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Sample records for marshmallow mudpack wishbone

  1. Operations Nougat and Whetstone events: Hard Hat, Danny Boy, Marshmallow, Mudpack, Wishbone, Gumdrop, Diluted Waters, and Tiny Tot, 15 February 1962-17 June 1965. Final report 15 Feb 62-19 Jun 68

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, W.J.; Horton, K.K.; Eubank, B.F.

    1984-01-31

    This report is a personnel oriented history of DOD participation in underground nuclear weapons testing during Operations NOUGAT and WHETSTONE, test events HARD HAT, DANNY BOY, MARSHMALLOW, MUDPACK, WISHBONE, GUMDROP, DILUTED WATERS, and TINY TOT. It is the first in a series of historical reports which will include all DOD underground nuclear weapons tests and DOE underground nuclear weapons tests with significant DOD participation from 1962 forward. In addition to these volumes presenting a history of the underground nuclear test program, a later restricted volume will identify all DOD participants, (military, civilian, and their contractors) and will list their dosimetry data.

  2. Operations NOUGAT and WHETSTONE Events: HARD HAT, DANNY BOY, MARSHMALLOW, MUDPACK, WISHBONE, GUMDROP, DILUTED WATERS, and TINY TOT, 15 February 1962-17 June 1965.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-31

    Tecnica !. sAl o Information C neaff ni Sff.-. taffStaff Scenifi Coariattrion Con rtractor Coordinator for Coordinator for Corintr o Re Laesentatives Base...monitoring teams or offsite by ground monitoring and stationary dose rate recorders, or in any environ- mental samples either after the detonation or

  3. Dodging Marshmallows: Simulations to Teach Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidman, Justin; Coombs, Dawan

    2016-01-01

    Students had just participated in an experiential learning exercise where they played dodgeball using marshmallows, but the unique context of the game introduced ethical dilemmas that integrated ethics education into a technical education classroom setting. Research shows that "Engineering curriculum and activities at the K-12 level should be…

  4. Wishbone bus Architecture - A Survey and Comparison

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Mohandeep; 10.5121/vlsic.2012.3210

    2012-01-01

    The performance of an on-chip interconnection architecture used for communication between IP cores depends on the efficiency of its bus architecture. Any bus architecture having advantages of faster bus clock speed, extra data transfer cycle, improved bus width and throughput is highly desirable for a low cost, reduced time-to-market and efficient System-on-Chip (SoC). This paper presents a survey of WISHBONE bus architecture and its comparison with three other on-chip bus architectures viz. Advanced Micro controller Bus Architecture (AMBA) by ARM, CoreConnect by IBM and Avalon by Altera. The WISHBONE Bus Architecture by Silicore Corporation appears to be gaining an upper edge over the other three bus architecture types because of its special performance parameters like the use of flexible arbitration scheme and additional data transfer cycle (Read-Modify-Write cycle). Moreover, its IP Cores are available free for use requiring neither any registration nor any agreement or license.

  5. The Marshmallow Test: Delay of Gratification and Independent Rule Compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Saxler, Patricia Kasak

    2016-01-01

    The Marshmallow Test, a self-imposed delay of gratification task pioneered by Walter Mischel in the 1960’s, showed that young children vary in their ability to inhibit impulses and regulate their attention and emotion in order to wait and obtain a desired reward (Mischel & Mischel, 1983). The Marshmallow Test offers an opportunity to observe and measure children’s decision-making and self-regulation in an emotionally charged context of often conflicting motivations. Additionally, this task p...

  6. Wishbone Bus Architecture - A Survey and Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohandeep Sharma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The performance of an on-chip interconnection architecture used for communication between IP cores depends on the efficiency of its bus architecture. Any bus architecture having advantages of faster bus clock speed, extra data transfer cycle, improved bus width and throughput is highly desirable for a low cost, reduced time-to-market and efficient System-on-Chip (SoC. This paper presents a survey of WISHBONE bus architecture and its comparison with three other on-chip bus architectures viz. Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture (AMBA by ARM, CoreConnect by IBM and Avalon by Altera. The WISHBONE Bus Architecture by Silicore Corporation appears to be gaining an upper edge over the other three bus architecture types because of its special performance parameters like the use of flexible arbitration scheme and additional data transfer cycle (Read-Modify-Write cycle. Moreover, its IP Cores are available free for use requiring neither any registration nor any agreement or license.

  7. Wishbone Structure for Front Independent Suspension of a Military Truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Jagirdar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Wishbone structure for double wishbone front-independent Suspension for a military truck application is presented. At present, the vehicle is equipped with rigid axle with leaf springs. There are two aspects that dictate the design of wishbone structure, viz. the path of relative motion between the constituents of the suspension system and the forces transmitted between them. Also, enhancement of mobility was made possible by maintaining the live axle in the system. A double wishbone, double coil spring with twin damper configuration was employed for this application. MBD Analysis was carried out using MSC ADAMS. A double wishboneindependent suspension has been designed for the front axle and has been successfully integrated with the vehicle.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(2, pp.178-183, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.337

  8. Wishbone identifies bifurcating developmental trajectories from single-cell data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setty, Manu; Tadmor, Michelle D; Reich-Zeliger, Shlomit; Angel, Omer; Salame, Tomer Meir; Kathail, Pooja; Choi, Kristy; Bendall, Sean; Friedman, Nir; Pe'er, Dana

    2016-06-01

    Recent single-cell analysis technologies offer an unprecedented opportunity to elucidate developmental pathways. Here we present Wishbone, an algorithm for positioning single cells along bifurcating developmental trajectories with high resolution. Wishbone uses multi-dimensional single-cell data, such as mass cytometry or RNA-Seq data, as input and orders cells according to their developmental progression, and it pinpoints bifurcation points by labeling each cell as pre-bifurcation or as one of two post-bifurcation cell fates. Using 30-channel mass cytometry data, we show that Wishbone accurately recovers the known stages of T-cell development in the mouse thymus, including the bifurcation point. We also apply the algorithm to mouse myeloid differentiation and demonstrate its generalization to additional lineages. A comparison of Wishbone to diffusion maps, SCUBA and Monocle shows that it outperforms these methods both in the accuracy of ordering cells and in the correct identification of branch points.

  9. Gibberella intermedia the pathogen of St. John's Wort, coneflower and marshmallow in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Snežana Đ.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gibberella intermedia (Kuhlmann Samuels et al. (anamorf: Fusarium proliferatum /Matsushima/ Nirenberg was isolated from seeds of St. John's wort, marshmallow, and coneflower, as well as from roots and stalks of marshmallow and roots of coneflower. These plants had symptoms of leaf chlorosis, malformation, withering and plant dwarfing and were collected from several localities in Serbia during five-year investigations of mycopopulations of the mentioned plants. The morphological characteristics of the pathogen were described.

  10. Development and evaluation of novel lozenges containing marshmallow root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbassat, Niko; Kostova, Bistra; Nikolova, Irina; Rachev, Dimitar

    2013-11-01

    Lozenges (tablets intended to be dissolved slowly in the mouth) were evaluated as delivery system for polysaccharides extract from Althaea officinalis L. (marshmallow) root. The aim of investigation was to improve of the efficacy of convenient preparations for the treatment of irritated oropharyngeal mucosa and associated dry irritable cough. The formulations studied were prepared with water extract of roots of Althaea officinalis L. The polysaccharides extract was obtained by ultrasonification. Acute oral toxicity (LD 50 p.o.) of the obtained extract was estimated in mice. Four models of lozenges based on different excipients were formulated. The characteristics of the preparations: resistance to crushing, friability testing, disintegration time and drug release properties were evaluated.

  11. Antifungal activity of indigenous bacillus sp. isolate Q3 against marshmallow mycobiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jošić Dragana Lj.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Marshmallow is a host of a number of saprophytic and parasitic fungi in Serbia. The seeds of marshmallow are contaminated with fungi from different genera, especially Alternaria and Fusarium, which significantly reduced seed germination and caused seedling decay. In this study we investigate antagnonism of indigenous Bacillus sp. isolate Q3 against marshmallow mycopopulation. Bacillus sp. Q3 was isolated from maize rhizosphere, characterized by polyphasic approch and tested for plant growth promoting treats. Bacillus sp. Q3 produced antifungal metabolites with growth inhibition activity against numerous fungi in dual culture: 61.8% of Alternaria alternata, 74.8% of Myrothecium verrucaria and 33.6% of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. That effect could be caused by different antifungal metabolites including siderophores, hydrolytic enzymes, organic acids and indole acetic acid (IAA. Suppression of natural marshmallow seed infection by Q3 isolate was observed. The seeds were immersed in different concentrations of bacterial suspension during 2h and their infections by phytopathogenic fungi were estimated. The results showed significant reduction of seed infection by Alternaria spp. The presented results indicate possible application of this isolate as promising biological agent for control of marshmallow seed pathogenic fungi.

  12. Study on Dynamic Behaviour of Wishbone Suspension System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, M.; Rahman, M. M.

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents the characteristic model of the wishbone suspension system using the quarter car model approach. Suspension system in an automobile provides vehicle control and passenger comfort by providing isolation from road disturbances. This makes it essential that the detailed behavior of suspension should be known to optimize the performance. A kinetic study is performed using multi body system (MBS) analysis. The dirt road profile is considered as an applied loading. The spring constant, damping coefficient and sprung mass are studied on the performance of the suspension system. It can be observed that the spring constant is inversely related with time required to return to initial position and the amount of deformations. The damping ratio affects the suppression of spring oscillations, beyond a certain limit damping ration has the negligible effect. Sprung mass effected the equilibrium position of the suspension system with a small effect on its oscillation behavior. It is shown that the spring constant, damping ratio and sprung mass are significant parameters to design the suspension system. This study is essential for complete understanding of working of the suspension system and a future study with real geometries.

  13. Evaluation of Recharge Potential at Crater U5a (WISHBONE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard H. French; Samuel L. Hokett

    1998-11-01

    Radionuclides are present both below and above the water table at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), as the result of underground nuclear testing. Mobilization and transport of radionuclides from the vadose zone is a complex process that is influenced by the solubility and sorption characteristics of the individual radionuclides, as well as the soil water flux. On the NTS, subsidence craters resulting from testing underground nuclear weapons are numerous, and many intercept surface water flows. Because craters collect surface water above the sub-surface point of device detonation, these craters may provide a mechanism for surface water to recharge the groundwater aquifer system underlying the NTS. Given this situation, there is a potential for the captured water to introduce contaminants into the groundwater system. Crater U5a (WISHBONE), located in Frenchman Flat, was selected for study because of its potentially large drainage area, and significant erosional features, which suggested that it has captured more runoff than other craters in the Frenchman Flat area. Recharge conditions were studied in subsidence crater U5a by first drilling boreholes and analyzing the collected soil cores to determine the soil properties and moisture conditions. This information, coupled with a 32-year precipitation record, was used to conduct surface and vaodse zone modeling. Surface water modeling predicted that approximately 13 ponding events had occurred during the life of the crater. Vadose zone modeling indicated that since the crater's formation approximately 5,900 m3 of water were captured by the crater. Of this total, approximately 5,200 m3 of potential recahrge may have occurred, and the best estimates of annual average potential recharge rates lie between 36 and 188 cm of water per year. The term potential is used here to indicate that the water is not technically recharged because it has not yet reached the water table.

  14. Measurements and modeling of flow structure in the wake of a low profile wishbone vortex generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, B. J.; Hingst, W. R.

    1994-01-01

    The results of an experimental examination of the vortex structures shed from a low profile 'wishbone' generator are presented. The vortex generator height relative to the turbulent boundary layer was varied by testing two differently sized models. Measurements of the mean three-dimensional velocity field were conducted in cross-stream planes downstream of the vortex generators. In all cases, a counter-rotating vortex pair was observed. Individual vortices were characterized by three descriptors derived from the velocity data; circulation, peak vorticity, and cross-stream location of peak vorticity. Measurements in the cross plane at two axial locations behind the smaller wishbone characterize the downstream development of the vortex pairs. A single region of stream wise velocity deficit is shared by both vortex cores. This is in contrast to conventional generators, where each core coincides with a region of velocity deficit. The measured cross-stream velocities for each case are compared to an Oseen model with matching descriptors. The best comparison occurs with the data from the larger wishbone.

  15. Does addition of `mud-pack and hot pool treatment' to patient education make a difference in fibromyalgia patients? A randomized controlled single blind study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bağdatlı, Ali Osman; Donmez, Arif; Eröksüz, Rıza; Bahadır, Güler; Turan, Mustafa; Erdoğan, Nergis

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled single-blind study is to explore whether addition of mud-pack and hot pool treatments to patient education make a significant difference in short and mild term outcomes of the patients with fibromyalgia. Seventy women with fibromyalgia syndrome were randomly assigned to either balneotherapy with mud-pack and hot pool treatments (35) or control (35) groups. After randomization, five patients from balneotherapy group and five patients from control group were dropped out from the study with different excuses. All patients had 6-h patient education programme about fibromyalgia syndrome and were given a home exercise programme. The patients in balneotherapy group had heated pool treatment at 38 °C for 20 min a day, and mud-pack treatment afterwards on back region at 45 °C. Balneotherapy was applied on weekdays for 2 weeks. All patients continued to take their medical treatment. An investigator who was blinded to the intervention assessed all the patients before and after the treatment, at the first and the third months of follow-up. Outcome measures were FIQ, BDI and both patient's and physician's global assessments. Balneotherapy group was significantly better than control group at after the treatment and at the end of the first month follow-up assessments in terms of patient's and physician's global assessment, total FIQ score, and pain intensity, fatigue, non-refreshed awaking, stiffness, anxiety and depression subscales of FIQ. No significant difference was found between the groups in terms of BDI scores. It is concluded that patient education combined with 2 weeks balneotherapy application has more beneficial effects in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome as compared to patient education alone.

  16. The Manihiki Plateau, Hikurangi Plateau, Wishbone Scarp, and Osbourn Trough: A Review and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henig, A.; Luyendyk, B. P.

    2007-12-01

    The extinct Osbourn Trough spreading system in the southwestern Pacific played a key role in separating the once joined Hikurangi and Manihiki Plateaus in Cretaceous time. Recent studies by Downey et al. [2007] and Taylor [20006] have provided new data and concepts on that history. Studies by Larson et al. [2002] describe Cretaceous histories adjacent and east of the Osbourn system and Eagles et al. [2004] describe a history for the southwest Pacific just after the Osbourn system became extinct. The lack of identifiable magnetic anomalies allows tectonic events during separation of the plateaus and spreading on the Osbourn Trough to occur between about 124.6 and 84 Ma (Chron 34). Satellite gravity maps of the region identify what are interpreted as Cretaceous fracture zone trends. Swath bathymetry data reveal at least four provinces of abyssal hill trends. What is known are the following: Minimum age of the Manihiki High Plateau at 123.4 Ma from DSDP Site 317, the age of seafloor, 115 Ma, from a dredge sample from the southern segment of the West Wishbone Scarp 300 km northeast of the Hikurangi Plateau, the east-west trend and extent of the extinct Osbourn spreading center at latitude 26° S, the trends (NNE-SSW to NE-SW) and extent of portions of the West Wishbone Scarp east of the Hikurangi Plateau, the N-S trend of the East Wishbone Scarp that appears to truncate the West Wishbone Scarp, the NNE- SSW trend and extent of the prominent Manihiki (Eastern) Scarp at the eastern boundary of the Manihiki High Plateau, the NW-SE trend and extent of the Rapuhia Scarp on the northwestern Hikurangi Plateau, and trends in abyssal hills; E-W near the Osbourn Trough and WNW-ESE closer to the plateaus. Differences in abyssal hill morphology suggest one or more changes in spreading rates. The Osbourn Trough began rifting apart a Large Igneous Province formed at 123.5 +/- 1.5 Ma, into the separate Ontong-Java, Manihiki, and Hikurangi Plateaus by 121 Ma. After an initial 6 Myr

  17. The influence of the plantation establishment method on the yield of marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L. flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Andruszczak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The field experiment with one- and two-year-old marshmallow plants was carried out in Zamość on brown soil of loess origin in 2002-2004. There were four methods of plantation establishment: 1 direct sowing in the field (control object; 2 direct sowing in the field with cover of polypropylene sheet; 3 by seedlings from a plastic house; 4 by seedlings produced in multi-cell propagation trays. It was found that, in the case of one-year-old plants, all the methods of plantation establishment significantly increased the yield and the number of marshmallow flowers, as compared to the control object, but the best results were obtained when the plants were propagated from seedlings produced in multi-cell trays. Taking into account the two-year-old plants, no significant impact of the plantation establishment method on flower yield was found. On average, total yields of flowers varied from 17.2 dt×ha-1 in the first year of vegetation to 27.8 dt×ha-1 in the case of the two-year-old plants.

  18. Germination Characteristics of Marshmallow (Althea officinalis L. as Influenced by Drought and Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Yazdani Biuki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Drought and salinity are two important environmental stresses limiting the crop production. In order to study the influence of drought and salinity stresses on germination characteristics of Marshmallow plant seeds, two separate experiments were conducted based on completely randomized design with four replications in controlled conditions. Drought stress levels were 0, -2, -4, -6 and -8 bar in the first experiment and salinity stress levels were 0, -2, -4, -6, -8 and -10 bar in the second experiment which were accomplished using PEG 6000 and sodium chloride, respectively. The results indicated a decrease in germination rate and percentage, as well as in lengths and fresh and dry weights of both plumules and radicles, as the osmotic potential was reduced in both experiments. Marshmallow seeds showed an overall higher tolerance against salinity stress compared to drought stress, with germination occurring at as low osmotic potentials as -10 bars in salinity treatments, while only until -8 bar drought stress. In osmotic potentials of -2 and -4 bar the decrease in germination percentage was more sever in the salinity stress compared to drought stress; whereas in higher levels of stress (-6 and -8 bar drought stress brought about a higher decrease in germination percentage than did the salinity stress; illustrated by the percentage of germination decrease at -6 bar, i.e. 63% for drought and 80% for salinity treatments. At the treatments of higher potential (-2, -4 and -6 bar the decrease in radicle length was greater in response to salinity than to drought stress, but the length of plumule was more influenced by drought stress and also showed the highest sensitivity to drought, among all measured characteristics.

  19. Wild Marshmallows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallas, John N.

    1984-01-01

    Provides information for teaching a unit on wild plants, including resources to use, plants to learn, safety considerations, list of plants (with scientific name, edible parts, and uses), list of plants that might cause allergic reactions when eaten. Also describes the chickweed, bull thistle, and common mallow. (BC)

  20. Marshmallow Meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderberg, Patti

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students model the processes of meiosis, fertilization, development, and birth using model creatures called reebops. Students breed reebops to analyze chromosome combinations. Makes recommendations for activity utilization and identifies the strengths of the activity. (MDH)

  1. Marshmallow Meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderberg, Patti

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students model the processes of meiosis, fertilization, development, and birth using model creatures called reebops. Students breed reebops to analyze chromosome combinations. Makes recommendations for activity utilization and identifies the strengths of the activity. (MDH)

  2. Can the attention training technique turn one marshmallow into two? Improving children's ability to delay gratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joanne; Theakston, Anna; Wells, Adrian

    2016-02-01

    The seminal Marshmallow Test (Mischel & Ebbesen, 1970) has reliably demonstrated that children who can delay gratification are more likely to be emotionally stable and successful later in life. However, this is not good news for those children who can't delay. Therefore, this study aimed to explore whether a metacognitive therapy technique, Attention Training (ATT: Wells, 1990) can improve young children's ability to delay gratification. One hundred children participated. Classes of 5-6 year olds were randomly allocated to either the ATT or a no-intervention condition and were tested pre and post-intervention on ability to delay gratification, verbal inhibition (executive control), and measures of mood. The ATT intervention significantly increased (2.64 times) delay of gratification compared to the no-intervention condition. After controlling for age and months in school, the ATT intervention and verbal inhibition task performance were significant independent predictors of delay of gratification. These results provide evidence that ATT can improve children's self-regulatory abilities with the implication that this might reduce psychological vulnerability later in life. The findings highlight the potential contribution that the Self-Regulatory Executive Function (S-REF) model could make to designing techniques to enhance children's self-regulatory processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. EtherBone - A Network Layer for the Wishbone SoC Bus

    CERN Document Server

    Kreider, M; Lewis, J; Włostowski, T; Serrano, J

    2011-01-01

    Today, there are several System on a Chip (SoC) bus systems. Typically, these buses are confined on-chip and rely on higher level components to communicate with the outside world. Taking these systems a step further, we see the possibility of extending the reach of the SoC bus to remote FPGAs or processors. This leads to the idea of the EtherBone (EB) core, which connects a Wishbone (WB) Ver. 4 Bus via a Gigabit Ethernet based network link to remote peripheral devices. EB acts as a transparent interconnect module towards attached WB Bus devices. Address information and data from one or more WB bus cycles is preceded with a descriptive header and encapsulated in a UDP/IP packet. Because of this standard compliance, EB is able to traverse Wide Area Networks and is therefore not bound to a geographic location. Due to the low level nature of the WB bus, EB provides a sound basis for remote hardware tools like a JTAG debugger, In-System-Programmer (ISP), boundary scan interface or logic analyser module. EB was de...

  4. Designing a WISHBONE Protocol Network Adapter for an Asynchronous Network-on-Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Soliman, Ahmed H M; El-Bably, M; Keshk, Hesham M A M

    2012-01-01

    The Scaling of microchip technologies, from micron to submicron and now to deep sub-micron (DSM) range, has enabled large scale systems-on-chip (SoC). In future deep submicron (DSM) designs, the interconnect effect will definitely dominate performance. Network-on-Chip (NoC) has become a promising solution to bus-based communication infrastructure limitations. NoC designs usually targets Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), however, the fabrication process costs a lot. Implementing a NoC on an FPGA does not only reduce the cost but also decreases programming and verification cycles. In this paper, an Asynchronous NoC has been implemented on a SPARTAN-3E\\textregistered device. The NoC supports basic transactions of both widely used on-chip interconnection standards, the Open Core Protocol (OCP) and the WISHBONE Protocol. Although, FPGA devices are synchronous in nature, it has been shown that they can be used to prototype a Global Asynchronous Local Synchronous (GALS) systems, comprising an Asynchr...

  5. Finite Element Analysis and Topography Optimization of Lower Arm of Double Wishbone Suspension Using Abacus and Optistruct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Darge

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The suspension system is one of the most important components of vehicle, which directly affects the safety, performance, noise level and style of it. The vehicle suspension system is responsible for driving comfort and safety as the suspension carries the vehicle-body and transmits all forces between body and road. Structure optimization techniques under static load conditions have been widely used in automotive industry for lightweight and performance improvement of modern cars. However, these static load conditions could not represent all the severe situations of automobile parts which subjected to complex loads varying with time, especially for lower control arm of front suspension. This paper deals with Finite Element Analysis of the Lower arm suspension of double wishbone suspension which consist the stress optimization under static loadings. Lower arm suspension has been modeled using Unigraphics .In first stage of analysis area of maximum stress was identified. These analysis were carried using Altair Hyperworks and solver used is Abacus. In order to reduce stresses and to improve structural strength Topography optimization approach is carried out in Hyperworks in which a design region for a given part is defined and a pattern of shape variable-based reinforcements within that region is generated to increase Stiffness.

  6. 基于ADAMS的双横臂悬架系统仿真%ADAMS double wishbone suspension system simulation based on

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵妞

    2013-01-01

      本文运用ADAMS/Car对双横臂独立悬架进行建模并仿真,在观察悬架运动过程中,初步验证了运用ADAMS/Car进行汽车悬架建模仿真的合理性,从而为悬架的设计提供了一种新的可行性方案。%in this paper, using ADAMS/Car modeling and Simulation of the double wishbone independent suspension, in the observation of suspension movement process, preliminary validate the rationality of the use of ADAMS/Car vehicle suspension system modeling and simulation, which provides a new feasible scheme for suspension design.

  7. The design of double wishbone torsion bar spring independent suspension for car%汽车双横臂扭杆弹簧独立悬架设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔敏

    2016-01-01

    This paper is mainly to analysis a light truck’s computing method of the front independent suspension design and testing of design experiment. Firstly, it goes with the stress analysis and the trajectory calculation of the double wishbone independent suspension, and then continues with the suspension design calculation such as the design of torsion bar spring , front suspension’s stiffness, offset frequency calculation, stabilizer bar’s design, roll stiffness calculation, shock absorber’s design, and finally the suspension offset frequency and riding comfort can be verified through the test.%文章主要研究某轻型载货汽车前独立悬架的设计计算方法以及独立悬架的设计试验验证,首先对双横臂式独立悬架进行受力分析、运动轨迹计算,然后对悬架进行设计计算如扭杆弹簧的设计、前悬架的刚度、偏频计算、稳定杆的设计、侧倾刚度计算、减震器的设计,最后通过试验验证悬架的偏频、平顺性。

  8. The Design of SDX-bus and Wishbone-Bus Interface Based on FPGA%基于FPGA的SDX总线与Wishbone总线接口设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娟; 张智鹏

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the requirement of reliability, high data management efficiency as well as hardware cost of the airborne information acquisition system, this article mainly introduces the interface conversion of Sdx-bus and Wishbone-bus. The implementation of the design is based on Verilog HDL Language. It is simulated on the Model- Sim software, synthesized on the Quartus platform and tested through FPGA from The Cyclone Ⅲ by Ahera company. The results show that the design is feasible.%针对机栽信息采集系统可靠性、数据管理高效性以及硬件成本的需求,介绍了基于硬件描述语言VerilogHDL设计的SDX总线与Wishbone总线接口转化的设计与实现,并通过Modelsim进行功能仿真,在QuartusⅡ软件平台上综合,最终在A|tera公司的CycloneⅡ系列FPGA上调试。实验证明了设计的可行性。

  9. Development of Double Joint Double Wishbone Front Suspension System%双球头型双横臂前悬架系统的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤林生; 易高; 陈潇凯

    2011-01-01

    以某轿车平台开发为例,介绍了双球头型双横臂前悬架的布置机理,应用多体系统动力学对悬架性能进行了优化,并与标杆车进行对比分析.结果表明,双球头型双横臂前悬架具有更多的设计自由度和更好的性能优化潜力,通过合理的设计优化,能获得优良的整车操纵稳定性和行驶平顺性.%Taking the development of a car platform as example, the layout mechanism of front double joint double wishbone suspension system is presented. By applying multi-body system dynamics, the performance of suspension is optimized and then benchmarked with three benchmark cars. The results indicate that this type of suspension has more design freedoms and better potential of performance optimization. Through reasonable design optimization, good handling and stability as well as ride comfort of vehicle can be achieved.

  10. 双横臂悬架运动学特性设计分析%Kinematics Characteristic Design and Analysis of Double Wishbone Suspension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王家豪; 兰凤崇; 张浩锴; 陈吉清

    2013-01-01

    To improve the car's handling and stability,ride comfort performance,the"target standardized method"is preferred to establish the objective function by comparing the theoretical analysis and optimization results between "Square and weighting method" and "target standardized method".The modeling and kinematics simulation analysis on the front axle double wishbone suspension are based on the multi-body dynamics method.To perform the optimization design of the kinematics characteristics,the coordinates of some appropriate key points are selected as design variables,and the angle of the front wheel alignment and wheel change target are opted as design objectives.After optimization,the kinematics characteristics of the suspension have been significantly improved.The development cycle is effectively shortened and the testing costs are reduced by using the method mentioned above.%为了提高汽车的操纵稳定性、行驶平顺性等性能,通过对“平方和加权法”及“目标规范法”进行的理论分析以及优化结果对比,优选运用“目标规范化方法”建立综合优化目标函数.应用多体动力学仿真分析方法,对前轴双横臂悬架进行三维建模以及运动学仿真分析,选取适当的硬点坐标作为设计变量,以前轮定位角及轮距的变化为目标进行运动特性优化设计.优化后使得悬架运动特性有了显著的优化提高,有效地缩短了产品开发周期,减少试验成本.

  11. 基于ADAMS的双横臂悬架优化设计%Optimization of Double Wishbone Suspension Based on ADAMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李胜琴; 赵立; 杨春博

    2014-01-01

    根据某汽车双横臂前悬架硬点坐标等参数,应用ADAMS/Car建立该悬架虚拟样机模型,并对悬架系统进行车轮跳动仿真分析,模拟车轮跳动对双横臂悬架前轮定位参数的影响,得出相应参数的变化规律曲线。根据仿真试验结果和相关参数的设计要求,对该悬架的部分硬点位置及悬架特性参数进行优化,使悬架的综合性能达到最佳。结果表明,所做的优化设计有效,改善了悬架系统的运动学特性。%Based on given parameter values ,such as the hardpoint coordinates ,the double wishbone front suspension model was built through the ADAMS/Car software in this paper .The dynamics of simulation analysis on the model is done by means of w heel run-out ,in order to get corresponding pa-rameter variation curve ,we simulate its impact on front wheel alignment parameter .To achieve the best performance on the suspension ,the hard point location of the suspension and parameters need to be optimized according to the simulation results and the design requirements of the relevant parame-ters .The results show that the optimization was done correctly and effectively on improving the kine-matic characteristics of the suspension system .

  12. Design and analysis of double wishbone independent suspension for large-scale tractor based on ADAMS%基于ADAMS的大型拖拉机双横臂独立悬架设计与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴雷; 丁正龙; 陈成; 周永清; 马然; 朱思洪

    2012-01-01

    In view of poor working conditions, the front double wishbone independent suspension for KAT1804 tractor was designed, and the 3D model was established in PRO/E. The model of 1/2 double-wishbone independent suspension was build in ADAMS. Then the kinematics simulation analysis and optimization based on orthogonal analysis were carried out to find the most reasonable set of wheel alignment parameters, thus ensuring tractor ride comfort and handling stability.%由于拖拉机工作环境恶劣,将KAT1804型拖拉机前桥设计成双横臂独立悬架,利用PRO/E建立了三维实体模型,用多体动力学软件ADAMS建立了1/2双横臂独立悬架模型并进行运动学仿真分析,结合正交试验分析方法进行优化,找出了最合理的一组车轮定位参数,从而保证拖拉机具有良好的行驶平稳性和操纵稳定性.

  13. Analysis and optimization of Kinematics of Double Wishbone Suspension%双横臂独立悬架运动特性分析与优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李捷; 葛友刚; 董永富

    2012-01-01

    研究双横臂独立悬架性能优化问题,在车辆运动过程中,由于车轮与车身之间的相对位置发生变化,造成车轮定位参数的变动过大,加剧轮胎磨损,并降低悬架的性能.针对上述问题,通过对悬架系统简化处理,建立悬架运动学分析理论模型.为改进悬架性能,采用统一目标法,将多目标优化转化为单目标优化,实现在ADAMS/Insight中对悬架结构参数进行优化设计.利用ADAMS/Car软件建立了双横臂独立悬架动力学仿真模型并进行仿真,结果表明优化后车轮定位参数和轮距的变化量均减小,更趋于合理的取值范围,悬架性能得到改善.%The big change of wheel alignment parameters arises from the variation of relative position between vehicle body and wheel, which aggravates tires wear and reduces the performance of suspension. So it is imperative to study the optimization problem of suspension performance. Theoretical model of suspension kinematics analysis was built to study suspension performance after simplifying suspension structural system. In order to improve suspension performance, converting the multi -objective optimization into single objective optimization by unified goal method, which makes it feasible to optimize suspension structure parameters using ADAMS/Insight. A dynamical simulation model of double wishbone suspension was built with ADAMS/Car software, and suspension simulation test was carried out also. The optimized results show that wheel alignment parameters and track change in a reasonable range of variation, and the performance of suspension and handling stability of vehicle is improved.

  14. 基于刚柔耦合的双横臂前悬架性能分析%On the Characteristics of Double Wishbone Front Suspension Based on Rigid-flexible Coupling Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李康; 吕彩琴; 王玉帅

    2014-01-01

    In this paper ,a MNF file was generated in ADAMS/Flex .Then this file was imported into ADAMS/Car to establish a rigid‐flexible coupling double wishbone suspension which was used to carry out a motion analysis .The results showed that the toe angle and wheel track did not reach the ideal situation , therefore some corresponding optimization programs were proposed in this paper for this case .In addition , through the comparative analysis of the impact of flexibility on suspension performance ,it can be found that rigid‐flexible coupling double wishbone suspension had a higher simulation accuracy compared to rigid o nes .%运用ADAMS/Car对某前悬架进行建模,生成模态中性文件;在ADAMS/Car中调用该文件建立刚柔耦合双横臂前悬架,对该前悬架系统进行运动学和柔性运动学仿真,并分析该悬架特性。结果表明:车轮前束和轮距均未达到理想的状况,对此提出了相应的优化方案。此外,通过对比分析柔性对该型悬架的性能影响,发现刚柔耦合双横臂前悬架相比刚性悬架能够更加准确地反映前悬架的实际性能。

  15. Optimization for the double wishbone independent suspension hard-points based on NSGA-Ⅱalgorithm%基于NSGA-Ⅱ的双横臂悬架硬点多目标优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕福平; 唐焱

    2014-01-01

    基于多体动力学理论,通过ADAMS/CAR建立双横臂悬架的仿真模型。采用DOE试验设计方法对悬架模型进行优化,判断对悬架K&C特性影响较大的关键硬点。结合NSGA-Ⅱ遗传算法,利用ADAMS-ISIGHT联合仿真对硬点进行多目标优化,获得关键硬点的pareto最优解集。通过验证,结果表明,优化后的双横臂悬架在车轮跳动过程中,车轮前束角、外倾角和轮距变化范围更小,有利于减少轮胎磨损,提高汽车操纵稳定性。%Based on the multi-body system dynamics theory, the model of the double wishbone independent suspension is built in adams/car software. The model of the double wishbone suspension is optimized by DOE design method. The key hard-point with a big influence on suspension K&C performance is judged. This paper uses the improved genetic algorithm NSGA-II and the joint simulation method of ADAMS and ISIGHT to solve hard point of multi-objective optimization problem, and obtains the Pareto diagram of the hard point. The experiment result shows that the values of toe angle, camber angle and wheel travel track are reduced. The optimized suspension is beneficial to decrease the tire wearing, and improve vehicle handing stability.

  16. A Marshmallow and a Song

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Music exists in time. One cannot get to the end of the song before going through the song. Is this significant for helping children wait? And can the way we present a singing game activity intensify the delay of what might be a gratifying moment at the end of the song? In this article, the author reflects on whether music can teach delayed…

  17. Simulation analysis of a double-wishbone front suspension's K&C characteristics based on ADAMS%基于ADAMS的双横臂式前悬架K&C特性的仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阚萍; 石琴; 祝安定

    2012-01-01

    The kinematics and compliance(K&C) characteristics of the suspension play a key impact on the vehicle performance such as vehicle controllability and stability. In this paper, a multi-body kine-matical model of a double-wishbone front suspension used in an exploiting truck is established by u-sing the software automatic dynamic analysis of mechanical systems( ADAMS) /CAR. Then the kinematics and compliance simulations are carried out after putting displacement and force constraints on the vehicle wheels respectively and the changes of the vehicle wheels location parameters under these two characteristics are gotten. The study provides reference for the improvement of the front suspension and the vehicle performance.%悬架的K&C特性直接影响操纵稳定性等汽车使用性能,文章利用软件ADAMS/CAR模块建立某开发车型的双横臂式前悬架多体动力学模型,通过对车轮分别施加位移和力约束进行悬架运动学分析和弹性运动学分析,从而获得车轮定位参数在2种特性下的变化,为该车前悬架及整车性能的改进提供指导依据.

  18. Optimization of Double-wishbone Independent Suspension for FSAE Racing Car by ADAMS%基于ADAMS的FSAE赛车双横臂悬架的仿真优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳威; 师忠秀; 于渊; 王甜甜

    2013-01-01

    A model of double-wishbone suspension for FSAE racing car was established by ADAMS/Car . Then the dynamic simulation of the model was done ,the kinematic performance parameters of the suspension were analyzed to determine optimization objective .Multi-objective optimization was carried out by ADAMS/Insight through setting design variables ,target function and constraint condition .Afterwards the kinematic model was modified according to optimization result ,and the simulation was analyzed again to compare the total suspension performance before and after optimization .The simulation results show that the kinematic characteristics of the optimized suspension were improved .%在ADAMS/Car模块中建立FSAE赛车双横臂悬架模型,对模型进行运动学仿真,分析仿真结果,确定优化目标;在ADAMS/Insight模块中设定设计变量、目标函数和约束条件进行多目标优化;根据优化结果修改模型,再次进行仿真分析,并比较优化前和优化后悬架的综合性能。仿真结果表明,优化后悬架系统的运动学性能得到改善。

  19. 基于UG的双横臂独立悬架运动学分析系统%Kinematics Analysis System of Double-wishbone Independent Suspension Based on UG Software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯永涛; 陆建辉; 周孔亢; 汪若尘

    2011-01-01

    A construction method for kinematics analysis system of the double-wishbone independent suspension based on UG software was proposed. The corresponding software prototype system using this method was developed and the frame structure of the system had been given account. Using the fast parameterized design function module of the system, the structure and geometric parameters of the double-wishbone suspension mechanism's simulation models could be rapid and convenient edited. By calling the MSC ADAMS or RecurDyn solver, which is integrated in UG/Motion, the kinematics simulation and analysis function module of the system could get the simulation results. The simulation results could be inspected using the drawing function of Matlab, which is integrated in this function module. Taking the minimum variation of the front wheel alignment parameters, minimum lateral displacement of the tires as the optimal object, the optimization design function module of suspension' s the structural parameters was constructed based on genetic algorithm. The correctness and the validity of the system and its function modules were verified by a design example. The frame structure of the system had good scalability and had been used in the optimum design of McPherson suspension.%提出了一种基于UG构建双横臂独立悬架运动学分析系统的方法,并应用该方法开发出了相应的原型系统,给出了系统的框架结构.系统的快速参数化设计模块可方便、快捷地对双横臂悬架运动仿真模型的结构参数、几何参数和定位参数进行修改;系统的运动学仿真分析模块通过调用UG/Motion集成的MSC ADAMS或Function Bay RecurDyn解算器来获取仿真分析结果,通过集成Matlab的绘图功能对分析结果进行输出查看;以前轮定位参数的变化量最小、车轮侧向滑移量最小为优化目标,采用遗传算法构建了系统的悬架机构结构参数优化设计模块.通过一个设计实例验证了系

  20. Would Tolstoy pass the marshmallow test?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perina, Kaja

    2014-01-01

      The test is noteworthy because long-term follow-up studies show that a child's ability to delay reward correlates with academic success and adult income, as well as with affective powers such as the...

  1. Biology Today: Of Wishbones, Beavers & Blinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Maura, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Provided is a discussion of items covering a variety of fascinating biological topics which include: the elasticity of the furcula of starlings in flight, beavers increasing the greenhouse effect, effective invaders, traveling birds, the cuckoo deception, competitive sperm, hearing springs, heat and sight, blinking as punctuation, mutations, and…

  2. What’s Eating Your Wishbone? Sternoclavicular Septic Arthritis with Osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeri K Rose

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript describes the presentation of a patient with sternoclavicular joint infection, with a brief discussion on the diagnosis and treatment of this rare septic arthritis.

  3. Mud-packing frog: a novel breeding behaviour and parental care in a stream dwelling new species of Nyctibatrachus (Amphibia, Anura, Nyctibatrachidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gururaja, Kotambylu Vasudeva; Dinesh, K P; Priti, H; Ravikanth, G

    2014-05-16

    Reproductive modes are diverse and unique in anurans. Selective pressures of evolution, ecology and environment are attributed to such diverse reproductive modes. Globally forty different reproductive modes in anurans have been described to date. The genus Nyctibatrachus has been recently revised and belongs to an ancient lineage of frog families in the Western Ghats of India. Species of this genus are known to exhibit mountain associated clade endemism and novel breeding behaviours. The purpose of this study is to present unique reproductive behaviour, oviposition and parental care in a new species Nyctibatrachus kumbara sp. nov. which is described in the paper. Nyctibatrachus kumbara sp. nov. is a medium sized stream dwelling frog. It is distinct from the congeners based on a suite of morphological characters and substantially divergent in DNA sequences of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. Males exhibit parental care by mud packing the egg clutch. Such parental care has so far not been described from any other frog species worldwide. Besides this, we emphasize that three co-occurring congeneric species of Nyctibatrachus, namely N. jog, N. kempholeyensis and Nyctibatrachus kumbara sp. nov. from the study site differ in breeding behaviour, which could represent a case of reproductive character displacement. These three species are distinct in their size, call pattern, reproductive behaviour, maximum number of eggs in a clutch, oviposition and parental care, which was evident from the statistical analysis. The study throws light on the reproductive behaviour of Nyctibatrachus kumbara sp. nov. and associated species to understand the evolution and adaptation of reproductive modes of anurans in general, and Nyctibatrachus in particular from the Western Ghats.

  4. Rational snacking: Young children’s decision-making on the marshmallow task is moderated by beliefs about environmental reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Kidd, Celeste; Palmeri, Holly; Aslin, Richard N.

    2012-01-01

    Children are notoriously bad at delaying gratification to achieve later, greater rewards (e.g.,Piaget, 1970)—and some are worse at waiting than others. Individual differences in the ability-to-wait have been attributed to self-control, in part because of evidence that long-delayers are more successful in later life (e.g., Shoda, Mischel, & Peake, 1990). Here we provide evidence that, in addition to self-control, children’s wait-times are modulated by an implicit, rational decision-making proc...

  5. Rational Snacking: Young Children's Decision-Making on the Marshmallow Task is Moderated by Beliefs about Environmental Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Celeste; Palmeri, Holly; Aslin, Richard N.

    2013-01-01

    Children are notoriously bad at delaying gratification to achieve later, greater rewards (e.g., Piaget, 1970)--and some are worse at waiting than others. Individual differences in the ability-to-wait have been attributed to self-control, in part because of evidence that long-delayers are more successful in later life (e.g., Shoda, Mischel, &…

  6. Rational Snacking: Young Children's Decision-Making on the Marshmallow Task is Moderated by Beliefs about Environmental Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Celeste; Palmeri, Holly; Aslin, Richard N.

    2013-01-01

    Children are notoriously bad at delaying gratification to achieve later, greater rewards (e.g., Piaget, 1970)--and some are worse at waiting than others. Individual differences in the ability-to-wait have been attributed to self-control, in part because of evidence that long-delayers are more successful in later life (e.g., Shoda, Mischel, &…

  7. Environ: E00817 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00817 Marshmallow Medicinal herb Starch [CPD:C00369], Arabinogalactan [CPD:C00569]..., Flavonoid [CPD:C01579], Phenolic acid Althaea officinalis [TAX:145745] Malvaceae (mallow family) Marshmallow root Medicinal

  8. Performance Comparison of Macpherson Suspension and Double Wishbone Suspension%麦弗逊悬挂与双A臂悬挂的运动特性对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王孝朋

    2010-01-01

    运用多体运动力学软件ADAMS/Car模块建立麦弗逊式和双A臂式悬挂仿真模型,在相同的悬挂参数条件下进行双轮同向跳动仿真实验,通过对四轮定位参数的分析得出了悬挂的运动特性,符合预期效果.

  9. Design of Double-wishbone Independent Suspension of FSAE Racing Car%FSAE赛车双横臂独立悬架系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军; 赵世明; 陈少杰; 李文珊; 康一帆

    2013-01-01

    双横臂独立悬架对FSAE赛车行驶平顺性、操纵稳定性和安全性有着重要影响.依据FSAE大学生方程式大赛规则及参照经验值对包括轮距、轴距在内的整车参数进行确定.对轮胎、轮辋等部件进行选择,设计悬架立柱、摇臂部件,并利用CATIA软件进行三维模型的建立.基于ANSYS/Workbench协同仿真平台,对在转向和制动复合工况下的前立柱进行有限元分析.分析结果表明,满足材料的强度要求.设计的双横臂独立悬架为车辆悬架系统的结构优化和轻量化设计提供了参考.

  10. 双横臂独立悬架转向梯形机构断开点的优化%Optimization of splitting point of Ackerman steering linkage in double wishbone independent suspension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛务本; 韩锐

    2004-01-01

    利用D-H坐标系建立双横臂独立悬架四杆机构各杆的杆坐标系,求出各个杆坐标系之间的转换矩阵,对双横臂独立悬架进行位移分析,确定车轮跳动时前束变化量的关系式,同时考虑汽车在转向时,内外车轮转角应尽可能地符合Ackerman转向几何条件.综合这两个关系求得转向梯形断开点位置的确定方法.通过实例验证了这个方法的有效性.此法简单明了,易于编程.

  11. 基于ADAMS的双横臂前悬架的虚拟设计及优化%Virtual Design and Optimization of Wishbone Front Suspension Based on ADAMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁春艳

    2009-01-01

    基于ADAMs软件对某双横臂前悬架进行了虚拟建模和运动学仿真分析,分析了前轮定位参数及车轮侧向滑移量随车轮上下跳动时的变化规律,评价了悬架数据的合理性;以车轮侧向滑移量和四个车轮定位参数为设计目标对悬架的结构关键点进行了优化分析,使该悬架的运动学特性更符合理想设计值,提高了产品的开发质量.

  12. The Design and Selection of the Front Suspension's Wishbone Spring of a Similar Rhombic Vehicle%类菱形车前悬架扭杆弹簧的设计与选用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛建中; 张义

    2008-01-01

    根据类菱形车的特殊布局,设计并确定前悬架扭杆弹簧的结构和几何尺寸,并根据其等效模型利用ANSYS软件对类菱形车前悬架扭杆弹簧进行强度分析,由仿真结果对其进行强度校核,从而可验证前悬架扭杆弹簧设计的合理性.

  13. Exploring the Design Requirements of the Double Wishbone Independent Front Suspension Guiding Mechanism%双横臂前独立悬架导向机构设计要求探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟怡军

    2015-01-01

    基于对双横臂前独立悬架导向机构运动特点分析,结合前轮各项定位参数对整车操纵稳定性能的不同设计目的和作用,分析导向机构对各前轮定位参数变化的影响,进一步探讨了双横臂前独立悬架导向机构匹配设计要求,从而指导其导向机构中运动副尺寸、角度的合理选择.

  14. 基于ADAMS/CAR的双横臂独立悬架建模与仿真%Modeling and simulation of double wishbone suspension based on ADAMS/CAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋传学; 蔡章林

    2004-01-01

    运用ADAMS/ CAR软件建立了某皮卡车双横臂独立悬架模型,在理论验证的基础上揭示了该悬架的运动规律.实验结果证明:将下控制臂与车架前安装点下调20 mm,可使悬架的抗点/ 抬头性能、悬架刚度和侧倾角刚度得到明显改善.

  15. 基于Adams的FSAE赛车双横臂前悬架建模与优化%Modeling and Optimization of Double-wishbone Front Suspension for FSAE Racing Car based on Adams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙明浩

    2013-01-01

    为提高FSAE赛车的操纵稳定性,利用Adams/Car建立FSAE赛车双横臂前悬架仿真模型,通过双轮同向跳动仿真试验,分析影响悬架性能的参数值及其变化情况;利用Adams/Insight 对该悬架进行多目标优化设计,根据优化结果修改部分硬点的坐标值;再次进行双轮同向跳动仿真试验,优化前后的结果对比表明:优化后,悬架的整体性能得到较大提高,有助于整车操纵稳定性的改善.

  16. Optimization Analysis of Double-Wishbone Front Suspension Parameter of FSAE Racing Car with ADAMS%基于ADAMS的FSAE赛车双横臂前悬架的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程浩; 李耀平; 龚航; 胡立伟

    2015-01-01

    依据UG软件建立FSAE“KMUST”赛车三维视图模型,获得双横臂前悬架的硬点坐标,利用多体动力学仿真软件ADAMS中Car模块建立双横臂前悬架模型并进行左右车轮平行跳动仿真试验.分析仿真结果,确定需要优化的前轮定位参数,将需优化的参数设定为优化目标,利用ADAMS/Insight模块对设计目标进行灵敏度分析,优化灵敏度较高的因素.对比优化前、后的试验结果,证明优化后悬架的运动学特性得到提高.

  17. 76 FR 20623 - Florigene Pty., Ltd.; Availability of Petition and Environmental Assessment for Determination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... Chestnut, Policy Analyst, Biotechnology Regulatory Services, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 147, Riverdale, MD... from pansy and wishbone flower produces blue pigments in the rose lines, altering the flower color...

  18. Cystic fibrosis - nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in recipes. Add marshmallows to fruit or hot chocolate. Add raisins, dates, or chopped nuts and brown ... AP, Quinton H. Evidence-based practice recommendations for nutrition-related management of children and adults with cystic ...

  19. Simulation analysis and optimization for ackerman steering linkage of double-wishbone suspension on UG NX%基于UG NX的双横臂独立悬架转向系统的仿真分析及优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 张勇

    2014-01-01

    利用UG NX软件建立某客车双横臂独立悬架转向系统模型.基于NX CAD/Motion/Natran协同仿真平台,对转向系统结构进行系统动力学仿真,绘制前束角变化曲线,同时对内、外侧前轮转向角关系仿真曲线与阿克曼理论曲线进行对比分析.运用NX/Nastran与NX/Motion共同建立刚柔混合模型并对转向节臂进行柔性分析和拓扑优化.

  20. Comparative Study of Simulation Models for the Motion Ratio of Unequal Length Double Wishbone Suspension of a FSAE Racing Car%FSAE赛车两种不等长双横臂独立悬架的运动位移比例仿真与对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘泽; 张新

    2015-01-01

    拉杆式与推杆式不等长双横臂独立悬架应用于大多数的FSAE赛车,赛车弹簧运动位移与车轮中心位移比例的大小不仅影响着其弹簧刚度的选取,同时影响着操纵稳定性.分别建立赛车左侧前悬架拉杆式与推杆式机构的物理模型,应用牛顿-辛普森方法进行悬架几何运动分析,并通过运动学仿真分析探索较精确地获得该比例大小的方法,之后对两种机构形式求得的该比例变化趋势进行对比分析,求取它们的等效刚度并得出推杆式可得到更大的等效刚度的结论,为FSAE赛车悬架系统设计提供了有益的建议.

  1. Hooke's Law and the Stiffness of a Plastic Spoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestka, Kenneth A., II; Warren, Cori

    2012-01-01

    The study of elastic properties of solids is essential to both physics and engineering. Finding simple, easy-to-visualize examples to demonstrate these concepts is often difficult. In a previous article written by one of us (KAPII), a simple method for determining Youngs modulus using marshmallows was given. In this article we will illustrate…

  2. Total Content of Polyphenols and Antioxidant Activity of Different Melliferous Plants

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In this study polyphenols content and antioxidant activity of melliferous plants for the following: mint (Mentha pulegium), burdock (Arctium lappa), comfrey (Symphytum officinale), plantain (Pantago lanceolata), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), sage (Salvia officinalis), marigold (Calendula officinalis), small marshmallow (Althaea officinalis), echinacea (Echinaceea angustifolia) and black popular (Populus nigra) were investigated, using two different extraction methods. High content of polyp...

  3. A Long, Winding (and Rocky) Road to Environmental Education for Sustainability in 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Annette

    2006-01-01

    This article charts the history of environmental education over four decades--from the 1960s to 2006--as a rocky road of determined chocolate with the possibilities of rocks (nuts) and easy passage (marshmallow). There were distractions such as suggestions of changing names and new directions (add fruit?) along the way but the road has continued…

  4. Reference Book of Nuclear Testing Contractors 1945-1965. Revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-30

    001-75-C-0023 DASA 01-68-C-0007 Glen L. Martin Co. Baltimore, MD Project 6.11 AFCRC* Herrick L. Johnson, Inc. Columbus, OH AEC* Holter Research...68-C-0044 Stanford Research Institute y Menlo Park, CA £ Project 7.6 AF 49(638)-1053 £ Project 3.2 i DASA Systems Science Software La Jolla...participant contract 69 tV^^^^^^<:y^^a^^^^ Wi’Jii. ■ ." 1>W ^■^■^^^^■^^ -—~ *\\s v V MUDPACK (1964) Systems, Science and Software La Jolla, CA

  5. Analysis for Suspension Hardpoint of Formula SAE Car Based on Correlation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xintian Liu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the correlation of the hardpoints, double wishbone suspension of Formula SAE Car can be improved and optimized. For Formula SAE car, performance and kinetic characteristic of the suspension follow very closely to handling stability, comfort ability, handling of steering and service life of tire, etc. Double wishbone suspension is chosen as front suspension of Formula SAE car in the paper. Based on the multi-body dynamics and suspension kinematics theory, simulation model of front suspension is built and analyzed. With correlation theory, the correlation for the hardpoints of the suspension is studied and discussed. Through all the testing, not only a lot of four wheel alignment parameter variations can be obtained, but also the rational designing for hardpoints which can provide an useful reference for vehicle designing.

  6. 2D:4D digit ratio predicts delay of gratification in preschoolers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Da Silva

    Full Text Available We replicate the Stanford marshmallow experiment with a sample of 141 preschoolers and find a correlation between lack of self-control and 2D:4D digit ratio. Children with low 2D:4D digit ratio are less likely to delay gratification. Low 2D:4D digit ratio may indicate high fetal testosterone. If this hypothesis is true, our finding means high fetal testosterone children are less likely to delay gratification.

  7. Annual Progress Report, Fiscal Year 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-30

    BD, Yuille D, Telepak, RJ Lanbrecht R11, McAuley R: Radionuclide Marshmallow Swallow for Evaluation of Dysphagia . Presented at the SW Chapter...Swallow for Evaluation of Dysphagia . Presented at the William Beaumont Gastroenterology Symposium, El Paso, TX Mar 1980. Morrison RE: Spinal Cord Abscess...population in the absence of liver disease or severe nutritional deficiency. To determine the degree of intellectual impairment and presence of

  8. Ettevaatust! Läbipõlemisoht! / Mart Raudsaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudsaar, Mart, 1973-

    2004-01-01

    Raamatu "Burnout - läbipõlemine" autor Mart Jürisoo räägib läbipõlemise olulisematest põhjustest ja tunnustest, võrdleb Eesti ja Rootsi juhtide juhtimisstiile ning analüüsib stressitegureid Eesti organisatsioonides ja ühiskonnas. Lisa: Läbipõlemise olulisemad sümptomid; Difuusse ehk Marshmallow-organisatsiooni tunnused ja probleemid

  9. Ettevaatust! Läbipõlemisoht! / Mart Raudsaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudsaar, Mart, 1973-

    2004-01-01

    Raamatu "Burnout - läbipõlemine" autor Mart Jürisoo räägib läbipõlemise olulisematest põhjustest ja tunnustest, võrdleb Eesti ja Rootsi juhtide juhtimisstiile ning analüüsib stressitegureid Eesti organisatsioonides ja ühiskonnas. Lisa: Läbipõlemise olulisemad sümptomid; Difuusse ehk Marshmallow-organisatsiooni tunnused ja probleemid

  10. Acceptability of the Current and Proposed Items in the Meal, Ready-to-Eat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    soldiers report bringing Protein Drinks to the field ( Carnation , GNC. Myoplex, Protein shake mix, Ripped Fuel, and Wazc Whey Protein). Table 9. Bring...34 like s lightly. >~ The Marshmallow Treat> Shortbread Cookie, Chocolate Sports Bar. Orange Pound Cake. and Graham Treat all have small n’s. (Any mean...Brittle Bar Pound Cake. Lemon fig bar Cheese & PB Crackers Candy [kef Jerky Pound Cake, Vanilla Pound Cake, Fudge l3rownic Pound Cake, Orange

  11. Analysis of stress and geomechanical properties in the Niobrara Formation of Wattenberg Field, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazulis, Alexandra K.

    In Wattenberg Field the Niobrara Formation is the primary productive zone for horizontal drilling and completions. It is an unconventional reservoir made up of alternating chalk and marl layers which require hydraulic fracturing for completion. The main study area for this project is a four square mile region where time-lapse multicomponent seismic surveys have been acquired. This area includes the Wishbone section, where 11 horizontal wells have been drilled, and is the focus of dynamic reservoir characterization. The primary goal of this research study is to investigate relationships between geomechanics, stress and fractures. Determining the geomechanical properties of the reservoir is essential for better reservoir management. Geology is the main driver controlling production, due to the presence of fault compartmentalization in the field. The central graben, within the Wishbone section, causes geologic heterogeneity and displays signs of high net pressure. This is due to a larger increase in pore pressure, ultimately decreasing effective stress. Outside of the graben, naturally fractured areas, displaying decreasing net pressure trends, will maximize fracture network surface area during completions. This allows for a larger volume of rock to be stimulated, and a greater chance of opening pre-existing fractures. As far as re-fracturing efforts are concerned, areas outside of the graben which are brittle and have low stress anisotropy should be targeted to create complex fracture networks. Geomechanical and stress information about the reservoir is vital for predicting fracture propagation. After investigation of fracture characterization trends, we have a better understanding of stimulated areas within the Wishbone section. Specific completion techniques can be applied to stages based on geomechanical properties and geologic location. Fracture networks defined through the integrated dynamic reservoir characterization process provide targets for future re

  12. Effective roof support for tabular stopes.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ottermann, RW

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available in the wishbone structure and the pressure relief valve. Rapid yielding is mainly accommodated by the flexibility of the “wishbone” structure, and this also gives the system the necessary rebound, since stopes do not only undergo monotonic closure during a... been tested and proven. The team also discussed the possibility that the smaller unit might be able to handle all stoping widths, by attaching it to columnar foot pieces either 0.7 or 1.0 m long, which would then extend the range of the support unit...

  13. Simulation of Particulate Flows Multi-Processor Machines with Distributed Memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlmann, M.

    2004-07-01

    We presented a method for the parallelization of an immersed boundary algorithm for particulate flows using the MPI standard of communication. The treatment of the fluid phase used the domain decomposition technique over a Cartesian processor grid. The solution of the Helmholtz problem is approximately factorized an relies upon apparel tri-diagonal solver the Poisson problem is solved by means of a parallel multi-grid technique similar to MUDPACK. for the solid phase we employ a master-slaves technique where one processor handles all the particles contained in its Eulerian fluid sub-domain and zero or more neighbor processors collaborate in the computation of particle-related quantities whenever a particle position over laps the boundary of a sub-domain. the parallel efficiency for some preliminary computations is presented. (Author) 9 refs.

  14. Mechanisms of action of spa therapies in rheumatic diseases: what scientific evidence is there?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioravanti, Antonella; Cantarini, Luca; Guidelli, Giacomo Maria; Galeazzi, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    Spa therapy represents a popular treatment for many rheumatic diseases. The mechanisms by which immersion in mineral or thermal water or the application of mud alleviates suffering in rheumatic diseases are not fully understood. The net benefit is probably the result of a combination of factors, with mechanical, thermal and chemical effects among the most prominent ones. Buoyancy, immersion, resistance and temperature all play important roles. According to the gate theory, pain relief may be due to the pressure and temperature of the water on skin; hot stimuli may influence muscle tone and pain intensity, helping to reduce muscle spasm and to increase the pain threshold. Mud-bath therapy increases plasma β-endorphin levels and secretion of corticotrophin, cortisol, growth hormone and prolactin. It has recently been demonstrated that thermal mud-pack therapy induces a reduction in the circulating levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), important mediators of inflammation and pain. Spa therapy has been found to cause an increase in insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1), which stimulates cartilage metabolism, and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). There is also evidence of the positive action of mud-packs and thermal baths on the oxidant/antioxidant system, with a reduction in the release of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species. Overall, thermal stress has an immunosuppressive effect. Many other non-specific factors may also contribute to the beneficial effects observed after spa therapy in some rheumatic diseases, including effects on cardiovascular risk factors, and changes in the environment, pleasant surroundings and the absence of work duties.

  15. Effect of polysaccharide addition on the foaming properties of egg white protein in aqueous and high sugar contente systems = Efeito da adição de polissacarídeos nas propriedades espumantes de proteínas da clara de ovo em sistemas aquoso e com alto teor de açúcares

    OpenAIRE

    Mitie Sônia Sadahira

    2014-01-01

    Nos confeitos aerados (marshmallow e nougat), a espuma é produzida pela aeração de xaropes de açúcares, estabilizada por proteínas tais como proteínas da clara de ovo (PCO). A pectina, polissacarídeo aniônico, pode formar complexos eletrostáticos com proteína em pH abaixo do ponto isoelétrico da proteína. A hidroxipropilmetilcelulose (HPMC) é um polissacarídeo neutro com propriedades emulsificantes. O trabalho visou estudar as propriedades espumantes (capacidade de aeração e estabilidade da e...

  16. North Korea: Economic Leverage and Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    found a secret weapon that has been a hit with North Koreans: South Korean “ Choco Pies,” a snack consisting of two large round cookies covered with...chocolate with a filling of marshmallow in between much like an Oreo cookie. Choco Pies have been so popular in the lunches provided to Kaesong...North Korea,” Reuters, June 4, 2009. 26 “N.Koreans Love Choco Pie,” Chosen Ilbo, May 23, 2009, English Internet edition. . North Korea: Economic

  17. The New Embedded System Design Methodology For Improving Design Process Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Abdurohman, Maman; Sutikno, Sarwono; Sasongko, Arif

    2010-01-01

    Time-to-market pressure and productivity gap force vendors and researchers to improve embedded system design methodology. Current used design method, Register Transfer Level (RTL), is no longer be adequate to comply with embedded system design necessity. It needs a new methodology for facing the lack of RTL. In this paper, a new methodology of hardware embedded system modeling process is designed for improving design process performance using Transaction Level Modeling (TLM). TLM is a higher abstraction design concept model above RTL model. Parameters measured include design process time and accuracy of design. For implementing RTL model used Avalon and Wishbone buses, both are System on Chip bus. Performance improvement measured by comparing TLM and RTL model process. The experiment results show performance improvements for Avalon RTL using new design methodology are 1,03 for 3-tiers, 1,47 for 4-tiers and 1,69 for 5-tiers. Performance improvements for Wishbone RTL are 1,12 for 3-tiers, 1,17 for 4-tiers and 1...

  18. Detection of porcine DNA in gelatine and gelatine-containing processed food products-Halal/Kosher authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirhan, Yasemin; Ulca, Pelin; Senyuva, Hamide Z

    2012-03-01

    A commercially available real-time PCR, based on a multi-copy target cytochrome b (cyt b) using porcine specific primers, has been validated for the Halal/Kosher authentication of gelatine. Extraction and purification of DNA from gelatine were successfully achieved using the SureFood® PREP Animal system, and real-time PCR was carried out using SureFood® Animal ID Pork Sens kit. The minimum level of adulteration that could be detected was 1.0% w/w for marshmallows and gum drops. A small survey was undertaken of processed food products such as gum drops, marshmallows and Turkish delight, believed to contain gelatine. Of fourteen food products from Germany, two samples were found to contain porcine gelatine, whereas of twenty-nine samples from Turkey twenty-eight were negative. However, one product from Turkey contained porcine DNA and thus was not Halal, and neither was the use of porcine gelatine indicated on the product label.

  19. Operations Nougat and Sun Beam. Organizational, operational, funding, and logistic summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-09-01

    This report covers the organizational, operational, funding, and logistic portions of the DoD-DASA effort at the Nevada Test Site during Operations Nougat and Sun Beam. Operations included Shots Hard Hat, Marshmallow, Danny Boy, Johnie Boy, Small Boy, Little Feller I and II, and the Vela-Uniform Program. The field activities started in November 1961 and ended in September 1962. Appendixes A through G contain shot and meteorological data, copies of statements of authority and agreements, information on reporting procedures, and a list of all reports resulting from both the Nevada and Pacific test operations conducted during 1962. The reports on the Pacific tests are listed as a convenience to readers interested in related projects in Operation Dominic.

  20. Detection of Different DNA Animal Species in Commercial Candy Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Colmenero, Marta; Martínez, Jose Luis; Roca, Agustín; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2016-03-01

    Candy products are consumed all across the world, but there is not much information about their composition. In this study we have used a DNA-based approach for determining the animal species occurring in 40 commercial candies of different types. We extracted DNA and performed PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing for obtaining species-informative DNA sequences. Eight species were identified including fish (hake and anchovy) in 22% of the products analyzed. Bovine and porcine were the most abundant appearing in 27 samples each one. Most products contained a mixture of species. Marshmallows (7), jelly-types, and gummies (20) contained a significantly higher number of species than hard candies (9). We demonstrated the presence of DNA animal species in candy product which allow consumers to make choices and prevent allergic reaction.

  1. Is it really self-control? Examining the predictive power of the delay of gratification task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Angela L; Tsukayama, Eli; Kirby, Teri A

    2013-07-01

    This investigation tests whether the predictive power of the delay of gratification task (colloquially known as the "marshmallow test") derives from its assessment of self-control or of theoretically unrelated traits. Among 56 school-age children in Study 1, delay time was associated with concurrent teacher ratings of self-control and Big Five conscientiousness-but not with other personality traits, intelligence, or reward-related impulses. Likewise, among 966 preschool children in Study 2, delay time was consistently associated with concurrent parent and caregiver ratings of self-control but not with reward-related impulses. While delay time in Study 2 was also related to concurrently measured intelligence, predictive relations with academic, health, and social outcomes in adolescence were more consistently explained by ratings of effortful control. Collectively, these findings suggest that delay task performance may be influenced by extraneous traits, but its predictive power derives primarily from its assessment of self-control.

  2. Edible Earth and Space Science Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, D.; Shupla, C.

    2014-07-01

    In this workshop we describe using Earth and Space Science demonstrations with edible ingredients to increase student interest. We show how to use chocolate, candy, cookies, popcorn, bagels, pastries, Pringles, marshmallows, whipped cream, and Starburst candy for activities such as: plate tectonics, the interior structure of the Earth and Mars, radioactivity/radioactive dating of rocks and stars, formation of the planets, lunar phases, convection, comets, black holes, curvature of space, dark energy, and the expansion of the Universe. In addition to creating an experience that will help students remember specific concepts, edible activities can be used as a formative assessment, providing students with the opportunity to create something that demonstrates their understanding of the model. The students often eat the demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool for all ages, and can be adapted for cultural, culinary, and ethnic differences among the students.

  3. Astronomy Outreach Activities for Special Needs Children and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, D.

    2010-08-01

    I present the results of two NASA-IDEAS/STScI sponsored astronomy outreach programs for seriously ill children and their families staying at the Ronald McDonald House of Long Island (New Hyde Park, NY) and for children hospitalized at the Children's Medical Center, Winthrop University Hospital (Mineola, NY). These programs are designed for children of all ages and include STSCi's Tonight's Sky (monthly guide to the sky); telescope observations of the Moon, Sun, planets, nebulae, and stars; and hands-on activities. During cloudy weather remote/robotic telescope observations are shown. Edible demonstrations using chocolate, marshmallows, and popcorn are used to stimulate interest. The staff at the Ronald McDonald House and Children's Medical Center are being trained to use the telescope and to do demonstrations. These educational activities help children and their families learn about astronomy while providing a diversion to take their minds off their illness during a stressful time.

  4. Experimentos didáticos envolvendo radiação microondas Microwave-assisted experiments for undergraduate courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Rosini

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and practical aspects of the use of microwave-assisted strategies in chemistry are introduced for students using simple and safe experiments employing a domestic oven. Three procedures are proposed for evaluating the distribution of microwave radiation inside the microwave oven cavity: (1 variation of the volume of marshmallows; (2 drying of filter paper wetted with Co(II solution, and (3 variation of water temperature, after microwave-assisted heating. These experiments establish the position with the highest incidence of microwave radiation in the oven cavity, which was chosen for the synthesis of salicylic acid acetate. This synthesis was performed in 5 min of heating and the yield was around 85%. All experiments can be carried out in a 4 h lab-session using low-cost instrumentation.

  5. Waiting for the Second Treat: Developing Culture-Specific Modes of Self-Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Bettina; Keller, Heidi; Teiser, Johanna; Gudi, Helene; Yovsi, Relindis D; Freitag, Claudia; Poloczek, Sonja; Fassbender, Ina; Suhrke, Janina; Teubert, Manuel; Vöhringer, Isabel; Knopf, Monika; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Lohaus, Arnold

    2017-06-06

    The development of self-regulation has been studied primarily in Western middle-class contexts and has, therefore, neglected what is known about culturally varying self-concepts and socialization strategies. The research reported here compared the self-regulatory competencies of German middle-class (N = 125) and rural Cameroonian Nso preschoolers (N = 76) using the Marshmallow test (Mischel, 2014). Study 1 revealed that 4-year-old Nso children showed better delay-of-gratification performance than their German peers. Study 2 revealed that culture-specific maternal socialization goals and interaction behaviors were related to delay-of-gratification performance. Nso mothers' focus on hierarchical relational socialization goals and responsive control seems to support children's delay-of-gratification performance more than German middle-class mothers' emphasis on psychological autonomous socialization goals and sensitive, child-centered parenting. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  6. 'Willpower' over the life span: decomposing self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischel, Walter; Ayduk, Ozlem; Berman, Marc G; Casey, B J; Gotlib, Ian H; Jonides, John; Kross, Ethan; Teslovich, Theresa; Wilson, Nicole L; Zayas, Vivian; Shoda, Yuichi

    2011-04-01

    In the 1960s, Mischel and colleagues developed a simple 'marshmallow test' to measure preschoolers' ability to delay gratification. In numerous follow-up studies over 40 years, this 'test' proved to have surprisingly significant predictive validity for consequential social, cognitive and mental health outcomes over the life course. In this article, we review key findings from the longitudinal work and from earlier delay-of-gratification experiments examining the cognitive appraisal and attention control strategies that underlie this ability. Further, we outline a set of hypotheses that emerge from the intersection of these findings with research on 'cognitive control' mechanisms and their neural bases. We discuss implications of these hypotheses for decomposing the phenomena of 'willpower' and the lifelong individual differences in self-regulatory ability that were identified in the earlier research and that are currently being pursued.

  7. [Intraindividual comparison of whole body cold therapy and warm treatment with hot packs in generalized tendomyopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samborski, W; Stratz, T; Sobieska, M; Mennet, P; Müller, W; Schulte-Mönting, J

    1992-01-01

    In a cross-over study, the short-term efficacy of whole-body cold therapy and hot mud packs in patients with generalized tendomyopathy (fibromyalgia) was compared. As a pain assessment, visual analog scale and so-called pain score were measured; dolorimetry of the 24 tender points and eight control points was performed as well. Using these methods, we found that there is a significant improvement of all parameters examined during a 2-h period of measurements after cold application, and a marked improvement was also detectable 24 h after this therapy. In contrast, only pain score values showed a slight decrease immediately after hot mud-pack therapy, and no significant differences were found in visual analog scale and pressure tenderness as measured dolorimetrically. Central inhibition of nociceptors as a result of an activation of A-delta system as well as a blockade of gamma-motoneurons are discussed to be a mechanism of action of whole-body cold therapy, resulting in a decrease in muscle tonus. Long-term studies are needed to determine, if there is any enduring effect of whole-body cold therapy on pain in the patients with generalized tendomyopathy.

  8. Optimization of a FSAE Racing Car's Front Suspension Based on ADAMS%基于ADAMS的FSAE赛车前悬架优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王行; 阳林; 彭仁杰; 冯勇

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the handling and stability of Formula SAE racing car better , based on the College Students'Formula SAE racing competition ( Formula SAE racing car ) of a university , it estab-lished the simulation model for the front double wishbone independent suspension system by using the me -chanical system simulation software ADAMS , obtained the variation curve of kingpin inclination angle , caster, camber and toe-in four parameters by simulating and analyzing the wheels'jumping, analyzed the influence of each parameter changes on the handling and stability of Formula SAE racing car , and used In-sight module in ADAMS for the multi-objective optimization of the suspension system'hard point position . The results show that the motion characteristics of front double wishbone independent suspension system are effectively improved , which meets the expected design requirements of the Formula SAE racing car .This study has a certain guiding significance for the designing of the racing car 'suspension system .%为更好地研究方程式赛车的操纵稳定性,基于机械系统动力学仿真软件ADAMS对某大学的大学生方程式赛车( Formula SAE racing car )的前悬架系统建立仿真模型,并进行运动学仿真分析,得到车轮在跳动时主销内倾角、主销后倾角、车轮外倾角和前轮前束4项参数的变化曲线,分析各参数变化对赛车操纵稳定性的影响,利用ADAMS/Insight模块对悬架的硬点位置进行多目标优化。结果表明,前悬架系统的运动特性得到有效提升,满足设计要求,该研究对于赛车的悬架设计具有一定的指导意义。

  9. Spa therapy: can be a valid option for treating knee osteoarthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenti, Sara; Cheleschi, Sara; Galeazzi, Mauro; Fioravanti, Antonella

    2015-08-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) continues to be one of the leading causes of `years lived with disability' worldwide. Symptomatic knee OA is highly prevalent among people aged 50 years and over and is destined to become an ever more important healthcare problem. Current management of knee OA includes non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatments. Spa therapy is one of the most commonly used non-pharmacological approaches for OA in many European countries, as well as in Japan and Israel. Despite its long history and popularity, spa treatment is still the subject of debate and its role in modern medicine continues to be unclear. The objective of this review is to summarize the currently available information on clinical effects and mechanisms of action of spa therapy in knee OA. Various randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) were conducted to assess the efficacy and tolerability of balneotherapy and mud-pack therapy in patients with knee OA. Data from these clinical trials support a beneficial effect of spa therapy on pain, function and quality of life in knee OA that lasts over time, until 6-9 months after the treatment. The mechanisms by which immersion in mineral or thermal water or the application of mud alleviate suffering in OA are not fully understood. The net benefit is probably the result of a combination of factors, among which the mechanical, thermal and chemical effects are most prominent. In conclusion, spa therapy seems to have a role in the treatment of knee OA. Additional RCTs and further studies of mechanisms of action with high methodological quality are necessary to prove the effects of spa therapy.

  10. Spa therapy: can be a valid option for treating knee osteoarthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenti, Sara; Cheleschi, Sara; Galeazzi, Mauro; Fioravanti, Antonella

    2015-08-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) continues to be one of the leading causes of 'years lived with disability' worldwide. Symptomatic knee OA is highly prevalent among people aged 50 years and over and is destined to become an ever more important healthcare problem. Current management of knee OA includes non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatments. Spa therapy is one of the most commonly used non-pharmacological approaches for OA in many European countries, as well as in Japan and Israel. Despite its long history and popularity, spa treatment is still the subject of debate and its role in modern medicine continues to be unclear. The objective of this review is to summarize the currently available information on clinical effects and mechanisms of action of spa therapy in knee OA. Various randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) were conducted to assess the efficacy and tolerability of balneotherapy and mud-pack therapy in patients with knee OA. Data from these clinical trials support a beneficial effect of spa therapy on pain, function and quality of life in knee OA that lasts over time, until 6-9 months after the treatment. The mechanisms by which immersion in mineral or thermal water or the application of mud alleviate suffering in OA are not fully understood. The net benefit is probably the result of a combination of factors, among which the mechanical, thermal and chemical effects are most prominent. In conclusion, spa therapy seems to have a role in the treatment of knee OA. Additional RCTs and further studies of mechanisms of action with high methodological quality are necessary to prove the effects of spa therapy.

  11. Effects of mud-bath therapy in psoriatic arthritis patients treated with TNF inhibitors. Clinical evaluation and assessment of synovial inflammation by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Franco; Raffeiner, Bernd; Beltrame, Valeria; Ciprian, Luca; Coran, Alessandro; Botsios, Constantin; Perissinotto, Egle; Grisan, Enrico; Ramonda, Roberta; Oliviero, Francesca; Stramare, Roberto; Punzi, Leonardo

    2015-03-01

    Despite the efficacy of TNF inhibitors, most patients with psoriatic arthritis maintain a residual synovial inflammation. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of mud-bath therapy on clinical picture of PsA patients treated with TNF inhibitors. The secondary outcome was to assess synovial inflammation in hand joints detected by contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Other aims were to verify the risk of arthritis flare and to evaluate the effects of spa treatment on functional ability and on quality of life. Thirty-six patients with psoriatic arthritis, treated in the last 6 months with TNF inhibitors, were enrolled. After 1:1 randomisation, 18 patients (group A) underwent mud-bath therapy (12 mudpacks and 12 thermal baths), maintaining treatment with TNF inhibitors; 18 patients (group B) continued pharmacological therapy alone. CRP, PASI, DAS28, swollen and tender joint count, VAS pain, HAQ and SF-36 were evaluated at baseline (T0) and after 45 days (T1). Synovial inflammation detected by contrast-enhanced ultrasound, analysed by a software system, was also assessed. A significant improvement in PASI (P<0.005), DAS28 (P<0.05), swollen joint count and tender joint count (P<0.001), and HAQ (P<0.001) between T0 and T1 was observed in group A. No patient underwent a flare-up of arthritis. Ultrasound videos demonstrated a significant appearance delay (P<0.05) and faster washout (P<0.02) of contrast dye in group A patients with respect to group B. These data suggest a decrease of residual synovial inflammation and a beneficial clinical effect of spa therapy in psoriatic arthritis patients treated with TNF inhibitors. Copyright © 2014 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical and biochemical effects of a 3-week program of diet combined with spa therapy in obese and diabetic patients: a pilot open study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioravanti, Antonella; Adamczyk, Przemysław; Pascarelli, Nicola Antonio; Giannitti, Chiara; Urso, Renato; Tołodziecki, Michał; Ponikowska, Irena

    2015-07-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, dyslipidemias, and type 2 diabetes. Spa therapy has long been used for treating obesity and its comorbidities. Enlargement of adipose tissue has been linked to a dysregulation of adipokine secretion and adipose tissue inflammation. Adipokines are currently investigated as potential drug targets in these conditions. Our primary aim was to assess the clinical efficacy of a 3-week program of diet combined with spa therapy in obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes. The secondary aim was to examine whether this combined program influences the response of serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, visfatin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Fifty obese males were enrolled and 21 of these featured a type 2 diabetes. During the 3-week period of the study, the patients were on a 1,000-kcal diet and were involved in mineral bath and total body's mud-pack applications (15 procedures). Patients were assessed at baseline and at the end of the therapy for clinical and biochemical parameters (total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glycemia, and adipokines). We showed that a 3-week program of spa therapy in obese patients induced significant decrease of body weight, body mass index, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, glycemia, and serum levels of leptin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. So, a cycle of mud-bath therapy associated with a controlled diet may be a promising treatment for obesity and type 2 diabetes decreasing body weight and many risk factors for atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome.

  13. Sprite Climatology in the Eastern Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yair, Yoav; Price, Colin; Katzenelson, Dor; Rosenthal, Neta; Rubanenko, Lior; Ben-Ami, Yuval; Arnone, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    We present statistical analysis of 436 sprites observed in 7 winter campaigns from 2006/7-2012/13. Results show a clear peak in the frequency of sprite detections, with maximum values (reports of winter sprites over the Sea of Japan and summer ones in central Europe. Other shapes such as trees, wishbones, etc. appear quite rarely. Single element events constitute 16.5% of observations, with 83.5% containing 2 elements or more. Clusters of homogeneous types are slightly more frequent than mixed ones (55%). Our observations suggest winter East Mediterranean thunderstorms to have a vertical structure that is an intermediate type between high tropical convective systems and the lower cloud-top cells in winter thunderstorms over the Sea of Japan. The climatology shows that the Eastern Mediterranean is a major sprite producer during Northern Hemisphere winter, and thus the existing and future optical observation infrastructure in Israel offers ground-based coverage for upcoming space missions that aim to map global sprite activity.

  14. Design and Development of Independent Front Air Suspension for 7 m Coach%7m客车用独立前空气悬架的设计开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋芳; 何文彪; 冯春华; 吴纪刚

    2016-01-01

    介绍一种双横臂式独立前空气悬架的设计开发,用于7m左右的中小型客车。可解决其在发动机前置时,底盘空间狭小、布置独立悬架及转向系统困难的技术问题。此独立前悬采用支撑臂上匹配气囊减振器的结构,目前在国内中小型客车上尚无此类产品。%The authors describe the design and development of double wishbone independent front air suspension for 7 m coaches. This can solve the technique problems that the chassis space is narrow, the arrangement of independent suspension and steering system are difficult. This independent front suspension uses a structure of air spring and shock absorber mounted on the support arm, which is presently rare to be found in middle and small-sized coaches.

  15. Kinematic Simulation of Suspension of New Three-wheel Sports Car%新款三轮运动车悬架运动学仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田锐; 李桂华

    2012-01-01

    Based on the multi-body dynamics software, a new sports car' s double wishbone independent suspension model is established, According to the front suspension hard points coordinates, the parameterized three-dimensional model can be easily created by using ADAMS/CAR. The front wheel alignment parameters are analyzed in the characteristics of the wheel changes when beating. Influence of the suspension on the vehicle' s handling stability and ride comfort is briefly discussed. The feasibility of design decision is verified.%通过多体动力学软件ADAMS建立新型三轮运动车的双横臂独立悬架模型,依据设计时的前悬硬点坐标,使用ADAMS/CAR能方便地建立参数化的三维模型,分析前轮定位参数等在车轮跳动时的变化特性,并简要论述了悬架对整车操纵稳定性及平顺性的影响,验证了设计方案的可行性。

  16. POSTWAR EUROPEAN CHAIR DESIGN. A COMEBACK OF THE STYLE CONNECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina CIONCA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studies and research aimed at identifying significant concepts of the design process dynamics of two European designers, Gió Ponti (Italy and Hans Wegner (Denmark. Two of their major chair designs, the Wishbone Chair (Wegner, 1944-49 and the Superleggera Chair (Ponti, 1951-57 were chosen as study cases. Their historical concept sources were carefully investigated and documented, since in the postwar years a tendency towards disregarding the dogmatic functionality of the interwar avant-garde furniture design occurred, making place for a different kind of innovation that did not contradict the natural evolution of form and function, but introduced an inherent elegance of form, as well as exceptional craftsmanship seen as adding value to the industrial production. Formal, compositional, structural and ergonomic elements were analysed, measurements of dimensions and angles were made and compared, sitting positions were visualised, in an attempt to unveil crucial aspects of specific design insights. The good understanding of the style connections, of the significant construction details that confirm the innovative, functional and well-balanced appearance of these chairs, of the careful selection of materials that characterised postwar austerity, contributed to an already confirmed investigative approach, which may be seen as a useful instrument of knowledge not only for design education, but also for design historians, furniture designers, manufacturers and artisans.

  17. Lunar articulated remote transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The students of the Florida A&M/Florida State University College of Engineering continued their design from 1988 to 1989 on a first generation lunar transportation vehicle for use on the surface of the Moon between the years 2010 and 2020. Attention is focused on specific design details on all components of the Lunar Articulated Remote Transportation System (Lunar ARTS). The Lunar ARTS will be a three-cart, six-wheeled articulated vehicle. Its purpose will be the transportation of astronauts and/or materials for excavation purposes at a short distance from the base (37.5 km). The power system includes fuel cells for both the primary system and the back-up system. The vehicle has the option of being operated in a manned or unmanned mode. The unmanned mode includes stereo imaging with signal processing for navigation. For manned missions the display console is a digital readout displayed on the inside of the astronaut's helmet. A microprocessor is also on board the vehicle. Other components of the vehicle include a double wishbone/flexible hemispherical wheel suspension; chassis; a steering system; motors; seat retraints; heat rejection systems; solar flare protection; dust protection; and meteoroid protection. A one-quarter scale dynamic model has been built to study the dynamic behavior of the vehicle. The dynamic model closely captures the mechanical and electrical details of the total design.

  18. Metglas-Elgiloy bi-layer, stent cell resonators for wireless monitoring of viscosity and mass loading

    KAUST Repository

    Viswanath, Anupam

    2012-12-21

    This paper presents the design and evaluation of magnetoelastic sensors intended for wireless monitoring of tissue accumulation in peripheral artery stents. The sensors are fabricated from 28 μm thick foils of magnetoelastic 2826MB Metglas™, an amorphous Ni-Fe alloy. The sensor layer consists of a frame and an active resonator portion. The frame consists of 150 μm wide struts that are patterned in the same wishbone array pattern as a 12 mm × 1.46 mm Elgiloy stent cell. The active portion is a 10 mm long symmetric leaf shape and is anchored to the frame at mid length. The active portion nests within the stent cell, with a uniform gap separating the two. A gold-indium eutectic bonding process is used to bond Metglas™ and Elgiloy foils, which are subsequently patterned to form bi-layer resonators. The response of the sensor to viscosity changes and mass loading that precede and accompany artery occlusion is tested in vitro. The typical sensitivity to viscosity of the fundamental, longitudinal resonant frequency at 361 kHz is 427 ppm cP -1 over a 1.1-8.6 cP range. The sensitivity to mass loading is typically between 63000 and 65000 ppm mg-1 with the resonant frequency showing a reduction of 8.1% for an applied mass that is 15% of the unloaded mass of the sensor. This is in good agreement with the theoretical response. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  19. Ileum perforation due to accidental chicken bone ingestion a rare cause of the acute abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doklestić Krstina S.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of foreign bodies is not an uncommon occurrence, but most of them will pass through the gastrointestinal tract without consequences. Complication such as perforation is rare. We present a case of small bowel perforation secondary to the accidental ingestion of a chicken bone. The patient presented with abdominal pain, constipation and vomiting. Clinical examination confirmed generalized abdominal tenderness and rebound tenderness. Abdominal radiography showed multiple dilated loops of small bowel, and abdominal ultrasound (US showed inflammatory changes on small bowel loops, with free fluid and fluid collection around intestinal loops. The patient underwent an emergency laparotomy. Intra operative findings revealed diffuse fibro purulent peritonitis with abscess between central small bowels loops. At about 60 cm from Bauchini valve we found a perforation of ileum at the anti-mesenteric site caused by a sharp chicken wishbone. The patient was treated with resection of the ileum segment (10 cm and primary end-to-end anastomosis. Even that intestinal perforation by a foreign body is rare, physicians should consider possibility of intestinal perforation by a foreign body in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen in patients presenting with abdominal pain.

  20. Laboratory Experiments on Wave Emissions Generated by the Variable Viscosity of Fracturing Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahi Taleghani, A.; Lorenzo, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Microseismic analysis is recognized as the main method for estimating hydraulic fracture geometry. However, because of limited access to the subsurface and usually high levels of environmental noise it becomes crucial to verify assumed fracture propagation models under more controlled laboratory conditions. Considering the fact that fluid driven fractures may grow under different regimes i.e., toughness-dominated or viscous-dominated, scaling is necessary to reproduce the corresponding fracture growth regime. Scaling is achieved by constraining material deformational parameters, fluid flow rates, and fracturing-fluid viscosity for the appropriate value of the non-dimensional toughness. Hence, we implemented hydraulic fracturing tests on translucent plexiglass samples, at room temperature with contrasting fracturing fluid viscosities. A modest, biaxial loading frame creates relatively low directed principal stresses (positive displacement pump. We record microseismic events on the upper and lower faces of a thermally annealed, sample block (13 cm x 13 cm x 10 cm) with 3-component, broadband sensors (101-106). Preliminary results indicate that the dominant frequency band of the microseismic events appears similar for both toughness-dominated and viscous-dominated regimes (101-102 Hz). The experiments in both regimes show rippled crack surfaces although in the toughness-dominated regime, 'ripples' are more closely spaced (mm cf. cm). The fracture surfaces show bifurcating, "wish-bone" structures only in the viscous regime.

  1. 基于ADAMS/Car的小汽车后悬架仿真分析%The Simulation Analysis of Rear Suspension Based on the Software of ADAMS/Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小平; 范志勇

    2012-01-01

    以现今汽车悬架发展中具有代表性的3种悬架——拖拽臂式、双横臂式和多连杆式悬架为研究对象,通过Pro/E和ADAMS/Car联合建立多刚体动力学模型进行仿真.对比分析了3种悬架的操纵稳定性、安全性和经济性,并对3种悬架进行部分机械性能理论分析,指出了各种悬架适于应用的环境,为设计者设计和消费者选购提供理论参考和建议.%At first the multi-rigid body dynamic model of three representative suspension automobile suspension as follows; trailing arm type, double wishbone arm type and multi-link suspension are built in Pro/E and ADAMS/Car. Then kinematics simulation analysis is carried out refer to the comparative analysis of the three suspension's control stability, safety and economy. And pointed out all sorts of suspension suitable for application of the environment, and provide the theoretical references and suggestions for the designers and consumers.

  2. 基于ADAMS/Insight的悬架优化设计%Suspension Optimization Design Based On ADAMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓欢; 宋珂; 章桐

    2012-01-01

    This paper establish the corresponding double -wishbone suspension kinematic model ofself- developed electric vehicle - range extend ( EV - RE) for the problem of poor handling and stability based on AD- AMS/Car. To get the best result of the suspension hard points coordinates, this paper selected the appropriate hard point coordinates as optimization variables and the wheel alignment parameters as the optimization objective to make an optimization design based on ADAMS/Insight. At last, a better result was gotten by adjusting the car suspension.%针对自行研制的带增程器的电动微型小车(EV-RE)行驶稳定性不佳、前轮摆振问题,通过ADAMS/CAR建立相应悬架模型,在ADAMS/Insight中选取硬点坐标为优化变量,四轮定位参数为优化目标进行优化设计并得到相对最佳的悬架硬点坐标.最后对实车进行调整修改,结果表明通过这次优化改善了该车的操纵稳定性,基本消除了前轮摆振现象.

  3. 赛车前悬架和转向系统ADAMS/CAR建模及仿真%Modeling and Simulation of a FSAE Racing Car's Front Suspension and Steering Based on ADAMS/CAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向铁明; 沈理真

    2012-01-01

    A FSAE racing car's model of double wishbone independent front suspension and steering system was built in ADAMS/CAR.The kinematics simulation was done by using parallel wheel travel analysis.The simulations was done again after the ball hinge of the lower control arm moved up and down respectively.The influences of front wheels alignment parameters were obvious when the position of the ball hinge of the lower control arm charged.%借助ADAMS/CAR,对某FSAE赛车双横臂独立前悬架和转向系统建立多体动力学模型,并对其进行前轮同向跳动仿真,对下控制臂球头铰上移和下移后再次仿真.仿真结果表明,下控制臂球头铰位置的变化对前轮定位参数影响显著.

  4. Kinematic characterization and optimization of vehicle front-suspension design based on ADAMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hai-bo; LI You-de; MEN Yu-zhuo

    2008-01-01

    To improve the suspension performance and steering stability of light vehicles, we built a kinematic simulation model of a whole independent double-wishbone suspension system by using ADAMS software, created random excitations of the test platforms of respectively the left and the right wheels according to actual running conditions of a vehicle, and explored the changing patterns of the kinematic characteristic parameters in the process of suspension motion. The irrationality of the suspension guiding mechanism design was pointed out through simulation and analysis, and the existent problems of the guiding mechanism were optimized and calculated. The results show that all the front-wheel alignment parameters, including the camber, the toe, the caster and the inclination, only slightly change within corresponding allowable ranges in design before and after optimization. The optimization reduces the variation of the wheel-center distance from 47.01 mm to a change of 8.28 mm within the allowable range of -10 mm to 10 mm, promising an improvement of the vehicle steering stability. The optimization also confines the front-wheel sideways slippage to a much smaller change of 2.23 mm; this helps to greatly reduce the wear of tires and assure the straight running stability of the vehicle.

  5. Open Hardware For CERN's Accelerator Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    van der Bij, E; Ayass, M; Boccardi, A; Cattin, M; Gil Soriano, C; Gousiou, E; Iglesias Gonsálvez, S; Penacoba Fernandez, G; Serrano, J; Voumard, N; Wlostowski, T

    2011-01-01

    The accelerator control systems at CERN will be renovated and many electronics modules will be redesigned as the modules they will replace cannot be bought anymore or use obsolete components. The modules used in the control systems are diverse: analog and digital I/O, level converters and repeaters, serial links and timing modules. Overall around 120 modules are supported that are used in systems such as beam instrumentation, cryogenics and power converters. Only a small percentage of the currently used modules are commercially available, while most of them had been specifically designed at CERN. The new developments are based on VITA and PCI-SIG standards such as FMC (FPGA Mezzanine Card), PCI Express and VME64x using transition modules. As system-on-chip interconnect, the public domain Wishbone specification is used. For the renovation, it is considered imperative to have for each board access to the full hardware design and its firmware so that problems could quickly be resolved by CERN engineers or its ...

  6. Edible Astronomy Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, Donald A.

    2007-12-01

    Astronomy demonstrations with edible ingredients are an effective way to increase student interest and knowledge of astronomical concepts. This approach has been successful with all age groups from elementary school through college students - and the students remember these demonstrations after they are presented. In this poster I describe edible demonstrations I have created to simulate the expansion of the universe (using big-bang chocolate chip cookies); differentiation during the formation of the Earth and planets (using chocolate or chocolate milk with marshmallows, cereal, candy pieces or nuts); and radioactivity/radioactive dating (using popcorn). Other possible demonstrations include: plate tectonics (crackers with peanut butter and jelly); convection (miso soup or hot chocolate); mud flows on Mars (melted chocolate poured over angel food cake); formation of the Galactic disk (pizza); formation of spiral arms (coffee with cream); the curvature of Space (Pringles); constellations patterns with chocolate chips and chocolate chip cookies; planet shaped cookies; star shaped cookies with different colored frostings; coffee or chocolate milk measurement of solar radiation; Oreo cookie lunar phases. Sometimes the students eat the results of the astronomical demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool and can be adapted for cultural, culinary, and ethnic differences among the students.

  7. Neural Basis of Brain Dysfunction Produced by Early Sleep Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kohyama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a wealth of evidence that disrupted sleep and circadian rhythms, which are common in modern society even during the early stages of life, have unfavorable effects on brain function. Altered brain function can cause problem behaviors later in life, such as truancy from or dropping out of school, quitting employment, and committing suicide. In this review, we discuss findings from several large cohort studies together with recent results of a cohort study using the marshmallow test, which was first introduced in the 1960s. This test assessed the ability of four-year-olds to delay gratification and showed how this ability correlated with success later in life. The role of the serotonergic system in sleep and how this role changes with age are also discussed. The serotonergic system is involved in reward processing and interactions with the dorsal striatum, ventral striatum, and the prefrontal cortex are thought to comprise the neural basis for behavioral patterns that are affected by the quantity, quality, and timing of sleep early in life.

  8. Prospective thinking and decision making in primary school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Lombardi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we seek to widen our understanding of the developmental processes underlying bargaining behaviour in children addressing the concept of prospective thinking. We argue that the emergence of the capacity to think prospectively about future outcomes or behaviours in response to current actions is a required precedent to strategic decision making. To test this idea, we compared 6, 8 and 10 years old children’s performance on three tasks: the ultimatum game assessing fairness/inequality aversion, the marshmallow task, an intertemporal choice task evaluating the ability to delay gratification, and the dictator game assessing altruism. The children’s socio-demographic and cognitive variables were also evaluated. We hypothesized that development of strategic thinking in the ultimatum game is related to an increased ability to delay gratification − given that both tasks require looking at prospective benefits − and, crucially, not to altruism, which benefits from immediate selfless reward. Our results confirmed our hypothesis suggesting that increased strategic planning with age would also stem from the development of competencies like prospective thinking.

  9. CONSTRUCTION AND STUDY OF Althaea officinalis TRANSGENIC ROOTS CULTURE WITH HUMAN INTERFERON α2B GENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Matvieieva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our work was to obtain Althaea officinalis L. «hairy» root culture with human interferon α2b gene (ifn-α2b, to measure fructans content and antiviral activity of extracts from the transgenic roots. Transformation of leaf and root explants was carried out by means of Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation. Antiviral activity was measured by the reduction in cytopathic effect of vesicular stomatitis virus (Indiana strain in bovine kidney cells line MDBK. Transformation frequency was 100% for leaf and root explants. RT-PCR confirmed ifn- α2b gene transcription. The clones of transgenic roots differed in mass increasing from 0, 036 ± 0,008 up to 0,371 ± 0,019 g in 30 days cultivation and in fructan synthesis from 67,2± 4,47 up to 154,6 ± 6,62 mg/g roots dry weight. Extracts from «hairy»roots culture were characterized by high antiviral activity against vesicular stomatitis virus — up to 26 000 IU/ g of roots fresh weight. In some cases the genetic transformation shown to lead increasing the growth rate and increasing the level of fructan synthesis in transgenic A. officinalis roots. Extracts from cultivated in vitro marshmallow transgenic roots were characterized by high level of antiviral activity against vesicular stomatitis virus. Thus, there were obtained transgenic A. officinalis roots, characterized by high growth rate, significant accumulation of fructans and high antiviral activity.

  10. Microdevelopment during an activity-based science lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parziale, Jim

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the microdevelopment of task-related skills during a classroom science activity. Pairs of fifth and pairs of seventh grade students were videotaped as they constructed marshmallow and toothpick bridges. A skill theory based system of analysis was developed and used to detect the construction of new understandings. Patterns of change observed in these understandings were used to infer three means of self-construction: shifts of focus, bridging mechanisms and distributed cognition. Shift of focus is a mechanism used by students to efficiently explore a web of possibilities, collect ideas and make observations for later coordination as new understandings. Bridging mechanisms are partially built conversational structures that scaffolded the construction of higher level thinking structures. Students used the distributed cognition mechanism to test the adaptiveness of their design ideas without the need to fully coordinate an understandings of these designs. An integrated model of these three mechanisms is proposed specific to this task. This model describes how these mechanisms spontaneously emerged and interacted to support the construction of mental representations.

  11. Movement dynamics reflect a functional role for weak coupling and role structure in dyadic problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Drew H; Paxton, Alexandra; Dale, Rick; Kello, Christopher T

    2015-11-01

    Successful interaction requires complex coordination of body movements. Previous research has suggested a functional role for coordination and especially synchronization (i.e., time-locked movement across individuals) in different types of human interaction contexts. Although such coordination has been shown to be nearly ubiquitous in human interaction, less is known about its function. One proposal is that synchrony supports and facilitates communication (Topics Cogn Sci 1:305-319, 2009). However, questions still remain about what the properties of coordination for optimizing communication might look like. In the present study, dyads worked together to construct towers from uncooked spaghetti and marshmallows. Using cross-recurrence quantification analysis, we found that dyads with loosely coupled gross body movements performed better, supporting recent work suggesting that simple synchrony may not be the key to effective performance (Riley et al. 2011). We also found evidence that leader-follower dynamics-when sensitive to the specific role structure of the interaction-impact task performance. We discuss our results with respect to the functional role of coordination in human interaction.

  12. Total Content of Polyphenols and Antioxidant Activity of Different Melliferous Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pasca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study polyphenols content and antioxidant activity of melliferous plants for the following: mint (Mentha pulegium, burdock (Arctium lappa, comfrey (Symphytum officinale, plantain (Pantago lanceolata, thyme (Thymus vulgaris, sage (Salvia officinalis, marigold (Calendula officinalis, small marshmallow (Althaea officinalis, echinacea (Echinaceea angustifolia and black popular (Populus nigra were investigated, using two different extraction methods. High content of polyphenols and flavones were extracted from Populus nigra, with an average of both extractions 23.14 mg GAE/g and 78.07 mg QE/g flavones. Among the studied plants, Arctium lappa registered the highest antioxidant activity (0.129 mmol Trolox/mL in alcoholic extract and Echinaceea angustifolia with a value of 0.122 mmol Trolox/mL in aqueous extract. The lowest values were recorded for the antioxidant activity of Althaea officinalis (alcoholic extract and Arctium lappa (aqueous extract. The results show that Arctium lappa, Echinaceea angustifolia and Populus nigra can be considered melliferous plants for their high biologically active compounds potential and bee products (honey and pollen that having the composition of these plants will have high antioxidant and antibacterial properties.

  13. Blood flow in the forearm in patients with Rheumatoid arthritis and healthy subjects under local thermotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mucha

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Muscle blood flow in the forearm of patients with rheuma-toid arthritis and healthy volunteers following treatment with temperature increasingarm baths, mudpacks and short- or decimeter-wave diathermy was studied in thisinvestigation. The aim of the study was to find out the difference of reactive hyperemia between the different temperature methods as well as the influence on theconsensual reaction. Subjects: Eighty patients with rheumatoid arthritis, stage 3 according toSteinbrocker, as well as 80 healthy human subjects had been assigned numerically in the four therapy- and controlgroups. Patients with diseases influencing the peripheral blood flow were excluded. Design: Blood flow was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography in both forearms with the subjects lyingsupine. The application of the local heat therapies had been excluded on the left forearm. The forearm blood flow wasmonitored before heat therapy, directly after as well as in two further 10 minutes intervals. An analysis of variancewas used to determine the influence on blood flow of the response to the heat therapies in patients with rheumatoidarthritis and healthy subjects.Results: Under homogeneous starting conditions and a statistically uniformed high blood flow in rest the reactive values of blood flow on the left-hand side of application and the right consensual side showed high significant differencesbetween all methods of therapy. Differences between the patients and the healthy subjects only showed tendencies withpartially lower reactions, concerning the patients with rheumatoid arthritis. All methods of heat therapy caused a statistically provable consensual reaction that turned out smaller after diathermic methods. Here the post therapeuticreaction of the blood flow on the side of application was also lower or rather shorter. Conclusion: Greater differences of the blood flow in rest between the patients with rheumatoid arthritis and healthysubjects

  14. Multiple Target Optimization Method for an Automobile Front Suspension System Design%多目标优化方法在汽车前悬架设计中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚坤; 张金敏

    2013-01-01

    利用多体动力学理论,在已有某型轿车悬架参数的基础上,基于ADAMS平台建立该车双横臂前悬架模型并进行了运动学和弹性学的仿真计算,对仿真结果中敏感度较高的参数进行分析以确定优化目标.利用ADAMS/Insight对悬架的结构进行多目标优化设计,根据优化的结果修改悬架运动学仿真模型,比较优化前后悬架的整体性能.结果表明,此方法取得了良好的优化结果,较好地改善了悬架运动学性能.%Using the method of multi - body dynamics, establish the double wishbone front suspension model by ADAMS software Then the simulation of the Kinematics and flexibility was done, Sensitive parameters in the simulation results were analyzed to determine the optimization objectives. And then the structure of the suspension was optimized by using ADAMS/Insight through the method of Multi - objective optimization, Modify the suspension kinematics simulation model according to the results of optimization, and compare the o-verall suspension performance before optimization and awwwwwwfter optimization. The results show that this method has achieved good optimization results, and improved suspension kinematics.

  15. An Optimization Method to Alleviate Tire Wear of Front Suspension on Pure Electric Bus%一种减轻纯电动中巴前悬轮胎磨损的优化方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁炜彬; 陈新度; 夏鸿建; 熊会元; 吴义忠

    2015-01-01

    纯电动中巴悬架系统通常以传统中巴悬架为设计基础,但由于其质量及外形结构的变化,易产生轮胎磨损严重等问题.以某纯电动中巴的双横臂前悬架为对象,以减轻轮胎磨损为目标,对其硬点作灵敏度分析,辨识影响悬架性能的关键参数.采用RBF构造响应面,通过遗传算法寻优,对悬架的外倾角、前束角及轮心侧向位移量进行多目标综合优化.结果表明,悬架性能获得显著提升,有效减轻轮胎磨损.%Pure electric bus suspension system usually adopts traditional bus suspension as design basis,but due to changes in the quality and structure, easy to produce the tire wear serious problem. In a pure electric bus double wishbone front suspension as the object, in order to reduce tire wear as the goal,for the sensitivity analysis of the hard point,key parameters identification of influence of suspension performance. Using RBF method to construct the response surface, optimized by genetic algorithm, multi objective optimization of the suspension camber angle, toe angle and lateral displacement of wheel center. The optimization results show that the suspension performance can be improved,effectively reduce the tire wear.

  16. Effect of passive flow-control devices on turbulent low-speed base flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari-Miandoab, Farid

    Some configurations of blunt trailing-edge airfoils are known to have a lower pressure drag compared to sharp trailing-edge airfoils. However, this advantage in addition to the structural advantage of a thick trailing-edge airfoil is offset by its high base drag. At subsonic velocities, this is attributed to the low-pressure base flow dominated by a Karman vortex street. In the limiting case, the steady separated flow over a rearward-facing step is attained if the periodically shed vortices from a blunt trailing-edge are suppressed by the addition of a base spiltter-plate. Experimental studies in the Old Dominion University Low-Speed Closed-Circuit Wind Tunnel were conducted to examine the effect of several passive flow-control devices such as Wheeler doublets and wishbone vortex generators, longitudinal surface grooves, base cavities, and serrations on the characteristics of two- and three-dimensional base flows. Flow over flat-plate airfoil and rearward-facing step models was studied in the turbulent incompressible subsonic flow regime. Models with trailing-edge and step-sweep angles of 0, 30, and 45 degrees with respect to the crossflow direction were considered. Constant-temperature hot-wire anemometry, infrared surface thermography, and pitot-static probes were used to conduct flow measurements. The parameters measured included vortex shedding frequency, convective heat-transfer rates, base pressure, and flow reattachment distance. Surveys of mean velocity profiles in the wake were also conducted. Results have shown that most of the flow control devices tested increased the base pressure of the 2-D and 3-D flat-plate airfoils. Use of longitudinal surface grooves resulted in shorter flow reattachment distances and higher convective heat transfer rates downstream of the 2-D rearward-facing steps.

  17. Demonstration of Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) Performance for Planetary and Geostationary Earth Observing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revercomb, Henry E.; Sromovsky, Lawrence A.; Fry, Patrick M.; Best, Fred A.; LaPorte, Daniel D.

    2001-01-01

    The combination of massively parallel spatial sampling and accurate spectral radiometry offered by imaging FTS makes it extremely attractive for earth and planetary remote sensing. We constructed a breadboard instrument to help assess the potential for planetary applications of small imaging FTS instruments in the 1 - 5 micrometer range. The results also support definition of the NASA Geostationary Imaging FTS (GIFTS) instrument that will make key meteorological and climate observations from geostationary earth orbit. The Planetary Imaging FTS (PIFTS) breadboard is based on a custom miniaturized Bomen interferometer that uses corner cube reflectors, a wishbone pivoting voice-coil delay scan mechanism, and a laser diode metrology system. The interferometer optical output is measured by a commercial infrared camera procured from Santa Barbara Focalplane. It uses an InSb 128x128 detector array that covers the entire FOV of the instrument when coupled with a 25 mm focal length commercial camera lens. With appropriate lenses and cold filters the instrument can be used from the visible to 5 micrometers. The delay scan is continuous, but slow, covering the maximum range of +/- 0.4 cm in 37.56 sec at a rate of 500 image frames per second. Image exposures are timed to be centered around predicted zero crossings. The design allows for prediction algorithms that account for the most recent fringe rate so that timing jitter produced by scan speed variations can be minimized. Response to a fixed source is linear with exposure time nearly to the point of saturation. Linearity with respect to input variations was demonstrated to within 0.16% using a 3-point blackbody calibration. Imaging of external complex scenes was carried out at low and high spectral resolution. These require full complex calibration to remove background contributions that vary dramatically over the instrument FOV. Testing is continuing to demonstrate the precise radiometric accuracy and noise characteristics.

  18. Vibrational spectroscopy and electrophoresis as a "golden means" in monitoring of polysaccharides in medical plant and gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielesz, A.

    In recent years, some bioactive polysaccharides isolated from natural sources have attracted much attention in the field of biochemistry and pharmacology. Of them, polysaccharides or their glycoconjugates were shown to exhibit multiple biological activities including anticarcinogenic, anticoagulant, immunostimulating, antioxidant, etc. Pharmacotherapy using plant-derived substances can be currently regarded as a very promising future alternative to conventional therapy. The advanced biotechnologies available today enable chemical investigation of well-defined bioactive plant components as sources of novel drugs. The need for safer drugs without side effects has led to the use of natural ingredients with proven safety. Special interest is focused on plant polysaccharides. This article attempts to review the current structural and conformational characterization of some importantly bioactive monosaccharides isolated from following plant cell-wall: Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Thymus pulegioides (thyme), Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (fenugreek), Tussilago farfara L. (coltsfoot), Hyssopus officinalis (hyssop), Althaea officinalis L. (marshmallow) and Equisetum arvense L. (horsetail). The chemical structures of monosaccharides were analysed using FTIR and Raman spectroscopies as well as cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis (CAE). The dried plant samples were gently hydrolysed with sulphuric acid. The presence of glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, alginic acid, glucose, mannose and xylose in the hydrolysates of reference substances and non-defatted plant films was proved. The possibility of a taxonomic classification of plant cell walls based on infrared and Raman spectroscopies and the use of spectral fingerprinting for authentication and detection of adulteration of products rich in cell-wall materials are discussed. Individual bands were selected to monitor the sugar content in medical plant cell walls and to confirm the identity of the analysed plants.

  19. Acute/Chronic Pain Relief: Is Althaea officinalis Essential Oil Effective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golshani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The Althaea officinalis (marshmallow plant is traditionally used to treat skin burns and constipation and to reduce inflammation. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute and chronic analgesic effects of the essential oil of Althaea officinalis leaves (EOAO in adult male mice. Materials and Methods This experimental study used thirty-six adult male mice, which were randomly divided into six groups: a control, three groups treated with EOAO (18, 38, or 80 mg/kg, i.p., a morphine group (1 mg/kg, i.p., and a group treated with a combination of naloxone (1 mg/kg, i.p. and 80 mg/kg EOAO. The analgesic effects of EOAO were evaluated by writhing, tail-flick, and formalin tests. The essential oil of the plant was prepared by the steady distillation method and its composition was analyzed by GC/MS. Results Significant antinociceptive effects were noted with doses of 38 and 80 mg/kg EOAO in the chronic phase response of the formalin test (P < 0.05 versus control. Doses of 38 and 80 mg/kg EOAO had a significant analgesic effect in the writhing test (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively, versus control. The 80 mg/kg dose of EOAO caused an enhancement in reaction time in the tail-flick test (P < 0.01 versus control. Conclusions EOAO showed an analgesic effect that may involve both the central and peripheral nervous systems.

  20. The Pepcon Disaster-Causative Factors and potential Preventive and Mitigative Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, H E; Alvares, N J

    2003-07-25

    On May 4, 1988, the PEPCON plant experienced three major and several smaller explosions that caused over $70 million in property damage and caused two deaths. The PEPCON plant produced Ammonium Perchlorate (AP), a major ingredient for rocket fuel. The PEPCON plant and the nearby Kidd Marshmallow plant were totally destroyed by the detonations. The initiating event for the explosions was a fire that originated in the Batch Dryer Building and spread to adjacent storage. Several factors combined to cause the AP in the major storage fields to detonate, the most important being lack of adequate separation between storage units. Welding and flame cutting procedure with poor fire watch protocol was the prime candidate for fire ignition. There were no automatic fire suppression systems at the plant. Buildings including the Batch Dryer Building were made of combustible building material (fiberglass). There was poor housekeeping and no control of AP dust generation. AP was stored in combustible polyethylene drums, aluminum tote bins, 30-gallon steel storage drums and fiber reinforced tote bags. There were high-density storage practices. In addition, a contributing factor to the rapid fire-spread was that the wind that day was blowing directly from the batch dryer building to the storage areas. This paper claims that if codes, standards, and well-known hazard identification safety techniques were implemented at PEPCON, then the disaster would have been averted. A limited scope probabilistic risk assessment was conducted to establish the effectiveness of various preventive and mitigative features that could have been deployed to avert the disaster. The major hazard at the PEPCON site was fire and explosion involving the processing, production and storage of AP, which was then and is currently stored as a class 4 oxidizer. Since minute quantities of contamination can cause AP to be detonable by shock, there has been an ongoing debate concerning its reclassification to a class

  1. Waiting for what comes later: capuchin monkeys show self-control even for nonvisible delayed rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdue, Bonnie M; Bramlett, Jessica L; Evans, Theodore A; Beran, Michael J

    2015-09-01

    Self-control tasks used with nonhuman animals typically involve the choice between an immediate option and a delayed, but more preferred option. However, in many self-control scenarios, not only does the more impulsive option come sooner in time, it is often more concrete than the delayed option. For example, studies have presented children with the option of eating a visible marshmallow immediately, or foregoing it for a better reward that can only be seen later. Thus, the immediately available option is visible and concrete, whereas the delayed option is not visible and more abstract. We tested eight capuchin monkeys to better understand this potential effect by manipulating the visibility of the response options and the visibility of the baiting itself. Monkeys observed two food items (20 or 5 g pieces of banana) each being placed either on top of or inside of one of the two opaque containers attached to a revolving tray apparatus, either in full view of monkeys or occluded by a barrier. Trials ended when monkeys removed a reward from the rotating tray. To demonstrate self-control, monkeys should have allowed the smaller piece of food to pass if the larger piece was forthcoming. Overall, monkeys were successful on the task, allowing a smaller, visible piece of banana to pass from reach in order to access the larger, nonvisible banana piece. This was true even when the entire baiting process took place out of sight of the monkeys. This finding suggests that capuchin monkeys succeed on self-control tasks even when the delayed option is also more abstract than the immediate one-a situation likely faced by primates in everyday life.

  2. Junk food diet-induced obesity increases D2 receptor autoinhibition in the ventral tegmental area and reduces ethanol drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jason B; Hendrickson, Linzy M; Garwood, Grant M; Toungate, Kelsey M; Nania, Christina V; Morikawa, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Similar to drugs of abuse, the hedonic value of food is mediated, at least in part, by the mesostriatal dopamine (DA) system. Prolonged intake of either high calorie diets or drugs of abuse both lead to a blunting of the DA system. Most studies have focused on DAergic alterations in the striatum, but little is known about the effects of high calorie diets on ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons. Since high calorie diets produce addictive-like DAergic adaptations, it is possible these diets may increase addiction susceptibility. However, high calorie diets consistently reduce psychostimulant intake and conditioned place preference in rodents. In contrast, high calorie diets can increase or decrease ethanol drinking, but it is not known how a junk food diet (cafeteria diet) affects ethanol drinking. In the current study, we administered a cafeteria diet consisting of bacon, potato chips, cheesecake, cookies, breakfast cereals, marshmallows, and chocolate candies to male Wistar rats for 3-4 weeks, producing an obese phenotype. Prior cafeteria diet feeding reduced homecage ethanol drinking over 2 weeks of testing, and transiently reduced sucrose and chow intake. Importantly, cafeteria diet had no effect on ethanol metabolism rate or blood ethanol concentrations following 2g/kg ethanol administration. In midbrain slices, we showed that cafeteria diet feeding enhances DA D2 receptor (D2R) autoinhibition in VTA DA neurons. These results show that junk food diet-induced obesity reduces ethanol drinking, and suggest that increased D2R autoinhibition in the VTA may contribute to deficits in DAergic signaling and reward hypofunction observed with obesity.

  3. Astronomy for Special Needs Children (Low-income and/or Serious Medical Conditions) and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, Donald

    2015-08-01

    I present the results of two NASA-IDEAS/STScI* sponsored and one IAU OAD grant for astronomy outreach programs for seriously ill or traumatically injured children and their families staying at the Ronald McDonald Houses of Long Island (New Hyde Park, NY) and Chicago or for children hospitalized at the Winthrop University Hospital Children’s Medical Center, (Mineola, NY). An astronomy program was also created for the five Fresh Air Fund Charity summer camps (low-income and special needs) and for a Hofstra summer camp for developmentally challenged youths.These programs are designed for children of all ages include” STSCi’s “Tonight’s Sky” (monthly guide to the sky); telescope observations of the Moon, Sun, planets, nebulae, and stars; and hands-on activities. During cloudy weather remote/robotic telescope observations are shown to the children.The staff and volunteers at the Ronald McDonald House and Children’s Medical Center are trained to use the telescope and to do astronony demonstrations. I created an Activity Book for the staff with demonstrations, participatory hands-on activities, and edible demonstrations using chocolate, marshmallows, and popcorn are to stimulate interest.These educational activities help children and their families learn about astronomy while providing a diversion to take their minds off their illness during a stressful time. The RMHs provide free or low-cost housing in a comfortable, supportive alternative atmosphere where family members sleep, eat, relax and find support from other families in similar situations. Families are kept united when mutual support is as critical as the medical treatment itself. The ill children and their families may stay for a few days or months because of chemotherapy, dialysis, or rehabilitative therapy. Children from 50 states and 50 countries stay the Chicago RMHs and there are 260 RMHs in the US and 65 worldwide.

  4. Design of H. 264 Video Decoder SoC Based on OpenRISC1200%基于OpenRISC1200的H.264视频解码器片上系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨媛; 冯谋朝; 高勇; 刘宏泰

    2011-01-01

    For its high compression ratio and high image quality, the next-generation compression standard H. 264 is much favorite, and integrating H. 264 into SoC (System on chip) has become an inevitable trend. Based on open source free 32 bit OpenRISC1200 CPU, a H. 264 decoder SoC system is designed. In the system OpenRISC1200 is acted as the core control module,all other peripheral modules, including H. 264 decoder modules, JTAG module, UART modules,DMA module, SDRAM, FL ASH module communicate with CPU through the on-chip Wishbone bus. In the hardware and software co-design, the reading, decoding and format conversion of H.264 video images are carried out, and the video images are displayed on CRT with VGA interfacefinally. The hardware and software co-verification of the system is realized in Altera's FPGA EP2C70F672 on, and the experiment results show that the system can achieve 30 f/s QCIF format video image real-time decoding requirement.%新一代的压缩标准H.264以其高压缩率与高图像质量而备受青睐,将H.264集成于SoC(片上系统Sys-tern on chip)已成为必然的发展趋势.基于开源免费的32位OpenRISC1200 CPU,设计了H.264解码器SoC系统,系统以OpenRISC1200为核心控制模块,其他所有外围模块包括H.264解码器模块、JTAG模块、UART模块、DMA模块、SDRAM、FLASH模块等均通过Wishbone片上总线与CPU通信.在软硬件的协同工作下,系统完成H.264视频图像的读取、解码和格式转换,最后通过VGA接口在CRT显示器上进行视频图像的显示.所设计的系统在Altera公司的FPGA EP2C70F672上进行了软硬件的协同验证,结果表明系统可以达到30 f/s的QCIF格式视频图像实时解码要求.

  5. Simulation Trials of Wheel Alignment Parameters Based on Elastic Bushing and Flexible Parts%基于弹性衬套和柔性零部件的车轮定位参数仿真试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦东晨; 蓝贤清; 于立

    2011-01-01

    为了分析悬架中弹性衬套替换刚性铰接及主要承栽零部件的柔化处理对车轮定位参数的影响,以多体动力学理论为基础,在Adams中建立了某车双横臂独立悬架多刚体模型Ⅰ,对三因素弹性衬套替换刚性铰接以及下横臂和横向稳定杆的柔化处理的影响进行仿真试验.仿真结果说明:3个因素对车轮定位参数有很大的影响.在模型Ⅰ的基础上综合考虑上述3个因素建立了模型Ⅱ并进行悬架运动学分析,揭示了车轮定位参数的变化特性,为悬架的开发设计奠定了基础.%Based on multi-body dynamics theory, in order to analyze the impact of wheel alignment parameters caused by elastic bushing replacement of rigid hinge, and flexible treatment towards the main parts which bear force and torque in the suspension, the rigid simulation model (Model I) of double-wishbone independent suspension of a certain vehicle is established using Adams/Car module. By means of simulation trials such as replacement of rigid hinge with resilient bushing, as well as flexible treatment towards the upper/lower control arm and the horizontal stabilizer bar in the established rigid suspension model, the results explain that the replacement of rigid hinge with resilient bushing, along with the flexible treatment of the lower control arm and horizontal stabilizer bar, have great impact to wheel alignment parameters. Based on Model I,taking the above three factors into account to establish suspension Model II for kinematics analysis, the results reveal the variation characteristic of wheel alignment parameters, which lays a sound foundation for the development and design for the suspension.

  6. Evolution of anthropoid jaw loading and kinematic patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravosa, M J; Vinyard, C J; Gagnon, M; Islam, S A

    2000-08-01

    Major transformations in the skull and masticatory system characterized the evolution of crown anthropoids. To offer further insight into the phylogenetic and arguably adaptive significance of specific primate mandibular loading and kinematic patterns, allometric analyses of metric parameters linked to masticatory function are performed within and between 47 strepsirhine and 45 recent anthropoid species. When possible, basal anthropoids are considered. These results are subsequently integrated with prior experimental and morphological work on primate skull form. As compared to strepsirhines, crown anthropoids have a vertically longer ascending ramus linked to a glenoid and condyle positioned relatively higher above the occlusal plane. Interestingly, anthropoids and strepsirhines do not exhibit different mean ratios of condylar to glenoid height, which suggests that both clades are similar in their ability to evenly distribute occlusal contacts and perhaps forces along the postcanine teeth. Thus, given the considerable suborder differences in the scaling of both glenoid and condylar height, we argue that much of this variation in jaw-joint height is linked to suborder differences in relative facial height due in turn to increased encephalization, basicranial flexion, and facial kyphosis in anthropoids. Due to a more elongate ascending ramus, anthropoids evince more vertically oriented masseters than like-sized strepsirhines. Having a relatively longer ramus and a more medially displaced lateral pterygoid plate, crown anthropoids exhibit medial pterygoids oriented similar to those of strepsirhines, but with a variably longer lever arm. As anthropoid masseters are less advantageously placed to effect transverse movements/forces, we argue that balancing-side deep-masseter activity underlying a wishboning loading regime serves to increase, or at least maintain, transverse levels of jaw movement and occlusal force at the end of the masticatory power stroke. Crown

  7. Structure Design of FSAE Racing Car Suspension System%FSAE赛车悬架系统的结构设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛礼民; 张杰坤; 刘超

    2012-01-01

    Abstract:In order to establish virtual prototype car model for FSAE and based on competition rules of FSAE. the paper introduces the suspension system structure design of racing car. Selection and design of rim, wheel track as well as front and rear suspension strut have been conducted. When unequal-length wishbone suspension is selected, the paper calculates the major dimensions of flexible components, absorber and guide mechanism, establishes 3D model with the help of the software of Pro/E as well as conducts strength check for major supporting parts by software of SolidWorks. The results show that the maximum displacement of the supporting parts is4.260×10-3,2.838×10-2mm respectively, a pretty small deformation. Therefore,tile suspension design can meet tile requirements of FSAE racing car, which also provide reference for car research and production.%为配合建立中国大学生方程式汽车大赛(FSAE)赛车的虚拟样机模型,根据FSAE赛事规则要求,时赛车悬架系统进行了结构设计根据设计思路对轮辋、轮距及前后悬架立柱等相关部件进行了选择与设计,在确定采用不等长双横臂式悬架类型的基础上对弹性元件、减振器和导向机构的主要结构尺寸进行了设计计算,并应用软件Pro/E进行了三维建模设计,同时在SolidWorks环境下对前后摇块进行了强度校核.结果表明,前后摇块的最大合位移分别为4.260×10-3,2.838×10-2mm,最大变形均很小,设计的FSAE誊车悬架系统能够满足参赛要求,为进一步的实车研制提供了参考依据。

  8. 基于垂向性能研究的新型悬架参数设计%Parameter Design of Novel Suspension Based on the Research on Vertical Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓志君; 董铸荣

    2012-01-01

    设计了一种用于四轮独立转向独立驱动电动轿车的独立悬架,该悬架采用双横臂、螺旋弹簧结构,悬架连接带轮毂电机的大质量电动车轮.对悬架系统进行简化,建立了悬架二自由度振动模型,采用均方根值分析方法,计算出振动系统的频率响应函数及振动响应的均方根值(包括车身加速度均方根值、车轮相对动载荷均方根值及悬架动挠度均方根值),基于悬架参数对电动车辆垂向性能的研究,提出了新型悬架弹簧刚度和减振器阻尼系数的设计方法,结合仿真及实验验证了设计方法的合理性.%A new suspension using double -wishbone and coil spring type structure is designed for four-wheeled independent steering and driving electric automobile.The suspension is connected with the large quality electric wheel which has a hub motor.The suspension system is simplified,and a two degree of freedom vibration model is built.The analysis method of root mean square (RMS)value is used to calculate the frequency response junctions of the vibration system and the RMS values of the vibration response (including RMS value of the body acceleration, RMS value of the wheel relative dynamic load and RMS value of the suspension working space).Based on vehicle vertical performance study,a new design method of suspension spring stiffness and damping coefficient is presented.And the reasonability of the method is verified by simulation and experiment.

  9. The ILAN sprite campaigns in Israel: results from 7 years of observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yair, Yoav; Rubanenko, Lior; Katzenelson, Dor; Rosenthal, Neta; Mezuman, Keren; Price, Colin

    2014-05-01

    The ILAN (Imaging of Lightning And Nocturnal flashes, http://ilanteam.com/) campaigns have been conducted since 2004 from Israel, observing winter thunderstorms in the eastern Mediterranean. We searched for transient luminous events using the standard commercial CCD cameras (Watec N100, 902H2 Ultimate) and the UFO-capture software for event detection, commonly used by other TLE- research groups in Europe and Japan. Winter thunderstorms mostly occur in conjunction with the passage of cold fronts in Cyprus lows, and thus TLEs are best observed when the storms are 200-300 km west of the Israeli coastline, above the Mediterranean Sea. We present statistical analysis of 505 sprites observed in 7 winter campaigns from 2006/7-2012/13. Results show a clear peak in the frequency of sprite detections, with maximum values (above 40% of events) between 00:30-02:50 LST (Local Standard Time, UT+2). This distribution is very different from that of lightning in the region, which peaks ~ 05:00 LST over the sea (Altaratz et al., 2001), hinting at the different temporal behavior of +CG flashes, known to be the major producers of sprites. The morphological distribution of 339 sprites is dominated by column sprites (49.3%) with angels (33.0%) and carrots (25.7%) being less frequent. This is similar to reports of winter sprites over the Sea of Japan (Matsudo et al., 2007). Other shapes (trees, wishbones, etc.; Bór, 2013) appear quite rarely. Single element events constitute 16.8% of observations, with 83.2% containing 2 elements or more. Clusters of homogenous types are slightly more frequent than mixed ones (55%). In some rare cases we observed 12-23 elements in a single sprite. The number of elements and the temporal distribution of different sprite types will be presented and compared with the properties of the parent thunderstorms. Altaratz, O., Levin Z. and Y. Yair, 2001: Winter thunderstorms in Israel - a study with lightning location systems and weather radar. Month. Weath. Rev

  10. Moisture and shelf life in sugar confections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, R; Lietha, R; Hartel, R W

    2010-02-01

    From hardening of marshmallow to graining of hard candies, moisture plays a critical role in determining the quality and shelf life of sugar-based confections. Water is important during the manufacturing of confections, is an important factor in governing texture, and is often the limiting parameter during storage that controls shelf life. Thus, an understanding of water relations in confections is critical to controlling quality. Water content, which is controlled during candy manufacturing through an understanding of boiling point elevation, is one of the most important parameters that governs the texture of candies. For example, the texture of caramel progresses from soft and runny to hard and brittle as the moisture content decreases. However, knowledge of water content by itself is insufficient to controlling stability and shelf life. Understanding water activity, or the ratio of vapor pressures, is necessary to control shelf life. A difference in water activity, either between candy and air or between two domains within the candy, is the driving force for moisture migration in confections. When the difference in water activity is large, moisture migration is rapid, although the rate of moisture migration depends on the nature of resistances to water diffusion. Barrier packaging films protect the candy from air whereas edible films inhibit moisture migration between different moisture domains within a confection. More recently, the concept of glass transition, or the polymer science approach, has supplemented water activity as a critical parameter related to candy stability. Confections with low moisture content, such as hard candy, cotton candy, and some caramels and toffees, may contain sugars in the amorphous or glassy state. As long as these products remain below their glass transition temperature, they remain stable for very long times. However, certain glassy sugars tend to be hygroscopic, rapidly picking up moisture from the air, which causes

  11. A Historical Evaluation of the U16a Tunnel, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, robert C [DRI; Drollinger, Harold [DRI; Bullard, Thomas F [DRI; Ashbaugh, Laurence J [DRI; Griffin, Wayne R [DRI

    2013-06-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U16a Tunnel on the Nevada National Security Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency. The U16a Tunnel was used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests in Shoshone Mountain in Area 16 of the Nevada National Security Site. Six nuclear tests were conducted in the U16a Tunnel from 1962 to 1971. These tests are Marshmallow, Gum Drop, Double Play, Ming Vase, Diamond Dust, and Diamond Mine. The U.S. Department of Defense Threat Reduction Agency, with participation from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Las Alamos National Laboratory, sponsored the tests. Fifteen high explosives tests were also conducted at the tunnel. Two were calibration tests during nuclear testing and the remaining were U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency tunnel defeat tests. The U16a Tunnel complex is on the top and slopes of Shoshone Mountain, encompassing an area of approximately 16.7 hectares (41.1 acres). Major modifications to the landscape are a result of three principal activities, road construction and maintenance, mining activities related to development of the tunnel complex, and site preparation for activities related to testing. Forty-seven cultural features were recorded at the portal and on the slopes of Shoshone Mountain. At the portal area, features relate to the mining, construction, testing, and general every day operational support activities within the tunnel. These include concrete foundations for buildings, equipment pads, and rail lines. Features on the slopes above the tunnel relate to tunnel ventilation, borehole drilling, and data recording. Feature types include soil-covered bunkers, concrete foundations, instrument cable holes, drill holes, and ventilation shafts. The U16

  12. A Historical Evaluation of the U16a Tunnel, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Roberrt C. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Drollinger, Harold [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U16a Tunnel on the Nevada National Security Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency. The U16a Tunnel was used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests in Shoshone Mountain in Area 16 of the Nevada National Security Site. Six nuclear tests were conducted in the U16a Tunnel from 1962 to 1971. These tests are Marshmallow, Gum Drop, Double Play, Ming Vase, Diamond Dust, and Diamond Mine. The U.S. Department of Defense Threat Reduction Agency, with participation from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Las Alamos National Laboratory, sponsored the tests. Fifteen high explosives tests were also conducted at the tunnel. Two were calibration tests during nuclear testing and the remaining were U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency tunnel defeat tests. The U16a Tunnel complex is on the top and slopes of Shoshone Mountain, encompassing an area of approximately 16.7 hectares (41.1 acres). Major modifications to the landscape are a result of three principal activities, road construction and maintenance, mining activities related to development of the tunnel complex, and site preparation for activities related to testing. Forty-seven cultural features were recorded at the portal and on the slopes of Shoshone Mountain. At the portal area, features relate to the mining, construction, testing, and general every day operational support activities within the tunnel. These include concrete foundations for buildings, equipment pads, and rail lines. Features on the slopes above the tunnel relate to tunnel ventilation, borehole drilling, and data recording. Feature types include soil-covered bunkers, concrete foundations, instrument cable holes, drill holes, and ventilation shafts. The U16

  13. A Historical Evaluation of the U16a Tunnel, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Robert C. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Drollinger, Harold [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Bullard, Thomas F. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Ashbaugh, Laurence J. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Griffin, Wayne R. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U16a Tunnel on the Nevada National Security Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency. The U16a Tunnel was used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests in Shoshone Mountain in Area 16 of the Nevada National Security Site. Six nuclear tests were conducted in the U16a Tunnel from 1962 to 1971. These tests are Marshmallow, Gum Drop, Double Play, Ming Vase, Diamond Dust, and Diamond Mine. The U.S. Department of Defense Threat Reduction Agency, with participation from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Las Alamos National Laboratory, sponsored the tests. Fifteen high explosives tests were also conducted at the tunnel. Two were calibration tests during nuclear testing and the remaining were U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency tunnel defeat tests. The U16a Tunnel complex is on the top and slopes of Shoshone Mountain, encompassing an area of approximately 16.7 hectares (41.1 acres). Major modifications to the landscape are a result of three principal activities, road construction and maintenance, mining activities related to development of the tunnel complex, and site preparation for activities related to testing. Forty-seven cultural features were recorded at the portal and on the slopes of Shoshone Mountain. At the portal area, features relate to the mining, construction, testing, and general every day operational support activities within the tunnel. These include concrete foundations for buildings, equipment pads, and rail lines. Features on the slopes above the tunnel relate to tunnel ventilation, borehole drilling, and data recording. Feature types include soil-covered bunkers, concrete foundations, instrument cable holes, drill holes, and ventilation shafts. The U16

  14. The Bus Chassis Upgraded Based on Independent Suspension%基于独立悬架的客车底盘升级

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明; 向号; 向雨路

    2014-01-01

    Suspension is one of the important assembly about modern vehicle,which puts frame and axle join up Elastic flexibly.Its maintask is to transfer function of all the force and moment between the wheel and frame,and alleviate the impact load which transfers to frame from uneven pavement,all of which to ensure the normal operation of vehicle.And adopting independent suspension can reduce the spring load part weight greatly,reduced vibration load,So improved vehicle running smoothness. Before,the use of passenger car suspension generally adopt a dependent suspension.As people pay attention to ride comfort, control stability,running smoothness,the original suspension system already cannot satisfy the requirement of people.Faw bus (chengdu)company devotes to improve passenger car quality and increase passenger car products market share.Now this paper is upgrading chassis of CDL6606 model,changes the original plate spring suspension into that the front suspension adopts double wishbone type independent suspension and the rear suspension uses little leaf spring suspension.%悬架是现代汽车的重要组成之一,它把车架(或车身)与车轴(或车轮)弹性地连接起来。其主要任务是传递作用在车轮和车架之间的一切力和力矩,并且缓和由不平路面传给车架的冲击载荷,衰减由冲击载荷引起的承载系统的振动,以保证汽车的正常行驶。而采用独立悬架可大大减轻非簧载部分重量,减轻了振动载荷,所以改善了汽车的行驶平顺性。以往客车悬架的使用普遍都采用非独立悬架,随着人们对乘坐舒适性、操纵稳定性、行驶平顺性的重视,原有悬架系统已不能满足人们的要求,为满足市场需要,一汽客车(成都)公司致力于改善客车品质、增加产品市场占有率,本文对 CDL6606车型进行底盘升级,将原有前后钢板弹簧悬架改为,前悬架采用双横臂式独立悬架,后悬架采用少片簧悬架。

  15. Hematoma epidural secundario a anestesia espinal: Tratamiento conservador Epidural hematoma secondary to spinal anesthesia: Conservative treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bermejo

    2004-11-01

    , cirugía vertebral previa, hepatopatías, fármacos, etc. El tratamiento quirúrgico en forma de laminectomía descompresiva realizada de forma precoz suele ser necesario y es el tratamiento de elección en muchas ocasiones, pero en determinadas condiciones como la que nos ocupa, sin síntomas compresivos, sin un carácter progresivo o bien que estos disminuyan rápidamente, puede optarse por un tratamiento conservador en forma de analgesia y corticoterapia, siempre bajo un estricto control que permita actuar de forma rápida ante cualquier eventualidad negativa en su evolución.Introduction: Epidural hematoma secondary to neuroaxial anesthesia is a rare complication, but highly relevant due to its clinical and medico-legal implications. According to some authors, its incidence can reach 1/190,000-1/200,000 for peridural punctures and 1/320,000 for spinal punctures. Early diagnosis and treatment within the first 6-12 hours is the main aspect related to its therapeutic management. However, in some cases such as the one reported here, surgery is not required and the patient can be managed with a conservative treatment. Clinical case: A 73-year-old patient, ASA IV, with a history of cirrhosis associated to portal hypertension, hypersplenism, COPD, obesity, hypertensive cardiopathy and tricuspid failure. He was scheduled for prostate alcoholization after ruling out surgery. Preoperative blood analyses showed a prothrombin activity of 80% and 90,000 platelets. Several failed attempts of spinal puncture were done, but general anesthesia was finally required with spontaneous ventilation through laryngeal mudpack, propofol, fentanyl and sevoflurane. Clinical manifestations appeared after 36 hours, with non-irradiated severe lumbar pain and plantar cutaneous areflexia. The presence of epidural hematoma at the L1-L4 level was confirmed through NMR. Given the absence of flaccid paraparesis, sphincter involvement or other sensitive-motor signs and after consultation with the Rachis