) proved to be more informative. Radio brightness temperature variations were registered along the flight route. As a result surface temperature latitudinal distribution estimates in a spatial resolution element, were obtained as well as more precise values of dielectric constant and soil density of centimeter fractions this surface layer. No more experiments using microwave radiometers were conducted since. The only way to obtain information about Mars surface mezoscale structure is to use a high spatial resolution panoramic equipment on-board. Mars' surface radio images would allow to identify regions differing in ice percentage content in cryogenic surface structures or in mineralized solutions of negative temperature and to estimate relative quantity of cryogenic formations - permafrost fractions as well as to measure the soil looseness or porosity degree. In addition it would be possible to restore various regions' average vertical temperature, humidity and porosity profiles of less than 1 m thick surface layer. These dependencies combined with the results of depth inductive sounding (0.5 km) and magnitotelluric (1- 5 km) sensing would provide new and more detailed information on Martian crust structure and character and its cryolitozone, necessary to create a more reliable paleoclimatic model of the planet. Experiment equipment and methods Space experiment is conducted to obtain maps of temperature and

  5. Montmorillonite stability under near-field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leupin, O.X.; Korkeakoski, P.; Sellin, P.; Mäder, U.; Wersin, P.

    2014-07-01

    Clay-based engineered barriers comprising bentonite and bentonite/sand mixtures are the favoured option in geological repositories for high-level waste due to their inherently low hydraulic conductivity at full saturation. This ensures that diffusion of solutes such as radionuclides will be the dominating mechanism for transport through the engineered barriers. Another advantageous property of bentonite is the development of swelling pressure in contact with water under the constant volume conditions of repository excavations, ensuring the closure of unintentional gaps or openings. The predictability of the long-term behaviour of bentonite (up to a million years) is thus key to the safety analysis. The thermal pulse from the radioactive decay of the radionuclides in the high-level waste and spent fuel will lead to temperatures significantly higher than in the undisturbed host rock for hundreds of years, which may influence the thermodynamic stability and kinetics of alteration reactions of montmorillonite, the smectite that is the main constituent of the bentonite. The aim of this report is to review the present understanding of potential alteration of bentonite by focusing on experimental and modeling results under the thermal conditions of a repository. Many studies show that the transformation of smectite-to-illite is induced by increasing temperature and potassium activity. The conversion process is complex and still not completely understood. Nonetheless, it displays very slow kinetics over a wide range of environmental conditions for the temperatures of interest. The various models for illitisation of smectites suggest negligible transformation in a repository due to the relatively short period of elevated temperatures and slow mass transport. However, because of uncertainties and a number of conservatisms in the application of such models, the results of such calculations should be considered as bounding and indicative and not as quantitative predictions. In

  6. Montmorillonite stability under near-field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leupin, O.X. (ed.); Birgersson, M.; Karnland, O. [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Korkeakoski, P. [Posiva Oy, Eurajoki (Finland); Sellin, P. [Svensk Kärnbränslehantering AB, SKB, Stockholm (USSR); Mäder, U.; Wersin, P. [University of Berne, Berne (Switzerland)

    2014-07-15

    Clay-based engineered barriers comprising bentonite and bentonite/sand mixtures are the favoured option in geological repositories for high-level waste due to their inherently low hydraulic conductivity at full saturation. This ensures that diffusion of solutes such as radionuclides will be the dominating mechanism for transport through the engineered barriers. Another advantageous property of bentonite is the development of swelling pressure in contact with water under the constant volume conditions of repository excavations, ensuring the closure of unintentional gaps or openings. The predictability of the long-term behaviour of bentonite (up to a million years) is thus key to the safety analysis. The thermal pulse from the radioactive decay of the radionuclides in the high-level waste and spent fuel will lead to temperatures significantly higher than in the undisturbed host rock for hundreds of years, which may influence the thermodynamic stability and kinetics of alteration reactions of montmorillonite, the smectite that is the main constituent of the bentonite. The aim of this report is to review the present understanding of potential alteration of bentonite by focusing on experimental and modeling results under the thermal conditions of a repository. Many studies show that the transformation of smectite-to-illite is induced by increasing temperature and potassium activity. The conversion process is complex and still not completely understood. Nonetheless, it displays very slow kinetics over a wide range of environmental conditions for the temperatures of interest. The various models for illitisation of smectites suggest negligible transformation in a repository due to the relatively short period of elevated temperatures and slow mass transport. However, because of uncertainties and a number of conservatisms in the application of such models, the results of such calculations should be considered as bounding and indicative and not as quantitative predictions. In

  7. Prebiotic RNA Synthesis by Montmorillonite Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohan Jheeta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes our recent findings on the role of mineral salts in prebiotic RNA synthesis, which is catalyzed by montmorillonite clay minerals. The clay minerals not only catalyze the synthesis of RNA but also facilitate homochiral selection. Preliminary data of these findings have been presented at the “Horizontal Gene Transfer and the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA” conference at the Open University, Milton Keynes, UK, 5–6 September 2013. The objective of this meeting was to recognize the significance of RNA in LUCA. We believe that the prebiotic RNA synthesis from its monomers must have been a simple process. As a first step, it may have required activation of the 5'-end of the mononucleotide with a leaving group, e.g., imidazole in our model reaction (Figure 1. Wide ranges of activating groups are produced from HCN under plausible prebiotic Earth conditions. The final step is clay mineral catalysis in the presence of mineral salts to facilitate selective production of functional RNA. Both the clay minerals and mineral salts would have been abundant on early Earth. We have demonstrated that while montmorillonite (pH 7 produced only dimers from its monomers in water, addition of sodium chloride (1 M enhanced the chain length multifold, as detected by HPLC. The effect of monovalent cations on RNA synthesis was of the following order: Li+ > Na+ > K+. A similar effect was observed with the anions, enhancing catalysis in the following order: Cl− > Br− > I−. The montmorillonite-catalyzed RNA synthesis was not affected by hydrophobic or hydrophilic interactions. We thus show that prebiotic synthesis of RNA from its monomers was a simple process requiring only clay minerals and a small amount of salt.

  8. Martian meteorites and Martian magnetic anomalies: a new perspective from NWA 7034 (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattacceca, J.; Rochette, P.; Scozelli, R. B.; Munayco, P.; Agee, C. B.; Quesnel, Y.; Cournede, C.; Geissman, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    The magnetic anomalies observed above the Martian Noachian crust [1] require strong crustal remanent magnetization in the 15-60 A/m range over a thickness of 20-50 km [2,3]. The Martian rocks available for study in the form of meteorites do contain magnetic minerals (magnetite and/or pyrrhotite) but in too small amount to account for such strong remanent magnetizations [4]. Even though this contradiction was easily explained by the fact that Martian meteorites (mostly nakhlites and shergottites) are not representative of the Noachian Martian crust, we were left with no satisfactory candidate lithology to account for the Martian magnetic anomalies. The discovery in the Sahara of a new type of Martian meteorite (NWA 7034 [5] and subsequent paired stones which are hydrothermalized volcanic breccia) shed a new light on this question as it contains a much larger amount of ferromagnetic minerals than any other Martian meteorite. We present here a study of the magnetic properties of NWA 7034, together with a review of the magnetic properties of thirty other Martian meteorites. Magnetic measurements (including high and low temperature behavior and Mössbauer spectroscopy) show that NWA 7034 contains about 15 wt.% of magnetite with various degrees of substitution and maghemitization up to pure maghemite, in the pseudo-single domain size range. Pyrrhotite, a common mineral in other Martian meteorites is not detected. Although it is superparamagnetic and cannot carry remanent magnetization, nanophase goethite is present in significant amounts confirming that NWA 7034 is the most oxidized Martian meteorite studied so far, as already indicated by the presence of maghemite (this study) and pyrite [5]. These magnetic properties show that a kilometric layer of a lithology similar to NWA 7034 magnetized in a dynamo field would be enough to account for the strongest Martian magnetic anomalies. Although the petrogenesis of NWA 7034 is still debated, as the brecciation could be either

  9. Study of the rheological properties of water and Martian soil simulant mixtures for engineering applications on the red planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lewis; Alberini, Federico; Sullo, Antonio; Meyer, Marit E.; Alexiadis, Alessio

    2018-03-01

    The rheological properties of mixtures of water and the Martian soil simulant JSC-Mars-1A are investigated by preparing and testing samples at various solids concentrations. The results indicate that the dispersion is viscoelastic and, at small timescales (∼0.1 s), reacts to sudden strain as an elastic solid. At longer timescales the dispersion behaves like a Bingham fluid and exhibits a yield stress. Hysteresis loops show that rapid step-changes (2 s duration) of shear-rate result in thixotropic behaviour, but slower changes (>10 s duration) can result in rheopexy. These observations are explained with the breakdown and recovery of the packing structure under stress. The rheological information is used to generate practical tools, such as the system curve and the Moody chart that can be used for designing piping systems, and calculating pump sizes and pressure requirements.

  10. Synthesis of poly(furfuryl alcohol)/montmorillonite nanocomposites ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The purpose of this study was to obtain poly(furfuryl alcohol) nanocomposites with Algerian organically modified clay (termed 12-montmorillonite). The formation of poly(furfuryl alcohol) was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy (IR); the prepared nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission ...

  11. Effects of Graded Levels of Montmorillonite on Performance, Hematological Parameters and Bone Mineralization in Weaned Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. W. Duan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of graded levels of montmorillonite, a constituent of clay, on performance, hematological parameters and bone mineralization in weaned pigs. One hundred and twenty, 35-d-old crossbred pigs (Duroc×Large White×Landrace, 10.50±1.20 kg were used in a 28-d experiment and fed either an unsupplemented corn-soybean meal basal diet or similar diets supplemented with 0.5, 1.0, 2.5 or 5.0% montmorillonite added at the expense of wheat bran. Each treatment was replicated six times with four pigs (two barrows and two gilts per replicate. Feed intake declined (linear and quadratic effect, p< 0.01 with increasing level of montmorillonite while feed conversion was improved (linear and quadratic effect, p<0.01. Daily gain was unaffected by dietary treatment. Plasma myeloperoxidase declined linearly (p = 0.03 with increasing dietary level of montmorillonite. Plasma malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels were quadratically affected (p<0.01 by montmorillonite with increases observed for pigs fed the 0.5 and 1.0% levels which then declined for pigs fed the 2.5 and 5.0% treatments. In bone, the content of potassium, sodium, copper, iron, manganese and magnesium were decreased (linear and quadratic effect, p<0.01 in response to an increase of dietary montmorillonite. These results suggest that dietary inclusion of montmorillonite at levels as high as 5.0% does not result in overt toxicity but could induce potential oxidative damage and reduce bone mineralization in pigs.

  12. The BIOPAN experiment MARSTOX II of the FOTON M-3 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettberg, P.; Moeller, R.; Rabbow, E.; Panitz, C.; Horneck, G.; Meyer, C.; Lammer, H.; Douki, T.; Cadet, J.

    2008-09-01

    .7 % Montmorillonite, 9.9 % Kaolinit, 21.3 % Hematite (+ SiO2), 13.0 % Anhydrite, 7.1 % Magnesiumsulfate, 1.0 % Sodiumchloride, 58 wt% of the minerals grainsize < 2 μm, 42 wt% ~ 0.2 mm) and H300 (Fe2O3, CAS Number 1309-37-1 512, grain size 300 nm), do not produce phototoxic effects. (iii) Their effects on spore survival are comparable irrespective of mineralogical composition and grain size. (iv) Martian analogue dust above spores protects to a higher degree against UV radiation under martian atmosphere and pressure than in vacuum. General conclusion: Bacterial spores as a potential terrestrial contamination could survive on Mars, if covered by a thin layer of martian soil.

  13. Sorption behavior of thorium onto montmorillonite and illite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Yoshihisa; Barr, Logan; Yamaguchi, Tetsuji; Hemmi, Ko

    2016-01-01

    Thorium (Th)-229 is one of the important radionuclides for the performance assessment calculations for high-level radioactive waste repositories. The sorption behavior of Th onto montmorillonite and illite were investigated by batch sorption experiments. Experiments were carried out under variable pH and carbonate concentrations. The sorbability of montmorillonite was higher than that of illite. Distribution coefficients, K d (m 3 kg -1 ), decreased with increased carbonate concentrations and showed the minimal value at around pH 10. The sorption behaviors of Th were analyzed by the non-electrostatic surface complex model with PHREEQC computer program. The model calculations were able to explain the experimental results reasonably well. The decreases of K d was likely due to the stabilization of aqueous species by hydroxo-carbonate complexations in the solutions. (author) [ja

  14. Montmorillonite Supported Titanium/Antimony Catalyst:Preparation, Characterization and Immobilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guiyong; WANG Xiaoqun; ZHAO Chuan; DU Shanyi

    2014-01-01

    Montmorillonite supported titanium (Ti-MMT) or antimony catalyst (Sb-MMT) has been a hot area of research on preparing polyethylene terephthalate/montmorillonite (PET/MMT) nanocomposites by in situ polymerization. So removal of Ti or Sb from Ti-MMT or Sb-MMT is not expected during in situ polymerization. Studies on immobilization of Ti or Sb on Ti-MMT or Sb-MMT are seldom reported. In this work, a series of montmorillonite supported catalysts of titanium (Ti-MMT) or antimony (Sb-MMT) and co-intercalated montmorillonite of titanium and antimony (Ti/Sb-MMT) were prepared by (1) the reaction of sodium bentonite suspension with intercalating solution containing titanium tetrachloride and/or antimony chloride, and (2) drying or calcinating the products at different temperature (100, 150, 240, 350 and 450℃). The physicochemical properties of these MMT supported catalysts were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICPOES), N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy(UV-vis) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The immobile character of Ti or Sb on MMT supported catalysts was evaluated by a two-step method in deionized water or ethylene glycol. Several results were obtained, i e, (a) during the preparation, with an increase in drying or calcinating temperature, the amount of titanium and/or antimony species remained on these MMT supported catalysts decreased, (b) the experiments about immobile character of Ti or/and Sb showed that with an increase in drying or calcinating temperature, the immobilization of Ti and/or Sb species remained on these MMT supported catalysts increased gradually, (c) Ti-MMT calcinated at 450℃had the biggest pore volume, which means Ti-MMT had the best adsorption application prospect.

  15. Bacillus subtilis biofilm development in the presence of soil clay minerals and iron oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenting; Peng, Donghai; Walker, Sharon L; Cao, Bin; Gao, Chun-Hui; Huang, Qiaoyun; Cai, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Clay minerals and metal oxides, as important parts of the soil matrix, play crucial roles in the development of microbial communities. However, the mechanism underlying such a process, particularly on the formation of soil biofilm, remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effects of montmorillonite, kaolinite, and goethite on the biofilm formation of the representative soil bacteria Bacillus subtilis . The bacterial biofilm formation in goethite was found to be impaired in the initial 24 h but burst at 48 h in the liquid-air interface. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that the biofilm biomass in goethite was 3-16 times that of the control, montmorillonite, and kaolinite at 48 h. Live/Dead staining showed that cells had the highest death rate of 60% after 4 h of contact with goethite, followed by kaolinite and montmorillonite. Atomic force microscopy showed that the interaction between goethite and bacteria may injure bacterial cells by puncturing cell wall, leading to the swarming of bacteria toward the liquid-air interface. Additionally, the expressions of abrB and sinR , key players in regulating the biofilm formation, were upregulated at 24 h and downregulated at 48 h in goethite, indicating the initial adaptation of the cells to minerals. A model was proposed to describe the effects of goethite on the biofilm formation. Our findings may facilitate a better understanding of the roles of soil clays in biofilm development and the manipulation of bacterial compositions through controlling the biofilm in soils.

  16. The influence of montmorillonite content on the kinetics of curing of epoxy nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Mirjana C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the attention was paid at the investigation of montmorillonite dispersion in epoxy/amine systems due to improved final properties of the nanocomposites. The influence of different montmorillonite content on the kinetics of curing of epoxy/Jeffamine D-230 systems was followed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The curing of epoxy nanocomposites was performed using dynamic regime at three different heating rates: 5, 10 and 20°C/min. Three isoconversional methods were applied: two integral (Ozawa-Flynn-Wall and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose methods and one differential (Friedman method. The presence of montmorillonite (MMT causes the beginning of curing at lower temperatures. The shape of the DSC curves has been changed by the addition of MMT, supporting the hypothesis of a change in the reaction mechanism. For hybrids with 3 and 5 wt.% of MMT, the Eα dependence is very similar to those found for the reference system (epoxy/Jeffamine D-230 for the curing degree less than 60%. The hybrid with 10 wt.% of MMT has lower energy activation in regard to the referent system without montmorillonite. Greater differences are observed in the second part of the reaction, where it is known that the curing process is more controlled by diffusion (α>0.60. The Ea value increases at the end of the reaction (α→1, which was observed for all systems, and is more pronounced in the presence of montmorillonite. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III45022

  17. Synthesis and Optical Properties of MnS–ZnS and MnS–CdS Nanoparticles in Montmorillonite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabilaphat, Jirabhorn; Poosimma, Poonsuk; Khaorapapong, Nithima; Intachai, Sonchai; Ogawa, Makoto

    2017-02-01

    The incorporation of metal sulfide mixture, manganese sulfide and zinc sulfide (MnS–ZnS) or manganese sulfide and cadmium sulfide (MnS–CdS), in two types of montmorillonites (sodium montmorillonite and cetyltrimethylammonium modified montmorillonite) was investigated. The hybrids were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Raman, UV-visible and photoluminescence spectroscopies. The experimental evidences such as the expansion of the interlayer spaces and the presence of the absorption and photoluminescence due to MnS, ZnS and/or CdS revealed that the mixed metal sulfides formed in the interlayer space of montmorillonites. TEM images of the hybrids showed diskor plate-shaped nanoparticles with a mean diameter of ca. 2 nm. The increase of the luminescence intensities of the hybrids was assumed to be caused by quantum confinement effect in the interlayer space of montmorillonite.

  18. Adsorption of cadmium onto Al{sub 13}-pillared acid-activated montmorillonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Liangguo [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Shan Xiaoquan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: xiaoquan@rcees.ac.cn; Wen Bei [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Owens, Gary [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Mawson Lakes, Boulevard, South Australia 5095 (Australia)

    2008-08-15

    The optimal preparation conditions for Al{sub 13}-pillared acid-activated Na{sup +}-montmorillonite (Al{sub 13}-PAAMt) were (1) an acid-activated Na{sup +}-montmorillonite (Na{sup +}-Mt) solution of pH 3.0, (2) a OH{sup -}/Al{sup 3+} molar ratio of 2.4 and (3) Al{sup 3+}/Na{sup +}-Mt ratio of 1.0 mmol g{sup -1}. The effects of OH{sup -}/Al{sup 3+} and Al{sup 3+}/Na{sup +}-Mt ratios on the adsorption of Cd{sup 2+} onto Al{sub 13}-PAAMt were studied. A comparison of the adsorption of Cd{sup 2+} onto Al{sub 13}-PAAMt, Al{sub 13}-pillared Na{sup +}-montmorillonite (Al{sub 13}-PMt) and Na{sup +}-Mt suggested that Al{sub 13}-PAAMt had higher adsorption affinity for Cd{sup 2+} than the other two adsorbents. A pseudo-second-order model described the adsorption kinetics well. Cadmium adsorption followed the Langmuir two-site equation, while desorption was hysteretic.

  19. Removal of fission products from waste solutions using 16 different soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangash, M.A.; Hanif, J.

    1997-01-01

    Most of the nuclear sites use pits in the surrounding soils for the storage/disposal of low active waste (LAW) solutions. The characteristics of the soil if not suitable for the fixation or adsorption of the radioactive nuclides, may cause migration of these nuclides to hydrosphere. The phenomenon has the risk of radio toxic pollution for the living bodies therefore minerals composing the soil and their adsorption properties need to be investigated. For this purpose 16 different soil samples were collected from all over Pakistan. Mineralogical composition of the soils was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. It was found that most of the samples contained clay minerals, illite, kaolinite and montmorillonite. Studies for the removal of fission products like, /sup 137/Cs. /sup 60/Sr and activation product /sup 60/CO from solution were carried out on these samples. The sorption experiments were performed by batch technique using radioactive as tracers. Distribution co-efficient were determined by mixing he element solution at pH 3 with the soil at soil solution ratios of 1 to 20. It is revealed from the experimental data that efficient removal of fission products from solutions is achieved by soil samples containing clay mineral montmorillonite, followed by little and kaolinite. These soils thus can be effectively used for the disposal of low level radioactive waste solutions without causing any environmental hazard. (author)

  20. Survival and death of the haloarchaeon Natronorubrum strain HG-1 in a simulated martian environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Z.; Vos, D.; ten Kate, I. L.; Selch, F.; van Sluis, C. A.; Sorokin, D. Yu.; Muijzer, G.; Stan-Lotter, H.; van Loosdrecht, M. C. M.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    2010-11-01

    Halophilic archaea are of interest to astrobiology due to their survival capabilities in desiccated and high salt environments. The detection of remnants of salty pools on Mars stimulated investigations into the response of haloarchaea to martian conditions. Natronorubrum sp. strain HG-1 is an extremely halophilic archaeon with unusual metabolic pathways, growing on acetate and stimulated by tetrathionate. We exposed Natronorubrum strain HG-1 to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, similar to levels currently prevalent on Mars. In addition, the effects of low temperature (4, -20, and -80 °C), desiccation, and exposure to a Mars soil analogue from the Atacama desert on the viability of Natronorubrum strain HG-1 cultures were investigated. The results show that Natronorubrum strain HG-1 cannot survive for more than several hours when exposed to UV radiation equivalent to that at the martian equator. Even when protected from UV radiation, viability is impaired by a combination of desiccation and low temperature. Desiccating Natronorubrum strain HG-1 cells when mixed with a Mars soil analogue impaired growth of the culture to below the detection limit. Overall, we conclude that Natronorubrum strain HG-1 cannot survive the environment currently present on Mars. Since other halophilic microorganisms were reported to survive simulated martian conditions, our results imply that survival capabilities are not necessarily shared between phylogenetically related species.

  1. Synthesis of Poly aniline-Montmorillonite Nano composites Using H2O2 as the Oxidant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binitha, N.; Binitha, N.; Suraja, V.; Zahira Yaakob; Sugunan, S.

    2011-01-01

    Poly aniline montmorillonite nano composite was prepared using H 2 O 2 as the oxidant. The catalytic environment of montmorillonite favours polymerization. Intercalation and composite formation was proven from various techniques such as XRD, FTIR, DRS and thermal analysis. XRD patterns give the dimension of the intercalated PANI, from the shift of 2θ values, which is in the nano range. FTIR showed that PANI composite formation occurred without affecting the basic clay layer structure. Thus the successful development of an alternative cheap route for poly aniline-montmorillonite nano composite was well established. (author)

  2. Use of the montmorillonite as crosslink agents for chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, Rossemberg C.; Lima, Rosemary S. Cunha; Braga, Carla R. Costa; Fook, Marcus V. Lia; Silva, Suedina M. Lima

    2009-01-01

    The montmorillonite (the main constituent of bentonite) has been the most commonly used inorganic load in the formation of nanocomposites chitosan / layered silicate. To evaluate its effect as an agent for the reticulation of chitosan, a sodium montmorillonite, Cloisite Na + , supplied by Southern Clay Products, Texas, USA, was used. For the reticulation of chitosan dispersions of chitosan / Cloisite Na + were prepared in different proportions and the obtained films characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). The results indicated that the Cloisite Na + was for efficient and the reticulation of the chitosan and can be used in place of sulfuric acid, which is one of the most common reticulants for chitosan. (author)

  3. Soil Science in Space: Thinking Way Outside the Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.

    2016-01-01

    Mars is a perfect laboratory to reconsider the future of pedology across the universe. By investigating the soils and geology through our Curiosity and further endeavors, we find ourselves able to learn about the past, present, and possibly the future. Imagine what we could learn about the early Earth if we could have explored it without vegetation and clouds in the way. The tools and techniques that are used to probe the Martian soil can teach us about exploring the soils on Earth. Although many may feel that soil science has learned all that it can about the soils on Earth, we know differently. Deciding what the most important things to know about Martian soils can help us focus on the fundamentals of soil science on Earth. Our soil science knowledge and experience on Earth can help us learn more about the angry red planet. Why is it so angry with so many fascinating secrets it can tell?

  4. Frictional strength of wet and dry montmorillonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, C. A.; Moore, D. E.; Lockner, D. A.

    2017-05-01

    Montmorillonite is a common mineral in fault zones, and its low strength relative to other common gouge minerals is important in many models of fault rheology. However, the coefficient of friction, μ, varies with degree of saturation and is not well constrained in the literature due to the difficulty of establishing fully drained or fully dried states in the laboratory. We measured μ of both saturated and oven-dried montmorillonite at normal stresses up to 700 MPa. Care was taken to shear saturated samples slowly enough to avoid pore fluid overpressure. For saturated samples, μ increased from 0.10 to 0.28 with applied effective normal stress, while for dry samples μ decreased from 0.78 to 0.45. The steady state rate dependence of friction, (a - b), was positive, promoting stable sliding. The wide disparity in reported frictional strengths can be attributed to experimental procedures that promote differing degrees of partial saturation or overpressured pore fluid conditions.

  5. Studies on the flammability of polypropylene/ammonium polyphosphate and montmorillonite by using the cone calorimeter test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna A.A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fire performance of polypropylene (PP containing different percentages of ammonium polyphosphate (APP with montmorillonite (Mt or treated montmorillonite (MtT was carried out by using the cone calorimeter test (CCT. Different samples from ammonium polyphosphate and montmorillonite were mixed with 90% polypropylene. The characterization of the prepared samples indicates that there is incorporation between the components of the samples. Heat release rate (HRR, peak heat release rate (PHRR, average heat release rate (Av-HRR, and time to ignition (TTI of the samples were obtained from the cone calorimeter test. Also, the fire performance index (FPI and the fire growth rate (FIGRA were calculated. The interpretation of the curves and the parameters results from the cone calorimeter test which indicates that the addition of montmorillonite to APP increases its action as a flame retardant for PP. Moreover, the samples contain acid treatment montmorillonite showed an increase in the efficiency of ammonium polyphosphate when used. This result may be due to an increase in the SiO2 content by acid treatment.

  6. Seawater Durability of Nano-Montmorillonite Modified Single-Lap Joining Epoxy Composite Laminates

    OpenAIRE

    ULUS, Hasan; KAYBAL, Halil Burak; DEMİR, Okan; TATAR, Ahmet Caner; SENYURT, Muhammed Ali; AVCI, Ahmet

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate of nano-montmorillonite modified epoxy composite single-lap bonded joints, after being exposed to seawater immersion in order to understand the effect of seawater environment on their performance. To prepare the nano adhesives, nano montmorillonite (2 wt %) was incorporated into epoxy resin. Composite bonded specimens which manufactured with VARIM (Vacuum Assisted Resin Infusion Method) were prepared accordance with ASTM D5868-01 and immersed in ...

  7. Investigations of the Montmorillonite and Aluminium Trihydrate Addition Effects on the Ignitability and Thermal Stability of Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By means of limiting oxygen index (LOI, cone calorimeter, and TG-DSC tests, this paper investigated the effect of unmodified montmorillonite (MMT, organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT, and aluminium trihydrate (ATH additions on the flame retardancy for asphalt combustion. Experimental results showed that adding a small amount of montmorillonite did not significantly increase the oxygen index of the asphalt but reduced the heat release rate during asphalt combustion. TGA tests had indicated that the montmorillonite (MMT and OMMT could suppress the release of flammable volatiles and form more asphaltenes, which hence postponed the burnout time of asphalt. Furthermore, the combination of montmorillonite (MMT and OMMT and ATH had yielded a synergistic effect, which had further reduced the heat release rate and also increased the oxygen index of asphalt. In particular, after further addition of OMMT, the barrier layer showed less crack, leading to a significant decrease in the heat release rate as compared to the adding of ATH alone.

  8. Improvement in tensile properties of PVC–montmorillonite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mechanical properties of PVC–montmorillonite materials are also currently of huge ... Its hard form can withstand a tensile stress in the order of 46–52 MPa before .... 2θ at 25 mA and 40 kV using Cu-Kα radiation. X-ray diffraction patterns of the ...

  9. Looking for a Source of Water in Martian Basltic Breccia NWA 7034

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttik, N.; Agee, C. B.; McCubbin, F. M.; McCuttcheon, W. A.; Provencio, P. P.; Keller, L. P.; Santos, A. R..; Shearer, C. K.

    2014-01-01

    The recently described martian meteorite NWA 7034 has high water content compared to other SNC meteorites. Deuterium to hydrogen isotope ratio measurements indicates that there are two distinct delta-D components in NWA 7034, a low temperature (150-500degC) light component around -100per mille and a high temperature (300-1000degC) heavy component around +300per mille. NWA 7034 contains iron-rich phases that are likely secondary aqueous alteration products. They are commonly found as spheroidal objects of various sizes that are often rich in Fe-Ti oxides and possibly iron hydroxides. Iron oxides and oxyhydroxides are very common in weathered rocks and soils on Earth and Mars and they are important components of terrestrial and Martian dust. In NWA 7034 iron-rich phases are found throughout the fine-grained basaltic groundmass of the meteorite. The total amount of martian H2O in NWA 7034 is reported to be 6000 ppm, and in this study we attempt to determine the phase distribution of this H2O by texturally describing and characterizing hydrous phases in NWA 7034, using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  10. Preliminary report on longevity of montmorillonite clay under repository-related conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Karnland, O.

    1990-12-01

    This report summarizes current work on developing complete models for predicting the chemical stability of montmorillonitic bentonite buffer materials in HLW repositories. The major degrading mechanism is the conversion of montmorillonite to hydrous mica ('illite'), the basis of the derivation of tentative models being offered by ongoing systematic hydrothermal tests, which indicate that such conversion takes place by dissolution, yielding very mobile silica, and aluminium that tends to stay in the clay voids. The key mechanism in the transformation to hydrous mica at temperatures below about 130 degrees C is concluded to be neoformation of the latter mineral, the controlling parameter being the access to potassium. For temperatures ranging between 130 and 200 degrees C, excess silica is released by beidellitization and this yields I/S mixed layer minerals on uptake of potassium, and precipitation of cementing silica in the form of amorphous silica and cristobalite. The rate of transformation of montmorillonite to hydrous mica is still controlled by the access to potassium, i.e. by the rate at which potassium enters the clay. 10 Aa minerals that can be mistaken for hydrous mica can be formed by cementing collapsed stacks together. The models appear to give montmorillonite transformation rates that are in agreement with lab results and geological examples but further calibration, primarily by using the results of ongoing hydrothermal tests in the Stripa study, are required to make them applicable to repository conditions. (au)

  11. Physical properties of the martian surface from the Viking 1 lander: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shorthill, R.W.; Hutton, R.E.; Moore, H.J. II; Scott, R.E.; Spitzer, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the physical properties experiment is to determine the characteristics of the martian ''soil'' based on the use of the Viking lander imaging system, the surface sampler, and engineering sensors. Viking 1 lander made physical contact with the surface of Mars at 11:53:07.1 hours on 20 July 1976 G.M.T. Twenty-five seconds later a high-resolution image sequence of the area around a footpad was started which contained the first information about surface conditions on Mars. The next image is a survey of the martian landscape in front of the lander, including a view of the top support of two of the landing legs. Each leg has a stroke gauge which extends from the top of the leg support an amount equal to the crushing experienced by the shock absorbers during touchdown. Subsequent images provided views of all three stroke gauges which, together with the knowledge of the impact velocity, allow determination of ''soil'' properties. In the images there is evidence of surface erosion from the engines. Several laboratory tests were carried out prior to the mission with a descent engine to determine what surface alterations might occur during a Mars landing. On sol 2 the shroud, which protected the surface sampler collector head from biological contamination, was ejected onto the surface. Later a cylindrical pin which dropped from the boom housing of the surface sampler during the modified unlatching sequence produced a crater (the second Mars penetrometer experiment). These two experiments provided further insight into the physical properties of the martian surface

  12. Carbon nanotubes rooted montmorillonite (CNT-MM) reinforced nanocomposite membrane for PEM fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manikandan, Dhanagopal; Mangalaraja, Ramalinga Viswanathan; Avila, Ricardo E.; Siddheswaran, Rajendran; Ananthakumar, Solaiappan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Novel montmorillonite-CNT (MM-CNT) nanohybrid materials were produced by CVD. ► Highly selective crystalline carbon nanotubes were grown over montmorillonite. ► Fabricated Nafion-MM-CNT nanocomposite membrane by solution casting method. ► Homogeneous dispersion of MM-CNT in the Nafion matrix was achieved. ► Combined effect of montmorillonite and CNT improves the thermal stability of Nafion. - Abstract: Nafion based nanocomposite membranes containing montmorillonite-carbon nanotubes (a binary hybrid material) were produced to develop high performance polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Multi walled carbon nanotubes were grown over 20 and 25 wt% iron loaded montmorillonite catalysts by CVD using acetylene as the carbon precursor. Growth experiments were carried out at optimised conditions to obtain highly selective crystalline carbon nanotubes. X-ray diffraction spectra of the catalysts were recorded for the structural characterisation and definition of particle size. The carbon nanotubes obtained were examined by various physico chemical characterisation studies such as SEM, TEM, Raman spectroscopy and TG analyses to understand the morphology and crystallinity of the CNTs. The MM-CNT hybrid material with I D /I G ratio of Raman spectral band as 0.53 represents the high selectivity towards CNTs. Thus the hybrid material produced was considered as the best nanofiller to develop polymer nanocomposites. Nafion based nanocomposite membranes were prepared by adding MM-CNT as nanofiller by solution casting method. A better dispersion of MM-CNT into the Nafion matrix was observed and the addition of the MM-CNT improved the thermal stability of the Nafion membrane.

  13. Adsorption of Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Their Mixtute by Montmorillonite in the Presence of Water

    KAUST Repository

    Kadoura, Ahmad Salim; Nair, Arun Kumar Narayanan; Sun, Shuyu

    2016-01-01

    Using grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations, we study the adsorption behavior of CH4, CO2, and their mixture at 298.15 K and pressures up to 50 bar in Na-, Cs-, and Ca-montmorillonite clays in the presence of water. Montmorillonite clays

  14. Fe(III/TiO2-Montmorillonite Photocatalyst in Photo-Fenton-Like Degradation of Methylene Blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Is Fatimah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A photodegradation process of methylene blue (MB in aqueous solution using Fe(III/TiO2-montmorillonite photocatalyst is presented. The photocatalyst material was prepared using Indonesian natural montmorillonite in TiO2 pillarization process followed by Fe(III ion exchange. Kinetic study on MB degradation was conducted and evaluated by three kinetic models: the pseudo-first- and second-order equations and the Elovich equation. From the results, it is concluded that the degradation under the photo-Fenton-like process utilizing Fe(III/TiO2-montmorillonite photocatalyst conformed to the Elovich kinetic model.

  15. Sorbent amendment as a remediation strategy to reduce PFAS mobility and leaching in a contaminated sandy soil from a Norwegian firefighting training facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Sarah E; Arp, Hans Peter H; Slinde, Gøril Aasen; Wade, Emma Jane; Bjørseth, Kamilla; Breedveld, Gijs D; Straith, Bengt Fredrik; Moe, Kamilla Grotthing; Jartun, Morten; Høisæter, Åse

    2017-03-01

    Aqueous film-forming foams (AFFF) containing poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) used for firefighting have led to the contamination of soil and water at training sites. The unique physicochemical properties of PFAS results in environmental persistency, threatening water quality and making remediation of such sites a necessity. This work investigated the role of sorbent amendment to PFAS contaminated soils in order to immobilise PFAS and reduce mobility and leaching to groundwater. Soil was sampled from a firefighting training facility at a Norwegian airport and total and leachable PFAS concentrations were quantified. Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) was the most dominant PFAS present in all soil samples (between 9 and 2600 μg/kg). Leaching was quantified using a one-step batch test with water (L/S 10). PFOS concentrations measured in leachate water ranged between 1.2 μg/L and 212 μg/L. Sorbent amendment (3%) was tested by adding activated carbon (AC), compost soil and montmorillonite to selected soils. The extent of immobilisation was quantified by measuring PFAS concentrations in leachate before and after amendment. Leaching was reduced between 94 and 99.9% for AC, between 29 and 34% for compost soil and between 28 and 40% for the montmorillonite amended samples. Sorbent + soil/water partitioning coefficients (K D ) were estimated following amendment and were around 8 L/kg for compost soil and montmorillonite amended soil and ranged from 1960 to 16,940 L/kg for AC amended soil. The remediation of AFFF impacted soil via immobilisation of PFAS following sorbent amendment with AC is promising as part of an overall remediation strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of milling time on the structure, particle size, and morphology of montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abareshi, M.

    2017-01-01

    In the current research, effect of milling on the structure, particle size and morphology of montmorillonite was investigated. For this purpose, the montmorillonite was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Then the montmorillonite was milled using high energy planetary ball mill at different milling times (1-60 hours). After that, the structure, particle size and morphology of all samples were investigated by XRD, FTIR, SEM, and transmission electron microscopy. Results showed that the ball milling causes the particle size reduction of clay and separation of the clay layers. Moreover, ball milling increases the overall structural disorder and transforms the crystalline structure into an amorphous phase. Also, the morphology of clay particle changes from layered to aggregates of almost rounded particles after 60 hours of milling.

  17. Agriculture on Mars: Soils for Plant Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.

    2016-01-01

    Robotic rovers and landers have enabled the mineralogical, chemical, and physical characterization of loose, unconsolidated materials on the surface of Mars. Planetary scientists refer to the regolith material as "soil." NASA is currently planning to send humans to Mars in the mid 2030s. Early missions may rely on the use of onsite resources to enable exploration and self-sufficient outposts on Mars. The martian "soil" and surface environment contain all essential plant growth elements. The study of martian surface materials and how they might react as agricultural soils opens a new frontier for researchers in the soil science community. Other potential applications for surface "soils" include (i) sources for extraction of essential plant-growth nutrients, (ii) sources of O2, H2, CO2, and H2O, (iii) substrates for microbial populations in the degradation of wastes, and (iv) shielding materials surrounding outpost structures to protect humans, plants, and microorganisms from radiation. There are many challenges that will have to be addressed by soil scientists prior to human exploration over the next two decades.

  18. The effect of exchangeable cations in clinoptilolite and montmorillonite on the adsorption of aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGAN STOJSIC

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 by cation-exchanged clinoptilolite zeolitic tuff and montmorillonite was investigated at 37°C and pH 3.8 from an aqueous electrolyte having a composition similar to that of gastric juices of animals. Both minerals were exchanged from the natural form to the sodium form and then to the Cu2+, Zn2+ and Co2+-rich forms. The cation exchange was different for the different cations, but in all cases the exchanges were larger on montmorillonite than on clinoptilolite. The degree of exchange on montmorillonite was 76 % for copper (from a total of CEC 0.95 meq/g, Cu2+ –0.73 meq/g and 85 % for zinc and cobalt. Under the same conditions (concentration, temperature, pH, contact time, the degree of exchange on zeolitic tuff was 12 % for Cu2+ (from a total CEC of 1.46 meq/g, Cu2+ –0.17 meq/g, 8 % for Zn2+ and 10 % for Co2+. Both groups of mineral adsorbents showed high AFB1 chemisorption indexes (ca. For the montmorillonite forms, ca ranged from 0.75 for the Cu-exchanged montmorillonite to 0.89 for the natural Ca-form, 0.90 for the Zn-exchanged form and 0.93 for the Co-exchanged montmorillonite. The adsorption of AFB1 on the different exchanged forms of clinoptilolite gave similar values of ca for the Cu and Ca forms (0.90 and values of 0.94 and 0.95 for the Zn- and Co-exchanged form. The impact of the mineral adsorbents on the reduction of essential nutrients present in animal feed (Cu, Zn, Mn and Co showed that the Ca-rich montmorillonite had a higher capability for the reduction of the microelements than the Ca-rich clinoptilolite.

  19. Possibility of ion-exchange column studies using stabilised montmorillonite-H aggregates; Possibilite d'etude d'echanges d'ions en colonne sur des agregats de Montmorillonite-H stabilises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platzer, R; Bittel, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    The conditions necessary for obtaining stable aggregates of montmorillonite-H, prepared without addition of organic flocculant, is discussed. These aggregates possess the same general ion-exchange properties as montmorillonite-H suspensions, about which many papers have been written. Their insolubility and their stable physical form enable them to be used in columns in exactly the same way as the usual organic ion exchangers. The examples of cation fixation and separation described in this report emphasize the similarities between the properties of this exchanger and those of organic cation-exchange resins, and open up possibilities for the extrapolation of the many investigations carried out on organic exchangers to mineral exchangers of this type. Amongst the essential differences to be remarked, we have shown that the properties of physical stability and chemical exchange remain the same at temperatures up to 300 deg. C, to a first approximation, under very intense {gamma} irradiation. (author) [French] Les conditions d'obtention d'agregats stables de montmorillonite-H prepares sans addition de floculant organique sont discutees. Ces agregats possedent les proprietes generales d'echangeurs d'ions des suspensions de montmorillonite-H, tres etudiees par de nombreux auteurs. Ils presentent une insolubilite et une forme physique stable permettant une utilisation en colonne identique a celle des echangeurs d'ions organiques usuels. Les exemples de fixation et de separation de cations qui ont ete decrits dans cet expose font ressortir les analogies entre les proprietes de cet echangeur et celles des resines organiques echangeurs de cations et permettent d'esperer une extrapolation aux echangeurs mineraux de ce type des tres nombreux travaux consacres aux echangeurs organiques. Parmi les differences essentielles a noter, nous avons mis en evidence que les proprietes de stabilite physique et d'echanges chimiques des agregats de montmorillonite subsistent a des

  20. Carbon nanotubes rooted montmorillonite (CNT-MM) reinforced nanocomposite membrane for PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manikandan, Dhanagopal, E-mail: dmani_cat@yahoo.co.in [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Mangalaraja, Ramalinga Viswanathan, E-mail: mangal@udec.cl [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Avila, Ricardo E. [Personal Dosimetry Section, Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, Cas. 188-D, Santiago (Chile); Siddheswaran, Rajendran [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Ananthakumar, Solaiappan [Materials and Minerals Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (NIIST), Trivandrum, Kerala (India)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel montmorillonite-CNT (MM-CNT) nanohybrid materials were produced by CVD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly selective crystalline carbon nanotubes were grown over montmorillonite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fabricated Nafion-MM-CNT nanocomposite membrane by solution casting method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Homogeneous dispersion of MM-CNT in the Nafion matrix was achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combined effect of montmorillonite and CNT improves the thermal stability of Nafion. - Abstract: Nafion based nanocomposite membranes containing montmorillonite-carbon nanotubes (a binary hybrid material) were produced to develop high performance polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Multi walled carbon nanotubes were grown over 20 and 25 wt% iron loaded montmorillonite catalysts by CVD using acetylene as the carbon precursor. Growth experiments were carried out at optimised conditions to obtain highly selective crystalline carbon nanotubes. X-ray diffraction spectra of the catalysts were recorded for the structural characterisation and definition of particle size. The carbon nanotubes obtained were examined by various physico chemical characterisation studies such as SEM, TEM, Raman spectroscopy and TG analyses to understand the morphology and crystallinity of the CNTs. The MM-CNT hybrid material with I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio of Raman spectral band as 0.53 represents the high selectivity towards CNTs. Thus the hybrid material produced was considered as the best nanofiller to develop polymer nanocomposites. Nafion based nanocomposite membranes were prepared by adding MM-CNT as nanofiller by solution casting method. A better dispersion of MM-CNT into the Nafion matrix was observed and the addition of the MM-CNT improved the thermal stability of the Nafion membrane.

  1. Localization of cesium on montmorillonite surface investigated by frequency modulation atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Yuki; Satoh, Hisao; Okumura, Masahiko; Onishi, Hiroshi

    2017-11-01

    Cation exchange of clay mineral is typically analyzed without microscopic study of the clay surfaces. In order to reveal the distribution of exchangeable cations at the clay surface, we performed in situ atomic-scale observations of the surface changes in Na-rich montmorillonite due to exchange with Cs cations using frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM). Lines of protrusion were observed on the surface in aqueous CsCl solution. The amount of Cs of the montmorillonite particles analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry was consistent with the ratio of the number of linear protrusions to all protrusions in the FM-AFM images. The results showed that the protrusions represent adsorbed Cs cations. The images indicated that Cs cations at the surface were immobile, and their occupancy remained constant at 10% of the cation sites at the surface with different immersion times in the CsCl solution. This suggests that the mobility and the number of Cs cations at the surface are controlled by the permanent charge of montmorillonite; however, the Cs distribution at the surface is independent of the charge distribution of the inner silicate layer. Our atomic-scale observations demonstrate that surface cations are distributed in different ways in montmorillonite and mica.

  2. Physico-mechanical properties of silanized-montmorillonite reinforced chitosan-co-poly(maleic anhydride) composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, O. A.; Fajrin, A.; Nauqinida, M.; Suryanti, V.; Pramono, E.

    2017-07-01

    To solve the problems of dependence on petroleum as starting material in the manufacturing of plastics in Indonesia, green plastic from biopolymer like chitosan to be one of promising options and alternative to replace the conventional plastics. However, to overcome the mechanical and physical properties of chitosan, the addition of reinforcement agent was introduced. In this study, silanized-montmorillonite (sMMt) has been prepared as a reinforcement agent in the chitosan-co-poly(maleic anhydride) (referred as Cs-MAH) matrix. Silanizing of montmorillonite is one of strategy to improve the interaction between montmorillonite and chitosan, consequently, the mechanical properties, tensile strength of composites contained 6 phr of sMMt improved 56.5% to chitosan. Moreover, the presence both MAH and sMMt on the comosites also reduced swelling degree and swelling area by 20.6% and 26.7%.

  3. Oxygen isotope fractionation effects in soil water via interaction with cations (Mg, Ca, K, Na) adsorbed to phyllosilicate clay minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerter, Erik; Finstad, Kari; Schaefer, Justin; Goldsmith, Gregory R.; Dawson, Todd; Amundson, Ronald

    2014-07-01

    In isotope-enabled hydrology, soil and vadose zone sediments have been generally considered to be isotopically inert with respect to the water they host. This is inconsistent with knowledge that clay particles possessing an electronegative surface charge and resulting cation exchange capacity (CEC) interact with a wide range of solutes which, in the absence of clays, have been shown to exhibit δ18O isotope effects that vary in relation to the ionic strength of the solutions. To investigate the isotope effects caused by high CEC clays in mineral-water systems, we created a series of monominerallic-water mixtures at gravimetric water contents ranging from 5% to 32%, consisting of pure deionized water of known isotopic composition with homoionic (Mg, Ca, Na, K) montmorillonite. Similar mixtures were also created with quartz to determine the isotope effect of non-, or very minimally-, charged mineral surfaces. The δ18O value of the water in these monominerallic soil analogs was then measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) after direct headspace CO2 equilibration. Mg- and Ca-exchanged homoionic montmorillonite depleted measured δ18O values up to 1.55‰ relative to pure water at 5% water content, declining to 0.49‰ depletion at 30% water content. K-montmorillonite enriched measured δ18O values up to 0.86‰ at 5% water content, declining to 0.11‰ enrichment at 30% water. Na-montmorillonite produces no measureable isotope effect. The isotope effects observed in these experiments may be present in natural, high-clay soils and sediments. These findings have relevance to the interpretation of results of direct CO2-water equilibration approaches to the measurement of the δ18O value of soil water. The adsorbed cation isotope effect may bear consideration in studies of pedogenic carbonate, plant-soil water use and soil-atmosphere interaction. Finally, the observed isotope effects may prove useful as molecular scale probes of the nature of mineral

  4. Characterization of sodium dodecyl sulfate modified iron pillared montmorillonite and its application for the removal of aqueous Cu(II) and Co(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuzhen; Wu Pingxiao

    2010-01-01

    Anionic surfactant modified Fe-pillared montmorillonites were prepared by Fe-hydrate solution and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution. These organo-inorgano complex montmorillonites were divided into three types (CM1, CM2 and CM3) depending on different intercalation processes. X-ray diffraction spectra, the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were used to analyze the structure of the raw and modified montmorillonites. X-ray photoelectron spectra of the simples have been studied to determine spectral characteristics to allow the identification of Fe(III) hydroxide. The specific surface area of the host montmorillonite (M0) is 73.2 m 2 /g, while for the modified montmorillonites it is 114.0 m 2 /g, 117.2 m 2 /g, and 115.8 m 2 /g, respectively. The mesopore volumes of the montmorillonites decrease after modification. Ions of copper and cobalt were selected as adsorbates to evaluate the adsorption performance of each montmorillonite. The adsorption data was analyzed by both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models and the data was well fit by the Langmuir isotherm model. The adsorption was efficient and significantly influenced by metal speciation, metal concentration, contact time, and pH. Higher adsorption capacity of the modified montmorillonites were obtained at pH 5-6. The results of desorption indicated that the metal ions were covalently bound to the modified montmorillonites.

  5. Research Article: Effects of long-term simulated Martian conditions on a freeze-dried and homogenized bacterial permafrost community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Aviaja Anna; Jensen, Lars Liengård; Kristoffersen, Tommy

    2009-01-01

    Indigenous bacteria and biomolecules (DNA and proteins) in a freeze-dried and homogenized Arctic permafrost were exposed to simulated martian conditions that correspond to about 80 days on the surface of Mars with respect to the accumulated UV dose. The simulation conditions included UV radiation......, freeze-thaw cycles, the atmospheric gas composition, and pressure. The homogenized permafrost cores were subjected to repeated cycles of UV radiation for 3 h followed by 27 h without irradiation. The effects of the simulation conditions on the concentrations of biomolecules; numbers of viable, dead......, and cultured bacteria; as well as the community structure were determined. Simulated martian conditions resulted in a significant reduction of the concentrations of DNA and amino acids in the uppermost 1.5 mm of the soil core. The total number of bacterial cells was reduced in the upper 9 mm of the soil core...

  6. Silver nanoparticles in montmorillonite to application in polymeric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, R.Y.; Barbosa, R.V.; Kloss, J.R.; Schnitzler, M.; Garcia, J.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the preparation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) through industrially viable methodologies and free of organic solvents, and their insertion in montmorillonite, to produce a nanomaterial with bactericidal properties. The modified montmorillonite was characterized through the techniques of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The FTIR and Raman spectrum's showed specific bands of involving stretching silver. In the XRD analyses was observed the occurrence of the following crystallographic planes (111), (200) e (220) silver related. For application in low density polyethylene, the mechanical tests showed no loss in the mechanical properties, when the AgNPs is present, this fact is important and indicate that the nanomaterial can be inserted in this polymer matrix with considerable technology interest. (author)

  7. Effect of dry density and salinity on Cl- diffusion of compacted Na-montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, T.; Gorai, M.; Kozaki, T.; Sato, S.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Compacted bentonite is candidate buffer material in geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW). One of the expected functions of the buffer is to retard the migration of radionuclides from waste form to biosphere. Due to low hydraulic conductivity of the compacted bentonite, diffusion is considered to be predominant process in radionuclide migrations. Therefore, it is important for safety assessment of the geological disposal to clarify the diffusion behavior of radionuclides in montmorillonite, which is a major clay mineral of bentonite. However, detail diffusion mechanism has not been fully understood especially for the compacted bentonite saturated with groundwater having relatively high salt concentration. In this study, apparent diffusion coefficient (D a [m 2 s -1 ]) of Cl- ions was determined by one-dimensional, non-steady diffusion method for Na-montmorillonite saturated with NaCl solutions with different concentrations. Activation energy for Cl - diffusion (E a [kJ mol -1 ]) was also obtained from the temperature dependence of Da at each NaCl concentration. Based on these experimental results together with the basal spacing of the montmorillonite determined by XRD measurements, the diffusion mechanism of Cl - ions was discussed. The montmorillonite used in this study was Kunipia-F, a commercial product of Kunimine Industries Co. Ltd., Japan. The montmorillonite sample was homo-ionized into Na-type before use. The Na-montmorillonite was compacted into an acrylic resin cell (20 mm in diameter, 20 mm in height for diffusion experiment or 10 mm in height for XRD measurement) and fully saturated with NaCl solutions of concentration from 0 to 0.5 M. The dry densities of the Na-montmorillonite were 1.0 and 1.3 Mg m -3 for diffusion experiments, and from 0.7 to 1.4 Mg m -3 for the XRD measurements. The apparent diffusion coefficients of 36 Cl - ions in the solution-saturated, compacted

  8. Highly anisotropic conductivity of tablets pressed from polyaniline-montmorillonite nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokarský, Jonáš, E-mail: jonas.tokarsky@vsb.cz [Nanotechnology centre, VŠB-TU Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava—Poruba (Czech Republic); IT4Innovations Centre of Excellence, VŠB-TU Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava—Poruba (Czech Republic); Kulhánková, Lenka [Faculty of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, VŠB-TU Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava—Poruba (Czech Republic); Neuwirthová, Lucie; Mamulová Kutláková, Kateřina [Nanotechnology centre, VŠB-TU Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava—Poruba (Czech Republic); Vallová, Silvie [Faculty of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, VŠB-TU Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava—Poruba (Czech Republic); Stýskala, Vítězslav [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, VŠB-TU Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava—Poruba (Czech Republic); Čapková, Pavla [Faculty of Science, University of J.E. Purkyně, České mládeže 8, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Montmorillonite (MMT) can be intercalated with polyaniline (PANI) chains. • Tablets pressed from PANI/MMT exhibit high anisotropy in electrical conductivity. • Pressure 28MPa is sufficient to reach the anisotropy. • Tablets pressed from pure PANI also exhibit anisotropy in electrical conductivity. - Abstract: Polyaniline-montmorillonite nanocomposite was prepared from anilinium sulfate (precursor) and ammonium peroxodisulfate (oxidizing agent) using simple one-step method. The resulting nanocomposite obtained in powder form has been pressed into tablets using various compression pressures (28–400 MPa). Electrical conductivities of tablets in two perpendicular directions, i.e. direction parallel with the main surface of tablet (σ=) and in orthogonal direction (σ⊥), and corresponding anisotropy factors (i.e., the ratio σ=/σ⊥) have been studied in dependence on compression pressure used during the preparation. Polyaniline-montmorillonite nanocomposite was characterized using X-ray diffraction analysis, raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and molecular modeling which led to the understanding of the internal structure. Measurement of hardness performed on pressed tablets has been also involved. Taking into account the highest value of anisotropy factor reached (σ=/σ⊥ = 490), present study shows a chance to design conductors with nearly two-dimensional conductivity.

  9. Highly anisotropic conductivity of tablets pressed from polyaniline-montmorillonite nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarský, Jonáš; Kulhánková, Lenka; Neuwirthová, Lucie; Mamulová Kutláková, Kateřina; Vallová, Silvie; Stýskala, Vítězslav; Čapková, Pavla

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Montmorillonite (MMT) can be intercalated with polyaniline (PANI) chains. • Tablets pressed from PANI/MMT exhibit high anisotropy in electrical conductivity. • Pressure 28MPa is sufficient to reach the anisotropy. • Tablets pressed from pure PANI also exhibit anisotropy in electrical conductivity. - Abstract: Polyaniline-montmorillonite nanocomposite was prepared from anilinium sulfate (precursor) and ammonium peroxodisulfate (oxidizing agent) using simple one-step method. The resulting nanocomposite obtained in powder form has been pressed into tablets using various compression pressures (28–400 MPa). Electrical conductivities of tablets in two perpendicular directions, i.e. direction parallel with the main surface of tablet (σ=) and in orthogonal direction (σ⊥), and corresponding anisotropy factors (i.e., the ratio σ=/σ⊥) have been studied in dependence on compression pressure used during the preparation. Polyaniline-montmorillonite nanocomposite was characterized using X-ray diffraction analysis, raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and molecular modeling which led to the understanding of the internal structure. Measurement of hardness performed on pressed tablets has been also involved. Taking into account the highest value of anisotropy factor reached (σ=/σ⊥ = 490), present study shows a chance to design conductors with nearly two-dimensional conductivity.

  10. Relative chronology of Martian volcanoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landheim, R.; Barlow, N.G.

    1991-01-01

    Impact cratering is one of the major geological processes that has affected the Martian surface throughout the planet's history. The frequency of craters within particular size ranges provides information about the formation ages and obliterative episodes of Martian geologic units. The Barlow chronology was extended by measuring small craters on the volcanoes and a number of standard terrain units. Inclusions of smaller craters in units previously analyzed by Barlow allowed for a more direct comparison between the size-frequency distribution data for volcanoes and established chronology. During this study, 11,486 craters were mapped and identified in the 1.5 to 8 km diameter range in selected regions of Mars. The results are summarized in this three page report and give a more precise estimate of the relative chronology of the Martian volcanoes. Also, the results of this study lend further support to the increasing evidence that volcanism has been a dominant geologic force throughout Martian history

  11. THE SYNTHESIS OF Cr2O3-PILLARED MONTMORILLONITE (CrPM AND ITS USAGE FOR HOST MATERIAL OF p-NITROANILINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karna Wijaya

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of Cr2O3-pillared montmorillonite (CrPM and its usage for host material of p-nitroaniline have been conducted. The Cr2O3-pillared montmorillonite clays was prepared by a direct ion exchange method. First, the polyhydroxychromium as a pillaring spesies was intercalated into the interlayer region of the montmorillonite clays (purified clay in the monocation form, result in a montmorillonite-polyoxychromium intercalation compound. The precursors/pillaring spesies was not stable, hence it must be stabilized by calcination in order to transform the polyoxychromium via dehydration and dehydroxylation processes into Cr2O3. This oxide constituts the so-called pillar that prop the clay layers apart to a relatively large distance. The Cr2O3-pillared clays as a host material was added into ethanol solution saturated with p-nitroaniline, and mixture was stirred for 24 h at room temperature. The Na-montmorillonite, Cr2O3-pillared clay and p-nitroaniline-Cr2O3-pillared clay (pNA-CrPM were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Gas Sorption Analysis, Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and Activated Neutron Analysis (ANA methods. The result of research showed that basal spacing (d001 of Cr2O3-pillared montmorillonite (CrPM was 18,55 Å, meanwhile the basal spacing of the hydrated Na-montmorillonite was 14,43 Å. The specific surface area of the Cr2O3-pillared montmorillonite was 174,308 m2/g, whereas p-nitroaniline-Cr2O3-pillared clay (pNA-CrPM was 133,331641 m2/g. This fact indicated that p-nitroaniline has been included into the pore of the Cr2O3-pillared clay.   Keyword: montmorillonite, pillared-clay, ion exchange, intercalate.

  12. Manganese, Metallogenium, and Martian Microfossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, L. Y.; Nealson, K. H.

    1999-01-01

    Manganese could easily be considered an abundant element in the Martian regolith, assuming that the composition of martian meteorites reflects the composition of the planet. Mineralogical analyses of 5 SNC meteorites have revealed an average manganese oxide concentration of 0.48%, relative to the 0.1% concentration of manganese found in the Earth's crust. On the Earth, the accumulation of manganese oxides in oceans, soils, rocks, sedimentary ores, fresh water systems, and hydrothermal vents can be largely attributed to microbial activity. Manganese is also a required trace nutrient for most life forms and participates in many critical enzymatic reactions such as photosynthesis. The wide-spread process of bacterial manganese cycling on Earth suggests that manganese is an important element to both geology and biology. Furthermore, there is evidence that bacteria can be fossilized within manganese ores, implying that manganese beds may be good repositories for preserved biomarkers. A particular genus of bacteria, known historically as Metallogenium, can form star-shaped manganese oxide minerals (called metallogenium) through the action of manganese oxide precipitation along its surface. Fossilized structures that resemble metallogenium have been found in Precambrian sedimentary formations and in Cretaceous-Paleogene cherts. The Cretaceous-Paleogene formations are highly enriched in manganese and have concentrations of trace elements (Fe, Zn, Cu, and Co) similar to modern-day manganese oxide deposits in marine environments. The appearance of metallogenium-like fossils associated with manganese deposits suggests that bacteria may be preserved within the minerals that they form. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  13. Montmorillonite Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Almasi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Novel citric acid modified starch-carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC -montmorillonite (MMT bionanocomposite films were prepared by casting method and the effect of MMT on the structural and physical properties of the starch-CMC biocomposites was studied. X-ray diffraction test showed thatstrong polar interactions between the hydroxyl groups present in the starch and CMC chains and in the silicate layers led to intercalation of biopolymer chains into MMT layers galleries. The water vapor permeability decreased from 2.44 to 1.13×10-7 g/mhPa as the MMT percentage increased from0 to 7%. At the level of 7% MMT, the composite films showed the highest ultimate tensile strength (27.55 MPa and lowest strain-to-break (18.25%. The DSC tests showed that, the temperature position of the melting peak increased from 221.5°C to 243.0°C as MMT content increased from 1 to 7%, but the glass transition decreased and gradually disappeared.

  14. Molecular simulation of the role of interlayer water on the mechanical properties of montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrier, Benoit; Vandamme, Matthieu; Ebrahimi, Davoud; Whittle, Andrew J.; Pellenq, Roland J.M.; Van Damme, Henri

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Montmorillonite - a swelling clay - is the main component of the clay fraction of the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite, which is considered as a possible host rock for radioactive waste disposal, and of the sealing bentonite plugs of storage tunnels. Montmorillonite layers have a great ability to adsorb water, resulting in the swelling of the clay. Montmorillonite consists of water molecules and sodium or calcium cations between negatively charged layers. Both the water content of the interlayer space and the nature of the charge-balancing cations are expected to have an effect on the mechanical properties of the clay layer. Computer simulations allow to reproduce the experimental swelling isotherms of the layers and to gain a deeper understanding of the physical mechanisms of the swelling process. They show how water is organized in discrete layers and how this process depends on the type of inter-layer cation. However, the effect of the swelling on the mechanical properties of the nano-scale have not been fully investigated. The objective of this work is to compute the elastic properties of a Na + - Montmorillonite and a Ca 2+ -Montmorillonite versus relative humidity at 300 K. The results of this work is the first step to build a macroscopic state equation of unsaturated clay-based materials. We use a simulation cell containing two Montmorillonite layers and sodium or calcium counterions. The partial charges of the atoms and the interatomic interaction parameters are given by the CLAYFF force field. Grand Canonical Monte-Carlo simulations are used to compute the adsorption/desorption isotherm. Each equilibrium configuration is then strained in all directions of space. Then, we perform Molecular Dynamics and compute the stress tensor and all the components of the elasticity tensor. We present the evolution of the elastic properties of the clay layers with the relative humidity. In

  15. A curcumin activated carboxymethyl cellulose-montmorillonite clay nanocomposite having enhanced curcumin release in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madusanka, Nadeesh; de Silva, K M Nalin; Amaratunga, Gehan

    2015-12-10

    A novel curcumin activated carboxymethylcellulose-montmorillonite nanocomposite is reported. A superabsorbent biopolymer; carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was used as an emulsifier for curcumin which is a turmeric derived water insoluble polyphenolic compound with antibacterial/anti-cancer properties. Montmorillonite (MMT) nanoclay was incorporated in the formulation as a matrix material which also plays a role in release kinetics. It was observed that water solubility of curcumin in the nanocomposite has significantly increased (60% release within 2h and 30 min in distilled water at pH 5.4) compared to pure curcumin. The prepared curcumin activated carboxymethylcellulose-montmorillonite nanocomposite is suitable as a curcumin carrier having enhanced release and structural properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The application of modified montmorillonite in the processes of baromembrane purification of water from U (VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurlova, L.Yu.; Krivoruchko, A.P.

    2010-01-01

    The processes of uranium-containing water purification by ultra- and nanofiltration methods combined with the use of montmorillonite modified by polyethyleneimine are studied. It is shown that the application of montmorillonite allows one to obtain the high indices of the uranium-containing water purification by baromembrane methods.

  17. Antarctic Martian Meteorites at Johnson Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, R. C.; Satterwhite, C. E.; Righter, K.; Harrington, R.

    2018-01-01

    This past year marked the 40th anniversary of the first Martian meteorite found in Antarctica by the ANSMET Antarctic Search for Meteorites) program, ALH 77005. Since then, an additional 14 Martian meteorites have been found by the ANSMET program making for a total of 15 Martian meteorites in the U. S. Antarctic meteorite collection at Johnson Space Center (JSC). Of the 15 meteorites, some have been paired so the 15 meteorites actually represent a total of approximately 9 separate samples. The first Martian meteorite found by ANSMET was ALH 77005 (482.500 g), a lherzolitic shergottite. When collected, this meteorite was split as a part of the joint expedition with the National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR) Japan. Originally classified as an "achondrite-unique", it was re-classified as a Martian lherzolitic shergottite in 1982. This meteorite has been allocated to 137 scientists for research and there are 180.934 g remaining at JSC. Two years later, one of the most significant Martian meteorites of the collection at JSC was found at Elephant Moraine, EET 79001 (7942.000 g), a shergottite. This meteorite is the largest in the Martian collection at JSC and was the largest stony meteorite sample collected during the 1979 season. In addition to its size, this meteorite is of particular interest because it contains a linear contact separating two different igneous lithologies, basaltic and olivine-phyric. EET 79001 has glass inclusions that contain noble gas and nitrogen compositions that are proportionally identical to the Martian atmosphere, as measured by the Viking spacecraft. This discovery helped scientists to identify where the "SNC" meteorite suite had originated, and that we actually possessed Martian samples. This meteorite has been allocated to 205 scientists for research and 5,298.435 g of sample is available.

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of CdS/TiO2-Montmorillonite Nanocomposite with Enhanced Visible-Light Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-shan Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium montmorillonite (MMT was chosen as the carrier; a serial of CdS/TiO2-MMT nanocomposites with enhanced visible-light absorption ability was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis method combination with semiconductor compound modification method. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy; the results showed that TiO2 and CdS nanoparticles were loaded on the surface of montmorillonite uniformly. N2 adsorption-desorption experiment showed that the specific surface area of TiO2/montmorillonite nanocomposite made by this method can reach 200 m2/g and pore-size distribution was from 4 to 6 nm; UV-Vis showed that the recombination of CdS and TiO2 enhanced visible-light absorption ability of samples of TiO2/montmorillonite and visible-light absorption ability increase with the increased of the adsorption of CdS.

  19. Photovoltaic array for Martian surface power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, J.; Landis, G. A.

    1992-01-01

    Missions to Mars will require electric power. A leading candidate for providing power is solar power produced by photovoltaic arrays. To design such a power system, detailed information on solar-radiation availability on the Martian surface is necessary. The variation of the solar radiation on the Martian surface is governed by three factors: (1) variation in Mars-Sun distance; (2) variation in solar zenith angle due to Martian season and time of day; and (3) dust in the Martian atmosphere. A major concern is the dust storms, which occur on both local and global scales. However, there is still appreciable diffuse sunlight available even at high opacity, so that solar array operation is still possible. Typical results for tracking solar collectors are also shown and compared to the fixed collectors. During the Northern Hemisphere spring and summer the isolation is relatively high, 2-5 kW-hr/sq m-day, due to the low optical depth of the Martian atmosphere. These seasons, totalling a full terrestrial year, are the likely ones during which manned mission will be carried out.

  20. Near-opposition martian limb-darkening: Quantification and implication for visible-near-infrared bidirectional reflectance studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Grenier, Muriel; Pinet, Patrick C.

    1995-06-01

    A nearly global coverage of the martian eastern hemisphere, acquired under small phase angles and varying observational geometries conditions, has been produced from 1988 opposition by spectral (0.5-1 μm) imaging data obtained at the Pic du Midi Observatory in France. From this data set, the methodology presented here permits a systematic analysis of martian photometric behavior at a regional scale of 100-300 km in the visible and near-infrared. The quantification of limb-darkening as a function of wavelength and surface albedo gives access in martian regional properties as a function of wavelength and surface albedo and results in the production of visible and near-infrared geometric albedo maps. A linear relation between the limb darkening parameter k and geometric albedo exists in the near infrared. Based on laboratory studies, it suggests a spectral response of particulate type for the martian soil. Conversely, in the visible, the value of k parameter is 0.6 independent of albedo and is consistent with a single scattering photometric behavior in the surface layer. However, the observed change in the martian photometry from single to multiple scattering may be partially due to a large contribution of atmospheric scattering above 0.7 μm. In the absence of a multitemporal dataset analysis, it must be emphasized that the present results are a priori only pertinent to the atmospheric and surface conditions existing on Mars at the time of observation. However, this analysis may contribute to characterize some physical properties, such as surface roughness. In the near-infrared, for bright terrains, k tends to 0.8 and agrees with the presence of very fine particulate materials. Photometry of dark areas is more irregular (0.48 duricrust. Finally, we evaluate the influence of reflectance geometrical effects on the multispectral and spectroscopic data of the martian surface.

  1. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Their Mixture in Montmorillonite Clay Hydrates

    KAUST Repository

    Kadoura, Ahmad Salim; Nair, Arun Kumar Narayanan; Sun, Shuyu

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to study the structural and transport properties of carbon dioxide, methane, and their mixture at 298.15 K in Na-montmorillonite clay in the presence of water. The simulations show that, the self-diffusion coefficients of pure CO2 and CH4 molecules in the interlayers of Na-montmorillonite decrease as their loading increases, possibly because of steric hindrance. The diffusion of CO2 in the interlayers of Na-montmorillonite, at constant loading of CO2, is not significantly affected by CH4 for the investigated CO2/CH4 mixture compositions. We attribute this to the preferential adsorption of CO2 over CH4 in Na-montmorillonite. While the presence of adsorbed CO2 molecules, at constant loading of CH4, very significantly reduces the self-diffusion coefficients of CH4, and relatively larger decrease in those diffusion coefficients are obtained at higher loadings. The preferential adsorption of CO2 molecules to the clay surface screens those possible attractive surface sites for CH4. The competition between screening and steric effects leads to a very slight decrease in the diffusion coefficients of CH4 molecules at low CO2 loadings. The steric hindrance effect, however, becomes much more significant at higher CO2 loadings and the diffusion coefficients of methane molecules significantly decrease. Our simulations also indicate that, similar effects of water on both carbon dioxide and methane, increase with increasing water concentration, at constant loadings of CO2 and CH4 in the interlayers of Na-montmorillonite. Our results could be useful, because of the significance of shale gas exploitation and carbon dioxide storage.

  2. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Their Mixture in Montmorillonite Clay Hydrates

    KAUST Repository

    Kadoura, Ahmad Salim

    2016-05-26

    Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to study the structural and transport properties of carbon dioxide, methane, and their mixture at 298.15 K in Na-montmorillonite clay in the presence of water. The simulations show that, the self-diffusion coefficients of pure CO2 and CH4 molecules in the interlayers of Na-montmorillonite decrease as their loading increases, possibly because of steric hindrance. The diffusion of CO2 in the interlayers of Na-montmorillonite, at constant loading of CO2, is not significantly affected by CH4 for the investigated CO2/CH4 mixture compositions. We attribute this to the preferential adsorption of CO2 over CH4 in Na-montmorillonite. While the presence of adsorbed CO2 molecules, at constant loading of CH4, very significantly reduces the self-diffusion coefficients of CH4, and relatively larger decrease in those diffusion coefficients are obtained at higher loadings. The preferential adsorption of CO2 molecules to the clay surface screens those possible attractive surface sites for CH4. The competition between screening and steric effects leads to a very slight decrease in the diffusion coefficients of CH4 molecules at low CO2 loadings. The steric hindrance effect, however, becomes much more significant at higher CO2 loadings and the diffusion coefficients of methane molecules significantly decrease. Our simulations also indicate that, similar effects of water on both carbon dioxide and methane, increase with increasing water concentration, at constant loadings of CO2 and CH4 in the interlayers of Na-montmorillonite. Our results could be useful, because of the significance of shale gas exploitation and carbon dioxide storage.

  3. Pb sorption on montmorillonite-bacteria composites: A combination study by XAFS, ITC and SCM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Chenchen; Du, Huihui; Ma, Mingkai; Chen, Wenli; Cai, Peng; Huang, Qiaoyun

    2018-06-01

    Though abundant studies have targeted the characterization of heavy metal adsorption by either clay minerals or bacteria, to date, minimal literature exists which specifically assesses bacteria-clay mineral interactions in the context of metal immobilization. The adsorption of Pb onto montmorillonite, Pseudomonas putida, and their 1:1, 2:1, 6:1 and 12:1 mass ratio composites were investigated by using a combination of atomic force microscope (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface complexation modeling (SCM), Pb-L III edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The SCM and EXAFS demonstrated that Pb ions coordinate with phosphoryl and carboxyl functional groups on bacteria at low and high concentrations, respectively. The ITC analysis found adverse enthalpy values for Pb adsorption to permanent (-2.91 kJ/mol) and variable charge sites (6.93 kJ/mol) on montmorillonite. The ternary bridging model, EXAFS and ITC provide molecular and thermodynamic evidences for the formation of enthalpy driven (-4.74 kJ/mol) ternary complex (>AlO-Pb-PO 4 ) in the composites. The proportion for the bridging structures increased at pH > 5 and high bacterial mass ratios. The formation of ternary complex did not result in the enhanced adsorption of Pb on the composites, but promoted the allocation of Pb on the mineral fraction. The results obtained from SCM, EXAFS and ITC may provide an essential assumption for predicting the speciation and fate of Pb in soils and associated environments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Aggregation of montmorillonite and organic matter in aqueous media containing artificial seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jinwook

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dispersion-aggregation behaviors of suspended colloids in rivers and estuaries are affected by the compositions of suspended materials (i.e., clay minerals vs. organic macromolecules and salinity. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the dispersion and aggregation mechanisms of suspended particles under simulated river and estuarine conditions. The average hydrodynamic diameters of suspended particles (representing degree of aggregation and zeta potential (representing the electrokinetic properties of suspended colloids and aggregates were determined for systems containing suspended montmorillonite, humic acid, and/or chitin at the circumneutral pH over a range of salinity (0 – 7.2 psu. Results The montmorillonite-only system increased the degree of aggregation with salinity increase, as would be expected for suspended colloids whose dispersion-aggregation behavior is largely controlled by the surface electrostatic properties and van der Waals forces. When montmorillonite is combined with humic acid or chitin, the aggregation of montmorillonite was effectively inhibited. The surface interaction energy model calculations reveal that the steric repulsion, rather than the increase in electronegativity, is the primary cause for the inhibition of aggregation by the addition of humic acid or chitin. Conclusion These results help explain the range of dispersion-aggregation behaviors observed in natural river and estuarine systems. It is postulated that the composition of suspended particles, specifically the availability of steric polymers such as those contained in humic acid, determine whether the river suspension is rapidly aggregated and settled or remains dispersed in suspension when it encounters increasingly saline environments of estuaries and oceans.

  5. Martian volcanism: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    Martian volcanism is reviewed. It is emphasized that lava plains constitute the major type of effusive flow, and can be differentiated by morphologic characteristics. Shield volcanoes, domes, and patera constitute the major constructional landforms, and recent work has suggested that explosive activity and resulting pyroclastic deposits may have been involved with formation of some of the small shields. Analysis of morphology, presumed composition, and spectroscopic data all indicate that Martian volcanism was dominantly basaltic in composition

  6. Hybrid structures based on montmorillonite/modified starch intercalate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duchek, P.; Špírková, Milena

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 9 (2010), s. 885 ISSN 0009-2770. [International Conference on Polysaccharides-Glycoscience /6./. 29.09.2010-1.10.2010, Praha] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAAX08240901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : organic/inorganic hybrides * montmorillonite Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials

  7. Homoionic inorganic montmorillonites as fillers for Polyamide 6 nanocomposites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlecová, Z.; Puffr, Rudolf; Baldrian, Josef; Schmidt, Pavel; Roda, J.; Brožek, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 9 (2008), s. 2798-2806 ISSN 0014-3057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : poly(.epsilon.-caprolactam) nanocomposite * calcium and magnesium montmorillonites * WAX analysis Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.143, year: 2008

  8. Molecular dynamics simulations of the three-layer hydrate of Na-montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmboe, Michael; Bourg, Ian C.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In many nuclear waste repositories concepts, compacted and smectite-rich bentonite clay is considered as an engineered transport barrier surrounding the canisters holding the nuclear waste. One of the requirements in the safety assessment of these repositories is to predict the transport rate of radionuclides as well as the overall hydraulic conductivity through the bentonite barrier. Kozaki and co-workers have obtained important information from diffusion experiments in bentonite on the mechanisms that control solute transport by studying the temperature-dependence of apparent diffusivity for solutes such as Na + , Cs + and Sr 2+ . Their results showed that the apparent diffusivity follows an Arrhenius relation (ln D a ∝ -E A /RT) with distinct activation energies of diffusion (E A ) for certain montmorillonite compactions, ionic strengths, and types of interlayer cation (Na + vs. Ca 2+ ). Their results suggest that solutes follow different diffusion pathways in compacted montmorillonite at different experimental conditions. In order to identify these transport pathways in compacted montmorillonite one needs independent knowledge of the relative abundance of the different types of interlayer nano-pores, i.e. the different coexisting hydration states (1W-3W), and of the molecular-scale EA for solute diffusion on the external basal surfaces of montmorillonite particles and in the interlayer nano-pores. The latter property can be obtained using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, an important tool in the characterization of clays and clay minerals that yields detailed atomistic insights into the structural, dynamical and thermodynamic properties of many different geochemically relevant systems. In particular, MD simulations yield insight into the behavior of individual atoms, where most experimental methods only would probe the average behavior of large numbers of atoms or molecules. Thus, by simulating systems of

  9. Low Biotoxicity of Mars Analog Soils Suggests that the Surface of Mars May be Habitable for Terrestrial Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerger, A. C.; Ming, Douglas W.; Golden, D. C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies on the interactive effects of hypobaria, low temperatures, and CO2-enriched anoxic atmospheres on the growth of 37 species of mesophilic bacteria identified 14 potential biocidal agents that might affect microbial survival and growth on the martian surface. Biocidal or inhibitory factors include (not in priority): (1) solar UV irradiation, (2) low pressure, (3) extreme desiccating conditions, (4) extreme diurnal temperature fluctuations, (5) solar particle events, (6) galactic cosmic rays, (7) UV-glow discharge from blowing dust, (8) solar UV-induced volatile oxidants [e.g., O2(-), O(-), H2O2, O3], (9) globally distributed oxidizing soils, (10) extremely high salts levels [e.g., MgCl2, NaCl, FeSO4, and MgSO4] in surficial soils at some sites on Mars, (11) high concentrations of heavy metals in martian soils, (12) likely acidic conditions in martian fines, (13) high CO2 concentrations in the global atmosphere, and (14) perchlorate-rich soils. Despite these extreme conditions several studies have demonstrated that dormant spores or vegetative cells of terrestrial microorganisms can survive simulated martian conditions as long as they are protected from UV irradiation. What has not been explored in depth are the effects of potential biotoxic geochemical components of the martian regolith on the survival and growth of microorganisms. The primary objectives of the research included: (1) prepare and characterize Mars analog soils amended with potential biotoxic levels of sulfates, salts, acidifying minerals, etc.; and (2) use the simulants to conduct biotoxicity assays to determine if terrestrial microorganisms from spacecraft can survive direct exposure to the analog soils.

  10. Solid-state synthesis and electrical properties of polyaniline/Cu-montmorillonite nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekri-Abbes, Imene; Srasra, Ezzeddine

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the solid-state synthesis of polyaniline/Cu-montmorillonite nanocomposite is reported. Mixture of anilinium chlorure and Cu exchanged montmorillonite was grinded at room temperature while we vary the molar rate of aniline to interlayer Cu 2+ cations (R) from 0.5 to 6. The properties of the hybrid compounds are characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, SEM, FTIR and impedance spectroscopy. The results showed that the structure and the conductivity of PANI in hybrid materials depend on R. The ac conduction showed a regime of constant dc conductivity at low frequencies and a crossover to a frequency-dependent regime of the type A ω s at high frequencies.

  11. Acidity of edge surface sites of montmorillonite and kaolinite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiandong; Lu, Xiancai; Sprik, Michiel; Cheng, Jun; Meijer, Evert Jan; Wang, Rucheng

    2013-09-01

    Acid-base chemistry of clay minerals is central to their interfacial properties, but up to now a quantitative understanding on the surface acidity is still lacking. In this study, with first principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) based vertical energy gap technique, we calculate the acidity constants of surface groups on (0 1 0)-type edges of montmorillonite and kaolinite, which are representatives of 2:1 and 1:1-type clay minerals, respectively. It shows that tbnd Si-OH and tbnd Al-OH2OH groups of kaolinite have pKas of 6.9 and 5.7 and those of montmorillonite have pKas of 7.0 and 8.3, respectively. For each mineral, the calculated pKas are consistent with the experimental ranges derived from fittings of titration curves, indicating that tbnd Si-OH and tbnd Al-OH2OH groups are the major acidic sites responsible to pH-dependent experimental observations. The effect of Mg substitution in montmorillonite is investigated and it is found that Mg substitution increases the pKas of the neighboring tbnd Si-OH and tbnd Si-OH2 groups by 2-3 pKa units. Furthermore, our calculation shows that the pKa of edge tbnd Mg-(OH2)2 is as high as 13.2, indicating the protonated state dominates under common pH. Together with previous adsorption experiments, our derived acidity constants suggest that tbnd Si-O- and tbnd Al-(OH)2 groups are the most probable edge sites for complexing heavy metal cations.

  12. Effect of seawater on consistency, infiltration rate and swelling characteristics of montmorillonite clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohie Eldin Elmashad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation performed to quantify the effect of mixing clayey soils with saltwater on consistency and swelling characteristics of clays. Massive natural clay deposits and compacted clay backfills either exist or are used in certain important and sensitive applications such as dams, liners, barriers and buffers in waste disposal facilities. In many cases, the clay deposits in these applications are subjected to saltwater. However, in standard laboratory classification tests, distilled or potable water are usually used in mixing test samples. This may lead to faulty interpretation of the actual in-situ consistency and volume change behaviors. In this research, an attempt is made to quantify the changes in consistency and swelling of clay soils from various locations around the Nile valley and possessing a wide range of consistency, when mixed with natural seawater with different salt concentrations. The results showed that the increase of the salt concentration of the mixing water may result in major decrease in the liquid limit and swelling characteristics of high plasticity montmorillonite clays. The reduction in the swelling of the clay soils is also proportional to the rate of saltwater infiltration. In an attempt to correlate the swelling of clays to the rate of water infiltration, a new simplified laboratory apparatus is proposed where swelling and infiltration are measured in one simple test “the swelling infiltrometer”.

  13. Chemical reaction path modeling of hydrothermal processes on Mars: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Ridley, W. Ian

    1992-01-01

    Hydrothermal processes are thought to have had significant roles in the development of surficial mineralogies and morphological features on Mars. For example, a significant proportion of the Martian soil could consist of the erosional products of hydrothermally altered impact melt sheets. In this model, impact-driven, vapor-dominated hydrothermal systems hydrothermally altered the surrounding rocks and transported volatiles such as S and Cl to the surface. Further support for impact-driven hydrothermal alteration on Mars was provided by studies of the Ries crater, Germany, where suevite deposits were extensively altered to montmorillonite clays by inferred low-temperature (100-130 C) hydrothermal fluids. It was also suggested that surface outflow from both impact-driven and volcano-driven hydrothermal systems could generate the valley networks, thereby eliminating the need for an early warm wet climate. We use computer-driven chemical reaction path calculation to model chemical processes which were likely associated with postulated Martian hydrothermal systems.

  14. Preparation of Polypropylene/Montmorillonite Nanocomposites Using Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Güven, Olgun; Zengin, Fatma

    2011-01-01

    Polymer/clay nanocomposites are new generation materials that bring significant changes in mechanical, thermal and permeation properties of base polymers by low clay loading. In this study, polypropylene/montmorillonite nanocomposites were prepared by melt intercalation method by using batch type mixer. Two polypropylene samples with different melt flow indexes are used as the matrix, maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (PP-g-MAH), and polypropylene granules oxidized by radiation/ozone are used as compatibilizer and unmodified clay (Na + montmorillonite, MMT) as the filler. Aim of this study is to examine the effect of different compatibilizers in the mechanical properties of polypropylene composite. Firstly, PP/clay samples were prepared and the effect of clay was examined, then 5, 10, 20kGy oxidized/degraded polypropylenes were used as compatibilizer and, 10 kGy was determined to be the most suitable irradiation dose for the best compatibilizing effect. Polypropylene granules were ozonated until they contained carbonyl groups equivalent to 10kGy oxidized PP, which was checked by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. UV-visible reflectance measurements were also made on film samples and no significant changes were observed in visible region. Nano structures of some nanocomposites were characterized by PALS (Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy) where it was observed that the addition of clay decreased the number of free volume holes and free volume hole radia. The dispersion state of MMT within polymer matrix was analyzed by XRD (X-ray diffraction). Tensile tests were made and the effect of the addition of clay and compatibilizers investigated. At low melt flow index PP, 1% MMT of PP/10kGyPP/MMT nanocomposite showed an increase in E-modulus 26% and in tensile strength 8% as compared to those of pristine PP. In conclusion radiation degraded (chain scissioned and oxidized) PP has been found to show very good compatibilizing effect for the natural montmorillonite

  15. Preparation of Polypropylene/Montmorillonite Nanocomposites Using Ionizing Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Güven, Olgun; Zengin, Fatma

    2011-07-01

    Polymer/clay nanocomposites are new generation materials that bring significant changes in mechanical, thermal and permeation properties of base polymers by low clay loading. In this study, polypropylene/montmorillonite nanocomposites were prepared by melt intercalation method by using batch type mixer. Two polypropylene samples with different melt flow indexes are used as the matrix, maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (PP-g-MAH), and polypropylene granules oxidized by radiation/ozone are used as compatibilizer and unmodified clay (Na{sup +} montmorillonite, MMT) as the filler. Aim of this study is to examine the effect of different compatibilizers in the mechanical properties of polypropylene composite. Firstly, PP/clay samples were prepared and the effect of clay was examined, then 5, 10, 20kGy oxidized/degraded polypropylenes were used as compatibilizer and, 10 kGy was determined to be the most suitable irradiation dose for the best compatibilizing effect. Polypropylene granules were ozonated until they contained carbonyl groups equivalent to 10kGy oxidized PP, which was checked by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. UV-visible reflectance measurements were also made on film samples and no significant changes were observed in visible region. Nano structures of some nanocomposites were characterized by PALS (Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy) where it was observed that the addition of clay decreased the number of free volume holes and free volume hole radia. The dispersion state of MMT within polymer matrix was analyzed by XRD (X-ray diffraction). Tensile tests were made and the effect of the addition of clay and compatibilizers investigated. At low melt flow index PP, 1% MMT of PP/10kGyPP/MMT nanocomposite showed an increase in E-modulus 26% and in tensile strength 8% as compared to those of pristine PP. In conclusion radiation degraded (chain scissioned and oxidized) PP has been found to show very good compatibilizing effect for the natural montmorillonite

  16. Functional properties of extruded nano composites based on cassava starch, polyvinyl alcohol and montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debiagi, Flavia; Mali, Suzana

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to produce expanded nano composites (foams) based on starch, PVA and sodium montmorillonite and characterize them according to their expansion index (EI), density, water absorption capacity (WSC), mechanical properties and X-ray diffraction. The nano composites were prepared in a single-screw extruder using different starch contents (97.6 - 55.2 g/100 g formulation), PVA (0 - 40 g/100 g formulation), unmodified nano clay - Closite - Na (0 - 4. 8 g/100 g formulation) and glycerol (20 g/100 g formulation) as plasticizer. The addition of montmorillonite and PVA resulted in an increase of EI and a decrease of density of the samples, and reduced WSC and increased the mechanical strength of the foams. Through the analysis of X-ray diffraction can be observed that the addition of montmorillonite led to production of intercalated nano composites in all samples. (author)

  17. Yamato 980459: Crystallization of Martian Magnesian Magma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, E.; Mikouchi, T.; McKay, G.; Monkawa, A.; Chokai, J.; Miyamoto, M.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, several basaltic shergottites have been found that include magnesian olivines as a major minerals. These have been called olivinephyric shergottites. Yamato 980459, which is a new martian meteorite recovered from the Antarctica by the Japanese Antarctic expedition, is one of them. This meteorite is different from other olivine-phyric shergottites in several key features and will give us important clues to understand crystallization of martian meteorites and the evolution of Martian magma.

  18. Aflatoxin B1 adsorption by the natural aluminosilicates - concentrate of montmorillonite and zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Marija A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin B1 adsorption by the concentrate of bentonite clay - montmorillonite and the natural zeolite - clinoptilolite and was investigated at the initial toxin concentration 4 ppm, with different amonunts of solid phase in suspension (10, 5, 2 and 1 mg/10 mL and different pH values - 3, 7 and 9. Results indicated that for both minerals, decreasing the amount of solid phase in suspension, decrease the amount of active sites relevant for adsorption of aflatoxin B1. Thus, for concentrate of montnorillonite, at the lowest level of solid phase in suspension (1 mg/10 mL, aflatoxin B1 adsorption indexes were 97% at pH 3, 88% at pH 7 and 82% at pH 9, while for the natural zeolite, adsorption of toxin was 9% at pH 3 and 7% at pH 7 and 9. Since inorganic cations in minerals are mainly responsible for aflatoxin B1 adsorption, even the natural zeolite - clinoptilite has much higher cation exchange capacity (the content of inorganic exchangeable cations compared to the concentrate of montmorillonite, adsorption of aflatoxin B1 by this mineral is much lower. Comparing the molecular dimensions of aflatoxin B1 molecule with the dimension of channels of clinoptilolite and interlamellar space of montmorillonite it is obvious that this toxin is adsorbed only at the external surface of clinoptilolite while in the montmorillonite all active sites are equally available for its adsorption. Thus, the concentrate of montmorillonite posess by higher adsorption capacity for aflatoxin B1. Results presented in this paper confirmed the fact the differences in the structure of minerals led to their different efficiency for adsorption of aflatoxin B1. Mineralogical and chemical composition, determination of cation exchange capacity, etc., are very important parameters influencing the effectiveness of minerals as aflatoxin B1 adsorbents. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 451-03-2802-IP Tip1/142, br. 172018 i br. 34013

  19. Supercooled interfacial water in fine-grained soils probed by dielectric spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lorek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Water substantially affects nearly all physical, chemical and biological processes on the Earth. Recent Mars observations as well as laboratory investigations suggest that water is a key factor of current physical and chemical processes on the Martian surface, e.g. rheological phenomena. Therefore it is of particular interest to get information about the liquid-like state of water on Martian analogue soils for temperatures below 0 °C. To this end, a parallel plate capacitor has been developed to obtain isothermal dielectric spectra of fine-grained soils in the frequency range from 10 Hz to 1.1 MHz at Martian-like temperatures down to −70 °C. Two Martian analogue soils have been investigated: a Ca-bentonite (specific surface of 237 m2 g−1, up to 9.4% w / w gravimetric water content and JSC Mars 1, a volcanic ash (specific surface of 146 m2 g−1, up to 7.4% w / w. Three soil-specific relaxation processes are observed in the investigated frequency–temperature range: two weak high-frequency processes (bound or hydrated water as well as ice and a strong low-frequency process due to counter-ion relaxation and the Maxwell–Wagner effect. To characterize the dielectric relaxation behaviour, a generalized fractional dielectric relaxation model was applied assuming three active relaxation processes with relaxation time of the ith process modelled with an Eyring equation. The real part of effective complex soil permittivity at 350 kHz was used to determine ice and liquid-like water content by means of the Birchak or CRIM equation. There are evidence that bentonite down to −70 °C has a liquid-like water content of 1.17 monolayers and JSC Mars 1 a liquid-like water content of 1.96 monolayers.

  20. Effect of montmorillonite on arsenic accumulation in common carp

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-02-01

    Feb 1, 2012 ... The effect of montmorillonite (MMT) on dietary arsenic (As(III)) accumulation in tissues of common carp ..... by clay minerals has been primarily attributed to the .... Trace elements (Cu or Zn) concentration in sampled tissues of common carp after .... interactions among mixtures of lead, cadmium and arsenic.

  1. Natural montmorillonite induced photooxidation of As(III) in aqueous suspensions: Roles and sources of hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl/superoxide radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yajie; Xu, Jing; Li, Jinjun; Wu, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Natural montmorillonite contributes to photochemical oxidation of arsenite. • Ferrous ions significantly affect photochemical behavior of montmorillonite. • HO· and HO 2 ·/O 2 − · play different roles in this process. -- Abstract: Photooxidation of arsenite(As(III)) in a suspension of natural montmorillonite under the irradiation of metal halide lamp (λ ≥ 313 nm)has been investigated. The results showed that the natural montmorillonite induced the photooxidation of As(III) by generating hydroxyl radicals (HO·) and hydroperoxyl/superoxide radicals (HO 2 ·/O 2 − ·). HO· which was responsible for the As(III) photooxidation. Approximately 38% of HO· was generated by the photolysis of ferric ions, and the formation of the remaining 62% was strongly dependent on the HO 2 ·/O 2 − ·. The presence of free ironions (Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ ), made significant contributions to the photogeneration of these reactive oxygen species (ROS). The photooxidation of As(III) in natural montmorillonite suspensions was greatly influenced by the pH values. The photooxidation of As(III) by natural montmorillonite followed the Langmuir–Hinshelwood equation. In addition, the photooxidation of As(III) could be enhanced by the addition of humic acid. This work demonstrates that photooxidation may be an important environmental process for the oxidation of As(III) and may be a way to remove As(III) from acidic surface water containing iron-bearing clay minerals

  2. Soil diversity and hydration as observed by ChemCam at Gale Crater, Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meslin, P.-Y.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Schröder, S.; Cousin, A.; Berger, G.; Clegg, S.M.; Lasue, J.; Maurice, S.; Sautter, V.; Le Mouélic, S.; Wiens, R.C.; Fabre, C.; Goetz, W.; Bish, D.; Mangold, N.; Ehlmann, B.; Lanza, N.; Harri, A.-M.; Anderson, R.; Rampe, E.; McConnochie, T.H.; Pinet, P.; Blaney, D.; Léveillé, R.; Archer, D.; Barraclough, B.; Bender, S.; Blake, D.; Blank, J.G.; Bridges, N.; Clark, B.C.; DeFlores, L.; Delapp, D.; Dromart, G.; Dyar, M.D.; Fisk, M.; Gondet, B.; Grotzinger, J.; Herkenhoff, K.; Johnson, J.; Lacour, J.-L.; Langevin, Y.; Leshin, L.; Lewin, E.; Madsen, M.B.; Melikechi, N.; Mezzacappa, A.; Mischna, M.A.; Moores, J.E.; Newsom, H.; Ollila, A.; Perez, R.; Renno, N.; Sirven, J.-B.; Tokar, R.; De La Torre, M.; D'Uston, L.; Vaniman, D.; Yingst, A.; MSL Science Team, the

    2013-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument, which provides insight into martian soil chemistry at the submillimeter scale, identified two principal soil types along the Curiosity rover traverse: a fine-grained mafic type and a locally derived, coarse-grained felsic type. The mafic soil component is representative of

  3. Modification of montmorillonite with alkyltrimethylammonium bromides. Effect of thermal and ultrasonic treatment upon the structure of montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez M, F.J.; Galotto Lopez, M.J.; Guarda M, A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was synthesized organo clays using different methodologies oriented to improve the cationic interchange between montmorillonite and organic salts. Thermal and thermal-ultrasonic methods were studied. According to obtained results, the ultrasonic application improved the interchange between organic ammonium and sodium ion of the clay. On the other hand, an important effect of molecular weight of organic surfactant was observed. Formation of organo clays was evidenced through ray-X diffraction (RXD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). (author)

  4. Modeling selenate adsorption behavior on oxides, clay minerals, and soils using the triple layer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selenate adsorption behavior was investigated on amorphous aluminum oxide, amorphous iron oxide, goethite, clay minerals: kaolinites, montmorillonites, illite, and 18 soil samples from Hawaii, and the Southwestern and the Midwestern regions of the US as a function of solution pH. Selenate adsorpti...

  5. Mud Volcanoes of Trinidad as Astrobiological Analogs for Martian Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riad Hosein

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eleven onshore mud volcanoes in the southern region of Trinidad have been studied as analog habitats for possible microbial life on Mars. The profiles of the 11 mud volcanoes are presented in terms of their physical, chemical, mineralogical, and soil properties. The mud volcanoes sampled all emitted methane gas consistently at 3% volume. The average pH for the mud volcanic soil was 7.98. The average Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC was found to be 2.16 kg/mol, and the average Percentage Water Content was 34.5%. Samples from three of the volcanoes, (i Digity; (ii Piparo and (iii Devil’s Woodyard were used to culture bacterial colonies under anaerobic conditions indicating possible presence of methanogenic microorganisms. The Trinidad mud volcanoes can serve as analogs for the Martian environment due to similar geological features found extensively on Mars in Acidalia Planitia and the Arabia Terra region.

  6. Mud Volcanoes of Trinidad as Astrobiological Analogs for Martian Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosein, Riad; Haque, Shirin; Beckles, Denise M.

    2014-01-01

    Eleven onshore mud volcanoes in the southern region of Trinidad have been studied as analog habitats for possible microbial life on Mars. The profiles of the 11 mud volcanoes are presented in terms of their physical, chemical, mineralogical, and soil properties. The mud volcanoes sampled all emitted methane gas consistently at 3% volume. The average pH for the mud volcanic soil was 7.98. The average Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) was found to be 2.16 kg/mol, and the average Percentage Water Content was 34.5%. Samples from three of the volcanoes, (i) Digity; (ii) Piparo and (iii) Devil’s Woodyard were used to culture bacterial colonies under anaerobic conditions indicating possible presence of methanogenic microorganisms. The Trinidad mud volcanoes can serve as analogs for the Martian environment due to similar geological features found extensively on Mars in Acidalia Planitia and the Arabia Terra region. PMID:25370529

  7. Mud volcanoes of trinidad as astrobiological analogs for martian environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosein, Riad; Haque, Shirin; Beckles, Denise M

    2014-10-13

    Eleven onshore mud volcanoes in the southern region of Trinidad have been studied as analog habitats for possible microbial life on Mars. The profiles of the 11 mud volcanoes are presented in terms of their physical, chemical, mineralogical, and soil properties. The mud volcanoes sampled all emitted methane gas consistently at 3% volume. The average pH for the mud volcanic soil was 7.98. The average Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) was found to be 2.16 kg/mol, and the average Percentage Water Content was 34.5%. Samples from three of the volcanoes, (i) Digity; (ii) Piparo and (iii) Devil's Woodyard were used to culture bacterial colonies under anaerobic conditions indicating possible presence of methanogenic microorganisms. The Trinidad mud volcanoes can serve as analogs for the Martian environment due to similar geological features found extensively on Mars in Acidalia Planitia and the Arabia Terra region.

  8. Investigations on uranium sorption on bentonite and montmorillonite, respectively, and uranium in environmental samples; Untersuchungen zur Uransorption an Bentonit bzw. Montmorillonit sowie von Uran in Umweltproben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azeroual, Mohamed

    2010-09-22

    The geotechnical barrier is an important component of a geological repository and consists of compacted bentonite surrounding radioactive waste containers. Its most important functions are, to retard the radionuclide migration into the biosphere and to prevent groundwater contact with containers. lt is therefore of central importance to investigate the bentonite material on its capacity to sorb radionuclides under near-natural chemical and physical conditions. The purpose of this work was to study the adsorption of uranium(VI) on bentonit and on montmorillonite-standards at high uranium concentrations. Thereby, a special account was given to the calcium-uranyl-carbonate complexation, which leads to the formation of very stable and mobile uncharged Ca{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3} complex. Results of batch experiments showed that the dicalcium-uranyl-tricarbonate complexation lowers the uranium(VI) sorption on natural clay (bentonite) by a factor of up to 3. After 21 days of contact time, about 40 % and 20 % of the initial uranium(VI)concentration were sorbed on Na-bentonite and ea-bentonite, respectively, from a solution with Ca{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3} dominating the uranium(VI) speciation. On the contrary, about 55 % of the initial uranium(VI)-concentration were sorbed on thes clays from the solution, in which (UO{sub 2}){sub 2}CO{sub 3}(OH){sub 3}{sup -} complex dominated the uranium(VI) speciation. Thus uranium(VI) sorption is more strongly influenced by the solution composition than by bentonite type. Na-bentonite should be used instead of ea-bentonite as a geotechnical barrier, since calcium-uranyl-carbonate complexation may be a realistic scenario. Further SEM-EDX and HREM-EDX studies showed that uranium(VI) sorption occurred predominantly on montmorillonite, which is the main component of bentonite. Uranium(VI) sorption on bentonite's accessory Minerals (pyrite, calcite, mica, and feldspar) was not observed. Investigation of uranium

  9. Synthesis and characterization of montmorillonite clay intercalated with molecular magnetic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Marcel G.; Martins, Daniel O.T.A.; Carvalho, Beatriz L.C. de [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ 24.020–150 (Brazil); Mercante, Luiza A. [Laboratório Nacional de Nanotecnologia para o Agronegócio (LNNA), Embrapa Instrumentação, São Carlos, SP 13560 970 (Brazil); Soriano, Stéphane [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ 24.210 346 (Brazil); Andruh, Marius [Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Bucharest, Str. Dumbrava Rosie nr. 23, Bucharest (Romania); Vieira, Méri D., E-mail: gqimeri@vm.uff.br [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ 24.020–150 (Brazil); Vaz, Maria G.F., E-mail: mariavaz@vm.uff.br [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ 24.020–150 (Brazil)

    2015-08-15

    In this work montmorillonite (MMT) clay, whose matrix was modified with an ammonium salt (hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide – CTAB), was employed as an inorganic host for the intercalation of three different molecular magnetic compounds through ion exchange: a nitronyl nitroxide derivative 2-[4-(N-ethyl)-pyridinium]-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (p-EtRad{sup +}) and two binuclear coordination compounds, [Ni(valpn)Ln]{sup 3+}, where H{sub 2}valpn stands for 1,3-propanediyl-bis(2-iminomethylene-6-methoxy-phenol), and Ln=Gd{sup III}; Dy{sup III}. The pristine MMT and the intercalated materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and magnetic measurements. The X-ray diffraction data analysis showed an increase of the interlamellar space of the intercalated MMT, indicating the intercalation of the magnetic compounds. Furthermore, the magnetic properties of the hybrid compounds were investigated, showing similar behavior as the pure magnetic guest species. - Graphical abstract: Montmorillonite clay was employed as inorganic host for the intercalation of three different molecular magnetic compounds through ion exchange - Highlights: • Montmorillonite was employed as a host material. • Three molecular magnetic compounds were intercalated through ion exchange. • The compounds were successful intercalated maintaining the layered structure. • The hybrid materials exhibited similar magnetic behavior as the pure magnetic guest.

  10. Different level of fluorescence in Raman spectra of montmorillonites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ritz, M.; Vaculíková, Lenka; Kupková, J.; Plevová, Eva; Bartoňová, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 84, May 2016 (2016), s. 7-15 ISSN 0924-2031 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Raman spectroscopy * fluorescence * montmorillonite Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.740, year: 2016

  11. An Electrostatic Precipitator System for the Martian Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, C. I.; Mackey, P. J.; Hogue, M. D.; Johansen, M. R.; Phillips, J. R., III; Clements, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Human exploration missions to Mars will require the development of technologies for the utilization of the planet's own resources for the production of commodities. However, the Martian atmosphere contains large amounts of dust. The extraction of commodities from this atmosphere requires prior removal of this dust. We report on our development of an electrostatic precipitator able to collect Martian simulated dust particles in atmospheric conditions approaching those of Mars. Extensive experiments with an initial prototype in a simulated Martian atmosphere showed efficiencies of 99%. The design of a second prototype with aerosolized Martian simulated dust in a flow-through is described. Keywords: Space applications, electrostatic precipitator, particle control, particle charging

  12. Martian Gullies: H2O or CO2 snow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolanda, C.; Durand-Manterola, H. J.

    2007-05-01

    The theories proposed to try to explain the origin of the Martian gullies involve either liquid water, liquid carbon dioxide or flows of dry granular material. We propose another processes that can be favorable for the origin of the Martian gullies, with our model by gaseous fluidification of CO2. We propose that on the Martian slopes, CO2 snow and dust transported by winds, are accumulate. During the Martian spring, sublimation of carbonic snow starts because of heat and weigth of the frezze layer, causing that the material mixed its fluidifized and slide downslope by gravity. By experimental work with dry granular material, we simulated the development of the Martian gullies injecting air inside the granular material. We also present the characteristics of some terrestrial gullies forms at cold environment, sited at Nevado de Toluca Volcano near Toluca City, México. We compared them with some Martian gullies, to identify possible processes evolved in its formation. We measured the lengths of those Martian gullies and the range was from 24 meters to 1775 meters. Finally, we present results of our experimental work at laboratory with dry granular material and our field trip to Nevado de Toluca Volcano.

  13. Hydrological and Climatic Significance of Martian Deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Achille, G.; Vaz, D. A.

    2017-10-01

    We a) review the geomorphology, sedimentology, and mineralogy of the martian deltas record and b) present the results of a quantitative study of the hydrology and sedimentology of martian deltas using modified version of terrestrial model Sedflux.

  14. Influence of γ-radiation on the reactivity of montmorillonite towards H2O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmboe, Michael; Jonsson, Mats; Wold, Susanna

    2012-01-01

    Compacted and water saturated bentonite will be used as an engineered barrier in deep geological repositories for radioactive waste in many countries. Due to the high dose rate of ionizing radiation outside the canisters holding the nuclear waste, radiolysis of the interlayer and pore water in the compacted bentonite is unavoidable. Upon reaction with the oxidizing and reducing species formed by water radiolysis (OH • , e − (aq) , H • , H 2 O 2 , H 2 , HO 2 • , H 3 O + ), the overall redox properties in the bentonite barrier may change. In this study the influence of γ-radiation on the structural Fe(II)/Fe Tot ratio in montmorillonite and its reactivity towards hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) was investigated in parallel experiments. The results show that under anoxic conditions the structural Fe(II)/Fe Tot ratio of dispersed Montmorillonite increased from ≤3 to 25–30% after γ-doses comparable to repository conditions. Furthermore, a strong correlation between the structural Fe(II)/Fe Tot ratio and the H 2 O 2 decomposition rate in montmorillonite dispersions was found. This correlation was further verified in experiments with consecutive H 2 O 2 additions, since the structural Fe(II)/Fe Tot ratio was seen to decrease concordantly. This work shows that the structural iron in montmorillonite could be a sink for one of the major oxidants formed upon water radiolysis in the bentonite barrier, H 2 O 2 .

  15. 60Co retention by Mexican montmorillonites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, G.; Martinez, V.; Bosch, P.; Bulbulian, S.

    1995-01-01

    Radioactive elements may be retained by clays. The ability of natural Mexican clays to retain radioactive Co from aqueous solutions, is discussed. Experiments were performed with solutions containing labeled cobalt. The effect of contact time on Co 2+ retention was studied. It was found that the Co 2+ uptake value in dehydrated montmorillonites is between 0.30 and 0.70 meq g -1 of clay. A sorption sequence was obtained for the various clays. The samples were characterized, before and after cobalt exchange, by X-ray diffraction. (author). 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Temperature effect on the acid-base behaviour of Na-montmorillonite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Myriam; Carteret, Cédric; Thomas, Fabien; Gaboriaud, Fabien

    2008-11-15

    We report a study of the acid-base properties of Na-montmorillonite suspensions at temperatures from 25 degrees C to 80 degrees C, by continuous and batch potentiometric methods, combined with analysis of the dissolved and readsorbed species. The batch titration curves reveal that the dissolution processes of Na-montmorillonite and silica-rich secondary phases are increasingly predominant, respectively at acid and basic pH, and according to the temperature. The continuous titration curves are less affected by these side reactions. In the absence of a common intersection point, the thermodynamic analysis of the curves was based on the shift of the PZNPC with the ionic strength. This shift was not significantly altered by the temperature, by comparison with the dissociation product of water in the same conditions. Therefore we concluded that protonation-deprotonation of the dissociable sites at the edges of the clay platelets is not significantly temperature dependent.

  17. Characterization and Catalytic Activity of Montmorillonite K10-Supported Cobalt Catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobara, H.M.; Ghattas, M.S.; Henien, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Montmorillonite K10-supported cobalt catalysts were prepared by wet impregnation method. The samples were analyzed by XRD, TPR, FTTR and BET characterization techniques. [Three phases of cobalt species were identified namely, cobalt oxide (Co 3 O 4 ), cobalt silicate (Co 2 S 1 O 4 ) and cobalt aluminate (CoAl 2 O 4 ). These species were most probably existing within the inter lamellar spaces of the meso porous montmorillonite K10 support]. The two bands observed at 1385 and 760 cm 1 were characteristic of metal species rather than the support, being mostly of Co - O bond vibration. The hysteresis loop, pore size distribution, pore volume and BET surface area were greatly affected by cobalt loading. The catalyst containing 18 wt% cobalt was the most selective sample for ethylene production from ethanol dehydration.

  18. Soil clay content underlies prion infection odds

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Walter W.; Walsh, D.P.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; Winkelman, D.L.; Miller, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental factors-especially soil properties-have been suggested as potentially important in the transmission of infectious prion diseases. Because binding to montmorillonite (an aluminosilicate clay mineral) or clay-enriched soils had been shown to enhance experimental prion transmissibility, we hypothesized that prion transmission among mule deer might also be enhanced in ranges with relatively high soil clay content. In this study, we report apparent influences of soil clay content on the odds of prion infection in free-ranging deer. Analysis of data from prion-infected deer herds in northern Colorado, USA, revealed that a 1% increase in the clay-sized particle content in soils within the approximate home range of an individual deer increased its odds of infection by up to 8.9%. Our findings suggest that soil clay content and related environmental properties deserve greater attention in assessing risks of prion disease outbreaks and prospects for their control in both natural and production settings. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization and Identification of Bituminous Materials Modified with Montmorillonite Nanoclay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, G.

    2011-01-01

    Montmorillonite (Mt) nanoclay is a layered silicate mineral with a 2:1-type layer structure, two tetrahedrals sandwiching one octahedral. In recent decades, it is successfully introduced into polymer systems to form polymer-clay nanocomposites (PCN) in which the silicate layers of the Mt are

  20. Mechanism of the reduction of hexavalent chromium by organo-montmorillonite supported iron nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Pingxiao; Li, Shuzhen; Ju, Liting; Zhu, Nengwu; Wu, Jinhua; Li, Ping; Dang, Zhi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Organo-montmorillonite supported iron nanoparticles were found to be more efficient in the removal of Cr(VI) than unsupported iron nanoparticles. ► The iron nanoparticles were accommodated by the sectional structure of the clay minerals which were helpful to protect the nanoparticles from aggregating. ► XPS and XANES provided some direct information about the reduction mechanisms. ► The structure of the supported iron nanoparticles was stable in the reaction with Cr(VI). - Abstract: Iron nanoparticles exhibit greater reactivity than micro-sized Fe 0 , and they impart advantages for groundwater remediation. In this paper, supported iron nanoparticles were synthesized to further enhance the speed and efficiency of remediation. Natural montmorillonite and organo-montmorillonite were chosen as supporting materials. The capacity of supported iron nanoparticles was evaluated, compared to unsupported iron nanoparticles, for the reduction of aqueous Cr(VI). The reduction of Cr(VI) was much greater with organo-montmorillonite supported iron nanoparticles and fitted the pseudo-second order equation better. With a dose at 0.47 g/L, a total removal capacity of 106 mg Cr/g Fe 0 was obtained. Other factors that affect the efficiency of Cr(VI) removal, such as pH values, the initial Cr(VI) concentration and storage time of nanoparticles were investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) were used to figure out the mechanism of the removal of Cr(VI). XPS indicated that the Cr(VI) bound to the particle surface was completely reduced to Cr(III) under a range of conditions. XANES confirmed that the Cr(VI) reacted with iron nanoparticles was completely reduced to Cr(III).

  1. Model for Volatile Incorporation into Soils and Dust on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B. C.; Yen, A.

    2006-12-01

    Martian soils with high content of compounds of sulfur and chlorine are ubiquitous on Mars, having been found at all five landing sites. Sulfate and chloride salts are implicated by a variety of evidence, but few conclusive specific identifications have been made. Discovery of jarosite and Mg-Ca sulfates in outcrops at Meridiani Planum (MER mission) and regional-scale beds of kieserite and gypsum (Mars Express mission) notwithstanding, the sulfates in soils are uncertain. Chlorides or other Cl-containing minerals have not been uniquely identified directly by any method. Viking and Pathfinder missions found trends in the elemental analytical data consistent with MgSO4, but Viking results are biased by duricrust samples and Pathfinder by soil contamination of rock surfaces. The Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) missions have taken extensive data on soils with no confirmation of trends implicating any particular cation. In our model of martian dust and soil, the S and Cl are initially incorporated by condensation or chemisorption on grains directly from gas phase molecules in the atmosphere. It is shown by modeling that the coatings thus formed cannot quantitatively explain the apparent elemental composition of these materials, and therefore involve the migration of ions and formation of microscopic weathering rinds. Original cation inventories of unweathered particles are isochemically conserved. Exposed rock surfaces should also have micro rinds, depending upon the length of time of exposure. Martian soils may therefore have unusual chemical properties when interacting with aqueous layers or infused fluids. Potential ramifications to the quantitative accuracy of x-ray fluorescence and Moessbauer spectroscopy on unprocessed samples are also assessed.

  2. Macrostructure of smectite-water systems. Influence of anionic poly-electrolytes on the organisation of montmorillonite suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morvan, Mikel

    1993-01-01

    In its first part, this research thesis reports a bibliographical study which aimed at highlighting the main aspects of smectite swelling, discusses the organisation of smectite suspension, and briefly presents the knowledge on clay-polymer mixtures. Then, the author describes the method he used to characterise clay suspensions (relaxation, MNR, osmometric techniques, small-angle X-ray diffraction), and theoretical elements required to interpret results. He addresses more particularly the organisation of smectite-water systems with either a natural smectite (montmorillonite) or a synthetic one (laponite) which have different geometries. The last part addresses the interactions between a montmorillonite suspension and sodium polyacrylates. The author, based on the use of small-angle X-ray diffraction and the measurement of the polyelectrolyte osmotic pressure, proposes a new interpretation of the action mechanism of an anionic polyelectrolyte of low molecular mass within a montmorillonite suspension

  3. Thermal stability and hot-stage Raman spectroscopic study of Ca-montmorillonite modified with different surfactants: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Zhiming; Park, Yuri; Zheng, Shuilin; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Frost, Ray L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A typical Ca-montmorillonite was modified with three surfactants through ion exchange. • The organoclays were characterized by XRD, TG and hot stage Raman. • The structural geometry and thermal properties of organoclays were analyzed. • The prepared organoclays show potential prospects in the environmental remediation. - Abstract: Three long chain cationic surfactants were intercalated into Ca-montmorillonite through ion exchange and the obtained organoclays were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and Raman spectroscopy. The intercalation of surfactants not only changes the surface properties of clay from hydrophilic to hydrophobic but also greatly increases the basal spacing of the interlayers based on XRD analysis. The thermal stability of organoclays intercalated with three surfactants (TTAB, DTAB and CTAB) and the different arrangements of the surfactant molecules intercalated into Ca-montmorillonite were determined by TG-DTG analysis. A Raman spectroscopic study on the Ca-montmorillonite modified by three surfactants prepared at different concentrations provided the detailed conformational ordering of different intercalated long-chain surfactants under different conditions. The wavenumber of the antisymmetric stretching mode is more sensitive than that of the symmetric stretching mode to the mobility of the tail of the amine chain. At room temperature, the conformational ordering is more easily affected by the packing density in the lateral model. With the increase of the temperature, the positions of both the antisymmetric and symmetric stretching bands shift to higher wavenumbers, which indicates a decrease of conformational ordering. This study offers new insights into the structure and properties of Ca-montmorillonite modified with different long chain surfactants. Moreover, the experimental results confirm the potential applications of organic Ca-montmorillonites for the removal

  4. Esterification of phenyl acetic acid with p-cresol using metal cation exchanged montmorillonite nanoclay catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, M; Surekha, M; Suma, N

    2018-02-01

    The liquid phase esterification of phenyl acetic acid with p -cresol over different metal cation exchanged montmorillonite nanoclays yields p -cresyl phenyl acetate. Different metal cation exchanged montmorillonite nanoclays (M n +  = Al 3+ , Zn 2+ , Mn 2+ , Fe 3+ , Cu 2+ ) were prepared and the catalytic activity was studied. The esterification reaction was conducted by varying molar ratio of the reactants, reaction time and catalyst amount on the yield of the ester. Among the different metal cation exchanged catalysts used, Al 3+ -montmorillonite nanoclay was found to be more active. The characterization of the material used was studied under different techniques, namely X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The product obtained, p -cresyl phenyl acetate, was identified by thin-layer chromotography and confirmed by Fourier transform infrared, 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR. The regeneration activity of used catalyst was also investigated up to fourth generation.

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of CdS/TiO2-Montmorillonite Nanocomposite with Enhanced Visible-Light Absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Feng-shan Zhou; Dai-mei Chen; Bao-lin Cui; Wei-heng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Sodium montmorillonite (MMT) was chosen as the carrier; a serial of CdS/TiO2-MMT nanocomposites with enhanced visible-light absorption ability was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis method combination with semiconductor compound modification method. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy; the results showed that TiO2 and CdS nanoparticles were loaded on the surface of montmorillonite unifo...

  6. Sorption of tetracycline on organo-montmorillonites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Niu; Wang, Ming-xia; Liu, Ming-ming; Liu, Fan; Weng, Liping; Koopal, Luuk K.; Tan, Wen-feng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The sorption capacity of tetracycline on Mont. modified with QACs was highly promoted. ► Tetracycline adsorbed on organoclay was affected by the amount and the length of QACs. ► Tetracycline adsorption on organoclay exhibited high pH-dependence below 5. - Abstract: Tetracycline (TC) is a veterinary antibiotic that is frequently detected as pollutant in the environment. Powerful adsorbents are required for removing TC. The present paper compares the TC adsorption capacity of Na-montmorillonite (Na-mont) with six organo-montmorillonites (organo-monts). Three quaternary ammonium cations (QACs) with different alkyl-chain lengths were used as modifiers. Powder X-ray diffraction indicated that the d 001 values of organo-monts increased with increasing the QACs loading and alkyl-chain length. The CECs of the organo-monts were substantially lower than that of Na-mont and decreased with QACs chain length and increased loading. The modeling of the adsorption kinetics revealed that the processes of TC adsorption on the tested samples could be well fitted by the pseudo-second-order equation. The maximum adsorption capacities of TC on the organo-monts (1000–2000 mmol/kg) were considerably higher than that on Na-mont (769 mmol/kg). Both the Langmuir and Freundlich model could fit the adsorption isotherms. The TC adsorption to the organo-monts increase significantly with decreasing the pH below 5.5 because of the electrostatic interaction, and a high QACs loading performed better than a low loading at around pH 3.

  7. Physico-chemical impacts of cementitiously-derived calcium and silica on sodium montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinsela, Andrew S.; Tjitradjaja, Alice; Collins, Richard N.; Waite, T. David; Macdonald, Bennett C.T.; White, Ian; PAYNE, Timothy E.

    2012-01-01

    The storage of nuclear waste frequently involves the construction of a concrete encasement adjacent to an engineered clay barrier, which can expose the swelling clay to elevated concentrations of certain cations (particularly calcium) and very high alkalinity (pH 10 - 13). These conditions have the capacity to degrade the integrity of the clay layer and, as such, it is necessary to fully understand the effects of all possible biogeochemical interactions involved. In this study, the changes in hydraulic conductivities and other physico-chemical properties of Na-montmorillonite assemblages under the influence of both highly alkaline (pH 9 and 12) conditions and elevated concentrations of calcium and silica are examined. The Na-montmorillonite suspensions and filtration experimental method is presented, as well as the electrophoresis characterization technique

  8. The Martian surface radiation environment – a comparison of models and MSL/RAD measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthiä Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL has been measuring the radiation environment on the surface of Mars since August 6th 2012. MSL-RAD is the first instrument to provide detailed information about charged and neutral particle spectra and dose rates on the Martian surface, and one of the primary objectives of the RAD investigation is to help improve and validate current radiation transport models. Aims: Applying different numerical transport models with boundary conditions derived from the MSL-RAD environment the goal of this work was to both provide predictions for the particle spectra and the radiation exposure on the Martian surface complementing the RAD sensitive range and, at the same time, validate the results with the experimental data, where applicable. Such validated models can be used to predict dose rates for future manned missions as well as for performing shield optimization studies. Methods: Several particle transport models (GEANT4, PHITS, HZETRN/OLTARIS were used to predict the particle flux and the corresponding radiation environment caused by galactic cosmic radiation on Mars. From the calculated particle spectra the dose rates on the surface are estimated. Results: Calculations of particle spectra and dose rates induced by galactic cosmic radiation on the Martian surface are presented. Although good agreement is found in many cases for the different transport codes, GEANT4, PHITS, and HZETRN/OLTARIS, some models still show large, sometimes order of magnitude discrepancies in certain particle spectra. We have found that RAD data is helping to make better choices of input parameters and physical models. Elements of these validated models can be applied to more detailed studies on how the radiation environment is influenced by solar modulation, Martian atmosphere and soil, and changes due to the Martian seasonal pressure cycle. By extending the range of the calculated particle

  9. Nuclear thermal rockets using indigenous Martian propellants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubrin, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper considers a novel concept for a Martian descent and ascent vehicle, called NIMF (for nuclear rocket using indigenous Martian fuel), the propulsion for which will be provided by a nuclear thermal reactor which will heat an indigenous Martian propellant gas to form a high-thrust rocket exhaust. The performance of each of the candidate Martian propellants, which include CO2, H2O, CH4, N2, CO, and Ar, is assessed, and the methods of propellant acquisition are examined. Attention is also given to the issues of chemical compatibility between candidate propellants and reactor fuel and cladding materials, and the potential of winged Mars supersonic aircraft driven by this type of engine. It is shown that, by utilizing the nuclear landing craft in combination with a hydrogen-fueled nuclear thermal interplanetary vehicle and a heavy lift booster, it is possible to achieve a manned Mars mission in one launch. 6 refs

  10. Mechanism of the reduction of hexavalent chromium by organo-montmorillonite supported iron nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Pingxiao, E-mail: pppxwu@scut.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Li, Shuzhen [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Wuyi University, Jiangmen, Guangdong Province 529020 (China); Ju, Liting [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhu, Nengwu [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); The Key Lab of Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510006 (China); The Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Eco-Remediation of Guangdong Regular Higher Education Institutions (China); Wu, Jinhua; Li, Ping [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Dang, Zhi [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); The Key Lab of Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510006 (China); The Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Eco-Remediation of Guangdong Regular Higher Education Institutions (China)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organo-montmorillonite supported iron nanoparticles were found to be more efficient in the removal of Cr(VI) than unsupported iron nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The iron nanoparticles were accommodated by the sectional structure of the clay minerals which were helpful to protect the nanoparticles from aggregating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XPS and XANES provided some direct information about the reduction mechanisms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure of the supported iron nanoparticles was stable in the reaction with Cr(VI). - Abstract: Iron nanoparticles exhibit greater reactivity than micro-sized Fe{sup 0}, and they impart advantages for groundwater remediation. In this paper, supported iron nanoparticles were synthesized to further enhance the speed and efficiency of remediation. Natural montmorillonite and organo-montmorillonite were chosen as supporting materials. The capacity of supported iron nanoparticles was evaluated, compared to unsupported iron nanoparticles, for the reduction of aqueous Cr(VI). The reduction of Cr(VI) was much greater with organo-montmorillonite supported iron nanoparticles and fitted the pseudo-second order equation better. With a dose at 0.47 g/L, a total removal capacity of 106 mg Cr/g Fe{sup 0} was obtained. Other factors that affect the efficiency of Cr(VI) removal, such as pH values, the initial Cr(VI) concentration and storage time of nanoparticles were investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) were used to figure out the mechanism of the removal of Cr(VI). XPS indicated that the Cr(VI) bound to the particle surface was completely reduced to Cr(III) under a range of conditions. XANES confirmed that the Cr(VI) reacted with iron nanoparticles was completely reduced to Cr(III).

  11. An extensive phase space for the potential martian biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Eriita G; Lineweaver, Charles H; Clarke, Jonathan D

    2011-12-01

    We present a comprehensive model of martian pressure-temperature (P-T) phase space and compare it with that of Earth. Martian P-T conditions compatible with liquid water extend to a depth of ∼310 km. We use our phase space model of Mars and of terrestrial life to estimate the depths and extent of the water on Mars that is habitable for terrestrial life. We find an extensive overlap between inhabited terrestrial phase space and martian phase space. The lower martian surface temperatures and shallower martian geotherm suggest that, if there is a hot deep biosphere on Mars, it could extend 7 times deeper than the ∼5 km depth of the hot deep terrestrial biosphere in the crust inhabited by hyperthermophilic chemolithotrophs. This corresponds to ∼3.2% of the volume of present-day Mars being potentially habitable for terrestrial-like life.

  12. Influence of temperature on pentavalent Np Sorption and desorption onto Goethite, Montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vial, M.A.; Sherman, C; Czerwinski, K.R.; Reed, D.

    2002-01-01

    Yucca Mountain Site has been selected by the United States Department of Energy as the repository for disposing the US HLW. The performance allocation analysis on a multi-barrier system for high-level radioactive waste disposal has pointed 237 Np as the dominant hazard at the inlet of the biosphere [1J. 2JNp is present in high-level radioactive wastes (HLW), although in smaller amounts in comparison to other radionuclides. Because of its long half-life of 2.14 million years and its mobile nature under aerobic conditions due to the high chemical stability of its pentavalent state, it is considered a possible long-term pollutant of the ecosystem. Understanding Np behavior is required in order to quantitatively describe its transport in surface groundwater systems. In the repository, many components are known to play an important role in Np and other actinides speciation through adsorption-, complexation-, dissolution-, precipitation- and, colloids or pseudocolloids generation reactions [1]. Inorganic Ligands (C0 3 - , OH - ), present in nearly all natural water at various degree, and organic ligands (humic acid) can react with Np and consequently affect its leachability through the formation of numerous compounds. The solubility limits of radionuclides may act as an initial barrier to radionuclide migration from the potential repository at Yucca Mountain for some radionuclides. However, once radionuclides have dissolved in water infiltrating the site, sorption of these radionuclides onto the surrounding mineral phases becomes a potentially important second barrier. The study of retardation of Np and other key actinides is of major importance in assessing the performance of the potential repository. Among the soil of interest montmorillonite and iron-based materials have generated lots of researches. Nagasaki et al. [2] recent researches on sorption equilibrium and kinetics of NpO 2 + on dispersed particles of Na-montmorillonite and Na-illite (batch experiments at p

  13. Magnesium Based Rockets for Martian Exploration, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop Mg rockets for Martian ascent vehicle applications. The propellant can be acquired in-situ from MgO in the Martian regolith (5.1% Mg by mass)...

  14. Martian fluid and Martian weathering signatures identified in Nakhla, NWA 998 and MIL 03346 by halogen and noble gas analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, J. A.; Gilmour, J. D.; Burgess, R.

    2013-03-01

    We report argon (Ar) noble gas, Ar-Ar ages and halogen abundances (Cl, Br, I) of Martian nakhlites Nakhla, NWA 998 and MIL 03346 to determine the presence of Martian hydrous fluids and weathering products. Neutron-irradiated samples were either crushed and step-heated (Nakhla only), or simply step-heated using a laser or furnace, and analysed for noble gases using an extension of the 40Ar-39Ar technique to determine halogen abundances. The data obtained provide the first isotopic evidence for a trapped fluid that is Cl-rich, has a strong correlation with 40ArXS (40ArXS = 40Armeasured - 40Arradiogenic) and displays 40ArXS/36Ar of ˜1000 - consistent with the Martian atmosphere. This component was released predominantly in the low temperature and crush experiments, which may suggest a fluid inclusion host. For the halogens, we observe similar Br/Cl and I/Cl ratios between the nakhlites and terrestrial reservoirs, which is surprising given the absence of crustal recycling, organic matter and frequent fluid activity on Mars. In particular, Br/Cl ratios in our Nakhla samples (especially olivine) are consistent with previously analysed Martian weathering products, and both low temperature and crush analyses show a similar trend to the evaporation of seawater. This may indicate that surface brines play an important role on Mars and on halogen assemblages within Martian meteorites and rocks. Elevated I/Cl ratios in the low temperature NWA 998 and MIL 03346 releases may relate to in situ terrestrial contamination, though we are unable to distinguish between low temperature terrestrial or Martian components. Whilst estimates of the amount of water present based on the 36Ar concentrations are too high to be explained by a fluid component alone, they are consistent with a mixed-phase inclusion (gas and fluid) or with shock-implanted Martian atmospheric argon. The observed fluid is dilute (low salinity, but high Br/Cl and I/Cl ratios), contains a Martian atmospheric component

  15. Comparative evaluation between montmorillonite clay/LLDPE and potassium hexaniobate/LLDPE nanocomposites: characterization of mechanical and transport properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Daniel; Otaguro, Harumi; Ruvolo Filho, Adhemar C.

    2014-01-01

    Linear low density polyethylene-montmorillonite clay and linear low density polyethylene-organophilic niobate nanocomposites were obtained from dilution of masterbatch with 20% w/w of fillers in the LLDPE matrix by melt intercalation using a twin-screw extruder, obtaining nanocomposites with 1.5% up to 10.0% w/w of filler. In this study mechanical and water vapor and oxygen permeation tests were used to characterize the nanocomposites. In mechanical tests an increase of modulus values and decrease of toughness value by increasing concentration of montmorillonite clay were observed. The behavior of LLDPE-organophilic niobate nanocomposites was similar to LLDPE-montmorillonite clay nanocomposites but softer due to hexaniobate structure. The distribution of the organoclay is more homogeneous than organophilic niobate to concentrations below 10.0% filler using the SEM/FEG. It is possible to see a decrease in the permeability value with increasing concentration of montmorillonite clay for both gases used. In the LLDPE-organophilic niobate nanocomposites a decrease of permeability value occurs followed by an increase of permeability value for both gases used, with increasing concentration of organophilic niobate. Furthermore, it was observed that the polarity of the gas used is an important factor in the diffusion process through the nanocomposite. (author)

  16. Polylactide/Montmorillonite Hybrid Latex as a Barrier Coating for Paper Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Bandera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We developed a paper coating for the potential application in food packaging based on polylactide and montmorillonite. It is applied to the paper in the form of a stable, water-based latex with a solid content of 25–28 wt %. The latex is prepared from a commercially available polylactide, surfactants, montmorillonite, a plasticizer, chloroform (to be removed later and water by an emulsion/solvent evaporation procedure. This coating formulation is applied to the paper substrate by bar-coating, followed by hot-pressing at 150 °C. The coated papers achieved up to an 85% improvement in water vapor transmission rates when compared to the pristine papers. The coating latex is prepared from inexpensive materials and can be used for a solvent-free coating process. In addition, the ingredients of the latex are non-toxic; thus, the coated papers can be safely used for food packaging.

  17. MetNet Network Mission for Martian Atmospheric Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Alexashkin, S.; Arrugeo, I.; Schmidt, W.; Vazquez, L.; Genzer, M.; Haukka, H.

    2014-07-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars called MetNet is being developed for martian atmospheric investigations. The eventual scope of the MetNet Mission is to deploy tens of small landers on the martian surface.

  18. Synthesis of Collagen-Based Hydrogel Nanocomposites Using Montmorillonite and Study of Adsorption Behavior of Cd from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Bagheri Marandi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Novel collagen-based hydrogel nanocomposites were synthesized by graft copolymerization of acrylamide and maleic anhydrid in the presence of different amounts of montmorillonite, using methylenebisacrylamide (MBAand ammonium persulfate (APS as crosslinker and initiator, respectively. The optimum amount of clay on the swelling properties of the samples was studied. It was found that the hydrogel nanocomposites exhibited improved swelling capacity compared with the clay-free hydrogel. Gel content was also studied and the resultsindicated that the inclusion of montmorillonite causes an increase in gel content. The sorption behavior of heavy metal ion from aqueous solutions was investigated by its relationship with pH, contact time, initial concentration of metal ion and also, montmorillonite content of the nanocomposites. The experimental data showed thatCd2+ ion adsorption increases with increasing initial concentration of Cd2+ ion in solution and the clay content. Also, the results indicated that more than 88% of the maximum adsorption capacities toward Cd2+ ion were achieved within the initial 10 minute. Functional groups of the prepared hydrogels have shown complexation abilitywith metal ions and improving hydrogels' adsorption properties. It was concluded that the nanocomposites could be used as fast-responsive, and high capacity sorbent materials in Cd2+ ion removing processes. The prepared hydrogel nanocomposites were characerized by means of XRD patterns, TGA thermal methods and FTIRspectroscopy. The XRD patterns of nanocomposites showed that the interlayer distance of montmorillonite was changed and the clay sheets were exfoliated. Furthermore, the results showed that by increasing the montmorillonite content, thermal stability of the nanocomposites was clearly improved.

  19. Soil developments in polar deserts: Implications for exobiology and future Mars missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Chemical alterations, weathering, and diagenesis of soil profiles from the dry valleys of Antarctica were studied as analogs of regolith development for the Martian regolith. Chemical weathering processes play an important part in soil development within the dry valleys of Antarctica. A suite of core samples were studied which were taken within the valley floors in addition to samples taken in the vicinity of evaporite and brine ponds. Analysis of water soluable cations and anions from core samples were performed along with petrographic analysis of selected samples. It was shown that ionic transport processes operate primarily above the permafrost zone. Abundances of the water soluable ions reflect the nature of secondary minerals produced by evaporation and weathering. Chloride, calcium, and sodium abundances for soils from the cores within the North and South Forks of Wright Valley, reflect the secondary mineralogy of the soil columns. Calculations for Na, Ca, and Cl abundances reflect the appearance of halite and antarcticite. In areas where excess Ca is present, X-ray diffraction studies show the presence of gypsum. It is well known that the Martian surface conditions may be favorable for chemical weathering. Primary silicates would be expected to be reactive with any ground water. It seems likely that Martian subsurface water is available to assist in the weathering of the primary minerals. Such weathering could result in the formation of clays, sulfates, carbonates, hydrates, halides, and zeolites. The dry valley cores have shown that they maybe excellent analogs to weathering processes on the near-surface of Mars. Since movement of water within the near-surface region clearly results in chemical weathering, leaching, and salt formation in the dry valleys, similar processes are probably operating within the Martian regolith.

  20. Life on Mars: Evidence from Martian Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keptra, Katie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; Spencer, Lauren; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    New data on martian meteorite 84001 as well as new experimental studies show that thermal or shock decomposition of carbonate, the leading alternative non-biologic explanation for the unusual nanophase magnetite found in this meteorite, cannot explain the chemistry of the actual martian magnetites. This leaves the biogenic explanation as the only remaining viable hypothesis for the origin of these unique magnetites. Additional data from two other martian meteorites show a suite of biomorphs which are nearly identical between meteorites recovered from two widely different terrestrial environments (Egyptian Nile bottomlands and Antarctic ice sheets). This similarity argues against terrestrial processes as the cause of these biomorphs and supports an origin on Mars for these features.

  1. Role of uniform pore structure and high positive charges in the arsenate adsorption performance of Al13-modified montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Shou; Feng, Chenghong; Huang, Xiangning; Li, Baohua; Niu, Junfeng; Shen, Zhenyao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Al 13 modification changes As(V) sorption mechanism of montmorillonites. ► Intercalated ion charges mainly affects As(V) adsorption kinetics. ► Uniform pore structure exhibit more excellent As(V) adsorption performance. - Abstract: Four modified montmorillonite adsorbents with varied Al 13 contents (i.e., Na-Mont, AC-Mont, PAC 20 -Mont, and Al 13 -Mont) were synthesized and characterized by N 2 adsorption/desorption, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier-transform infrared analyses. The arsenate adsorption performance of the four adsorbents were also investigated to determine the role of intercalated Al 13 , especially its high purity, high positive charge (+7), and special Keggin structure. With increased Al 13 content, the physicochemical properties (e.g., surface area, structural uniformity, basal spacing, and pore volume) and adsorption performance of the modified montmorillonites were significantly but disproportionately improved. The adsorption data well fitted the Freundlich and Redlich–Peterson isotherm model, whereas the kinetic data better correlated with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The arsenate sorption mechanism of the montmorillonites changed from physical to chemisorption after intercalation with Al 13 . Increasing charges of the intercalated ions enhanced the arsenate adsorption kinetics, but had minimal effect on the structural changes of the montmorillonites. The uniform pore structure formed by intercalation with high-purity Al 13 greatly enhanced the pore diffusion and adsorption rate of arsenate, resulting in the high adsorption performance of Al 13 -Mont.

  2. Do Martian Blueberries Have Pits? -- Artifacts of an Early Wet Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, L.

    2005-03-01

    Early Martian weather cycles would have supported organic chemical self-organization, the assumed predecessor to an independent "origin" of Martian life. Artifacts of these processes are discussed, including the possibility that Martian blueberries nucleated around organic cores.

  3. Geological and geotechnical characteristics of Metro Manila volcanic soils and their suitability for landfill soil liner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Edna Patricia; Catane, Sandra; Pascua, Chelo; Zarco, Mark Albert

    2010-05-01

    Due to the Philippines's island-arc setting, andesitic tuff and volcanic ash constitute two-thirds of the country's agricultural land. In situ weathering of these volcanic sediments produces volcanic soils. Metro Manila volcanic soils were studied to determine their suitability for landfill soil liner. The soils were analyzed using XRD and XRF, and were tested for geotechnical properties. The results show the presence of the smectite group, a swelling variety of clay. The smectite-type clays are weathering products of volcanic glasses which are dominant components of the parental rocks. The high amounts of Al2O3 indicate an Al-rich type of soil. The clay species is either di- or tri-octahedral type, which points to montmorillonite as the main clay species. Swelling clay lowers the permeability of soils and reduces the infiltration and lateral movement of leachates in the ground. Also, geotechnical tests revealed moderate to high plasticity indices and low hydraulic conductivity values. The study shows that the physicochemical characteristics of volcanic soils meet the criteria for a soil liner for future sanitary landfill projects as mandated by RA 9003, a recently ratified solid waste management act of the Philippines. Being widespread, volcanic soils can be viewed as an important resource of the country.

  4. Microbial mineral illization of montmorillonite in low-permeability oil reservoirs for microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Kai; Sun, Shanshan; Xiao, Meng; Liu, Tongjing; Xu, Quanshu; Dong, Honghong; Wang, Di; Gong, Yejing; Sha, Te; Hou, Jirui; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Fu, Pengcheng

    2018-05-11

    Microbial mineral illization has been investigated for its role in the extraction and recovery of metals from ores. Here we report our application of mineral bioillization for the microbial enhanced oil recovery in low-permeability oil reservoirs. It aimed to reveal the etching mechanism of the four Fe (III)-reducing microbial strains under anaerobic growth conditions on the Ca-montmorillonite. The mineralogical characterization of the Ca-montmorillonite was performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometer. Results showed that the microbial strains could efficiently reduce Fe (III) at an optimal rate of 71 %, and alter the crystal lattice structure of the lamella to promote the interlayer cation exchange, and to efficiently inhibit the Ca-montmorillonite swelling at an inhibitory rate of 48.9 %. Importance Microbial mineral illization is ubiquitous in the natural environment. Microbes in low-permeability reservoirs are able to enable the alteration of the structure and phase of the Fe-poor minerals by reducing Fe (III) and inhibiting clay swelling which is still poorly studied. This study aimed to reveal the interaction mechanism between Fe (III)-reducing bacterial strains and Ca-montmorillonite under anaerobic atmosphere, and to investigate the extent and rates of Fe (III) reduction and phase changes with their activities. Application of Fe (III)-reducing bacteria will provide a new way to inhibit clay swelling, to elevate reservoir permeability, and to reduce pore throat resistance after water flooding for enhanced oil recovery in low-permeability reservoirs. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. Coagulation processes of kaolinite and montmorillonite in calm, saline water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Feng; Zhang, Qing-He; Maa, Jerome P.-Y.

    2018-03-01

    A three dimensional numerical model for simulating the coagulation processes of colloids has been performed by monitoring the time evolution of particle number concentration, the size distribution of aggregates, the averaged settling velocity, the collision frequency, and the collision efficiency in quiescent water with selected salinities. This model directly simulates all interaction forces between particles based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) and the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) theory, and thus, can reveal the collision and coagulation processes of colloidal suspensions. Although using perfect spherical particles in the modeling, the results were compared with those for kaolinite and montmorillonite suspensions to demonstrate the capability of simulating the responses of these particles with highly irregular shape. The averaged settling velocity of kaolinite aggregates in quiescent saline water reached a maximum of 0.16 mm/s when the salinity increasing to about 3, and then, exhibited little dependence on salinity thereafter. Model simulations results (by choosing specific values that represent kaolinite's characteristics) indicate a similar trend: rapid decrease of the particle number concentration (i.e., rapidly flocculated, and thus, settling velocity also increases rapidly) when salinity increases from 0 to 2, and then, only increased slightly when salinity was further increased from 5 to 20. The collision frequency for kaolinite only decreases slightly with increasing salinity because that the fluid density and viscosity increase slightly in sea water. It suggests that the collision efficiency for kaolinite rises rapidly at low salinities and levels off at high salinity. For montmorillonite, the settling velocity of aggregates in quiescent saline water continuedly increases to 0.022 mm/s over the whole salinity range 0-20, and the collision efficiency for montmorillonite rises with increasing salinities.

  6. Solubility of C-O-H volatiles in graphite-saturated martian basalts and application to martian atmospheric evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, B. D.; Hirschmann, M. M.; Withers, A. C.

    2012-12-01

    The modern martian atmosphere is thin, leading to surface conditions too cold to support liquid water. Yet, there is evidence of liquid surface water early in martian history that is commonly thought to require a thick CO2 atmosphere. Our previous work follows the analysis developed by Holloway and co-workers (Holloway et al. 1992; Holloway 1998), which predicts a linear relationship between CO2 and oxygen fugacity (fO2) in graphite-saturated silicate melts. At low oxygen fugacity, the solubility of CO2 in silicate melts is therefore very low. Such low calculated solubilities under reducing conditions lead to small fluxes of CO2 associated with martian magmatism, and therefore production of a thick volcanogenic CO2 atmosphere could require a prohibitively large volume of mantle-derived magma. The key assumption in these previous calculations is that the carbonate ion is the chief soluble C-O-H species. The results of the calculations would not be affected appreciably if molecular CO2, rather than carbonate ion, were an important species, but could be entirely different if there were other appreciable C-species such as CO, carbonyl (C=O) complexes, carbide (Si-C), or CH4. Clearly, graphite-saturated experiments are required to explore how much volcanogenic C may be degassed by reduced martian lavas. A series of piston-cylinder experiments were performed on synthetic martian starting materials over a range of oxygen fugacities (IW+2.3 to IW-0.9), and at pressures of 1-3 GPa and temperatures of 1340-1600 °C in Pt-graphite double capsules. CO2 contents in experimental glasses were determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and range from 0.0026-0.50 wt%. CO2 solubilities change by one order of magnitude with an order of magnitude change in oxygen fugacity, as predicted by previous work. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) determinations of C contents in glasses range from 0.0131-0.2626 wt%. C contents determined by SIMS are consistently higher

  7. Possibility of ion-exchange column studies using stabilised montmorillonite-H aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platzer, R.; Bittel, R.

    1959-01-01

    The conditions necessary for obtaining stable aggregates of montmorillonite-H, prepared without addition of organic flocculant, is discussed. These aggregates possess the same general ion-exchange properties as montmorillonite-H suspensions, about which many papers have been written. Their insolubility and their stable physical form enable them to be used in columns in exactly the same way as the usual organic ion exchangers. The examples of cation fixation and separation described in this report emphasize the similarities between the properties of this exchanger and those of organic cation-exchange resins, and open up possibilities for the extrapolation of the many investigations carried out on organic exchangers to mineral exchangers of this type. Amongst the essential differences to be remarked, we have shown that the properties of physical stability and chemical exchange remain the same at temperatures up to 300 deg. C, to a first approximation, under very intense γ irradiation. (author) [fr

  8. QINS studies of water diffusion in Na-Montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay-Duchosal, M.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The rotational and translational motion of interlayer water was investigated in Na-Montmorillonite as a function of the humidity (one-, two- and three-layers). Partially orientated samples produced by deposition onto a filter under pressure were used. Measurements were made at two different resolutions 120 μeV and 36 μeV. In order to observe the anisotropy, measurements with sample orientations of 135 and 45 degree were made with respect to the incident beam corresponding to Q-parallel and Q-perpendicular to the clay layers. The fitting procedure consists of an elastic term based on a fit to an analogous D 2 O hydrated sample and a quasielastic term containing both rotational and translational contributions (1). At low resolution with Q-parallel a rotational broadening was observed that increases, indicating increasing water mobility, as the water content and hence the layer spacing increases. For the three-layer hydrate with the two different orientations the broadening is the same showing no measurable anisotropy of the rotational motion. At high resolution an additional broadening was seen due to translational diffusion of a similar magnitude to that measured previously for Li-Montmorillonite (2). We are currently refining our data analysis in order to determine whether the anisotropy of the translational motion with respect to the orientation of the clay is measurable. (author)

  9. Photostabilization of the herbicide norflurazon microencapsulated with ethylcellulose in the soil-water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopena, Fatima, E-mail: fsopenav@irnase.csic.es [Institute of Natural Resources and Agrobiology (CSIC), Reina Mercedes 10, Apdo 1052, 41080 Seville, ES (Spain); Villaverde, Jaime; Maqueda, Celia; Morillo, Esmeralda [Institute of Natural Resources and Agrobiology (CSIC), Reina Mercedes 10, Apdo 1052, 41080 Seville, ES (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Herbicide photodegradation studies using ethylcellulose-microencapsulated formulations (ECF) in soil and water. {yields} Greater herbicide photo-protection observed from EFC than from its commercial form. {yields} Photo-protective effect due to the gradual herbicide release and the presence of ethylcellulose. {yields} Herbicide photo-stability conditioned by soil colloidal components, especially by goethite and humic acids. {yields} EFC could reduce the field herbicide losses by photolysis. - Abstract: Ethylcellulose-microencapsulated formulations (ECFs) of norflurazon have been shown to reduce leaching, maintaining a threshold concentration in the topsoil than the commercial formulation (CF). Since photodegradation contributes to field dissipation of norflurazon, the objective of the present work was to study if such formulations can also protect from its photodescomposition. For this purpose, aqueous solutions of CF and ECFs, containing the most important soil components (goethite, humic and fulvic acids and montmorillonite) were tested. To get a more realistic approach, studies in soil were also performed. The results were well explained by a simple first order model. DT{sub 50} value was 3 h for CF under irradiation, which was considerably lower than those corresponding to the systems where ECF was used (35 h for ECF; 260 h for ECF-goethite; 53 h for ECF-humic acids; 33 h for ECF-montmorillonite; and 28 h for ECF-fulvic acids). ECF protected against photodegradation in both aqueous solution and soil due to the gradual release of the herbicide, which reduced the herbicide available to be photodegraded. These lab-scale findings proved that ECF could reduce the herbicide dosage, minimizing its photolysis, which would be especially advantageous during the first hours after foliar and soil application.

  10. Photostabilization of the herbicide norflurazon microencapsulated with ethylcellulose in the soil-water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopena, Fatima; Villaverde, Jaime; Maqueda, Celia; Morillo, Esmeralda

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Herbicide photodegradation studies using ethylcellulose-microencapsulated formulations (ECF) in soil and water. → Greater herbicide photo-protection observed from EFC than from its commercial form. → Photo-protective effect due to the gradual herbicide release and the presence of ethylcellulose. → Herbicide photo-stability conditioned by soil colloidal components, especially by goethite and humic acids. → EFC could reduce the field herbicide losses by photolysis. - Abstract: Ethylcellulose-microencapsulated formulations (ECFs) of norflurazon have been shown to reduce leaching, maintaining a threshold concentration in the topsoil than the commercial formulation (CF). Since photodegradation contributes to field dissipation of norflurazon, the objective of the present work was to study if such formulations can also protect from its photodescomposition. For this purpose, aqueous solutions of CF and ECFs, containing the most important soil components (goethite, humic and fulvic acids and montmorillonite) were tested. To get a more realistic approach, studies in soil were also performed. The results were well explained by a simple first order model. DT 50 value was 3 h for CF under irradiation, which was considerably lower than those corresponding to the systems where ECF was used (35 h for ECF; 260 h for ECF-goethite; 53 h for ECF-humic acids; 33 h for ECF-montmorillonite; and 28 h for ECF-fulvic acids). ECF protected against photodegradation in both aqueous solution and soil due to the gradual release of the herbicide, which reduced the herbicide available to be photodegraded. These lab-scale findings proved that ECF could reduce the herbicide dosage, minimizing its photolysis, which would be especially advantageous during the first hours after foliar and soil application.

  11. Characterization of Lin'an montmorillonite and its application in the removal of Ni{sup 2+} from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, X.L.; Hu, J.; Zhou, X.; Wang, X.K. [Inst. of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Yu, S.M. [School of Chemical Engineering, Hefei Univ. of Tech., Hefei (China)

    2008-07-01

    Clay minerals have been studied extensively because of their strong sorption and complexation ability. In this work, Na-montmorillonite was characterized by using acid-base titration, XRD and FTIR in detail. Sorption of Ni(II) on Na-montmorillonite was investigated under ambient conditions as a function of pH, ionic strength, and temperature. The results indicate that sorption of Ni{sup 2+} on montmorillonite are strongly dependent on pH and ionic strength. The sorption of Ni{sup 2+} is mainly dominated by ion exchange at low pH values and by inner-sphere surface complexation at high pH values. The relationships of pH-C{sub eq}, Q-C{sub eq} and pH-Q are compared and shown clearly in a 3-D plot, and all Q-C{sub eq} data lie in a straight line with slope (- V/m) and intercept (C{sub 0}V/m). The thermodynamic parameters ({delta}H , {delta}S , and {delta}G ) are calculated from the temperature dependent sorption isotherms, and the results suggest that the sorption reaction of Ni(II) from solution to montmorillonite is endothermic and spontaneous. (orig.)

  12. Laser-powered Martian rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, W. L.; Meador, W. E.; Miner, G. A.; Schuster, Gregory L.; Walker, G. H.; Williams, M. D.

    1989-01-01

    Two rover concepts were considered: an unpressurized skeleton vehicle having available 4.5 kW of electrical power and limited to a range of about 10 km from a temporary Martian base and a much larger surface exploration vehicle (SEV) operating on a maximum 75-kW power level and essentially unrestricted in range or mission. The only baseline reference system was a battery-operated skeleton vehicle with very limited mission capability and range and which would repeatedly return to its temporary base for battery recharging. It was quickly concluded that laser powering would be an uneconomical overkill for this concept. The SEV, on the other hand, is a new rover concept that is especially suited for powering by orbiting solar or electrically pumped lasers. Such vehicles are visualized as mobile habitats with full life-support systems onboard, having unlimited range over the Martian surface, and having extensive mission capability (e.g., core drilling and sampling, construction of shelters for protection from solar flares and dust storms, etc.). Laser power beaming to SEV's was shown to have the following advantages: (1) continuous energy supply by three orbiting lasers at 2000 km (no storage requirements as during Martian night with direct solar powering); (2) long-term supply without replacement; (3) very high power available (MW level possible); and (4) greatly enhanced mission enabling capability beyond anything currently conceived.

  13. Measuring Low Concentrations of Liquid Water in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Martin

    2009-01-01

    An apparatus has been developed for measuring the low concentrations of liquid water and ice in relatively dry soil samples. Designed as a prototype of instruments for measuring the liquidwater and ice contents of Lunar and Martian soils, the apparatus could also be applied similarly to terrestrial desert soils and sands. The apparatus is a special-purpose impedance spectrometer: Its design is based on the fact that the electrical behavior of a typical soil sample is well approximated by a network of resistors and capacitors in which resistances decrease and capacitances increase (and, hence, the magnitude of impedance decreases) with increasing water content.

  14. Martian Gullies: Formation by CO2 Fluidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedillo-Flores, Y.; Durand-Manterola, H. J.

    2006-12-01

    Some of the geomorphological features in Mars are the gullies. Some theories developed tried explain its origin, either by liquid water, liquid carbon dioxide or flows of dry granular material. We made a comparative analysis of the Martian gullies with the terrestrial ones. We propose that the mechanism of formation of the gullies is as follows: In winter CO2 snow mixed with sand falls in the terrain. In spring the CO2 snow sublimate and gaseous CO2 make fluid the sand which flows like liquid eroding the terrain and forming the gullies. By experimental work with dry granular material, we simulated the development of the Martian gullies injecting air in the granular material. We present the characteristics of some terrestrial gullies forms at cold environment, sited at Nevado de Toluca Volcano near Toluca City, México. We compare them with Martian gullies choose from four different areas, to target goal recognize or to distinguish, (to identify) possible processes evolved in its formation. Also, we measured the lengths of those Martian gullies and the range was from 24 m to 1775 meters. Finally, we present results of our experimental work at laboratory with dry granular material.

  15. Evidence for methane in Martian meteorites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blamey, Nigel J F; Parnell, John; McMahon, Sean; Mark, Darren F; Tomkinson, Tim; Lee, Martin; Shivak, Jared; Izawa, Matthew R M; Banerjee, Neil R; Flemming, Roberta L

    2015-06-16

    The putative occurrence of methane in the Martian atmosphere has had a major influence on the exploration of Mars, especially by the implication of active biology. The occurrence has not been borne out by measurements of atmosphere by the MSL rover Curiosity but, as on Earth, methane on Mars is most likely in the subsurface of the crust. Serpentinization of olivine-bearing rocks, to yield hydrogen that may further react with carbon-bearing species, has been widely invoked as a source of methane on Mars, but this possibility has not hitherto been tested. Here we show that some Martian meteorites, representing basic igneous rocks, liberate a methane-rich volatile component on crushing. The occurrence of methane in Martian rock samples adds strong weight to models whereby any life on Mars is/was likely to be resident in a subsurface habitat, where methane could be a source of energy and carbon for microbial activity.

  16. Characterization of poly pyrrole/montmorillonite electro polymerised onto Pt; Caracterizacao de filmes PPy/montmorilonita eletropolimerizados sobre Pt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castagno, K.R.L., E-mail: katiarlc@pelotas.ifsul.edu.b [Instituto Federal Sul-rio-grandense (IFSul), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Azambuja, D.S.; Dalmoro, V.; Mauller, R.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Pelotas, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    In this study films of polypyrrole/montmorillonite (PPy/MT) were electropolymerized on platinum in order to evaluate the performance of this technique in the preparation of nanocomposite materials and to determine the thermal properties and conductivity of the composites. The films were synthesized from a solution containing pyrrole, dodecylbenzene sulfonate, acid and two types of clays: montmorillonite-Na + (MT-Na) and montmorillonite-30B (MT-M). The characterization of the films we have used FT-IR, TEM, XRD, TGA, DSC and resistivity measurement by the four-point van der Pauw method. The study showed that the adopted method of exfoliation and the electropolymerization method used, allows obtaining nanocomposite materials. Analyses of FT-IR, TEM and XRD show that the clays are exfoliated in the polymer matrix. Thermal analysis of the films indicates that the addition of clay reflects an enhancement in the thermal properties of the matrix of PPy, but decreases the conductivity of the same. (author)

  17. Photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on Fe3+-montmorillonite surface under visible light: Degradation kinetics, mechanism, and toxicity assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Song; Jia, Hanzhong; Nulaji, Gulimire; Gao, Hongwei; Wang, Fu; Wang, Chuanyi

    2017-10-01

    Photochemical behavior of various polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on Fe 3+ -modified montmorillonite was explored to determine their potential kinetics, pathways, and mechanism under visible light. Depending on the type of PAH molecules, the transformation rate follows the order of benzo[a]pyrene ≈ anthracene > benzo[a]anthracene > phenanthrene. Quantum simulation results confirm the crucial role of "cation-π" interaction between Fe 3+ and PAHs on their transformation kinetics. Primary intermediates, including quinones, ring-opening products and benzene derivatives, were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS), and the possible photodegradation pathway of benzo[a]pyrene was proposed. Meanwhile, radical intermediates, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free organic radicals, were detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. The photolysis of selected PAHs, such as anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene, on clay surface firstly occurs by electron transfer from PAHs to Fe 3+ -montmorillonite, followed by degradation involving photo-induced ROS such as ·OH and ·O 2 - . To investigate the acute toxicity of photolysis products, the Microtox ® toxicity test was performed during the photodegradation processes of various PAHs. As a result, the photo-irradiation initially induces increased toxicity by generating reactive intermediates, such as free organic radicals, and then the toxicity gradually decreases with increasing of reaction time. Overall, the present study provides useful information to understand the fate and photo-transformation of PAHs in contaminated soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Morphogenesis of Antarctic Paleosols: Martian Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaney, W. C.; Dohm, J. M.; Baker, V. R.; Newsom, Horton E.; Malloch, D.; Hancock, R. G. V.; Campbell, Iain; Sheppard, D.; Milner, M. W.

    2001-11-01

    Samples of horizons in paleosols from the Quartermain Mountains of the Antarctic Dry Valleys (Aztec and New Mountain areas) were analyzed for their physical characteristics, mineralogy, chemical composition, and microbiology to determine the accumulation and movement of salts and other soluble constituents and the presence/absence of microbial populations. Salt concentrations are of special interest because they are considered to be a function of age, derived over time, in part from nearby oceanic and high-altitude atmospheric sources. The chemical composition of ancient Miocene-age paleosols in these areas is the direct result of the deposition and weathering of airborne-influxed salts and other materials, as well as the weathering of till derived principally from local dolerite and sandstone outcrops. Paleosols nearer the coast have greater contents of Cl, whereas near the inland ice sheet, nitrogen tends to increase on a relative basis. The accumulation and vertical distribution of salts and other soluble chemical elements indicate relative amounts of movement in the profile over long periods of time, in the order of several million years. Four of the six selected subsamples from paleosol horizons in two ancient soil profiles contained nil concentrations of bacteria and fungi. However, two horizons at depths of between 3 and 8 cm, in two profiles, yielded several colonies of the fungi Beauveria bassiana and Penicillium brevicompactum, indicating very minor input of organic carbon. Beauveria bassiana is often reported in association with insects and is used commercially for the biological control of some insect pests. Penicillium species are commonly isolated from Arctic, temperate, and tropical soils and are known to utilize a wide variety of organic carbon and nitrogen compounds. The cold, dry soils of the Antarctic bear a close resemblance to various present and past martian environments where similar weathering could occur and possible microbial populations

  19. Bi-hybrid coatings: polyaniline-montmorillonite filler in organic-inorganic polymer matrix

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špírková, Milena; Bober, Patrycja; Kotek, Jiří; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 8 (2013), s. 1020-1027 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1626; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAAX08240901 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * montmorillonite * organic-inorganic composite Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 1.193, year: 2013

  20. Comparision of the Martian Gullies With Terrestrial Ones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedillo-Flores, Y.; Durand-Manterola, H. J.

    2005-12-01

    Some of the geomorphological features in Mars are the gullies. Some theories developed tried to explained its origin, either by liquid water, liquid carbon dioxide or flows of dry granular material. We made a comparative analysis of the Martian gullies with the terrestrial ones. We present the characteristics of some terrestrial gullies formed at cold enviroment, sited at the Nevado de Toluca volcanoe near Toluca City, Mexico. We compare them with Martian gullies, choisen from four different areas, to recognize possible processes evolved in its formation. Also, we measured the lenghts of those Martian gullies and their range was from 24 m 1775 m.

  1. The use of synthetic Zn-/Ni-labeled montmorillonite colloids as a natural bentonite marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, F.; Heck, S.; Hoess, P.; Bouby, M.; Schaefer, T.; Truche, L.; Brendle, J.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Quantification of bentonite erosion rates/colloid release rates and the colloid attachment under unfavourable conditions for clay colloids is frequently based on the detection of the alumino-silicate building blocks and accompanied by relative high analytical uncertainties due to the presence of high background concentrations in the groundwater. In situ experiments planned at the Grimsel Test Site (CH) in the frame of the Colloid Formation and Migration (CFM) project foresee the emplacement of a compacted bentonite source and determination of the bentonite erosion rate under near-natural flow conditions. To univocally differentiate between the natural background colloid concentration and the eroded bentonite an irreversible labeling of the bentonite colloid source placed in a granite fracture would greatly improve their detection and reduce the analytical uncertainty. It is thought to use an admixture to label the natural bentonite. Therefore, the characteristics as erosion behavior, colloid stability and radionuclide sorption/reversibility behavior have to be studied and compared. Here, we focus on the radionuclide sorption reversibility. Synthetic montmorillonite containing structurally bound Zn and Ni in its octahedral layer was used within this study. Actually, Zn and Ni are good candidates to determine more accurately the colloid concentration as the ICP-MS sensitivity is at least one order of magnitude higher and the Zn and Ni background concentrations found in natural ground waters (e.g. Grimsel ground water, GGW) are very low. In the present study, the colloids are first separated and characterized by AsFlFFF-ICP-MS. Then, they are used to perform radionuclide reversibility kinetic experiments similar to those already published under anoxic conditions and room temperature. The aim is to compare the results obtained with those already available on natural FEBEX bentonite derived colloids. The size

  2. Clay mineral type effect on bacterial enteropathogen survival in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Fiona P; Moynihan, Emma; Griffiths, Bryan S; Hillier, Stephen; Owen, Jason; Pendlowski, Helen; Avery, Lisa M

    2014-01-15

    Enteropathogens released into the environment can represent a serious risk to public health. Soil clay content has long been known to have an important effect on enteropathogen survival in soil, generally enhancing survival. However, clay mineral composition in soils varies, and different clay minerals have specific physiochemical properties that would be expected to impact differentially on survival. This work investigated the effect of clay materials, with a predominance of a particular mineral type (montmorillonite, kaolinite, or illite), on the survival in soil microcosms over 96 days of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Dublin, and Escherichia coli O157. Clay mineral addition was found to alter a number of physicochemical parameters in soil, including cation exchange capacity and surface area, and this was specific to the mineral type. Clay mineral addition enhanced enteropathogen survival in soil. The type of clay mineral was found to differentially affect enteropathogen survival and the effect was enteropathogen-specific. © 2013.

  3. Thermal Emission of Alkali Metal Ions from Al30-Pillared Montmorillonite Studied by Mass Spectrometric Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motalov, V B; Karasev, N S; Ovchinnikov, N L; Butman, M F

    2017-01-01

    The thermal emission of alkali metal ions from Al 30 -pillared montmorillonite in comparison with its natural form was studied by mass spectrometry in the temperature range 770-930 K. The measurements were carried out on a magnetic mass spectrometer MI-1201. For natural montmorillonite, the densities of the emission currents ( j ) decrease in the mass spectrum in the following sequence (T = 805 K, A/cm 2 ): K + (4.55 · 10 -14 ), Cs + (9.72 · 10 -15 ), Rb + (1.13 · 10 -15 ), Na + (1.75 · 10 -16 ), Li + (3.37 · 10 -17 ). For Al 30 -pillared montmorillonite, thermionic emission undergoes temperature-time changes. In the low-temperature section of the investigated range (770-805 K), the value of j increases substantially for all ions in comparison with natural montmorillonite (T = 805 K, A/cm 2 ): Cs + (6.47 · 10 -13 ), K + (9.44 · 10 -14 ), Na + (3.34 · 10 -15 ), Rb + (1.77 · 10 -15 ), and Li + (4.59 · 10 -16 ). A reversible anomaly is observed in the temperature range 805-832 K: with increasing temperature, the value of j of alkaline ions falls abruptly. This effect increases with increasing ionic radius of M + . After a long heating-up period, this anomaly disappears and the ln j - 1/ T dependence acquires a classical linear form. The results are interpreted from the point of view of the dependence of the efficiency of thermionic emission on the phase transformations of pillars.

  4. An assessment of the meteoritic contribution to the Martian soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, G.J.; McKay, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    The addition of meteoritic material to the Mars soils should perturb their chemical compositions, as has been detected for soils on the Moon and sediments on Earth. Using the measured mass influx at Earth and estimates of the Mars/Earth flux ratio, the authors estimate the continuous, planet-wide meteoritic mass influx on Mars to be between 2,700 and 59,000 t/yr. If distributed uniformly into a soil with a mean planetary production rate of 1 m/b.y., consistent with radar estimates of the soil depth overlaying a bouldered terrain in the Tharsis region, their estimated mass influx would produce a meteoritic concentration in the Mars soil ranging from 2 to 29% by mass. Analysis of the Viking X ray fluorescence data indicates that the Mars soil composition is inconsistent with typical basaltic rock fragments but can be fit by a mixture of 60% basaltic rock fragments and 40% meteoritic material. The meteoritic influx they calculate is sufficient to provide most or all of the material required by the Clark and Baird model. Particles in the mass range from 10 -7 to 10 -3 g, about 60-1,200 μm in diameter, contribute 80% of the total mass flux of meteoritic material in the 10 -13 to 10 6 g mass range at Earth. On Earth atmospheric entry all but the smallest particles (generally ≤ 50 μm in diameter) in the 10 -7 to 10 -3 g mass range are heated sufficiently to melt or vaporize. Mars, because of its lower escape velocity and larger atmospheric scale height, is a much more favorable site for unmelted survival of micrometeorites on atmospheric deceleration. They calculate that a significant fraction of particles throughout the 60-1,200 μm diameter range will survive Mars atmospheric entry unmelted

  5. Martian Mixed Layer during Pathfinder Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, G. M.; Valero, F.; Vazquez, L.

    2008-09-01

    In situ measurements of the Martian Planetary Boundary Layer (MPBL) encompass only the sur- face layer. Therefore, in order to fully address the MPBL, it becomes necessary to simulate somehow the behaviour of the martian mixed layer. The small-scale processes that happen in the MPBL cause GCM's ([1], [2]) to describe only partially the turbulent statistics, height, convective scales, etc, of the surface layer and the mixed layer. For this reason, 2D and 3D martian mesoscale models ([4], [5]), and large eddy simulations ([4], [6], [7], [8]) have been designed in the last years. Although they are expected to simulate more accurately the MPBL, they take an extremely expensive compu- tational time. Alternatively, we have derived the main turbu- lent characteristics of the martian mixed layer by using surface layer and mixed layer similarity ([9], [10]). From in situ temperature and wind speed measurements, together with quality-tested simu- lated ground temperature [11], we have character- ized the martian mixed layer during the convective hours of Pathfinder mission Sol 25. Mean mixed layer turbulent statistics like tem- perature variance , horizontal wind speed variance , vertical wind speed variance , viscous dissipation rate , and turbu- lent kinetic energy have been calculated, as well as the mixed layer height zi, and the convective scales of wind w? and temperature θ?. Our values, obtained with negligible time cost, match quite well with some previously obtained results via LES's ([4] and [8]). A comparisson between the above obtained mar- tian values and the typical Earth values are shown in Table 1. Convective velocity scale w doubles its counterpart terrestrial typical value, as it does the mean wind speed variances and . On the other hand, the temperature scale θ? and the mean temperature variance are virtually around one order higher on Mars. The limitations of these results concern the va- lidity of the convective mixed layer similarity. This theory

  6. A Coupled Soil-Atmosphere Model of H2O2 on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Mark A.; Stoker, Carol R.; Mckay, Christopher P.; Zent, Aaron P.

    1994-01-01

    The Viking Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer failed to detect organic compounds on Mars, and both the Viking Labeled Release and the Viking Gas Exchange experiments indicated a reactive soil surface. These results have led to the widespread belief that there are oxidants in the martian soil. Since H2O2 is produced by photochemical processes in the atmosphere of Mars, and has been shown in the laboratory to reproduce closely the Viking LR results, it is a likely candidate for a martian soil oxidant. Here, we report on the results of a coupled soil/atmosphere transport model for H202 on Mars. Upon diffusing into the soil, its concentration is determined by the extent to which it is adsorbed and by the rate at which it is catalytically destroyed. An analytical model for calculating the distribution of H202 in the martian atmosphere and soil is developed. The concentration of H202 in the soil is shown to go to zero at a finite depth, a consequence of the nonlinear soil diffusion equation. The model is parameterized in terms of an unknown quantity, the lifetime of H202 against heterogeneous catalytic destruction in the soil. Calculated concentrations are compared with a H202 concentration of 30 nmoles/cu cm, inferred from the Viking Labeled Release experiment. A significant result of this model is that for a wide range of H202 lifetimes (up to 105 years), the extinction depth was found to be less than 3 m. The maximum possible concentration in the top 4 cm is calculated to be approx. 240 nmoles/cu cm, achieved with lifetimes of greater than 1000 years. Concentrations higher than 30 nmoles/cu cm require lifetimes of greater than 4.3 terrestrial years. For a wide range of H202 lifetimes, it was found that the atmospheric concentration is only weakly coupled with soil loss processes. Losses to the soil become significant only when lifetimes are less than a few hours. If there are depths below which H202 is not transported, it is plausible that organic compounds

  7. [Analysis of XRD spectral characteristics of soil clay mineral in two typical cultivated soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Dan; Luo, Xiang-Li; Jiang, Hai-Chao; Li, Qiao; Shen, Cong-Ying; Liu, Hang; Zhou, Ya-Juan; Zhao, Lan-Po; Wang, Ji-Hong

    2014-07-01

    The present paper took black soil and chernozem, the typical cultivated soil in major grain producing area of Northeast, as the study object, and determinated the soil particle composition characteristics of two cultivated soils under the same climate and location. Then XRD was used to study the composition and difference of clay mineral in two kinds of soil and the evolutionary mechanism was explored. The results showed that the two kinds of soil particles were composed mainly of the sand, followed by clay and silt. When the particle accumulation rate reached 50%, the central particle size was in the 15-130 microm interval. Except for black soil profile of Shengli Xiang, the content of clay showed converse sequence to the central particle in two soils. Clay accumulated under upper layer (18.82%) in black soil profile while under caliche layer (17.41%) in chernozem profile. Clay content was the least in parent material horizon except in black profile of Quanyanling. Analysis of clay XRD atlas showed that the difference lied in not only the strength of diffraction peak, but also in the mineral composition. The main contents of black soil and chernozem were both 2 : 1 clay, the composition of black soil was smectite/illite mixed layer-illite-vermiculite and that of chernozem was S/I mixture-illite-montmorillonite, and both of them contained little kaolinite, chlorite, quartz and other primary mineral. This paper used XRD to determine the characteristics of clay minerals comprehensively, and analyzed two kinds of typical cultivated soil comparatively, and it was a new perspective of soil minerals study.

  8. Preparation and characterization of nano gold supported over montmorillonite clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suraja, P.V.; Binitha, N.N.; Yaakob, Z.; Silija, P.P.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The use of montmorillonite clays as a matrix, or as a host, for obtaining intercalated/supported metal particles has potential applications in catalysis and other areas. The gold nanoparticles were obtained from the most common anionic gold precursor HAuCl 4 ·3H 2 O by deposition-precipitation (DP) methods. However, it is difficult to prepare nano scale gold catalysts supported on silica surfaces with lower isoelectric point (IEP). Homogeneous precipitation method using urea also fails on silica surfaces. Reasons for the inefficiency of these methods are the negative charge of the metal precursor as well as the support surface and the high pH required for depositing gold nanoparticles. In the present work, we use glucose as the reductant in the presence of stabilizer for preparation of nano gold supported on montmorillonite clay. Here there is no need of increasing the pH of the solution to reduce the Au 3+ ions. The prepared systems are characterized using various techniques such as using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), UV-Vis Diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) and Fourier Transform infra red spectra (FTIR) to prove the efficiency of the present method. (author)

  9. Preparation and Characterization of Nano Gold Supported over Montmorillonite Clays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suraja, P V; Binitha, N N; Yaakob, Z; Silija, P P, E-mail: binithann@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, National University of Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    The use of montmorillonite clays as a matrix, or as a host, for obtaining intercalated/supported metal particles has potential applications in catalysis and other areas. The gold nanoparticles were obtained from the most common anionic gold precursor HAuCl4{center_dot}3H2O by deposition-precipitation (DP) methods. However, it is difficult to prepare nanoscale gold catalysts supported on silica surfaces with lower isoelectric point (IEP). Homogeneous precipitation method using urea also fails on silica surfaces. Reasons for the inefficiency of these methods are the negative charge of the metal precursor as well as the support surface and the high pH required for depositing gold nanoparticles. In the present work, we use glucose as the reductant in the presence of stabilizer for preparation of nano gold supported on montmorillonite clay. There is no need of increasing the pH of the solution to reduce the Au3+ ions. The prepared systems are characterized using various techniques such as using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), UV-VIS Diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) and Fourier Transform infra red spectra (FTIR) to prove the efficiency of the present method.

  10. Sorption of triclosan onto activated carbon, kaolinite and montmorillonite: effects of pH, ionic strength, and humic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Shishir Kumar; Oh, Seok-Young; Park, Hung-Suck

    2010-07-15

    Sorption of triclosan on three sorbents, viz., activated carbon, kaolinite and montmorillonite was studied as a function of pH, ionic strength and humic acid (HA) concentration through controlled batch experiments. Triclosan sorption was found to be higher in the acidic pH range, as varying pH showed significant influence on the surface charge of the sorbents and degree of ionization of the sorbate. Sorption capacity of the sorbents increased with an increase in the ionic strength of solution. At low pH (pH 3), the overall increase in triclosan sorption was 1.2, approximately 4 and 3.5 times, respectively for activated carbon, kaolinite and montmorillonite when ionic strength was increased from 1x10(-3) to 5x10(-1) M. Triclosan sorption onto activated carbon decreased from 31.4 to 10.6 mg g(-1) by increasing the HA concentration to 200 mg C L(-1). However, during sorption onto kaolinite and montmorillonite, the effect of HA was very complex probably due to (i) hydrophobicity (log K(ow)=4.76) of triclosan; and (ii) complexation of HA with triclosan. Though triclosan sorption onto activated carbon is higher, the potential of kaolinite and montmorillonite in controlling the transport of triclosan in subsurface environment can still be appreciable. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Magnesium isotope systematics in Martian meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magna, Tomáš; Hu, Yan; Teng, Fang-Zhen; Mezger, Klaus

    2017-09-01

    Magnesium isotope compositions are reported for a suite of Martian meteorites that span the range of petrological and geochemical types recognized to date for Mars, including crustal breccia Northwest Africa (NWA) 7034. The δ26Mg values (per mil units relative to DSM-3 reference material) range from -0.32 to -0.11‰; basaltic shergottites and nakhlites lie to the heavier end of the Mg isotope range whereas olivine-phyric, olivine-orthopyroxene-phyric and lherzolitic shergottites, and chassignites have slightly lighter Mg isotope compositions, attesting to modest correlation of Mg isotopes and petrology of the samples. Slightly heavier Mg isotope compositions found for surface-related materials (NWA 7034, black glass fraction of the Tissint shergottite fall; δ26Mg > -0.17‰) indicate measurable Mg isotope difference between the Martian mantle and crust but the true extent of Mg isotope fractionation for Martian surface materials remains unconstrained. The range of δ26Mg values from -0.19 to -0.11‰ in nakhlites is most likely due to accumulation of clinopyroxene during petrogenesis rather than garnet fractionation in the source or assimilation of surface material modified at low temperatures. The rather restricted range in Mg isotope compositions between spatially and temporally distinct mantle-derived samples supports the idea of inefficient/absent major tectonic cycles on Mars, which would include plate tectonics and large-scale recycling of isotopically fractionated surface materials back into the Martian mantle. The cumulative δ26Mg value of Martian samples, which are not influenced by late-stage alteration processes and/or crust-mantle interactions, is - 0.271 ± 0.040 ‰ (2SD) and is considered to reflect δ26Mg value of the Bulk Silicate Mars. This value is robust taking into account the range of lithologies involved in this estimate. It also attests to the lack of the Mg isotope variability reported for the inner Solar System bodies at current

  12. Chemical evolution of the early Martian hydrosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    The chemical evolution of the early Martian hydrosphere is discussed. The early Martian ocean can be modeled as a body of relatively pure water in equilibrium with a dense carbon dioxide atmosphere. The chemical weathering of lavas, pyroclastic deposits, and impact melt sheets would have the effect of neutralizing the acidity of the juvenile water. As calcium and other cations are added to the water by chemical weathering, they are quickly removed by the precipitation of calcium carbonate and other minerals, forming a deposit of limestone beneath the surface of the ocean. As the atmospheric carbon dioxide pressure and the temperature decrease, the Martian ocean would be completely frozen. Given the scenario for the chemical evolution of the northern lowland plains of Mars, it should be possible to draw a few conclusions about the expected mineralogy and geomorphology of this regions

  13. Curation of US Martian Meteorites Collected in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, M.; Satterwhite, C.; Allton, J.; Stansbury, E.

    1998-01-01

    To date the ANSMET field team has collected five martian meteorites (see below) in Antarctica and returned them for curation at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Meteorite Processing Laboratory (MPL). ne meteorites were collected with the clean procedures used by ANSMET in collecting all meteorites: They were handled with JSC-cleaned tools, packaged in clean bags, and shipped frozen to JSC. The five martian meteorites vary significantly in size (12-7942 g) and rock type (basalts, lherzolites, and orthopyroxenite). Detailed descriptions are provided in the Mars Meteorite compendium, which describes classification, curation and research results. A table gives the names, classifications and original and curatorial masses of the martian meteorites. The MPL and measures for contamination control are described.

  14. Polyaniline nanocomposites via in situ emulsion polymerization based on montmorillonite: Preparation and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Abd El-Ghaffar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Polyaniline nanocomposites were prepared via in situ emulsion polymerization in the presence of Na+ montmorillonite (Na+MMT. For achieving this purpose the clay was organophilized to (MMT-CTA form using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB. The X-ray diffraction (XRD demonstrated that the basal space of Na+-montmorillonite increased after the organophilization from 11.21 to 19.35 Å. Polyaniline/montmorillonite (PAn/MMT nanocomposites were prepared by intercalating the emulsion of aniline monomer with treated organically layers of (Na+-MMT using ammonium peroxydisulfate (APS as an initiator. Furthermore aniline hydrochloride (AnHCl was used as a modifier and monomer to prepare PAn/H+MMT nanocomposites by cation exchange of the anilinuim moiety with the sodium ion inside the basal spaces which enlarged after the polymerization process to 35 Å as evidenced from X-ray diffraction (XRD. The d-spacing of the PAn/H+-MMT nanocomposite was found to become wider about 23.79 Å than that of the pure Na+-MMT, and successful intercalation or exfoliation of PAnH+ into Na+-MMT layers. The prepared PAn/MMT nanocomposites were characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, scanning electron microscope (SEM, and transmission electron microscope (TEM. The electrical property measurements showed an enhancement in the conductivity values of the prepared nanocomposites especially on using AnHCl monomer to be in the order of 10−1 S/cm.

  15. Eco-Friendly Magnetic Iron Oxide Pillared Montmorillonite for Advanced Catalytic Degradation of Dichlorophenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-friendly pillared montmorillonites, in which the pillars consist of iron oxide are expected to have interesting and unusual magnetic properties that are applicable for environmental decontamination. Completely “green” and effective composite was synthesized using mild reactio...

  16. Wind tunnel simulation of Martian sand storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, R.

    1980-01-01

    The physics and geological relationships of particles driven by the wind under near Martian conditions were examined in the Martian Surface Wind Tunnel. Emphasis was placed on aeolian activity as a planetary process. Threshold speeds, rates of erosion, trajectories of windblown particles, and flow fields over various landforms were among the factors considered. Results of experiments on particles thresholds, rates of erosion, and the effects of electrostatics on particles in the aeolian environment are presented.

  17. Gallium sorption on montmorillonite and illite colloids: Experimental study and modelling by ionic exchange and surface complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedicto, Ana; Degueldre, Claude; Missana, Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ga sorption onto illite and montmorillonite was studied and modelled for the first time. • The developed sorption model was able to well explain Ga sorption in both clays. • Number of free parameters was reduced applying the linear free energy relationship. • Cationic exchange dominate sorption at pH < 4.5; surface complexation at higher pH. - Abstract: The migration of metals as gallium (Ga) in the environment is highly influenced by their sorption on clay minerals, as montmorillonite and illite. Given the increased usage of gallium in the industry and the medicine, the Ga-associated waste may result in environmental problems. Ga sorption experiments were carried out on montmorillonite and illite colloids in a wide range of pH, ionic strength and Ga concentration. A Ga sorption model was developed combining ionic exchange and surface complexation on the edge sites (silanol and aluminol-like) of the clay sheets. The complexation constants were estimated as far as possible from the Ga hydrolysis constants applying the linear free energy relationship (LFER), which allowed to reduce the number of free parameters in the model. The Ga sorption behaviour was very similar on illite and montmorillonite: decreasing tendency with pH and dependency on ionic strength at very acidic conditions. The experimental data modelling suggests that the Ga sorption reactions avoid the Ga precipitation, which is predicted in absence of clay colloids between pH 3.5 and 5.5. Assuming this hypothesis, clay colloids would affect Ga aqueous speciation, preventing precipitation in favour of sorption. Ga sorption on montmorillonite and illite can be explained on the basis of three main reactions: Ga 3+ exchange at very acidic conditions (pH < ∼3.8); Ga(OH) 4 - complexation on protonated weak sites in acidic-neutral conditions (between pH ∼5.2 and pH ∼7.9); and Ga(OH) 3 complexation on strong sites at basic conditions (pH > ∼7.9)

  18. Estimating vertical and lateral pressures in periodically structured montmorillonite clay particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo A. Narsilio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Given a montmorillonitic clay soil at high porosity and saturated by monovalent counterions, we investigate the particle level responses of the clay to different external loadings. As analytical solutions are not possible for complex arrangements of particles, we employ computational micromechanical models (based on the solution of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations using the finite element method, to estimate counterion and electrical potential distributions for particles at various angles and distances from one another. We then calculate the disjoining pressures using the Van't Hoff relation and Maxwell stress tensor. As the distance between the clay particles decreases and double-layers overlap, the concentration of counterions in the micropores among clay particles increases. This increase lowers the chemical potential of the pore fluid and creates a chemical potential gradient in the solvent that generates the socalled 'disjoining' or 'osmotic' pressure. Because of this disjoining pressure, particles do not need to contact one another in order to carry an 'effective stress'. This work may lead towards theoretical predictions of the macroscopic load deformation response of montmorillonitic soils based on micromechanical modelling of particles.Dada uma argila montmorilonítica de alta porosidade e saturada por counteríons monovalentes, investigamos as respostas da argila ao nível de partículas para diferentes cargas externas. Como soluções analíticas não são possíveis para arranjos complexos de partículas, empregamos modelos computacionais micro-mecânicos (baseados na solução das equações de Poisson-Nernst-Planck, utilizando o método de elementos finitos, para estimar counteríons e distribuições de potencial elétrico para partículas em diversos ângulos e distâncias uma da outra. Nós então calculamos as pressões de separação usando a relação de Van't Hoff e a tensão de cisalhamento de Maxwell. À medida que a

  19. Electrodynamics of the Martian Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledvina, S. A.; Brecht, S. H.

    2017-12-01

    The presence of the Martian crustal magnetic fields makes a significant modification to the interaction between the solar wind/IMF and the ionosphere of the planet. This paper presents the results of 3-D hybrid simulations of Martian solar wind interaction containing the Martian crustal fields., self-consistent ionospheric chemistry and planetary rotation. It has already been reported that the addition of the crustal fields and planetary rotation makes a significant modification of the ionospheric loss from Mars, Brecht et al., 2016. This paper focuses on two other aspects of the interaction, the electric fields and the current systems created by the solar wind interaction. The results of several simulations will be analyzed and compared. The electric fields around Mars due to its interaction with the solar wind will be examined. Special attention will be paid to the electric field constituents (∇ X B, ∇Pe, ηJ). Regions where the electric field is parallel to the magnetic field will be found and the implications of these regions will be discussed. Current systems for each ion species will be shown. Finally the effects on the electric fields and the current systems due to the rotation of Mars will be examined.

  20. Starch/poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate/montmorillonite films produced by blow extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A. L. Santos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to prepare biodegradable films from cassava starch, poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT, and montmorillonite (MMT using blow-extrusion process and analyze the effects of different types and concentrations of MMT on the microstructure, physicochemical, and mechanical properties of the resulting films. The films were produced by blending 30% of PBAT with glycerol (17.5%, starch (49.0-52.5%, and four different types of montmorillonite (Cloisite® Na+, 10A, 15A, and 30B at two different concentrations (1.75% and 3.5%. All the films prepared in this study showed an increase in the basal spacing of MMT layers. In particular, the films with 10A and 30B showed the highest increase in intercalation basal spacing, suggesting the formation of intercalated composites. The addition of nanoclays decreased the elongation of films. The addition of Cloisite® 10A resulted in films with the lowest WVP values and the highest stability to water adsorption under different RH conditions.

  1. Water in Pyroxene and Olivine from Martian Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, A. H.

    2012-01-01

    Water in the interior of terrestrial planets can be dissolved in fluids or melts and hydrous phases, but can also be locked as protons attached to structural oxygen in lattice defects in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAM) like olivine, pyroxene, or feldspar [1-3]. Although these minerals contain only tens to hundreds of ppm H2O, this water can amount to at least one ocean in mass when added at planetary scales because of the modal dominance of NAM in the mantle and crust [4]. Moreover these trace amounts of water can have drastic effects on melting temperature, rheology, electrical and heat conductivity, and seismic wave attenuation [5]. There is presently a debate on how much water is present in the martian mantle. Secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS) studies of NAM [6], amphiboles and glass in melt inclusions [7-10], and apatites [11, 12] from Martian meteorites report finding as much water as in the same phases from Earth's igneous rocks. Most martian hydrous minerals, however, generally have the relevant sites filled with Cl and F instead of H [13, 14], and experiments using Cl [15] in parent melts can reproduce Martian basalt compositions as well as those with water [16]. We are in the process of analyzing Martian meteorite minerals by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) in order to constrain the role of water in this planet s formation and magmatic evolution

  2. Assessment of cement kiln dust (CKD) for stabilization/solidification (S/S) of arsenic contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Wazne, Mahmoud; Yoon, In-Ho; Grubb, Dennis G

    2008-11-30

    A stabilization/solidification (S/S) process for arsenic (As) contaminated soils was evaluated using cement kiln dust (CKD). Laboratory-prepared slurries, made of either kaolinite or montmorillonite, and field soils spiked with either As(3+) or As(5+) were prepared and treated with CKD ranging from 10 to 25 wt%. Sodium arsenite and sodium arsenate at 0.1 wt% were used to simulate arsenite (As(3+)) and arsenate (As(5+)) source contamination in soils, respectively. The effectiveness of treatment was evaluated at curing periods of 1- and 7-days based on the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). As-CKD and As-clay-CKD slurries were also spiked at 10 wt% to evaluate As immobilization mechanism using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analyses. Overall, the TCLP results showed that only the As(5+) concentrations in kaolinite amended with 25 wt% CKD after 1 day of curing were less than the TCLP regulatory limit of 5mg/L. Moreover, at 7 days of curing, all As(3+) and As(5+) concentrations obtained from kaolinite soils were less than the TCLP criteria. However, none of the CKD-amended montmorillonite samples satisfied the TCLP-As criteria at 7 days. Only field soil samples amended with 20 wt% CKD complied with the TCLP criteria within 1 day of curing, where the source contamination was As(5+). XRPD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) results showed that Ca-As-O and NaCaAsO(4).7.5H(2)O were the primary phases responsible for As(3+) and As(5+) immobilization in the soils, respectively.

  3. Assessment of cement kiln dust (CKD) for stabilization/solidification (S/S) of arsenic contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Wazne, Mahmoud; Yoon, In-Ho; Grubb, Dennis G.

    2008-01-01

    A stabilization/solidification (S/S) process for arsenic (As) contaminated soils was evaluated using cement kiln dust (CKD). Laboratory-prepared slurries, made of either kaolinite or montmorillonite, and field soils spiked with either As 3+ or As 5+ were prepared and treated with CKD ranging from 10 to 25 wt%. Sodium arsenite and sodium arsenate at 0.1 wt% were used to simulate arsenite (As 3+ ) and arsenate (As 5+ ) source contamination in soils, respectively. The effectiveness of treatment was evaluated at curing periods of 1- and 7-days based on the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). As-CKD and As-clay-CKD slurries were also spiked at 10 wt% to evaluate As immobilization mechanism using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analyses. Overall, the TCLP results showed that only the As 5+ concentrations in kaolinite amended with 25 wt% CKD after 1 day of curing were less than the TCLP regulatory limit of 5 mg/L. Moreover, at 7 days of curing, all As 3+ and As 5+ concentrations obtained from kaolinite soils were less than the TCLP criteria. However, none of the CKD-amended montmorillonite samples satisfied the TCLP-As criteria at 7 days. Only field soil samples amended with 20 wt% CKD complied with the TCLP criteria within 1 day of curing, where the source contamination was As 5+ . XRPD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) results showed that Ca-As-O and NaCaAsO 4 .7.5H 2 O were the primary phases responsible for As 3+ and As 5+ immobilization in the soils, respectively

  4. The Apparent Involvement of ANMEs in Mineral Dependent Methane Oxidation, as an Analog for Possible Martian Methanotrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria J. Orphan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available On Earth, marine anaerobic methane oxidation (AOM can be driven by the microbial reduction of sulfate, iron, and manganese. Here, we have further characterized marine sediment incubations to determine if the mineral dependent methane oxidation involves similar microorganisms to those found for sulfate-dependent methane oxidation. Through FISH and FISH-SIMS analyses using 13C and 15N labeled substrates, we find that the most active cells during manganese dependent AOM are primarily mixed and mixed-cluster aggregates of archaea and bacteria. Overall, our control experiment using sulfate showed two active bacterial clusters, two active shell aggregates, one active mixed aggregate, and an active archaeal sarcina, the last of which appeared to take up methane in the absence of a closely-associated bacterial partner. A single example of a shell aggregate appeared to be active in the manganese incubation, along with three mixed aggregates and an archaeal sarcina. These results suggest that the microorganisms (e.g., ANME-2 found active in the manganese-dependent incubations are likely capable of sulfate-dependent AOM. Similar metabolic flexibility for Martian methanotrophs would mean that the same microbial groups could inhabit a diverse set of Martian mineralogical crustal environments. The recently discovered seasonal Martian plumes of methane outgassing could be coupled to the reduction of abundant surface sulfates and extensive metal oxides, providing a feasible metabolism for present and past Mars. In an optimistic scenario Martian methanotrophy consumes much of the periodic methane released supporting on the order of 10,000 microbial cells per cm2 of Martian surface. Alternatively, most of the methane released each year could be oxidized through an abiotic process requiring biological methane oxidation to be more limited. If under this scenario, 1% of this methane flux were oxidized by biology in surface soils or in subsurface aquifers (prior to

  5. The provenance, formation, and implications of reduced carbon phases in Martian meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Andrew; McCubbin, Francis M.; Fries, Marc D.

    2016-11-01

    This review is intended to summarize the current observations of reduced carbon in Martian meteorites, differentiating between terrestrial contamination and carbon that is indigenous to Mars. Indeed, the identification of Martian organic matter is among the highest priority targets for robotic spacecraft missions in the next decade, including the Mars Science Laboratory and Mars 2020. Organic carbon compounds are essential building blocks of terrestrial life, so the occurrence and origin (biotic or abiotic) of organic compounds on Mars is of great significance; however, not all forms of reduced carbon are conducive to biological systems. This paper discusses the significance of reduced organic carbon (including methane) in Martian geological and astrobiological systems. Specifically, it summarizes current thinking on the nature, sources, and sinks of Martian organic carbon, a key component to Martian habitability. Based on this compilation, reduced organic carbon on Mars, including detections of methane in the Martian atmosphere, is best described through a combination of abiotic organic synthesis on Mars and infall of extraterrestrial carbonaceous material. Although conclusive signs of Martian life have yet to be revealed, we have developed a strategy for life detection on Mars that can be utilized in future life-detection studies.

  6. Molecular Simulation Study of Montmorillonite in Contact with Variably Wet Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    KAUST Repository

    Kadoura, Ahmad Salim; Nair, Arun Kumar Narayanan; Sun, Shuyu

    2017-01-01

    We perform grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations to study the detailed molecular mechanism of intercalation behavior of CO2 in Na-, Ca-, and Mg- montmorillonite exposed to variably hydrated supercritical CO2 at 323.15 K and 90 bar, The simulations

  7. Thermal Emission of Alkali Metal Ions from Al30-Pillared Montmorillonite Studied by Mass Spectrometric Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Motalov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal emission of alkali metal ions from Al30-pillared montmorillonite in comparison with its natural form was studied by mass spectrometry in the temperature range 770–930 K. The measurements were carried out on a magnetic mass spectrometer MI-1201. For natural montmorillonite, the densities of the emission currents (j decrease in the mass spectrum in the following sequence (T = 805 K, A/cm2: K+ (4.55 · 10−14, Cs+ (9.72 · 10−15, Rb+ (1.13 · 10−15, Na+ (1.75 · 10−16, Li+ (3.37 · 10−17. For Al30-pillared montmorillonite, thermionic emission undergoes temperature-time changes. In the low-temperature section of the investigated range (770–805 K, the value of j increases substantially for all ions in comparison with natural montmorillonite (T = 805 K, A/cm2: Cs+ (6.47 · 10−13, K+ (9.44 · 10−14, Na+ (3.34 · 10−15, Rb+ (1.77 · 10−15, and Li+ (4.59 · 10−16. A reversible anomaly is observed in the temperature range 805–832 K: with increasing temperature, the value of j of alkaline ions falls abruptly. This effect increases with increasing ionic radius of M+. After a long heating-up period, this anomaly disappears and the lnj-1/T dependence acquires a classical linear form. The results are interpreted from the point of view of the dependence of the efficiency of thermionic emission on the phase transformations of pillars.

  8. Physical Properties of Dust in the Martian Atmosphere: Analysis of Contradictions and Possible Ways of Their Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugach, Zh. M.; Korablev, O. I.; Morozhenko, A. V.; Moroz, V. I.; Petrova, E. V.; Rodin, A. V.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in forming the Martian climate. However, the basic physical properties of the Martian aerosols are still poorly known; there are many contradictions in their estimates. We present an analytical overview of the published results and potentialities of various methods. We consider mineral dust. Zonally averaged data obtained from mapping IR instruments (TES and IRTM) give the optical thickness of mineral aerosols τ9 = 0.05-0.1 in the 9-μm band for quite atmospheric conditions. There is a problem of comparing these estimates with those obtained in the visible spectral range. We suggest that the commonly used ratio τvis/τ9 >2 depends on the interpretation and it may actually be smaller. The ratio τvis/τ9 ~ 1 is in better agreement with the IRIS data (materials like montmorillonite). If we assume that τvis/τ9 = 1 and take into account the nonspherical particle shape, then the interpretation of ground-based integrated polarimetric observations (τ < 0.04) can be reconciled with IR measurements from the orbit. However, for thin layers, the sensitivity of both methods to the optical thickness is poorly understood: on the one hand, polarimetry depends on the cloud cover and, on the other hand, the interpretation of IR measurements requires that the atmospheric temperature profile and the surface temperature and emissivity be precisely known. For quite atmospheric conditions, the local optical-thickness estimates obtained by the Bouguer-Lambert-Beer method and from the sky brightness measured from Viking 1 and 2 and Mars Pathfinder landers are much larger: τ = 0.3-0.6. Estimates of the contrasts in images from the Viking orbiters yield the same values. Thus, there is still a factor of 3 to 10 difference between different groups of optical-thickness estimates for the quiet atmosphere. This difference is probably explained by the contribution of condensation clouds and/or by local/time variations.

  9. Nanocomposites chitosan/montmorillonite for drug delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, Carla R. Costa; Barbosa, Rossemberg C.; Lima, Rosemary S. Cunha; Fook, Marcus V. Lia; Silva, Suedina M. Lima

    2009-01-01

    In drugs delivery system the incorporation of an inorganic nanophase in polymer matrix, i.e. production of an inorganic-organic nanocomposite is an attractive alternative to obtain a constant release rate for a prolonged time. This study was performed to obtain films of nanocomposites Chitosan/montmorillonite intercalation by the technique of solution in the proportions of 1:1, 5:1 and 10:1. The nanocomposites were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. The results indicated that the feasibility of obtaining films of nanocomposites exfoliate. Among the suggested applications for films developed in this study includes them use for drugs delivery system. (author)

  10. Modification of montmorillonite fillers by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimek, Z.; Przybytniak, G.; Nowicki, A.; Mirkowski, K.

    2006-01-01

    The mineral fillers can be modified by using unsaturated compounds: styrene, methacrylic acid and maleic anhydride (MA), following by irradiation with high energy electron beam. In presented paper the authors have used this method to change properties of bentonite S pecjal , containing about 70% of pure montmorillonite. It has been shown that: (a) the particles obtained in this process can be good fillers for the production of composites; (b) maleic anhydride reacts via anhydride group with active ionic sites of bentonite, forming a salt-like compound. Irradiation with electron beam leads to the breakage of double bond in maleic anhydride and to the production of new organic phases

  11. Martian surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    The surface of Mars is characterized on the basis of reformatted Viking remote-sensing data, summarizing results published during the period 1983-1986. Topics examined include impact craters, ridges and faults, volcanic studies (modeling of surface effects on volcanic activity, description and interpretation of volcanic features, and calculations on lava-ice interactions), the role of liquid water on Mars, evidence for abundant ground ice at high latitudes, water-cycle modeling, and the composition and dynamics of Martian dust

  12. Selective removal and inactivation of bacteria by nanoparticle composites prepared by surface modification of montmorillonite with quaternary ammonium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Rowaida K S

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to prepare new nanocomposites with antibacterial activities by surface modification of montmorillonite using quaternary ammonium compounds that are widely applied as disinfectants and antiseptics in food-processing environments. The intercalation of four quaternary ammonium compounds namely benzalkonium chloride, cetylpyridinium chloride monohydrate, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, tetraethylammonium chloride hydrate into montmorillonite layers was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The antibacterial influences of the modified clay variants against important foodborne pathogens differed based on modifiers quantities, microbial cell densities, and length of contact. Elution experiments through 0.1 g of the studied montmorillonite variants indicated that Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, and Listeria monocytogenes were the most sensitive strains. 1 g of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide intercalated montmorillonites demonstrated maximum inactivation of L. monocytogenes populations, with 4.5 log c.f.u./ml units of reduction. In adsorption experiments, 0.1 g of tetraethylammonium chloride hydrate montmorillonite variants significantly reduced the growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, and S. aureus populations by 5.77, 6.33, and 7.38 log units respectively. Growth of wide variety of microorganisms was strongly inhibited to undetectable levels (benzalkonium chloride montmorillonite variants. This investigation highlights that reduction in counts of microbial populations adsorbed to the new nanocomposites was substantially different from that in elution experiments, where interactions of nanocomposites with bacteria were specific and more complex than simple ability to inactivate. Treatment columns packed with modified variants maintained their inactivation capacity to the growth of Salmonella Tennessee and S. aureus populations after 48 h of incubation at room temperature with maximum reductions

  13. The Martian Water Cycle Based on 3-D Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, H.; Haberle, R. M.; Joshi, M. M.

    1999-01-01

    Understanding the distribution of Martian water is a major goal of the Mars Surveyor program. However, until the bulk of the data from the nominal missions of TES, PMIRR, GRS, MVACS, and the DS2 probes are available, we are bound to be in a state where much of our knowledge of the seasonal behavior of water is based on theoretical modeling. We therefore summarize the results of this modeling at the present time. The most complete calculations come from a somewhat simplified treatment of the Martian climate system which is capable of simulating many decades of weather. More elaborate meteorological models are now being applied to study of the problem. The results show a high degree of consistency with observations of aspects of the Martian water cycle made by Viking MAWD, a large number of ground-based measurements of atmospheric column water vapor, studies of Martian frosts, and the widespread occurrence of water ice clouds. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. Martian sub-surface ionising radiation: biosignatures and geology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Ward

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The surface of Mars, unshielded by thick atmosphere or global magnetic field, is exposed to high levels of cosmic radiation. This ionising radiation field is deleterious to the survival of dormant cells or spores and the persistence of molecular biomarkers in the subsurface, and so its characterisation is of prime astrobiological interest. Here, we present modelling results of the absorbed radiation dose as a function of depth through the Martian subsurface, suitable for calculation of biomarker persistence. A second major implementation of this dose accumulation rate data is in application of the optically stimulated luminescence technique for dating Martian sediments.

    We present calculations of the dose-depth profile in the Martian subsurface for various scenarios: variations of surface composition (dry regolith, ice, layered permafrost, solar minimum and maximum conditions, locations of different elevation (Olympus Mons, Hellas basin, datum altitude, and increasing atmospheric thickness over geological history. We also model the changing composition of the subsurface radiation field with depth compared between Martian locations with different shielding material, determine the relative dose contributions from primaries of different energies, and discuss particle deflection by the crustal magnetic fields.

  15. Green Synthesis of Carvenone by Montmorillonite-Catalyzed Isomerization of 1,2-Limonene Oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thao-Tran Thi; Chau, Duy-Khiem Nguyen; Duus, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    Montmorillonite was considered as a good heterogeneous catalyst for the isomerization of 1,2-limonene oxide into car-venone under solvent-free condition. Both conventional heating and green activations were tested in this research. The microwave-assisted isomerization afforded carvenone in high...

  16. A quantitative mechanistic description of Ni, Zn and Ca sorption on Na-Montmorillonite. Part I: Physico-chemical characterisation and titration measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeyens, B.; Bradbury, M.H.

    1995-07-01

    The work presented in this report is primarily concerned with characterisation studies and titration measurements on conditioned Na-montmorillonite. The starting material, SWy-1 Na-montmorillonite (Crook County, Wyoming, USA), contains background metal impurities, soluble salts and sparingly soluble minerals which can influence titration and sorption measurements and thereby lead to difficulties in the interpretation of the data. A conditioning procedure is described which yielded a purified clay material in the homoionic sodium form with a particle size 4 . The reasons for choosing a batch method, coupled with back titration of the supernatant solutions, instead of a continuous procedure, are fully discussed. Chemical analyses data for the supernatant solutions are presented in detail. The influence of background impurities, not removed by the conditioning, and cation exchange processes on the form of the titration curves were investigates. Net Na-montmorillonite titration curves at two different ionic strengths were derived which are considered to reflect only the acid/base behaviour of ≡SOH type surface sites. The acid end point in the titration data was used to estimate an ≡SOH site capacity of 0.08 moles per kg conditioned Na-montmorillonite. (author) 8 figs., 19 tabs., refs

  17. Montmorillonite Clay Catalyzed Three Component, One-Pot Synthesis of 5-Hydroxyindole Derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subba Reddy, B. V.; Sivaramakrishna Reddy, P.; Jayasudhan Reddy, Y.; Bhaskar, N.; Chandra Obula Reddy, B.

    2013-01-01

    A highly efficient and environmentally benign protocol has been developed for the first time to produce a wide range of biologically active 5-hydroxyindole derivatives using montmorillonite KSF clay as a reusable solid acid catalyst. The use of recyclable clay makes this procedure quite simple, more convenient and cost-effective

  18. Martian extratropical cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, G. E.; James, P. B.

    1979-01-01

    Physical properties of summer-season baroclinic waves on Mars are discussed on the basis of vidicon images and infrared thermal mapping generated by Viking Orbiter 1. The two northern-hemisphere storm systems examined here appear to be similar to terrestrial mid-latitude cyclonic storms. The Martian storm clouds are probably composed of water ice, rather than dust or CO2 ice particles.

  19. Martian Surface Mineralogy from Rovers with Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard V.

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in 2004, NASA has landed three well-instrumented rovers on the equatorial martian surface. The Spirit rover landed in Gusev crater in early January, 2004, and the Opportunity rover landed on the opposite side of Mars at Meridian Planum 21 days later. The Curiosity rover landed in Gale crater to the west of Gusev crater in August, 2012. Both Opportunity and Curiosity are currently operational. The twin rovers Spirit and Opportunity carried Mossbauer spectrometers to determine the oxidation state of iron and its mineralogical composition. The Curiosity rover has an X-ray diffraction instrument for identification and quantification of crystalline materials including clay minerals. Instrument suites on all three rovers are capable of distinguishing primary rock-forming minerals like olivine, pyroxene and magnetite and products of aqueous alteration in including amorphous iron oxides, hematite, goethite, sulfates, and clay minerals. The oxidation state of iron ranges from that typical for unweathered rocks and soils to nearly completely oxidized (weathered) rocks and soils as products of aqueous and acid-sulfate alteration. The in situ rover mineralogy also serves as ground-truth for orbital observations, and orbital mineralogical inferences are used for evaluating and planning rover exploration.

  20. Monte Carlo studies of TPP+ and BE+ arrangements in the interlayer and at the external surface of montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeschke, F.; Meleshyn, A.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Unlike natural clay minerals, organically modified montmorillonite possesses a very high sorption capacity for anions, which favors its use for waste storage and sewage purposes. Understanding of this anion sorption requires a detailed knowledge about the underlying structure, which is only partially accessible with currently applied experimental methods. To get more structural information, Na-montmorillonite modified with tetraphenyl-phosphonium (TPP + , (C 6 H 5 ) 4 P + ) chloride or benzethonium (BE + , C 27 H 42 O 2 N + ) chloride was simulated using the Metropolis Monte Carlo method as extended by the configurational-bias procedure for flexible organic molecules. The simulated interlayer content of TPP + varied between 8% and 100% of CEC (cation exchange capacity). Two different initial arrangements of TPP + were considered, taking into account experimentally derived suggestions: 1) 'mono-facial' arrangement with three of the phenyl groups of all TPP + aligned to the same basal surface, and 2) 'bi-facial' arrangement with an equivalent distribution of phenyl groups between the two opposite basal surfaces of the montmorillonite. Pressure, temperature and number of particles were kept constant whereas the layer spacing was allowed to vary during the simulations. The OPLS-AA force field was used for calculation of the intermolecular and intramolecular interactions and Ewald summation was used to calculate the electrostatic interactions. The layer spacings, determined for the first arrangement, are between 17.4 A for the lowest and 19 A for the highest TPP + contents and show a very good agreement with experimental values. For this arrangement, a segregation of organic (TPP + ) and inorganic (Na + , Cl - and H 2 O) phases is observed. On the contrary, the simulated layer spacings for the second arrangement agree with the experimental data only for lower contents of TPP + . For higher contents

  1. Effects of Long-Term Simulated Martian Conditions on a Freeze-Dried and Homogenized Bacterial Permafrost Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Aviaja A.; Jenson, Lars L.; Kristoffersen, Tommy; Mikkelsen, Karina; Merrison, Jonathan; Finster, Kai W.; Lomstein, Bente Aa.

    2009-03-01

    Indigenous bacteria and biomolecules (DNA and proteins) in a freeze-dried and homogenized Arctic permafrost were exposed to simulated martian conditions that correspond to about 80 days on the surface of Mars with respect to the accumulated UV dose. The simulation conditions included UV radiation, freeze-thaw cycles, the atmospheric gas composition, and pressure. The homogenized permafrost cores were subjected to repeated cycles of UV radiation for 3 h followed by 27 h without irradiation. The effects of the simulation conditions on the concentrations of biomolecules; numbers of viable, dead, and cultured bacteria; as well as the community structure were determined. Simulated martian conditions resulted in a significant reduction of the concentrations of DNA and amino acids in the uppermost 1.5 mm of the soil core. The total number of bacterial cells was reduced in the upper 9 mm of the soil core, while the number of viable cells was reduced in the upper 15 mm. The number of cultured aerobic bacteria was reduced in the upper 6 mm of the soil core, whereas the community structure of cultured anaerobic bacteria was relatively unaffected by the exposure conditions. As explanations for the observed changes, we propose three causes that might have been working on the biological material either individually or synergistically: (i) UV radiation, (ii) UV-generated reactive oxygen species, and (iii) freeze-thaw cycles. Currently, the production and action of reactive gases is only hypothetical and will be a central subject in future investigations. Overall, we conclude that in a stable environment (no wind-/pressure-induced mixing) biological material is efficiently shielded by a 2 cm thick layer of dust, while it is relatively rapidly destroyed in the surface layer, and that biomolecules like proteins and polynucleotides are more resistant to destruction than living biota.

  2. Iron Redox Systematics of Shergottites and Martian Magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, Kevin; Danielson, L. R.; Martin, A. M.; Newville, M.; Choi, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Martian meteorites record a range of oxygen fugacities from near the IW buffer to above FMQ buffer [1]. In terrestrial magmas, Fe(3+)/ SigmaFe for this fO2 range are between 0 and 0.25 [2]. Such variation will affect the stability of oxides, pyroxenes, and how the melt equilibrates with volatile species. An understanding of the variation of Fe(3+)/SigmaFe for martian magmas is lacking, and previous work has been on FeO-poor and Al2O3-rich terrestrial basalts. We have initiated a study of the iron redox systematics of martian magmas to better understand FeO and Fe2O3 stability, the stability of magnetite, and the low Ca/high Ca pyroxene [3] ratios observed at the surface.

  3. Interstratified Illite/Montmorillonite in Kamojang Geothermal Field, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. Yudiantoro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i4.167Kamojang geothermal field located in West Java Province, falls under the Pangkalan Subregency, Bandung Regency. The researched area is a geothermal field located in the Quaternary volcanic caldera system of about 0.452 to 1.2 Ma. The volcanic activity generated hydrothermal fluids, interacting with rocks producing mineral alteration. The minerals formed in the areas of research are interstratified illite/montmorillonite (I/M. Analyses to identify interstratified I/M have been performed by X-ray diffraction using ethylene glycol, while the determination of the type and percentage of interstratified I/M was based on the calculation method of Watanabe. The methodology was applied on core and cutting samples from Wells KMJ-8, 9, 11, 13, 16, 23, 49, 51, and 54. The result of analysis of the samples shows that the type of clay is interstratified illite/montmorillonite and the minerals are formed at temperatures ranging from 180 to 220° C. The type of interstratified I/M in the studied area is S = 0 and S = 1. The percentage of illite type S = 0 is between 20 - 35% illite, whereas type S = 1 has about 45 - 72% illite. Along with the increasing depth, the percentage of illite is getting greater. This is consistent with the vertical distribution of temperature which increases according to the depth. This correlation results in an interpretation that the upflow zone of the geothermal reservoir is located in the centre of the Kamojang geothermal field.

  4. Iron Redox Systematics of Martian Magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Danielson, L.; Martin, A.; Pando, K.; Sutton, S.; Newville, M.

    2011-01-01

    Martian magmas are known to be FeO-rich and the dominant FeO-bearing mineral at many sites visited by the Mars Exploration rovers (MER) is magnetite [1]. Morris et al. [1] propose that the magnetite appears to be igneous in origin, rather than of secondary origin. However, magnetite is not typically found in experimental studies of martian magmatic rocks [2,3]. Magnetite stability in terrestrial magmas is well understood, as are the stability of FeO and Fe2O3 in terrestrial magmas [4,5]. In order to better understand the variation of FeO and Fe2O3, and the stability of magnetite (and other FeO-bearing phases) in martian magmas we have undertaken an experimental study with two emphases. First we document the stability of magnetite with temperature and fO2 in a shergottite bulk composition. Second, we determine the FeO and Fe2O3 contents of the same shergottite bulk composition at 1 bar and variable fO2 at 1250 C, and at variable pressure. These two goals will help define not only magnetite stability, but pyroxene-melt equilibria that are also dependent upon fO2.

  5. PREPARATION AND CATALYTIC ACTIVITY FOR ISOPROPYL BENZENE CRACKING OF Co, Mo AND Co/Mo-Al2O3-PILLARED MONTMORILLONITE CATALYSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanudin Hasanudin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been prepared Co, Mo and Co/Mo-Al2O3-pillared montmorillonite catalysts using montmorillonite clay  as raw material. The structure and porosity of the catalysts were determined using N2 adsorption-desorption and FT-IR spectroscopy analysis methods. Isopropyl benzene cracking using these catalysts were used to test the catalytic activity and performance of Co, Mo and Co/Mo-Al2O3-pillared montmorillonites.  Characterization results showed that pillarization resulted in the increase of the total pore volume and specific surface area of the clay. Meanwhile, transition metals (Co, Mo and Co/Mo loaded on Al2O3-pillared monmorillonites could increase the catalytic activity of the catalysts for isopropyl benzene cracking significantly.   Keywords: pillared monmorillonite, isopropyl benzene  and cracking catalyst

  6. Solid state oxidation of phenols to quinones with sodium perborate on wet montmorillonite K10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemi, Mohammed M.; Eftekhari-Sis, Bagher; Khalili, Behzad; Karimi-Jaberi, Zahed [Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Chemistry]. E-mail: mhashemi@sharif.edu

    2005-09-15

    Phenols were oxidized to quinones using sodium perborate (SPB) on wet montmorillonite as oxidant. The reaction was carried out at ambient temperature on the solid phase under solvent free conditions. (author)

  7. Solid state oxidation of phenols to quinones with sodium perborate on wet montmorillonite K10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemi, Mohammed M.; Eftekhari-Sis, Bagher; Khalili, Behzad; Karimi-Jaberi, Zahed

    2005-01-01

    Phenols were oxidized to quinones using sodium perborate (SPB) on wet montmorillonite as oxidant. The reaction was carried out at ambient temperature on the solid phase under solvent free conditions. (author)

  8. Salinity Effects on the Adsorption of Nucleic Acid Compounds on Na-Montmorillonite: a Prebiotic Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafañe-Barajas, Saúl A.; Baú, João Paulo T.; Colín-García, María; Negrón-Mendoza, Alicia; Heredia-Barbero, Alejandro; Pi-Puig, Teresa; Zaia, Dimas A. M.

    2018-02-01

    Any proposed model of Earth's primitive environments requires a combination of geochemical variables. Many experiments are prepared in aqueous solutions and in the presence of minerals. However, most sorption experiments are performed in distilled water, and just a few in seawater analogues, mostly inconsistent with a representative primitive ocean model. Therefore, it is necessary to perform experiments that consider the composition and concentration of dissolved salts in the early ocean to understand how these variables could have affected the absorption of organic molecules into minerals. In this work, the adsorption of adenine, adenosine, and 5'AMP onto Na+montmorillonite was studied using a primitive ocean analog (4.0 Ga) from experimental and computational approaches. The order of sorption of the molecules was: 5'AMP > adenine > adenosine. Infrared spectra showed that the interaction between these molecules and montmorillonite occurs through the NH2 group. In addition, electrostatic interaction between negatively charged montmorillonite and positively charge N1 of these molecules could occur. Results indicate that dissolved salts affect the sorption in all cases; the size and structure of each organic molecule influence the amount sorbed. Specifically, the X-ray diffraction patterns show that dissolved salts occupy the interlayer space in Na-montmorillonite and compete with organic molecules for available sites. The adsorption capacity is clearly affected by dissolved salts in thermodynamic terms as deduced by isotherm models. Indeed, molecular dynamic models suggest that salts are absorbed in the interlamellar space and can interact with oxygen atoms exposed in the edges of clay or in its surface, reducing the sorption of the organic molecules. This research shows that the sorption process could be affected by high concentration of salts, since ions and organic molecules may compete for available sites on inorganic surfaces. Salt concentration in primitive

  9. Evidence for a Heterogeneous Distribution of Water in the Martian Interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, Francis; Boyce, Jeremy W.; Srinvasan, Poorna; Santos, Alison R.; Elardo, Stephen M.; Filiberto, Justin; Steele, Andrew; Shearer, Charles K.

    2016-01-01

    The abundance and distribution of H2O within the terrestrial planets, as well as its timing of delivery, is a topic of vital importance for understanding the chemical and physical evolution of planets and their potential for hosting habitable environments. Analysis of planetary materials from Mars, the Moon, and the eucrite parent body (i.e., asteroid 4Vesta) have confirmed the presence of H2O within their interiors. Moreover, H and N isotopic data from these planetary materials suggests H2O was delivered to the inner solar system very early from a common source, similar in composition to the carbonaceous chondrites. Despite the ubiquity of H2O in the inner Solar System, the only destination with any prospects for past or present habitable environments at this time, outside of the Earth, is Mars. Although the presence of H2O within the martian interior has been confirmed, very little is known regarding its abundance and distribution within the martian interior and how the martian water inventory has changed over time. By combining new analyses of martian apatites within a large number of martian meteorite types with previously published volatile data and recently determined mineral-melt partition coefficients for apatite, we report new insights into the abundance and distribution of volatiles in the martian crust and mantle. Using the subset of samples that did not exhibit crustal contamination, we determined that the enriched shergottite mantle source has 36-73 ppm H2O and the depleted shergottite mantle source has 14-23 ppm H2O. This result is consistent with other observed geochemical differences between enriched and depleted shergottites and supports the idea that there are at least two geochemically distinct reservoirs in the martian mantle. We also estimated the H2O content of the martian crust using the revised mantle H2O abundances and known crust-mantle distributions of incompatible lithophile elements. We determined that the bulk martian crust has

  10. Electrolyte diffusion in compacted montmorillonite engineered barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnke, F.M.; Radke, C.J.

    1985-09-01

    The bentonite-based engineered barrier or packing is a proposed component of several designs conceived to dispose of high-level nuclear waste in geologic repositories. Once radionuclides escape the waste package, they must first diffuse through the highly impermeable clay-rich barrier before they reach the host repository. To determine the effectiveness of the packing as a sorption barrier in the transient release period and as a mass-transfer barrier in the steady release period over the geologic time scales involved in nuclear waste disposal, a fundamental understanding of the diffusion of electrolytes in compacted clays is required. We present, and compare with laboratory data, a model quantifying the diffusion rates of cationic cesium and uncharged tritium in compacted montmorillonite clay. Neutral tritium characterizes the geometry (i.e., tortuosity) of the particulate gel. After accounting for cation exchange, we find that surface diffusion is the dominant mechanism of cation transport, with an approximate surface diffusion coefficient of 2 x 10 -6 cm 2 /s for cesium. This value increases slightly with increasing background ionic strength. The implications of this work for the packing as a migration barrier are twofold. During the transient release period, K/sub d/ values are of little importance in retarding ion migration. This is because sorption also gives rise to a surface diffusion path, and it is surface diffusion which controls the diffusion rate of highly sorbing cations in compacted montmorillonite. During the steady release period, the presence of surface diffusion leads to a flux through the packing which is greatly enhanced. In either case, if surface diffusion is neglected, the appropriate diffusion coefficient of ions in compacted packing will be in considerable error relative to current design recommendations. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  11. Martian Ionospheric Observation and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Galindo, Francisco

    2018-02-01

    The Martian ionosphere is a plasma embedded within the neutral upper atmosphere of the planet. Its main source is the ionization of the CO2-dominated Martian mesosphere and thermosphere by the energetic EUV solar radiation. The ionosphere of Mars is subject to an important variability induced by changes in its forcing mechanisms (e.g., the UV solar flux) and by variations in the neutral atmosphere (e.g., the presence of global dust storms, atmospheric waves and tides, changes in atmospheric composition, etc.). Its vertical structure is dominated by a maximum in the electron concentration placed at about 120–140 km of altitude, coincident with the peak of the ionization rate. Below, a secondary peak produced by solar X-rays and photoelectron-impact ionization is observed. A sporadic third layer, possibly of meteoric origin, has been also detected below. The most abundant ion in the Martian ionosphere is O2+, although O+ can become more abundant in the upper ionospheric layers. While below about 180–200 km the Martian ionosphere is dominated by photochemical processes, above those altitudes the dynamics of the plasma become more important. The ionosphere is also an important source of escaping particles via processes such as dissociative recombination of ions or ion pickup. So, characterization of the ionosphere provides or can provide information about such disparate systems and processes as the solar radiation getting to the planet, the neutral atmosphere, the meteoric influx, the atmospheric escape to space, or the interaction of the planet with the solar wind. It is thus not surprising that the interest about this region dates from the beginning of the space era. From the first measurements provided by the Mariner 4 mission in the 1960s to the contemporaneous observations, still ongoing, by the Mars Express and MAVEN orbiters, our current knowledge of this atmospheric region is the consequence of the accumulation of more than 50 years of discontinuous

  12. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy library for the Martian environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousin, A.; Forni, O.; Maurice, S.; Gasnault, O.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Mars Science Laboratory rover will carry the first Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy experiment in space: ChemCam. We have developed a laboratory model which mimics ChemCam's main characteristics. We used a set of target samples relevant to Mars geochemistry, and we recorded individual spectra. We propose a data reduction scheme for Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy data incorporating de-noising, continuum removal, and peak fitting. Known effects of the Martian atmosphere are confirmed with our experiment: better Signal-to-Noise Ratio on Mars compared to Earth, narrower peak width, and essentially no self-absorption. The wavelength shift of emission lines from air to Mars pressure is discussed. The National Institute of Standards and Technology vacuum database is used for wavelength calibration and to identify the elemental lines. Our Martian database contains 1336 lines for 32 elements: H, Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ar, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Cs, Ba, and Pb. It is a subset of the National Institute of Standards and Technology database to be used for Martian geochemistry. Finally, synthetic spectra can be built from the Martian database. Correlation calculations help to distinguish between elements in case of uncertainty. This work is used to create tools and support data for the interpretation of ChemCam results. - Highlights: ► Chemcam: first Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy technique on Mars. ► Creation of a LIBS specific database to ChemCam on Mars. ► Data reduction scheme is proposed. ► Best signal under Martian conditions. ► LIBS emission lines database: subset of NIST database for Martian geochemistry.

  13. Nontronite and Montmorillonite as Nutrient Sources for Life on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, P. I.; Mickol, R. L.; Archer, P. D.; Kral, T. A.

    2017-01-01

    Clay minerals have been identified on Mars' oldest (Noachian) terrain and their presence suggests long-term water-rock interactions. The most commonly identified clay minerals on Mars to date are nontronite (Fe-smectite) and montmorillonite (Al-smectite) [1], both of which contain variable amounts of water both adsorbed on their surface and within their structural layers. Over Mars' history, these clay miner-al-water assemblages may have served as nutrient sources for microbial life.

  14. ANALYSIS DEGRADATION OF POLYSTYRENE WITH MONTMORILLONITE NANOFILLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mihalikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the experimental investigation of the montmorillonite nanofillers effect on deformation properties of polystyrene KRASTEN 171. In some cases, combination of a low amount of clay with dispersed polymeric phase may cause synergistic effects leading to very fair balance of mechanical behaviour. This seems to be a consequence of complex influencing the multiphase system by clay such as modification of components (reinforcement and parameters of the interface accompanied by influencing the dynamic phase behaviour, i.e., the compactibilizing effect. The paper analyses the effect of nanocomposites and type of the material on the individual measured parameters, relations between them, strength and deformation behaviour. Deformation was evaluated by non-contact videoextensometry method

  15. Characterization of synthesized polyurethane/montmorillonite nanocomposites foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, Farahnaz; Njuguna, James; Sachse, Sophia; Kavosh, Masoud; Michalowski, S; Pielichowski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Nanophased hybrid composites based on polyurethane/montmorillonite (PU/MMT) have been fabricated. The nanocomposite which was formed by the addition of a polyol premix with 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate to obtain nanophased polyurethane foams which were then used for fabrication of nanocomposite panels has been shown to have raised strength, stiffness and thermal insulation properties. The nanophased polyurethane foam was characterized by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurements and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM and SEM analysis indicated that nanophased particles are dispersed homogeneously in the polyurethane matrix on the nanometer scale indicating that PU/MMT is an intercalated nanocomposite with a 2-3 nm nanolayer thickness

  16. Hybrids of ethylene vinyl acetate with Na-montmorillonite and titania: preparation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashfaq, M.

    2010-01-01

    Hybrids of Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) with Na-montmorillonite and titania were formed. Montmorillonite was organically modified by two different modifiers: Pyridinium ions and 4. 4-oxydianilinium ions. X-ray diffraction results revealed that Pyridinium ions increased the .interlayer spacing by 0.33 nm and 4, 4-oxydianilinium by 0.55 nm approximately. These modified organo-clays were successfully exfoliated in EVA using melt blending. These hybrids showed improvement in mechanical and thermal properties. 4, 4-oxydianilinium ions were degraded at higher temperature due to which thermal degradation was enhanced in EVA. In addition to this, EVA/titania hybrids were also prepared using sot-gel technique and modified by triethoxy vinyl silane and (3-aminopropyI)- triethoxy silane to increase their compatibility with EVA. Some portion of unmodified titania was heat treated to 600 degree C to obtain particulate titania. The hybrid of particulate titania and modified titania improved the mechanical properties and thermal properties. Especially in case of modified titania toughness was almost doubled. (author)

  17. The Martian Oasis Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P. H.; tomasko, M. G.; McEwen, A.; Rice, J.

    2000-07-01

    The next phase of unmanned Mars missions paves the way for astronauts to land on the surface of Mars. There are lessons to be learned from the unmanned precursor missions to the Moon and the Apollo lunar surface expeditions. These unmanned missions (Ranger, Lunar Orbiter, and Surveyor) provided the following valuable information, useful from both a scientific and engineering perspective, which was required to prepare the way for the manned exploration of the lunar surface: (1) high resolution imagery instrumental to Apollo landing site selection also tremendously advanced the state of Nearside and Farside regional geology; (2) demonstrated precision landing (less than two kilometers from target) and soft landing capability; (3) established that the surface had sufficient bearing strength to support a spacecraft; and (4) examination of the chemical composition and mechanical properties of the surface. The search for extinct or extant life on Mars will follow the water. However, geomorphic studies have shown that Mars has had liquid water on its surface throughout its geologic history. A cornucopia of potential landing sites with water histories (lakes, floodplains, oceans, deltas, hydrothermal regions) presently exist. How will we narrow down site selection and increase the likelihood of finding the signs of life? One way to do this is to identify 'Martian oases.' It is known that the Martian surface is often highly fractured and some areas have karst structures that support underground caves. Much of the water that formed the channels and valley networks is thought to be frozen underground. All that is needed to create the potential for liquid water is a near surface source of heat; recent lava flows and Martian meteorites attest to the potential for volcanic activity. If we can locate even one spot where fracturing, ice, and underground heat are co-located then we have the potential for an oasis. Such a discovery could truly excite the imaginations of both the

  18. Synthesis and utilization of poly (methylmethacrylate) nanocomposites based on modified montmorillonite

    OpenAIRE

    Youssef, Ahmed M.; Malhat, F.M.; Abdel Hakim, A.A.; Dekany, Imre

    2015-01-01

    Poly (methylmethacrylate) nanocomposite was prepared via in-situ emulsion polymerization (PMMA/Mt-CTA). The modified montmorillonite (Mt-CTA) is used as hosts for the preparation of poly (methylmethacrylate) nanocomposites with basal distance 1.95 nm. Moreover, exfoliated nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The fashioned nanocomposites exhibited bett...

  19. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of microwave treated TiO2 pillared montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Shenmei; Jiang Yinshan; Yu Lixin; Li Fangfei; Yang Zhengwen; Hou Tianyi; Hu Daqiang; Xia Maosheng

    2006-01-01

    TiO 2 pillared montmorillonite synthesized by microwave irradiation, exhibited good photocatalytic degradation performance of methyl orange, whose pseudo first order reaction rate constant was nearly four times than that of conventional method, because of its enhanced crystalline, preferred anatase phase and improved porosity performance, which were analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), far Fourier transform infrared ray spectroscopy (FTIR) and nitrogen adsorption isotherms

  20. Implantation of Martian Materials in the Inner Solar System by a Mega Impact on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyodo, Ryuki; Genda, Hidenori

    2018-04-01

    Observations and meteorites indicate that the Martian materials are enigmatically distributed within the inner solar system. A mega impact on Mars creating a Martian hemispheric dichotomy and the Martian moons can potentially eject Martian materials. A recent work has shown that the mega-impact-induced debris is potentially captured as the Martian Trojans and implanted in the asteroid belt. However, the amount, distribution, and composition of the debris has not been studied. Here, using hydrodynamic simulations, we report that a large amount of debris (∼1% of Mars’ mass), including Martian crust/mantle and the impactor’s materials (∼20:80), are ejected by a dichotomy-forming impact, and distributed between ∼0.5–3.0 au. Our result indicates that unmelted Martian mantle debris (∼0.02% of Mars’ mass) can be the source of Martian Trojans, olivine-rich asteroids in the Hungarian region and the main asteroid belt, and some even hit the early Earth. The evidence of a mega impact on Mars would be recorded as a spike of 40Ar–39Ar ages in meteorites. A mega impact can naturally implant Martian mantle materials within the inner solar system.

  1. Nature of Reduced Carbon in Martian Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; McKay, D. S.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; White, L. M.

    2012-01-01

    Martian meteorites provide important information on the nature of reduced carbon components present on Mars throughout its history. The first in situ analyses for carbon on the surface of Mars by the Viking landers yielded disappointing results. With the recognition of Martian meteorites on Earth, investigations have shown carbon-bearing phases exist on Mars. Studies have yielded presence of reduced carbon, carbonates and inferred graphitic carbon phases. Samples ranging in age from the first approximately 4 Ga of Mars history [e.g. ALH84001] to nakhlites with a crystallization age of 1.3 Ga [e.g. Nakhla] with aqueous alteration processes occurring 0.5-0.7 Ga after crystallizaton. Shergottites demonstrate formation ages around 165-500 Ma with younger aqueous alterations events. Only a limited number of the Martian meteorites do not show evidence of significance terrestrial alterations. Selected areas within ALH84001, Nakhla, Yamato 000593 and possibly Tissint are suitable for study of their indigenous reduced carbon bearing phases. Nakhla possesses discrete, well-defined carbonaceous phases present within iddingsite alteration zones. Based upon both isotopic measurements and analysis of Nakhla's organic phases the presence of pre-terrestrial organics is now recognized. The reduced carbon-bearing phases appear to have been deposited during preterrestrial aqueous alteration events that produced clays. In addition, the microcrystalline layers of Nakhla's iddingsite have discrete units of salt crystals suggestive of evaporation processes. While we can only speculate on the origin of these unique carbonaceous structures, we note that the significance of such observations is that it may allow us to understand the role of Martian carbon as seen in the Martian meteorites with obvious implications for astrobiology and the pre-biotic evolution of Mars. In any case, our observations strongly suggest that reduced organic carbon exists as micrometer- size, discrete structures

  2. Controlled swelling and adsorption properties of polyacrylate/montmorillonite composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natkanski, Piotr [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland); Kustrowski, Piotr, E-mail: kustrows@chemia.uj.edu.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland); Bialas, Anna; Piwowarska, Zofia [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland); Michalik, Marek [Institute of Geological Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Oleandry 2a, 30-063 Krakow (Poland)

    2012-10-15

    A series of novel polyacrylate/montmorillonite composites was synthesized by in situ polymerization in aqueous slurry of clay. Dissociated (obtained by adding ammonium or sodium hydroxide) and undissociated forms of acrylic acid were used as monomers in the hydrogel synthesis. The structure and composition of the samples were studied by powder X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance infra-red Fourier transform spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and elemental analysis. It has been found that the kind of monomer influences strongly the location of a polymer chain in the formed composite. Complete intercalation of hydrogel into the interlayer space of montmorillonite was observed for sodium polyacrylate, whereas polyacrylic acid and ammonium polyacrylate mainly occupied the outer surface of the clay. The position of hydrogel determined the swelling and adsorption properties of the studied composites. The important factor influencing the kinetics of Fe(III) cation adsorption was pH. The analysis of adsorption isotherms allowed to propose the mechanism of Fe(III) cation adsorption. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polyacrylate hydrogels can be introduced into the interlayers of clay. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The position of hydrogel in the composite depends on the polymer type. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonium polyacrylate places outside the clay, sodium one is intercalated into it. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Swelling and adsorption capacities can be controlled by the polymer position. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High adsorption efficiency in Fe(III) removal was observed.

  3. Properties and Semicrystalline Structure Evolution of Polypropylene/Montmorillonite Nanocomposites under Mechanical Load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stribeck, Norbert; Zeinolebadi, Ahmad; Ganjaee Sari, Morteza

    2012-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) monitors tensile and load-cycling tests of metallocene isotactic polypropylene (PP), a blend of PP and montmorillonite (MMT), and two block copolymer compatibilized PP/MMT nanocomposites. Mechanical properties of the materials are similar, but the semicrystalline......%. Other results concern the evolution of Strobl’s block structure and void formation during tensile loading....

  4. Sorption study of system soil/water solution of CsCl using 137Cs as a radio-indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, R.; Krajnakova, M.; Lesny, J.; Matusek, I.

    2003-01-01

    Mobility of the radiocesium in natural environment is a function of all scale of variables, including the time. The important factor that influences on the mobility is quality and quantity of loamy minerals in soils. This paper represents a study of sorption characteristics of soils of the object No. 41, which is in the area of the Jaslovske Bohunice NPP, for radiocesium, examined experimentally appointed adsorption isotherms according to Langmuir and Freundlich. The identical experiments with the montmorillonite K-10 were realized simultaneously for a comparison of the results. (authors)

  5. Modeling uranium(VI) adsorption onto montmorillonite under varying carbonate concentrations: A surface complexation model accounting for the spillover effect on surface potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournassat, C.; Tinnacher, R. M.; Grangeon, S.; Davis, J. A.

    2018-01-01

    The prediction of U(VI) adsorption onto montmorillonite clay is confounded by the complexities of: (1) the montmorillonite structure in terms of adsorption sites on basal and edge surfaces, and the complex interactions between the electrical double layers at these surfaces, and (2) U(VI) solution speciation, which can include cationic, anionic and neutral species. Previous U(VI)-montmorillonite adsorption and modeling studies have typically expanded classical surface complexation modeling approaches, initially developed for simple oxides, to include both cation exchange and surface complexation reactions. However, previous models have not taken into account the unique characteristics of electrostatic surface potentials that occur at montmorillonite edge sites, where the electrostatic surface potential of basal plane cation exchange sites influences the surface potential of neighboring edge sites ('spillover' effect). A series of U(VI) - Na-montmorillonite batch adsorption experiments was conducted as a function of pH, with variable U(VI), Ca, and dissolved carbonate concentrations. Based on the experimental data, a new type of surface complexation model (SCM) was developed for montmorillonite, that specifically accounts for the spillover effect using the edge surface speciation model by Tournassat et al. (2016a). The SCM allows for a prediction of U(VI) adsorption under varying chemical conditions with a minimum number of fitting parameters, not only for our own experimental results, but also for a number of published data sets. The model agreed well with many of these datasets without introducing a second site type or including the formation of ternary U(VI)-carbonato surface complexes. The model predictions were greatly impacted by utilizing analytical measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations in individual sample solutions rather than assuming solution equilibration with a specific partial pressure of CO2, even when the gas phase was

  6. Can plants grow on Mars and the moon: a growth experiment on Mars and moon soil simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamelink, G W Wieger; Frissel, Joep Y; Krijnen, Wilfred H J; Verwoert, M Rinie; Goedhart, Paul W

    2014-01-01

    When humans will settle on the moon or Mars they will have to eat there. Food may be flown in. An alternative could be to cultivate plants at the site itself, preferably in native soils. We report on the first large-scale controlled experiment to investigate the possibility of growing plants in Mars and moon soil simulants. The results show that plants are able to germinate and grow on both Martian and moon soil simulant for a period of 50 days without any addition of nutrients. Growth and flowering on Mars regolith simulant was much better than on moon regolith simulant and even slightly better than on our control nutrient poor river soil. Reflexed stonecrop (a wild plant); the crops tomato, wheat, and cress; and the green manure species field mustard performed particularly well. The latter three flowered, and cress and field mustard also produced seeds. Our results show that in principle it is possible to grow crops and other plant species in Martian and Lunar soil simulants. However, many questions remain about the simulants' water carrying capacity and other physical characteristics and also whether the simulants are representative of the real soils.

  7. Can plants grow on Mars and the moon: a growth experiment on Mars and moon soil simulants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G W Wieger Wamelink

    Full Text Available When humans will settle on the moon or Mars they will have to eat there. Food may be flown in. An alternative could be to cultivate plants at the site itself, preferably in native soils. We report on the first large-scale controlled experiment to investigate the possibility of growing plants in Mars and moon soil simulants. The results show that plants are able to germinate and grow on both Martian and moon soil simulant for a period of 50 days without any addition of nutrients. Growth and flowering on Mars regolith simulant was much better than on moon regolith simulant and even slightly better than on our control nutrient poor river soil. Reflexed stonecrop (a wild plant; the crops tomato, wheat, and cress; and the green manure species field mustard performed particularly well. The latter three flowered, and cress and field mustard also produced seeds. Our results show that in principle it is possible to grow crops and other plant species in Martian and Lunar soil simulants. However, many questions remain about the simulants' water carrying capacity and other physical characteristics and also whether the simulants are representative of the real soils.

  8. Unusual Iron Redox Systematics of Martian Magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, L.; Righter, K.; Pando, K.; Morris, R. V.; Graff, T.; Agresti, D.; Martin, A.; Sutton, S.; Newville, M.; Lanzirotti, A.

    2012-01-01

    Martian magmas are known to be FeO-rich and the dominant FeO-bearing mineral at many sites visited by the Mars Exploration rovers (MER) is magnetite. Morris et al. proposed that the magnetite appears to be igneous in origin, rather than of secondary origin. However, magnetite is not typically found in experimental studies of martian magmatic rocks. Magnetite stability in terrestrial magmas is well understood, as are the stabilities of FeO and Fe2O3 in terrestrial magmas. In order to better understand the variation of FeO and Fe2O3, and the stability of magnetite (and other FeO-bearing phases) in martian magmas, we have undertaken an experimental study with two emphases. First, we determine the FeO and Fe2O3 contents of super- and sub-liquidus glasses from a shergottite bulk composition at 1 bar to 4 GPa, and variable fO2. Second, we document the stability of magnetite with temperature and fO2 in a shergottite bulk composition.

  9. Some potentialities of living organisms under simulated Martian conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozina-Lozinsky, L K; Bychenkova, V N; Zaar, E I; Levin, V L; Rumyantseva, V M

    1971-01-01

    Temperature, humidity, pressure, composition of the atmosphere and radiation are the main factors conditioning life on the surface of Mars. When studying the Martian ecology, one must know the total effect of these factors. One may expect that, as a result of adaptation to low temperatures, there is a corresponding shift in the temperature optimum of enzymatic activity. Dryness is the main obstacle to active life. We suggest the presence of some soil moisture and water vapour. Moreover, there can be areas of permafrost. This minimum supply of water and periodic fluctuations of humidity may create conditions for the existence of drought-resistant organisms. Decreased atmospheric pressure alone does not affect micro-organisms, plants, protozoa and even insects. Ciliates reproduce in a flowing atmosphere of pure nitrogen containing 0.0002-0.0005% oxygen as an impurity. Protozoa may also develop in an atmosphere of 98-99% carbon dioxide mixed with 1% O2. Therefore, even traces of oxygen in the Martian atmosphere would be sufficient for aerobic unicellular organisms. Cells and organisms on earth have acquired various ways of protection from uv light, and therefore may increase their resistance further by adaptation or selection. The resistance of some organisms to ionizing radiation is high enough to enable them to endure hard ionizing radiation of the sun. Experiments with unicellular [correction of unicellar] organisms show that the effect of short wave uv radiation depends on the intensity of visible light, long-wave solar uv radiation, temperatures, cell repair processes, and the state of cell components, i.e. whether the cell was frozen, dried or hydrated.

  10. Martian regolith geochemistry and sampling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B. C.

    Laboratory study of samples of the intermediate and fine-grained regolith, including duricrust peds, is a fundamental prerequisite for understanding the types of physical and chemical weathering processes on Mars. The extraordinary importance of such samples is their relevance to understanding past changes in climate, availability (and possible physical state) of water, eolian forces, the thermal and chemical influences of volcanic and impact processes, and the inventory and fates of Martian volatiles. Fortunately, this regolith material appears to be ubiquitous over the Martian surface, and should be available at many different landing sites. Viking data has been interpreted to indicate a smectite-rich regolith material, implying extensive weathering involving aqueous activity and geochemical alteration. An all-igneous source of the Martian fines has also been proposed. The X-ray fluorescence measurement data set can now be fully explained in terms of a simple two-component model. The first component is silicate, having strong geochemical similarities with Shergottites, but not other SNC meteorites. The second component is salt. Variations in these components could produce silicate and salt-rich beds, the latter being of high potential importance for microenvironments in which liquid water (brines) could exist. It therefore would be desirable to scan the surface of the regolith for such prospects.

  11. Martian regolith geochemistry and sampling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B. C.

    1988-01-01

    Laboratory study of samples of the intermediate and fine-grained regolith, including duricrust peds, is a fundamental prerequisite for understanding the types of physical and chemical weathering processes on Mars. The extraordinary importance of such samples is their relevance to understanding past changes in climate, availability (and possible physical state) of water, eolian forces, the thermal and chemical influences of volcanic and impact processes, and the inventory and fates of Martian volatiles. Fortunately, this regolith material appears to be ubiquitous over the Martian surface, and should be available at many different landing sites. Viking data has been interpreted to indicate a smectite-rich regolith material, implying extensive weathering involving aqueous activity and geochemical alteration. An all-igneous source of the Martian fines has also been proposed. The X-ray fluorescence measurement data set can now be fully explained in terms of a simple two-component model. The first component is silicate, having strong geochemical similarities with Shergottites, but not other SNC meteorites. The second component is salt. Variations in these components could produce silicate and salt-rich beds, the latter being of high potential importance for microenvironments in which liquid water (brines) could exist. It therefore would be desirable to scan the surface of the regolith for such prospects.

  12. Dehydration kinetics of a natural montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreotti, G.; Loria, A.; Mazzega, E.; Valeri, S.

    1978-01-01

    The dehydration mass loss of samples of montmorillonite (a layered hydrated silicate) was measured in an environment at constant temperature and at constant undersatured water vapour content. The hydration curves were analyzed by assuming the model of thermally activated, monoenergetic and first-order process compatible with the experimental results. Two dehydration kinetics with activation energies (0.21+-0.02) eV and (0.34+-0.02) eV were found that can be related to the existence of two kinds of water (structured and nonstructured) in the hydrated silicate interlayers. The possibility of an icelike structure of a fraction of the adsorbed molecules is briefly discussed. The experimental results show, furthermore, that in the investigated hydration range (up to about 10% in mass) the fraction of structured water has a maximum when the hydration is about 6%. (author)

  13. Ag-Coated Heterostructures of ZnO-TiO2/Delaminated Montmorillonite as Solar Photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Belver

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Heterostructures based on ZnO-TiO2/delaminated montmorillonite coated with Ag have been prepared by sol–gel and photoreduction procedures, varying the Ag and ZnO contents. They have been thoroughly characterized by XRD, WDXRF, UV–Vis, and XPS spectroscopies, and N2 adsorption, SEM, and TEM. In all cases, the montmorillonite was effectively delaminated with the formation of TiO2 anatase particles anchored on the clay layer’s surface, yielding porous materials with high surface areas. The structural and textural properties of the heterostructures synthesized were unaffected by the ZnO incorporated. The photoreduction led to solids with Ag nanoparticles decorating the surface. These materials were tested as photocatalysts for the degradation of several emerging contaminants with different nitrogen-bearing chemical structures under solar light. The catalysts yielded high rates of disappearance of the starting pollutants and showed quite stable performance upon successive applications.

  14. SNC meteorites: Clues to martian petrologic evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McSween, H.Y. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The shergottites, nakhlites, and Chassigny (SNC meteorites) are apparently cumulate mafic and ultramafic rocks that crystallized at shallow levels in the crust of their parent body. The mineralogy and chemistry of these meteorites are remarkably like equivalent terrestrial rocks, although their ratios of Fe/(Fe+Mg) and certain incompatible elements and their oxygen isotopic compositions are distinctive. All have crystallization ages of 1.3 b.y. or younger and formed from magmas produced by partial melting of previously fractionated source regions. Isotope systematics suggest that the SNC parent body had a complex and protracted thermal history spanning most of geologic time. Some meteorites have been severely shock metamorphosed, and all were ejected from their parent body at relatively recent times, possibly in several impact events. Late crystallization ages, complex petrogenesis, and possible evidence for a large gravitational field suggest that these meteorites are derived from a large planet. Trapped gases in shergottite shock melts have compositions similar to the composition measured in the Martian atmosphere. Ejection of Martian meteorites may have been accomplished by acceleration of near-surface spalls or other mechanisms not fully understood. If SNC meteorites are of Martian origin, they provide important information on planetary composition and evolution. The bulk composition and redox state of the Martian mantle, as constrained by shergottite phase equilibria, must be more earthlike than most current models. Planetary thermal models should benefit from data on the abundances of radioactive heat sources, the melting behavior of the mantle, and the timing of planetary differentiation

  15. Exfoliated polypyrrole-organically modified montmorillonite clay nanocomposite as a potential adsorbent for Cr (VI) removal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Setshedi, KZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Exfoliated polypyrrole-organically modified montmorillonite clay nanocomposite (PPy OMMT NC), was prepared as a potential adsorbent, via in situ polymerization of pyrrole monomer for adsorption of toxic Cr(VI) from aqueous solution. The WAXD...

  16. Determining the Local Abundance of Martian Methane and its 13-C/l2-C and D/H Isotopic Ratios for Comparison with Related Gas and Soil Analysis on the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Christopher R.; Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the origin of Martian methane will require numerous complementary measurements from both in situ and remote sensing investigations and laboratory work to correlate planetary surface geophysics with atmospheric dynamics and chemistry. Three instruments (Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (QMS), Gas Chromatograph (GC) and Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS)) with sophisticated sample handling and processing capability make up the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) analytical chemistry suite on NASA s 2011 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mission. Leveraging off the SAM sample and gas processing capability that includes methane enrichment, TLS has unprecedented sensitivity for measuring absolute methane (parts-per-trillion), water, and carbon dioxide abundances in both the Martian atmosphere and evolved from heated soil samples. In concert with a wide variety of associated trace gases (e.g. SO2, H2S, NH3, higher hydrocarbons, organics, etc.) and other isotope ratios measured by SAM, TLS will focus on determining the absolute abundances of methane, water and carbon dioxide, and their isotope ratios: 13C/12C and D/H in methane; 13C/12C and 18O/17O/16O in carbon dioxide; and 18O/17O/16O and D/H in water. Measurements near the MSL landing site will be correlated with satellite (Mars Express, Mars 2016) and ground-based observations.

  17. Changes in suspension properties of structural modified montmorillonites Mudanças em propriedades de suspensões de montmorilonitas modificadas estruturalmente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Volzone

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Rheological changes were found in smectite (Wyoming- and Cheto-type montmorillonites suspensions after structural modifications. The effect of the particle size and Na+ exchange on the flow curves of 6% wt/wt suspensions of smectites with and without Na2CO3 were examined. Mineralogical, structural and physicochemical characteristics were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD, infrared spectroscopy (IR, cationic exchange capacity (CEC, Mg2+, Al3+ determinations, particle size distribution and swelling index (SI. Grinding in an oscillating mill modified the particle sizes. The montmorillonite grain size and the structural disorder increased after larger grinding times. The grinding treatment modified the apparent viscosity and the yield stress of the montmorillonite suspensions. The homoionic Na Cheto-type montmorillonite with fine particle size (obtained by grinding increased the flow properties. Nevertheless, rheological properties were lower than those of suspensions of the Wyoming-type montmorillonite. Montmorillonite-types reacted differently with Na2CO3 additions and this behavior may be related to their structural composition. The Na2CO3 activation improved the flow properties of the original Wyoming-type montmorillonite and after 30 s grinding.Foram encontradas mudanças reológicas em suspensões de esmectitas (montmorillonitas tipos Wyoming e Cheto após modificações estruturais. Foi examinado o efeito do tamanho de partícula e troca de Na+ nas curvas de escoamento de suspensões de esmectitas 6% peso com e sem Na2CO3. As características mineralógicas, estructurais e físico-químicas foram estudadas por difração de raios X (DRX, espectroscopia no infravermelho (IV, capacidade de troca catiônica (CTC, determinações de Mg2+ e Al3+, de distribuição de tamanho de partículas e de índice de expansão (swelling index - SI. Moagem em moinho oscilatório modificou o tamanho das partículas. O tamanho de grão da montmorillonita e a

  18. Physical properties of Martian meteorites: Porosity and density measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, Ian M.; Beech, Martin; Nie, Wenshuang

    Martian meteorites are fragments of the Martian crust. These samples represent igneous rocks, much like basalt. As such, many laboratory techniques designed for the study of Earth materials have been applied to these meteorites. Despite numerous studies of Martian meteorites, little data exists on their basic structural characteristics, such as porosity or density, information that is important in interpreting their origin, shock modification, and cosmic ray exposure history. Analysis of these meteorites provides both insight into the various lithologies present as well as the impact history of the planet's surface. We present new data relating to the physical characteristics of twelve Martian meteorites. Porosity was determined via a combination of scanning electron microscope (SEM) imagery/image analysis and helium pycnometry, coupled with a modified Archimedean method for bulk density measurements. Our results show a range in porosity and density values and that porosity tends to increase toward the edge of the sample. Preliminary interpretation of the data demonstrates good agreement between porosity measured at 100× and 300× magnification for the shergottite group, while others exhibit more variability. In comparison with the limited existing data for Martian meteorites we find fairly good agreement, although our porosity values typically lie at the low end of published values. Surprisingly, despite the increased data set, there is little by way of correlation between either porosity or density with parameters such as shock effect or terrestrial residency. Further data collection on additional meteorite samples is required before more definitive statements can be made concerning the validity of these observations.

  19. Simulation of Martian surface-atmosphere interaction in a space-simulator: Technical considerations and feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehlmann, D.; Kochan, H.

    1992-01-01

    The Space Simulator of the German Aerospace Research Establishment at Cologne, formerly used for testing satellites, is now, since 1987, the central unit within the research sub-program 'Comet-Simulation' (KOSI). The KOSI team has investigated physical processes relevant to comets and their surfaces. As a byproduct we gained experience in sample-handling under simulated space conditions. In broadening the scope of the research activities of the DLR Institute of Space Simulation an extension to 'Laboratory-Planetology' is planned. Following the KOSI-experiments a Mars Surface-Simulation with realistic minerals and surface soil in a suited environment (temperature, pressure, and CO2-atmosphere) is foreseen as the next step. Here, our main interest is centered on thermophysical properties of the Martian surface and energy transport (and related gas transport) through the surface. These laboratory simulation activities can be related to space missions as typical pre-mission and during-the-mission support of the experiments design and operations (simulation in parallel). Post mission experiments for confirmation and interpretation of results are of great value. The physical dimensions of the Space Simulator (cylinder of about 2.5 m diameter and 5 m length) allows for testing and qualification of experimental hardware under realistic Martian conditions.

  20. Montmorillonite-lipid hybrid carriers for ionizable and neutral poorly water-soluble drugs: Formulation, characterization and in vitro lipolysis studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dening, Tahnee J; Rao, Shasha; Thomas, Nicky; Prestidge, Clive A

    2017-06-30

    Lipid-based formulations (LBFs) are a popular strategy for enhancing the gastrointestinal solubilization and absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs. In light of this, montmorillonite-lipid hybrid (MLH) particles, composed of medium-chain triglycerides, lecithin and montmorillonite clay platelets, have been developed as a novel solid-state LBF. Owing to the unique charge properties of montmorillonite, whereby the clay platelet surfaces carry a permanent negative charge and the platelet edges carry a pH-dependent charge, three model poorly water-soluble drugs with different charge properties; blonanserin (weak base, pKa 7.7), ibuprofen (weak acid, pKa 4.5) and fenofibrate (neutral), were formulated as MLH particles and their performance during biorelevant in vitro lipolysis at pH 7.5 was investigated. For blonanserin, drug solubilization during in vitro lipolysis was significantly reduced 3.4-fold and 3.2-fold for MLH particles in comparison to a control lipid solution and silica-lipid hybrid (SLH) particles, respectively. It was hypothesized that strong electrostatic interactions between the anionic montmorillonite platelet surfaces and cationic blonanserin molecules were responsible for the inferior performance of MLH particles. In contrast, no significant influence on drug solubilization was observed for ibuprofen- and fenofibrate-loaded MLH particles. The results of the current study indicate that whilst MLH particles are a promising novel formulation strategy for poorly water-soluble drugs, drug ionization tendency and the potential for drug-clay interactions must be taken into consideration to ensure an appropriate performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Nanocomposites of rice and banana flours blend with montmorillonite: Partial characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Marín, María L.; Bello-Pérez, Luis A. [Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bióticos, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Km 6 carr Yautepec-Jojutla, Calle Ceprobi No. 8, Colonia San Isidro, Apartado Postal 24, C.P 62731, Yautepec, Morelos (Mexico); Yee-Madeira, Hernani [Departamento de Física, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas-IPN, Edificio 9, U.P., ‘Adolfo López Mateos’ Col. Lindavista, C.P. 07738, México, D. F. (Mexico); Zhong, Qixin [Department of Food science and Technology, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States); González-Soto, Rosalía A., E-mail: rsoto@ipn.mx [Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bióticos, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Km 6 carr Yautepec-Jojutla, Calle Ceprobi No. 8, Colonia San Isidro, Apartado Postal 24, C.P 62731, Yautepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    Rice and banana flours are inexpensive starchy materials that can form films with more improved properties than those made with their starch because flour and starch present different hydrophobicity. Montmorillonite (MMT) can be used to further improve the properties of starch-based films, which has not received much research attention for starchy flours. The aim of this work was to evaluate the mechanical and barrier properties of nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours as matrix material with addition of MMT as a nanofiller. MMT was modified using citric acid to produce intercalated structures, as verified by the X-ray diffraction pattern. The intercalated MMT was blended with flour slurries, and films were prepared by casting. Nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours presented an increase in the tensile at break and elongation percentage, respectively, more than their respective control films without MMT. This study showed that banana and rice flours could be alternative raw materials to use in making nanocomposite films. - Highlights: • Flour films presented adequate mechanical and barrier properties. • Addition of montmorillonite modified the mechanical and barrier properties of flour films. • The mechanical properties of the films were influenced by the different components of the flours. • The fiber of the banana flour improved the mechanical properties of the films.

  2. Nanocomposites of rice and banana flours blend with montmorillonite: Partial characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Marín, María L.; Bello-Pérez, Luis A.; Yee-Madeira, Hernani; Zhong, Qixin; González-Soto, Rosalía A.

    2013-01-01

    Rice and banana flours are inexpensive starchy materials that can form films with more improved properties than those made with their starch because flour and starch present different hydrophobicity. Montmorillonite (MMT) can be used to further improve the properties of starch-based films, which has not received much research attention for starchy flours. The aim of this work was to evaluate the mechanical and barrier properties of nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours as matrix material with addition of MMT as a nanofiller. MMT was modified using citric acid to produce intercalated structures, as verified by the X-ray diffraction pattern. The intercalated MMT was blended with flour slurries, and films were prepared by casting. Nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours presented an increase in the tensile at break and elongation percentage, respectively, more than their respective control films without MMT. This study showed that banana and rice flours could be alternative raw materials to use in making nanocomposite films. - Highlights: • Flour films presented adequate mechanical and barrier properties. • Addition of montmorillonite modified the mechanical and barrier properties of flour films. • The mechanical properties of the films were influenced by the different components of the flours. • The fiber of the banana flour improved the mechanical properties of the films

  3. Chlorine and Sulfur Volatiles from in Situ Measurements of Martian Surface Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B. C.

    2014-12-01

    A sentinel discovery by the first in situ measurements on Mars was the high sulfur and chlorine content of global-wide soils. A variety of circumstantial evidence led to the conclusion that soil S is in the form of sulfate, and the Cl is probably chloride. An early hypothesis states that these volatiles are emitted as gases from magmas, and quickly react with dust, soil, and exposed rocks. Subsequent determination that SNC meteorites are also samples of the martian crust revealed a significantly higher S content, as sulfide, than terrestrial igneous rocks but substantially less than in soils. The ensuing wet chemical analyses by the high-latitude Phoenix mission discovered not only chloride but also perchlorate and possibly chlorate. MSL data now also implicate perchlorate at low latitudes. Gaseous interactions may have produced amorphous material on grain surfaces without forming stoichiometric salts. Yet, when exposed to liquid water, Phoenix samples released electrolytes, indicating that the soils have not been leached by rain or fresh groundwater. Sulfate occurrences at many locations on Mars, as well as some chloride enrichments, have now been discovered by remote sensing, Landed missions have discovered Cl-enrichments and ferric, Mg, Ca and more complex sulfates as duricrust, subsurface soil horizons, sandstone evaporites, and rock coatings - most of which cannot be detected from orbit. Salt-forming volatiles affect habitability wherever they are in physical contact: physicochemical parameters (ionic strength, freezing point, water activity); S is an essential element for terrestrial organisms; perchlorate is an oxidant which can degrade some organics but also can be utilized as an energy source; the entire valence range of S-compounds has been exploited by diverse microbiota on Earth. Whether such salt-induced conditions are "extremes" of habitability depends on the relative abundance of liquid H2O.

  4. Microstructures and physical properties of "backfill" clays: comparison of residua and sedimentary montmorillonite clays

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přikryl, R.; Ryndová, T.; Boháč, J.; Weishauptová, Zuzana

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 23, 1-4 (2003), s. 149-156 ISSN 0169-1317 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2046101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Keywords : bentonite * montmorillonite-rich clay * hydrophysical properties Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.287, year: 2003

  5. Mineralogy of the Martian Surface: Crustal Composition to Surface Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustard, John F.

    1999-01-01

    Over the course of this award we have: 1) Completed and published the results of a study of the effects of hyperfine particles on reflectance spectra of olivine and quartz, which included the development of scattering codes. Research has also progressed in the analysis of the effects of fine particle sizes on clay spectra. 2) Completed the analysis of the mineralogy of dark regions, showed the insitu compositions are highly correlated to the SNC meteorites, and determined that the martian mantle was depleted in aluminum prior to 2-3 GA ago; Studies of the mineralogic heterogeneity of surficial materials on Mars have also been conducted. and 3) Performed initial work on the study of the physical and chemical processes likely to form and modify duricrust. This includes assessments of erosion rates, solubility and transport of iron in soil environments, and models of pedogenic crust formation.

  6. Structure of montmorillonite cointercalated with stearic acid and octadecylamine: Modeling, diffraction, IR spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čapková, P.; Pospíšil, M.; Valášková, M.; Měřínská, D.; Trchová, Miroslava; Sedláková, Zdeňka; Weiss, Z.; Šimoník, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 300, č. 1 (2006), s. 264-269 ISSN 0021-9797 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/05/2548; GA ČR GP205/03/D111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polymer-clay nanocomposite * intercalation * montmorillonite Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.233, year: 2006

  7. Nano porous Adsorbent from Chitosan Interacted Montmorillonite for Dye-containing Wastewater Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siriphannon, P.; Monvisade, P.

    2011-01-01

    Chitosan intercalated montmorillonite (Chi-MMT) was prepared by mixing 2 wt% of chitosan solution with sodium mont-morillonite (Na + -MMT) suspension at 60 degree Celsius for 24 hours. The Na + ions in Na + -MMT were completely exchanged with -NH 3 + ions of chitosan, resulting in the intercalation of chitosan into the MMT layer. The chitosan intercalation brought about the expansion of d 001 of Na + -MMT from 1.23 nm to 1.42 - >2.21 nm of the Chi-MMT. The existence of the intercalated-chitosan and large pore size could significantly increase the adsorption capacity of Chi-MMT from those of the starting materials, for example Na + -MMT and chitosan. The adsorption capacity of Chi-MMT adsorbent was equal to 4.9 mg/ g for acid red 91 (AR91) with initial dye concentration of 50 mg/ L, 45.9 mg/ g for basic yellow 1 (BY1) and 15.0 mg/ g for reactive orange 16 (RO16) with initial dye concentration of 500 mg/ L. These results indicated the competency of Chi-MMT nano porous adsorbent for treatment of wastewater containing various kinds of dyestuffs. (author)

  8. The analysis of water in the Martian regolith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D M; Tice, A R

    1979-12-01

    One of the scientific objectives of the Viking Mission to Mars was to accomplish an analysis of water in the Martian regolith. The analytical scheme originally envisioned was severely compromised in the latter stages of the Lander instrument package design. Nevertheless, a crude soil water analysis was accomplished. Samples from each of the two widely separated sites yielded roughly 1 to 3% water by weight when heated successively to several temperatures up to 500 degrees C. A significant portion of this water was released in the 200 degrees to 350 degrees C interval indicating the presence of mineral hydrates of relatively low thermal stability, a finding in keeping with the low temperatures generally prevailing on Mars. The presence of a duricrust at one of the Lander sites is taken as possible evidence for the presence of hygroscopic minerals on Mars. The demonstrated presence of atmospheric water vapor and thermodynamic calculations lead to the belief that adsorbed water could provide a relatively favorable environment for endolithic organisms on Mars similar to types recently discovered in the dry antarctic deserts.

  9. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOY PROTEIN ISOLATE(SPI)/MONTMORILLONITE(MMT) BIONANOCOMPOSITES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅强

    2009-01-01

    The bionanocomposites of soy protein isolate(SPI)/montmorillonite(MMT) have been prepared successfully via simple melt mixing,in which MMT was used as nanofiller and glycerol was used as plasticizer.Their structures and properties were characterized with X-ray diffraction(XRD),differential scanning calorimetry(DSC),scanning electron microscopy(SEM),thermogravimetric analysis and tensile testing.XRD、TEM and SEM results indicated that the MMT layers could be easily intercalated by the SPI matrix even by si...

  10. Periglacial and glacial analogs for Martian landforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossbacher, Lisa A.

    1992-01-01

    The list of useful terrestrial analogs for Martian landforms has been expanded to include: features developed by desiccation processes; catastrophic flood features associated with boulder-sized materials; and sorted ground developed at a density boundary. Quantitative analytical techniques developed for physical geography have been adapted and applied to planetary studies, including: quantification of the patterns of polygonally fractured ground to describe pattern randomness independent of pattern size, with possible correlation to the mechanism of origin and quantification of the relative area of a geomorphic feature or region in comparison to planetary scale. Information about Martian geomorphology studied in this project was presented at professional meetings world-wide, at seven colleges and universities, in two interactive televised courses, and as part of two books. Overall, this project has expanded the understanding of the range of terrestrial analogs for Martian landforms, including identifying several new analogs. The processes that created these terrestrial features are characterized by both cold temperatures and low humidity, and therefore both freeze-thaw and desiccation processes are important. All these results support the conclusion that water has played a significant role in the geomorphic history of Mars.

  11. An approach to locate and map swelling soils around Sohag – Safaga road, Eastern Desert, Egypt using remote sensing techniques for urban development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa F. Elbeih

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The detrimental consequences of swelling soils are most apparent in arid and semi-arid regions. Sedimentary clays are mixtures of illite, kaolinite and some montmorillonite. There are various soil types liable to swell such as shale, mudstone, siltstone and marl due to the presence of Smectite group in these soils. Large volume changes of these types of soils can cause extensive damages to civil engineering infrastructures; roads, airport pavements, pipelines and shallow foundations. A number of localities in Egypt are well-known by the presence of swelling soils. Sohag – Safaga highway in the Eastern Desert of Egypt is considered to be an investable transportation road and one of the most important lateral connections between Upper Egypt and the Red Sea area. The study area is located in a buffer zone of 25 km from both sides of the highway. This area is believed to be more influenced by the road and could be fully utilized to share in developing areas in the road vicinity. The research objectives are to use recent ASTER satellite imageries with the aid of field samples to map different swelling clay minerals and compare between the different sensors accuracy in locating them within the buffer zone. Certain engineering measures should be considered to enable construction over these types of swelling soils. The results confirmed the presence of montmorillonite in this buffer zone and in the 5 km buffer around the road which represents a hazard especially for the future planned projects within this area.

  12. Soil of the lower valley of the Dragonja river (Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž PRUS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil of the lower valley of the river Dragonja developed under specific soil-forming factors. Soil development in the area was influenced by alluvial sediments originating from surrounding hills, mostly of flysch sequence rocks, as a parent material, Sub-Mediterranean climate and the vicinity of the sea. Different soil classification units (Gleysol and Fluvisol were proposed for that soil in previous researches. The aim of our study was the evaluation of morphological, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of soil, based on detailed soil description and analyses, and to define the appropriate soil classification units. Field examinations revealed that the soil had a stable blocky or subangular structure and did not express substantial hydromorphic forms. Soil pH value was ranging from 6.9 to 7.5. In most locations electroconductivity (ECe did not exceed 2 ds/m. Base saturation was high (up to 99 %, with a majority of Ca2+ ions. Exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP was ranging from 0.2 to 3.8 %, which is higher compared to other Slovenian soils but does not pose a risk to soil structure. Soil has silty clay loam texture with up to 66 % of silt. Prevailing minerals were quartz, calcite and muscovite/illite. No presence of swelling clay mineral montmorillonite was detected. According to Slovenian soil classification, we classified the examined soil as alluvial soil. According to WRB soil classification, the soil was classified as Cambisol.

  13. Martian gullies: possible formation mechanism by dry granular material..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedillo-Flores, Y.; Durand-Manterola, H. J.

    section Some of the geomorphological features in Mars are the gullies Some theories developed tried explain its origin either by liquid water liquid carbon dioxide or flows of dry granular material We made a comparative analysis of the Martian gullies with the terrestrial ones We propose that the mechanism of formation of the gullies is as follows In winter CO 2 snow mixed with sand falls in the terrain In spring the CO 2 snow sublimate and gaseous CO 2 make fluid the sand which flows like liquid eroding the terrain and forming the gullies By experimental work with dry granular material we simulated the development of the Martian gullies injecting air in the granular material section We present the characteristics of some terrestrial gullies forms at cold environment sited at Nevado de Toluca Volcano near Toluca City M e xico We compare them with Martian gullies choose from four different areas to target goal recognize or to distinguish to identify possible processes evolved in its formation Also we measured the lengths of those Martian gullies and the range was from 24 m to 1775 meters Finally we present results of our experimental work at laboratory with dry granular material

  14. Calcium montmorillonite clay for the reduction of aflatoxin residues in milk and dairy products

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, dairy cows were treated with calcium montmorillonite clay (NovaSil Plus (NSP); BASF Corp., Ludwigshaven, Germany) in a replicated 5x5 Latin square design. The primary objectives were to determine if milk composition was altered following ingestion of NSP, and to investigate the abili...

  15. Iron snow in the Martian core?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Christopher J.; Pommier, Anne

    2018-01-01

    The decline of Mars' global magnetic field some 3.8-4.1 billion years ago is thought to reflect the demise of the dynamo that operated in its liquid core. The dynamo was probably powered by planetary cooling and so its termination is intimately tied to the thermochemical evolution and present-day physical state of the Martian core. Bottom-up growth of a solid inner core, the crystallization regime for Earth's core, has been found to produce a long-lived dynamo leading to the suggestion that the Martian core remains entirely liquid to this day. Motivated by the experimentally-determined increase in the Fe-S liquidus temperature with decreasing pressure at Martian core conditions, we investigate whether Mars' core could crystallize from the top down. We focus on the "iron snow" regime, where newly-formed solid consists of pure Fe and is therefore heavier than the liquid. We derive global energy and entropy equations that describe the long-timescale thermal and magnetic history of the core from a general theory for two-phase, two-component liquid mixtures, assuming that the snow zone is in phase equilibrium and that all solid falls out of the layer and remelts at each timestep. Formation of snow zones occurs for a wide range of interior and thermal properties and depends critically on the initial sulfur concentration, ξ0. Release of gravitational energy and latent heat during growth of the snow zone do not generate sufficient entropy to restart the dynamo unless the snow zone occupies at least 400 km of the core. Snow zones can be 1.5-2 Gyrs old, though thermal stratification of the uppermost core, not included in our model, likely delays onset. Models that match the available magnetic and geodetic constraints have ξ0 ≈ 10% and snow zones that occupy approximately the top 100 km of the present-day Martian core.

  16. Pb evolution in the Martian mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, J. J.; Nemchin, A. A.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Snape, J. F.; Bland, P.; Benedix, G. K.; Roszjar, J.

    2018-03-01

    The initial Pb compositions of one enriched shergottite, one intermediate shergottite, two depleted shergottites, and Nakhla have been measured by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). These values, in addition to data from previous studies using an identical analytical method performed on three enriched shergottites, ALH 84001, and Chassigny, are used to construct a unified and internally consistent model for the differentiation history of the Martian mantle and crystallization ages for Martian meteorites. The differentiation history of the shergottites and Nakhla/Chassigny are fundamentally different, which is in agreement with short-lived radiogenic isotope systematics. The initial Pb compositions of Nakhla/Chassigny are best explained by the late addition of a Pb-enriched component with a primitive, non-radiogenic composition. In contrast, the Pb isotopic compositions of the shergottite group indicate a relatively simple evolutionary history of the Martian mantle that can be modeled based on recent results from the Sm-Nd system. The shergottites have been linked to a single mantle differentiation event at 4504 Ma. Thus, the shergottite Pb isotopic model here reflects a two-stage history 1) pre-silicate differentiation (4504 Ma) and 2) post-silicate differentiation to the age of eruption (as determined by concordant radiogenic isochron ages). The μ-values (238U/204Pb) obtained for these two different stages of Pb growth are μ1 of 1.8 and a range of μ2 from 1.4-4.7, respectively. The μ1-value of 1.8 is in broad agreement with enstatite and ordinary chondrites and that proposed for proto Earth, suggesting this is the initial μ-value for inner Solar System bodies. When plotted against other source radiogenic isotopic variables (Sri, γ187Os, ε143Nd, and ε176Hf), the second stage mantle evolution range in observed mantle μ-values display excellent linear correlations (r2 > 0.85) and represent a spectrum of Martian mantle mixing-end members (depleted

  17. Planning Considerations Related to Collecting and Analyzing Samples of the Martian Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Mellon, Mike T.; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Noble, Sarah K.; Sullivan, Robert J.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Beaty, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Sample Return (MSR) End-to-End International Science Analysis Group (E2E-iSAG [1]) established scientific objectives associ-ated with Mars returned-sample science that require the return and investigation of one or more soil samples. Soil is defined here as loose, unconsolidated materials with no implication for the presence or absence of or-ganic components. The proposed Mars 2020 (M-2020) rover is likely to collect and cache soil in addition to rock samples [2], which could be followed by future sample retrieval and return missions. Here we discuss key scientific consid-erations for sampling and caching soil samples on the proposed M-2020 rover, as well as the state in which samples would need to be preserved when received by analysts on Earth. We are seeking feedback on these draft plans as input to mission requirement formulation. A related planning exercise on rocks is reported in an accompanying abstract [3].

  18. Sorption/Desorption Interactions of Plutonium with Montmorillonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, J.; Zavarin, M.; Zhao, P.; Kersting, A. B.

    2012-12-01

    Plutonium (Pu) release to the environment through nuclear weapon development and the nuclear fuel cycle is an unfortunate legacy of the nuclear age. In part due to public health concerns over the risk of Pu contamination of drinking water, predicting the behavior of Pu in both surface and sub-surface water is a topic of continued interest. Typically it was assumed that Pu mobility in groundwater would be severely restricted, as laboratory adsorption studies commonly show that naturally occurring minerals can effectively remove plutonium from solution. However, evidence for the transport of Pu over significant distances at field sites highlights a relative lack of understanding of the fundamental processes controlling plutonium behavior in natural systems. At several field locations, enhanced mobility is due to Pu association with colloidal particles that serve to increase the transport of sorbed contaminants (Kersting et al., 1999; Santschi et al., 2002, Novikov et al., 2006). The ability for mineral colloids to transport Pu is in part controlled by its oxidation state and the rate of plutonium adsorption to, and desorption from, the mineral surface. Previously we have investigated the adsorption affinity of Pu for montmorillonite colloids, finding affinities to be similar over a wide range of Pu concentrations. In the present study we examine the stability of adsorbed Pu on the mineral surface. Pu(IV) at an initial concentration of 10-10 M was pre-equilibrated with montmorillonite in a background electrolyte at pH values of 4, 6 and 8. Following equilibration, aliquots of the suspensions were placed in a flow cell and Pu-free background electrolyte at the relevant pH was passed through the system. Flow rates were varied in order to investigate the kinetics of desorption and hence gain a mechanistic understanding of the desorption process. The flow cell experiments demonstrate that desorption of Pu from the montmorillonite surface cannot be modeled as a simple

  19. Astrobiological Significance of Definitive Mineralogical Analysis of Martian Surface Samples Using the CheMin XRD/XRF Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, S. M.; Blake, D. F.; Sarrazin, P.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.; Vaniman, D. T.; Collins, S.

    2004-01-01

    The search for evidence of habitability, or of extant or extinct life on Mars, will initially be a search for evidence of past or present conditions supportive of life. The three key requirements for the emergence of life are thought to be liquid water; a suitable energy source; and chemical building blocks. CheMin is a miniaturized XRD/XRF (X-Ray diffraction / X-ray fluorescence) instrument which has been developed for definitive mineralogic analysis of soils and rocks on the Martian surface. The CheMin instrument can provide information that is highly relevant to each of these habitability requirements as summarized below.

  20. Adsorption and degradation of model volatile organic compounds by a combined titania-montmorillonite-silica photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jiangyao; Li Guiying; He Zhigui; An Taicheng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Adsorptive combined titania-montmorillonite-silica photocatalysts synthesized. → All catalysts had relatively high adsorption capacities of multinary VOCs. → All catalysts preferred to adsorb the VOCs with higher polarity. → CTMS80 can effectively photocatalytically remove VOCs of various components. - Abstract: A series of adsorptive photocatalysts, combined titania-montmorillonite-silica were synthesized. The resultant photocatalysts consisted of more and more spherically agglomerated TiO 2 particles with increasing of TiO 2 content, and anatase was the only crystalline phase with nano-scale TiO 2 particles. With increasing of the cation exchange capacity to TiO 2 molar ratio, specific surface area and pore volume increased very slightly. In a fluidized bed photocatalytic reactor by choosing toluene, ethyl acetate and ethanethiol as model pollutants, all catalysts had relatively high adsorption capacities and preferred to adsorb higher polarity pollutants. Langmuir isotherm model better described equilibrium data compared to Freundlich model. Competitive adsorptions were observed for the mixed pollutants on the catalysts, leading to decrease adsorption capacity for each pollutant. The combined titania-montmorillonite-silica photocatalyst exhibited excellent photocatalytic removal ability to model pollutants of various components. Almost 100% of degradation efficiency was achieved within 120 min for each pollutant with about 500 ppb initial concentration, though the efficiencies of multi-component compounds slightly decreased. All photocatalytic reactions followed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. Degradation rate constants of multi-component systems were lower than those for single systems, following the order of toluene < ethyl acetate < ethanethiol, and increased with the increase of adsorption capacities for different pollutants of various components.

  1. Application of short-wave infrared (SWIR) spectroscopy in quantitative estimation of clay mineral contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Jinfeng; Xing, Lixin; Pan, Jun; Meng, Tao; Liang, Liheng

    2014-01-01

    Clay minerals are significant constituents of soil which are necessary for life. This paper studied three types of clay minerals, kaolinite, illite, and montmorillonite, for they are not only the most common soil forming materials, but also important indicators of soil expansion and shrinkage potential. These clay minerals showed diagnostic absorption bands resulting from vibrations of hydroxyl groups and structural water molecules in the SWIR wavelength region. The short-wave infrared reflectance spectra of the soil was obtained from a Portable Near Infrared Spectrometer (PNIS, spectrum range: 1300∼2500 nm, interval: 2 nm). Due to the simplicity, quickness, and the non-destructiveness analysis, SWIR spectroscopy has been widely used in geological prospecting, chemical engineering and many other fields. The aim of this study was to use multiple linear regression (MLR) and partial least squares (PLS) regression to establish the optimizing quantitative estimation models of the kaolinite, illite and montmorillonite contents from soil reflectance spectra. Here, the soil reflectance spectra mainly refers to the spectral reflectivity of soil (SRS) corresponding to the absorption-band position (AP) of kaolinite, illite, and montmorillonite representative spectra from USGS spectral library, the SRS corresponding to the AP of soil spectral and soil overall spectrum reflectance values. The optimal estimation models of three kinds of clay mineral contents showed that the retrieval accuracy was satisfactory (Kaolinite content: a Root Mean Square Error of Calibration (RMSEC) of 1.671 with a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) of 0.791; Illite content: a RMSEC of 1.126 with a R 2 of 0.616; Montmorillonite content: a RMSEC of 1.814 with a R 2 of 0.707). Thus, the reflectance spectra of soil obtained form PNIS could be used for quantitative estimation of kaolinite, illite and montmorillonite contents in soil

  2. Martian Neutron Energy Spectrometer (MANES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, R. H.; Roth, D. R.; Kinnison, J. D.; Goldsten, J. O.; Fainchtein, R.; Badhwar, G.

    2000-01-01

    High energy charged particles of extragalactic, galactic, and solar origin collide with spacecraft structures and planetary atmospheres. These primaries create a number of secondary particles inside the structures or on the surfaces of planets to produce a significant radiation environment. This radiation is a threat to long term inhabitants and travelers for interplanetary missions and produces an increased risk of carcinogenesis, central nervous system (CNS) and DNA damage. Charged particles are readily detected; but, neutrons, being electrically neutral, are much more difficult to monitor. These secondary neutrons are reported to contribute 30-60% of the dose equivalent in the Shuttle and MIR station. The Martian atmosphere has an areal density of 37 g/sq cm primarily of carbon dioxide molecules. This shallow atmosphere presents fewer mean free paths to the bombarding cosmic rays and solar particles. The secondary neutrons present at the surface of Mars will have undergone fewer generations of collisions and have higher energies than at sea level on Earth. Albedo neutrons produced by collisions with the Martian surface material will also contribute to the radiation environment. The increased threat of radiation damage to humans on Mars occurs when neutrons of higher mean energy traverse the thin, dry Martian atmosphere and encounter water in the astronaut's body. Water, being hydrogeneous, efficiently moderates the high energy neutrons thereby slowing them as they penetrate deeply into the body. Consequently, greater radiation doses can be deposited in or near critical organs such as the liver or spleen than is the case on Earth. A second significant threat is the possibility of a high energy heavy ion or neutron causing a DNA double strand break in a single strike.

  3. A Model of Thermal Conductivity for Planetary Soils. 2; Theory for Cemented Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqueux, S.; Christensen, P. R.

    2009-01-01

    A numerical model of heat conduction through particulate media made of spherical grains cemented by various bonding agents is presented. The pore-filling gas conductivity, volume fraction, and thermal conductivity of the cementing phase are tunable parameters. Cement fractions duricrust. The fraction of cement required to fit the thermal data is less than approx.1-5% by volume. This small amount of material is consistent with orbital observations, confirming that soil cementation is an important factor controlling the thermal inertia of the Martian surface

  4. A model of thermal conductivity for planetary soils: 2. Theory for cemented soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqueux, S.; Christensen, P. R.

    2009-09-01

    A numerical model of heat conduction through particulate media made of spherical grains cemented by various bonding agents is presented. The pore-filling gas conductivity, volume fraction, and thermal conductivity of the cementing phase are tunable parameters. Cement fractions duricrust. The fraction of cement required to fit the thermal data is less than ˜1-5% by volume. This small amount of material is consistent with orbital observations, confirming that soil cementation is an important factor controlling the thermal inertia of the Martian surface.

  5. On the chemistry of the Martian surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keil, K.

    1978-01-01

    Analyses of 13 smaples of Martian surface materials with the Viking X-ray fluorescence spectrometers show SiO 2 similar to that of terrestrial mafic rocks, whereas Fe 2 O 3 , Cl, and S are higher and Al 2 O 3 , K 2 O, Rb, Sr, Y, and Zr are lower. Low totals suggest presence of CO 2 , H 2 O, and Na 2 O. Duricrust fragments are higher in S than fines, but samples from both landing sites are surprisingly similar. We suggest that Martian surface materials are aeolian deposits of complex mixtures of weathering products of mafic-ultramafic rocks, possibly consisting of iron-rich clays, sulfates, iron oxides, carbonates, and chlorides. (orig.) 891 HK [de

  6. On to Mars! chronicles of Martian simulations

    CERN Document Server

    PLETSER, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    This book introduces the Martian simulations, one installed on Devon Island, an uninhabited island in the Canadian Arctic, well within the polar circle, and two in the desert of Utah, several hundreds of kilometers South of Salt Lake City. The book is based on the diaries during the simulations, held by Vladimir Pletser, a physicist-engineer, who was selected to attend these simulations. It relates the details of everyday life in these Martian habitats and of the scientific and exploratory work conducted in these extreme environments in preparation for future manned missions to Mars. Through the real experiences described in the book, readers will find space explorations and living on Mars more tangible. .

  7. Local Dynamics of Baroclinic Waves in the Martian Atmosphere

    KAUST Repository

    Kavulich, Michael J.

    2013-11-01

    The paper investigates the processes that drive the spatiotemporal evolution of baroclinic transient waves in the Martian atmosphere by a simulation experiment with the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) Mars general circulation model (GCM). The main diagnostic tool of the study is the (local) eddy kinetic energy equation. Results are shown for a prewinter season of the Northern Hemisphere, in which a deep baroclinic wave of zonal wavenumber 2 circles the planet at an eastward phase speed of about 70° Sol-1 (Sol is a Martian day). The regular structure of the wave gives the impression that the classical models of baroclinic instability, which describe the underlying process by a temporally unstable global wave (e.g., Eady model and Charney model), may have a direct relevance for the description of the Martian baroclinic waves. The results of the diagnostic calculations show, however, that while the Martian waves remain zonally global features at all times, there are large spatiotemporal changes in their amplitude. The most intense episodes of baroclinic energy conversion, which take place in the two great plain regions (Acidalia Planitia and Utopia Planitia), are strongly localized in both space and time. In addition, similar to the situation for terrestrial baroclinic waves, geopotential flux convergence plays an important role in the dynamics of the downstream-propagating unstable waves. © 2013 American Meteorological Society.

  8. Local Dynamics of Baroclinic Waves in the Martian Atmosphere

    KAUST Repository

    Kavulich, Michael J.; Szunyogh, Istvan; Gyarmati, Gyorgyi; Wilson, R. John

    2013-01-01

    The paper investigates the processes that drive the spatiotemporal evolution of baroclinic transient waves in the Martian atmosphere by a simulation experiment with the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) Mars general circulation model (GCM). The main diagnostic tool of the study is the (local) eddy kinetic energy equation. Results are shown for a prewinter season of the Northern Hemisphere, in which a deep baroclinic wave of zonal wavenumber 2 circles the planet at an eastward phase speed of about 70° Sol-1 (Sol is a Martian day). The regular structure of the wave gives the impression that the classical models of baroclinic instability, which describe the underlying process by a temporally unstable global wave (e.g., Eady model and Charney model), may have a direct relevance for the description of the Martian baroclinic waves. The results of the diagnostic calculations show, however, that while the Martian waves remain zonally global features at all times, there are large spatiotemporal changes in their amplitude. The most intense episodes of baroclinic energy conversion, which take place in the two great plain regions (Acidalia Planitia and Utopia Planitia), are strongly localized in both space and time. In addition, similar to the situation for terrestrial baroclinic waves, geopotential flux convergence plays an important role in the dynamics of the downstream-propagating unstable waves. © 2013 American Meteorological Society.

  9. Martian Atmospheric Pressure Static Charge Elimination Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    A Martian pressure static charge elimination tool is currently in development in the Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory (ESPL) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. In standard Earth atmosphere conditions, static charge can be neutralized from an insulating surface using air ionizers. These air ionizers generate ions through corona breakdown. The Martian atmosphere is 7 Torr of mostly carbon dioxide, which makes it inherently difficult to use similar methods as those used for standard atmosphere static elimination tools. An initial prototype has been developed to show feasibility of static charge elimination at low pressure, using corona discharge. A needle point and thin wire loop are used as the corona generating electrodes. A photo of the test apparatus is shown below. Positive and negative high voltage pulses are sent to the needle point. This creates positive and negative ions that can be used for static charge neutralization. In a preliminary test, a floating metal plate was charged to approximately 600 volts under Martian atmospheric conditions. The static elimination tool was enabled and the voltage on the metal plate dropped rapidly to -100 volts. This test data is displayed below. Optimization is necessary to improve the electrostatic balance of the static elimination tool.

  10. Photometric properties of Mars soils analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommerol, A.; Thomas, N.; Jost, B.; Beck, P.; Okubo, C.; McEwen, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    We have measured the bidirectional reflectance of analogs of dry, wet, and frozen Martian soils over a wide range of phase angles in the visible spectral range. All samples were produced from two geologic samples: the standard JSC Mars-1 soil simulant and Hawaiian basaltic sand. In a first step, experiments were conducted with the dry samples to investigate the effects of surface texture. Comparisons with results independently obtained by different teams with similar samples showed a satisfying reproducibility of the photometric measurements as well as a noticeable influence of surface textures resulting from different sample preparation procedures. In a second step, water was introduced to produce wet and frozen samples and their photometry investigated. Optical microscope images of the samples provided information about their microtexture. Liquid water, even in relatively low amount, resulted in the disappearance of the backscattering peak and the appearance of a forward-scattering peak whose intensity increases with the amount of water. Specular reflections only appeared when water was present in an amount large enough to allow water to form a film at the surface of the sample. Icy samples showed a wide variability of photometric properties depending on the physical properties of the water ice. We discuss the implications of these measurements in terms of the expected photometric behavior of the Martian surface, from equatorial to circum-polar regions. In particular, we propose some simple photometric criteria to improve the identification of wet and/or icy soils from multiple observations under different geometries.

  11. Polyaniline-sodium montmorillonite clay nanocomposites: effect of clay concentration on thermal, structural, and electrical properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kazim, Samrana; Ahmad, S.; Pfleger, Jiří; Pleštil, Josef; Joshi, Y. M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 1 (2012), s. 420-428 ISSN 0022-2461 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E10040 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polyaniline * conductive polymer * montmorillonite Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.163, year: 2012

  12. On different photodecomposition behaviors of rhodamine B on laponite and montmorillonite clay under visible light irradiation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Peng; Cheng, Mingming; Zhang, Zhonghai

    2013-01-01

    In this study, laponite and montmorillonite clays were found to be able to decompose rhodamine B upon visible light irradiation (λ>420nm). Very interestingly, it was found that rhodamine B on laponite underwent a stepwise N-deethylation and its

  13. Effect of organo-modified montmorillonite on poly(butylene succinate/poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The composite material based on poly(butylene succinate (PBS, poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT and organo-modified montmorillonite (OMMT were prepared by melt blending technique and characterized. Sodium montmorillonite (Na-MMT was successfully modified by octadecylammonium (ODA and dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDOA salts to become OMMT through cation exchange technique which is shown by the increase of basal spacing of clay by XRD. The addition of the OMMT to the PBS/PBAT blends produced nanocomposites which is proved by XRD and TEM. Tensile tests showed increase in tensile strength and modulus which is attributed to the existence of strong interactions between PBS/PBAT and clay, particularly with OMMT. Highest tensile strength of nanocomposite was observed at 1 wt% of OMMT incorporated. TGA study showed that the thermal stability of the blend increased after the addition of clays. SEM micrographs of the fracture surfaces show that the morphology of the blend becomes homogeneous and smoother with presence of OMMT.

  14. Sol-Gel Precursors for Ceramics from Minerals Simulating Soils from the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibille, Laurent; Gavira-Gallardo, Jose-Antonio; Hourlier-Bahloul, Djamila

    2003-01-01

    Recent NASA mission plans for the human exploration of our Solar System has set new priorities for research and development of technologies necessary to enable a long-term human presence on the Moon and Mars. The recovery and processing of metals and oxides from mineral sources on other planets is under study to enable use of ceramics, glasses and metals by explorer outposts. We report some preliminary results on the production of sol-gel precursors for ceramic products using mineral resources available in Martian or Lunar soil. The presence of SiO2, TiO2, and A12O3 in both Martian (44 wt.% SiO2, 1 wt.% TiO2, 7 wt.% Al2O3) and Lunar (48 wt.% SiO2, 1.5 wt.% TiO2, 16 wt.% Al2O3) soils and the recent developments in chemical processes to solubilize silicates using organic reagents and relatively little energy indicate that such an endeavor is possible. In order to eliminate the risks involved in the use of hydrofluoric acid to dissolve silicates, two distinct chemical routes are investigated to obtain soluble silicon oxide precursors from Lunar and Martian simulant soils. Clear sol-gel precursors have been obtained by dissolution of silica from Lunar simulant soil in basic ethylene glycol (C2H4(OH)2) solutions to form silicon glycolates. Thermogravimetric Analysis and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy were used to characterize the elemental composition and structure of the precursor molecules. Further concentration and hydrolysis of the products was performed to obtain gel materials for evaluation as ceramic precursors. In the second set of experiments, we used the same starting materials to synthesize silicate esters in acidified alcohol mixtures. Preliminary results indicate the presence of silicon alkoxides in the product of distillation.

  15. Diffusion and sorption of neptunium(V) in compacted montmorillonite: effects of carbonate and salinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachi, Y.; Yotsuji, K.; Suyama, T.; Seida, Y.; Yui, M.; Nakazawa, T.; Yamada, N.; Ochs, M.

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion and sorption of radionuclides in compacted bentonite/montmorillonite are key processes in the safe geological disposal of radioactive waste. In this study, the effects of carbonate and salinity on neptunium(V) diffusion and sorption in compacted sodium montmorillonite were investigated by experimental and modeling approaches. Effective diffusion coefficients (D e ) and distribution coefficients (K d ) of 237 Np(V) in sodium montmorillonite compacted to a dry density of 800 kg m -3 were measured under four chemical conditions with different salinities (0.05/0.5 M NaCl) and carbonate concentrations (0.0.01 M NaHCO 3 ). D e values for carbonate-free conditions were of the order of 10 -10 -10 -11 m 2 s -1 and decreased as salinity increased, and those for carbonate conditions were of the order of 10 -11 -10 -12 m 2 s -1 and showed the opposite dependence. Diffusion-derived K d values for carbonate-free conditions were higher by one order of magnitude than those for carbonate conditions. Diffusion and sorption behaviors were interpreted based on mechanistic models by coupling thermodynamic aqueous speciation, thermodynamic sorption model (TSM) based on ion exchange, and surface complexation reactions, and a diffusion model based on electrical double layer (EDL) theory in homogeneous narrow pores. The model predicted the experimentally observed tendency of D e and K d qualitatively, as a result of the following mechanisms; 1) the dominant aqueous species are NpO 2 + and NpO 2 CO 3 - for carbonate-free and carbonate conditions, respectively, 2) the effects of cation excess and anion exclusion result in opposite tendencies of D e for salinity, 3) higher carbonate in solution inhibits sorption due to the formation of carbonate complexes. (orig.)

  16. Genotoxicity of unmodified and organo-modified montmorillonite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Anoop Kumar; Schmidt, Bjørn; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    2010-01-01

    absent in the filtered samples, which was independently confirmed by dynamic light-scattering measurements. Detection and identification of free quaternary ammonium modifier in the filtered sample was carried out by HPLC-Q-TOF/MS and revealed a total concentration of a mixture of quaternary ammonium...... assay, none of the clays produced ROS in a cell-free test system (the DCFH-DA assay). Inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to detect clay particles in the filtered samples using aluminium as a tracer element characteristic to clay. The results indicated that clay particles were...... analogues of 1.57 mu g/ml. These findings suggest that the genotoxicity of organo-modified montmorillonite was caused by the organo-modifier. The detected organo-modifier mixture was synthesized and comet-assay results showed that the genotoxic potency of this synthesized organo-modifier was in the same...

  17. Martian Cryogenic Carbonate Formation: Stable Isotope Variations Observed in Laboratory Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socki, Richard A.; Niles, Paul B.; Sun, Tao; Fu, Qi; Romanek, Christopher S.; Gibson, Everett K. Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The history of water on Mars is tied to the formation of carbonates through atmospheric CO2 and its control of the climate history of the planet. Carbonate mineral formation under modern martian atmospheric conditions could be a critical factor in controlling the martian climate in a means similar to the rock weathering cycle on Earth. The combination of evidence for liquid water on the martian surface and cold surface conditions suggest fluid freezing could be very common on the surface of Mars. Cryogenic calcite forms easily from freezing solutions when carbon dioxide degasses quickly from Ca-bicarbonate-rich water, a process that has been observed in some terrestrial settings such as arctic permafrost cave deposits, lake beds of the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, and in aufeis (river icings) from rivers of N.E. Alaska. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted that simulated cryogenic carbonate formation on Mars in order to understand their isotopic systematics. The results indicate that carbonates grown under martian conditions show variable enrichments from starting bicarbonate fluids in both carbon and oxygen isotopes beyond equilibrium values.

  18. Terrestrial Permafrost Models of Martian Habitats and Inhabitants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilichinsky, D.

    2011-12-01

    Martian permafrost is still 100 times older. Only one terrestrial environment is close to Mars in age - volcanoes in permafrost areas. The age of volcanic deposits frozen after eruption is much younger than the age of surrounding permafrost. Culture- and culture-independent methods show the presence of viable thermophiles and their genes within pyroclastic frozen material on Deception Island, Antarctica and Kamchatka peninsula. These bacteria and archeae have not been found in permafrost outside the volcanic areas. The only way for thermophiles to get into frozen soil is through deposition during eruption, i.e. the catastrophic geological events transport microbes from the depths to the surface and they survive at subzero temperatures. The past activity of Martian volcanoes periodically burned through the frozen strata and products of eruptions rose from the depths to the surface and froze. Images taken by the Stereo Camera on board the Mars Express discovered volcanoes 2-15Myr old that date back to ages close to permafrost on Earth. Terrestrial communities might serve as a model of inhabitants for these young volcanoes. 3. The only opportunity for free water on Mars is the overcooled water brines, and halo/psychrophilc community of Arctic cryopegs, sandwiched within permafrost, represents a plausible prototype for Martian microbial life.

  19. Origin of giant Martian polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgill, George E.; Hills, L. S.

    1992-01-01

    Extensive areas of the Martian northern plains in Utopia and Acidalia planitiae are characterized by 'polygonal terrane'. Polygonal terrane consists of material cut by complex troughs defining a pattern resembling mudcracks, columnar joints, or frost-wedge polygons on earth. However, the Martian polygons are orders of magnitude larger than these potential earth analogues, leading to severe mechanical difficulties for genetic models based on simple analogy arguments. Plate-bending and finite element models indicate that shrinkage of desiccating sediment or cooling volcanics accompanied by differential compaction over buried topography can account for the stresses responsible for polygon troughs as well as the large size of the polygons. Although trough widths and depths relate primarily to shrinkage, the large scale of the polygonl pattern relates to the spacing between topographic elevations on the surface buried beneath polygonal terrane material. Geological relationships favor a sedimentary origin for polygonal terrane material, but our model is not dependent on the specific genesis. Our analysis also suggests that the polygons must have formed at a geologically rapid rate.

  20. Investigating Deliquescence of Mars-like Soils from the Atacama Desert and Implications for Liquid Water Near the Martian Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Alstyne, A. M.; Tolbert, M. A.; Gough, R. V.; Primm, K.

    2017-12-01

    Recent images obtained from orbiters have shown that the Martian surface is more dynamic than previously thought. These images, showing dark features that resemble flowing water near the surface, have called into question the habitability of the Mars today. Recurring slope lineae (RSL), or the dark features seen in these images, are characterized as narrow, dark streaks that form and grow in the warm season, fade in the cold season, and recur seasonally. It is widely hypothesized that the movement of liquid water near the surface is what causes the appearance of RSL. However, the origin of the water and the potential for water to be stable near the surface is a question of great debate. Here, we investigate the potential for stable or metastable liquid water via deliquescence and efflorescence. The deliquescent properties of salts from the Atacama Desert, a popular terrestrial analog for Martian environments, were investigated using a Raman microscope outfitted with an environmental cell. The salts were put under Mars-relevant conditions and spectra were obtained to determine the presence or absence of liquid phases. The appearance of liquid phases under Mars-relevant conditions would demonstrate that liquid water could be available to cause or play a role in the formations of RSL.

  1. Radiation damage study in montmorillonites. Application to the high-level nuclear waste disposal in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorieul, St.

    2003-11-01

    Smectite is a major component of bentonite, a material considered for engineered barriers in high level nuclear wastes repositories (HLNWR). In order to predict the long-term performance of the bentonite, various physical and chemical factors such as, e.g., thermal gradient, redox potential or mechanical stresses are currently considered. By contrast, little is known about radiation effects in smectite, although it might affect the properties of this mineral through cumulative radiation damages produced by ionizing radiations. The present study focuses on radiation damage in montmorillonite considered herein as a simplified model of bentonite. Two reference clays have been selected, one from Liaoning (China, CHI), containing native radiation-induced defects, and the other (called MX) separated from the MX80 reference bentonite (Wyoming, USA). They are distinguished by layer composition, particularly iron content (1 % and 4 % for CHI and MX, respectively). Radiation effects have been studied by combining X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and Moessbauer spectroscopies. Ionizing irradiation induces two main effects. First, several paramagnetic point defects are identified as trapped holes located on oxygen atoms of the smectite structure. These defects are characterized by different thermal stabilities, according to annealing experiments. Their creation is limited by saturation curve with maximum damage around 100 MGy. The response of the two montmorillonites is different in terms of nature and production of point defects, indicating a role of layer composition and structural precursors. Besides, EPR and Moessbauer results show substantial modifications of the oxidation state of structural iron, which are sample and dose-dependent. Irradiation induces reduction and oxidation of iron in CHI and MX samples, respectively. Moreover, physico-chemical treatments show that intensity of redox effects varies

  2. Nature and Properties of Lateritic Soils Derived from Different Parent Materials in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Hsing Ko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the physical, chemical, and mineralogical composition of lateritic soils in order to use these soils as potential commercial products for industrial application in the future. Five lateritic soils derived from various parent materials in Taiwan, including andesite, diluvium, shale stone, basalt, and Pleistocene deposit, were collected from the Bt1 level of soil samples. Based on the analyses, the Tungwei soil is an alfisol, whereas other lateritic soils are ultisol. Higher pH value of Tungwei is attributed to the large amounts of Ca2+ and Mg2+. Loupi and Pingchen soils would be the older lateritic soils because of the lower active iron ratio. For the iron minerals, the magnetic iron oxides such as major amounts of magnetite and maghemite were found for Tamshui and Tungwei lateritic soils, respectively. Lepidocrocite was only found in Soka soil and intermediate amounts of goethite were detected for Loupi and Pingchen soils. After Mg-saturated and K-saturated processes, major amounts of mixed layer were observed in Loupi and Soka soils, whereas the montmorillonite was only detected in Tungwei soil. The investigation results revealed that the parent materials would play an important role during soil weathering process and physical, chemical, and mineralogy compositions strongly affect the formation of lateritic soils.

  3. Nature and Properties of Lateritic Soils Derived from Different Parent Materials in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the physical, chemical, and mineralogical composition of lateritic soils in order to use these soils as potential commercial products for industrial application in the future. Five lateritic soils derived from various parent materials in Taiwan, including andesite, diluvium, shale stone, basalt, and Pleistocene deposit, were collected from the Bt1 level of soil samples. Based on the analyses, the Tungwei soil is an alfisol, whereas other lateritic soils are ultisol. Higher pH value of Tungwei is attributed to the large amounts of Ca2+ and Mg2+. Loupi and Pingchen soils would be the older lateritic soils because of the lower active iron ratio. For the iron minerals, the magnetic iron oxides such as major amounts of magnetite and maghemite were found for Tamshui and Tungwei lateritic soils, respectively. Lepidocrocite was only found in Soka soil and intermediate amounts of goethite were detected for Loupi and Pingchen soils. After Mg-saturated and K-saturated processes, major amounts of mixed layer were observed in Loupi and Soka soils, whereas the montmorillonite was only detected in Tungwei soil. The investigation results revealed that the parent materials would play an important role during soil weathering process and physical, chemical, and mineralogy compositions strongly affect the formation of lateritic soils. PMID:24883366

  4. Electrical Activity in Martian Dust Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, W.; Arabshahi, S.; Kocz, J.

    2016-12-01

    Dust storms on Mars are predicted to be capable of producing electrostatic fields and discharges, even larger than those in dust storms on Earth. Such electrical activity poses serious risks to any Human exploration of the planet and the lack of sufficient data to characterize any such activity has been identified by NASA's MEPAG as a key human safety knowledge gap. There are three key elements in the characterization of Martian electrostatic discharges: dependence on Martian environmental conditions, frequency of occurrence, and the strength of the generated electric fields. We will describe a recently deployed detection engine using NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) to carry out a long term monitoring campaign to search for and characterize the entire Mars hemisphere for powerful discharges during routine tracking of spacecraft at Mars on an entirely non-interfering basis. The resulting knowledge of Mars electrical activity would allow NASA to plan risk mitigation measures to ensure human safety during Mars exploration. In addition, these measurements will also allow us to place limits on presence of oxidants such as H2O2 that may be produced by such discharges, providing another measurement point for models describing Martian atmospheric chemistry and habitability. Because of the continuous Mars telecommunication needs of NASA's Mars-based assets, the DSN is the only instrument in the world that combines long term, high cadence, observing opportunities with large sensitive telescopes, making it a unique asset worldwide in searching for and characterizing electrostatic activity at Mars from the ground.

  5. Origin of enhanced Brønsted acidity of NiF-modified synthetic mica-montmorillonite clay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Chong; Pidko, Evgeny A.; Hensen, Emiel J.M.

    2018-01-01

    The Brønsted acidity of synthetic mica-montmorillonite (SMM) clay was studied by periodic DFT calculations. Different structural models were compared to determine the Brønsted acidity of protons of the SMM clay based on (i) isomorphous substitution of Si4+ by Al3+ in the tetrahedral silicate layer

  6. Remote Sensing Studies Of The Current Martian Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, F. W.; McCleese, D. J.; Schofield, J. T.; Calcutt, S. B.; Moroz, V. I.

    A systematic and detailed experimental study of the Martian atmosphere remains to be carried out, despite many decades of intense interest in the nature of the Martian climate system, its interactions, variability and long-term stability. Such a study is planned by the 2005 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, using limb-scanning infrared radiometric techniques similar to those used to study trace species in the terrestrial stratosphere. For Mars, the objectives are temperature, humidity, dust and condensate abundances with high vertical resolution and global coverage in the 0 to 80 km height range. The paper will discuss the experiment and its methodology and expectations for the results.

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Polystyrene-Montmorillonite Nanocomposite Particles Using an Anionic-Surfactant-Modified Clay and Their Friction Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengcheng Yu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Polystyrene-organo-montmorillonite (PS-OMMT nanocomposite particles were prepared via emulsion polymerization of styrene in the presence of montmorillonite modified with an anionic surfactant, sodium lauryl sulfonate (SLS, and its tribological properties as an additive to polyalphaolefin (PAO were tested. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA showed that SLS molecules resided in the montmorillonite (MMT interlayer space. The effects of OMMT on the morphology and properties of the nanocomposites were also investigated. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC and dynamic light scattering (DLS demonstrate that the presence of OMMT can effectively reduce the average molecular weight and average particle size of PS. XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM of the PS-OMMT nanocomposites indicate that exfoliated and intercalated structures form and that the MMT layers either are partly embedded inside the PS particles or remain on their surface. Compared with pure PS, the PS-OMMT nanocomposites possessed higher stability to thermal decomposition and higher glass transition temperatures. Adding nanocomposite particles reduces the friction coefficient, and thus, the antiwear properties of the PAO are significantly improved. The PS-OMMT-3 (3 wt % of OMMT based on styrene particles have the best tribological performance and maintained a stable, very low coefficient of friction of 0.09.

  8. Resistance of Terrestrial Microbial Communities to Impack of Physical Conditinos of Subsurface Layers of Martian Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheptsov, V. S.; Vorobyova, E. A.

    2017-05-01

    Currently, astrobiology is focused on Mars as one of the most perspective objects in the Solar System to search for microbial life. It was assumed that the putative biosphere of Mars could be cryopreserved and had been stored for billions of years in anabiotic state like microbial communities of Arctic and Antarctic permafrost deposits have been preserved till now for millions of years. In this case microbial cells should be not able to repair the damages or these processes have to be significantly depressed, and the main factor causing cell's death should be ionizing radiation. In a series of experiments we simulated the effects of combination of physical factors known as characteristics of the Martian regolith (and close to the space environment) on the natural microbial communities inhabiting xerophytic harsh habitats with extreme temperature conditions: polar permafrost and desert soils. The aim of the study was to examine the cumulative effect of factors (gamma radiation, low temperature, low pressure) to assess the possibility of metabolic reactions, and to find limits of the viability of natural microbial communities after exposure to the given conditions. It was found that microbial biomarkers could be reliably detected in soil samples after radiation dose accumulation up to 1 MGy (not further investigated) in combination with exposure to low temperature and low pressure. Resistance to extremely high doses of radiation in simulated conditions proves that if there was an Earth-like biosphere on the early Mars microorganisms could survive in the surface or subsurface layers of the Martian regolith for more than tens of millions of years after climate change. The study gives also some new grounds for the approval of transfer of viable microorganisms in space.

  9. Post-Viking view of Martian geologic evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvidson, R.E.; Goettel, K.A.; Hohenberg, C.M.

    1980-01-01

    The mean density, 3.393 g/cm 3 , and the estimated moment of inertia factor constrain the density distribution within Mars but do not define it uniquely. For plausible core density, core radii can range from approx. 1350 to approx. 2200 km, with the core constituting from approx. 13 to approx. 35% of the planet's mass. Possible extremes for the zero-pressure density of the Martian mantle could be as high as 3.6 g/cm 3 or as low as 3.3 g/cm 3 . The Martian mantle is probably denser than the terrestrial mantle. The dominant Martian lavas are probably mafic or ultramafic. Martian surface materials probably consist of variable proportions of mafic igneous minerals and weathering products, the latter primarily oxides and carbonates. A major geologic dichotomy exists between the complex northern plains and the ancient southern cratered terrain. The Tharsis plateau, which dominates the low-degree harmonics of the gravity field, appears to be only partially compensated; Olympus Mons appears to be completely uncompensated. Substantial stresses must be supported, either statically by a thick, rigid lithosphere, or dynamically. Mean crustal thicknesses from 23 to 40 km have been obtained from modeling of Bouguer gravity data. Lithospheric thicknesses from 25 to 50 km under volcanoes in the Tharsis and Elysium provinces to >150 km under olympus Mons have been obtained from consideration of the effects of mass loading by volcanic constructs. Many of the compressional and extensional features on Mars have orientations consistent with formation by fracturing in response to loading by the Tharsis plateau. The deficiency of small craters within cratered terrain is attributed to obliteration by volcanism. The maximum resurfacing rate due to volcanism occurred between 1.0 and 1.5 b.y. ago if a constant cratering flux is assumed and between 3.5 and 4.0 b.y. ago if the lunar cratering flux (scaled to Mars) is assumed

  10. Permeability Barrier Generation in the Martian Lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schools, Joe; Montési, Laurent

    2015-11-01

    Permeability barriers develop when a magma produced in the interior of a planet rises into the cooler lithosphere and crystallizes more rapidly than the lithosphere can deform (Sparks and Parmentier, 1991). Crystallization products may then clog the porous network in which melt is propagating, reducing the permeability to almost zero, i.e., forming a permeability barrier. Subsequent melts cannot cross the barrier. Permeability barriers have been useful to explain variations in crustal thickness at mid-ocean ridges on Earth (Magde et al., 1997; Hebert and Montési, 2011; Montési et al., 2011). We explore here under what conditions permeability barriers may form on Mars.We use the MELTS thermodynamic calculator (Ghiorso and Sack, 1995; Ghiorso et al., 2002; Asimow et al., 2004) in conjunction with estimated Martian mantle compositions (Morgan and Anders, 1979; Wänke and Dreibus, 1994; Lodders and Fegley, 1997; Sanloup et al., 1999; Taylor 2013) to model the formation of permeability barriers in the lithosphere of Mars. In order to represent potential past and present conditions of Mars, we vary the lithospheric thickness, mantle potential temperature (heat flux), oxygen fugacity, and water content.Our results show that permeability layers can develop in the thermal boundary layer of the simulated Martian lithosphere if the mantle potential temperature is higher than ~1500°C. The various Martian mantle compositions yield barriers in the same locations, under matching variable conditions. There is no significant difference in barrier location over the range of accepted Martian oxygen fugacity values. Water content is the most significant influence on barrier development as it reduces the temperature of crystallization, allowing melt to rise further into the lithosphere. Our lower temperature and thicker lithosphere model runs, which are likely the most similar to modern Mars, show no permeability barrier generation. Losing the possibility of having a permeability

  11. Caffeine adsorption of montmorillonite in coffee extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiono, Takashi; Yamamoto, Kenichiro; Yotsumoto, Yuko; Yoshida, Aruto

    2017-08-01

    The growth in health-conscious consumers continues to drive the demand for a wide variety of decaffeinated beverages. We previously developed a new technology using montmorillonite (MMT) in selective decaffeination of tea extract. This study evaluated and compared decaffeination of coffee extract using MMT and activated carbon (AC). MMT adsorbed caffeine without significant adsorption of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs), feruloylquinic acids (FQAs), dicaffeoylquinic acids (di-CQAs), or caffeoylquinic lactones (CQLs). AC adsorbed caffeine, chlorogenic acids (CGAs) and CQLs simultaneously. The results suggested that the adsorption selectivity for caffeine in coffee extract is higher in MMT than AC. The caffeine adsorption isotherms of MMT in coffee extract fitted well to the Langmuir adsorption model. The adsorption properties in coffee extracts from the same species were comparable, regardless of roasting level and locality of growth. Our findings suggest that MMT is a useful adsorbent in the decaffeination of a wide range of coffee extracts.

  12. Origin of enhanced Brønsted acidity of NiF-modified synthetic mica-montmorillonite clay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, C.; Pidko, E.A.; Hensen, Emiel J M

    2018-01-01

    The Brønsted acidity of synthetic mica-montmorillonite (SMM) clay was studied by periodic DFT calculations. Different structural models were compared to determine the Brønsted acidity of protons of the SMM clay based on (i) isomorphous substitution of Si4+ by Al3+ in the

  13. Alteration of Sedimentary Clasts in Martian Meteorite Northwest Africa 7034

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Tartese, R.; Santos, A. R.; Domokos, G.; Muttik, N.; Szabo, T.; Vazquez, J.; Boyce, J. W.; Keller, L. P.; Jerolmack, D. J.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The martian meteorite Northwest Africa (NWA) 7034 and pairings represent the first brecciated hand sample available for study from the martian surface [1]. Detailed investigations of NWA 7034 have revealed substantial lithologic diversity among the clasts [2-3], making NWA 7034 a polymict breccia. NWA 7034 consists of igneous clasts, impact-melt clasts, and "sedimentary" clasts represented by prior generations of brecciated material. In the present study we conduct a detailed textural and geochemical analysis of the sedimentary clasts.

  14. Montmorillonite based artificial nacre prepared via a drying process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennadji-Gridi, Fayza; Smith, Agnes; Bonnet, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Taking advantage of the specific behaviour of Na/Ca montmorillonite in aqueous dispersion, textured films were prepared by progressive evaporation of dispersions with low concentrations of delaminated platelets. The increase of the concentration of ions during evaporation changes the nature of the clay mineral platelet face interactions from repulsive to attractive. After complete drying, a dense brick-like structure is obtained when a sodium salt is used as deflocculant. The bending strength of the textured film is strongly affected by cracks formation during drying, specially when the sample thickness increases. After optimisation, crack-free textured samples with a 140 μm thickness, 20 cm x 25 cm area and 120 MPa bending strength were obtained

  15. Soil mineral composition matters: response of microbial communities to phenanthrene and plant litter addition in long-term matured artificial soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin, Doreen; Vogel, Cordula; Zühlke, Sebastian; Schloter, Michael; Pronk, Geertje Johanna; Heister, Katja; Spiteller, Michael; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Smalla, Kornelia

    2014-01-01

    The fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil is determined by a suite of biotic and abiotic factors, and disentangling their role in the complex soil interaction network remains challenging. Here, we investigate the influence of soil composition on the microbial community structure and its response to the spiked model PAH compound phenanthrene and plant litter. We used long-term matured artificial soils differing in type of clay mineral (illite, montmorillonite) and presence of charcoal or ferrihydrite. The soils received an identical soil microbial fraction and were incubated for more than two years with two sterile manure additions. The matured artificial soils and a natural soil were subjected to the following spiking treatments: (I) phenanthrene, (II) litter, (III) litter + phenanthrene, (IV) unspiked control. Total community DNA was extracted from soil sampled on the day of spiking, 7, 21, and 63 days after spiking. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal internal transcribed spacer amplicons were quantified by qPCR and subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). DGGE analysis revealed that the bacterial community composition, which was strongly shaped by clay minerals after more than two years of incubation, changed in response to spiked phenanthrene and added litter. DGGE and qPCR showed that soil composition significantly influenced the microbial response to spiking. While fungal communities responded only in presence of litter to phenanthrene spiking, the response of the bacterial communities to phenanthrene was less pronounced when litter was present. Interestingly, microbial communities in all artificial soils were more strongly affected by spiking than in the natural soil, which might indicate the importance of higher microbial diversity to compensate perturbations. This study showed the influence of soil composition on the microbiota and their response to phenanthrene and litter, which may increase our understanding of

  16. Evidence of martian perchlorate, chlorate, and nitrate in Mars meteorite EETA79001: Implications for oxidants and organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounaves, Samuel P.; Carrier, Brandi L.; O'Neil, Glen D.; Stroble, Shannon T.; Claire, Mark W.

    2014-02-01

    The results from the Viking mission in the mid 1970s provided evidence that the martian surface contained oxidants responsible for destroying organic compounds. In 2008 the Phoenix Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL) found perchlorate (ClO4-) in three soil samples at concentrations from 0.5 to 0.7 wt%. The detection of chloromethane (CH3Cl) and dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) by the Viking pyrolysis gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) may have been a result of ClO4- at that site oxidizing either terrestrial organic contaminates or, if present, indigenous organics. Recently, the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity directly measured the presence of CH3Cl, CH2Cl2 and, along with measurements of HCl and oxygen, indirectly indicate the presence of ClO4-. However, except for Phoenix, no other direct measurement of the ClO4- anion in martian soil or rock has been made. We report here ion chromatographic (IC) and isotopic analyses of a unique sawdust portion of the martian meteorite EETA79001 that show the presence by mass of 0.6 ± 0.1 ppm ClO4-, 1.4 ± 0.1 ppm ClO3-, and 16 ± 0.2 ppm NO3- at a quantity and location within the meteorite that is difficult to reconcile with terrestrial contamination. The sawdust sample consists of basaltic material with a minor salt-rich inclusion in a mass ratio of ∼300:1, thus the salts may be 300 times more concentrated within the inclusion than the whole sample. The molar ratios of NO3-:ClO4- and Cl:ClO4-, are very different for EETA79001 at ∼40:1 and 15:1, respectively, than the Antarctic soils and ice near where the meteorite was recovered at ∼10,000:1 and 5000:1, respectively. In addition, the isotope ratios for EETA79001 with δ15N = -10.48 ± 0.32‰ and δ18O = +51.61 ± 0.74‰ are significantly different from that of the nearby Miller Range blue ice with δ15N = +102.80 ± 0.14‰ and δ18O = +43.11 ± 0.64‰. This difference is notable, because if the meteorite had been

  17. On-Going Laboratory Efforts to Quantitatively Address Clay Abundance on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roush, Ted L.; Bishop, Janice L.; Brown, Adrian J.; Blake, David F.; Bristow, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    Data obtained at visible and near-infrared wavelengths by OMEGA on MarsExpress and CRISM on MRO provide definitive evidence for the presence of phyllosilicates and other hydrated phases on Mars. A diverse range of both Fe/Mg-OH and Al-OH-bearing phyllosilicates were identified including the smectites, nontronite, saponite, and montmorillonite. In order to constrain the abundances of these phyllosilicates spectral analyses of mixtures are needed. We report on our on-going effort to enable the quantitative evaluation of the abundance of hydrated-hydroxylated silicates when they are contained in mixtures. We include two component mixtures of hydrated/hydroxylated silicates with each other and with two analogs for other martian materials; pyroxene (enstatite) and palagonitic soil (an alteration product of basaltic glass). For the hydrated-hydroxylated silicates we include saponite and montmorillonite (Mg- and Al- rich smectites). We prepared three size separates of each end-member for study: 20-45, 63-90, and 125-150 µm. As the second phase of our effort we used scanning electron microscopy imaging and x-ray diffraction to characterize the grain size distribution, and structural nature, respectively, of the mixtures. Visible and near-infrared reflectance spectra of the 63-90 micrometers grain size of the mixture samples are shown in Figure 1. We discuss the results of our measurements of these mixtures.

  18. The swelling behavior of montmorillonite as affected by the grain size by in situ X-ray diffraction experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morodome, S.; Kawamura, K.; Owada, H.; Yahagi, R.; Kobayashi, I.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In many existing researches, the swelling behavior and impermeability of smectitic engineered barrier materials in disposal facilities of radioactive waste was investigated. In the RWMC-project, the effect of smectite content on the mechanical and hydraulic behavior of smectitic materials is investigated and modeled to introduce into THMC analysis. However, since smectite is a natural resource, physical and chemical properties are different with places of production. In order to model the swelling behavior and impermeability of smectitic materials, not only the smectite content but also layer charge and crystal size will be the primary factors. In addition, smectite types and impurity minerals contents or soluble salts affect bentonite characteristic, as well. In this research, in order to focus on the effect of grain size of smectite, the swelling behavior of smectitic materials which are the same place of production but are different grain size were investigated. The smectitic material used in this study was Kunipia-F (Kunimine Industry Co. Ltd., Japan), which is from the Tukinuno Mine, Yamagata prefecture, Japan, and is purified montmorillonite produced by hydraulic elutriation. It is considered that the montmorillonite, Kunipia-F, has large crystal size, and for example Kunipia-F is able to make a sheet when drying weak solution. The grain size was conditioned by jet mill pulverizer. The pulverizing was conducted by making each other collide with high speed. The grain size of the intact and pulverized samples was measured by using of the laser scattering particle distribution analyzer and SEM. The swelling behavior was measured by in situ X-ray diffraction using of a sample chamber which can control the temperature and humidity precisely. The result of the laser scattering analysis denoted that the pulverized sample fined down expressly. The difference of the crystal aspect ratio of the pre- and post

  19. Microwave Palaeointensity Experiments On Terrestrial and Martian Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, J.; Hill, M.; Gratton, M.

    The microwave palaeointensity technique was developed in Liverpool University (Walton et al 1996) and has successfully been applied to archaeological ceramics and recent lavas (Shaw et al 1996, 1999.; Hill et al 1999,2000). These published results show that microwave analysis provides accurate palaeointensity determinations com- bined with a very high success rate. Most recently the technique has been successfully applied to Martian material (Shaw et al, 2001) to look for the existence of an internal Martian dynamo early in Martian history. New experiments have been carried out us- ing microwaves to demagnetise synthetic muti-component TRM's and new palaeoin- tensity experiments providing a comparison between microwave analysis of laboratory TRM's and conventional thermal Thellier analysis of microwave generated mTRM's. These experiments demonstrate the equivalence of microwave and thermally gener- ated TRM's. D. Walton, S Snape, T.C. Rolph, J. Shaw and J.A. Share, Application of ferromagnetic resonance heating to palaeointensity determinations.1996, Phys Earth Planet Int,94, 183-186. J. Shaw, D. Walton, S Yang, T.C.Rolph, and J.A. Share. Microwave Archaeointensities from Peruvian Ceramics. 1996, Geophys. J. Int,124,241-244 J. Shaw, S. Yang, T. C. Rolph, and F. Y. Sun. A comparison of archaeointensity results from Chinese ceramics using Microwave and conventional ThellierSs and ShawSs methods.,1999, G J Int.136, 714-718 M. Hill, and J. Shaw, 1999, Palaeointensity results for Historic Lavas from Mt. Etna using microwave demagnetisation/remagnetisation in a modified Thellier type exper- iment. G. J. Int, 139, 583-590 M. J. Hill, and J. Shaw, 2000. Magnetic field intensity study of the 1960 Kilauea lava flow, Hawaii, using the microwave palaeointensity technique, Geophys. J. Int., 142, 487-504. J. Shaw, M. Hill, and S. J. Openshaw, 2001, Investigating the ancient Martian magnetic field using microwaves, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 190 (2001) 103-109

  20. [X-ray diffraction (XRD) and near infrared spectrum (NIR) analysis of the soil overlying the Bairendaba deposit of the Inner Mongolia Grassland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Song-ying; Cao, Jian-jin; Wu, Zheng-quan

    2014-08-01

    The soil samples uniformly overlying the Bairendaba deposit of the Inner Mongolia grassland were collected, and ana- lyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and near infrared spectrum (NIR), for exploring the origins of the soil from the, grassland mining area and the relationship with the underground rock. The results show that the samp]s consist of quartz, graphite, carbonate, hornblende, mica, chlorite, montmorillonite, illite, berlinite, diaspore, azurite, hen tite, etc. These indicate that the soil samples were not only from the weathering products of the surface rock, but also from the underground rock mass and the alteration of the wall rock. The azurite and the hematite contained in the soil, mainly coming from the oxidation zone of the orebodies, can be used as the prospecting marks. The alteration mineral assemblage is mainly chlorite-illite-montmorillonite and it experienced the alteration process of potassic alteration-->silicification-->carbonatization-->silk greisenization-->clayization. Also, the wall rock alteration and the physical weathering processes can be accurately restored by analyzing the combination of the alteration minerals, which can provide important reference information for the deep ore prospecting and the ore deposit genesis study, improving the rate of the prospecting. The XRD and NIR with the characteristics of the economy and quickness can be used for the identification of mineral composition of soil, and in the study of mineral and mineral deposits. Especially, NIR has its unique superiority, that is, its sample request is low, and it can analyze a batch of samples quickly. With the development of INR, it will be more and more widely applied in geological field, and can play an important role in the ore exploration.

  1. Use of the montmorillonite as crosslink agents for chitosan; Uso da montmorilonita como agente de reticulacao para a quitosana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Rossemberg C.; Lima, Rosemary S. Cunha; Braga, Carla R. Costa [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Fook, Marcus V. Lia; Silva, Suedina M. Lima [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2009-07-01

    The montmorillonite (the main constituent of bentonite) has been the most commonly used inorganic load in the formation of nanocomposites chitosan / layered silicate. To evaluate its effect as an agent for the reticulation of chitosan, a sodium montmorillonite, Cloisite Na{sup +}, supplied by Southern Clay Products, Texas, USA, was used. For the reticulation of chitosan dispersions of chitosan / Cloisite Na{sup +} were prepared in different proportions and the obtained films characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). The results indicated that the Cloisite Na{sup +} was for efficient and the reticulation of the chitosan and can be used in place of sulfuric acid, which is one of the most common reticulants for chitosan. (author)

  2. Radio Emissions from Electrical Activity in Martian Dust Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, W.; Arabshahi, S.; Kocz, J.; Schulter, T.; White, L.

    2017-12-01

    Dust storms on Mars are predicted to be capable of producing electrostatic fields and discharges, even larger than those in dust storms on Earth. There are three key elements in the characterization of Martian electrostatic discharges: dependence on Martian environmental conditions, event rate, and the strength of the generated electric fields. The detection and characterization of electric activity in Martian dust storms has important implications for habitability, and preparations for human exploration of the red planet. Furthermore, electrostatic discharges may be linked to local chemistry and plays an important role in the predicted global electrical circuit. Because of the continuous Mars telecommunication needs of NASA's Mars-based assets, the Deep Space Network (DSN) is the only facility in the world that combines long term, high cadence, observing opportunities with large sensitive telescopes, making it a unique asset worldwide in searching for and characterizing electrostatic activity from large scale convective dust storms at Mars. We will describe a newly inaugurated program at NASA's Madrid Deep Space Communication Complex to carry out a long-term monitoring campaign to search for and characterize the entire Mars hemisphere for powerful discharges during routine tracking of spacecraft at Mars on an entirely non-interfering basis. The ground-based detections will also have important implications for the design of a future instrument that could make similar in-situ measurements from orbit or from the surface of Mars, with far greater sensitivity and duty cycle, opening up a new window in our understanding of the Martian environment.

  3. Studying nanostructure gradients in injection-molded polypropylene/montmorillonite composites by microbeam small-angle x-ray scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stribeck, Norbert; Schneider, Konrad; Zeinolebadi, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The core–shell structure in oriented cylindrical rods of polypropylene (PP) and nanoclay composites (NCs) from PP and montmorillonite (MMT) is studied by microbeam small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). The structure of neat PP is almost homogeneous across the rod showing regular semicrystalline......-shaped phyllosilicate filler particles....

  4. Martian Bow Shock and Magnetic Pile-Up Barrier Formation Due to the Exosphere Ion Mass-Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eojin Kim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Bow shock, formed by the interaction between the solar wind and a planet, is generated in different patterns depending on the conditions of the planet. In the case of the earth, its own strong magnetic field plays a critical role in determining the position of the bow shock. However, in the case of Mars of which has very a small intrinsic magnetic field, the bow shock is formed by the direct interaction between the solar wind and the Martian ionosphere. It is known that the position of the Martian bow shock is affected by the mass loading-effect by which the supersonic solar wind velocity becomes subsonic as the heavy ions originating from the planet are loaded on the solar wind. We simulated the Martian magnetosphere depending on the changes of the density and velocity of the solar wind by using the three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic model built by modifying the comet code that includes the mass loading effect. The Martian exosphere model of was employed as the Martian atmosphere model, and only the photoionization by the solar radiation was considered in the ionization process of the neutral atmosphere. In the simulation result under the normal solar wind conditions, the Martian bow shock position in the subsolar point direction was consistent with the result of the previous studies. The three-dimensional simulation results produced by varying the solar wind density and velocity were all included in the range of the Martian bow shock position observed by Mariner 4, Mars 2, 3, 5, and Phobos 2. Additionally, the simulation result also showed that the change of the solar wind density had a greater effect on the Martian bow shock position than the change of the solar wind velocity. Our result may be useful in analyzing the future observation data by Martian probes.

  5. Microbiome Remodeling via the Montmorillonite Adsorption-Excretion Axis Prevents Obesity-related Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Xu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and its related metabolic disorders are closely correlated with gut dysbiosis. Montmorillonite is a common medicine used to treat diarrhea. We have previously found that dietary lipid adsorbent-montmorillonite (DLA-M has an unexpected role in preventing obesity. The aim of this study was to further investigate whether DLA-M regulates intestinal absorption and gut microbiota to prevent obesity-related metabolic disorders. Here, we show that DLA-M absorbs free fatty acids (FFA and endotoxins in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the combination of fluorescent tracer technique and polarized light microscopy showed that DLA-M crystals immobilized BODIPY® FL C16 and FITC-LPS, respectively, in the digestive tract in situ. HFD-fed mice treated with DLA-M showed mild changes in the composition of the gut microbiota, particularly increases in short-chain fatty acids (SCFA-producing Blautia bacteria and decreases in endotoxin-producing Desulfovibrio bacteria, these changes were positively correlated with obesity and inflammation. Our results indicated that DLA-M immobilizes FFA and endotoxins in the digestive tract via the adsorption-excretion axis and DLA-M may potentially be used as a prebiotic to prevent intestinal dysbiosis and obesity-associated metabolic disorders in obese individuals.

  6. Nanocomposite PAAm/methyl cellulose/montmorillonite hydrogel: evidence of synergistic effects for the slow release of fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolin, Adriel; Aouada, Fauze A; Mattoso, Luiz H C; Ribeiro, Caue

    2013-08-07

    In this work, we synthesized a novel series of hydrogels composed of polyacrylamide (PAAm), methylcellulose (MC), and calcic montmorillonite (MMt) appropriate for the controlled release of fertilizers, where the components presented a synergistic effect, giving very high fertilizer loading in their structure. The synthesized hydrogel was characterized in relation to morphological, hydrophilic, spectroscopic, structural, thermal, and kinetic properties. After those characterizations, the application potential was verified through sorption and desorption studies of a nitrogenated fertilizer, urea (CO(NH2)2). The swelling degree results showed that the clay loading considerably reduces the water absorption capability; however, the hydrolysis process favored the urea adsorption in the hydrogel nanocomposites, increasing the load content according to the increase of the clay mass. The FTIR spectra indicated that there was incorporation of the clay with the polymeric matrix of the hydrogel and that incorporation increased the water absorption speed (indicated by the kinetic constant k). By an X-ray diffraction technique, good nanodispersion (intercalation) and exfoliation of the clay platelets in the hydrogel matrix were observed. Furthermore, the presence of the montmorillonite in the hydrogel caused the system to liberate the nutrient in a more controlled manner than that with the neat hydrogel in different pH ranges. In conclusion, excellent results were obtained for the controlled desorption of urea, highlighting the hydrolyzed hydrogels containing 50% calcic montmorillonite. This system presented the best desorption results, releasing larger amounts of nutrient and almost 200 times slower than pure urea, i.e., without hydrogel. The total values of nutrients present in the system show that this material is potentially viable for application in agriculture as a nutrient carrier vehicle.

  7. Viking orbiter imaging observations of dust in the Martian atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, G.A.; Baum, W.A.; Barnes, J.

    1979-01-01

    More than 20 local Martian dust clouds and two global dust storms were observed with the Viking orbiter camera. Sixteen of the local clouds were imaged in two colors or were observed with other instruments confirming their identification as dust clouds. These Viking results are compared with earth-based observations of Martian dust storms and with Mariner 9 data. Most of the dust activity seen by Viking occurred during southern hemisphere spring and early summer, when Mars was near perihelion and isolation was near maximum. About half the local clouds occurred near the edge of the southern polar cap, where winds are presumably enhanced by a strong regional temperature gradient. The other half occurred mainly in the southern hemisphere near regions where circulation models incorporating topography predict positive vertical velocities. Although dust clouds observed from earth show a similar partial correlation with models, some ambiguity exists concerning interpretation of regions near Hellespontus that have spawned the most spectacular Martian dust storms on record

  8. Technological applications of organo-montmorillonites in the removal of pyrimethanil from water: adsorption/desorption and flocculation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Federico M; Undabeytia, Tomas; Morillo, Esmeralda; Torres Sánchez, Rosa M

    2017-06-01

    Pyrimethanil (2-aniline-4, 6-dimethylpyrimidine, PRM) is used in fruit packing plants to control fungal infections and diseases. The effluents greatly polluted with this fungicide, as a point source contamination, need to be technologically treated for their regeneration before they reach water bodies. This work evaluates the use of organo-montmorillonites, synthetized in our laboratory, for their application in adsorption and coagulation/flocculation processes for the removal of PRM from water. The adsorption-desorption performance of PRM in a raw montmorillonite (Mt) and several organo-montmorillonites (organo-Mt) obtained by different amounts and types of exchanged surfactants (octadecyltrimethylammonium (ODTMA) and didodecyldimethylammonium (DDAB) bromides and benzyltrimethylammonium chloride (BTMA)) was studied. The PRM adsorption on raw Mt was assigned mainly to an interlayer occupancy, while hydrophobic interactions between PRM and the surfactants in the exchanged samples increased PRM adsorption, which was correlated with the surfactant loading. PRM desorption showed irreversible behavior in raw Mt, which changed to reversible for organo-Mt samples, and was also correlated with the increase of surfactant loading.Two of the organo-Mt with high surfactant loading (twice the CEC) were assayed for the removal of commercial PRM in coagulation/flocculation tests, and their performance was compared to that of the native clay (Mt). The use of the organo-Mt produced flocculation at a very low ratio (0.5 g L -1 ), whereas no flocculation was observed with Mt. These results proved the feasibility of the use of organo-Mt for the treatment of wastewater contaminated with PRM using a low organo-Mt/liquid ratio.

  9. Differences in sorption behavior of the herbicide 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid on artificial soils as a function of soil pre-aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, Georg; Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang; Haberhauer, Georg; Gerzabek, Martin H

    The sorption behavior of the herbicide 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) to three different artificial soil mixtures was investigated. Artificial soils serve as model systems for improving understanding of sorption phenomena. The soils consisted of quartz, ferrihydrite, illite, montmorillonite, and charcoal. In a previous study, several selected mixtures had been inoculated with organic matter, and microbial aging (incubation) had been performed for different periods of time (3, 12, and 18 months) before conducting the sorption experiments. The effect of this pre-incubation time on the sorption behavior was determined. Interaction of MCPA with soil surfaces was monitored by aqueous phase sorption experiments, using high-performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet and in selected cases Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy. The sorption behavior showed large differences between differently aged soils; Freundlich and linear sorption model fits (with sorption constants K f , 1/ n exponents, and K d values, respectively) were given for pH = 3 and the unbuffered pH of ∼7. The largest extent of sorption from diluted solutions was found on the surfaces with a pre-incubation time of 3 months. Sorption increased at acidic pH values. Regarding the influence of aging of artificial soils, the following conclusions were drawn: young artificial soils exhibit stronger sorption at lower concentrations, with a larger K f value than aged soils. A correlation with organic carbon content was not confirmed. Thus, the sorption characteristics of the soils are more influenced by the aging of the organic carbon than by the organic carbon content itself.

  10. A two-dimensional magnetic hybrid material based on intercalation of a cationic Prussian blue analog in montmorillonite nanoclay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gournis, Dimitrios; Papachristodoulou, Christina; Maccallini, Enrico; Rudolf, Petra; Karakassides, Michael A.; Karamanis, Dimitrios T.; Sage, Marie-Helene; Palstra, Thomas T. M.; Colomer, Jean-Francois; Papavasileiou, Konstantinos D.; Melissas, Vasilios S.; Gangas, Nicolaos H.

    2010-01-01

    A highly ordered two-dimensional hybrid magnetic nanocomposite has been prepared by synthesizing and intercalating a new cationic aluminum-hydroxy ferric ferrocyanide compound into a cation-adsorbing nanoclay (montmorillonite). Chemical and structural properties were investigated by X-ray

  11. Mars MetNet Mission - Martian Atmospheric Observational Post Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Siikonen, Timo; Palin, Matti

    2017-04-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested. 1. MetNet Lander The MetNet landing vehicles are using an inflatable entry and descent system instead of rigid heat shields and parachutes as earlier semi-hard landing devices have used. This way the ratio of the payload mass to the overall mass is optimized. The landing impact will burrow the payload container into the Martian soil providing a more favorable thermal environment for the electronics and a suitable orientation of the telescopic boom with external sensors and the radio link antenna. It is planned to deploy several tens of MNLs on the Martian surface operating at least partly at the same time to allow meteorological network science. 2. Strawman Scientific Payload The strawman payload of the two MNL precursor models includes the following instruments: Atmospheric instruments: - MetBaro Pressure device - MetHumi Humidity device - MetTemp Temperature sensors Optical devices: - PanCam Panoramic - MetSIS Solar irradiance sensor with OWLS optical wireless system for data transfer - DS Dust sensor Composition and Structure Devices: Tri-axial magnetometer MOURA Tri-axial System Accelerometer The descent processes dynamic properties are monitored by a special 3-axis

  12. Mechanism of smectic arrangement of montmorillonite and bentonite clay platelets incorporated in gels of poly(acrylamide) induced by the interaction with cationic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starodoubtsev, S G; Lavrentyeva, E K; Khokhlov, A R; Allegra, G; Famulari, A; Meille, S V

    2006-01-03

    Structure transitions, induced by the interaction with the cationic surfactant cetylpyridinium chloride in nanocomposite gels of poly(acrylamide) with incorporated suspensions of the two closely related layered clays bentonite and montmorillonite, were studied. Unexpectedly, different behaviors were revealed. X-ray diffraction measurements confirm that, due to the interaction with the surfactant, initially disordered bentonite platelets arrange into highly ordered structures incorporating alternating clay platelets and surfactant bilayers. The formation of these smectic structures also in the cross-linked polymer gels, upon addition of the surfactant, is explained by the existence of preformed, poorly ordered aggregates of the clay platelets in the suspensions before the gel formation. In the case of montmorillonite, smectic ordering of the disordered platelets in the presence of the surfactant is observed only after drying the suspensions and the clay-gel composites. Rheology studies of aqueous suspensions of the two clays, in the absence of both surfactant and gel, evidence a much higher viscosity for bentonite than for montmorillonite, suggesting smaller clay-aggregate size in the latter case. Qualitatively consistent results are obtained from optical micrographs.

  13. Potential Antifreeze Compounds in Present-Day Martian Seepage Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiin-Shuh Jean

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Is the recently found seepage groundwater on Mars pure H2O, or mixed with salts and other antifreeze compounds? Given the surface conditions of Mars, it is unlikely that pure water could either exist in its liquid state or have shaped Mars¡¦ fluid erosional landforms (gullies, channels, and valley networks. More likely is that Mars¡¦ seepage groundwater contains antifreeze and salt compounds that resist freezing and suppress evaporation. This model better accounts for Mars¡¦ enigmatic surface erosion. This paper suggests 17 antifreeze compounds potentially present in Martian seepage groundwater. Given their liquid state and physical properties, triethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, ethylene glycol, and 1,3-propylene glycol are advanced as the most likely candidate compounds. This paper also explores how a mixing of glycol or glycerol with salts in the Martian seepage groundwater may have lowered water¡¦s freezing point and raised its boiling point, with consequences that created fluid gully and channel erosion. Ethylene glycol and related hydrocarbon compounds have been identified in Martian and other interstellar meteorites. We suggest that these compounds and their proportions to water be included for detection in future explorations.

  14. Calcic soils and calcretes in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, George Odell; Machette, Michael N.

    1977-01-01

    ; horizon is plugged to downward moving solutions. V. The fifth stage includes soils which are platy to tabular, dense, strongly cemented. A well-developed laminar layer occurs on the upper surface. VI. The sixth and most advanced stage is massive, multilaminar, and strongly cemented calcrete with abundant pisoliths, the upper surface of which may be brecciated. Pisoliths may indicate many generations of brecciation and reformation. In general calcic soils include stages I through III and are friable to moderately indurated; whereas pedogenic calcretes include stages IV through VI and are dense and strongly indurated. In a single pedon the morphologic stage of carbonate deposition decreases downward in the profile. The stage of development may be used in local regions for correlation and determination of relative ages of soils and geomorphic surfaces. Some structures observed in pedogenic calcretes may be present in other types of calcrete but the horizontal zonation typical of deposits of soil processes is absent. Laminar structure in particular is not restricted to pedogenic deposits and is common in many varieties of calcrete. Very little chemical change occurs in the noncalcareous nonclayey fractions of calcretes with age; but clay minerals within calcretes undergo a complex history of authigenesis. There is a depletion of magnesium in the calcareous portion and an enrichment of magnesium in the clayey portion of a calcrete with age. In keeping with this relationship, montmorillonite, or mixed layer montmorillonite-illite, is common in younger calcretes; whereas the high magnesium-silicate clays, sepiolite and palygorskite, are common in older calcretes. This indicates that the magnesium depleted from the carbonate is redistributed authigenically in clay minerals. The mobility of carbonate introduces many problems in attempts to date calcretes directly. Although the relative ages of soils within a province may be determined by quant

  15. Confinement of a nonionic surfactant membrane within a montmorillonite as a new way to prepare organoclay materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guegan, Regis, E-mail: regis.guegan@univ-orleans.fr [Universite d' Orleans (France); Giovanela, Marcelo [Universidade de Caxias do Sul (UCS), RS (Brazil)

    2016-11-15

    The aim of this study was to prepare and characterize a hybrid layered material (organoclay) with a Na-montmorillonite and the triethylene glycol mono-n-decyl ether (C{sub 10}E{sub 3} ) nonionic surfactant which forms a lamellar phase at room temperature. The synthesized organoclay was characterized by complementary techniques (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction). Experiments in conjunction with electron density analysis showed that a bilayer or membrane of C{sub 10}E{sub 3} was intercalated within the interlayer space of a naturally exchanged Na-montmorillonite. The intercalation of a bilayer of C{sub 10}E{sub 3} in a clay mineral offers new perspectives for the manufacturing of nanomaterials. While showing a hydrophobic surface and a large interlayer space value, the resulting organoclay preserves the compensating cations within the interlayer space allowing one to perform ion exchanges, making easier the intercalation of further organic molecules of important size with functional properties or for environmental purposes. (author)

  16. Moessbauer studies on some Argentinian soil: mollisols from Bahia Blanca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saragovi, C.; Venegas, R.

    1994-01-01

    Clay fractions of a Mollisol sample as is, treated with ammonium oxalate (AO), with dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB) and with dithionite-ethilene-diamine- tetraacetic acid (D-EDTA) methods, were studied. Illite-montmorillonites together with hematites, goethites and maghemites, all of the Al-substituted and with a wide range of sizes, were identified. It is found that the AO attack extracts little iron, whereas the other two attacks extract the magnetic signal. Furthermore, the DCB attack facilitates the reduction of the Fe 3+ ions, while the D-EDTA method does not. Instead, this attack extracts more clay mineral Fe ions. A comparison with large grain soil samples is made. (orig.)

  17. Fate of fertilizer nitrogen in flooded rice soil - I. Leaching losses of nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daftardar, S.Y.; Deb, D.L.; Datta, N.P.

    1979-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment on rice (Oryza sativa L. cv IR 22) was conducted under flooded conditions using CO( 15 NH 2 ) 2 , 15 NH 4 NO 3 and NH 4 ( 15 NO 3 ) to study the leaching loss of added fertilizer nitrogen in two typical rice soils. The loss of nitrogen was in the order: NO 3 -N (4 to 25.6 percent) > amide-N (1.2 to 16.2 percent) > NH 4 -N (0.07 to 0.3 percent). The basal applied urea was lost by percolation in the first month while the basal applied NO 3 -N was lost in the first 8 days. Leaching loss did not occur after split application of fertilizer nitrogen at primordial initiation stage. The loss of nitrogen in kaolinitic Dapoli clay loam soil was about 2.5 to 4.5 times more than that in montmorillonitic Karjat sandy loam soil. Cropping reduced the percolation loss of N by 40 to 60 percent. (auth.)

  18. 137Cs sorption onto Fullers' Earth (calcium montmorillonite) -the influence of sulphate reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, J.M.; Haigh, D.G.; Hooker, P.J.; Rowe, E.J.

    1987-12-01

    The influences of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans on the sorption of 137 Cs onto Fullers' Earth (Calcium montmorillonite) has been studied using batch sorption methods. Results were expressed as distributions ratios (Rd) and as Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. They show that microbes present naturally in the Fullers' Earth did not influence sorption data, however the addition of microbes in the aqueous phase alters the sorption properties in a complex manner. (author)

  19. Remote Sensing Observations and Numerical Simulation for Martian Layered Ejecta Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Yue, Z.; Zhang, C.; Li, D.

    2018-04-01

    To understand past Martian climates, it is important to know the distribution and nature of water ice on Mars. Impact craters are widely used ubiquitous indicators for the presence of subsurface water or ice on Mars. Remote sensing observations and numerical simulation are powerful tools for investigating morphological and topographic features on planetary surfaces, and we can use the morphology of layered ejecta craters and hydrocode modeling to constrain possible layering and impact environments. The approach of this work consists of three stages. Firstly, the morphological characteristics of the Martian layered ejecta craters are performed based on Martian images and DEM data. Secondly, numerical modeling layered ejecta are performed through the hydrocode iSALE (impact-SALE). We present hydrocode modeling of impacts onto targets with a single icy layer within an otherwise uniform basalt crust to quantify the effects of subsurface H2O on observable layered ejecta morphologies. The model setup is based on a layered target made up of a regolithic layer (described by the basalt ANEOS), on top an ice layer (described by ANEOS equation of H2O ice), in turn on top of an underlying basaltic crust. The bolide is a 0.8 km diameter basaltic asteroid hitting the Martian surface vertically at a velocity of 12.8 km/s. Finally, the numerical results are compared with the MOLA DEM profile in order to analyze the formation mechanism of Martian layered ejecta craters. Our simulations suggest that the presence of an icy layer significantly modifies the cratering mechanics, and many of the unusual features of SLE craters may be explained by the presence of icy layers. Impact cratering on icy satellites is significantly affected by the presence of subsurface H2O.

  20. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles in montmorillonite and their antibacterial behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shameli K

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Kamyar Shameli1, Mansor Bin Ahmad1, Mohsen Zargar2, Wan Md Zin Wan Yunus1, Abdolhossein Rustaiyan3, Nor Azowa Ibrahim11Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Islamic Azad University, Qom Branch, Qom, Iran; 3Department of Chemistry, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IranAbstract: Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs were synthesized by the chemical reducing method in the external and interlamellar space of montmorillonite (MMT as a solid support at room temperature. AgNO3 and NaBH4 were used as a silver precursor and reducing agent, respectively. The most favorable experimental conditions for synthesizing Ag NPs in the MMT are described in terms of the initial concentration of AgNO3. The interlamellar space limits changed little (d-spacing = 1.24–1.47 nm; therefore, Ag NPs formed on the MMT suspension with d-average = 4.19–8.53 nm diameter. The Ag/MMT nanocomposites (NCs, formed from AgNO3/MMT suspension, were characterizations with different instruments, for example UV-visible, PXRD, TEM, SEM, EDXRF, FT-IR, and ICP-OES analyzer. The antibacterial activity of different sizes of Ag NPs in MMT were investigated against Gram-positive, ie, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA and Gram-negative bacteria, ie, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, by the disk diffusion method using Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA. The smaller Ag NPs were found to have significantly higher antibacterial activity. These results showed that Ag NPs can be used as effective growth inhibitors in different biological systems, making them applicable to medical applications.Keywords: silver nanoparticles, nanoparticles, montmorillonite, antibacterial activity, Mueller-Hinton agar 

  1. Physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of some selected gardud soils of kordofan region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgubshawi, Abdelmoneim Ahmed Ismail

    1995-05-01

    Recently much of the attention is given to gardud soil as the main alternative for the depleted marginal sandy soils. A lack of exact knowledge regarding these soils are evident. For studying gardud soil four sites were chosen according to the annual rainfall. Two pits were excavated in each site to represent the concaved and convexed locations plus composite samples to cover the area between two pits. Morphological, physical, chemical and mineralogical investigations were made. The results showed that the gardud soils were relatively differed within and between sites due to the climate and the topography. The dominant clay minerals are kaolinite, montmorillonite and illte. The chemical and physical characteristics were poor. Some of the restrictions limiting the use of these soils such as erosion, hardness, fertility, stoniness, drought and acidity. According to the American system of soil classification, the soils studied were given the following classification: (1) Bardab soil: (A) Kanhablic rhodustalf-fine clay, kaolinite, isohyperthermic (concaved). (B) Kandic paleustalf-very fine clay, kaolinite, isohyperthermic (convexed). (2) Sodari: (A) Typic comborthid-coarse loamy, mixed hyperthermic (concave). (B) Typic comborthid-coarse loamy, mixed hyperthermic (convexed). (3) Nihud (Rahad Elsilk): (A) Rhodic paleustalf-fine loamy, kaolinite isohyperthermic (concaved). (B) Aridic paleustalf-fine loamy kaolinite isohyperthermic (convexed). (4) Umgamalla: (A) Ustic hapustalf-fine loamy kaolinite isohyperthermic (concaved). (B)Ustic hapustalf-fine loamy kaolinite isohyperthermic (convexed). (Author)

  2. Physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of some selected gardud soils of kordofan region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgubshawi, Abdelmoneim Ahmed Ismail [Department of Biochemistry and Soil Science, Faculty of agriculture, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1995-05-01

    Recently much of the attention is given to gardud soil as the main alternative for the depleted marginal sandy soils. A lack of exact knowledge regarding these soils are evident. For studying gardud soil four sites were chosen according to the annual rainfall. Two pits were excavated in each site to represent the concaved and convexed locations plus composite samples to cover the area between two pits. Morphological, physical, chemical and mineralogical investigations were made. The results showed that the gardud soils were relatively differed within and between sites due to the climate and the topography. The dominant clay minerals are kaolinite, montmorillonite and illte. The chemical and physical characteristics were poor. Some of the restrictions limiting the use of these soils such as erosion, hardness, fertility, stoniness, drought and acidity. According to the American system of soil classification, the soils studied were given the following classification: (1) Bardab soil: (A) Kanhablic rhodustalf-fine clay, kaolinite, isohyperthermic (concaved). (B) Kandic paleustalf-very fine clay, kaolinite, isohyperthermic (convexed). (2) Sodari: (A) Typic comborthid-coarse loamy, mixed hyperthermic (concave). (B) Typic comborthid-coarse loamy, mixed hyperthermic (convexed). (3) Nihud (Rahad Elsilk): (A) Rhodic paleustalf-fine loamy, kaolinite isohyperthermic (concaved). (B) Aridic paleustalf-fine loamy kaolinite isohyperthermic (convexed). (4) Umgamalla: (A) Ustic hapustalf-fine loamy kaolinite isohyperthermic (concaved). (B)Ustic hapustalf-fine loamy kaolinite isohyperthermic (convexed). (Author) 39 refs. , 8 tabs. , 35 figs.

  3. An easy and effective method for the intercalation of hydrophobic natural dye into organo-montmorillonite for improved photostability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Taiga; Kohno, Yoshiumi; Shibata, Masashi; Tomita, Yasumasa; Fukuhara, Choji; Maeda, Yasuhisa

    2018-05-01

    β-carotene (BC) is one of the naturally occurring dyes belonging to the carotenoids group. Although it is more environmentally friendly and better suited for humans compared with synthetic dyes, it destabilizes with light and heat, easily losing its color under irradiation. Extended application of BC are therefore limited. The aim of this study is to improve the stability of BC by intercalation into the montmorillonite layers modified with a cationic surfactant, by a simple mixing and minimal solvent use. The physical mixing of small quantities of concentrated BC/hexane solutions with organo-modified montmorillonite successfully resulted in the composite material. The length and the number of alkyl chains of the surfactant used for the organic modification influenced the stability enhancement of the incorporated dye. The improved stability of the dye molecules incorporated in the interlayer space was found to be due to restricted contact with atmospheric oxygen.

  4. Polygons in Martian Frost

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-428, 21 July 2003This June 2003 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a polygonal pattern developed in seasonal carbon dioxide frost in the martian southern hemisphere. The frost accumulated during the recent southern winter; it is now spring, and the carbon dioxide frost is subliming away. This image is located near 80.4oS, 200.2oW; it is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left, and covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) across.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of a PbO2-clay nanocomposite: Removal of lead from water using montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aroui, L.; Zerroual, L.; Boutahala, M.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The replacement of Na by Pb in the interlayer space of the smectite leads to a decrease in the intensity of the the (0 0 1) reflection as the concentration of lead nitrate increases. A significant restructuring at the particle scale is observed leading probably to the exfoliation of the caly. In addition, the thermal behaviour of the montmorillonite samples with regard to their dehydration and dehydroxilation capacities is significantly influenced. This leads to a lowering of the water content and a decrease in the ionic conductivity of the clay. Highlights: ► In the clay, Pb replaces Na ions and a significant restructuring at the particle scale is observed. ► Pb influenced significantly the thermal behaviour of the clay with regard to its dehydration. ► In the interlayer space, the exchange of Na by Pb leads to a decrease in the protonic conductivity. ► A PbO 2 -clay nanocomposite material with good conductivity is synthesized. -- Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present the results obtained with Pb(II) sorption on an Algerian Clay. The experiments were carried out using a batch process. Powder X-rays diffraction patterns (PXRD) prove that in the montmorillonite Pb replaces Na ions. A significant restructuring at the particle scale is observed leading to the disappearance of the d 001 reflection of the clay at high concentrations of lead. The replacement of hydrated Na with Pb ions influenced significantly the thermal behaviour of the montmorillonite samples with regard to their dehydration and dehydroxilation capacities with a lowering of the water content. A PbO 2 -clay composite material with good electrical conductivity is synthesized.

  6. Evaluation of the Tindouf Basin Region in Southern Morocco as an Analog Site for Soil Geochemistry on Noachian Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin, Elizabeth A; Claire, Mark W; Kounaves, Samuel P

    2018-02-09

    Locations on Earth that provide insights into processes that may be occurring or may have occurred throughout martian history are often broadly deemed "Mars analog environments." As no single locale can precisely represent a past or present martian environment, it is important to focus on characterization of terrestrial processes that produce analogous features to those observed in specific regions of Mars or, if possible, specific time periods during martian history. Here, we report on the preservation of ionic species in soil samples collected from the Tindouf region of Morocco and compare them with the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica, the Atacama Desert in Chile, the martian meteorite EETA79001, and the in situ Mars analyses from the Phoenix Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL). The Moroccan samples show the greatest similarity with those from Victoria Valley, Beacon Valley, and the Atacama, while being consistently depleted compared to University Valley and enriched compared to Taylor Valley. The NO 3 /Cl ratios are most similar to Victoria Valley and Atacama, while the SO 4 /Cl ratios are similar to those from Beacon Valley, Victoria Valley, and the Atacama. While perchlorate concentrations in the Moroccan samples are typically lower than those found in samples of other analog sites, conditions in the region are sufficiently arid to retain oxychlorines at detectable levels. Our results suggest that the Tindouf Basin in Morocco can serve as a suitable analogue for the soil geochemistry and subsequent aridification of the Noachian epoch on Mars. Key Words: Mars analogues-Antarctica-Morocco-Oxyanions-Perchlorate-Nitrate. Astrobiology 18, xxx-xxx.

  7. Artificial Intelligence in Numerical Modeling of Silver Nanoparticles Prepared in Montmorillonite Interlayer Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Shabanzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial neural network (ANN models have the capacity to eliminate the need for expensive experimental investigation in various areas of manufacturing processes, including the casting methods. An understanding of the interrelationships between input variables is essential for interpreting the sensitivity data and optimizing the design parameters. Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs have attracted considerable attention for chemical, physical, and medical applications due to their exceptional properties. The nanocrystal silver was synthesized into an interlamellar space of montmorillonite by using the chemical reduction technique. The method has an advantage of size control which is essential in nanometals synthesis. Silver nanoparticles with nanosize and devoid of aggregation are favorable for several properties. In this investigation, the accuracy of artificial neural network training algorithm was applied in studying the effects of different parameters on the particles, including the AgNO3 concentration, reaction temperature, UV-visible wavelength, and montmorillonite (MMT d-spacing on the prediction of size of silver nanoparticles. Analysis of the variance showed that the AgNO3 concentration and temperature were the most significant factors affecting the size of silver nanoparticles. Using the best performing artificial neural network, the optimum conditions predicted were a concentration of AgNO3 of 1.0 (M, MMT d-spacing of 1.27 nm, reaction temperature of 27°C, and wavelength of 397.50 nm.

  8. Performance of phosphoric acid activated montmorillonite as buffer materials for radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tsing-Hai; Liu, Tsung-Ying; Wu, Ding-Chiang; Li, Ming-Hsu; Chen, Jiann-Ruey; Teng, Shi-Ping

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the performance of phosphoric acid activated montmorillonite (PAmmt) was evaluated by cesium ions adsorption experiments. The PAmmt samples were obtained by activating with 1, 3 and 5 mol L -1 of phosphoric acid, respectively under reflux for 3, 12, and 24 h. Experimental results demonstrated that the treatment of raw K-10 montmorillonite with phosphoric acid increased the materials' affinity for Cs uptake and no significant amount of suspension solids were produced. A relatively insignificant variation in the CEC value was observed. Furthermore, PAmmt also showed high adsorption selectivity toward Cs ions. The improved sorptive properties were mainly related to the increased surface area and the relatively higher surface charge density. Increased specific surface area was the resulted from partial decomposition of lamellar structure of mmt; while the higher surface charge density was caused by the protonation of octahedral Al-OH sites during the acid activation. Generally speaking, stronger acid concentration and longer activation times would produce relatively more decomposed PAmmt particles. However, as the activation exceeds 3 h, the precipitation of Si 4+ would passivate PAmmt against further acid attacks. Based upon our results, acid activation by phosphoric acid could produce PAmmt samples with high sorption capacity and selectivity, and good structural integrity, which are beneficial to be used at radioactive waste repository.

  9. Martian Methane From a Cometary Source: A Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M.; Christou, A.; Archer, D.; Conrad, P.; Cooke, W.; Eigenbrode, J.; ten Kate, I. L.; Matney, M.; Niles, P.; Sykes, M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, methane in the martian atmosphere has been detected by Earth-based spectroscopy, the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer on the ESA Mars Express mission, and the NASA Mars Science Laboratory. The methane's origin remains a mystery, with proposed sources including volcanism, exogenous sources like impacts and interplanetary dust, aqueous alteration of olivine in the presence of carbonaceous material, release from ancient deposits of methane clathrates, and/or biological activity. An additional potential source exists: meteor showers from the emission of large comet dust particles could generate martian methane via UV pyrolysis of carbon-rich infall material. We find a correlation between the dates of Mars/cometary orbit encounters and detections of methane on Mars. We hypothesize that cometary debris falls onto Mars during these interactions, generating methane via UV photolysis.

  10. Sorption and direct speciation of neptunium(V) on aluminium oxide and montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendt, Sonja

    2009-01-01

    This study comprised batch experiments, direct speciation studies via EXAFS, and modelling with the 2SPNE SC/CE model to elucidate the mechanisms of Np(V) sorption on montmorillonite and, for reference, on γ-Al 2 O 3 . The sorption of pM 239 Np(V) and μM 237 Np(V) on montmorillonite (STx-1, 4 g/L) and γ-Al 2 O 3 (0.5 g/L) was studied at room temperature in the presence and absence of ambient CO 2 covering a pH-range from 2.5 (STx-1) or 5 (γ-Al 2 O 3 ) to 10.5 with 0.01 or 0.1M NaClO 4 as background electrolyte. The Np(V) uptake was determined by γ spectroscopy of the supernatants and calculated as percentage as well as distribution coefficient K d . Sorption starts from pH ∼6 and, under exclusion of CO 2 , increases continuously, while, in the presence of ambient air, it reaches a maximum at pH ∝8.5 (γ-Al 2 O 3 : logK d max ∼ 4 mL/g; STx-1: logK d max ∼ 2.7 mL/g). Beyond that it decreases again due to the formation of aqueous neptunium carbonate complexes. Furthermore, neptunium sorption on montmorillonite is influenced by ionic strength at pH <6 through ion exchange processes pointing towards the formation of outer-sphere surface complexes there. Isotherms measured at the sorption maximum showed the precipitation of presumably neptunium carbonate complexes above 3.10 -5 M under ambient air conditions. Additionally, they indicated progressive saturation of the sorption sites of γ-Al 2 O 3 . At selected pH (STx-1: 5.0, 7.0, 8.0, 8.5, 9.0, 9.5; γ-Al 2 O 3 : 8.5, 9.5) EXAFS samples were prepared as wet pastes with μM 237 Np and measured at room temperature in fluorescence mode at ANKA and ESRF. Several spectra were averaged and analysed with EXAFSPAK and FEFF 8.20 employing models of NaNpO 2 (CO 3 ) or soddyite, (UO 2 ) 2 SiO 4 .2(H 2 O). The shorter atomic distances of the neptunyl ion at pH 5 compared to the others hinted at the retention of the hydration shell and, thus, at outer-sphere sorption. On average the bond lengths for Np(V) sorbed on STx

  11. Functional properties of extruded nano composites based on cassava starch, polyvinyl alcohol and montmorillonite; Propriedades funcionais de nanocompositos extrusados de amido de mandioca, alcool polivinilico e montmorilonita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debiagi, Flavia; Mali, Suzana [Departamento de Bioquimica e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The objectives of this work were to produce expanded nano composites (foams) based on starch, PVA and sodium montmorillonite and characterize them according to their expansion index (EI), density, water absorption capacity (WSC), mechanical properties and X-ray diffraction. The nano composites were prepared in a single-screw extruder using different starch contents (97.6 - 55.2 g/100 g formulation), PVA (0 - 40 g/100 g formulation), unmodified nano clay - Closite - Na (0 - 4. 8 g/100 g formulation) and glycerol (20 g/100 g formulation) as plasticizer. The addition of montmorillonite and PVA resulted in an increase of EI and a decrease of density of the samples, and reduced WSC and increased the mechanical strength of the foams. Through the analysis of X-ray diffraction can be observed that the addition of montmorillonite led to production of intercalated nano composites in all samples. (author)

  12. Clay components in soil dictate environmental stability and bioavailability of cervid prions in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Christy Wyckoff

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic wasting disease affects cervids and is the only known prion disease to affect free-ranging wildlife populations. CWD spread continues unabated, and exact mechanisms of its seemingly facile spread among deer and elk across landscapes in North America remain elusive. Here we confirm that naturally contaminated soil contains infectious CWD prions that can be transmitted to susceptible model organisms. We show that smectite clay content of soil potentiates prion binding capacity of different soil types from CWD endemic and non-endemic areas, likely contributing to environmental stability of bound prions. The smectite clay montmorillonite (Mte increased prion retention and bioavailability in vivo. Trafficking experiments in live animals fed bound and unbound prions showed that mice retained significantly more Mte-bound than unbound prions. Mte promoted rapid uptake of prions from the stomach to the intestines via enterocytes and M cells, and then to macrophages and eventually CD21+ B cells in Peyer’s patches and spleens. These results confirm clay components in soil as an important vector in CWD transmission at both environmental and organismal levels.□

  13. A massive hydrogen-rich Martian greenhouse recorded in D/H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevan, K.; Schaefer, L. K.; Desch, S. J.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.

    2017-12-01

    The deuterium-to-hydrogen (D/H) ratio in Martian atmospheric water ( 6x standard mean ocean water, SMOW) [1,2] is higher than that of known sources [3,4] alluding to a planetary enrichment process. A recent measurement by the Curiosity rover of Hesperian clays yields a D/H value 3x higher than SMOW [5], demonstrating that most enrichment occurred early in planetary history, buttressing the conclusions of Martian meteorite studies [6,7]. Extant models of the isotopic evolution of the Martian hydrosphere have not incorporated primordial H2, despite its likely abundance on early Mars. Here, we report the first 1D climate calculations with an atmospheric composition determined via degassing from a reducing magma ocean to study Martian climate during an early water ocean stage. A reducing Martian magma ocean is expected based on experimental petrology [8], the degassing of which gives rise to an H2-rich steam atmosphere [9] with strong attendant greenhouse warming [10,11] even after the removal of steam via condensation. At the pressures and temperatures prevailing in such a degassed greenhouse, we find that isotopic exchange in the fluid envelope is rapid, strongly concentrating deuterium in water molecules over molecular hydrogen [12]. The subsequent loss of the isotopically light H2-rich atmosphere results in a 2x D/H enrichment in the oceans via isotopic equilibration alone. These calculations suggest that most of the D/H enrichment observed in the first billion years of Martian history is produced by the evolution of a massive ( 100 bar) H2-rich greenhouse in the aftermath of magma ocean crystallization. The proposed link between early planetary process and modern isotopic observable opens a new window into the earliest history of Mars. [1] Owen, T. et al. Science 240, 1767-1770 (1988). [2] Webster, C. R. et al. Science 341, 260-263 (2013). [3] Lunine, J. I. et al. Icarus 165, 1-8, (2003). [4] Marty, B. et al. EPSL 441, 91-102, (2016). [5] Mahaffy, P. et al

  14. Structural evidence for the sorption of Ni(II) atoms on the edges of montmorillonite clay minerals: a polarized X-ray absorption fine structure study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dähn, Rainer; Scheidegger, André M.; Manceau, Alain; Schlegel, Michel L.; Baeyens, Bart; Bradbury, Michael H.; Chateigner, Daniel

    The nature of surface complexes formed on Ni uptake onto montmorillonite (a dioctahedral smectite) has been investigated over an extended time period by polarized extended X-ray absorption fine structure (P-EXAFS) spectroscopy. Self-supporting films of Ni-sorbed montmorillonite were prepared by contacting Ni and montmorillonite at pH 7.2, high ionic strength (0.3 M NaClO 4), and low Ni concentration ([Ni] initial = 19.9 μM) for 14- and 360-d reaction time. The resulting Ni concentration on the clay varied from 4 to 7 μmol/g. Quantitative texture analysis indicates that the montmorillonite particles were well orientated with respect to the plane of the film. The full width at half maximum of the orientation distribution of the c* axes of individual clay platelets about the normal to the film plane was 44.3° (14-d reaction time) and 47.1° (360-d reaction time). These values were used to correct the coordination numbers determined by P-EXAFS for texture effects. Ni K-edge P-EXAFS spectra were recorded at angles between the incident beam and the film normal equal to 10, 35, 55, and 80°. Spectral analysis led to the identification of three nearest cationic subshells containing 2.0 ± 0.5 Al at 3.0 Å and 2.0 ± 0.5 Si at 3.12 Å and 4.0 ± 0.5 Si at 3.26 Å. These distances are characteristic of edge-sharing linkages between Al and Ni octahedra and of corner-sharing linkages between Ni octahedra and Si tetrahedra, as in clay structures. The angular dependence of the Ni-Al and Ni-Si contributions indicates that Ni-Al pairs are oriented parallel to the film plane, whereas Ni-Si pairs are not. The study reveals the formation of Ni inner-sphere mononuclear surface complexes located at the edges of montmorillonite platelets and thus that heavy metals binding to edge sites is a possible sorption mechanism for dioctahedral smectites. Data analysis further suggests that either the number of neighboring Al atoms slightly increases from 1.6 to 2 or that the structural order

  15. Enrichment of Inorganic Martian Dust Simulant with Carbon Component can Provoke Neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Pastukhov, Artem; Dudarenko, Marina; Borysov, Arsenii; Krisanova, Natalia; Nazarova, Anastasia; Borisova, Tatiana

    2017-02-01

    Carbon is the most abundant dust-forming element in the interstellar medium. Tremendous amount of meteorites containing plentiful carbon and carbon-enriched dust particles have reached the Earth daily. National Institute of Health panel accumulates evidences that nano-sized air pollution components may have a significant impact on the central nervous system (CNS) in health and disease. During inhalation, nano-/microsized particles are efficiently deposited in nasal, tracheobronchial, and alveolar regions and can be transported to the CNS. Based on above facts, here we present the study, the aims of which were: 1) to upgrade inorganic Martian dust simulant derived from volcanic ash (JSC-1a/JSC, ORBITEC Orbital Technologies Corporation, Madison, Wisconsin) by the addition of carbon components, that is, nanodiamonds and carbon dots; 2) to analyse acute effects of upgraded simulant on key characteristics of synaptic neurotransmission; and 3) to compare above effects with those of inorganic dust and carbon components per se. Acute administration of carbon-containing Martian dust analogues resulted in a significant decrease in transporter-mediated uptake of L-[14C]glutamate (the major excitatory neurotransmitter) and [3H]GABA (the main inhibitory neurotransmitter) by isolated rat brain nerve terminals. The extracellular level of both neurotransmitters increased in the presence of carbon-containing Martian dust analogues. These effects were associated with action of carbon components of upgraded Martian dust simulant, but not with its inorganic constituent. This fact indicates that carbon component of native Martian dust can have deleterious effects on extracellular glutamate and GABA homeostasis in the CNS, and so glutamate- and GABA-ergic neurotransmission disballansing exitation and inhibition.

  16. Mössbauer studies on some Argentinian soil: Mollisols from Bahia Blanca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragovi, C.; Labenski, F.; Duhalde, S. M.; Acebal, S.; Venegas, R.

    1994-12-01

    Clay fractions of a Mollisol sample as is, treated with ammonium oxalate (AO), with dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB) and with dithionite-ethilene-diamine-tetraacetic acid (D-EDTA) methods, were studied. Illite-montmorillonites together with hematites, goethites and maghemites, all of the AI-substituted and with a wide range of sizes, were identified. It is found that the AO attack extracts little iron, whereas the other two attacks extract the magnetic signal. Furthermore, the DCB attack facilitates the reduction of the Fe3+ ions, while the D-EDTA method does not. Instead, this attack extracts more clay mineral Fe ions. A comparison with large grain soil samples is made.

  17. A Martian origin for the Mars Trojan asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishook, D.; Jacobson, S. A.; Morbidelli, A.; Aharonson, O.

    2017-08-01

    Seven of the nine known Mars Trojan asteroids belong to an orbital cluster1,2 named after its largest member, (5261) Eureka. Eureka is probably the progenitor of the whole cluster, which formed at least 1 Gyr ago3. It has been suggested3 that the thermal YORP (Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack) effect spun up Eureka, resulting in fragments being ejected by the rotational-fission mechanism. Eureka's spectrum exhibits a broad and deep absorption band around 1 μm, indicating an olivine-rich composition4. Here we show evidence that the Trojan Eureka cluster progenitor could have originated as impact debris excavated from the Martian mantle. We present new near-infrared observations of two Trojans ((311999) 2007 NS2 and (385250) 2001 DH47) and find that both exhibit an olivine-rich reflectance spectrum similar to Eureka's. These measurements confirm that the progenitor of the cluster has an achondritic composition4. Olivine-rich reflectance spectra are rare amongst asteroids5 but are seen around the largest basins on Mars6. They are also consistent with some Martian meteorites (for example, Chassigny7) and with the material comprising much of the Martian mantle8,9. Using numerical simulations, we show that the Mars Trojans are more likely to be impact ejecta from Mars than captured olivine-rich asteroids transported from the main belt. This result directly links specific asteroids to debris from the forming planets.

  18. Correlations Between Surficial Sulfur and a REE Crustal Assimilation Signature in Martian Shergottites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. H.; Franz, H. B.

    2015-01-01

    Compared to terrestrial basalts, the Martian shergottite meteorites have an extraordinary range of Sr and Nd isotopic signatures. In addition, the S isotopic compositions of many shergottites show evidence of interaction with the Martian surface/ atmosphere through mass-independent isotopic fractionations (MIF, positive, non-zero delta(exp 33)S) that must have originated in the Martian atmosphere, yet ultimately were incorporated into igneous sulfides (AVS - acid-volatile sulfur). These positive delta(exp 33)S signatures are thought to be governed by solar UV photochemical processes. And to the extent that S is bound to Mars and not lost to space from the upper atmosphere, a positive delta(exp 33)S reservoir must be mass balanced by a complementary negative reservoir.

  19. Effect of pH on the adsorption of dodecylamine on montmorillonite: Insights from experiments and molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chenliang; Min, Fanfei; Liu, Lingyun

    2017-12-01

    The hydrophobic aggregation in cationic surfactant suspension is an effective method to enhance the dewatering of clay-rich tailing. The solution pH can affect the adsorption behavior of cationic surfactant on clay mineral. The effect of pH on the adsorption of dodecylamine (DDA) on montmorillonite was investigated by the sedimentation test and the characterization of flocs images, contact angle, adsorption quantity, and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, as well as molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. It was found that DDA ions were adsorbed on montmorillonite basal surfaces mainly by physical adsorption, including the electrostatic attraction and hydrogen bonding. A certain number of neutral DDA molecules can favor the adsorption of DDA. At pH around 8, the effect of hydrophobic modification was the best because DDA molecules and ions form compact and well-organized monolayer. The MD simulation results were in good agreement with that of contact angle, adsorption quantity and FTIR.

  20. Transient Liquid Water as a Mechanism for Induration of Soil Crusts on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, G. A.; Blaney, D.; Cabrol, N.; Clark, B. C.; Farmer, J.; Grotzinger, J.; Greeley, R.; McLennan, S. M.; Richter, L.; Yen, A.

    2004-01-01

    The Viking and the Mars Exploration Rover missions observed that the surface of Mars is encrusted by a thinly cemented layer tagged as "duricrust". A hypothesis to explain the formation of duricrust on Mars should address not only the potential mechanisms by which these materials become cemented, but also the textural and compositional components of cemented Martian soils. Elemental analyzes at five sites on Mars show that these soils have sulfur content of up to 4%, and chlorine content of up to 1%. This is consistent with the presence of sulfates and halides as mineral cements. . For comparison, the rock "Adirondack" at the MER site, after the exterior layer was removed, had nearly five times lower sulfur and chlorine content , and the Martian meteorites have ten times lower sulfur and chlorine content, showing that the soil is highly enriched in the saltforming elements compared with rock.Here we propose two alternative models to account for the origin of these crusts, each requiring the action of transient liquid water films to mediate adhesion and cementation of grains. Two alternative versions of the transient water hypothesis are offered, a top down hypothesis that emphasizes the surface deposition of frost, melting and downward migration of liquid water and a bottom up alternative that proposes the presence of interstitial ice/brine, with the upward capillary migration of liquid water.

  1. Biological life support systems for martian missions: some problems and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, A. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Kovaleva, N. P.; Lasseur, C.

    Taking into account the experience of scientific researches obtained during experiments in the BIOS - 3 of the Institute of Biophysics of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Science (IBP SB RAS) and the MELISSA program (ESA), approaches in creation biological life support systems for a flight period and a fixed-site base of Martian mission are considered. Various alternate variants of designing of elements of BLSS based on use of Chlorella and/or Spirulina, and also greenhouses with higher plants for the flight period of Martian mission are analyzed. For this purpose construction of BLSS ensuring full closure of matter turnover according to gas exchange and water and partial closure on the human's exometabolites is supposed. For the fixed site Martian station BLSS based on use of higher plants with a various degree of closure of internal mass exchange are suggested. Various versions of BLSS configuration and degree of closure of mass exchange depending on duration of Martian mission, the diet type of a crew and some other conditions are considered. Special attention is given to problems of reliability and tolerance of matter turnover processes in BLSS which maintenance is connected, in particular, with additional oxygen reproduction inside a system. Technologies for realization of BLSS of various configurations are offered and justified. The auxiliary role of the physicochemical methods in BLSS functioning both for the flight period and for the crew stay on Mars is justified.

  2. Mars analog minerals' spectral reflectance characteristics under Martian surface conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitras, J. T.; Cloutis, E. A.; Salvatore, M. R.; Mertzman, S. A.; Applin, D. M.; Mann, P.

    2018-05-01

    We investigated the spectral reflectance properties of minerals under a simulated Martian environment. Twenty-eight different hydrated or hydroxylated phases of carbonates, sulfates, and silica minerals were selected based on past detection on Mars through spectral remote sensing data. Samples were ground and dry sieved to <45 μm grain size and characterized by XRD before and after 133 days inside a simulated Martian surface environment (pressure 5 Torr and CO2 fed). Reflectance spectra from 0.35 to 4 μm were taken periodically through a sapphire (0.35-2.5 μm) and zinc selenide (2.5-4 μm) window over a 133-day period. Mineral stability on the Martian surface was assessed through changes in spectral characteristics. Results indicate that the hydrated carbonates studied would be stable on the surface of Mars, only losing adsorbed H2O while maintaining their diagnostic spectral features. Sulfates were less stable, often with shifts in the band position of the SO, Fe, and OH absorption features. Silicas displayed spectral shifts related to SiOH and hydration state of the mineral surface, while diagnostic bands for quartz were stable. Previous detection of carbonate minerals based on 2.3-2.5 μm and 3.4-3.9 μm features appears to be consistent with our results. Sulfate mineral detection is more questionable since there can be shifts in band position related to SO4. The loss of the 0.43 μm Fe3+ band in many of the sulfates indicate that there are fewer potential candidates for Fe3+ sulfates to permanently exist on the Martian surface based on this band. The gypsum sample changed phase to basanite during desiccation as demonstrated by both reflectance and XRD. Silica on Mars has been detected using band depth ratio at 1.91 and 1.96 μm and band minimum position of the 1.4 μm feature, and the properties are also used to determine their age. This technique continues to be useful for positive silica identifications, however, silica age appears to be less consistent

  3. Assessment of the turbulence parameterization schemes for the Martian mesoscale simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Orkun; Karatekin, Ozgur; Van Beeck, Jeroen

    2016-07-01

    Turbulent transport within the Martian atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is one of the most important physical processes in the Martian atmosphere due to the very thin structure of Martian atmosphere and super-adiabatic conditions during the diurnal cycle [1]. The realistic modeling of turbulent fluxes within the Martian ABL has a crucial effect on the many physical phenomena including dust devils [2], methane dispersion [3] and nocturnal jets [4]. Moreover, the surface heat and mass fluxes, which are related with the mass transport within the sub-surface of Mars, are being computed by the turbulence parameterization schemes. Therefore, in addition to the possible applications within the Martian boundary layer, parameterization of turbulence has an important effect on the biological research on Mars including the investigation of water cycle or sub-surface modeling. In terms of the turbulence modeling approaches being employed for the Martian ABL, the "planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes" have been applied not only for the global circulation modeling but also for the mesoscale simulations [5]. The PBL schemes being used for Mars are the variants of the PBL schemes which had been developed for the Earth and these schemes are either based on the empirical determination of turbulent fluxes [6] or based on solving a one dimensional turbulent kinetic energy equation [7]. Even though, the Large Eddy Simulation techniques had also been applied with the regional models for Mars, it must be noted that these advanced models also use the features of these traditional PBL schemes for sub-grid modeling [8]. Therefore, assessment of these PBL schemes is vital for a better understanding the atmospheric processes of Mars. In this framework, this present study is devoted to the validation of different turbulence modeling approaches for the Martian ABL in comparison to Viking Lander [9] and MSL [10] datasets. The GCM/Mesoscale code being used is the PlanetWRF, the extended version

  4. Polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan/montmorillonite nanocomposites preparation by freeze/thaw cycles and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Părpăriţă Elena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and chitosan (CS based hydrogels are often chosen to obtain hydrogels as being considered non-toxic for human body. The present study aims the preparation and physical chemical characterisation of hydrogels based PVA and CS by using an environmental friendly method i.e. freeze/thaw. In this method the only parameters affecting the hydrogels’ properties is the PVA concentration in solution, time and number of cycles of freezing / thawing. Repeated freezing and thawing cycles resulted in production of a highly elastic polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel with higher degree of crystallization. Adding chitosan in polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel is giving to the newly formed material, biocompatibility and antibacterial properties due to the free amino groups of chitosan. Higher mechanical and thermal characteristics of PVA/CS based hydrogels were obtained by addition of a small amount of inorganic nanoparticles (montmorillonite clay, C30B into the matrix (i.e. 1%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, near-infrared chemical imaging spectroscopy (NI-CI, X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermogravimetric analysis (TG, swelling and rheological measurements were used to characterize the polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan/montmorillonite properties. The swelling degree increased with decreasing chitosan content in hydrogels and the variation is opposite in nanocomposites, decreasing after introducing the nanoclay. The swelling behaviour was influenced by the presence of the nanoparticles. The plasticizer effect of the nanoparticles was reflected by obtaining a more compact hydrogel network with higher mechanical and thermal properties. The proposed materials can be a promising alternative in biomedical applications

  5. Flank tectonics of Martian volcanoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.J.; Squyres, S.W.; Carr, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    On the flanks of Olympus Mons is a series of terraces, concentrically distributed around the caldera. Their morphology and location suggest that they could be thrust faults caused by compressional failure of the cone. In an attempt to understand the mechanism of faulting and the possible influences of the interior structure of Olympus Mons, the authors have constructed a numerical model for elastic stresses within a Martian volcano. In the absence of internal pressurization, the middle slopes of the cone are subjected to compressional stress, appropriate to the formation of thrust faults. These stresses for Olympus Mons are ∼250 MPa. If a vacant magma chamber is contained within the cone, the region of maximum compressional stress is extended toward the base of the cone. If the magma chamber is pressurized, extensional stresses occur at the summit and on the upper slopes of the cone. For a filled but unpressurized magma chamber, the observed positions of the faults agree well with the calculated region of high compressional stress. Three other volcanoes on Mars, Ascraeus Mons, Arsia Mons, and Pavonis Mons, possess similar terraces. Extending the analysis to other Martian volcanoes, they find that only these three and Olympus Mons have flank stresses that exceed the compressional failure strength of basalt, lending support to the view that the terraces on all four are thrust faults

  6. Martian Radiative Transfer Modeling Using the Optimal Spectral Sampling Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eluszkiewicz, J.; Cady-Pereira, K.; Uymin, G.; Moncet, J.-L.

    2005-01-01

    The large volume of existing and planned infrared observations of Mars have prompted the development of a new martian radiative transfer model that could be used in the retrievals of atmospheric and surface properties. The model is based on the Optimal Spectral Sampling (OSS) method [1]. The method is a fast and accurate monochromatic technique applicable to a wide range of remote sensing platforms (from microwave to UV) and was originally developed for the real-time processing of infrared and microwave data acquired by instruments aboard the satellites forming part of the next-generation global weather satellite system NPOESS (National Polarorbiting Operational Satellite System) [2]. As part of our on-going research related to the radiative properties of the martian polar caps, we have begun the development of a martian OSS model with the goal of using it to perform self-consistent atmospheric corrections necessary to retrieve caps emissivity from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) spectra. While the caps will provide the initial focus area for applying the new model, it is hoped that the model will be of interest to the wider Mars remote sensing community.

  7. Lava Tubes as Martian Analog sites on Hawaii Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Christian; Hamilton, J. C.; Adams, M.

    2013-10-01

    The existence of geologic features similar to skylights seen in Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter HIRISE imagery suggest Martian lava tube networks. Along with pit craters, these features are evidence of a past era of vulcanism. If these were contemporary with the wet Mars eras, then it is suggestive that any Martian life may have retreated into these subsurface oases. Hawaii island has numerous lava tubes of differing ages, humidity, lengths and sizes that make ideal analog test environments for future Mars exploration. PISCES has surveyed multiple candidate sites during the past summer with a team of University of Hawaii at Hilo student interns. It should be noted that Lunar features have also been similarly discovered via Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter LROC imagery.

  8. Removal of Disperse Blue 56 and Disperse Red 135 dyes from aqueous dispersions by modified montmorillonite nanoclay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadishoar Javad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study modified montmorillonite was used as an adsorbent for the removal of two selected disperse dyes i.e., Disperse Blue 56 (DB and Disperse Red 135 (DR from dye dispersions. The adsorption equilibrium data of dyes adsorption were investigated by using Nernst, Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. The adsorption kinetics was analyzed by using different models including pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich and Intraparticle diffusion model. The Freundlich isotherm was found to be the most appropriate model for describing the sorption of the dyes on modified nanoclay. The best fit to the experimental results was obtained by using the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation, which satisfactorily described the process of dye adsorption. Although different kinetic models may control the rate of the adsorption process, the results indicated that the main rate limiting step was the intraparticle diffusion. The results showed that the proposed modified montmorillonite could be used as an effective adsorbent for the removal of disperse dyes even from highly concentrated dispersions.

  9. Comparison of in situ polymerization and solution-dispersion techniques in the preparation of Polyimide/Montmorillonite (MMT) Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Gharayebi, Yadollah; Salit, Mohd Sapuan; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Shameli, Kamyar

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, Polyimide/Montmorillonite Nanocomposites (PI/MMT NCs), based on aromatic diamine (4-Aminophenyl sulfone) (APS) and aromatic dianhydride (3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride) (BTDA) were prepared using in situ polymerization and solution-dispersion techniques. The prepared PI/MMT NCs films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The XRD results showed that at the content of 1.0 wt % Organo Montmorillonite (OMMT) for two techniques and 3.0 wt % OMMT for the in situ polymerization technique, the OMMT was well-intercalated, exfoliated and dispersed into polyimide matrix. The OMMT agglomerated when its amount exceeded 10 wt % and 3.0 wt % for solution-dispersion and in situ polymerization techniques respectively. These results were confirmed by the TEM images of the prepared PI/MMT NCs. The TGA thermograms indicated that thermal stability of prepared PI/MMT NCs were increased with the increase of loading that, the effect is higher for the samples prepared by in situ polymerization technique.

  10. Crater size-frequency distributions and a revised Martian relative chronology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, N.G.

    1988-01-01

    A relative plotting technique is applied to Viking 1:2M photomosaics of 25,826 Martian craters of diameter greater than 8 km and age younger than that of the Martian surface. The size-frequency distribution curves are calculated and analyzed in detail, and the results are presented in extensive tables and maps. It is found that about 60 percent of the crater-containing lithologic units, including many small volcanoes and the ridged planes, were formed during the heavy-bombardment period (HBP), while 40 percent arose after the HBP. Wide region-to-region variation in the crater density is noted, and localized age estimates are provided. 42 references

  11. Samarium ion exchanged montmorillonite for high temperature cumene cracking reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binitha, N.N.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Nano material Montmorillonite clay is cation exchanged with samarium and its catalytic influence in cumene cracking reaction is investigated. Effect of exchange with sodium ions on further exchange with samarium ions is also noted. Acidity measurements are done using TPD of ammonia. The retention of basic structure is proved from FTIR spectra and XRD patterns. Elemental analysis result shows that samarium exchange has occurred, which is responsible for the higher catalytic activity. Surface area and pore volume remains more or less unaffected upon exchange. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates the enhanced thermal stability on exchanging. Cumene cracking reaction is carried out at atmospheric pressure in a fixed bed glass reactor at 673 K. The predominance of Bronsted acidity is confirmed from high selectivity to benzene. (author)

  12. Efficient degradation of phenol using iron-