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Sample records for marrow-derived osteoblast progenitor

  1. Bone marrow-derived osteoblast progenitor cells in circulating blood contribute to ectopic bone formation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuru, Satoru; Tamai, Katsuto; Yamazaki, Takehiko; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested the existence of osteoblastic cells in the circulation, but the origin and role of these cells in vivo are not clear. Here, we examined how these cells contribute to osteogenesis in a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-induced model of ectopic bone formation. Following lethal dose-irradiation and subsequent green fluorescent protein-transgenic bone marrow cell-transplantation (GFP-BMT) in mice, a BMP-2-containing collagen pellet was implanted into muscle. Three weeks later, a significant number of GFP-positive osteoblastic cells were present in the newly generated ectopic bone. Moreover, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) from the BMP-2-implanted mouse were then shown to include osteoblast progenitor cells (OPCs) in culture. Passive transfer of the PBMNCs isolated from the BMP-2-implanted GFP-mouse to the BMP-2-implanted nude mouse led to GFP-positive osteoblast accumulation in the ectopic bone. These data provide new insight into the mechanism of ectopic bone formation involving bone marrow-derived OPCs in circulating blood

  2. Biocompatibility of Poly-ε-caprolactone-hydroxyapatite composite on mouse bone marrow-derived osteoblasts and endothelial cells

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    Wooley Paul H

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue-engineered bone may be developed by seeding the cells capable of both osteogenesis and vascularization on biocompatible composite scaffolds. The current study investigated the performance of mice bone marrow-derived osteogenic cells and endothelial cells as seeded on hydroxyapatite (HA and poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL composite scaffolds. Methods Mononuclear cells were induced to osteoblasts and endothelial cells respectively, which were defined by the expression of osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and deposits of calcium-containing crystal for osteoblasts, or by the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2 and von Willebrand factor (vWF, and the formation of a capillary network in Matrigel™ for endothelial cells. Both types of cell were seeded respectively on PCL-HA scaffolds at HA to PCL weight ratio of 1:1, 1:4, or 0:1 and were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, ALP activity (of osteoblasts and nitric oxide production (of endothelial cells plus the assessment of cell viability. Results The results indicated that HA led to a positive stimulation of osteoblasts viability and ALP activity, while HA showed less influence on endothelial cells viability. An elevated nitric oxide production of endothelial cells was observed in HA-containing group. Conclusion Supplement of HA into PCL improved biocompatible for bone marrow-derived osteoblasts and endothelial cells. The PCL-HA composite integrating with two types of cells may provide a useful system for tissue-engineered bone grafts with vascularization.

  3. The Src inhibitor dasatinib accelerates the differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells into osteoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Id Boufker, Hichame; Lagneaux, Laurence; Najar, Mehdi; Piccart, Martine; Ghanem, Ghanem; Body, Jean-Jacques; Journé, Fabrice

    2010-01-01

    The proto-oncogene Src is an important non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase involved in signaling pathways that control cell adhesion, growth, migration and differentiation. It negatively regulates osteoblast activity, and, as such, its inhibition is a potential means to prevent bone loss. Dasatinib is a new dual Src/Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor initially developed for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. It has also shown promising results in preclinical studies in various solid tumors. However, its effects on the differentiation of human osteoblasts have never been examined. We evaluated the effects of dasatinib on bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) differentiation into osteoblasts, in the presence or absence of a mixture of dexamethasone, ascorbic acid and β-glycerophosphate (DAG) for up to 21 days. The differentiation kinetics was assessed by evaluating mineralization of the extracellular matrix, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and expression of osteoblastic markers (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand [RANKL], bone sialoprotein [BSP], osteopontin [OPN]). Dasatinib significantly increased the activity of ALP and the level of calcium deposition in MSC cultured with DAG after, respectively, 7 and 14 days; it upregulated the expression of BSP and OPN genes independently of DAG; and it markedly downregulated the expression of RANKL gene and protein (decrease in RANKL/OPG ratio), the key factor that stimulates osteoclast differentiation and activity. Our results suggest a dual role for dasatinib in both (i) stimulating osteoblast differentiation leading to a direct increase in bone formation, and (ii) downregulating RANKL synthesis by osteoblasts leading to an indirect inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. Thus, dasatinib is a potentially interesting candidate drug for the treatment of osteolysis through its dual effect on bone metabolism

  4. Paracrine effects and heterogeneity of marrow-derived stem/progenitor cells: relevance for the treatment of respiratory diseases.

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    Conese, Massimo; Carbone, Annalucia; Castellani, Stefano; Di Gioia, Sante

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell-based treatment may represent a hope for the treatment of acute lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis, and other chronic lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is well established in preclinical models that bone marrow-derived stem and progenitor cells exert beneficial effects on inflammation, immune responses and repairing of damage in virtually all lung-borne diseases. While it was initially thought that the positive outcome was due to a direct engraftment of these cells into the lung as endothelial and epithelial cells, paracrine factors are now considered the main mechanism through which stem and progenitor cells exert their therapeutic effect. This knowledge has led to the clinical use of marrow cells in pulmonary hypertension with endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and in COPD with mesenchymal stromal (stem) cells (MSCs). Bone marrow-derived stem cells, including hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, MSCs, EPCs and fibrocytes, encompass a wide array of cell subsets with different capacities of engraftment and injured tissue-regenerating potential. The characterization/isolation of the stem cell subpopulations represents a major challenge to improve the efficacy of transplantation protocols used in regenerative medicine and applied to lung disorders. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Role of bone marrow-derived stem cells, renal progenitor cells and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It remains the leading cause of late allograft loss. Bone marrow derived stem cells are undifferentiated cells typically characterized by their capacity for self renewal, ability to give rise to multiple differentiated cellular population, including hematopoietic (HSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Characterization of HSCs ...

  6. Micro-/Nano- sized hydroxyapatite directs differentiation of rat bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells towards an osteoblast lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Zhou, Gang; Zheng, Lisha; Liu, Haifeng; Niu, Xufeng; Fan, Yubo

    2012-03-01

    Regenerative medicine consisting of cells and materials provides a new way for the repair and regeneration of tissues and organs. Nano-biomaterials are highlighted due to their advantageous features compared with conventional micro-materials. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of micro-/nano- sized hydroxyapatite (μ/n-HA) on the osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs). μ/n-HA were prepared by a microwave synthesizer and precipitation method, respectively. Different sizes of μ/n-HA were characterized by IR, XRD, SEM, TEM and co-cultured with rBMSCs. It was shown that rBMSCs expressed higher levels of osteoblast-related markers by n-HA than μ-HA stimulation. The size of HA is an important factor for affecting the osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs. This provides a new avenue for mechanistic studies of stem cell differentiation and a new approach to obtain more committed differentiated cells.

  7. Mobilization of endogenous bone marrow derived endothelial progenitor cells and therapeutic potential of parathyroid hormone after ischemic stroke in mice.

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    Li-Li Wang

    Full Text Available Stroke is a major neurovascular disorder threatening human life and health. Very limited clinical treatments are currently available for stroke patients. Stem cell transplantation has shown promising potential as a regenerative treatment after ischemic stroke. The present investigation explores a new concept of mobilizing endogenous stem cells/progenitor cells from the bone marrow using a parathyroid hormone (PTH therapy after ischemic stroke in adult mice. PTH 1-34 (80 µg/kg, i.p. was administered 1 hour after focal ischemia and then daily for 6 consecutive days. After 6 days of PTH treatment, there was a significant increase in bone marrow derived CD-34/Fetal liver kinase-1 (Flk-1 positive endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs in the peripheral blood. PTH treatment significantly increased the expression of trophic/regenerative factors including VEGF, SDF-1, BDNF and Tie-1 in the brain peri-infarct region. Angiogenesis, assessed by co-labeled Glut-1 and BrdU vessels, was significantly increased in PTH-treated ischemic brain compared to vehicle controls. PTH treatment also promoted neuroblast migration from the subventricular zone (SVZ and increased the number of newly formed neurons in the peri-infarct cortex. PTH-treated mice showed significantly better sensorimotor functional recovery compared to stroke controls. Our data suggests that PTH therapy improves endogenous repair mechanisms after ischemic stroke with functional benefits. Mobilizing endogenous bone marrow-derived stem cells/progenitor cells using PTH and other mobilizers appears an effective and feasible regenerative treatment after ischemic stroke.

  8. Paracrine effects of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells: cyclooxygenase-2/prostacyclin pathway in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

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    Dong-Mei Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction is the pathophysiological characteristic of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. Some paracrine factors secreted by bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (BMEPCs have the potential to strengthen endothelial integrity and function. This study investigated whether BMEPCs have the therapeutic potential to improve monocrotaline (MCT-induced PAH via producing vasoprotective substances in a paracrine fashion. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells were cultured for 7 days to yield BMEPCs. 24 hours or 3 weeks after exposure to BMEPCs in vitro or in vivo, the vascular reactivity, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression, prostacyclin (PGI2 and cAMP release in isolated pulmonary arteries were examined respectively. Treatment with BMEPCs could improve the relaxation of pulmonary arteries in MCT-induced PAH and BMEPCs were grafted into the pulmonary bed. The COX-2/prostacyclin synthase (PGIS and its progenies PGI2/cAMP were found to be significantly increased in BMEPCs treated pulmonary arteries, and this action was reversed by a selective COX-2 inhibitor, NS398. Moreover, the same effect was also observed in conditioned medium obtained from BMEPCs culture. CONCLUSIONS: Implantation of BMEPCs effectively ameliorates MCT-induced PAH. Factors secreted in a paracrine fashion from BMEPCs promote vasoprotection by increasing the release of PGI2 and level of cAMP.

  9. Prognostic value of circulating VEGFR2+ bone marrow-derived progenitor cells in patients with advanced cancer.

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    Massard, Christophe; Borget, Isabelle; Le Deley, Marie Cécile; Taylor, Melissa; Gomez-Roca, Carlos; Soria, Jean Charles; Farace, Françoise

    2012-06-01

    We hypothesised that host-related markers, possibly reflecting tumour aggressiveness, such as circulating endothelial cells (CEC) and circulating VEGFR2(+) bone marrow-derived (BMD) progenitor cells, could have prognostic value in patients with advanced cancer enrolled in early anticancer drug development trials. Baseline CECs (CD45(-)CD31(+)CD146(+)7AAD(-) cells) and circulating VEGFR2(+)-BMD progenitor cells (defined as CD45(dim)CD34(+)VEGFR2(+)7AAD(-) cells) were measured by flow-cytometry in 71 and 58 patients included in phase 1 trials testing novel anti-vascular or anti-angiogenic agents. Correlations between levels of CECs, circulating VEGFR2(+)-BMD progenitor cells, clinical and biological prognostic factors (i.e. the Royal Marsden Hospital (RMH) score), and overall survival (OS) were studied. The median value of CECs was 12 CEC/ml (range 0-154/ml). The median level of VEGFR2(+)-BMD progenitor cells was 1.3% (range 0-32.5%) of circulating BMD-CD34(+) progenitors. While OS was not correlated with CEC levels, it was significantly worse in patients with high VEGFR2(+)-BMD progenitor levels (>1%) (median OS 9.0 versus 17.0 months), and with a RMH prognostic score >0 (median OS 9.0 versus 24.2 months). The prognostic value of VEGFR2(+)-BMD progenitor levels remained significant (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-4.6, p = 0.02) after multivariate analysis. A composite VEGFR2(+)-BMD progenitor level/RHM score ≥ 2 was significantly associated with an increased risk of death compared to scores of 0 or 1 (median OS 9.0 versus 18.4 months, HR = 2.6 (95%CI, 1.2-5.8, p = 0.02)). High circulating VEGFR2(+)-BMD progenitor levels are associated with poor prognostics and when combined to classical clinical and biological parameters could provide a new tool for patient selection in early anticancer drug trials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Good manufacturing practice-compliant expansion of marrow-derived stem and progenitor cells for cell therapy.

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    Gastens, Martin H; Goltry, Kristin; Prohaska, Wolfgang; Tschöpe, Diethelm; Stratmann, Bernd; Lammers, Dirk; Kirana, Stanley; Götting, Christian; Kleesiek, Knut

    2007-01-01

    Ex vivo expansion is being used to increase the number of stem and progenitor cells for autologous cell therapy. Initiation of pivotal clinical trials testing the efficacy of these cells for tissue repair has been hampered by the challenge of assuring safe and high-quality cell production. A strategy is described here for clinical-scale expansion of bone marrow (BM)-derived stem cells within a mixed cell population in a completely closed process from cell collection through postculture processing using sterile connectable devices. Human BM mononuclear cells (BMMNC) were isolated, cultured for 12 days, and washed postharvest using either standard open procedures in laminar flow hoods or using automated closed systems. Conditions for these studies were similar to long-term BM cultures in which hematopoietic and stromal components are cultured together. Expansion of marrow-derived stem and progenitor cells was then assessed. Cell yield, number of colony forming units (CFU), phenotype, stability, and multilineage differentiation capacity were compared from the single pass perfusion bioreactor and standard flask cultures. Purification of BMMNC using a closed Ficoll gradient process led to depletion of 98% erythrocytes and 87% granulocytes, compared to 100% and 70%, respectively, for manual processing. After closed system culture, mesenchymal progenitors, measured as CD105+CD166+CD14-CD45- and fibroblastic CFU, expanded 317- and 364-fold, respectively, while CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors were depleted 10-fold compared to starting BMMNC. Cultured cells exhibited multilineage differentiation by displaying adipogenic, osteogenic, and endothelial characteristics in vitro. No significant difference was observed between manual and bioreactor cultures. Automated culture and washing of the cell product resulted in 181 x 10(6) total cells that were viable and contained fibroblastic CFU for at least 24 h of storage. A combination of closed, automated technologies enabled

  11. A PEDF-Derived Peptide Inhibits Retinal Neovascularization and Blocks Mobilization of Bone Marrow-Derived Endothelial Progenitor Cells

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    Richard Longeras

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Proliferative diabetic retinopathy is characterized by pathological retinal neovascularization, mediated by both angiogenesis (involving mature endothelial cells and vasculogenesis (involving bone marrow-derived circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF contains an N-terminal 34-amino acid peptide (PEDF-34 that has antiangiogenic properties. Herein, we present a novel finding that PEDF-34 also possesses antivasculogenic activity. In the oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR model using transgenic mice that have Tie2 promoter-driven GFP expression, we quantified Tie2GFP+ cells in bone marrow and peripheral blood by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS. OIR significantly increased the number of circulating Tie2-GFP+ at P16, correlating with the peak progression of neovascularization. Daily intraperitoneal injections of PEDF-34 into OIR mice decreased the number of Tie2-GFP+ cells in the circulation at P16 by 65% but did not affect the number of Tie2-GFP+ cells in the bone marrow. These studies suggest that PEDF-34 attenuates EPC mobilization from the bone marrow into the blood circulation during retinal neovascularization.

  12. Role of bone marrow-derived stem cells, renal progenitor cells and stem cell factor in chronic renal allograft nephropathy

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    Hayam Abdel Meguid El Aggan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN is a poorly understood clinico-pathological entity associated with chronic allograft loss due to immunologic and non-immunologic causes. It remains the leading cause of late allograft loss. Bone marrow derived stem cells are undifferentiated cells typically characterized by their capacity for self renewal, ability to give rise to multiple differentiated cellular population, including hematopoietic (HSCs and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Characterization of HSCs includes their multipotency, expression of typical surface markers such as CD34 and CD45, while characterization of MSC includes their multipotency, expression of typical surface markers such as CD90 and CD105, and the absence of hemopoietic lineage markers. Aim & methods: The aim of the present work was to study the role of bone marrow-derived HSCs and MSCs, renal progenitor cells and SCF in chronic renal allograft nephropathy in relation to renal hemodynamics and histopathological changes. We studied 30 patients with kidney transplantation for more than 6 months, divided into 15 patients with stable serum creatinine and 15 patients who developed CAN. Detection of HSCs and MSCs in the peripheral blood using flow cytometry via detection of CD34, CD45, CD117 and CD106, as well as immunohistochemical detection of CD34, CD133, VEGF and αSMA in transplanted kidney biopsies of patients with CAN were done. Results: There was a significant increase in the levels of SCF, number of peripheral blood HSCs and MSCs in both transplanted patient groups than the controls and they were higher in patients of group Ia than patients of group Ib, (F = 39.73, P < 0.001, (F = 13.28, P < 0.001, (F = 11.94, P < 0.001, respectively and this was accompanied by evident expression of markers of renal repair. Conclusion: Stem cells might have a role in renal regeneration in CAN and this may pave the way toward the use of stem cells in correction of CAN. KEYWORDS

  13. Blastema from rabbit ear contains progenitor cells comparable to marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells

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    Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rabbits have the capacity to regenerate holes in their ears by forming a blastema, a tissue that is made up of a group of undifferentiated cells. The purpose of the present study was to isolate and characterize blastema progenitor cells and compare them with marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Five New Zealand white male rabbits were used in the present study. A 2-mm hole was created in the animal ears. After 4 days, the blastema ring formed in the periphery of the hole was removed and cultivated. The cells were expanded through several subcultures and compared with the MSCs derived from the marrow of same animal in terms of in vitro differentiation capacity, growth kinetics and culture requirements for optimal proliferation. The primary cultures from both cells tended to be heterogeneous. Fibroblastic cells became progressively dominant with advancing passages. Similar to MSCs blastema passaged-3 cells succeeded to differentiate into bone, cartilage and adipose cell lineages. Even lineage specific genes tended to express in higher level in blastema cells compared to MSCs (p < 0.05. Moreover blastema cells appeared more proliferative; producing more colonies (p < 0.05. While blastema cells showed extensive proliferation in 15% fetal bovine serum (FBS, MSCs displayed higher expansion rate at 10% FBS. In conclusion, blastema from rabbit ear contains a population of fibroblastic cells much similar in characteristic to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. However, the two cells were different in the level of lineage-specific gene expression, the growth curve characteristics and the culture requirements.

  14. G-CSF treatment after myocardial infarction: impact on bone marrow-derived vs cardiac progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Stefan; Huber, Bruno C; Fischer, Rebekka; Groebner, Michael; Hacker, Marcus; David, Robert; Zaruba, Marc-Michael; Vallaster, Marcus; Rischpler, Christoph; Wilke, Andrea; Gerbitz, Armin; Franz, Wolfgang-Michael

    2008-06-01

    Besides its classical function in the field of autologous and allogenic stem cell transplantation, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was shown to have protective effects after myocardial infarction (MI) by mobilization of bone marrow-derived progenitor cells (BMCs) and in addition by activation of multiple signaling pathways. In the present study, we focused on the impact of G-CSF on migration of BMCs and the impact on resident cardiac cells after MI. Mice (C57BL/6J) were sublethally irradiated, and BM from green fluorescent protein (GFP)-transgenic mice was transplanted. Coronary artery ligation was performed 10 weeks later. G-CSF (100 microg/kg) was daily injected for 6 days. Subpopulations of enhanced GFP(+) cells in peripheral blood, bone marrow, and heart were characterized by flow cytometry. Growth factor expression in the heart was analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Perfusion was investigated in vivo by gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). G-CSF-treated animals revealed a reduced migration of c-kit(+) and CXCR-4(+) BMCs associated with decreased expression levels of the corresponding growth factors, namely stem cell factor and stromal-derived factor-1 alpha in ischemic myocardium. In contrast, the number of resident cardiac Sca-1(+) cells was significantly increased. However, SPECT-perfusion showed no differences in infarct size between G-CSF-treated and control animals 6 days after MI. Our study shows that G-CSF treatment after MI reduces migration capacity of BMCs into ischemic tissue, but increases the number of resident cardiac cells. To optimize homing capacity a combination of G-CSF with other agents may optimize cytokine therapy after MI.

  15. Endothelial Progenitor Cell Fraction Contained in Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Populations Impairs Osteogenic Differentiation

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    Fabian Duttenhoefer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In bone tissue engineering (TE endothelial cell-osteoblast cocultures are known to induce synergies of cell differentiation and activity. Bone marrow mononucleated cells (BMCs are a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs able to develop an osteogenic phenotype. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs are also present within BMC. In this study we investigate the effect of EPCs present in the BMC population on MSCs osteogenic differentiation. Human BMCs were isolated and separated into two populations. The MSC population was selected through plastic adhesion capacity. EPCs (CD34+ and CD133+ were removed from the BMC population and the resulting population was named depleted MSCs. Both populations were cultured over 28 days in osteogenic medium (Dex+ or medium containing platelet lysate (PL. MSC population grew faster than depleted MSCs in both media, and PL containing medium accelerated the proliferation for both populations. Cell differentiation was much higher in Dex+ medium in both cases. Real-time RT-PCR revealed upregulation of osteogenic marker genes in depleted MSCs. Higher values of ALP activity and matrix mineralization analyses confirmed these results. Our study advocates that absence of EPCs in the MSC population enables higher osteogenic gene expression and matrix mineralization and therefore may lead to advanced bone neoformation necessary for TE constructs.

  16. Role of bone marrow-derived stem cells, renal progenitor cells and stem cell factor in chronic renal allograft nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Hayam Abdel Meguid El Aggan; Mona Abdel Kader Salem; Nahla Mohamed Gamal Farahat; Ahmad Fathy El-Koraie; Ghaly Abd Al-Rahim Mohammed Kotb

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) is a poorly understood clinico-pathological entity associated with chronic allograft loss due to immunologic and non-immunologic causes. It remains the leading cause of late allograft loss. Bone marrow derived stem cells are undifferentiated cells typically characterized by their capacity for self renewal, ability to give rise to multiple differentiated cellular population, including hematopoietic (HSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Char...

  17. High levels of circulating VEGFR2+ Bone marrow-derived progenitor cells correlate with metastatic disease in patients with pediatric solid malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Melissa; Rössler, Jochen; Geoerger, Birgit; Laplanche, Agnès; Hartmann, Olivier; Vassal, Gilles; Farace, Françoise

    2009-07-15

    Pediatric solid malignancies display important angiogenic potential, and blocking tumor angiogenesis represents a new therapeutic approach for these patients. Recent studies have evidenced rare circulating cells with endothelial features contributing to tumor neovascularization and have shown the pivotal role of bone marrow-derived (BMD) progenitor cells in metastatic disease progression. We measured these cells in patients with pediatric solid malignancies as a prerequisite to clinical trials with antiangiogenic therapy. Peripheral blood was drawn from 45 patients with localized (n = 23) or metastatic (n = 22) disease, and 20 healthy subjects. Subsets of circulating vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)2+-BMD progenitor cells, defined as CD45-CD34+VEGFR2(KDR)+7AAD- and CD45(dim)CD34+VEGFR2+7AAD- events, were measured in progenitor-enriched fractions by flow cytometry. Mature circulating endothelial cells (CEC) were measured in whole blood as CD31+CD146+CD45-7AAD- viable events. Data were correlated with VEGF and sVEGFR2 plasma levels. The CD45-CD34+VEGFR2(KDR)+7AAD- subset represented <0.003% of circulating BMD progenitor cells (< or =0.05 cells/mL). However, the median level (range) of the CD45(dim)CD34+VEGFR2+7AAD- subset was higher in patients compared with healthy subjects, 1.5% (0%-10.3%) versus 0.3% (0%-1.6%) of circulating BMD progenitors (P < 0.0001), and differed significantly between patients with localized and metastatic disease, 0.7% (0%-8.6%) versus 2.9% (0.6%-10.3%) of circulating BMD progenitors (P < 0.001). Median CEC value was 7 cells/mL (0-152 cells/mL) and similar in all groups. Unlike VEGFR2+-BMD progenitors, neither CECs, VEGF, or sVEGFR2 plasma levels correlated with disease status. High levels of circulating VEGFR2+-BMD progenitor cells correlated with metastatic disease. Our study provides novel insights for angiogenesis mechanisms in pediatric solid malignancies for which antiangiogenic targeting of VEGFR2+-BMD progenitors

  18. Mast cell repopulation of the peritoneal cavity: contribution of mast cell progenitors versus bone marrow derived committed mast cell precursors

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    Pastor Maria

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mast cells have recently gained new importance as immunoregulatory cells that are involved in numerous pathological processes. One result of these processes is an increase in mast cell numbers at peripheral sites. This study was undertaken to determine the mast cell response in the peritoneal cavity and bone marrow during repopulation of the peritoneal cavity in rats. Results Two mast cell specific antibodies, mAb AA4 and mAb BGD6, were used to distinguish the committed mast cell precursor from more mature mast cells. The peritoneal cavity was depleted of mast cells using distilled water. Twelve hours after distilled water injection, very immature mast cells could be isolated from the blood and by 48 hours were present in the peritoneal cavity. At this same time the percentage of mast cells in mitosis increased fourfold. Mast cell depletion of the peritoneal cavity also reduced the total number of mast cells in the bone marrow, but increased the number of mast cell committed precursors. Conclusions In response to mast cell depletion of the peritoneal cavity, a mast cell progenitor is released into the circulation and participates in repopulation of the peritoneal cavity, while the committed mast cell precursor is retained in the bone marrow.

  19. The ERK5 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways play opposing regulatory roles during chondrogenesis of adult human bone marrow-derived multipotent progenitor cells.

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    Bobick, Brent E; Matsche, Alexander I; Chen, Faye H; Tuan, Rocky S

    2010-07-01

    Adult human bone marrow-derived multipotent progenitor cells (MPCs) are able to differentiate into a variety of specialized cell types, including chondrocytes, and are considered a promising candidate cell source for use in cartilage tissue engineering. In this study, we examined the regulation of MPC chondrogenesis by mitogen-activated protein kinases in an attempt to better understand how to generate hyaline cartilage in the laboratory that more closely resembles native tissue. Specifically, we employed the high-density pellet culture model system to assess the roles of ERK5 and ERK1/2 pathway signaling in MPC chondrogenesis. Western blotting revealed that high levels of ERK5 phosphorylation correlate with low levels of MPC chondrogenesis and that as TGF-beta 3-enhanced MPC chondrogenesis proceeds, phospho-ERK5 levels steadily decline. Conversely, levels of phospho-ERK1/2 paralleled the progression of MPC chondrogenesis. siRNA-mediated knockdown of ERK5 pathway components MEK5 and ERK5 resulted in increased MPC pellet mRNA transcript levels of the cartilage-characteristic marker genes SOX9, COL2A1, AGC, L-SOX5, and SOX6, as well as enhanced accumulation of SOX9 protein, collagen type II protein, and Alcian blue-stainable proteoglycan. In contrast, knockdown of ERK1/2 pathway members MEK1 and ERK1 decreased expression of all chondrogenic markers tested. Finally, overexpression of MEK5 and ERK5 also depressed MPC chondrogenesis, as indicated by diminished activity of a co-transfected collagen II promoter-luciferase reporter construct. In conclusion, our results suggest a novel role for the ERK5 pathway as an important negative regulator of adult human MPC chondrogenesis and illustrate that the ERK5 and ERK1/2 kinase cascades play opposing roles regulating MPC cartilage formation. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Osteoblast Production by Reserved Progenitor Cells in Zebrafish Bone Regeneration and Maintenance.

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    Ando, Kazunori; Shibata, Eri; Hans, Stefan; Brand, Michael; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2017-12-04

    Mammals cannot re-form heavily damaged bones as in large fracture gaps, whereas zebrafish efficiently regenerate bones even after amputation of appendages. However, the source of osteoblasts that mediate appendage regeneration is controversial. Several studies in zebrafish have shown that osteoblasts are generated by dedifferentiation of existing osteoblasts at injured sites, but other observations suggest that de novo production of osteoblasts also occurs. In this study, we found from cell-lineage tracing and ablation experiments that a group of cells reserved in niches serves as osteoblast progenitor cells (OPCs) and has a significant role in fin ray regeneration. Besides regeneration, OPCs also supply osteoblasts for normal bone maintenance. We further showed that OPCs are derived from embryonic somites, as is the case with embryonic osteoblasts, and are replenished from mesenchymal precursors in adult zebrafish. Our findings reveal that reserved progenitors are a significant and complementary source of osteoblasts for zebrafish bone regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Demonstration of the presence of independent pre-osteoblastic and pre-adipocytic cell populations in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Post, S; Abdallah, B M; Bentzon, J F

    2008-01-01

    differentiation into one particular lineage. However, this inverse relationship between bone and fat is not consistent and under certain in vivo conditions, bone and fat can change independently suggesting separate precursor cell populations. In order to test for this hypothesis, we extensively characterized two...... of mature adipocytes visualized by Oil Red O staining. On the other hand, mMSC2 and not mMSC1 differentiated to osteoblast lineage as demonstrated by up-regulation of osteoblastic makers (CBFA1/RUNX2, Osterix, alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein and osteopontin) and formation of alizarin red stained...... that are committed to either osteoblast or adipocyte lineage. These cell populations may undergo independent changes during aging and in bone diseases and thus represent important targets for therapy....

  2. Comparisons of phenotype and immunomodulatory capacity among rhesus bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells, multipotent adult progenitor cells, and dermal fibroblasts

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    Wang, Qi; Clarkson, Christina; Graham, Melanie; Donahue, Robert; Hering, Bernhard J.; Verfaillie, Catherine M.; Bansal-Pakala, Pratima; O'Brien, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Potent immunomodulatory effects have been reported for mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs), multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs), and fibroblasts. However, side-by-side comparisons of these cells specifically regarding immunophenotype, gene expression, and suppression of proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte populations have not been reported. Methods We developed MAPC and MSC lines from rhesus macaque bone marrow and fibroblast cell lines from rhesus dermis and assessed phenotypes based upon differentiation potential, flow cytometric analysis of immunophenotype, and quantitative RT-PCR analysis of gene expression. Using allogeneic lymphocyte proliferation assays, we compared the in vitro immunomodulatory potency of each cell type. Results and Conclusions Extensive phenotypic similarities exist among each cell type, although immunosuppressive potencies are distinct. MAPCs are most potent, and fibroblasts are the least potent cell type. All three cell types demonstrated immunomodulatory capacity such that each may have potential therapeutic applications such as in organ transplantation, where reduced local immune response is desirable. PMID:24825538

  3. Platelet released growth factors boost expansion of bone marrow derived CD34(+) and CD133(+) endothelial progenitor cells for autologous grafting.

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    Lippross, Sebastian; Loibl, Markus; Hoppe, Sven; Meury, Thomas; Benneker, Lorin; Alini, Mauro; Verrier, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Stem cell based autologous grafting has recently gained mayor interest in various surgical fields for the treatment of extensive tissue defects. CD34(+) and CD133(+) cells that can be isolated from the pool of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMC) are capable of differentiating into mature endothelial cells in vivo. These endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are believed to represent a major portion of the angiogenic regenerative cells that are released from bone marrow when tissue injury has occurred. In recent years tissue engineers increasingly looked at the process of vessel neoformation because of its major importance for successful cell grafting to replace damaged tissue. Up to now one of the greatest problems preventing a clinical application is the large scale of expansion that is required for such purpose. We established a method to effectively enhance the expansion of CD34(+) and CD133(+) cells by the use of platelet-released growth factors (PRGF) as a media supplement. PRGF were prepared from thrombocyte concentrates and used as a media supplement to iscove's modified dulbecco's media (IMDM). EPC were immunomagnetically separated from human bone morrow monocyte cells and cultured in IMDM + 10% fetal calf serum (FCS), IMDM + 5%, FCS + 5% PRGF and IMDM + 10% PRGF. We clearly demonstrate a statistically significant higher and faster cell proliferation rate at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of culture when both PRGF and FCS were added to the medium as opposed to 10% FCS or 10% PRGF alone. The addition of 10% PRGF to IMDM in the absence of FCS leads to a growth arrest from day 14 on. In histochemical, immunocytochemical, and gene-expression analysis we showed that angiogenic and precursor markers of CD34(+) and CD133(+) cells are maintained during long-term culture. In summary, we established a protocol to boost the expansion of CD34(+) and CD133(+) cells. Thereby we provide a technical step towards the clinical application of autologous stem cell

  4. Dynamics of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cell/mesenchymal stem cell interaction in co-culture and its implications in angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre, A.; Planell, J.A.; Engel, E.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → BM-EPCs and MSCs establish complex, self-organizing structures in co-culture. → Co-culture decreases proliferation by cellular self-regulatory mechanisms. → Co-cultured cells present an activated proangiogenic phenotype. → qRT-PCR and cluster analysis identify new target genes playing important roles. -- Abstract: Tissue engineering aims to regenerate tissues and organs by using cell and biomaterial-based approaches. One of the current challenges in the field is to promote proper vascularization in the implant to prevent cell death and promote host integration. Bone marrow endothelial progenitor cells (BM-EPCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are bone marrow resident stem cells widely employed for proangiogenic applications. In vivo, they are likely to interact frequently both in the bone marrow and at sites of injury. In this study, the physical and biochemical interactions between BM-EPCs and MSCs in an in vitro co-culture system were investigated to further clarify their roles in vascularization. BM-EPC/MSC co-cultures established close cell-cell contacts soon after seeding and self-assembled to form elongated structures at 3 days. Besides direct contact, cells also exhibited vesicle transport phenomena. When co-cultured in Matrigel, tube formation was greatly enhanced even in serum-starved, growth factor free medium. Both MSCs and BM-EPCs contributed to these tubes. However, cell proliferation was greatly reduced in co-culture and morphological differences were observed. Gene expression and cluster analysis for wide panel of angiogenesis-related transcripts demonstrated up-regulation of angiogenic markers but down-regulation of many other cytokines. These data suggest that cross-talk occurs in between BM-EPCs and MSCs through paracrine and direct cell contact mechanisms leading to modulation of the angiogenic response.

  5. Cilostazol activates function of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cell for re-endothelialization in a carotid balloon injury model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie Kawabe-Yako

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cilostazol(CLZ has been used as a vasodilating anti-platelet drug clinically and demonstrated to inhibit proliferation of smooth muscle cells and effect on endothelial cells. However, the effect of CLZ on re-endothelialization including bone marrow (BM-derived endothelial progenitor cell (EPC contribution is unclear. We have investigated the hypothesis that CLZ might accelerate re-endothelialization with EPCs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Balloon carotid denudation was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. CLZ group was given CLZ mixed feed from 2 weeks before carotid injury. Control group was fed normal diet. CLZ accelerated re-endothelialization at 2 weeks after surgery and resulted in a significant reduction of neointima formation 4 weeks after surgery compared with that in control group. CLZ also increased the number of circulating EPCs throughout the time course. We examined the contribution of BM-derived EPCs to re-endothelialization by BM transplantation from Tie2/lacZ mice to nude rats. The number of Tie2-regulated X-gal positive cells on injured arterial luminal surface was increased at 2 weeks after surgery in CLZ group compared with that in control group. In vitro, CLZ enhanced proliferation, adhesion and migration activity, and differentiation with mRNA upregulation of adhesion molecule integrin αvβ3, chemokine receptor CXCR4 and growth factor VEGF assessed by real-time RT-PCR in rat BM-derived cultured EPCs. In addition, CLZ markedly increased the expression of SDF-1α that is a ligand of CXCR4 receptor in EPCs, in the media following vascular injury. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: CLZ promotes EPC mobilization from BM and EPC recruitment to sites of arterial injury, and thereby inhibited neointima formation with acceleration of re-endothelialization with EPCs as well as pre-existing endothelial cells in a rat carotid balloon injury model. CLZ could be not only an anti-platelet agent but also a promising tool for

  6. Modulation of hematopoietic progenitor cell fate in vitro by varying collagen oligomer matrix stiffness in the presence or absence of osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitteti, Brahmananda Reddy; Kacena, Melissa A; Voytik-Harbin, Sherry L; Srour, Edward F

    2015-10-01

    To recreate the in vivo hematopoietic cell microenvironment or niche and to study the impact of extracellular matrix (ECM) biophysical properties on hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) proliferation and function, mouse bone-marrow derived HPC (Lin-Sca1+cKit+/(LSK) were cultured within three-dimensional (3D) type I collagen oligomer matrices. To generate a more physiologic milieu, 3D cultures were established in both the presence and absence of calvariae-derived osteoblasts (OB). Collagen oligomers were polymerized at varying concentration to give rise to matrices of different fibril densities and therefore matrix stiffness (shear storage modulus, 50-800 Pa). Decreased proliferation and increased clonogenicity of LSK cells was associated with increase of matrix stiffness regardless of whether OB were present or absent from the 3D culture system. Also, regardless of whether OB were or were not added to the 3D co-culture system, LSK within 800 Pa collagen oligomer matrices maintained the highest percentage of Lin-Sca1+ cells as well as higher percentage of cells in quiescent state (G0/G1) compared to 50 Pa or 200Pa matrices. Collectively, these data illustrate that biophysical features of collagen oligomer matrices, specifically fibril density-induced modulation of matrix stiffness, provide important guidance cues in terms of LSK expansion and differentiation and therefore maintenance of progenitor cell function. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Recql4 haploinsufficiency in mice leads to defects in osteoblast progenitors: Implications for low bone mass phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jieping; Murthy, Sreemala; Winata, Therry; Werner, Sean; Abe, Masumi; Prahalad, Agasanur K.; Hock, Janet M.

    2006-01-01

    The cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie skeletal abnormalities in defective Recql4-related syndromes are poorly understood. Our objective in this study was to explore the function of Recql4 in osteoblast biology both in vitro and in vivo. Immunohistochemistry on adult mouse bone showed Recql4 protein localization in active osteoblasts around growth plate, but not in fully differentiated osteocytes. Consistent with this finding, Recql4 gene expression was high in proliferating mouse osteoblastic MC3T3.E1 cells and decreased as cells progressively lost their proliferation activity during differentiation. Recql4 overexpression in osteoblastic cells exhibited higher proliferation activity, while its depletion impeded cell growth. In addition, bone marrow stromal cells from male Recql4+/- mice had fewer progenitor cells, including osteoprogenitors, indicated by reduced total fibroblast colony forming units (CFU-f) and alkaline phosphatase-positive CFU-f colonies concomitant with reduced bone mass. These findings provide evidence that Recql4 functions as a regulatory protein during osteoprogenitor proliferation, a critical cellular event during skeleton development

  8. Retinoic acid receptor signalling directly regulates osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation from mesenchymal progenitor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, A.C. [St Vincent' s Institute, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia); Department of Medicine at St. Vincent' s Hospital, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3065 (Australia); Kocovski, P.; Jovic, T.; Walia, M.K. [St Vincent' s Institute, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia); Chandraratna, R.A.S. [IO Therapeutics, Inc., Santa Ana, CA 92705 (United States); Martin, T.J.; Baker, E.K. [St Vincent' s Institute, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia); Department of Medicine at St. Vincent' s Hospital, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3065 (Australia); Purton, L.E., E-mail: lpurton@svi.edu.au [St Vincent' s Institute, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia); Department of Medicine at St. Vincent' s Hospital, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3065 (Australia)

    2017-01-01

    Low and high serum retinol levels are associated with increased fracture risk and poor bone health. We recently showed retinoic acid receptors (RARs) are negative regulators of osteoclastogenesis. Here we show RARs are also negative regulators of osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation. The pan-RAR agonist, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), directly inhibited differentiation and mineralisation of early osteoprogenitors and impaired the differentiation of more mature osteoblast populations. In contrast, the pan-RAR antagonist, IRX4310, accelerated differentiation of early osteoprogenitors. These effects predominantly occurred via RARγ and were further enhanced by an RARα agonist or antagonist, respectively. RAR agonists similarly impaired adipogenesis in osteogenic cultures. RAR agonist treatment resulted in significant upregulation of the Wnt antagonist, Sfrp4. This accompanied reduced nuclear and cytosolic β-catenin protein and reduced expression of the Wnt target gene Axin2, suggesting impaired Wnt/β-catenin signalling. To determine the effect of RAR inhibition in post-natal mice, IRX4310 was administered to male mice for 10 days and bones were assessed by µCT. No change to trabecular bone volume was observed, however, radial bone growth was impaired. These studies show RARs directly influence osteoblast and adipocyte formation from mesenchymal cells, and inhibition of RAR signalling in vivo impairs radial bone growth in post-natal mice. - Graphical abstract: Schematic shows RAR ligand regulation of osteoblast differentiation in vitro. RARγ antagonists±RARα antagonists promote osteoblast differentiation. RARγ and RARα agonists alone or in combination block osteoblast differentiation, which correlates with upregulation of Sfrp4, and downregulation of nuclear and cytosolic β-catenin and reduced expression of the Wnt target gene Axin2. Red arrows indicate effects of RAR agonists on mediators of Wnt signalling.

  9. Different Motile Behaviors of Human Hematopoietic Stem versus Progenitor Cells at the Osteoblastic Niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Foster

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in our understanding of interactions between mouse hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs and their niche, little is known about communication between human HSCs and the microenvironment. Using a xenotransplantation model and intravital imaging, we demonstrate that human HSCs display distinct motile behaviors to their hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC counterparts, and the same pattern can be found between mouse HSCs and HPCs. HSCs become significantly less motile after transplantation, while progenitor cells remain motile. We show that human HSCs take longer to find their niche than previously expected and suggest that the niche be defined as the position where HSCs stop moving. Intravital imaging is the only technique to determine where in the bone marrow stem cells stop moving, and future analyses should focus on the environment surrounding the HSC at this point.

  10. Differential expression of CCN-family members in primary human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells during osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrich Christian

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human cysteine rich protein 61 (CYR61, CCN1 as well as the other members of the CCN family of genes play important roles in cellular processes such as proliferation, adhesion, migration and survival. These cellular events are of special importance within the complex cellular interactions ongoing in bone remodeling. Previously, we analyzed the role of CYR61/CCN1 as an extracellular signaling molecule in human osteoblasts. Since mesenchymal stem cells of bone marrow are important progenitors for various differentiation pathways in bone and possess increasing potential for regenerative medicine, here we aimed to analyze the expression of CCN family members in bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells and along the osteogenic, the adipogenic and the chondrogenic differentiation. Results Primary cultures of human mesenchymal stem cells were obtained from the femoral head of patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. Differentiation into adipocytes and osteoblasts was done in monolayer culture, differentiation into chondrocytes was induced in high density cell pellet cultures. For either pathway, established differentiation markers and CCN-members were analyzed at the mRNA level by RT-PCR and the CYR61/CCN1 protein was analyzed by immunocytochemistry. RT-PCR and histochemical analysis revealed the appropriate phenotype of differentiated cells (Alizarin-red S, Oil Red O, Alcian blue, alkaline phosphatase; osteocalcin, collagen types I, II, IX, X, cbfa1, PPARγ, aggrecan. Mesenchymal stem cells expressed CYR61/CCN1, CTGF/CCN2, CTGF-L/WISP2/CCN5 and WISP3/CCN6. The CYR61/CCN1 expression decreased markedly during osteogenic differentiation, adipogenic differentiation and chondrogenic differentiation. These results were confirmed by immuncytochemical analyses. WISP2/CCN5 RNA expression declined during adipogenic differentiation and WISP3/CCN6 RNA expression was markedly reduced in chondrogenic differentiation. Conclusion The

  11. Proliferative activity of vervet monkey bone marrow-derived adherent cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramvis, A.; Garnett, H.M.

    1987-01-01

    Vervet monkey bone marrow-derived adherent cell population cultured in Fischer's medium supplemented with 12.5% fetal calf serum and 12.5% horse serum consists of two cell shapes: fusiform (type I) and polygonal (type II). Limiting-dilution cloning of the cells suggested that the two morphologically distinct cell types belong to the same cellular system even though they differ in their proliferative capabilities. The labeling index of type II cells, as measured by autoradiography, was found to be consistently lower than that of type I cells. It is probable that these two phenotypes represent different stages of differentiation, where progenitor type I gives rise to type II cells. The bone marrow-derived adherent cells were found to be cytokinetically at rest in vivo, using the thymidine suicide test, and relatively radioresistant with a D0 = 2.1 Gy and n = 2.36 at the time of explantation from the bone. Furthermore, in culture these cells are characterized by a relatively long cell cycle of 60 h, where the length of the S phase is 30 h, G2 is 12 h, M is 6 h, and G1 is 12 h. Thus, the vervet monkey bone marrow-derived adherent cells represent a cell population with a low turnover rate both in vivo and in vitro

  12. Emerging paradigms and questions on pro-angiogenic bone marrow-derived myelomonocytic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Julien; Touvrey, Cédric; Botta, Francesca; Kuonen, François; Ruegg, Curzio

    2011-01-01

    Cancer-related inflammation has emerged in recent years as a major event contributing to tumor angiogenesis, tumor progression and metastasis formation. Bone marrow-derived and inflammatory cells promote tumor angiogenesis by providing endothelial progenitor cells that differentiate into mature endothelial cells, and by secreting pro-angiogenic factors and remodeling the extracellular matrix to stimulate angiogenesis though paracrine mechanisms. Several bone marrow-derived myelonomocytic cells, including monocytes and macrophages, have been identified and characterized by several laboratories in recent years. While the central role of these cells in promoting tumor angiogenesis, tumor progression and metastasis is nowadays well established, many questions remain open and new ones are emerging. These include the relationship between their phenotype and function, the mechanisms of pro-angiogenic programming, their contribution to resistance to anti-angiogenic treatments and to metastasis and their potential clinical use as biomarkers of angiogenesis and anti-angiogenic therapies. Here, we will review phenotypical and functional aspects of bone marrow-derived myelonomocytic cells and discuss some of the current outstanding questions.

  13. The Bone Marrow-Derived Stromal Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tencerova, Michaela; Kassem, Moustapha

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow (BM) microenvironment represents an important compartment of bone that regulates bone homeostasis and the balance between bone formation and bone resorption depending on the physiological needs of the organism. Abnormalities of BM microenvironmental dynamics can lead to metabolic bone...... diseases. BM stromal cells (also known as skeletal or mesenchymal stem cells) [bone marrow stromal stem cell (BMSC)] are multipotent stem cells located within BM stroma and give rise to osteoblasts and adipocytes. However, cellular and molecular mechanisms of BMSC lineage commitment to adipocytic lineage...

  14. Efficiency of rat bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells on VEGF and SDF-1 expression with the aid of Tanshinone ⅡA%丹参酮ⅡA增效大鼠骨髓源性内皮祖细胞VEGF、SDF-1表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨彦; 陈庆伟; 曹广煜; 李桂琼

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of rat bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells on VEGF expression with the aid of Tanshinone ⅡA.Methods:The mononuclear cells were isolated from rat femoral and tibial bone marrow using percoll density gradient centrifugation,then induced with vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF),basic fibroblast growth factor(bFGF) and epidermal growth factor(EGF)for two weeks.The expression of cell markers was assessed by immunocytochemistry,and the attached cells were stained with Dil-acLDL and FITC-UEA-1.Then this study included two groups: EPCs and EPCs+ Tanshinone ⅡA groups.The expression levels of VEGF and SDF-1 was detected by fluorescent qRT-PCR and western blot.Results:Compared with the EPCs group,EPCs+ Tanshinone IIA group had a higher VEGF and SDF-1 expression(P0.05).Conclusions:EPCs can increase VEGF and SDF-1 expression with combination of Tanshinone IIA.Homing rate and repairing efficacy of EPCs can improve also with the aid of Tanshinone IIA.EPCs can increase VEGF and SDF-1 expression in injured myocardium after homing,thus improve angiogenesis efficiently.%目的:研究在丹参酮ⅡA的辅助下,骨髓源性内皮祖细胞(EPCs)VEGF与SDF-1表达是否能增强,从而促进细胞归巢。方法:Percoll密度梯度离心法分离SD大鼠骨髓单个核细胞,血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)、表皮生长因子((EGF)、碱性成纤维细胞生长因子(bFGF)诱导培养,并进行形态学、免疫学(免疫细胞化学染色)、功能学(Dil-acLDL与FITC-UEA-1双荧光染色)鉴定。将鉴定为EPCs的细胞分为单纯EPCs组(对照组)、EPCs+丹参酮ⅡA组(加药组)。细胞培养第9d,Western blot与实时荧光定量PCR检测各组VEGF、SDF-1基因与蛋白表达。结果:EPCs+丹参酮IIA组VEGF、SDF-1基因与蛋白表达均高于EPCs组(p均〈0.05)。结论:丹参酮ⅡA可上调大鼠骨

  15. Marrow Derived Antibody Library for the Treatment of Neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0332 TITLE: Marrow-Derived Antibody Library for the Treatment of Neuroblastoma PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Giselle...Marrow-Derived Antibody Library for Treatment of Neuroblastoma 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...to Spectrum Health. 14. ABSTRACT Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common solid tumor in children, which accounts for 15% of all pediatric cancer deaths

  16. The role of bone marrow-derived cells during the bone healing process in the GFP mouse bone marrow transplantation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujigiwa, Hidetsugu; Hirata, Yasuhisa; Katase, Naoki; Buery, Rosario Rivera; Tamamura, Ryo; Ito, Satoshi; Takagi, Shin; Iida, Seiji; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi

    2013-03-01

    Bone healing is a complex and multistep process in which the origin of the cells participating in bone repair is still unknown. The involvement of bone marrow-derived cells in tissue repair has been the subject of recent studies. In the present study, bone marrow-derived cells in bone healing were traced using the GFP bone marrow transplantation model. Bone marrow cells from C57BL/6-Tg (CAG-EGFP) were transplanted into C57BL/6 J wild mice. After transplantation, bone injury was created using a 1.0-mm drill. Bone healing was histologically assessed at 3, 7, 14, and 28 postoperative days. Immunohistochemistry for GFP; double-fluorescent immunohistochemistry for GFP-F4/80, GFP-CD34, and GFP-osteocalcin; and double-staining for GFP and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase were performed. Bone marrow transplantation successfully replaced the hematopoietic cells into GFP-positive donor cells. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that osteoblasts or osteocytes in the repair stage were GFP-negative, whereas osteoclasts in the repair and remodeling stages and hematopoietic cells were GFP-positive. The results indicated that bone marrow-derived cells might not differentiate into osteoblasts. The role of bone marrow-derived cells might be limited to adjustment of the microenvironment by differentiating into inflammatory cells, osteoclasts, or endothelial cells in immature blood vessels.

  17. Recruitment of bone marrow derived cells during anti-angiogenic therapy in GBM : Bone marrow derived cell in GBM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Jennifer C.; Walenkamp, Annemiek M. E.; den Dunnen, Wilfred F. A.

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly vascular tumor characterized by rapid and invasive tumor growth, followed by oxygen depletion, hypoxia and neovascularization, which generate a network of disorganized, tortuous and permeable vessels. Recruitment of bone marrow derived cells (BMDC) is crucial for

  18. Hypoxia-Induced Mitogenic Factor (HIMF/FIZZ1/RELM?) Recruits Bone Marrow-Derived Cells to the Murine Pulmonary Vasculature

    OpenAIRE

    Angelini, Daniel J.; Su, Qingning; Kolosova, Irina A.; Fan, Chunling; Skinner, John T.; Yamaji-Kegan, Kazuyo; Collector, Michael; Sharkis, Saul J.; Johns, Roger A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a disease of multiple etiologies with several common pathological features, including inflammation and pulmonary vascular remodeling. Recent evidence has suggested a potential role for the recruitment of bone marrow-derived (BMD) progenitor cells to this remodeling process. We recently demonstrated that hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor (HIMF/FIZZ1/RELM?) is chemotactic to murine bone marrow cells in vitro and involved in pulmonary vascular remodeling ...

  19. Bone marrow-derived CD13+ cells sustain tumor progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondossola, Eleonora; Corti, Angelo; Sidman, Richard L; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Non-malignant cells found within neoplastic lesions express alanyl (membrane) aminopeptidase (ANPEP, best known as CD13), and CD13-null mice exhibit limited tumor growth and angiogenesis. We have recently demonstrated that a subset of bone marrow-derived CD11b+CD13+ myeloid cells accumulate within neoplastic lesions in several murine models of transplantable cancer to promote angiogenesis. If these findings were confirmed in clinical settings, CD11b+CD13+ myeloid cells could become a non-malignant target for the development of novel anticancer regimens. PMID:25339996

  20. IGF-1 Receptor Expression on Circulating Osteoblast Progenitor Cells Predicts Tissue-Based Bone Formation Rate and Response to Teriparatide in Premenopausal Women With Idiopathic Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Adi; Kousteni, Stavroula; Bisikirska, Brygida; Shah, Jayesh G; Manavalan, J Sanil; Recker, Robert R; Lappe, Joan; Dempster, David W; Zhou, Hua; McMahon, Donald J; Bucovsky, Mariana; Kamanda-Kosseh, Mafo; Stubby, Julie; Shane, Elizabeth

    2017-06-01

    We have previously reported that premenopausal women with idiopathic osteoporosis (IOP) have profound microarchitectural deficiencies and heterogeneous bone remodeling. Those with the lowest bone formation rate have higher baseline serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels and less robust response to teriparatide. Because IGF-1 stimulates bone formation and is critical for teriparatide action on osteoblasts, these findings suggest a state of IGF-1 resistance in some IOP women. To further investigate the hypothesis that osteoblast and IGF-1-related mechanisms mediate differential responsiveness to teriparatide in IOP, we studied circulating osteoblast progenitor (COP) cells and their IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) expression. In premenopausal women with IOP, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained at baseline (n = 25) and over 24 months of teriparatide treatment (n = 11). Flow cytometry was used to identify and quantify COPs (non-hematopoetic lineage cells expressing osteocalcin and RUNX2) and to quantify IGF-1R expression levels. At baseline, both the percent of PBMCs that were COPs (%COP) and COP cell-surface IGF-1R expression correlated directly with several histomorphometric indices of bone formation in tetracycline-labeled transiliac biopsies. In treated subjects, both %COP and IGF-1R expression increased promptly after teriparatide, returning toward baseline by 18 months. Although neither baseline %COP nor increase in %COP after 3 months predicted the bone mineral density (BMD) response to teriparatide, the percent increase in IGF-1R expression on COPs at 3 months correlated directly with the BMD response to teriparatide. Additionally, lower IGF-1R expression after teriparatide was associated with higher body fat, suggesting links between teriparatide resistance, body composition, and the GH/IGF-1 axis. In conclusion, these assays may be useful to characterize bone remodeling noninvasively and may serve to predict early response to

  1. Scanning electron microscopical observation of an osteoblast/osteoclast co-culture on micropatterned orthopaedic ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halai, Mansur; Ker, Andrew; Meek, Rm Dominic; Nadeem, Danish; Sjostrom, Terje; Su, Bo; McNamara, Laura E; Dalby, Matthew J; Young, Peter S

    2014-01-01

    In biomaterial engineering, the surface of an implant can influence cell differentiation, adhesion and affinity towards the implant. On contact with an implant, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells demonstrate differentiation towards bone forming osteoblasts, which can improve osteointegration. The process of micropatterning has been shown to improve osteointegration in polymers, but there are few reports surrounding ceramics. The purpose of this study was to establish a co-culture of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells with osteoclast progenitor cells and to observe the response to micropatterned zirconia toughened alumina ceramics with 30 µm diameter pits. The aim was to establish whether the pits were specifically bioactive towards osteogenesis or were generally bioactive and would also stimulate osteoclastogenesis that could potentially lead to osteolysis. We demonstrate specific bioactivity of micropatterns towards osteogenesis, with more nodule formation and less osteoclastogenesis compared to planar controls. In addition, we found that that macrophage and osteoclast-like cells did not interact with the pits and formed fewer full-size osteoclast-like cells on the pitted surfaces. This may have a role when designing ceramic orthopaedic implants.

  2. Safety assessment of bone marrow derived MSC grown in platelet-rich plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji Fukuda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The injection of endothelial progenitor cells and mononuclear cells derived from bone marrow at the ischemic region of peripheral artery disease patients is reported to be effective for therapeutic angiogenesis; however, these cell therapies require large amounts of bone marrow to obtain sufficient numbers of cells. To solve this problem, we attempted to culture bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC, which are supposed to secrete several cytokines that promote angiogenesis. We also focused on using platelet-rich plasma (PRP as a supplement for cell culture instead of fetal bovine serum. Human BM-MSC obtained from healthy volunteers expanded rapidly when cultured with 10% PRP prepared from their own blood. FACS analysis revealed that these cultured human MSC were homogeneous populations, and chromosomal analysis showed a normal karyotype. Moreover, the angiogenetic effect was apparent two weeks after human BM-MSC were injected into the ischemic muscle in SCID mice. Tumor formation was not detected three months after injection into SCID mice either subcutaneously or intramuscularly. To simulate clinical settings, canine BM-MSC were grown with canine PRP and injected into their ischemic muscles. We confirmed that donor cells existed in situ two and six weeks after operation without any side effects. These results suggest that cultured human BM-MSC can be a promising cell source for therapeutic angiogenesis.

  3. Human bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Abdallah, Basem M

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a group of cells present in bone-marrow stroma and the stroma of various organs with the capacity for mesoderm-like cell differentiation into, for example, osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. MSC are being introduced in the clinic for the treatment...

  4. Transfection of bone marrow derived cells with immunoregulatory proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khantakova, Julia N; Silkov, Alexander N; Tereshchenko, Valeriy P; Gavrilova, Elena V; Maksyutov, Rinat A; Sennikov, Sergey V

    2018-03-23

    In vitro electroporation gene transfer was first performed in 1982. Today, this technology has become one of the major vehicles for non-viral transfection of cells. All non-viral transfections, such as calcium phosphate precipitation, lipofection, and magnetic transfection, have been shown to achieve a transfection efficiency of up to 70% in commonly used cell lines, but not in primary cells. Here we describe the use of electroporation to transfect primary mouse bone marrow-derived cells, such as macrophages (Mφ) and dendritic cells (DCs) with high efficiencies (45%-72%) and minimal cell death. The transfection efficiencies and cell death varied depending on the culture duration of the DCs and Mφ. Moreover, the electroporation efficiency was increased when conditioning medium was used for culturing the cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that measuring the plasmid-encoded secreted proteins is a highly sensitive method for determining the transfection efficiency. In summary, electroporation with plasmid vectors is an efficient method for producing DCs and Mφ with transient expression of immunoregulatory proteins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Canonical Wnt signaling in differentiated osteoblasts controls osteoclast differentiation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glass, D.A.; Bialek, P.; Ahn, J.D.; Starbuck, M.; Patel, M.S.; Clevers, J.C.; Taketo, M.M.; Long, F.; McMahon, A.P.; Lang, R.A.; Karsenty, G.

    2005-01-01

    Inactivation of beta-catenin in mesenchymal progenitors prevents osteoblast differentiation; inactivation of Lrp5, a gene encoding a likely Wnt coreceptor, results in low bone mass (osteopenia) by decreasing bone formation. These observations indicate that Wnt signaling controls osteoblast

  6. Functional evaluation of bone marrow derived DC of tumor bearing mice after immunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Min; Chen Cheng; Gu Tao; Zhou Huan; Zhang Feng; Zhu Yibei; Yu Gehua; Zhang Xueguang; Gu Zongjiang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the function of bone marrow derived DC of tumor bearing mice after immunotherapy. Methods: Tumor bearing mice were immunized with DC vaccine plus injection of agonistic anti-4-1BB monoclonal antibody. The proliferation of T cells primed with bone marrow derived DC of tumor bearing mice after immunotherapy was tested by 3 H-TdR incorporation. ELISA was employed to determine the levels of IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-10 secreted by DC primed T cells. Results: Bone marrow derived DC of tumor bearing mice was less efficient in stimulating the proliferation of T cells and IL-2 and IFN-γ secretion made by T cells. After immunotherapy, the proliferation of cells and IL-2 and IFN-γ secretionmade by T cells were enhanced. Conclusion: The function of bone marrow derived DC of tumor bearing mice after immunotherapy was ameliorated. (authors)

  7. Mitigating HZE Radiation-Induced Deficits in Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells and Skeletal Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Ruth K.; Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Shirazi-Fard, Yasaman; Terada, Masahiro; Alwood, Joshua; Halloran, Bernard; Tahimic, Candice

    2016-01-01

    Future long-duration space exploration beyond the earths magnetosphere will increase human exposure to space radiation and associated risks to skeletal health. We hypothesize that oxidative stress resulting from radiation exposure causes progressive bone loss and dysfunction in associated tissue. In animal studies, increased free radical formation is associated with pathological changes in bone structure, enhanced bone resorption, reduced bone formation and decreased bone mineral density, which can lead to skeletal fragility.

  8. Evaluation of velvet antler total protein effect on bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Xiang; Li, Lin; Xu, Shuqiang; Mao, Min; Pan, Ruiyan; Li, Yanjun; Wu, Jiayun; Huang, Li; Zheng, Xiaoyun

    2017-01-01

    Lu Rong, velvet antler (VA), is a traditional Chinese medicine, which is used as a food supplement and therapeutic drug in China, Japan, Russia, New Zealand and Southeast Asia. The regenerative characteristics of VA have resulted in great research interest, particularly regarding the fields of organ grafting and stem cell differentiation. Various VA proteomic studies verified that proteins act as the primary bioactive components of VA. The present study aimed to investigate if VA proteins (VA...

  9. Role of bone marrow-derived stem cells, renal progenitor cells and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hayam Abdel Meguid El Aggan

    2013-04-06

    Apr 6, 2013 ... renal blood flow; MoAbs, monoclonal antibodies; PE, phycoerythrin;. FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate. ... Detection of HSCs and MSCs in the peripheral blood using flow cytometry via detection of CD34, CD45, CD117 and ..... the peripheral capillary loops in 25–50% (cg2). Six biopsies showed an increase ...

  10. Contribution of different bone marrow-derived cell types in endometrial regeneration using an irradiated murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Sanchis, Claudia; Cervelló, Irene; Khurana, Satish; Faus, Amparo; Verfaillie, Catherine; Simón, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    To study the involvement of seven types of bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) in the endometrial regeneration in mice after total body irradiation. Prospective experimental animal study. University research laboratories. β-Actin-green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic C57BL/6-Tg (CAG-EGFP) and C57BL/6J female mice. The BMDCs were isolated from CAG-EGFP mice: unfractionated bone marrow cells, hematopoietic progenitor cells, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In addition three murine GFP(+) cell lines were used: mouse Oct4 negative BMDC multipotent adult progenitor cells (mOct4(-)BM-MAPCs), BMDC hypoblast-like stem cells (mOct4(+) BM-HypoSCs), and MSCs. All cell types were injected through the tail vein of 9 Gy-irradiated C57BL/6J female mice. Flow cytometry, cell culture, bone marrow transplantation assays, histologic evaluation, immunohistochemistry, proliferation, apoptosis, and statistical analysis. After 12 weeks, histologic analysis revealed that uteri of mice with mOct4(-)BM-MAPCs and MSC line were significantly smaller than uteri of mice with uncultured BMDCs or mOct4(+) BM-HypoSCs. The percentage of engrafted GFP(+) cells ranged from 0.13%-4.78%. Expression of Ki-67 was lower in all uteri from BMDCs treated mice than in the control, whereas TUNEL(+) cells were increased in the EPCs and mOct4(+)BM-HypoSCs groups. Low number of some BMDCs can be found in regenerating endometrium, including stromal, endotelial, and epithelial compartments. Freshly isolated MSCs and EPCs together with mOct4(+) BM-HypoSCs induced the greatest degree of regeneration, whereas culture isolated MSCs and mOct4(-)BM-MAPCs transplantation may have an inhibitory effect on endometrial regeneration. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhanced adipogenic differentiation of bovine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Until now, the isolation and characterization of bovine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bBM-MSCs) have not been established, which prompted us to optimize the differentiation protocol for bBM-MSCs. In this study, bBM-MSCs were freshly isolated from three 6-month-old cattle and used for p...

  12. Bone marrow-derived versus parenchymal sources of inducible nitric oxide synthase in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zehntner, Simone P; Bourbonniere, Lyne; Hassan-Zahraee, Mina

    2004-01-01

    . These discrepancies may reflect balance between immunoregulatory and neurocytopathologic roles for NO. We investigated selective effects of bone marrow-derived versus CNS parenchymal sources of iNOS in EAE in chimeric mice. Chimeras that selectively expressed or ablated iNOS in leukocytes both showed significant...

  13. Bioactive lipid coating of bone allografts directs engraftment and fate determination of bone marrow-derived cells in rat GFP chimeras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anusuya; Segar, Claire E; Chu, Yihsuan; Wang, Tiffany W; Lin, Yong; Yang, Chunxi; Du, Xeujun; Ogle, Roy C; Cui, Quanjun; Botchwey, Edward A

    2015-09-01

    Bone grafting procedures are performed to treat wounds incurred during wartime trauma, accidents, and tumor resections. Endogenous mechanisms of repair are often insufficient to ensure integration between host and donor bone and subsequent restoration of function. We investigated the role that bone marrow-derived cells play in bone regeneration and sought to increase their contributions by functionalizing bone allografts with bioactive lipid coatings. Polymer-coated allografts were used to locally deliver the immunomodulatory small molecule FTY720 in tibial defects created in rat bone marrow chimeras containing genetically-labeled bone marrow for monitoring cell origin and fate. Donor bone marrow contributed significantly to both myeloid and osteogenic cells in remodeling tissue surrounding allografts. FTY720 coatings altered the phenotype of immune cells two weeks post-injury, which was associated with increased vascularization and bone formation surrounding allografts. Consequently, degradable polymer coating strategies that deliver small molecule growth factors such as FTY720 represent a novel therapeutic strategy for harnessing endogenous bone marrow-derived progenitors and enhancing healing in load-bearing bone defects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bone marrow-derived cells are differentially involved in pathological and physiological retinal angiogenesis in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, He [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Otani, Atsushi, E-mail: otan@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Oishi, Akio; Yodoi, Yuko; Kameda, Takanori; Kojima, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Nagahisa [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)

    2010-01-08

    Purpose: Bone marrow-derived cells have been shown to play roles in angiogenesis. Although these cells have been shown to promote angiogenesis, it is not yet clear whether these cells affect all types of angiogenesis. This study investigated the involvement of bone marrow-derived cells in pathological and physiological angiogenesis in the murine retina. Materials and methods: The oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model was used as a retinal angiogenesis model in newborn mice. To block the influence of bone marrow-derived cells, the mice were irradiated with a 4-Gy dose of radiation from a {sup 137}Cs source. Irradiation was performed in four different conditions with radio dense 2-cm thick lead disks; (1) H group, the head were covered with these discs to protect the eyes from radiation; (2) A group, all of the body was covered with these discs; (3) N group, mice were completely unshielded; (4) C group, mice were put in the irradiator but were not irradiated. On P17, the retinal areas showing pathological and physiological retinal angiogenesis were measured and compared to the retinas of nonirradiated mice. Results: Although irradiation induced leukocyte depletion, it did not affect the number of other cell types or body weight. Retinal nonperfusion areas were significantly larger in irradiated mice than in control mice (P < 0.05), indicating that physiological angiogenesis was impaired. However, the formation of tuft-like angiogenesis processes was more prominent in the irradiated mice (P < 0.05), indicating that pathological angiogenesis was intact. Conclusions: Bone marrow-derived cells seem to be differentially involved in the formation of physiological and pathological retinal vessels. Pathological angiogenesis in the murine retina does not require functional bone marrow-derived cells, but these cells are important for the formation of physiological vessels. Our results add a new insight into the pathology of retinal angiogenesis and bolster the hypothesis that

  15. Bone marrow-derived cells are differentially involved in pathological and physiological retinal angiogenesis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, He; Otani, Atsushi; Oishi, Akio; Yodoi, Yuko; Kameda, Takanori; Kojima, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Bone marrow-derived cells have been shown to play roles in angiogenesis. Although these cells have been shown to promote angiogenesis, it is not yet clear whether these cells affect all types of angiogenesis. This study investigated the involvement of bone marrow-derived cells in pathological and physiological angiogenesis in the murine retina. Materials and methods: The oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model was used as a retinal angiogenesis model in newborn mice. To block the influence of bone marrow-derived cells, the mice were irradiated with a 4-Gy dose of radiation from a 137 Cs source. Irradiation was performed in four different conditions with radio dense 2-cm thick lead disks; (1) H group, the head were covered with these discs to protect the eyes from radiation; (2) A group, all of the body was covered with these discs; (3) N group, mice were completely unshielded; (4) C group, mice were put in the irradiator but were not irradiated. On P17, the retinal areas showing pathological and physiological retinal angiogenesis were measured and compared to the retinas of nonirradiated mice. Results: Although irradiation induced leukocyte depletion, it did not affect the number of other cell types or body weight. Retinal nonperfusion areas were significantly larger in irradiated mice than in control mice (P < 0.05), indicating that physiological angiogenesis was impaired. However, the formation of tuft-like angiogenesis processes was more prominent in the irradiated mice (P < 0.05), indicating that pathological angiogenesis was intact. Conclusions: Bone marrow-derived cells seem to be differentially involved in the formation of physiological and pathological retinal vessels. Pathological angiogenesis in the murine retina does not require functional bone marrow-derived cells, but these cells are important for the formation of physiological vessels. Our results add a new insight into the pathology of retinal angiogenesis and bolster the hypothesis that bone

  16. CD13-positive bone marrow-derived myeloid cells promote angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondossola, Eleonora; Rangel, Roberto; Guzman-Rojas, Liliana; Barbu, Elena M; Hosoya, Hitomi; St John, Lisa S; Molldrem, Jeffrey J; Corti, Angelo; Sidman, Richard L; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2013-12-17

    Angiogenesis is fundamental to tumorigenesis and an attractive target for therapeutic intervention against cancer. We have recently demonstrated that CD13 (aminopeptidase N) expressed by nonmalignant host cells of unspecified types regulate tumor blood vessel development. Here, we compare CD13 wild-type and null bone marrow-transplanted tumor-bearing mice to show that host CD13(+) bone marrow-derived cells promote cancer progression via their effect on angiogenesis. Furthermore, we have identified CD11b(+)CD13(+) myeloid cells as the immune subpopulation directly regulating tumor blood vessel development. Finally, we show that these cells are specifically localized within the tumor microenvironment and produce proangiogenic soluble factors. Thus, CD11b(+)CD13(+) myeloid cells constitute a population of bone marrow-derived cells that promote tumor progression and metastasis and are potential candidates for the development of targeted antiangiogenic drugs.

  17. Review of Preclinical and Clinical Studies of Bone Marrow-Derived Cell Therapies for Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Rosado-de-Castro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is the second leading cause of mortality worldwide, causing millions of deaths annually, and is also a major cause of disability-adjusted life years. Hemorrhagic stroke accounts for approximately 10 to 27% of all cases and has a fatality rate of about 50% in the first 30 days, with limited treatment possibilities. In the past two decades, the therapeutic potential of bone marrow-derived cells (particularly mesenchymal stem cells and mononuclear cells has been intensively investigated in preclinical models of different neurological diseases, including models of intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage. More recently, clinical studies, most of them small, unblinded, and nonrandomized, have suggested that the therapy with bone marrow-derived cells is safe and feasible in patients with ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. This review discusses the available evidence on the use of bone marrow-derived cells to treat hemorrhagic strokes. Distinctive properties of animal studies are analyzed, including study design, cell dose, administration route, therapeutic time window, and possible mechanisms of action. Furthermore, clinical trials are also reviewed and discussed, with the objective of improving future studies in the field.

  18. Epithelial architectural destruction is necessary for bone marrow derived cell contribution to regenerating prostate epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palapattu, Ganesh S; Meeker, Alan; Harris, Timothy; Collector, Michael I; Sharkis, Saul J; DeMarzo, Angelo M; Warlick, Christopher; Drake, Charles G; Nelson, William G

    2006-08-01

    Using various nonphysiological tissue injury/repair models numerous studies have demonstrated the capacity of bone marrow derived cells to contribute to the repopulation of epithelial tissues following damage. To investigate whether this phenomenon might also occur during periods of physiological tissue degeneration/regeneration we compared the ability of bone marrow derived cells to rejuvenate the prostate gland in mice that were castrated and then later treated with dihydrotestosterone vs mice with prostate epithelium that had been damaged by lytic virus infection. Using allogenic bone marrow grafts from female donor transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein transplanted into lethally irradiated males we were able to assess the contributions of bone marrow derived cells to recovery of the prostatic epithelium in 2 distinct systems, including 1) surgical castration followed 1 week later by dihydrotestosterone replacement and 2) intraprostatic viral injection. Eight to 10-week-old male C57/Bl6 mice were distributed among bone marrow donor-->recipient/prostate injury groups, including 5 with C57/Bl6-->C57/Bl6/no injury, 3 with green fluorescent protein-->C57/Bl6/no injury, 3 with green fluorescent protein-->C57/Bl6/vehicle injection, 4 with green fluorescent protein-->C57/Bl6/virus injection and 3 each with green fluorescent protein-->C57/Bl6/castration without and with dihydrotestosterone, respectively. Prostate tissues were harvested 3 weeks after dihydrotestosterone replacement or 14 days following intraprostatic viral injection. Prostate tissue immunofluorescence was performed with antibodies against the epithelial marker cytokeratin 5/8, the hematopoietic marker CD45 and green fluorescent protein. Mice that sustained prostate injury from vaccinia virus infection with concomitant severe inflammation and glandular disruption showed evidence of bone marrow derived cell reconstitution of prostate epithelium, that is approximately 4% of all green

  19. Wnt signalling mediates the cross-talk between bone marrow derived pre-adipocytic and pre-osteoblastic cell populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taipaleenmaki, Hanna; Abdallah, Basem M; Aldamash, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    ) (mMSC(Bone)) or adipogenic (mMSC(Adipo)) lineage. To identify the molecular mechanism determining the lineage commitment, we compared the basal gene expression profile of mMSC(Bone) versus mMSC(Adipo) using Affymetrix GeneChip® MG430A 2.0 Array. Gene annotation analysis based on biological function...... revealed an over-representation of skeletal development genes in mMSC(Bone) while genes related to lipid metabolism and immune response were highly expressed in mMSC(Adipo). In addition, there was a significant up-regulation of canonical Wnt signalling genes in mMSC(Bone) compared to mMSC(Adipo) (p...

  20. Effects of bone marrow-derived cells on monocrotaline- and hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vainchenker William

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone marrow -derived cells (BMDCs can either limit or contribute to the process of pulmonary vascular remodeling. Whether the difference in their effects depends on the mechanism of pulmonary hypertension (PH remains unknown. Objectives We investigated the effect of BMDCs on PH induced in mice by either monocrotaline or exposure to chronic hypoxia. Methods Intravenous administration of the active monocrotaline metabolite (monocrotaline pyrrole, MCTp to C57BL/6 mice induced PH within 15 days, due to remodeling of small distal vessels. Three days after the MCTp injection, the mice were injected with BMDCs harvested from femurs and tibias of donor mice treated with 5-fluorouracil (3.5 mg IP/animal to deplete mature cells and to allow proliferation of progenitor cells. Results BMDCs significantly attenuated PH as assessed by reductions in right ventricular systolic pressure (20 ± 1 mmHg vs. 27 ± 1 mmHg, P ≤ 0.01, right ventricle weight/left ventricle+septum weight ratio (0.29 ± 0.02 vs. 0.36 ± 0.01, P ≤ 0.03, and percentage of muscularized vessels (26.4% vs. 33.5%, P ≤ 0.05, compared to control animals treated with irradiated BMDCs. Tracking cells from constitutive GFP-expressing male donor mice with anti-GFP antibodies or chromosome Y level measurement by quantitative real-time PCR showed BMDCs in the lung. In contrast, chronically hypoxic mice subjected to the same procedure failed to show improvement in PH. Conclusion These results show that BMDCs limit pulmonary vascular remodeling induced by vascular injury but not by hypoxia.

  1. Ginsenoside Re Promotes Osteoblast Differentiation in Mouse Osteoblast Precursor MC3T3-E1 Cells and a Zebrafish Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Min Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bone homeostasis is tightly regulated to balance bone formation and bone resorption. Many anabolic drugs are used as bone-targeted therapeutic agents for the promotion of osteoblast-mediated bone formation or inhibition of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Previous studies showed that ginsenoside Re has the effect of the suppression of osteoclast differentiation in mouse bone-marrow derived macrophages and zebrafish. Herein, we investigated whether ginsenoside Re affects osteoblast differentiation and mineralization in in vitro and in vivo models. Mouse osteoblast precursor MC3T3-E1 cells were used to investigate cell viability, alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, and mineralization. In addition, we examined osteoblastic signaling pathways. Ginsenoside Re affected ALP activity without cytotoxicity, and we also observed the stimulation of osteoblast differentiation through the activation of osteoblast markers including runt-related transcription factor 2, type 1 collagen, ALP, and osteocalcin in MC3T3-E1 cells. Moreover, Alizarin red S staining indicated that ginsenoside Re increased osteoblast mineralization in MC3T3-E1 cells and zebrafish scales compared to controls. These results suggest that ginsenoside Re promotes osteoblast differentiation as well as inhibits osteoclast differentiation, and it could be a potential therapeutic agent for bone diseases.

  2. Small Molecule-BIO Accelerates and Enhances Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell in Vitro Chondrogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyaline cartilage defects exhibit a major challenge in the field of orthopedic surgery owing to its limited repair capacity. On the other hand, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are regarded as potent cells with a property of cartilage regeneration. We aimed to optimize marrow-derived MSC chondrogenic culture using a small bioactive molecule referred to as BIO. Methods: MSCs from the marrow of NMRI mice were extracted, culture-expanded, and characterized. Micro-mass culture was then established for chondrogenic differentiation (control group. The cultures of MSC in chondrogenic medium supplemented with 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, and 1 µM BIO were taken as the experimental groups. Cartilage differentiation was examined by both histological sections and real-time PCR for Sox9, aggrecan, and collagen II at different time points. Moreover, the involvement of the Wnt pathway was investigated. Results: Based on histological sections, there was seemingly more intense metachromatic matrix produced in the cultures with 0.01 µM BIO. In this experimental group, cartilage-specific genes tended to be upregulated at day 14 compared to day 21 of the control group, indicating the accelerating effect of BIO on cartilage differentiation. Overall, there was statistically a significant increase (P=0.01 in the expression level of cartilage-specific genes in cultures with 0.01 µM BIO (enhancing effects. These upregulations appeared to be mediated through the Wnt pathway evident from the significant upregulation of T-cell factor and beta-catenin molecules (P=0.01. Conclusion: Taken together, BIO at 0.01 µM could accelerate and enhance in vitro chondrogenesis of mouse marrow-derived MSCs. Please cite this article as: Baghaban Eslaminejad MR, Fallah N. Small Molecule-BIO Accelerates and Enhances Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell in Vitro Chondrogenesis. Iran J Med Sci. 2014;39(2:107-116.

  3. The proteomic dataset for bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stromal cells: Effect of in vitro passaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel T. Mindaye

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs have been in clinical trials for therapy. One major bottleneck in the advancement of BMSC-based products is the challenge associated with cell isolation, characterization, and ensuring cell fitness over the course of in vitro cell propagation steps. The data in this report is part of publications that explored the proteomic changes following in vitro passaging of BMSCs [4] and the molecular heterogeneity in cultures obtained from different human donors [5,6].The methodological details involving cell manufacturing, proteome harvesting, protein identification and quantification as well as the bioinformatic analyses were described to ensure reproducibility of the results.

  4. A Catalytic Role for Proangiogenic Marrow-Derived Cells in Tumor Neovascularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seandel, Marco; Butler, Jason; Lyden, David; Rafii, Shahin

    2010-01-01

    Small numbers of proangiogenic bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) can play pivotal roles in tumor progression. In this issue of Cancer Cell, two papers, utilizing different tumor angiogenesis models, both find that activated MMP-9 delivered by BMDCs modulates neovessel remodeling, thereby promoting tumor growth. The changes in microvascular anatomy induced by MMP-9-expressing BMDCs are strikingly different between the preirradiated tumor vascular bed model employed by Ahn and Brown and the invasive glioblastoma model utilized by Du et al., likely mirroring the complexity of the real tumor microenvironment and the intricacy of roles of different BMDC populations in mediating tumor neoangiogenesis. PMID:18328420

  5. Onset of apoprotein E secretion during differentiation of mouse bone marrow-derived mononuclear phagocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werb, Z.; Chin, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    A number of macrophage functions were sequentially expressed when the bone marrow precursors of mononuclear phagocytes differentiated in culture in the presence of a specific growth factor, colony-stimulating factor-1. The authors defined the expression of apoprotein E (ApoE), a major secreted protein of resident peritoneal macrophages, during maturation of adherent bone marrow-derived mononuclear phagocytes into macrophages. By 5 d the bone marrow macrophages were active secretory cells, but few cells contained intracellular immunoreactive ApoE, and little, if any, ApoE was secreted. ApoE secretion was initiated at 9 d, and this correlated with an increase in the percentage of macrophages containing intracellular ApoE. The onset of ApoE secretion was selective, and little change occurred in the other major secreted proteins detected by [ 35 S]methionine incorporation. In parallel, the high rate of plasminogen activator secretion, which peaked at 7 d, decreased markedly. ApoE secretion was not associated with altered expression of the macrophage surface antigen, la, or with secretion of fibronectin. Virtually all cells in independent colonies of bone marrow-derived macrophages eventually expressed ApoE. The proliferating monocyte/macrophage-like cell lines P388D1, J774.2, WHEI-3, RAW 264.1, and MGI.D + secreted little or no ApoE. These data establish that ApoE secretion is developmentally regulated

  6. A method for generation of bone marrow-derived macrophages from cryopreserved mouse bone marrow cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda M Marim

    Full Text Available The broad use of transgenic and gene-targeted mice has established bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM as important mammalian host cells for investigation of the macrophages biology. Over the last decade, extensive research has been done to determine how to freeze and store viable hematopoietic human cells; however, there is no information regarding generation of BMDM from frozen murine bone marrow (BM cells. Here, we establish a highly efficient protocol to freeze murine BM cells and further generate BMDM. Cryopreserved murine BM cells maintain their potential for BMDM differentiation for more than 6 years. We compared BMDM obtained from fresh and frozen BM cells and found that both are similarly able to trigger the expression of CD80 and CD86 in response to LPS or infection with the intracellular bacteria Legionella pneumophila. Additionally, BMDM obtained from fresh or frozen BM cells equally restrict or support the intracellular multiplication of pathogens such as L. pneumophila and the protozoan parasite Leishmania (L. amazonensis. Although further investigation are required to support the use of the method for generation of dendritic cells, preliminary experiments indicate that bone marrow-derived dendritic cells can also be generated from cryopreserved BM cells. Overall, the method described and validated herein represents a technical advance as it allows ready and easy generation of BMDM from a stock of frozen BM cells.

  7. Use of Bone Marrow derived Stem Cells in patients with Cardiovascular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with end stage heart failure have very few treatment options. The long waiting times for transplant and the complications associated with immunosuppression has led to the search for alternatives. Subsequent to the isolation and characterization of stem cells, tremendous advances have been made and the safety and feasibility of autologous bone marrow derived stem cells has been proven in preclinical studies. Clinical studies have also shown mobilized cells repair the infracted heart, improving function and survival. We have started a clinical study to evaluate the efficacy of bone marrow derived stem cells. Bone-marrow was aspirated from the right iliac crest and the stem cells were isolated by density gradient method and suspended according to the mode of delivery.From Jan 2007 till date 10 patients (8 adults, 2 children, age with end stage cardiovascular disorder of varied etiology (Ischemic left ventricular dysfunction - 6 patients, Primary pulmonary hypertension - 2 patients, Dilated cardiomyopathy -1 patient, Biventricular non-compaction -1 patient underwent stem cell therapy. All patients were evaluated and cardiac function was measured by using echocardiography and thallium scintigraphy. There were no procedure related complications. These patients are being regularly followed-up and one patient who has completed 6-month follow-up has shown improvement in perfusion as well as increase in ejection fraction of 10%. Stem cell therapy in patients with end-stage cardiovascular disorder might be a promising tool by means of angiogenesis and other paracrine mechanisms.

  8. Isolation, culture expansion and characterization of canine bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Kazemi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to isolate, culture expand and characterize canine bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells. Bone marrow aspirates of 15 adult male dogs were collected to this end and their mononuclear cells isolated by centrifugation and cultured in standard media. The adherent cells were isolated and their mesenchymal origin was confirmed at 3rd passage by cellular morphology, expression of surface antigens and differentiation to osteogenic and adipogenic lineage. After 4 days, spindle shaped fibroblast like cells which were apparently bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells appeared in culture medium and their numbers increased over time. The cells reached 3rd passage with over 75% confluent after a mean of 22.89±5.75 days. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the cells negatively expressed CD34 and CD45 antigens while positively expressing CD44 and CD105 antigens. Differentiation into osteogenic and adipogenic lineage had taken place after one month culture in induction medium. VDR, COL1A1, BGLAP and SPARC gene expression indicated that mesenchymal stem cells isolated from canine bone marrow had differentiated into osteogenic lineage. These findings can form the basis of any forthcoming clinical studies involving the use of canine mesenchymal stem cells particularly in the field of bone and cartilage regeneration.

  9. Mint3 in bone marrow-derived cells promotes lung metastasis in breast cancer model mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Toshiro; Murakami, Yoshinori; Seiki, Motoharu; Sakamoto, Takeharu

    2017-08-26

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women in the world. Although breast cancer is well treatable at the early stage, patients with distant metastases show a poor prognosis. Data from recent studies using transplantation models indicate that Mint3/APBA3 might promote breast cancer malignancy. However, whether Mint3 indeed contributes to tumor development, progression, or metastasis in vivo remains unclear. To address this, here we examined whether Mint3 depletion affects tumor malignancy in MMTV-PyMT breast cancer model mice. In MMTV-PyMT mice, Mint3 depletion did not affect tumor onset and tumor growth, but attenuated lung metastases. Experimental lung metastasis of breast cancer Met-1 cells derived from MMTV-PyMT mice also decreased in Mint3-depleted mice, indicating that host Mint3 expression affected lung metastasis of MMTV-PyMT-derived breast cancer cells. Further bone marrow transplant experiments revealed that Mint3 in bone marrow-derived cells promoted lung metastasis in MMTV-PyMT mice. Thus, targeting Mint3 in bone marrow-derived cells might be a good strategy for preventing metastasis and improving the prognosis of breast cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Discrepancy of biologic behavior influenced by bone marrow derived cells in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Niu, Xiao-Min; Liao, Mei-Lin; Liu, Yun; Sha, Hui-Fang; Zhao, Yi; Yu, Yong-Feng; Tan, Qiang; Xiang, Jia-Qing; Fang, Jing; Lv, Dan-Dan; Li, Xue-Bing; Lu, Shun; Chen, Hai-Quan

    2010-11-01

    Disseminated cancer cells may initially require local nutrients and growth factors to thrive and survive in bone marrow. However, data on the influence of bone marrow derived cells (BMDC, also called bone stromal cells in some publications) on lung cancer cells is largely unexplored. This study explored the mechanism of how bone stromal factors contribute to the bone tropism in lung cancer. The difference among lung cancer cell lines in their abilities to metastasize to bone was found using the SCID animal model. Supernatant of bone marrow aspiration (BM) and condition medium from human bone stromal cells (BSC) were used to study the activity of bone stromal factors. We found bone stromal factors significantly increased the proliferation, invasion, adhesion and expression of angiogenosis-related factors, and inhibited the apoptosis for high bone metastasis H460 lung cancer cells. These biologic effects were not seen in SPC-A1 or A549 cells, which are low bone metastasis lung cancer cells. Adhesion of H460 cells to surface coated with bone stromal cells can activate some signal transduction pathways, and alter the expression of adhesion associated factors, including integrin β 3 and ADAMTS-1, two potential targets related with bone metastasis. We concluded that bone marrow derived cells had a profound effect on biological behavior of lung cancers, therefore favoring the growth of lung cancer cells in bone.

  11. Compensatory Cellular Reactions to Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs on Osteogenic Differentiation in Canine Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    OH, Namgil; KIM, Sangho; HOSOYA, Kenji; OKUMURA, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The suppressive effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on the bone healing process have remained controversial, since no clinical data have clearly shown the relationship between NSAIDs and bone healing. The aim of this study was to assess the compensatory response of canine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to several classes of NSAIDs, including carprofen, meloxicam, indomethacin and robenacoxib, on osteogenic differentiation. Each of the NSAIDs (10 µM) was administered during 20 days of the osteogenic process with human recombinant IL-1β (1 ng/ml) as an inflammatory stimulator. Gene expression of osteoblast differentiation markers (alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin), receptors of PGE2 (EP2 and EP4) and enzymes for prostaglandin (PG) E2 synthesis (COX-1, COX-2, cPGES and mPGES-1) was measured by using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Protein production levels of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin and PGE2 were quantified using an alkaline phosphatase activity assay, osteocalcin immunoassay and PGE2 immunoassay, respectively. Histologic analysis was performed using alkaline phosphatase staining, von Kossa staining and alizarin red staining. Alkaline phosphatase and calcium deposition were suppressed by all NSAIDs. However, osteocalcin production showed no significant suppression by NSAIDs. Gene expression levels of PGE2-related receptors and enzymes were upregulated during continuous treatment with NSAIDs, while certain channels for PGE2 synthesis were utilized differently depending on the kind of NSAIDs. These data suggest that canine BMSCs have a compensatory mechanism to restore PGE2 synthesis, which would be an intrinsic regulator to maintain differentiation of osteoblasts under NSAID treatment. PMID:24419976

  12. The Chondrogenic Induction Potential for Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells between Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma and Common Chondrogenic Induction Agents: A Preliminary Comparative Study

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    Shan-zheng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The interests in platelet-rich plasma (PRP and their application in stem cell therapy have contributed to a better understanding of the basic biology of the prochondrogenesis effect on bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs. We aimed at comparing the effect of autologous PRP with common chondrogenic induction agents (CCIAs on the chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Rabbit BMSCs were isolated and characterized by flow cytometry and differentiated towards adipocytes and osteoblasts. The chondrogenic response of BMSCs to autologous PRP and CCIAs which included transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, dexamethasone (DEX, and vitamin C (Vc was examined by cell pellet culture. The isolated BMSCs after two passages highly expressed CD29 and CD44 but minimally expressed CD45. The osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potentials of the isolated BMSCs were also confirmed. Compared with common CCIAs, autologous PRP significantly upregulated the chondrogenic related gene expression, including Col-2, AGC, and Sox-9. Osteogenic related gene expression, including Col-1 and OCN, was not of statistical significance between these two groups. Thus, our data shows that, compared with common chondrogenic induction agents, autologous PRP can be more effective in promoting the chondrogenesis of BMSCs.

  13. Bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells inhibit gastric aspiration lung injury and inflammation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Jiang, Liyan; Long, Xuan; Fu, Cuiping; Wang, Xiangdong; Wu, Xiaodan; Liu, Zilong; Zhu, Fen; Shi, Jindong; Li, Shanqun

    2016-09-01

    Gastric aspiration lung injury is one of the most common clinical events. This study investigated the effects of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on combined acid plus small non-acidified particle (CASP)-induced aspiration lung injury. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP(+) ) or EGFP(-) BMSCs or 15d-PGJ2 were injected via the tail vein into rats immediately after CASP-induced aspiration lung injury. Pathological changes in lung tissues, blood gas analysis, the wet/dry weight ratio (W/D) of the lung, levels of total proteins and number of total cells and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were determined. The cytokine levels were measured using ELISA. Protein expression was determined by Western blot. Bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells treatment significantly reduced alveolar oedema, exudation and lung inflammation; increased the arterial partial pressure of oxygen; and decreased the W/D of the lung, the levels of total proteins and the number of total cells and neutrophils in BALF in the rats with CASP-induced lung injury. Bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells treatment decreased the levels of tumour necrosis factor-α and Cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1 and the expression of p-p65 and increased the levels of interleukin-10 and 15d-PGJ2 and the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ in the lung tissue in CASP-induced rats. Tumour necrosis factor-α stimulated BMSCs to secrete 15d-PGJ2 . A tracking experiment showed that EGFP(+) BMSCs were able to migrate to local lung tissues. Treatment with 15d-PGJ2 also significantly inhibited CASP-induced lung inflammation and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Our results show that BMSCs can protect lung tissues from gastric aspiration injury and inhibit lung inflammation in rats. A beneficial effect might be achieved through BMSC-derived 15d-PGJ2 activation of the PPAR-γ receptor, reducing the production of

  14. Reduction of radiation-induced damage to salivary gland by bone marrow derived stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppes, R.P.; Wierenga, P.K.; Kampinga, H.H.; De Hann, G.

    2003-01-01

    Irradiation of the salivary glands can result in severe side effects that reduce the patient's quality of life. Late damage to the salivary glands is mainly caused by exhaustion of the tissue's stem cells. Post-irradiation replacement of salivary gland stem cells with healthy donor stem cells may reduce complications. Bone marrow derived stem cells (BMSC) have been show to be multipotent and engraft in many tissue after injury. In this study we assessed the potential of BMSC to reduce irradiation-induced salivary gland damage. The salivary glands of wild type C57Bl/6 mice were locally irradiated with 20 Gy. Thirty days later, BMSC from transgenic eGFP+ C57Bl/6 mice were transplanted by i.v. injection or by direct injection into the salivary glands. In addition, animals were transplanted with eGFP + bone marrow after 9.5 Gy TBI excluding the salivary glands. Subsequently, the animals were locally irradiated to the salivary gland with 20 Gy. Thirty days later i.v. G-CSF mobilised eGFP + bone marrow derived stem cells to the peripheral blood. Again thirty days after mobilisation, the salivary gland were harvested. eGFP + cells were detected by confocal laser fluorescence scanning microscopy and flow cytometry and H and E histology was performed. eGFP + cells were detected in the salivary gland after all protocols. The number of eGFP + cells in irradiated salivary glands was highest in animals treated with G-CSF. Intraglandular transplantation, in contrast, was successful only in 1 out of 8 attempts. Immuno-histochemistry using a-SM-actin antibodies showed the close vicinity of actin and eGFP within the cells, demonstrating the occurrence of BMSC derived myoepithelial cells in irradiated salivary gland. Further, cell-type specific antibodies will reveal the nature of all eGFP + cells. H and E histology revealed improved gland morphology in animals treated with G-CSF after irradiation when compared to the non-treated animals. These preliminary results indicate that bone

  15. Comparison of human adipose-derived stem cells and bone marrow-derived stem cells in a myocardial infarction model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jeppe; Frøbert, Ole; Holst-Hansen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Background: Treatment of myocardial infarction with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and recently also adipose-derived stem cells has shown promising results. In contrast to clinical trials and their use of autologous bone marrow-derived cells from the ischemic patient, the animal...... myocardial infarction models are often using young donors and young, often immune-compromised, recipient animals. Our objective was to compare bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells with adipose-derived stem cells from an elderly ischemic patient in the treatment of myocardial infarction, using a fully...... grown non-immunecompromised rat model. Methods: Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from adipose tissue and bone marrow and compared with respect to surface markers and proliferative capability. To compare the regenerative potential of the two stem cell populations, male Sprague-Dawley rats were...

  16. Cancer cell-secreted IGF2 instigates fibroblasts and bone marrow-derived vascular progenitor cells to promote cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen Wen; Li, Bin; Guan, Xin Yuan; Chung, Sookja K; Wang, Yang; Yip, Yim Ling; Law, Simon Y K; Chan, Kin Tak; Lee, Nikki P Y; Chan, Kwok Wah; Xu, Li Yan; Li, En Min; Tsao, Sai Wah; He, Qing-Yu; Cheung, Annie L M

    2017-02-10

    Local interactions between cancer cells and stroma can produce systemic effects on distant organs to govern cancer progression. Here we show that IGF2 secreted by inhibitor of differentiation (Id1)-overexpressing oesophageal cancer cells instigates VEGFR1-positive bone marrow cells in the tumour macroenvironment to form pre-metastatic niches at distant sites by increasing VEGF secretion from cancer-associated fibroblasts. Cancer cells are then attracted to the metastatic site via the CXCL5/CXCR2 axis. Bone marrow cells transplanted from nude mice bearing Id1-overexpressing oesophageal tumours enhance tumour growth and metastasis in recipient mice, whereas systemic administration of VEGFR1 antibody abrogates these effects. Mechanistically, IGF2 regulates VEGF in fibroblasts via miR-29c in a p53-dependent manner. Analysis of patient serum samples showed that concurrent elevation of IGF2 and VEGF levels may serve as a prognostic biomarker for oesophageal cancer. These findings suggest that the Id1/IGF2/VEGF/VEGFR1 cascade plays a critical role in tumour-driven pathophysiological processes underlying cancer progression.

  17. Bone marrow-derived microglia infiltrate into the paraventricular nucleus of chronic psychological stress-loaded mice.

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    Koji Ataka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microglia of the central nervous system act as sentinels and rapidly react to infection or inflammation. The pathophysiological role of bone marrow-derived microglia is of particular interest because they affect neurodegenerative disorders and neuropathic pain. The hypothesis of the current study is that chronic psychological stress (chronic PS induces the infiltration of bone marrow-derived microglia into hypothalamus by means of chemokine axes in brain and bone marrow. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here we show that bone marrow-derived microglia specifically infiltrate the paraventricular nucleus (PVN of mice that received chronic PS. Bone marrow derived-microglia are CX3CR1(lowCCR2(+CXCR4(high, as distinct from CX3CR1(highCCR2(-CXCR4(low resident microglia, and express higher levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β but lower levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. Chronic PS stimulates the expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 in PVN neurons, reduces stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 in the bone marrow and increases the frequency of CXCR4(+ monocytes in peripheral circulation. And then a chemokine (C-C motif receptor 2 (CCR2 or a β3-adrenoceptor blockade prevents infiltration of bone marrow-derived microglia in the PVN. CONCLUSION: Chronic PS induces the infiltration of bone marrow-derived microglia into PVN, and it is conceivable that the MCP-1/CCR2 axis in PVN and the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in bone marrow are involved in this mechanism.

  18. Hedgehog-mediated paracrine interaction between hepatic stellate cells and marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Nan; Tang Zhaofeng; Deng Meihai; Zhong Yuesi; Lin Jizong; Yang Xuhui; Xiang Peng; Xu Ruiyun

    2008-01-01

    During liver injury, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can migrate and differentiate into hepatocytes. Hepatic stellate cell (SC) activation is a pivotal event in the development of liver fibrosis. Therefore, we hypothesized that SCs may play an important role in regulating MSC proliferation and differentiation through the paracrine signaling pathway. We demonstrate that MSCs and SCs both express hedgehog (Hh) pathway components, including its ligands, receptors, and target genes. Transwell co-cultures of SCs and MSCs showed that the SCs produced sonic hedgehog (Shh), which enhanced the proliferation and differentiation of MSCs. These findings demonstrate that SCs indirectly modulate the activity of MSCs in vitro via the Hh pathway, and provide a plausible explanation for the mechanisms of transplanted MSCs in the treatment of liver fibrosis

  19. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell treatment in patients with severe ischaemic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Anders Bruun; Qayyum, Abbas Ali; Jørgensen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Regenerative treatment with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) has been promising in patients with ischaemic heart failure but needs confirmation in larger randomized trials. We aimed to study effects of intra-myocardial autologous bone marrow-derived MSC treatment in patients with severe isc...... identified. CONCLUSION: Intra-myocardial injections of autologous culture expanded MSCs were safe and improved myocardial function in patients with severe ischaemic heart failure. STUDY REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT00644410 (ClinicalTrials.gov)....... ischaemic heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: The MSC-HF trial is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Patients were randomized 2 : 1 to intra-myocardial injections of MSC or placebo, respectively. The primary endpoint was change in left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV), measured...

  20. Bone Marrow-Derived Cells as a Therapeutic Approach to Optic Nerve Diseases

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    Louise A. Mesentier-Louro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Following optic nerve injury associated with acute or progressive diseases, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs of adult mammals degenerate and undergo apoptosis. These diseases have limited therapeutic options, due to the low inherent capacity of RGCs to regenerate and due to the inhibitory milieu of the central nervous system. Among the numerous treatment approaches investigated to stimulate neuronal survival and axonal extension, cell transplantation emerges as a promising option. This review focuses on cell therapies with bone marrow mononuclear cells and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, which have shown positive therapeutic effects in animal models of optic neuropathies. Different aspects of available preclinical studies are analyzed, including cell distribution, potential doses, routes of administration, and mechanisms of action. Finally, published and ongoing clinical trials are summarized.

  1. In vitro evaluation of cardiomyogenic differentiation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Hwan; Lee, Yong Jin; Kang, Joo Hyun [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are excellent candidate as therapeutic agent for cell therapy. MSCs can be expanded in vitro rapidly (more than 3-5 fold in a weeks), and maintained their stem cell properties for a long culture period. Recently, many investigators have suggested that MSCs have ability to differentiate into cardiomyocytes by given appropriate condition in vitro or in vivo. Although, MSCs may be useful cell therapeutic agents in heart disease, there are still exist major barriers to track their capacity to differentiate into functional cardiomyocytes. In our previous study, the transgenic mouse model expressing sodium iodide symporter (NIS) driven by {alpha}-myosin heavy chain ({alpha}-MHC) promoter was developed to image cardiomyocyte with {gamma}-camera and microPET in vivo. In this study, we investigate the monitoring availability of {alpha}-MHC driven NIS gene of MSCs from the transgenic mouse during cardiomyogenic differentiation in vitro

  2. Lithium Chloride Modulates Adipogenesis and Osteogenesis of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

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    Linjun Tang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Lithium chloride (LiCl has long been used as a psychiatric medication; however, its role in the differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs remains largely unknown. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of LiCl on the differentiation of BMSCs. Methods: The roles of LiCl in osteogenic and adipogenic processes were observed using alizarin red staining and oil red O staining, respectively. The effects of LiCl on the Wnt and Hedgehog (Hh pathways were investigated. Results: Our data showed that LiCl effectively promoted osteogenesis and inhibited adipogenesis by simultaneously affecting the Wnt and Hh pathways. Conclusion: These results suggest that LiCl influences the differentiation of BMSCs directly through the Wnt and Hh pathways and thus may be a candidate drug for the treatment of osteoporosis.

  3. Red Yeast Rice Protects Circulating Bone Marrow-Derived Proangiogenic Cells against High-Glucose-Induced Senescence and Oxidative Stress: The Role of Heme Oxygenase-1

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    Jung-Tung Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The inflammation and oxidative stress of bone marrow-derived proangiogenic cells (PACs, also named endothelial progenitor cells, triggered by hyperglycemia contributes significantly to vascular dysfunction. There is supporting evidence that the consumption of red yeast rice (RYR; Monascus purpureus-fermented rice reduces the vascular complications of diabetes; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of RYR extract in PACs, focusing particularly on the role of a potent antioxidative enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1. We found that treatment with RYR extract induced nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor nuclear translocation and HO-1 mRNA and protein levels in PACs. RYR extract inhibited high-glucose-induced (30 mM PAC senescence and the development of reactive oxygen species (ROS in a dose-dependent manner. The HO-1 inducer cobalt protoporphyrin IX also decreased high-glucose-induced cell senescence and oxidative stress, whereas the HO-1 enzyme inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX and HO-1 small interfering RNA significantly reversed RYR extract-caused inhibition of senescence and reduction of oxidative stress in high-glucose-treated PACs. These results suggest that RYR extract serves as alternative and complementary medicine in the treatment of these diseases, by inducing HO-1, thereby decreasing the vascular complications of diabetes.

  4. Ciclosporin Does Not Influence Bone Marrow-Derived Cell Differentiation to Myofibroblasts Early after Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekema, Martine; Harmsen, Martin C.; Koerts, Jasper A.; van Kooten, Theo G.; Uges, Donald R. A.; Petersen, Arjen H.; van Luyn, Marja J. A.; Navis, Gerjan; Popa, Eliane R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) is a risk factor for the development of interstitial fibrosis. Previously we had shown that after renal IRI, bone marrow-derived cells (BMDC) can differentiate to interstitial myofibroblasts. Here we hypothesized that the immunosuppressant ciclosporin A

  5. Transforming growth factor-beta1 stimulates the production of insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 in human bone marrow stromal osteoblast progenitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveiborg, Marie; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Eriksen, E F

    2001-01-01

    While transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) regulates proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblast precursor cells, the mechanisms underlying these effects are not known. Several hormones and locally acting growth factors regulate osteoblast functions through changes in the insulin......-like growth factors (IGFs) and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs). Thus, we studied the effects of TGF-beta1 on IGFs and IGFBPs in human marrow stromal (hMS) osteoblast precursor cells. TGF-beta1 increased the steady-state mRNA level of IGF-I up to 8.5+/-0.6-fold (P...

  6. The comparison of knee osteoarthritis treatment with single-dose bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells vs. hyaluronic acid injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncars, Valdis; Jakobsons, Eriks; Blums, Kristaps; Briede, Ieva; Patetko, Liene; Erglis, Kristaps; Erglis, Martins; Kalnberzs, Konstantins; Muiznieks, Indrikis; Erglis, Andrejs

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare treatment methods of the knee joint degenerative osteoarthritis, using autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells and hyaluronic acid injections and observe prevalence of adverse effects in both groups. A prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was carried out. The analysis of pain and changes in osteoarthritis symptoms after a single intra-articular bone marrow-derived mononuclear cell injection into the knee joint in the Kellgren-Lawrence stage II-III osteoarthritis during the 12-month period were performed. The results were compared with the control group treated routinely by hyaluronic acid injections therapy. A therapy group of patients (n=28) received single bone marrow-derived mononuclear cell intra-articular injections. A control group of patients (n=28) was treated with a total of three sodium hyaluronate intra-articular injections each one performed a week apart. The clinical results were obtained using the Knee Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and the Knee Society Score (KSS) before and 3, 6, and 12 months after injection. A statistically significant improvement was observed in the mononuclear cell group over the starting point in all scores. At the endpoint at month 12, the KOOS score improved significantly (Phyaluronic acid versus the bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells group at time points 6 and 12 months demonstrated a statistically significant (Phyaluronic acid group. In both groups serious adverse effects were not observed. The intra-articular injection of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells is a safe manipulation with no side effects during the 12-month period. This treatment provides statistically significant clinical improvement between the starting point and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after. When compared to hyaluronic acid treatment, better pain relief in the long-term period of mononuclear cell group was observed. Copyright © 2017 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production

  7. Silk fibroin/chitosan thin film promotes osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Da-Wei; He, Jin; He, Feng-Li; Liu, Ya-Li; Liu, Yang-Yang; Ye, Ya-Jing; Deng, Xudong; Yin, Da-Chuan

    2018-04-01

    As a biodegradable polymer thin film, silk fibroin/chitosan composite film overcomes the defects of pure silk fibroin and chitosan films, respectively, and shows remarkable biocompatibility, appropriate hydrophilicity and mechanical properties. Silk fibroin/chitosan thin film can be used not only as metal implant coating for bone injury repair, but also as tissue engineering scaffold for skin, cornea, adipose, and other soft tissue injury repair. However, the biocompatibility of silk fibroin/chitosan thin film for mesenchymal stem cells, a kind of important seed cell of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, is rarely reported. In this study, silk fibroin/chitosan film was prepared by solvent casting method, and the rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells were cultured on the silk fibroin/chitosan thin film. Osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells were induced, respectively. The proliferation ability, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation abilities of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells were systematically compared between silk fibroin/chitosan thin film and polystyrene tissue culture plates. The results showed that silk fibroin/chitosan thin film not only provided a comparable environment for the growth and proliferation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells but also promoted their osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. This work provided information of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells behavior on silk fibroin/chitosan thin film and extended the application of silk fibroin/chitosan thin film. Based on the results, we suggested that the silk fibroin/chitosan thin film could be a promising material for tissue engineering of bone, cartilage, adipose, and skin.

  8. Bone marrow-derived fibroblast growth factor-2 induces glial cell proliferation in the regenerating peripheral nervous system

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    Ribeiro-Resende Victor

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the essential biological roles of bone marrow-derived cells, secretion of many soluble factors is included and these small molecules can act upon specific receptors present in many tissues including the nervous system. Some of the released molecules can induce proliferation of Schwann cells (SC, satellite cells and lumbar spinal cord astrocytes during early steps of regeneration in a rat model of sciatic nerve transection. These are the major glial cell types that support neuronal survival and axonal growth following peripheral nerve injury. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2 is the main mitogenic factor for SCs and is released in large amounts by bone marrow-derived cells, as well as by growing axons and endoneurial fibroblasts during development and regeneration of the peripheral nervous system (PNS. Results Here we show that bone marrow-derived cell treatment induce an increase in the expression of FGF-2 in the sciatic nerve, dorsal root ganglia and the dorsolateral (DL region of the lumbar spinal cord (LSC in a model of sciatic nerve transection and connection into a hollow tube. SCs in culture in the presence of bone marrow derived conditioned media (CM resulted in increased proliferation and migration. This effect was reduced when FGF-2 was neutralized by pretreating BMMC or CM with a specific antibody. The increased expression of FGF-2 was validated by RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry in co-cultures of bone marrow derived cells with sciatic nerve explants and regenerating nerve tissue respectivelly. Conclusion We conclude that FGF-2 secreted by BMMC strongly increases early glial proliferation, which can potentially improve PNS regeneration.

  9. Osteoblasts Protect AML Cells from SDF-1-Induced Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Kimberly N.; Dudakovic, Amel; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Philips, Rachael L.; Hess, Allan D.; Smith, B. Douglas; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Karp, Judith E.; Kaufmann, Scott H.; Westendorf, Jennifer J.; Hedin, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    The bone marrow provides a protective environment for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells that often allows leukemic stem cells to survive standard chemotherapeutic regimens. Targeting these leukemic stem cells within the bone marrow is critical for preventing relapse. We recently demonstrated that SDF-1, a chemokine abundant in the bone marrow, induces apoptosis in AML cell lines and in patient samples expressing high levels of its receptor, CXCR4. Here we show that a subset of osteoblast lineage cells within the bone marrow can protect AML cells from undergoing apoptosis in response to the SDF-1 naturally present in that location. In co-culture systems, osteoblasts at various stages of differentiation protected AML cell lines and patient isolates from SDF-1-induced apoptosis. The differentiation of the osteoblast cell lines, MC3T3 and W-20-17, mediated this protection via a cell contact-independent mechanism. In contrast, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells, the precursors of osteoblasts, induced apoptosis in AML cells via a CXCR4-dependent mechanism and failed to protect AML cells from exogenously added SDF-1. These results indicate that osteoblasts in the process of differentiation potently inhibit the SDF-1-driven apoptotic pathway of CXCR4-expressing AML cells residing in the bone marrow. Drugs targeting this protective mechanism could potentially provide a new approach to treating AML by enhancing the SDF-1-induced apoptosis of AML cells residing within the bone marrow microenvironment. PMID:24851270

  10. Bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells from horses after euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröck, Carmen; Eydt, Carina; Geburek, Florian; Kaiser, Lena; Päbst, Felicitas; Burk, Janina; Pfarrer, Christiane; Staszyk, Carsten

    2017-11-01

    Allogeneic equine multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (eMSCs) have been proposed for use in regenerative therapies in veterinary medicine. A source of allogeneic eMSCs might be the bone marrow from euthanized horses. The purpose of this study was to compare in vitro characteristics of equine bone marrow derived eMSC (eBM-MSCs) from euthanized horses (eut-MSCs) and from narcotized horses (nar-MSCs). Eut-MSCs and nar-MSCs showed typical eMSC marker profiles (positive: CD44, CD90; negative: CD11a/CD18 and MHCII) and possessed tri-lineage differentiation characteristics. Although CD105 and MHCI expression varied, no differences were detected between eut-MSCs and nar-MSCs. Proliferation characteristics did not differ between eut-MSCs and nar-MSCs, but age dependent decrease in proliferation and increase in MHCI expression was detected. These results suggest the possible use of eut-MSCs for therapeutic applications and production of commercial available eBM-MSC products.

  11. Ibrutinib enhances IL-17 response by modulating the function of bone marrow derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Gayathri; Terrazas, Cesar; Oghumu, Steve; Varikuti, Sanjay; Dubovsky, Jason A; Byrd, John C; Satoskar, Abhay R

    Ibrutinib (PCI-32765) is an irreversible dual Btk/Itk inhibitor shown to be effective in treating several B cell malignancies. However, limited studies have been conducted to study the effect of this drug on myeloid cell function. Hence, we studied the effect of ibrutinib treatment on TLR-4 mediated activation of bone marrow derived dendritic cell culture (DCs). Upon ibrutinib treatment, LPS-treated DCs displayed lower synthesis of TNF-α and nitric oxide (NO) and higher induction of IL-6, TGF-β, IL-10 and IL-18. While ibrutinib dampened MHC-II and CD86 expression on DCs, CD80 expression was upregulated. Further, ibrutinib-treated DCs promoted T cell proliferation and enhanced IL-17 production upon co-culture with nylon wool enriched T cells. Taken together, our results indicate that ibrutinib modulates TLR-4 mediated DC activation to promote an IL-17 response. We describe a novel mode of action for ibrutinib on DCs which should be explored to treat other forms of cancer besides B cell malignancies.

  12. Marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells: role in epithelial tumor cell determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Fernando A; Sierralta, Walter D; Epuñan, Maria J; Minguell, José J

    2004-01-01

    Marrow stroma represents an advantageous environment for development of micrometastatic cells. Within the cellular structure of marrow stroma, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been postulated as an interacting target for disseminated cancer cells. The studies reported here were performed to gain more information on the interaction of the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 with human bone marrow-derived MSC cells and to investigate whether this interaction affects tumor cell properties. The results showed that after co-culture with MSC, changes were detected in the morphology, proliferative capacity and aggregation pattern of MCF-7 cells, but these parameters were not affected after the co-culture of MSC cells with a non-tumorigenic breast epithelial cell line, MCF-10. Since the indirect culture of MCF-7 with MSC or its products also resulted in functional changes in the tumor cells, we evaluated whether these effects could be attributed to growth factors produced by MSC cells. It was found that VEGF and IL-6 mimic the effects produced by MSC or its products on the proliferation and aggregation properties of MCF-7, cells, respectively. Thus, it seems that after entry of disseminated tumor cells into the marrow space, their proliferative and morphogenetic organization patterns are modified after interaction with distinct stromal cells and/or with specific signals from the marrow microenvironment.

  13. Transplantation of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells into the Developing Mouse Eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun-Shil; Yu, Song-Hee; Jang, Yu-Jin; Hwang, Dong-Youn; Jeon, Chang-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been studied widely for their potential to differentiate into various lineage cells including neural cells in vitro and in vivo. To investigate the influence of the developing host environment on the integration and morphological and molecular differentiation of MSCs, human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) were transplanted into the developing mouse retina. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing BM-MSCs were transplanted by intraocular injections into mice, ranging in ages from 1 day postnatal (PN) to 10 days PN. The survival dates ranged from 7 days post-transplantation (DPT) to 28DPT, at which time an immunohistochemical analysis was performed on the eyes. The transplanted BM-MSCs survived and showed morphological differentiation into neural cells and some processes within the host retina. Some transplanted cells expressed microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2ab, marker for mature neural cells) or glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP, marker for glial cells) at 5PN 7DPT. In addition, some transplanted cells integrated into the developing retina. The morphological and molecular differentiation and integration within the 5PN 7DPT eye was greater than those of other-aged host eye. The present findings suggest that the age of the host environment can strongly influence the differentiation and integration of BM-MSCs

  14. A modified method of insulin producing cells' generation from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czubak, Paweł; Bojarska-Junak, Agnieszka; Tabarkiewicz, Jacek; Putowski, Lechosław

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a result of autoimmune destruction of pancreatic insulin producing β-cells and so far it can be cured only by insulin injection, by pancreas transplantation, or by pancreatic islet cells' transplantation. The methods are, however, imperfect and have a lot of disadvantages. Therefore new solutions are needed. The best one would be the use of differentiated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the present study, we investigated the potential of the bone marrow-derived MSCs line for in vitro differentiation into insulin producing cells (IPSs). We applied an 18-day protocol to differentiate MSCs. Differentiating cells formed cell clusters some of which resembled pancreatic islet-like cells. Using dithizone we confirmed the presence of insulin in the cells. What is more, the expression of proinsulin C-peptide in differentiated IPCs was analyzed by flow cytometry. For the first time, we investigated the influence of growth factors' concentration on IPCs differentiation efficiency. We have found that an increase in the concentration of growth factors up to 60 ng/mL of β-FGF/EGF and 30 ng/mL of activin A/β-cellulin increases the percentage of IPCs. Further increase of growth factors does not show any increase of the percentage of differentiated cells. Our findings suggest that the presented protocol can be adapted for differentiation of insulin producing cells from stem cells.

  15. Transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells expressing elastin alleviates pelvic floor dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Minfei; Chen, Ying; Zhou, Yun; Mei, Yan; Liu, Wei; Pan, Chenhao; Hua, Xiaolin

    2016-04-05

    Pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) is a group of clinical conditions including stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and pelvic organ prolapse (POP). The abnormality of collagen and elastin metabolism in pelvic connective tissues is implicated in SUI and POP. To reconstitute the connective tissues with normal distribution of collagen and elastin, we transduced elastin to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC). Elastin-expressing BMSCs were then differentiated to fibroblasts using bFGF, which produced collagen and elastin. To achieve the sustained release of bFGF, we formulated bFGF in poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NP). In an in vitro cell culture system of 7 days, when no additional bFGF was administrated, the initial PLGA-loaded bFGF NP induced prolonged production of collagen and elastin from elastin-expressing BMSCs. In vivo, co-injection of PLGA-loaded bFGF NP and elastin-expressing BMSCs into the PFD rats significantly improved the outcome of urodynamic tests. Together, these results provided an efficient model of connective tissue engineering using BMSC and injectable PLGA-loaded growth factors. Our results provided the first instance of a multidisciplinary approach, combining both stem cell and nanoparticle technologies, for the treatment of PFD.

  16. Destiny of autologous bone marrow-derived stromal cells implanted in the vocal fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemaru, Shin-ichi; Nakamura, Tatsuo; Yamashita, Masaru; Magrufov, Akhmar; Kita, Tomoko; Tamaki, Hisanobu; Tamura, Yoshihiro; Iguchi, Fuku-ichiro; Kim, Tae Soo; Kishimoto, Masanao; Omori, Koichi; Ito, Juichi

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the destiny of implanted autologous bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BSCs) containing mesenchymal stem cells. We previously reported the successful regeneration of an injured vocal fold through implantation of BSCs in a canine model. However, the fate of the implanted BSCs was not examined. In this study, implanted BSCs were traced in order to determine the type of tissues resulting at the injected site of the vocal fold. After harvest of bone marrow from the femurs of green fluorescent transgenic mice, adherent cells were cultured and selectively amplified. By means of a fluorescence-activated cell sorter, it was confirmed that some cells were strongly positive for mesenchymal stem cell markers, including CD29, CD44, CD49e, and Sca-1. These cells were then injected into the injured vocal fold of a nude rat. Immunohistologic examination of the resected vocal folds was performed 8 weeks after treatment. The implanted cells were alive in the host tissues and showed positive expression for keratin and desmin, markers for epithelial tissue and muscle, respectively. The implanted BSCs differentiated into more than one tissue type in vivo. Cell-based tissue engineering using BSCs may improve the quality of the healing process in vocal fold injuries.

  17. Effects of murine and human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells on cuprizone induced demyelination.

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    Jasmin Nessler

    Full Text Available For the treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis there are no regenerative approaches to enhance remyelination. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC have been proposed to exert such regenerative functions. Intravenous administration of human MSC reduced the clinical severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model mimicking some aspects of multiple sclerosis. However, it is not clear if this effect was achieved by systemic immunomodulation or if there is an active neuroregeneration in the central nervous system (CNS. In order to investigate remyelination and regeneration in the CNS we analysed the effects of intravenously and intranasally applied murine and human bone marrow-derived MSC on cuprizone induced demyelination, a toxic animal model which allows analysis of remyelination without the influence of the peripheral immune system. In contrast to EAE no effects of MSC on de- and remyelination and glial cell reactions were found. In addition, neither murine nor human MSC entered the lesions in the CNS in this toxic model. In conclusion, MSC are not directed into CNS lesions in the cuprizone model where the blood-brain-barrier is intact and thus cannot provide support for regenerative processes.

  18. Bone Marrow Derivation of Interstitial Cells of Cajal in Small Intestine Following Intestinal Injury

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    Dengqun Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs in gastrointestinal tract are specialized cells serving as pacemaker cells. The origin of ICCs is currently not fully characterized. In this work, we aimed to study whether bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs could contribute to the origin of ICCs in the muscular plexus of small intestine using GFP-C57BL/6 chimeric mice.Engraftment of BMDCs in the intestine was investigated for GFP expression. GFP positive bone marrow mononuclear cells reached a proportion of 95.65%±3.72% at different times in chimerism. Donor-derived cells distributed widely in all the layers of the gastrointestinal tract. There were GFP positive BMDCs in the myenteric plexus, which resembled characteristics of ICCs, including myenteric location, c-Kit positive staining, and ramified morphology. Donor-derived ICCs in the myenteric plexus contributed to a percentage ranging 9.25%±4.9% of all the ICCs in the myenteric plexus. In conclusion, here we described that donor-derived BMDCs might differentiate into gastrointestinal ICCs after radiation injury, which provided an alternative source for the origin of the ICCs in the muscular plexus of adult intestine. These results further identified the plasticity of BMDCs and indicated therapeutic implications of BMDCs for the gastrointestinal dysmotility caused by ICCs disorders.

  19. Dopaminergic enhancement of cellular adhesion in bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si; Bai, Bing; Lee, Dong Joon; Diachina, Shannon; Li, Yina; Wong, Sing Wai; Wang, Zhengyan; Tseng, Henry C; Ko, Ching-Chang

    2017-08-01

    Dopamine (DA) is a well-known neurotransmitter and critical element in the mussel adhesive protein that has gained increasing attention for its role in cellular growth enhancement in biomaterials, including cellular adhesion improvement. As the mechanism underlying this remains unclear, the objective of this study was to explore the effects of DA on the adhesion properties of bone marrow derived rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) using an hydroxyapatite gelatin nanocomposite biomaterial and to test whether the effects are mediated through various endogenously expressed DA receptors. Primary rMSCs were pretreated with D1-like antagonist, D2-like antagonist, or a combination of these antagonists followed by treatment with 50 μM DA and cellular adhesion quantification at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 hours post DA addition. DA was found to increase rMSC adhesion and spreading at the 0.5 hour time-point and the dopaminergic effect on cell adhesion was partially blocked by DA antagonists. In addition, the D1-like and D2-like antagonists appeared to have a similar effect on rMSCs. Immunofluorescent staining indicated that the rMSC spreading area was significantly increased in the DA treated group versus the control group. Treatment of the D1-like DA antagonists with DA revealed that the actin filaments of rMSCs could not connect the membrane with the nucleus. In summary, DA was found to enhance early rMSC adhesion partially via DA receptor activation.

  20. Bone marrow and bone marrow derived mononuclear stem cells therapy for the chronically ischemic myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waksman, Ron; Baffour, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Bone marrow stem cells have been shown to differentiate into various phenotypes including cardiomyocytes, vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle. Bone marrow stem cells are mobilized and home in to areas of injured myocardium where they are involved in tissue repair. In addition, bone marrow secretes multiple growth factors, which are essential for angiogenesis and arteriogenesis. In some patients, these processes are not enough to avert clinical symptoms of ischemic disease. Therefore, in vivo administration of an adequate number of stem cells would be a significant therapeutic advance. Unfractionated bone marrow derived mononuclear stem cells, which contain both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells may be more appropriate for cell therapy. Studies in animal models suggest that implantation of different types of stem cells improve angiogenesis and arteriogenesis, tissue perfusion as well as left ventricular function. Several unanswered questions remain. For example, the optimal delivery approach, dosage and timing of the administration of cell therapy as well as durability of improvements need to be studied. Early clinical studies have demonstrated safety and feasibility of various cell therapies in ischemic disease. Randomized, double blind and placebo-controlled clinical trials need to be completed to determine the effectiveness of stem cell

  1. Bone marrow-derived fibrocytes promote stem cell-like properties of lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijo, Atsuro; Goto, Hisatsugu; Nakano, Mayuri; Mitsuhashi, Atsushi; Aono, Yoshinori; Hanibuchi, Masaki; Ogawa, Hirohisa; Uehara, Hisanori; Kondo, Kazuya; Nishioka, Yasuhiko

    2018-05-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a minor population that have clonal tumor initiation and self-renewal capacity and are responsible for tumor initiation, metastasis, and therapeutic resistance. CSCs reside in niches, which are composed of diverse types of stromal cells and extracellular matrix components. These stromal cells regulate CSC-like properties by providing secreted factors or by physical contact. Fibrocytes are differentiated from bone marrow-derived CD14 + monocytes and have features of both macrophages and fibroblasts. Accumulating evidence has suggested that stromal fibrocytes might promote cancer progression. However, the role of fibrocytes in the CSC niches has not been revealed. We herein report that human fibrocytes enhanced the CSC-like properties of lung cancer cells through secreted factors, including osteopontin, CC-chemokine ligand 18, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. The PIK3K/AKT pathway was critical for fibrocytes to mediate the CSC-like functions of lung cancer cells. In human lung cancer specimens, the number of tumor-infiltrated fibrocytes was correlated with high expression of CSC-associated protein in cancer cells. These results suggest that fibrocytes may be a novel cell population that regulates the CSC-like properties of lung cancer cells in the CSC niches. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. The Phenotypic Fate of Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells in Acute Kidney Injury

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    Guowei Feng

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite increasing attention on the role of bone marrow derived stem cells in repair or rejuvenation of tissues and organs, cellular mechanisms of such cell-based therapy remain poorly understood. Methods: We reconstituted hematopoiesis in recipient C57BL/6J mice by transplanting syngeneic GFP+ bone marrow (BM cells. Subsequently, the recipients received subcutaneous injection of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF and were subjected to acute renal ischemic injury. Flow cytometry and immunostaining were performed at various time points to assess engraftment and phenotype of BM derived stem cells. Results: Administration of G-CSF increased the release of BM derived stem cells into circulation and enhanced the ensuing recruitment of BM derived stem cells into injured kidney. During the second month post injury, migrated BM derived stem cells lost hematopoietic phenotype (CD45 but maintained the expression of other markers (Sca-1, CD133 and CD44, suggesting their potential of transdifferentiation into renal stem cells. Moreover, G-CSF treatment enhanced the phenotypic conversion. Conclusion: Our work depicted a time-course dependent transition of phenotypic characteristics of BM derived stem cells, demonstrated the existence of BM derived stem cells in damaged kidney and revealed the effects of G-CSF on cell transdifferentiation.

  3. Estradiol-induced, endothelial progenitor cell-mediated neovascularization in male mice with hind-limb ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruifrok, Willem-Peter T.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Iwakura, Atsushi; Silver, Marcy; Kusano, Kengo; Tio, Rene A.; Losordo, Douglas W.

    We investigated whether administration of estradiol to male mice augments mobilization of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) and incorporation into foci of neovascularization after hind-limb ischemia, thereby contributing to blood flow restoration. Mice were randomized and

  4. The comparison of knee osteoarthritis treatment with single-dose bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells vs. hyaluronic acid injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdis Goncars

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The intra-articular injection of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells is a safe manipulation with no side effects during the 12-month period. This treatment provides statistically significant clinical improvement between the starting point and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after. When compared to hyaluronic acid treatment, better pain relief in the long-term period of mononuclear cell group was observed.

  5. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells influence early tendon-healing in a rabbit achilles tendon model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Alphonsus K S; Ang, Abel D; Goh, James C H; Hui, James H P; Lim, Aymeric Y T; Lee, Eng Hin; Lim, Beng Hai

    2007-01-01

    A repaired tendon needs to be protected for weeks until it has accrued enough strength to handle physiological loads. Tissue-engineering techniques have shown promise in the treatment of tendon and ligament defects. The present study tested the hypothesis that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells can accelerate tendon-healing after primary repair of a tendon injury in a rabbit model. Fifty-seven New Zealand White rabbits were used as the experimental animals, and seven others were used as the source of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. The injury model was a sharp complete transection through the midsubstance of the Achilles tendon. The transected tendon was immediately repaired with use of a modified Kessler suture and a running epitendinous suture. Both limbs were used, and each side was randomized to receive either bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in a fibrin carrier or fibrin carrier alone (control). Postoperatively, the rabbits were not immobilized. Specimens were harvested at one, three, six, and twelve weeks for analysis, which included evaluation of gross morphology (sixty-two specimens), cell tracing (twelve specimens), histological assessment (forty specimens), immunohistochemistry studies (thirty specimens), morphometric analysis (forty specimens), and mechanical testing (sixty-two specimens). There were no differences between the two groups with regard to the gross morphology of the tendons. The fibrin had degraded by three weeks. Cell tracing showed that labeled bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells remained viable and present in the intratendinous region for at least six weeks, becoming more diffuse at later time-periods. At three weeks, collagen fibers appeared more organized and there were better morphometric nuclear parameters in the treatment group (p tendon repair can improve histological and biomechanical parameters in the early stages of tendon-healing.

  6. Bone Marrow?Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Enhance Bacterial Clearance and Preserve Bioprosthetic Integrity in a Model of Mesh Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Criman, Erik T.; Kurata, Wendy E.; Matsumoto, Karen W.; Aubin, Harry T.; Campbell, Carmen E.; Pierce, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The reported incidence of mesh infection in contaminated operative fields is as high as 30% regardless of the material used. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to possess favorable immunomodulatory properties and improve tissue incorporation when seeded onto bioprosthetics. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether seeding noncrosslinked bovine pericardium (Veritas Collagen Matrix) with allogeneic bone marrow?derived MSCs improves infection resistance in v...

  7. Regeneration of hyaline-like cartilage in situ with SOX9 stimulation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Wu, Shili; Naccarato, Ty; Prakash-Damani, Manan; Chou, Yuan; Chu, Cong-Qiu; Zhu, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Microfracture, a common procedure for treatment of cartilage injury, induces fibrocartilage repair by recruiting bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to the site of cartilage injury. However, fibrocartilage is inferior biomechanically to hyaline cartilage. SRY-type high-mobility group box-9 (SOX9) is a master regulator of chondrogenesis by promoting proliferation and differentiation of MSC into chondrocytes. In this study we aimed to test the therapeutic potential of cell penetrat...

  8. Conditioned medium from hypoxic bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells enhances wound healing in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    Full Text Available Growing evidence indicates that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs enhance wound repair via paracrine. Because the extent of environmental oxygenation affects the innate characteristics of BM-MSCs, including their stemness and migration capacity, the current study set out to elucidate and compare the impact of normoxic and hypoxic cell-culture conditions on the expression and secretion of BM-MSC-derived paracrine molecules (e.g., cytokines, growth factors and chemokines that hypothetically contribute to cutaneous wound healing in vivo. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA analyses of normoxic and hypoxic BM-MSCs and their conditioned medium fractions showed that the stem cells expressed and secreted significantly higher amounts of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF,vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A interleukin 6 (IL-6 and interleukin 8 (IL-8 under hypoxic conditions. Moreover, hypoxic BM-MSC-derived conditioned medium (hypoCM vs. normoxic BM-MSC-derived conditioned medium (norCM or vehicle control medium significantly enhanced the proliferation of keratinocytes, fibroblasts and endothelial cells, the migration of keratinocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells and monocytes, and the formation of tubular structures by endothelial cells cultured on Matrigel matrix. Consistent with these in vitro results, skin wound contraction was significantly accelerated in Balb/c nude mice treated with topical hypoCM relative to norCM or the vehicle control. Notably increased in vivo cell proliferation, neovascularization as well as recruitment of inflammatory macrophages and evidently decreased collagen I, and collagen III were also found in the hypoCM-treated group. These findings suggest that BM-MSCs promote murine skin wound healing via hypoxia-enhanced paracrine.

  9. Establishment and characterization of mouse bone marrow-derived mast cell hybridomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahara, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-3-dependent mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) are an important model for studying the function of mucosal-type mast cells. In the present study, BMMCs were successfully immortalized by cell fusion using a hypoxanthine–aminopterin–thymidine medium-sensitive variant of P815 mouse mastocytoma (P815-6TgR) as a partner cell line. The established mouse mast cell hybridomas (MMCHs) expressed α, β, and γ subunits of high-affinity immunoglobulin E (IgE) receptor (FcεRI) and possessed cytoplasmic granules devoid of or partially filled with electron-dense material. Four independent MMCH clones continuously proliferated without supplemental exogenous IL-3 and showed a degranulation response on stimulation with IgE+antigen. Furthermore, histamine synthesis and release by degranulation were confirmed in MMCH-D5, a MMCH clone that showed the strongest degranulation response. MMCH-D5 exhibited elevated levels of IL-3, IL-4, IL-13, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and cyclooxygenase 2, and production of prostaglandin D 2 and leukotriene C 4 in response to IgE-induced stimulation. MMCH clones also expressed Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 1, 2, 4, and 6 and showed elevated levels of TNF-α expression in response to stimulation with TLR2 and TLR4 ligands. The MMCHs established using this method should be suitable for studies on FcεRI- and TLR-mediated effector functions of mast cells.

  10. Beneficial Effects of Autologous Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Naturally Occurring Tendinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Roger Kenneth Whealands; Werling, Natalie Jayne; Dakin, Stephanie Georgina; Alam, Rafiqul; Goodship, Allen E.; Dudhia, Jayesh

    2013-01-01

    Tendon injuries are a common age-related degenerative condition where current treatment strategies fail to restore functionality and normal quality of life. This disease also occurs naturally in horses, with many similarities to human tendinopathy making it an ideal large animal model for human disease. Regenerative approaches are increasingly used to improve outcome involving mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), supported by clinical data where injection of autologous bone marrow derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) suspended in marrow supernatant into injured tendons has halved the re-injury rate in racehorses. We hypothesized that stem cell therapy induces a matrix more closely resembling normal tendon than the fibrous scar tissue formed by natural repair. Twelve horses with career-ending naturally-occurring superficial digital flexor tendon injury were allocated randomly to treatment and control groups. 1X107 autologous BM-MSCs suspended in 2 ml of marrow supernatant were implanted into the damaged tendon of the treated group. The control group received the same volume of saline. Following a 6 month exercise programme horses were euthanized and tendons assessed for structural stiffness by non-destructive mechanical testing and for morphological and molecular composition. BM-MSC treated tendons exhibited statistically significant improvements in key parameters compared to saline-injected control tendons towards that of normal tendons and those in the contralateral limbs. Specifically, treated tendons had lower structural stiffness (ptendon repair in enhancing normalisation of biomechanical, morphological, and compositional parameters. These data in natural disease, with no adverse findings, support the use of this treatment for human tendon injuries. PMID:24086616

  11. Low level light promotes the proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jin-Chul; Rhee, Yun-Hee; Choi, Sun-Hyang; Kim, Dae Yu; Chung, Phil-Sang

    2015-03-01

    Low-level light irradiation (LLLI) reported to stimulate the proliferation or differentiation of a variety of cell types. However, very little is known about the effect of light therapy on stem cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of LLLI on the molecular physiological change of human bone marrow derived stem cells (hBMSC) by wavelength (470, 630, 660, 740 and 850, 50mW). The laser diode was performed with different time interval (0, 7.5, 15, 30J/cm2, 50mW) on hBMSC. To determine the molecular physiological changes of cellular level of hBMSC, the clonogenic assay, ATP assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection, mitochondria membrane potential (MMPΦ) staining and calcium efflux assay were assessed after irradiation. There was a difference between with and without irradiation on hBMSCs. An energy density up to 30 J/cm² improved the cell proliferation in comparison to the control group. Among these irradiated group, 630 and 660nm were significantly increased the cell proliferation. The cellular level of ATP and calcium influx was increased with energy dose-dependent in all LLLI groups. Meanwhile, ROS and MMPΦ were also increased after irradiation except 470nm. It can be concluded that LLLI using infrared light and an energy density up to 30 J/cm² has a positive stimulatory effect on the proliferation or differentiation of hBMSCs. Our results suggest that LLLI may influence to the mitochondrial membrane potential activity through ATP synthesis and increased cell metabolism which leads to cell proliferation and differentiation.

  12. Bone marrow-derived cells and biophysical stimulation for talar osteochondral lesions: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadossi, Matteo; Buda, Roberto Emanuele; Ramponi, Laura; Sambri, Andrea; Natali, Simone; Giannini, Sandro

    2014-10-01

    Osteochondral lesions of the talus (OLT) frequently occur after ankle sprains in young patients participating in sports activities. These injuries may lead to chronic pain, joint swelling, and finally osteoarthritis, therefore, surgical repair is frequently needed. A collagen scaffold seeded with bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) harvested from patient's iliac crest and implanted into the OLT through a single arthroscopic procedure has been recently proposed as an effective treatment option. Nevertheless, BMDCs, embedded in an inflammatory environment, tend to differentiate toward a fibroblast phenotype with a consequential loss of mechanical characteristics. Biophysical stimulation with pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) has been shown to promote anabolic chondrocyte activity, stimulate proteoglycan synthesis, and reduce the release of the most relevant pro-inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of PEMFs on clinical outcome in patients who underwent BMDCs transplantation for OLT. Thirty patients affected by grade III and IV Outerbridge OLT underwent BMDCs transplantation. After surgery, patients were randomly assigned to either experimental group (PEMFs 4 hours per day for 60 days starting within 3 days after operation) or control group. Clinical outcome was evaluated with (American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society) AOFAS score, Visual Analog Scale (VAS), and Short Form-36 (SF-36). Significantly higher AOFAS score was recorded in the experimental group both at 6 or 12 months follow-up. At 60 days and 6 and 12 months follow-up, significant lower pain was observed in the experimental group. No significant difference was found in SF-36 between groups. A superior clinical outcome was found in the experimental group with more than 10 points higher AOFAS score at final follow-up. Biophysical stimulation started soon after surgery aided patient recovery leading to pain control and a better clinical outcome

  13. Effects of BIO on proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of mouse marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells

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    Nasrin Fallah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In vitroexpansion of mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs into large number is necessary fortheir application in cell-based treatment of articular cartilage defects. On the other hand,some studies have indicated that BIO (6-Bromoindirubin-3-Oxime possesses mitogeniceffects on cell culture. The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of BIO onin vitro expansion and chondrogenic differentiation of mouse marrow-derived MSCs. Theculture was established using bone marrow tissue obtained from 10 NMRI mice. MSC natureof the isolated cells was verified according to the minimal criteria proposed for MSC.Passaged-3 cells were seeded in 24-well culture plates and treated by 0.05, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and1.5 μM BIO forsevendays. The culture without BIO was taken as the control. At the end ofcultivation period, the cultures were examinedfor viable cell number which was then used tocalculate population doubling time (PDT. The BIO with higher proliferation-promoting effectwas investigated for its chondrogenic effect on MSC culture. There was significantly moreviable cells at the cultures treated by 0.1 μM BIO. At this culture the cells tended to doubletheir population in rapid rate (each 43.07 hr than the cells treated with the other BIOconcentrations (p< 0.05. Interestingly treatment of MSC chondrogenic culture with 0.1 μMBIO ledto the up-regulation of cartilage specific genes including aggrecan, collagen II andSox9. In conclusion BIO at 0.1 μM could enhance mouse MSC in vitro proliferation as well astheir chondrogenic differentiation. These findings would be of great importance for the fieldof regenerative medicine.

  14. Susceptibility of bone marrow-derived macrophages to influenza virus infection is dependent on macrophage phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Gillian M; Nicol, Marlynne Q; Dransfield, Ian; Shaw, Darren J; Nash, Anthony A; Dutia, Bernadette M

    2015-10-01

    The role of the macrophage in influenza virus infection is complex. Macrophages are critical for resolution of influenza virus infections but implicated in morbidity and mortality in severe infections. They can be infected with influenza virus and consequently macrophage infection is likely to have an impact on the host immune response. Macrophages display a range of functional phenotypes, from the prototypical pro-inflammatory classically activated cell to alternatively activated anti-inflammatory macrophages involved in immune regulation and wound healing. We were interested in how macrophages of different phenotype respond to influenza virus infection and therefore studied the infection of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) of classical and alternative phenotype in vitro. Our results show that alternatively activated macrophages are more readily infected and killed by the virus than classically activated. Classically activated BMDMs express the pro-inflammatory markers inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and TNF-α, and TNF-α expression was further upregulated following infection. Alternatively activated macrophages express Arginase-1 and CD206; however, following infection, expression of these markers was downregulated whilst expression of iNOS and TNF-α was upregulated. Thus, infection can override the anti-inflammatory state of alternatively activated macrophages. Importantly, however, this results in lower levels of pro-inflammatory markers than those produced by classically activated cells. Our results showed that macrophage phenotype affects the inflammatory macrophage response following infection, and indicated that modulating the macrophage phenotype may provide a route to develop novel strategies to prevent and treat influenza virus infection.

  15. Establishment and characterization of mouse bone marrow-derived mast cell hybridomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawahara, Takeshi, E-mail: tkawafb@shinshu-u.ac.jp [Integrated Department of Sciences of Functional Foods, Graduate School of Agriculture, Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan)

    2012-11-01

    Interleukin (IL)-3-dependent mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) are an important model for studying the function of mucosal-type mast cells. In the present study, BMMCs were successfully immortalized by cell fusion using a hypoxanthine-aminopterin-thymidine medium-sensitive variant of P815 mouse mastocytoma (P815-6TgR) as a partner cell line. The established mouse mast cell hybridomas (MMCHs) expressed {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma} subunits of high-affinity immunoglobulin E (IgE) receptor (Fc{epsilon}RI) and possessed cytoplasmic granules devoid of or partially filled with electron-dense material. Four independent MMCH clones continuously proliferated without supplemental exogenous IL-3 and showed a degranulation response on stimulation with IgE+antigen. Furthermore, histamine synthesis and release by degranulation were confirmed in MMCH-D5, a MMCH clone that showed the strongest degranulation response. MMCH-D5 exhibited elevated levels of IL-3, IL-4, IL-13, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}, and cyclooxygenase 2, and production of prostaglandin D{sub 2} and leukotriene C{sub 4} in response to IgE-induced stimulation. MMCH clones also expressed Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 1, 2, 4, and 6 and showed elevated levels of TNF-{alpha} expression in response to stimulation with TLR2 and TLR4 ligands. The MMCHs established using this method should be suitable for studies on Fc{epsilon}RI- and TLR-mediated effector functions of mast cells.

  16. Rotating three-dimensional dynamic culture of adult human bone marrow-derived cells for tissue engineering of hyaline cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Shinsuke; Mishima, Hajime; Ishii, Tomoo; Akaogi, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Tomokazu; Ohyabu, Yoshimi; Chang, Fei; Ochiai, Naoyuki; Uemura, Toshimasa

    2009-04-01

    The method of constructing cartilage tissue from bone marrow-derived cells in vitro is considered a valuable technique for hyaline cartilage regenerative medicine. Using a rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor developed in a NASA space experiment, we attempted to efficiently construct hyaline cartilage tissue from human bone marrow-derived cells without using a scaffold. Bone marrow aspirates were obtained from the iliac crest of nine patients during orthopedic operation. After their proliferation in monolayer culture, the adherent cells were cultured in the RWV bioreactor with chondrogenic medium for 2 weeks. Cells from the same source were cultured in pellet culture as controls. Histological and immunohistological evaluations (collagen type I and II) and quantification of glycosaminoglycan were performed on formed tissues and compared. The engineered constructs obtained using the RWV bioreactor showed strong features of hyaline cartilage in terms of their morphology as determined by histological and immunohistological evaluations. The glycosaminoglycan contents per microg DNA of the tissues were 10.01 +/- 3.49 microg/microg DNA in the case of the RWV bioreactor and 6.27 +/- 3.41 microg/microg DNA in the case of the pellet culture, and their difference was significant. The RWV bioreactor could provide an excellent environment for three-dimensional cartilage tissue architecture that can promote the chondrogenic differentiation of adult human bone marrow-derived cells.

  17. Telomerase deficiency in bone marrow-derived cells attenuates angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeisen, Hannes M; Gizard, Florence; Zhao, Yue; Cohn, Dianne; Heywood, Elizabeth B; Jones, Karrie L; Lovett, David H; Howatt, Deborah A; Daugherty, Alan; Bruemmer, Dennis

    2011-02-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are an age-related vascular disease and an important cause of morbidity and mortality. In this study, we sought to determine whether the catalytic component of telomerase, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), modulates angiotensin (Ang) II-induced AAA formation. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLr-/-) mice were lethally irradiated and reconstituted with bone marrow-derived cells from TERT-deficient (TERT-/-) mice or littermate wild-type mice. Mice were placed on a diet enriched in cholesterol, and AAA formation was quantified after 4 weeks of Ang II infusion. Repopulation of LDLr-/- mice with TERT-/- bone marrow-derived cells attenuated Ang II-induced AAA formation. TERT-deficient recipient mice revealed modest telomere attrition in circulating leukocytes at the study end point without any overt effect of the donor genotype on white blood cell counts. In mice repopulated with TERT-/- bone marrow, aortic matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity was reduced, and TERT-/- macrophages exhibited decreased expression and activity of MMP-2 in response to stimulation with Ang II. Finally, we demonstrated in transient transfection studies that TERT overexpression activates the MMP-2 promoter in macrophages. TERT deficiency in bone marrow-derived macrophages attenuates Ang II-induced AAA formation in LDLr-/- mice and decreases MMP-2 expression. These results point to a previously unrecognized role of TERT in the pathogenesis of AAA.

  18. Production and Functional Characterization of Murine Osteoclasts Differentiated from ER-Hoxb8-Immortalized Myeloid Progenitor Cells.

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    Frank Zach

    Full Text Available In vitro differentiation into functional osteoclasts is routinely achieved by incubation of embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, or primary as well as cryopreserved spleen and bone marrow-derived cells with soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand and macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Additionally, osteoclasts can be derived from co-cultures with osteoblasts or by direct administration of soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand to RAW 264.7 macrophage lineage cells. However, despite their benefits for osteoclast-associated research, these different methods have several drawbacks with respect to differentiation yields, time and animal consumption, storage life of progenitor cells or the limited potential for genetic manipulation of osteoclast precursors. In the present study, we therefore established a novel protocol for the differentiation of osteoclasts from murine ER-Hoxb8-immortalized myeloid stem cells. We isolated and immortalized bone marrow cells from wild type and genetically manipulated mouse lines, optimized protocols for osteoclast differentiation and compared these cells to osteoclasts derived from conventional sources. In vitro generated ER-Hoxb8 osteoclasts displayed typical osteoclast characteristics such as multi-nucleation, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining of supernatants and cells, F-actin ring formation and bone resorption activity. Furthermore, the osteoclast differentiation time course was traced on a gene expression level. Increased expression of osteoclast-specific genes and decreased expression of stem cell marker genes during differentiation of osteoclasts from ER-Hoxb8-immortalized myeloid progenitor cells were detected by gene array and confirmed by semi-quantitative and quantitative RT-PCR approaches. In summary, we established a novel method for the quantitative production of murine bona fide osteoclasts from ER-Hoxb8 stem cells generated from

  19. Generation of human β-thalassemia induced pluripotent cell lines by reprogramming of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells using modified mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Ioanna; Karagiannidou, Angeliki; Oikonomakis, Vasilis; Tzetis, Maria; Tzanoudaki, Marianna; Siapati, Elena-Konstantina; Vassilopoulos, George; Graphakos, Stelios; Kanavakis, Emmanuel; Goussetis, Evgenios

    2014-12-01

    Synthetic modified mRNA molecules encoding pluripotency transcription factors have been used successfully in reprogramming human fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We have applied this method on bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) obtained from a patient with β-thalassemia (β-thal) with the aim to generate trangene-free β-thal-iPSCs. Transfection of 10(4) BM-MSCs by lipofection with mRNA encoding the reprogramming factors Oct4, Klf4, Sox2, cMyc, and Lin28 resulted in formation of five iPSC colonies, from which three were picked up and expanded in β-thal-iPSC lines. After 10 serial passages in vitro, β-thal-iPSCs maintain genetic stability as shown by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and are capable of forming embryoid bodies in vitro and teratomas in vivo. Their gene expression profile compared to human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and BM-MSCs seems to be similar to that of ESCs, whereas it differs from the profile of the parental BM-MSCs. Differentiation cultures toward a hematopoietic lineage showed the generation of CD34(+) progenitors up to 10%, but with a decreased hematopoietic colony-forming capability. In conclusion, we report herein the generation of transgene-free β-thal-iPSCs that could be widely used for disease modeling and gene therapy applications. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the mRNA-based reprogramming method, used mainly in fibroblasts, is also suitable for reprogramming of human BM-MSCs.

  20. Hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor (HIMF/FIZZ1/RELM alpha recruits bone marrow-derived cells to the murine pulmonary vasculature.

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    Daniel J Angelini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary hypertension (PH is a disease of multiple etiologies with several common pathological features, including inflammation and pulmonary vascular remodeling. Recent evidence has suggested a potential role for the recruitment of bone marrow-derived (BMD progenitor cells to this remodeling process. We recently demonstrated that hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor (HIMF/FIZZ1/RELM alpha is chemotactic to murine bone marrow cells in vitro and involved in pulmonary vascular remodeling in vivo.We used a mouse bone marrow transplant model in which lethally irradiated mice were rescued with bone marrow transplanted from green fluorescent protein (GFP(+ transgenic mice to determine the role of HIMF in recruiting BMD cells to the lung vasculature during PH development. Exposure to chronic hypoxia and pulmonary gene transfer of HIMF were used to induce PH. Both models resulted in markedly increased numbers of BMD cells in and around the pulmonary vasculature; in several neomuscularized small (approximately 20 microm capillary-like vessels, an entirely new medial wall was made up of these cells. We found these GFP(+ BMD cells to be positive for stem cell antigen-1 and c-kit, but negative for CD31 and CD34. Several of the GFP(+ cells that localized to the pulmonary vasculature were alpha-smooth muscle actin(+ and localized to the media layer of the vessels. This finding suggests that these cells are of mesenchymal origin and differentiate toward myofibroblast and vascular smooth muscle. Structural location in the media of small vessels suggests a functional role in the lung vasculature. To examine a potential mechanism for HIMF-dependent recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells to the pulmonary vasculature, we performed a cell migration assay using cultured human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSCs. The addition of recombinant HIMF induced migration of HMSCs in a phosphoinosotide-3-kinase-dependent manner.These results demonstrate HIMF-dependent recruitment of BMD

  1. AUTOLOGOUS Marrow-Derived Stem Cell-Seeded Gene-Supplemented Collagen Scaffolds for Spinal Cord Regeneration as a Treatment for Paralysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spector, Myron

    2006-01-01

    .... Moreover, the authors will be investigating the effects of incorporating genes from nerve growth factors into the collagen scaffolds and seeding the scaffolds with marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells...

  2. Neural differentiation potential of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells: misleading marker gene expression

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    Montzka Katrin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In contrast to pluripotent embryonic stem cells, adult stem cells have been considered to be multipotent, being somewhat more restricted in their differentiation capacity and only giving rise to cell types related to their tissue of origin. Several studies, however, have reported that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs are capable of transdifferentiating to neural cell types, effectively crossing normal lineage restriction boundaries. Such reports have been based on the detection of neural-related proteins by the differentiated MSCs. In order to assess the potential of human adult MSCs to undergo true differentiation to a neural lineage and to determine the degree of homogeneity between donor samples, we have used RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry to investigate the basal expression of a range of neural related mRNAs and proteins in populations of non-differentiated MSCs obtained from 4 donors. Results The expression analysis revealed that several of the commonly used marker genes from other studies like nestin, Enolase2 and microtubule associated protein 1b (MAP1b are already expressed by undifferentiated human MSCs. Furthermore, mRNA for some of the neural-related transcription factors, e.g. Engrailed-1 and Nurr1 were also strongly expressed. However, several other neural-related mRNAs (e.g. DRD2, enolase2, NFL and MBP could be identified, but not in all donor samples. Similarly, synaptic vesicle-related mRNA, STX1A could only be detected in 2 of the 4 undifferentiated donor hMSC samples. More significantly, each donor sample revealed a unique expression pattern, demonstrating a significant variation of marker expression. Conclusion The present study highlights the existence of an inter-donor variability of expression of neural-related markers in human MSC samples that has not previously been described. This donor-related heterogeneity might influence the reproducibility of transdifferentiation protocols as

  3. Identification of microRNAs regulating the developmental pathways of bone marrow derived mast cells.

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    Yang Xiang

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs play important roles in leukocyte differentiation, although those utilised for specific programs and key functions remain incompletely characterised. As a global approach to gain insights into the potential regulatory role of miRNA in mast cell differentiation we characterised expression in BM cultures from the initiation of differentiation. In cultures enriched in differentiating mast cells we characterised miRNA expression and identified miRNA targeting the mRNA of putative factors involved in differentiation pathways and cellular identity. Detailed pathway analysis identified a unique miRNA network that is intimately linked to the mast cell differentiation program.We identified 86 unique miRNAs with expression patterns that were up- or down- regulated at 5-fold or more during bone marrow derived mast cells (BMMC development. By employing TargetScan and MeSH databases, we identified 524 transcripts involved in 30 canonical pathways as potentially regulated by these specific 86 miRNAs. Furthermore, by applying miRanda and IPA analyses, we predict that 7 specific miRNAs of this group are directly associated with the expression of c-Kit and FcεRIα and likewise, that 18 miRNAs promote expression of Mitf, GATA1 and c/EBPα three core transcription factors that direct mast cell differentiation. Furthermore, we have identified 11 miRNAs that may regulate the expression of STATs-3, -5a/b, GATA2 and GATA3 during differentiation, along with 13 miRNAs that target transcripts encoding Ndst2, mMCP4 and mMCP6 and thus may regulate biosynthesis of mast cell secretory mediators.This investigation characterises changes in miRNA expression in whole BM cultures during the differentiation of mast cells and predicts functional links between miRNAs and their target mRNAs for the regulation of development. This information provides an important resource for further investigations of the contributions of miRNAs to mast cell differentiation and

  4. Removing the cells from adult bone marrow derived stem cell therapy does not eliminate cardioprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Mohammed

    2013-04-01

    The debate as to whether adult stem cell therapy is regenerative or not continues. The non-regenerative benefits of adult bone marrow-derived stem cell therapy were investigated by testing whether the supernatant derived from unfractionated bone marrow mononuclear cells might be cardioprotective in an animal model of myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Regional myocardial reperfusion injury was acquired by 25 min reversible left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) occlusion followed by 2 h reperfusion, in anaesthetized Wistar male rats. Unfractionated bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNC) isolated from sibling Wistar male rat whole bone marrow were phenotyped by fluorescence activated cell sorting flowcytometry for the haematopoietic stem cell surface markers c-kit, CD34, CD45 and CD133. Animals subjected to regional myocardial reperfusion injury received either 10 million BMMNC or BMMNC supernatant (BMS); both were collected in 0.5 ml phosphate-buffered saline and delivered by intravenous bolus at the onset of reperfusion. The left ventricular region distal to the LAD occlusion point was excised for measurement of myocardial infarct size and proteomic analysis, which was used to identify whether there were any differences in myocardial proteins associated with intravenous injection of either BMMNC or BMS. BMMNC were phenotyped to be c-kit(+) (7 ± 1%), CD34(+) (7 ± 1%), CD45(+) (54 ± 6%), CD133(+) (15 ± 1%). The supernatant reduced myocardial infarct size (BMS 34 ± 2%, n = 15 vs control 57 ± 2%, n = 7, P < 0.0001), which was comparable to the reduction in infarct size afforded by the injection of cells (BMMNC 33 ± 3% vs control 57 ± 2%, n = 10, P < 0.0001). Proteomics of hearts treated with either BMS or BMMNC demonstrated higher expression of (i) anti-apoptotic signal transduction protein: 14-3-3-epsilon (1.5-fold); (ii) anti-oxidants: peroxiredoxin-6 (2.1-fold); (iii) heat shock proteins: alpha B-crystallin (1.7-fold), heat shock protein 72 (2

  5. Paracrine Mechanisms of Intravenous Bone Marrow-Derived Mononuclear Stem Cells in Chronic Ischemic Stroke

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    Ashu Bhasin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The emerging role of stem cell technology and transplantation has helped scientists to study their potential role in neural repair and regeneration. The fate of stem cells is determined by their niche, consisting of surrounding cells and the secreted trophic growth factors. This interim report evaluates the safety, feasibility and efficacy (if any of bone marrow-derived mononuclear stem cells (BM-MNC in chronic ischemic stroke by studying the release of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and brain-derived neurotrophic growth factor (BDNF. Methods: Twenty stroke patients and 20 age-matched healthy controls were recruited with the following inclusion criteria: 3 months to 1.5 years from the index event, Medical Research Council (MRC grade of hand muscles of at least 2, Brunnstrom stage 2-5, conscious, and comprehendible. They were randomized to one group receiving autologous BM-MNC (mean 60-70 million and to another group receiving saline infusion (placebo. All patients were administered a neuromotor rehabilitation regime for 8 weeks. Clinical assessments [Fugl Meyer scale (FM, modified Barthel index (mBI, MRC grade, Ashworth tone scale] were carried out and serum VEGF and BDNF levels were assessed at baseline and at 8 weeks. Results: No serious adverse events were observed during the study. There was no statistically significant clinical improvement between the groups (FM: 95% CI 15.2-5.35, p = 0.25; mBI: 95% CI 14.3-4.5, p = 0.31. VEGF and BDNF expression was found to be greater in group 1 compared to group 2 (VEGF: 442.1 vs. 400.3 pg/ml, p = 0.67; BDNF: 21.3 vs. 19.5 ng/ml without any statistically significant difference. Conclusion: Autologous mononuclear stem cell infusion is safe and tolerable by chronic ischemic stroke patients. The released growth factors (VEGF and BDNF in the microenvironment could be due to the paracrine hypothesis of stem cell niche and neurorehabilitation regime.

  6. Bone Marrow-Derived Mononuclear Cell Therapy in Papain-Induced Experimental Pulmonary Emphysema

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    Mariana N. Machado

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Murine papain-induced emphysema is a model that reproduces many of the features found in patients. Bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMMC have already been used to repair the alveolar epithelium in respiratory diseases, but not in the papain model. Thus, we hypothesized that BMMC could prevent the pathophysiological processes in papain-induced experimental emphysema. Female BALB/c mice received intratracheal instillation of 50 μL of saline (S groups or papain (P groups, 10 IU/50 μl of saline on days 1 and 7 of the experimental protocol. On the 14th day, 2 × 106 BMMC of male BALB/c mice (SC21 and PC21 or saline (SS21 and PS21 were injected by the jugular vein. Analyses were done on days 14 (S14 and P14 and 21 (SS21, PS21, SC21, and PC21 of the protocol. qPCR evaluated the presence of the Y chromosome in the lungs of BMMC recipient animals. Functional residual capacity (FRC, alveolar diameter, cellularity, elastic fiber content, concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, MIP-2, KC, IFN-γ, apoptosis, mRNA expression of the dual oxidase (DUOX1 and DUOX2, production of H2O2 and DUOX activity were evaluated in lung tissue. We did not detect the Y chromosome in recipients' lungs. FRC, alveolar diameter, polymorphonuclear cells (PMN and levels of KC, MIP-2, and IFN-γ increased in P14 and PS21 groups; the changes in the latter were reverted by BMMC. TNF-α, IL-1β e IL-6 were similar in all groups. The amount of elastic fibers was smaller in P14 and PS21 than in other groups, and BMMC did not increase it in PC21 mice. PS21 animals showed increased DUOX activity and mRNA expression for DUOX1 and 2. Cell therapy reverted the activity of DUOX and mRNA expression of DUOX1. BMMC reduced mRNA expression of DUOX2. Apoptosis index was elevated in PS21 mice, which was reduced by cell therapy in PC21. Static compliance, viscoelastic component of elastance and pressure to overcome viscoelasticity were increased in P14 and PS21 groups. These changes and the

  7. Characterization and Immunomodulatory Effects of Canine Adipose Tissue- and Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

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    Keith A Russell

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC hold promise for both cell replacement and immune modulation strategies owing to their progenitor and non-progenitor functions, respectively. Characterization of MSC from different sources is an important and necessary step before clinical use of these cells is widely adopted. Little is known about the biology and function of canine MSC compared to their mouse or human counterparts. This knowledge-gap impedes development of canine evidence-based MSC technologies.We hypothesized that canine adipose tissue (AT and bone marrow (BM MSC (derived from the same dogs will have similar differentiation and immune modulatory profiles. Our objectives were to evaluate progenitor and non-progenitor functions as well as other characteristics of AT- and BM-MSC including 1 proliferation rate, 2 cell surface marker expression, 3 DNA methylation levels, 4 potential for trilineage differentiation towards osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic cell fates, and 5 immunomodulatory potency in vitro.1 AT-MSC proliferated at more than double the rate of BM-MSC (population doubling times in days for passage (P 2, AT: 1.69, BM: 3.81; P3, AT: 1.80, BM: 4.06; P4, AT: 2.37, BM: 5.34; P5, AT: 3.20, BM: 7.21. 2 Canine MSC, regardless of source, strongly expressed cell surface markers MHC I, CD29, CD44, and CD90, and were negative for MHC II and CD45. They also showed moderate expression of CD8 and CD73 and mild expression of CD14. Minor differences were found in expression of CD4 and CD34. 3 Global DNA methylation levels were significantly lower in BM-MSC compared to AT-MSC. 4 Little difference was found between AT- and BM-MSC in their potential for adipogenesis and osteogenesis. Chondrogenesis was poor to absent for both sources in spite of adding varying levels of bone-morphogenic protein to our standard transforming growth factor (TGF-β3-based induction medium. 5 Immunomodulatory capacity was equal regardless of cell source when tested in

  8. Bone marrow-derived CD13+ cells sustain tumor progression: A potential non-malignant target for anticancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondossola, Eleonora; Corti, Angelo; Sidman, Richard L; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Non-malignant cells found within neoplastic lesions express alanyl (membrane) aminopeptidase (ANPEP, best known as CD13), and CD13-null mice exhibit limited tumor growth and angiogenesis. We have recently demonstrated that a subset of bone marrow-derived CD11b + CD13 + myeloid cells accumulate within neoplastic lesions in several murine models of transplantable cancer to promote angiogenesis. If these findings were confirmed in clinical settings, CD11b + CD13 + myeloid cells could become a non-malignant target for the development of novel anticancer regimens.

  9. Long-term engraftment of bone marrow-derived cells in the intimal hyperplasia lesion of autologous vein grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Yanpeng; Guthrie, Steve; Xia, Shen-Ling; Ouyang, Xiaosen; Zhang, Li; Xue, Jing; Lee, Pui; Grant, Maria; Scott, Edward; Segal, Mark S

    2008-03-01

    Intimal hyperplasia of autologous vein grafts is a critical problem affecting the long-term patency of many types of vascular reconstruction. Within intimal hyperplasia lesions, smooth muscle cells are a major component, playing an essential role in the pathological process. Given that bone marrow-derived cells may differentiate into smooth muscle cells in the neointima of injured arteries, we hypothesized that the bone marrow may serve as a source for some of the smooth muscle cells within intimal hyperplasia lesions of vein grafts. To test this hypothesis, we used an established mouse model for intimal hyperplasia in wild-type mice that had been transplanted with bone marrow from a green fluorescent protein (GFP+/+) transgenic mouse. High-resolution confocal microscopy analysis performed 2 and 8 weeks after grafting demonstrated expression of GFP in 5.4 +/- 0.8% and 11.9 +/- 2.3%, respectively, of smooth muscle cells within intimal hyperplasia lesions. By 16 weeks, GFP expression in smooth muscle cells was not detected by immunohistochemistry; however, real-time PCR revealed that 20.2 +/- 1.7% of the smooth muscle cells captured from the neointima lesion by laser capture microdissection at 16 weeks contained GFP DNA. Our results suggest that bone marrow-derived cells differentiated into smooth muscle cells within the intimal lesion and may provide a novel clinical approach for decreasing intimal hyperplasia in vein grafts.

  10. Proteinase activated receptor 1 mediated fibrosis in a mouse model of liver injury: a role for bone marrow derived macrophages.

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    Yiannis N Kallis

    Full Text Available Liver fibrosis results from the co-ordinated actions of myofibroblasts and macrophages, a proportion of which are of bone marrow origin. The functional effect of such bone marrow-derived cells on liver fibrosis is unclear. We examine whether changing bone marrow genotype can down-regulate the liver's fibrotic response to injury and investigate mechanisms involved. Proteinase activated receptor 1 (PAR1 is up-regulated in fibrotic liver disease in humans, and deficiency of PAR1 is associated with reduced liver fibrosis in rodent models. In this study, recipient mice received bone marrow transplantation from PAR1-deficient or wild-type donors prior to carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis. Bone marrow transplantation alone from PAR1-deficient mice was able to confer significant reductions in hepatic collagen content and activated myofibroblast expansion on wild-type recipients. This effect was associated with a decrease in hepatic scar-associated macrophages and a reduction in macrophage recruitment from the bone marrow. In vitro, PAR1 signalling on bone marrow-derived macrophages directly induced their chemotaxis but did not stimulate proliferation. These data suggest that the bone marrow can modulate the fibrotic response of the liver to recurrent injury. PAR1 signalling can contribute to this response by mechanisms that include the regulation of macrophage recruitment.

  11. Regeneration of hyaline-like cartilage in situ with SOX9 stimulation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

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    Xiaowei Zhang

    Full Text Available Microfracture, a common procedure for treatment of cartilage injury, induces fibrocartilage repair by recruiting bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC to the site of cartilage injury. However, fibrocartilage is inferior biomechanically to hyaline cartilage. SRY-type high-mobility group box-9 (SOX9 is a master regulator of chondrogenesis by promoting proliferation and differentiation of MSC into chondrocytes. In this study we aimed to test the therapeutic potential of cell penetrating recombinant SOX9 protein in regeneration of hyaline cartilage in situ at the site of cartilage injury. We generated a recombinant SOX9 protein which was fused with super positively charged green fluorescence protein (GFP (scSOX9 to facilitate cell penetration. scSOX9 was able to induce chondrogenesis of bone marrow derived MSC in vitro. In a rabbit cartilage injury model, scSOX9 in combination with microfracture significantly improved quality of repaired cartilage as shown by macroscopic appearance. Histological analysis revealed that the reparative tissue induced by microfracture with scSOX9 had features of hyaline cartilage; and collagen type II to type I ratio was similar to that in normal cartilage. This short term in vivo study demonstrated that when administered at the site of microfracture, scSOX9 was able to induce reparative tissue with features of hyaline cartilage.

  12. Bone Marrow-Derived, Neural-Like Cells Have the Characteristics of Neurons to Protect the Peripheral Nerve in Microenvironment

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    Shi-lei Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective repair of peripheral nerve defects is difficult because of the slow growth of new axonal growth. We propose that “neural-like cells” may be useful for the protection of peripheral nerve destructions. Such cells should prolong the time for the disintegration of spinal nerves, reduce lesions, and improve recovery. But the mechanism of neural-like cells in the peripheral nerve is still unclear. In this study, bone marrow-derived neural-like cells were used as seed cells. The cells were injected into the distal end of severed rabbit peripheral nerves that were no longer integrated with the central nervous system. Electromyography (EMG, immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM were employed to analyze the development of the cells in the peripheral nerve environment. The CMAP amplitude appeared during the 5th week following surgery, at which time morphological characteristics of myelinated nerve fiber formation were observed. Bone marrow-derived neural-like cells could protect the disintegration and destruction of the injured peripheral nerve.

  13. Identification of resident and inflammatory bone marrow derived cells in the sclera by bone marrow and haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisatomi, Toshio; Sonoda, Koh-hei; Ishikawa, Fumihiko; Qiao, Hong; Nakazawa, Takahiro; Fukata, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Toru; Noda, Kousuke; Miyahara, Shinsuke; Harada, Mine; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Hafezi-Moghadam, Ali; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Miller, Joan W

    2007-04-01

    To characterise bone marrow derived cells in the sclera under normal and inflammatory conditions, we examined their differentiation after transplantation from two different sources, bone marrow and haematopoietic stem cells (HSC). Bone marrow and HSC from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice were transplanted into irradiated wild-type mice. At 1 month after transplantation, mice were sacrificed and their sclera examined by histology, immunohistochemistry (CD11b, CD11c, CD45), and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. To investigate bone marrow derived cell recruitment under inflammatory conditions, experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) was induced in transplanted mice. GFP positive cells were distributed in the entire sclera and comprised 22.4 (2.8)% (bone marrow) and 28.4 (10.9)% (HSC) of the total cells in the limbal zone and 18.1 (6.7)% (bone marrow) and 26.3 (3.4)% (HSC) in the peripapillary zone. Immunohistochemistry showed that GFP (+) CD11c (+), GFP (+) CD11b (+) cells migrated in the sclera after bone marrow and HSC transplantation. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy revealed antigen presenting cells among the scleral fibroblasts. In EAU mice, vast infiltration of GFP (+) cells developed into the sclera. We have provided direct and novel evidence for the migration of bone marrow and HSC cells into the sclera differentiating into macrophages and dendritic cells. Vast infiltration of bone marrow and HSC cells was found to be part of the inflammatory process in EAU.

  14. Possible mechanisms of retinal function recovery with the use of cell therapy with bone marrow-derived stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Camargo Siqueira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow has been proposed as a potential source of stem cells for regenerative medicine. In the eye, degeneration of neural cells in the retina is a hallmark of such widespread ocular diseases as age-related macular degeneration (AMD and retinitis pigmentosa. Bone marrow is an ideal tissue for studying stem cells mainly because of its accessibility. Furthermore, there are a number of well-defined mouse models and cell surface markers that allow effective study of hematopoiesis in healthy and injured mice. Because of these characteristics and the experience of bone marrow transplantation in the treatment of hematological disease such as leukemia, bone marrow-derived stem cells have also become a major tool in regenerative medicine. Those cells may be able to restore the retina function through different mechanisms: A cellular differentiation, B paracrine effect, and C retinal pigment epithelium repair. In this review, we described these possible mechanisms of recovery of retinal function with the use of cell therapy with bone marrow-derived stem cells.

  15. Toll-Like Receptor 4 in Bone Marrow-Derived Cells Contributes to the Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy

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    Hui Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is a major microvascular complication in diabetics, and its mechanism is not fully understood. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of the inflammatory state during DR, and the deletion of TLR4 eventually alleviates the diabetic inflammatory state. To further elucidate the mechanism of DR, we used bone marrow transplantation to establish reciprocal chimeric animals of TLR4 mutant mice and TLR4 WT mice combined with diabetes mellitus (DM induction by streptozotocin (STZ treatment to identify the role of TLR4 in different cell types in the development of the proinflammatory state during DR. TLR4 mutation did not block the occurrence of high blood glucose after STZ injection compared with WT mice but did alleviate the progression of DR and alter the expression of the small vessel proliferation-related genes, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α. Grafting bone marrow-derived cells from TLR4 WT mice into TLR4 mutant mice increased the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and MIP-2 and increased the damage to the retina. Similarly, VEGF and HIF-1α expression were restored by the bone marrow transplantation. These findings identify an essential role for TLR4 in bone marrow-derived cells contributing to the progression of DR.

  16. Regeneration of hyaline-like cartilage in situ with SOX9 stimulation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Wu, Shili; Naccarato, Ty; Prakash-Damani, Manan; Chou, Yuan; Chu, Cong-Qiu; Zhu, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Microfracture, a common procedure for treatment of cartilage injury, induces fibrocartilage repair by recruiting bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to the site of cartilage injury. However, fibrocartilage is inferior biomechanically to hyaline cartilage. SRY-type high-mobility group box-9 (SOX9) is a master regulator of chondrogenesis by promoting proliferation and differentiation of MSC into chondrocytes. In this study we aimed to test the therapeutic potential of cell penetrating recombinant SOX9 protein in regeneration of hyaline cartilage in situ at the site of cartilage injury. We generated a recombinant SOX9 protein which was fused with super positively charged green fluorescence protein (GFP) (scSOX9) to facilitate cell penetration. scSOX9 was able to induce chondrogenesis of bone marrow derived MSC in vitro. In a rabbit cartilage injury model, scSOX9 in combination with microfracture significantly improved quality of repaired cartilage as shown by macroscopic appearance. Histological analysis revealed that the reparative tissue induced by microfracture with scSOX9 had features of hyaline cartilage; and collagen type II to type I ratio was similar to that in normal cartilage. This short term in vivo study demonstrated that when administered at the site of microfracture, scSOX9 was able to induce reparative tissue with features of hyaline cartilage.

  17. In utero transplantation of human bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stem cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shiu-Huey; Kuo, Tom K; Liu, Ming; Lee, Oscar K

    2006-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that can be isolated from human bone marrow and possess the potential to differentiate into progenies of embryonic mesoderm. However, current evidence is based predominantly on in vitro experiments. We used a murine model of in utero transplantation (IUT) to study the engraftment capabilities of human MSCs. MSCs were obtained from bone marrow by negative immunoselection and limiting dilution, and were characterized by flow cytometry and by in vitro differentiation into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. MSCs were transplanted into fetal mice at a gestational age of 14 days. Engraftment of human MSCs was determined by flow cytometry, polymerase chain reaction, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). MSCs engrafted into tissues originating from all three germ layers and persisted for up to 4 months or more after delivery, as evidenced by the expression of the human-specific beta-2 microglobulin gene and by FISH for donor-derived cells. Donor-derived CD45+ cells were detectable in the peripheral blood of recipients, suggesting the participation of MSCs in hematopoiesis at the fetal stage. This model can further serve to evaluate possible applications of MSCs. Copyright 2006 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  18. Induction of a program gene expression during osteoblast differentiation with strontium ranelate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Lingling; Zaidi, Samir; Peng Yuanzhen; Zhou Hang; Moonga, Baljit S.; Blesius, Alexia; Dupin-Roger, Isabelle; Zaidi, Mone; Sun Li

    2007-01-01

    Strontium ranelate, a new agent for the treatment of osteoporosis, has been shown stimulate bone formation in various experimental models. This study examines the effect of strontium ranelate on gene expression in osteoblasts, as well as the formation of mineralized (von Kossa-positive) colony-forming unit-osteoblasts (CFU-obs). Bone marrow-derived stromal cells cultured for 21 days under differentiating conditions, when exposed to strontium ranelate, displayed a significant time- and concentration-dependent increase in the expression of the master gene, Runx2, as well as bone sialoprotein (BSP), but interestingly without effects on osteocalcin. This was associated with a significant increase in the formation of CFU-obs at day 21 of culture. In U-33 pre-osteoblastic cells, strontium ranelate significantly enhanced the expression of Runx2 and osteocalcin, but not BSP. Late, more mature osteoblastic OB-6 cells showed significant elevations in BSP and osteocalcin, but with only minimal effects on Runx2. In conclusion, strontium ranelate stimulates osteoblast differentiation, but the induction of the program of gene expression appears to be cell type-specific. The increased osteoblastic differentiation is the likely basis underlying the therapeutic bone-forming actions of strontium ranelate

  19. ECM microenvironment unlocks brown adipogenic potential of adult human bone marrow-derived MSCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michelle H; Goralczyk, Anna G; Kriszt, Rókus; Ang, Xiu Min; Badowski, Cedric; Li, Ying; Summers, Scott A; Toh, Sue-Anne; Yassin, M Shabeer; Shabbir, Asim; Sheppard, Allan; Raghunath, Michael

    2016-02-17

    Key to realizing the diagnostic and therapeutic potential of human brown/brite adipocytes is the identification of a renewable, easily accessible and safe tissue source of progenitor cells, and an efficacious in vitro differentiation protocol. We show that macromolecular crowding (MMC) facilitates brown adipocyte differentiation in adult human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs), as evidenced by substantially upregulating uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and uncoupled respiration. Moreover, MMC also induced 'browning' in bmMSC-derived white adipocytes. Mechanistically, MMC creates a 3D extracellular matrix architecture enshrouding maturing adipocytes in a collagen IV cocoon that is engaged by paxillin-positive focal adhesions also at the apical side of cells, without contact to the stiff support structure. This leads to an enhanced matrix-cell signaling, reflected by increased phosphorylation of ATF2, a key transcription factor in UCP1 regulation. Thus, tuning the dimensionality of the microenvironment in vitro can unlock a strong brown potential dormant in bone marrow.

  20. Knockdown of Indian hedgehog protein induces an inhibition of cell growth and differentiation in osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Ang; Zhang, Hongqi; Hu, Minyu; Liu, Shaohua; Gao, Qile; Wang, Yuxiang; Guo, Chaofeng

    2017-01-01

    Indian hedgehog protein (Ihh) is evolutionarily conserved and serves important roles in controlling the differentiation of progenitor cells into osteoblasts. Ihh null mutant mice exhibit a failure of osteoblast development in endochondral bone. Although studies have demonstrated that Ihh signaling is a potent local factor that regulates osteoblast differentiation, the specific transcription factors that determine osteoblast differentiation remain unclear. Further studies are required to deter...

  1. Adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells – Their osteogenicity and osteoblast in vitro mineralization on titanium granule carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Syberg, Susanne; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye

    2013-01-01

    Adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) may be osteogenic, may generate neoangiogenisis and may be progenitors for differentiated osteoblast mineralization. Titanium granules may be suitable as carriers for these cells. The aim was to demonstrate the osteogenic potential of ADMSCs...

  2. The role of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Roselle) in maintenance of ex vivo murine bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Hamid, Zariyantey; Lin Lin, Winnie Hii; Abdalla, Basma Jibril; Bee Yuen, Ong; Latif, Elda Surhaida; Mohamed, Jamaludin; Rajab, Nor Fadilah; Paik Wah, Chow; Wak Harto, Muhd Khairul Akmal; Budin, Siti Balkis

    2014-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells- (HSCs-) based therapy requires ex vivo expansion of HSCs prior to therapeutic use. However, ex vivo culture was reported to promote excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), exposing HSCs to oxidative damage. Efforts to overcome this limitation include the use of antioxidants. In this study, the role of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Roselle) in maintenance of cultured murine bone marrow-derived HSCs was investigated. Aqueous extract of Roselle was added at varying concentrations (0-1000 ng/mL) for 24 hours to the freshly isolated murine bone marrow cells (BMCs) cultures. Effects of Roselle on cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, glutathione (GSH) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and DNA damage were investigated. Roselle enhanced the survival (P Roselle increased (P Roselle showed significant cellular genoprotective potency against H2O2-induced DNA damage. Conclusively, Roselle shows novel property as potential supplement and genoprotectant against oxidative damage to cultured HSCs.

  3. Genetic control of eosinophilia in mice: gene(s) expressed in bone marrow-derived cells control high responsiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadas, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    A heterogeneity in the capacity of strains of mice to mount eosinophilia is described. BALB/c and C3H are eosinophil high responder strains (EO-HR) and CBA and A/J are eosinophil low responder strains (EO-LR), judged by the response of blood eosinophils to Ascaris suum, and the response of blood, bone marrow, and spleen eosinophils to keyhole limpet hemocyanin given 2 days after 150 mg/kg cyclophosphamide. Some of the gene(s) for high responsiveness appear to be dominant because (EO-HR x EO-LR)F 1 mice were intermediate to high responders. This gene is expressed in bone marrow-derived cells because radiation chimeras of the type EO-HR→F 1 were high responders and EO-LR→F 1 were low responders. This description of a genetic control of eosinophilia in mice may be useful in understanding the role of this cell in parasite immunity and allergy

  4. Bone marrow-derived thymic antigen-presenting cells determine self-recognition of Ia-restricted T lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, D.L.; Kruisbeek, A.M.; Davis, M.L.; Matis, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    The authors previously have demonstrated that in radiation-induced bone marrow chimeras, T-cell self-Ia restriction specificity appeared to correlate with the phenotype of the bone marrow-derived antigen-presenting (or dendritic) cell in the thymus during T-cell development. However, these correlations were necessarily indirect because of the difficulty in assaying thymic function directly by adult thymus transplant, which has in the past been uniformly unsuccessful. They now report success in obtaining functional T cells from nude mice grafted with adult thymuses reduced in size by treatment of the thymus donor with anti-thymocyte globulin and cortisone. When (B10 Scn X B10.D2)F1 nude mice (I-Ab,d) are given parental B10.D2 (I-Ad) thymus grafts subcutaneously, their T cells are restricted to antigen recognition in association with I-Ad gene products but not I-Ab gene products. Furthermore, thymuses from (B10 X B10.D2)F1 (I-Ab,d)----B10 (I-Ab) chimeras transplanted 6 months or longer after radiation (a time at which antigen-presenting cell function is of donor bone marrow phenotype) into (B10 X B10.D2)F1 nude mice generate T cells restricted to antigen recognition in association with both I-Ad and I-Ab gene products. Thymuses from totally allogeneic bone marrow chimeras appear to generate T cells of bone marrow donor and thymic host restriction specificity. Thus, when thymus donors are radiation-induced bone marrow chimeras, the T-cell I-region restriction of the nude mice recipients is determined at least in part by the phenotype of the bone marrow-derived thymic antigen presenting cells or dendritic cells in the chimeric thymus

  5. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells versus adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells for peripheral nerve regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Fernandes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have confirmed that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs can be used for treatment of several nervous system diseases. However, isolation of bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMSCs is an invasive and painful process and the yield is very low. Therefore, there is a need to search for other alterative stem cell sources. Adipose-derived MSCs (ADSCs have phenotypic and gene expression profiles similar to those of BMSCs. The production of ADSCs is greater than that of BMSCs, and ADSCs proliferate faster than BMSCs. To compare the effects of venous grafts containing BMSCs or ADSCs on sciatic nerve injury, in this study, rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham (only sciatic nerve exposed, Matrigel (MG; sciatic nerve injury + intravenous transplantation of MG vehicle, ADSCs (sciatic nerve injury + intravenous MG containing ADSCs, and BMSCs (sciatic nerve injury + intravenous MG containing BMSCs groups. Sciatic functional index was calculated to evaluate the function of injured sciatic nerve. Morphologic characteristics of nerves distal to the lesion were observed by toluidine blue staining. Spinal motor neurons labeled with Fluoro-Gold were quantitatively assessed. Compared with sham-operated rats, sciatic functional index was lower, the density of small-diameter fibers was significantly increased, and the number of motor neurons significantly decreased in rats with sciatic nerve injury. Neither ADSCs nor BMSCs significantly improved the sciatic nerve function of rats with sciatic nerve injury, increased fiber density, fiber diameters, axonal diameters, myelin sheath thickness, and G ratios (axonal diameter/fiber diameter ratios in the sciatic nerve distal to the lesion site. There was no significant difference in the number of spinal motor neurons among ADSCs, BMSCs and MG groups. These results suggest that neither BMSCs nor ADSCs provide satisfactory results for peripheral nerve repair when using MG as the conductor for

  6. Detachment strength of human osteoblasts cultured on hydroxyapatite with various surface roughness. Contribution of integrin subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinos, Petros A; Koutsoukos, Petros G; Deligianni, Despina D

    2012-06-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) has been widely used as a bone substitute in dental, maxillofacial and orthopaedic surgery and as osteoconductive bone substitute or precoating of pedicle screws and cages in spine surgery. The aim of the present study was to investigate the osteoblastic adhesion strength on HA substrata with different surface topography and biochemistry (pre-adsorption of fibronectin) after blocking of specific integrin subunits with monoclonal antibodies. Stoichiometric HA was prepared by precipitation followed by ageing and characterized by SEM, EDX, powder XRD, Raman spectroscopy, TGA, and specific surface area analysis. Human bone marrow derived osteoblasts were cultured on HA disc-shaped substrata which were sintered and polished resulting in two surface roughness grades. For attachment evaluation, cells were incubated with monoclonal antibodies and seeded for 2 h on the substrata. Cell detachment strength was determined using a rotating disc device. Cell detachment strength was surface roughness, fibronectin preadsorption and intergin subunit sensitive.

  7. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells express the pericyte marker 3G5 in culture and show enhanced chondrogenesis in hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Wasim S; Adesida, Adetola B; Tew, Simon R; Lowe, Emma T; Hardingham, Timothy E

    2010-06-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells are a potential source of cells for the repair of articular cartilage defects. Hypoxia has been shown to improve chondrogenesis in some cells. In this study, bone marrow-derived stem cells were characterized and the effects of hypoxia on chondrogenesis investigated. Adherent bone marrow colony-forming cells were characterized for stem cell surface epitopes, and then cultured as cell aggregates in chondrogenic medium under normoxic (20% oxygen) or hypoxic (5% oxygen) conditions. The cells stained strongly for markers of adult mesenchymal stem cells, and a high number of cells were also positive for the pericyte marker 3G5. The cells showed a chondrogenic response in cell aggregate cultures and, in lowered oxygen, there was increased matrix accumulation of proteoglycan, but less cell proliferation. In hypoxia, there was increased expression of key transcription factor SOX6, and of collagens II and XI, and aggrecan. Pericytes are a candidate stem cell in many tissue, and our results show that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells express the pericyte marker 3G5. The response to chondrogenic culture in these cells was enhanced by lowered oxygen tension. This has important implications for tissue engineering applications of bone marrow-derived stem cells. (c) 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cell reactions to 316L stainless steel : An in vitro study on cell viability and interleukin-6 expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anwar, I.B.; Santoso, A.; Saputra, E.; Ismail, R.; Jamari, J.; van der Heide, E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cell (hBMC) reactions to 316L stainless steel (316L-SS) have never been evaluated. The objective of this study was to assess cell viability and interleukin-6 expression of hBMC cultures upon treatment with a 316L-SS implant. Methods: A cytotoxicity

  9. Effect of human scavenger receptor class A overexpression in bone marrow-derived cells on cholesterol levels and atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eck, M.; de Winther, M. P.; Herijgers, N.; Havekes, L. M.; Hofker, M. H.; Groot, P. H.; van Berkel, T. J.

    2000-01-01

    In the arterial wall, scavenger receptor class A (SRA) is implicated in pathological lipid deposition. In contrast, in the liver, SRA is suggested to remove modified lipoproteins from the circulation, thereby protecting the body from their pathological action. The role of SRA on bone marrow-derived

  10. Effect of human scavenger receptor class A overexpression in bone marrow-derived cells on cholesterol levels and atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eck, M. van; Winther, M.P.J. de; Herijgers, N.; Havekes, L.M.; Hofker, M.H.; Groot, P.H.E.; Berkel, T.J.C. van

    2000-01-01

    In the arterial wall, scavenger receptor class A (SRA) is implicated in pathological lipid deposition. In contrast, in the liver, SRA is suggested to remove modified lipoproteins from the circulation, thereby protecting the body from their pathological action. The role of SRA on bone marrow-derived

  11. Columnar metaplasia in a surgical mouse model of gastro-esophageal reflux disease is not derived from bone marrow-derived cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikou, Susumu; Aida, Junko; Takubo, Kaiyo; Yamagata, Yukinori; Seto, Yasuyuki; Kaminishi, Michio; Nomura, Sachiyo

    2013-09-01

    The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has increased in the last 25 years. Columnar metaplasia in Barrett's mucosa is assumed to be a precancerous lesion for esophageal adenocarcinoma. However, the induction process of Barrett's mucosa is still unknown. To analyze the induction of esophageal columnar metaplasia, we established a mouse gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) model with associated development of columnar metaplasia in the esophagus. C57BL/6 mice received side-to-side anastomosis of the esophagogastric junction with the jejunum, and mice were killed 10, 20, and 40 weeks after operation. To analyze the contribution of bone marrow-derived cells to columnar metaplasia in this surgical GERD model, some mice were transplanted with GFP-marked bone marrow after the operation. Seventy-three percent of the mice (16/22) showed thickened mucosa in esophagus and 41% of mice (9/22) developed columnar metaplasia 40 weeks after the operation with a mortality rate of 4%. Bone marrow-derived cells were not detected in columnar metaplastic epithelia. However, scattered epithelial cells in the thickened squamous epithelia in regions of esophagitis did show bone marrow derivation. The results demonstrate that reflux induced by esophago-jejunostomy in mice leads to the development of columnar metaplasia in the esophagus. However, bone marrow-derived cells do not contribute directly to columnar metaplasia in this mouse model. © 2013 Japanese Cancer Association.

  12. Prostacyclin Suppresses Twist Expression in the Presence of Indomethacin in Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kemper, Oliver; Herten, Monika; Fischer, Johannes; Haversath, Marcel; Beck, Sascha; Classen, Tim; Warwas, Sebastian; Tassemeier, Tjark; Landgraeber, Stefan; Lensing-Höhn, Sabine; Krauspe, Rüdiger; Jäger, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Background Iloprost, a stable prostacyclin I2 analogue, seems to have an osteoblast-protective potential, whereas indomethacin suppresses new bone formation. The aim of this study was to investigate human bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) proliferation and differentiation towards the osteoblastic lineage by administration of indomethacin and/or iloprost. Material/Methods Human bone marrow cells were obtained from 3 different donors (A=26 yrs/m; B=25 yrs/f, C=35 yrs/m) via vacuum aspiration of t...

  13. Enhancement of the repair of dog alveolar cleft by an autologous iliac bone, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell, and platelet-rich fibrin mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuanzheng, Chen; Yan, Gao; Ting, Li; Yanjie, Fu; Peng, Wu; Nan, Bai

    2015-05-01

    Autologous bone graft has been regarded as the criterion standard for the repair of alveolar cleft. However, the most prominent issue in alveolar cleft treatment is the high absorption rate of the bone graft. The authors' objective was to investigate the effects of an autologous iliac bone, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell, and platelet-rich fibrin mixture on the repair of dog alveolar cleft. Twenty beagle dogs with unilateral alveolar clefts created by surgery were divided randomly into four groups: group A underwent repair with an autologous iliac bone, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell, and platelet-rich fibrin mixture; group B underwent repair with autologous iliac bone and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells; group C underwent repair with autologous iliac bone and platelet-rich fibrin; and group D underwent repair with autologous iliac bone as the control. One day and 6 months after transplantation, the transplant volumes and bone mineral density were assessed by quantitative computed tomography. All of the transplants were harvested for hematoxylin and eosin staining 6 months later. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and platelet-rich fibrin transplants formed the greatest amounts of new bone among the four groups. The new bone formed an extensive union with the underlying maxilla in groups A, B, and C. Transplants with the bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, platelet-rich fibrin, and their mixture retained the majority of their initial volume, whereas the transplants in the control group showed the highest absorption rate. Bone mineral density of transplants with the bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, platelet-rich fibrin, and their mixture 6 months later was significantly higher than in the control group (p platelet-rich fibrin mixed transplants. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that the structure of new bones formed the best in group A. Both bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and platelet

  14. Consistent bone marrow-derived cell mobilization following repeated short courses of granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: results from a multicenter prospective trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarella, Corrado; Rutella, Sergio; Gualandi, Francesca; Melazzini, Mario; Scimè, Rosanna; Petrini, Mario; Moglia, Cristina; Ulla, Marco; Omedé, Paola; Bella, Vincenzo La; Corbo, Massimo; Silani, Vincenzo; Siciliano, Gabriele; Mora, Gabriele; Caponnetto, Claudia; Sabatelli, Mario; Chiò, Adriano

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize the feasibility and safety of bone marrow-derived cell (BMC) mobilization following repeated courses of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Between January 2006 and March 2007, 26 ALS patients entered a multicenter trial that included four courses of BMC mobilization at 3-month intervals. In each course, G-CSF (5 microg/kg b.i.d.) was administered for four consecutive days; 18% mannitol was also given. Mobilization was monitored by flow cytometry analysis of circulating CD34(+) cells and by in vitro colony assay for clonogenic progenitors. Co-expression by CD34(+) cells of CD133, CD90, CD184, CD117 and CD31 was also assessed. Twenty patients completed the four-course schedule. One patient died and one refused to continue the program before starting the mobilization courses; four discontinued the study protocol because of disease progression. Overall, 89 G-CSF courses were delivered. There were two severe adverse events: one prolactinoma and one deep vein thrombosis. There were no discontinuations as a result of toxic complications. Circulating CD34(+) cells were monitored during 85 G-CSF courses and were always markedly increased; the range of median peak values was 41-57/microL, with no significant differences among the four G-CSF courses. Circulating clonogenic progenitor levels paralleled CD34(+) cell levels. Most mobilized CD34(+) cells co-expressed stem cell markers, with a significant increase in CD133 co-expression. It is feasible to deliver repeated courses of G-CSF to mobilize a substantial number of CD34(+) cells in patients with ALS; mobilized BMC include immature cells with potential clinical usefulness.

  15. Overexpression of FABP3 inhibits human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cell proliferation but enhances their survival in hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Suna; Zhou, Yifu; Andreyev, Oleg; Hoyt, Robert F.; Singh, Avneesh; Hunt, Timothy; Horvath, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Studying the proliferative ability of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells in hypoxic conditions can help us achieve the effective regeneration of ischemic injured myocardium. Cardiac-type fatty acid binding protein (FABP3) is a specific biomarker of muscle and heart tissue injury. This protein is purported to be involved in early myocardial development, adult myocardial tissue repair and responsible for the modulation of cell growth and proliferation. We have investigated the role of FABP3 in human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells under ischemic conditions. MSCs from 12 donors were cultured either in standard normoxic or modified hypoxic conditions, and the differential expression of FABP3 was tested by quantitative RT PCR and western blot. We also established stable FABP3 expression in MSCs and searched for variation in cellular proliferation and differentiation bioprocesses affected by hypoxic conditions. We identified: (1) the FABP3 differential expression pattern in the MSCs under hypoxic conditions; (2) over-expression of FABP3 inhibited the growth and proliferation of the MSCs; however, improved their survival in low oxygen environments; (3) the cell growth factors and positive cell cycle regulation genes, such as PCNA, APC, CCNB1, CCNB2 and CDC6 were all down-regulated; while the key negative cell cycle regulation genes TP53, BRCA1, CASP3 and CDKN1A were significantly up-regulated in the cells with FABP3 overexpression. Our data suggested that FABP3 was up-regulated under hypoxia; also negatively regulated the cell metabolic process and the mitotic cell cycle. Overexpression of FABP3 inhibited cell growth and proliferation via negative regulation of the cell cycle and down-regulation of cell growth factors, but enhances cell survival in hypoxic or ischemic conditions. - Highlights: • FABP3 expression pattern was studied in 12 human hypoxic-MSCs. • FABP3 mRNA and proteins are upregulated in the MSCs under hypoxic conditions.

  16. Space microgravity drives transdifferentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells from osteogenesis to adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cui; Li, Liang; Jiang, Yuanda; Wang, Cuicui; Geng, Baoming; Wang, Yanqiu; Chen, Jianling; Liu, Fei; Qiu, Peng; Zhai, Guangjie; Chen, Ping; Quan, Renfu; Wang, Jinfu

    2018-03-13

    Bone formation is linked with osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the bone marrow. Microgravity in spaceflight is known to reduce bone formation. In this study, we used a real microgravity environment of the SJ-10 Recoverable Scientific Satellite to examine the effects of space microgravity on the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). hMSCs were induced toward osteogenic differentiation for 2 and 7 d in a cell culture device mounted on the SJ-10 Satellite. The satellite returned to Earth after going through space experiments in orbit for 12 d, and cell samples were harvested and analyzed for differentiation potentials. The results showed that space microgravity inhibited osteogenic differentiation and resulted in adipogenic differentiation, even under osteogenic induction conditions. Under space microgravity, the expression of 10 genes specific for osteogenesis decreased, including collagen family members, alkaline phosphatase ( ALP), and runt-related transcription factor 2 ( RUNX2), whereas the expression of 4 genes specific for adipogenesis increased, including adipsin ( CFD), leptin ( LEP), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β ( CEBPB), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ ( PPARG). In the analysis of signaling pathways specific for osteogenesis, we found that the expression and activity of RUNX2 was inhibited, expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 ( BMP2) and activity of SMAD1/5/9 were decreased, and activity of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and ERK-1/2 declined significantly under space microgravity. These data indicate that space microgravity plays a dual role by decreasing RUNX2 expression and activity through the BMP2/SMAD and integrin/FAK/ERK pathways. In addition, we found that space microgravity increased p38 MAPK and protein kinase B (AKT) activities, which are important for the promotion of adipogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Space microgravity significantly

  17. Secreted Clusterin protein inhibits osteoblast differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by suppressing ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Alzahrani, Abdullah M; Kassem, Moustapha

    2018-05-01

    Secreted Clusterin (sCLU, also known as Apolipoprotein J) is an anti-apoptotic glycoprotein involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, lipid transport, extracellular tissue remodeling and apoptosis. sCLU is expressed and secreted by mouse bone marrow-derived skeletal (stromal or mesenchymal) stem cells (mBMSCs), but its functional role in MSC biology is not known. In this study, we demonstrated that Clusterin mRNA expression and protein secretion in conditioned medium increased during adipocyte differentiation and decreased during osteoblast differentiation of mBMSCs. Treatment of mBMSC cultures with recombinant sCLU protein increased cell proliferation and exerted an inhibitory effect on the osteoblast differentiation while stimulated adipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. siRNA-mediated silencing of Clu expression in mBMSCs reduced adipocyte differentiation and stimulated osteoblast differentiation of mBMSCs. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of sCLU on the osteoblast differentiation of mBMSCs was mediated by the suppression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) phosphorylation. In conclusion, we identified sCLU as a regulator of mBMSCs lineage commitment to osteoblasts versus adipocytes through a mechanism mediated by ERK1/2 signaling. Inhibiting sCLU is a possible therapeutic approach for enhancing osteoblast differentiation and consequently bone formation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Chimeric Mouse model to track the migration of bone marrow derived cells in glioblastoma following anti-angiogenic treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achyut, B R; Shankar, Adarsh; Iskander, A S M; Ara, Roxan; Knight, Robert A; Scicli, Alfonso G; Arbab, Ali S

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow derived cells (BMDCs) have been shown to contribute in the tumor development. In vivo animal models to investigate the role of BMDCs in tumor development are poorly explored. We established a novel chimeric mouse model using as low as 5 × 10(6) GFP+ BM cells in athymic nude mice, which resulted in >70% engraftment within 14 d. In addition, chimera was established in NOD-SCID mice, which displayed >70% with in 28 d. Since anti-angiogenic therapies (AAT) were used as an adjuvant against VEGF-VEGFR pathway to normalize blood vessels in glioblastoma (GBM), which resulted into marked hypoxia and recruited BMDCs to the tumor microenvironment (TME). We exploited chimeric mice in athymic nude background to develop orthotopic U251 tumor and tested receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors and CXCR4 antagonist against GBM. We were able to track GFP+ BMDCs in the tumor brain using highly sensitive multispectral optical imaging instrument. Increased tumor growth associated with the infiltration of GFP+ BMDCs acquiring suppressive myeloid and endothelial phenotypes was seen in TME following treatments. Immunofluorescence study showed GFP+ cells accumulated at the site of VEGF, SDF1 and PDGF expression, and at the periphery of the tumors following treatments. In conclusion, we developed a preclinical chimeric model of GBM and phenotypes of tumor infiltrated BMDCs were investigated in context of AATs. Chimeric mouse model could be used to study detailed cellular and molecular mechanisms of interaction of BMDCs and TME in cancer.

  19. Dynamic of distribution of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells after transplantation into adult unconditioned mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allers, Carolina; Sierralta, Walter D; Neubauer, Sonia; Rivera, Francisco; Minguell, José J; Conget, Paulette A

    2004-08-27

    The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) for cell therapy relies on their capacity to engraft and survive long-term in the appropriate target tissue(s). Animal models have demonstrated that the syngeneic or xenogeneic transplantation of MSC results in donor engraftment into the bone marrow and other tissues of conditioned recipients. However, there are no reliable data showing the fate of human MSC infused into conditioned or unconditioned adult recipients. In the present study, the authors investigated, by using imaging, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and in situ hybridization, the biodistribution of human bone marrow-derived MSC after intravenous infusion into unconditioned adult nude mice. As assessed by imaging (gamma camera), PCR, and in situ hybridization analysis, the authors' results demonstrate the presence of human MSC in bone marrow, spleen, and mesenchymal tissues of recipient mice. These results suggest that human MSC transplantation into unconditioned recipients represents an option for providing cellular therapy and avoids the complications associated with drugs or radiation conditioning.

  20. Curcumin-functionalized silk materials for enhancing adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunmei; Luo, Tingting; Zheng, Zhaozhu; Murphy, Amanda R.; Wang, Xiaoqin; Kaplan, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Curcumin, a natural phenolic compound derived from the plant Curcuma longa, was physically entrapped and stabilized in silk hydrogel films and its influence on human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) was assessed related to adipogenic differentiation. The presence of curcumin significantly reduced silk gelation time and changed the porous morphology of gel matrix, but did not change the formation of silk beta-sheet structure. Based on spectrofluorimetric analysis, curcumin likely interacted with hydrophobic residues in silk, interacting with the beta-sheet domains formed in the hydrogels. The antioxidant activity of silk film-associated curcumin remained functional over at least one month in both the dry and hydrated state. Negligible curcumin was released from silk hydrogel films over 48 hours incubation in aqueous solution. For hBMSCs cultured on silk films containing more than 0.25 mg/mL curcumin, cell proliferation was inhibited while adipogenesis was significantly promoted based on transcripts as well as oil red O staining. When hBMSCs were cultured in media containing free curcumin, both proliferation and adipogenesis of hBMSCs were inhibited when curcumin concentrations exceeded 5 μM, which is more than 1,000-times higher than the level of curcumin released from the films in aqueous solution. Thus, silk film-associated curcumin exhibited different effects on hBMSC proliferation and differentiation when compared to curcumin in solution. PMID:25132274

  1. Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Harness Purinergenic Signaling to Tolerize Human Th1 Cells In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarnath, Shoba; Foley, Jason E.; Farthing, Don E.; Gress, Ronald E.; Laurence, Arian; Eckhaus, Michael A.; Métais, Jean-Yves; Rose, Jeremy J.; Hakim, Frances T.; Felizardo, Tania C.; Cheng, Austin V.; Robey, Pamela G.; Stroncek, David E.; Sabatino, Marianna; Battiwalla, Minoo; Ito, Sawa; Fowler, Daniel H.; Barrett, Austin J.

    2014-01-01

    The use of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSC) in the treatment of alloimmune and autoimmune conditions has generated much interest, yet an understanding of the therapeutic mechanism remains elusive. We therefore explored immune modulation by a clinical-grade BMSC product in a model of human-into-mouse xenogeneic GVHD (x-GVHD) mediated by human CD4+ Th1 cells. BMSC reversed established, lethal x-GVHD through marked inhibition of Th1 cell effector function. Gene marking studies indicated BMSC engraftment was limited to the lung; further, there was no increase in regulatory T cells, thereby suggesting a paracrine mechanism of BMSC action. BMSC recipients had increased serum CD73 expressing exosomes that promoted adenosine accumulation ex vivo. Importantly, immune modulation mediated by BMSC was fully abrogated by pharmacologic therapy with an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist. To investigate the potential clinical relevance of these mechanistic findings, patient serum samples collected pre- and post-BMSC treatment were studied for exosome content: CD73 expressing exosomes promoting adenosine accumulation were detected in post-BMSC samples. In conclusion, BMSC effectively modulate experimental GVHD through a paracrine mechanism that promotes adenosine-based immune suppression. PMID:25532725

  2. Route of delivery influences biodistribution of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells following experimental bone marrow transplantation

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    Wang FJ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs have shown promise as treatment for graft-versus-host disease (GvHD following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (alloBMT. Mechanisms mediating in vivo effects of MSCs remain largely unknown, including their biodistribution following infusion. To this end, human bone-marrow derived MSCs (hMSCs were injected via carotid artery (IA or tail vein (TV into allogeneic and syngeneic BMT recipient mice. Following xenogeneic transplantation, MSC biodistribution was measured by bioluminescence imaging (BLI using hMSCs transduced with a reporter gene system containing luciferase and by scintigraphic imaging using hMSCs labeled with [99mTc]-HMPAO. Although hMSCs initially accumulated in the lungs in both transplant groups, more cells migrated to organs in alloBMT recipient as measured by in vivo BLI and scintigraphy and confirmed by ex vivo BLI imaging, immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR. IA injection resulted in persistent whole–body hMSC distribution in alloBMT recipients, while hMSCs were rapidly cleared in the syngeneic animals within one week. In contrast, TV-injected hMSCs were mainly seen in the lungs with fewer cells traveling to other organs. Summarily, these results demonstrate the potential use of IA injection to alter hMSC biodistribution in order to more effectively deliver hMSCs to targeted tissues and microenvironments.

  3. Effects Of Hypoxia in Long-Term In Vitro Expansion of Human Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzi, Annelise; Amorin, Bruna; Laureano, Álvaro; Valim, Vanessa; Dahmer, Alice; Zambonato, Bruna; Sehn, Filipe; Wilke, Ianaê; Bruschi, Lia; Silva, Maria Aparecida Lima da; Filippi-Chiela, Eduardo; Silla, Lucia

    2017-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are considered multipotent stromal, non-hematopoietic cells with properties of self-renovation and differentiation. Optimal conditions for culture of MSC have been under investigation. The oxygen tension used for cultivation has been studied and appears to play an important role in biological behavior of mesenchymal cells. The aim is characterize MSC in hypoxia and normoxia conditions comparing their morphological and functional characteristics. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells obtained from 15 healthy donors and cultured. MSC obtained from each donor were separated into two cultivation conditions normoxia (21% O 2 ) and hypoxia (three donors at 1%, three donors at 2%, five donors at 3%, and four donors at 4% O 2 ) up to second passage. MSC were evaluated for proliferation, differentiation, immunophenotyping, size and cell complexity, oxidative stress, mitochondrial activity, and autophagy. Culture conditions applied did not seem to affect immunophenotypic features and cellular plasticity. However, cells subjected to hypoxia showed smaller size and greater cellular complexity, besides lower proliferation (P cells cultured in low O 2 tension had lower mitochondrial activity (P Cell. Biochem. 118: 3072-3079, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Conditioned Medium of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells as a Therapeutic Approach to Neuropathic Pain: A Preclinical Evaluation

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    Kelly Barbosa Gama

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain is a type of chronic pain caused by injury or dysfunction of the nervous system, without effective therapeutic approaches. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs, through their paracrine action, have great potential in the treatment of this syndrome. In the present study, the therapeutic potential of MSC-derived conditioned medium (CM was investigated in a mouse model of neuropathic pain induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSL. PSL mice were treated by endovenous route with bone marrow-derived MSCs (1 × 106, CM, or vehicle. Gabapentin was the reference drug. Twelve hours after administration, neuropathic mice treated with CM exhibited an antinociceptive effect that was maintained throughout the evaluation period. MSCs also induced nonreversed antinociception, while gabapentin induced short-lasting antinociception. The levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 were reduced, while IL-10 was enhanced on sciatic nerve and spinal cord by treatment with CM and MSCs. Preliminary analysis of the CM secretome revealed the presence of growth factors and cytokines likely involved in the antinociception. In conclusion, the CM, similar to injection of live cells, produces a powerful and long-lasting antinociceptive effect on neuropathic pain, which is related with modulatory properties on peripheral and central levels of cytokines involved with the maintenance of this syndrome.

  5. An electromagnetic compressive force by cell exciter stimulates chondrogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

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    Park, Sang-Hyug; Sim, Woo Young; Park, Sin Wook; Yang, Sang Sik; Choi, Byung Hyune; Park, So Ra; Park, Kwideok; Min, Byoung-Hyun

    2006-11-01

    In this study, we present a biological micro-electromechanical system and its application to the chondrogenic differentiation of rabbit bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Actuated by an electromagnetic force, the micro cell exciter was designed to deliver a cyclic compressive load (CCL) with various magnitudes. Two major parts in the system are an actuator and a cartridge-type chamber. The former has a permanent magnet and coil, and the latter is equipped with 7 sample dishes and 7 metal caps. Mixed with a 2.4% alginate solution, the alginate/MSC layers were positioned in the sample dishes; the caps contained chondrogenic defined medium without transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Once powered, the actuator coil-derived electromagnetic force pulled the metal caps down, compressing the samples. The cyclic load was given at 1-Hz frequency for 10 min twice a day. Samples in the dishes without a cap served as a control. The samples were analyzed at 3, 5, and 7 days after stimulation for cell viability, biochemical assays, histologic features, immunohistochemistry, and gene expression of the chondrogenic markers. Applied to the alginate/MSC layer, the CCL system enhanced the synthesis of cartilage-specific matrix proteins and the chondrogenic markers, such as aggrecan, type II collagen, and Sox9. We found that the micromechanically exerted CCL by the cell exciter was very effective in enhancing the chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs, even without using exogenous TGF-beta.

  6. The Role of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Roselle) in Maintenance of Ex Vivo Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Hamid, Zariyantey; Lin Lin, Winnie Hii; Abdalla, Basma Jibril; Bee Yuen, Ong; Latif, Elda Surhaida; Mohamed, Jamaludin; Rajab, Nor Fadilah; Paik Wah, Chow; Budin, Siti Balkis

    2014-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells- (HSCs-) based therapy requires ex vivo expansion of HSCs prior to therapeutic use. However, ex vivo culture was reported to promote excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), exposing HSCs to oxidative damage. Efforts to overcome this limitation include the use of antioxidants. In this study, the role of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Roselle) in maintenance of cultured murine bone marrow-derived HSCs was investigated. Aqueous extract of Roselle was added at varying concentrations (0–1000 ng/mL) for 24 hours to the freshly isolated murine bone marrow cells (BMCs) cultures. Effects of Roselle on cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, glutathione (GSH) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and DNA damage were investigated. Roselle enhanced the survival (P < 0.05) of BMCs at 500 and 1000 ng/mL, increased survival of Sca-1+ cells (HSCs) at 500 ng/mL, and maintained HSCs phenotype as shown from nonremarkable changes of surface marker antigen (Sca-1) expression in all experimental groups. Roselle increased (P < 0.05) the GSH level and SOD activity but the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was unaffected. Moreover, Roselle showed significant cellular genoprotective potency against H2O2-induced DNA damage. Conclusively, Roselle shows novel property as potential supplement and genoprotectant against oxidative damage to cultured HSCs. PMID:25405216

  7. The Role of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Roselle in Maintenance of Ex Vivo Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zariyantey Abdul Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells- (HSCs- based therapy requires ex vivo expansion of HSCs prior to therapeutic use. However, ex vivo culture was reported to promote excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, exposing HSCs to oxidative damage. Efforts to overcome this limitation include the use of antioxidants. In this study, the role of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Roselle in maintenance of cultured murine bone marrow-derived HSCs was investigated. Aqueous extract of Roselle was added at varying concentrations (0–1000 ng/mL for 24 hours to the freshly isolated murine bone marrow cells (BMCs cultures. Effects of Roselle on cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS production, glutathione (GSH level, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, and DNA damage were investigated. Roselle enhanced the survival (P<0.05 of BMCs at 500 and 1000 ng/mL, increased survival of Sca-1+ cells (HSCs at 500 ng/mL, and maintained HSCs phenotype as shown from nonremarkable changes of surface marker antigen (Sca-1 expression in all experimental groups. Roselle increased (P<0.05 the GSH level and SOD activity but the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS was unaffected. Moreover, Roselle showed significant cellular genoprotective potency against H2O2-induced DNA damage. Conclusively, Roselle shows novel property as potential supplement and genoprotectant against oxidative damage to cultured HSCs.

  8. Angiogenic dysfunction in bone marrow-derived early outgrowth cells from diabetic animals is attenuated by SIRT1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Darren A; Zhang, Yanling; Thai, Kerri; Spring, Christopher; Chan, Lauren; Guo, Xiaoxin; Advani, Andrew; Sivak, Jeremy M; Gilbert, Richard E

    2012-12-01

    Impaired endothelial repair is a key contributor to microvascular rarefaction and consequent end-organ dysfunction in diabetes. Recent studies suggest an important role for bone marrow-derived early outgrowth cells (EOCs) in mediating endothelial repair, but the function of these cells is impaired in diabetes, as in advanced age. We sought to determine whether diabetes-associated EOC dysfunction might be attenuated by pharmacological activation of silent information regulator protein 1 (SIRT1), a lysine deacetylase implicated in nutrient-dependent life span extension in mammals. Despite being cultured in normal (5.5 mM) glucose for 7 days, EOCs from diabetic rats expressed less SIRT1 mRNA, induced less endothelial tube formation in vitro and neovascularization in vivo, and secreted less of the proangiogenic ELR(+) CXC chemokines CXCL1, CXCL3, and CXCL5. Ex vivo SIRT1 activation restored EOC chemokine secretion and increased the in vitro and in vivo angiogenic activity of EOC conditioned medium derived from diabetic animals to levels similar to that derived from control animals. These findings suggest a pivotal role for SIRT1 in diabetes-induced EOC dysfunction and that its pharmacologic activation may provide a new strategy for the restoration of EOC-mediated repair mechanisms.

  9. Classically and alternatively activated bone marrow derived macrophages differ in cytoskeletal functions and migration towards specific CNS cell types

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    Dijkstra Christine D

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophages play an important role in neuroinflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS and spinal cord injury (SCI, being involved in both damage and repair. The divergent effects of macrophages might be explained by their different activation status: classically activated (CA/M1, pro-inflammatory, macrophages and alternatively activated (AA/M2, growth promoting, macrophages. Little is known about the effect of macrophages with these phenotypes in the central nervous system (CNS and how they influence pathogenesis. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the characteristics of these phenotypically different macrophages in the context of the CNS in an in vitro setting. Results Here we show that bone marrow derived CA and AA macrophages have a distinct migratory capacity towards medium conditioned by various cell types of the CNS. AA macrophages were preferentially attracted by the low weight ( Conclusion In conclusion, since AA macrophages are more motile and are attracted by NCM, they are prone to migrate towards neurons in the CNS. CA macrophages have a lower motility and a stronger adhesion to ECM. In neuroinflammatory diseases the restricted migration and motility of CA macrophages might limit lesion size due to bystander damage.

  10. Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS): bone marrow-derived stem cells in the treatment of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jeffrey N.; Levy, Steven; Benes, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    The Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS) is currently the largest-scale stem cell ophthalmology trial registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT01920867). SCOTS utilizes autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) to treat optic nerve and retinal diseases. Treatment approaches include a combination of retrobulbar, subtenon, intravitreal, intra-optic nerve, subretinal, and intravenous injection of autologous BMSCs according to the nature of the disease, the degree of visual loss, and any risk factors related to the treatments. Patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy had visual acuity gains on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) of up to 35 letters and Snellen acuity improvements from hand motion to 20/200 and from counting fingers to 20/100. Visual field improvements were noted. Macular and optic nerve head nerve fiber layer typically thickened. No serious complications were seen. The increases in visual acuity obtained in our study were encouraging and suggest that the use of autologous BMSCs as provided in SCOTS for ophthalmologic mitochondrial diseases including Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy may be a viable treatment option. PMID:27904503

  11. The temporal expression of estrogen receptor alpha-36 and runx2 in human bone marrow derived stromal cells during osteogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, W.R.; Owens, S.E.; Wilde, C.; Pallister, I.; Kanamarlapudi, V.; Zou, W.; Xia, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • ERα36 is the predominant ERα isoform involved in bone regulation in human BMSC. • ERα36 mRNA is significantly upregulated during the process of osteogenesis. • The pattern of ERα36 and runx2 mRNA expression is similar during osteogenesis. • ERα36 appears to be co-localised with runx2 during osteogenesis. - Abstract: During bone maintenance in vivo, estrogen signals through estrogen receptor (ER)-α. The objectives of this study were to investigate the temporal expression of ERα36 and ascertain its functional relevance during osteogenesis in human bone marrow derived stromal cells (BMSC). This was assessed in relation to runt-related transcription factor-2 (runx2), a main modulatory protein involved in bone formation. ERα36 and runx2 subcellular localisation was assessed using immunocytochemistry, and their mRNA expression levels by real time PCR throughout the process of osteogenesis. The osteogenically induced BMSCs demonstrated a rise in ERα36 mRNA during proliferation followed by a decline in expression at day 10, which represents a change in dynamics within the culture between the proliferative stage and the differentiative stage. The mRNA expression profile of runx2 mirrored that of ERα36 and showed a degree subcellular co-localisation with ERα36. This study suggests that ERα36 is involved in the process of osteogenesis in BMSCs, which has implications in estrogen deficient environments

  12. Deficiency of autoimmune regulator impairs the immune tolerance effect of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Feifei; Li, Dongbei; Zhao, Bo; Luo, Yadong; Zhao, Bingjie; Zou, Xueyang; Li, Yi; Yang, Wei

    2018-02-01

    As a transcription factor, autoimmune regulator (Aire) participates in thymic negative selection and maintains immune tolerance mainly by regulating the ectopic expression of tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs) in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs). Aire is also expressed in dendritic cells (DCs). DCs are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that affect the differentiation of T cells toward distinct subpopulations and participate in the immune response and tolerance, thereby playing an important role in maintaining homeostasis. To determine the role of Aire in maintaining immune tolerance by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs), in the present study we utilized Aire-knockout mice to examine the changes of maturation status and TRAs expression on BMDCs, additionally investigate the differentiation of CD4 + T cells. The results showed that expression of costimulatory molecule and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecule was increased and expression of various TRAs was decreased in BMDCs from Aire-knockout mice. Aire deficiency reduced the differentiation of naïve CD4 + T cells into type 2T helper (Th2) cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs) but enhanced the differentiation of naïve CD4 + T cells into Th1 cells, Th17 cells, and follicular helper T (Tfh) cells. The results demonstrate that Aire expressed by BMDCs plays an important role in the maintenance of homeostasis by regulating TRA expression and the differentiation of T cell subsets.

  13. Generation of insulin-producing cells from human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells: comparison of three differentiation protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabr, Mahmoud M; Zakaria, Mahmoud M; Refaie, Ayman F; Khater, Sherry M; Ashamallah, Sylvia A; Ismail, Amani M; El-Badri, Nagwa; Ghoneim, Mohamed A

    2014-01-01

    Many protocols were utilized for directed differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to form insulin-producing cells (IPCs). We compared the relative efficiency of three differentiation protocols. Human bone marrow-derived MSCs (HBM-MSCs) were obtained from three insulin-dependent type 2 diabetic patients. Differentiation into IPCs was carried out by three protocols: conophylline-based (one-step protocol), trichostatin-A-based (two-step protocol), and β -mercaptoethanol-based (three-step protocol). At the end of differentiation, cells were evaluated by immunolabeling for insulin production, expression of pancreatic endocrine genes, and release of insulin and c-peptide in response to increasing glucose concentrations. By immunolabeling, the proportion of generated IPCs was modest ( ≃ 3%) in all the three protocols. All relevant pancreatic endocrine genes, insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin, were expressed. There was a stepwise increase in insulin and c-peptide release in response to glucose challenge, but the released amounts were low when compared with those of pancreatic islets. The yield of functional IPCs following directed differentiation of HBM-MSCs was modest and was comparable among the three tested protocols. Protocols for directed differentiation of MSCs need further optimization in order to be clinically meaningful. To this end, addition of an extracellular matrix and/or a suitable template should be attempted.

  14. Thioredoxin-1 Protects Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Hyperoxia-Induced Injury In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Jin; Zeng, Lingkong; Li, Qiong; Liu, Yalan

    2018-01-01

    Background The poor survival rate of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) transplanted into recipient lungs greatly limits their therapeutic efficacy for diseases like bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) overexpression on improving the potential for bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) to confer resistance against hyperoxia-induced cell injury. Methods 80% O2 was used to imitate the microenvironment surrounding-transplanted cells in the hyperoxia-induced lung injury in vitro. BMSC proliferation and apoptotic rates and the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured. The effects of Trx-1 overexpression on the level of antioxidants and growth factors were investigated. We also investigated the activation of apoptosis-regulating kinase-1 (ASK1) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). Result Trx-1 overexpression significantly reduced hyperoxia-induced BMSC apoptosis and increased cell proliferation. We demonstrated that Trx-1 overexpression upregulated the levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase as well as downregulated the production of ROS. Furthermore, we illustrated that Trx-1 protected BMSCs against hyperoxic injury via decreasing the ASK1/P38 MAPK activation rate. Conclusion These results demonstrate that Trx-1 overexpression improved the ability of BMSCs to counteract hyperoxia-induced injury, thus increasing their potential to treat hyperoxia-induced lung diseases such as BPD. PMID:29599892

  15. Attachment and growth of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells on regenerated antheraea pernyi silk fibroin films

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    Luan Xiying [Institute of Medical Biotechnology, Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Stem Cell, Suzhou University, Suzhou 215007 (China); Wang Yong [Institute of Medical Biotechnology, Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Stem Cell, Suzhou University, Suzhou 215007 (China); Duan Xiang [Institute of Medical Biotechnology, Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Stem Cell, Suzhou University, Suzhou 215007 (China); Duan Qiaoyan [Institute of Medical Biotechnology, Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Stem Cell, Suzhou University, Suzhou 215007 (China); Li Mingzhong [School of Materials Engineering, Suzhou University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Lu Shenzhou [School of Materials Engineering, Suzhou University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Zhang Huanxiang [Institute of Medical Biotechnology, Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Stem Cell, Suzhou University, Suzhou 215007 (China); Zhang Xueguang [Institute of Medical Biotechnology, Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Stem Cell, Suzhou University, Suzhou 215007 (China)

    2006-12-15

    Silk fibroin of the silkworm Bombyx mori has been studied extensively, while the research on Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin (A. pernyi SF) in biomaterials is only at an early stage. In this study, the attachment, morphology, growth and phenotype of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) cultured on the regenerated A. pernyi SF films were studied in vitro. The results indicated that the attachment of hBMSCs on the regenerated A. pernyi SF films was almost the same as that on the collagen films. MTT and cell counting analyses demonstrated that the growth of hBMSCs on the regenerated A. pernyi SF films was better than that on controls. Moreover, electron scanning microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting assays showed that the regenerated A. pernyi SF supported hBMSCs growth and functional maintenance compared with the controls. These data suggest that the regenerated A. pernyi SF, like Bombyx mori silk fibroin (B. mori SF) and collagen, can support hBMSCs attachment, growth and phenotypic maintenance, and has better biocompatibilities for hBMSCs in vitro culture.

  16. Enhancement of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Osteogenesis and New Bone Formation in Rats by Obtusilactone A

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    Yi-Hsiung Lin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The natural pure compound obtusilactone A (OA was identified in Cinnamomum kotoense Kanehira & Sasaki, and shows effective anti-cancer activity. We studied the effect of OA on osteogenesis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs. OA possesses biocompatibility, stimulates Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP activity and facilitates mineralization of BMSCs. Expression of osteogenesis markers BMP2, Runx2, Collagen I, and Osteocalcin was enhanced in OA-treated BMSCs. An in vivo rat model with local administration of OA via needle implantation to bone marrow-residing BMSCs revealed that OA increased the new bone formation and trabecular bone volume in tibias. Micro-CT images and H&E staining showed more trabecular bone at the needle-implanted site in the OA group than the normal saline group. Thus, OA confers an osteoinductive effect on BMSCs via induction of osteogenic marker gene expression, such as BMP2 and Runx2 expression and subsequently elevates ALP activity and mineralization, followed by enhanced trabecular bone formation in rat tibias. Therefore, OA is a potential osteoinductive drug to stimulate new bone formation by BMSCs.

  17. TGFβ1-Induced Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow-Derived MSCs Is Mediated by Changes to the Actin Cytoskeleton

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    Mona Elsafadi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available TGFβ is a potent regulator of several biological functions in many cell types, but its role in the differentiation of human bone marrow-derived skeletal stem cells (hMSCs is currently poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that a single dose of TGFβ1 prior to induction of osteogenic or adipogenic differentiation results in increased mineralized matrix or increased numbers of lipid-filled mature adipocytes, respectively. To identify the mechanisms underlying this TGFβ-mediated enhancement of lineage commitment, we compared the gene expression profiles of TGFβ1-treated hMSC cultures using DNA microarrays. In total, 1932 genes were upregulated, and 1298 genes were downregulated. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that TGFβl treatment was associated with an enrichment of genes in the skeletal and extracellular matrix categories and the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. To investigate further, we examined the actin cytoskeleton following treatment with TGFβ1 and/or cytochalasin D. Interestingly, cytochalasin D treatment of hMSCs enhanced adipogenic differentiation but inhibited osteogenic differentiation. Global gene expression profiling revealed a significant enrichment of pathways related to osteogenesis and adipogenesis and of genes regulated by both TGFβ1 and cytochalasin D. Our study demonstrates that TGFβ1 enhances hMSC commitment to either the osteogenic or adipogenic lineages by reorganizing the actin cytoskeleton.

  18. Provocation of skin graft rejection across murine class II differences by non--bone-marrow-derived cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, P.M.; Beck-Maier, B.; Melvold, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    We have evaluated the relative contribution of bone-marrow-derived cells to skin allograft immunogenicity in mice differing only at class II major histocompatibility genes by using bone marrow radiation chimeras as donors. The mouse strains used were C57BL/6Kh (B6) and B6.C-H-2bm12 (bm12), which differ only at at A beta gene of the I region of the mouse H-2 complex. Our results demonstrated that skin from (B6----bm12) chimeras was accepted by bm12 recipients and rejected by B6 mice in a manner indistinguishable from that of normal bm12 skin. Likewise, naive bm12 mice rejected (bm12----B6) chimeric skin and normal B6 skin equally well, and B6 animals accepted both types of skin grafts. Our data argues that the donor cell-type leading to graft rejection across limited I region differences is not of bone marrow origin, and that these cells must--at least under certain circumstances--express class II antigens

  19. Sonic hedgehog protein promotes proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warzecha, Jörg; Göttig, Stephan; Brüning, Christian; Lindhorst, Elmar; Arabmothlagh, Mohammad; Kurth, Andreas

    2006-10-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) protein is known to be an important signaling protein in early embryonic development. Also, Shh is involved in the induction of early cartilaginous differentiation of mesenchymal cells in the limb and in the spine. The impact of Shh on adult stem cells, human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), was tested. The MSCs were treated either with recombinant Sonic hedgehog protein (r-Shh) or with transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta(1)) as a positive control in vitro for 3 weeks. The effects on cartilaginous differentiation and proliferation were assayed. MSCs when treated with either Shh or TGF-beta(1) showed expression of cartilage markers aggrecan, Sox9, CEP-68, and collagen type II and X within 3 weeks. Only r-Shh-treated cells showed a very strong cell proliferation and much higher BrdU incorporation in cell assay systems. These are the first data that indicate an important role of Shh for the induction of cartilage production by MSCs in vitro.

  20. Development of a rapid culture method to induce adipocyte differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninomiya, Yuichi; Sugahara-Yamashita, Yzumi; Nakachi, Yutaka; Tokuzawa, Yoshimi; Okazaki, Yasushi; Nishiyama, Masahiko

    2010-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) derived from bone marrow are multipotent stem cells that can regenerate mesenchymal tissues such as adipose, bone or muscle. It is thought that hMSCs can be utilized as a cell resource for tissue engineering and as human models to study cell differentiation mechanisms, such as adipogenesis, osteoblastogenesis and so on. Since it takes 2-3 weeks for hMSCs to differentiate into adipocytes using conventional culture methods, the development of methods to induce faster differentiation into adipocytes is required. In this study we optimized the culture conditions for adipocyte induction to achieve a shorter cultivation time for the induction of adipocyte differentiation in bone marrow-derived hMSCs. Briefly, we used a cocktail of dexamethasone, insulin, methylisobutylxanthine (DIM) plus a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist, rosiglitazone (DIMRo) as a new adipogenic differentiation medium. We successfully shortened the period of cultivation to 7-8 days from 2-3 weeks. We also found that rosiglitazone alone was unable to induce adipocyte differentiation from hMSCs in vitro. However, rosiglitazone appears to enhance hMSC adipogenesis in the presence of other hormones and/or compounds, such as DIM. Furthermore, the inhibitory activity of TGF-β1 on adipogenesis could be investigated using DIMRo-treated hMSCs. We conclude that our rapid new culture method is very useful in measuring the effect of molecules that affect adipogenesis in hMSCs.

  1. Generation of Insulin-Producing Cells from Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Comparison of Three Differentiation Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud M. Gabr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Many protocols were utilized for directed differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs to form insulin-producing cells (IPCs. We compared the relative efficiency of three differentiation protocols. Methods. Human bone marrow-derived MSCs (HBM-MSCs were obtained from three insulin-dependent type 2 diabetic patients. Differentiation into IPCs was carried out by three protocols: conophylline-based (one-step protocol, trichostatin-A-based (two-step protocol, and β-mercaptoethanol-based (three-step protocol. At the end of differentiation, cells were evaluated by immunolabeling for insulin production, expression of pancreatic endocrine genes, and release of insulin and c-peptide in response to increasing glucose concentrations. Results. By immunolabeling, the proportion of generated IPCs was modest (≃3% in all the three protocols. All relevant pancreatic endocrine genes, insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin, were expressed. There was a stepwise increase in insulin and c-peptide release in response to glucose challenge, but the released amounts were low when compared with those of pancreatic islets. Conclusion. The yield of functional IPCs following directed differentiation of HBM-MSCs was modest and was comparable among the three tested protocols. Protocols for directed differentiation of MSCs need further optimization in order to be clinically meaningful. To this end, addition of an extracellular matrix and/or a suitable template should be attempted.

  2. Response of murine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells to dry-etched porous silicon scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajj-Hassan, Mohamad; Khayyat-Kholghi, Maedeh; Wang, Huifen; Chodavarapu, Vamsy; Henderson, Janet E

    2011-11-01

    Porous silicon shows great promise as a bio-interface material due to its large surface to volume ratio, its stability in aqueous solutions and to the ability to precisely regulate its pore characteristics. In the current study, porous silicon scaffolds were fabricated from single crystalline silicon wafers by a novel xenon difluoride dry etching technique. This simplified dry etch fabrication process allows selective formation of porous silicon using a standard photoresist as mask material and eliminates the post-formation drying step typically required for the wet etching techniques, thereby reducing the risk of damaging the newly formed porous silicon. The porous silicon scaffolds supported the growth of primary cultures of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) plated at high density for up to 21 days in culture with no significant loss of viability, assessed using Alamar Blue. Scanning electron micrographs confirmed a dense lawn of cells at 9 days of culture and the presence of MSC within the pores of the porous silicon scaffolds. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The cellular prion protein negatively regulates phagocytosis and cytokine expression in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang

    Full Text Available The cellular prion protein (PrP(C is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI-anchored glycoprotein on the cell surface. Previous studies have demonstrated contradictory roles for PrP(C in connection with the phagocytic ability of macrophages. In the present work, we investigated the function of PrP(C in phagocytosis and cytokine expression in bone marrow-derived macrophages infected with Escherichia coli. E. coli infection induced an increase in the PRNP mRNA level. Knockout of PrP(C promoted bacterial uptake; upregulated Rab5, Rab7, and Eea1 mRNA expression; and increased the recruitment of lysosomal-associated membrane protein-2 to phagosomes, suggesting enhanced microbicidal activity. Remarkably, knockout of PrP(C suppressed the proliferation of internalized bacteria and increased the expression of cytokines such as interleukin-1β. Collectively, our data reveal an important role of PrP(C as a negative regulator for phagocytosis, phagosome maturation, cytokine expression, and macrophage microbicidal activity.

  4. Influence of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells pre-implantation differentiation approach on periodontal regeneration in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xinjie; Yang, Fang; Yan, Xiangzhen; Yang, Wanxun; Yu, Na; Oortgiesen, Daniel A W; Wang, Yining; Jansen, John A; Walboomers, X Frank

    2015-04-01

    The implantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has previously been shown successful to achieve periodontal regeneration. However, the preferred pre-implantation differentiation strategy (e.g. maintenance of stemness, osteogenic or chondrogenic induction) to obtain optimal periodontal regeneration is still unknown. This in vivo study explored which differentiation approach is most suitable for periodontal regeneration. Mesenchymal stem cells were obtained from Fischer rats and seeded onto poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/poly(ɛ-caprolactone) electrospun scaffolds, and then pre-cultured under different in vitro conditions: (i) retention of multilineage differentiation potential; (ii) osteogenic differentiation approach; and (iii) chondrogenic differentiation approach. Subsequently, the cell-scaffold constructs were implanted into experimental periodontal defects of Fischer rats, with empty scaffolds as controls. After 6 weeks of implantation, histomorphometrical analyses were applied to evaluate the regenerated periodontal tissues. The chondrogenic differentiation approach showed regeneration of alveolar bone and ligament tissues. The retention of multilineage differentiation potential supported only ligament regeneration, while the osteogenic differentiation approach boosted alveolar bone regeneration. Chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs before implantation is a useful strategy for regeneration of alveolar bone and periodontal ligament, in the currently used rat model. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Attachment and growth of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells on regenerated antheraea pernyi silk fibroin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan Xiying; Wang Yong; Duan Xiang; Duan Qiaoyan; Li Mingzhong; Lu Shenzhou; Zhang Huanxiang; Zhang Xueguang

    2006-01-01

    Silk fibroin of the silkworm Bombyx mori has been studied extensively, while the research on Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin (A. pernyi SF) in biomaterials is only at an early stage. In this study, the attachment, morphology, growth and phenotype of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) cultured on the regenerated A. pernyi SF films were studied in vitro. The results indicated that the attachment of hBMSCs on the regenerated A. pernyi SF films was almost the same as that on the collagen films. MTT and cell counting analyses demonstrated that the growth of hBMSCs on the regenerated A. pernyi SF films was better than that on controls. Moreover, electron scanning microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting assays showed that the regenerated A. pernyi SF supported hBMSCs growth and functional maintenance compared with the controls. These data suggest that the regenerated A. pernyi SF, like Bombyx mori silk fibroin (B. mori SF) and collagen, can support hBMSCs attachment, growth and phenotypic maintenance, and has better biocompatibilities for hBMSCs in vitro culture

  6. Identification of Rorβ targets in cultured osteoblasts and in human bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roforth, Matthew M., E-mail: roforth.matthew@mayo.edu; Khosla, Sundeep, E-mail: khosla.sundeep@mayo.edu; Monroe, David G., E-mail: monroe.david@mayo.edu

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •We examine the gene expression patterns controlled by Rorβ in osteoblasts. •Genes involved in extracellular matrix regulation and proliferation are affected. •Rorβ mRNA levels increase in aged, human bone biopsies. •Rorβ may affect osteoblast activity by modulation of these pathways. -- Abstract: Control of osteoblastic bone formation involves the cumulative action of numerous transcription factors, including both activating and repressive functions that are important during specific stages of differentiation. The nuclear receptor retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor β (Rorβ) has been recently shown to suppress the osteogenic phenotype in cultured osteoblasts, and is highly upregulated in bone marrow-derived osteogenic precursors isolated from aged osteoporotic mice, suggesting Rorβ is an important regulator of osteoblast function. However the specific gene expression patterns elicited by Rorβ are unknown. Using microarray analysis, we identified 281 genes regulated by Rorβ in an MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblast cell model (MC3T3-Rorβ-GFP). Pathway analysis revealed alterations in genes involved in MAPK signaling, genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) regulation, and cytokine-receptor interactions. Whereas the identified Rorβ-regulated ECM genes normally decline during osteoblastic differentiation, they were highly upregulated in this non-mineralizing MC3T3-Rorβ-GFP model system, suggesting that Rorβ may exert its anti-osteogenic effects through ECM disruption. Consistent with these in vitro findings, the expression of both RORβ and a subset of RORβ-regulated genes were increased in bone biopsies from postmenopausal women (73 ± 7 years old) compared to premenopausal women (30 ± 5 years old), suggesting a role for RORβ in human age-related bone loss. Collectively, these data demonstrate that Rorβ regulates known osteogenic pathways, and may represent a novel therapeutic target for age-associated bone loss.

  7. Generation of mesenchymal stromal cells in the presence of platelet lysate: a phenotypic and functional comparison of umbilical cord blood- and bone marrow-derived progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanzini, Maria Antonietta; Bernardo, Maria Ester; Cometa, Angela Maria; Perotti, Cesare; Zaffaroni, Nadia; Novara, Francesca; Visai, Livia; Moretta, Antonia; Del Fante, Claudia; Villa, Raffaella; Ball, Lynne M.; Fibbe, Willem E.; Maccario, Rita; Locatelli, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stromal cells are employed in various different clinical settings in order to modulate immune response. However, relatively little is known about the mechanisms responsible for their immunomodulatory effects, which could be influenced by both the cell source and culture conditions. Design and Methods We tested the ability of a 5% platelet lysate-supplemented medium to support isolation and ex vivo expansion of mesenchymal stromal cells from full-term umbilical-cord blood. We also investigated the biological/functional properties of umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stromal cells, in comparison with platelet lysate-expanded bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells. Results The success rate of isolation of mesenchymal stromal cells from umbilical cord blood was in the order of 20%. These cells exhibited typical morphology, immunophenotype and differentiation capacity. Although they have a low clonogenic efficiency, umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stromal cells may possess high proliferative potential. The genetic stability of these cells from umbilical cord blood was demonstrated by a normal molecular karyotype; in addition, these cells do not express hTERT and telomerase activity, do express p16ink4a protein and do not show anchorage-independent cell growth. Concerning alloantigen-specific immune responses, umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stromal cells were able to: (i) suppress T- and NK-lymphocyte proliferation, (ii) decrease cytotoxic activity and (iii) only slightly increase interleukin-10, while decreasing interferon-γ secretion, in mixed lymphocyte culture supernatants. While an indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-specific inhibitor did not reverse mesenchymal stromal cell-induced suppressive effects, a prostaglandin E2-specific inhibitor hampered the suppressive effect of both umbilical cord blood- and bone marrow-mesenchymal stromal cells on alloantigen-induced cytotoxic activity. Mesenchymal stromal cells from both sources expressed HLA-G. Conclusions Umbilical cord blood- and bone marrow-mesenchymal stromal cells may differ in terms of clonogenic efficiency, proliferative capacity and immunomodulatory properties; these differences may be relevant for clinical applications. PMID:19773264

  8. Strategies to reverse endothelial progenitor cell dysfunction in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrelli, Alessandra; Di Fenza, Raffaele; Carvello, Michele; Gatti, Francesca; Secchi, Antonio; Fiorina, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Bone-marrow-derived cells-mediated postnatal vasculogenesis has been reported as the main responsible for the regulation of vascular homeostasis in adults. Since their discovery, endothelial progenitor cells have been depicted as mediators of postnatal vasculogenesis for their peculiar phenotype (partially staminal and partially endothelial), their ability to differentiate in endothelial cell line and to be incorporated into the vessels wall during ischemia/damage. Diabetes mellitus, a condition characterized by cardiovascular disease, nephropathy, and micro- and macroangiopathy, showed a dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells. Herein, we review the mechanisms involved in diabetes-related dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells, highlighting how hyperglycemia affects the different steps of endothelial progenitor cells lifetime (i.e., bone marrow mobilization, trafficking into the bloodstream, differentiation in endothelial cells, and homing in damaged tissues/organs). Finally, we review preclinical and clinical strategies that aim to revert diabetes-induced dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells as a means of finding new strategies to prevent diabetic complications.

  9. Strategies to Reverse Endothelial Progenitor Cell Dysfunction in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Petrelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone-marrow-derived cells-mediated postnatal vasculogenesis has been reported as the main responsible for the regulation of vascular homeostasis in adults. Since their discovery, endothelial progenitor cells have been depicted as mediators of postnatal vasculogenesis for their peculiar phenotype (partially staminal and partially endothelial, their ability to differentiate in endothelial cell line and to be incorporated into the vessels wall during ischemia/damage. Diabetes mellitus, a condition characterized by cardiovascular disease, nephropathy, and micro- and macroangiopathy, showed a dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells. Herein, we review the mechanisms involved in diabetes-related dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells, highlighting how hyperglycemia affects the different steps of endothelial progenitor cells lifetime (i.e., bone marrow mobilization, trafficking into the bloodstream, differentiation in endothelial cells, and homing in damaged tissues/organs. Finally, we review preclinical and clinical strategies that aim to revert diabetes-induced dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells as a means of finding new strategies to prevent diabetic complications.

  10. Prostacyclin Suppresses Twist Expression in the Presence of Indomethacin in Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Oliver; Herten, Monika; Fischer, Johannes; Haversath, Marcel; Beck, Sascha; Classen, Tim; Warwas, Sebastian; Tassemeier, Tjark; Landgraeber, Stefan; Lensing-Höhn, Sabine; Krauspe, Rüdiger; Jäger, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Background Iloprost, a stable prostacyclin I2 analogue, seems to have an osteoblast-protective potential, whereas indomethacin suppresses new bone formation. The aim of this study was to investigate human bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) proliferation and differentiation towards the osteoblastic lineage by administration of indomethacin and/or iloprost. Material/Methods Human bone marrow cells were obtained from 3 different donors (A=26 yrs/m; B=25 yrs/f, C=35 yrs/m) via vacuum aspiration of the iliac crest followed by density gradient centrifugation and flow cytometry with defined antigens (CD105+/73+/45−/14−). The cells were seeded and incubated as follows: without additives (Group 0; donor A/B/C), with 10−7 M iloprost only (Group 0+ilo; A/B), with indomethacin only in concentrations of 10−6 M (Group 1, A), 10−5 M (Group 2, B), 10−4 M (Group 3, A/B), and together with 10−7 M iloprost (Groups 4–6, A/B/C). On Day 10 and 28, UV/Vis spectrometric and immunocytochemical assays (4 samples per group and donor) were performed to investigate cell proliferation (cell count measurement) and differentiation towards the osteoblastic lineage (CD34−, CD45−, CD105+, type 1 collagen (Col1), osteocalcin (OC), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Runx2, Twist, specific ALP-activity). Results Indomethacin alone suppressed BMSC differentiation towards the osteoblastic lineage by downregulation of Runx2, Col1, and ALP. In combination with indomethacin, iloprost increased cell proliferation and differentiation and it completely suppressed Twist expression at Day 10 and 28. Iloprost alone did not promote cell proliferation, but moderately enhanced Runx2 and Twist expression. However, the proliferative effects and the specific ALP-activity varied donor-dependently. Conclusions Iloprost partially antagonized the suppressing effects of indomethacin on BMSC differentiation towards the osteoblast lineage. It enhanced the expression of Runx2 and, only in the presence of indomethacin

  11. Concentration-dependent behaviors of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells and infectious bacteria toward magnesium oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetteland, Cheyann Lee; Nguyen, Nhu-Y Thi; Liu, Huinan

    2016-04-15

    This article reports the quantitative relationship between the concentration of magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles and its distinct biological activities towards mammalian cells and infectious bacteria for the first time. The effects of MgO nanoparticles on the viability of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and infectious bacteria (both gram-negative Escherichia coli and gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis) showed a concentration-dependent behavior in vitro. The critical concentrations of MgO nanoparticles identified in this study provided valuable guidelines for biomaterial design toward potential clinical translation. BMSCs density increased significantly when cultured in 200μg/mL of MgO in comparison to the Cells Only control without MgO. The density of BMSCs decreased significantly after culture in the media with 500μg/mL or more of MgO. Concentrations at or above 1000μg/mL of MgO resulted in complete BMSCs death. Quantification of colony forming units (CFU) revealed that the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of MgO for E. coli and S. epidermidis was 1200μg/mL. The addition of MgO nanoparticles into the cultures increased the pH and Mg(2+) ion concentration in the respective culture media, which might have played a role in the observed cell responses but not the main factors. E. coli and S. epidermidis still proliferated significantly at alkaline pH up to 10 or with supplemental Mg(2+) dosages up to 50mM, indicating bactericidal properties of MgO are beyond the effects of increased media pH and Mg(2+) ion concentrations. MgO nanoparticles at a concentration of 200μg/mL provided dual benefits of promoting BMSC proliferation while reducing bacterial adhesion, which should be further studied for potential medical implant applications. The use of free MgO nanoparticles yielded detrimental effects to BMSCs in concentrations above 300μg/mL. We recommend further study into MgO nanoparticle as a coating material or as a part of a

  12. Design and implementation of the TRACIA: intracoronary autologous transplant of bone marrow-derived stem cells for acute ST elevation myocardial infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Peña-Duque, Marco A.; Martínez-Ríos, Marco A.; Calderón G, Eva; Mejía, Ana M.; Gómez, Enrique; Martínez-Sánchez, Carlos; Figueroa, Javier; Gaspar, Jorge; González, Héctor; Bialoztosky, David; Meave, Aloha; Uribe-González, Jhonathan; Alexánderson, Erick; Ochoa, Victor; Masso, Felipe

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe the design of a protocol of intracoronary autologous transplant of bone marrow-derived stem cells for acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and to report the safety of the procedure in the first patients included. Methods: The TRACIA study was implemented following predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The protocol includes procedures such as randomization, bone marrow retrieval, stem cells processing, intracoronary infusion of stem cells in the inf...

  13. Bioactive lipid coating of bone allografts directs engraftment and fate determination of bone marrow-derived cells in rat GFP chimeras

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Anusuya; Segar, Claire E.; Chu, Yihsuan; Wang, Tiffany W.; Lin, Yong; Yang, Chunxi; Du, Xeujun; Ogle, Roy C.; Cui, Quanjun; Botchwey, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    Bone grafting procedures are performed to treat wounds incurred during wartime trauma, accidents, and tumor resections. Endogenous mechanisms of repair are often insufficient to ensure integration between host and donor bone and subsequent restoration of function. We investigated the role that bone marrow-derived cells play in bone regeneration and sought to increase their contributions by functionalizing bone allografts with bioactive lipid coatings. Polymer-coated allografts were used to lo...

  14. Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cell (BMDSC transplantation improves fertility in a murine model of Asherman's syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feryal Alawadhi

    Full Text Available Asherman's Syndrome is characterized by intrauterine adhesions or fibrosis resulting as a consequence of damage to the basal layer of endometrium and is associated with infertility due to loss of normal endometrium. We have previously shown that bone marrow derived stem cells (BMDSCs engraft the endometrium in mice and humans and Ischemia/reperfusion injury of uterus promoted BMDSCs migration to the endometrium; however, the role of BMDSCs in Asherman's syndrome has not been characterized. Here a murine model of Asherman's syndrome was created by traumatizing the uterus. We evaluate stem cell recruitment and pregnancy after BMDSCs transplantation in a model of Asherman's syndrome. In the Asheman's syndrome model, after BMDSC transplant, the Y chromosome bearing CD45-cells represented less than 0.1% of total endometrial cells. Twice the number of Y+CD45- cells was identified in the damaged uterus compared to the uninjured controls. There was no significant difference between the damaged and undamaged uterine horns in mice that received injury to a single horn. In the BMDSC transplant group, 9 of the 10 mice conceived, while only 3 of 10 in the non-transplanted group conceived (Chi-Square p = 0.0225; all mice in an uninjured control group conceived. The time to conception and mean litter size were not different between groups. Taken together, BMDSCs are recruited to endometrium in response to injury. Fertility improves after BMDSC transplant in Asherman's Syndrome mice, demonstrating a functional role for these cells in uterine repair. BMDSC transplantation is a potential novel treatment for Asherman's Syndrome and may also be useful to prevent Asherman's syndrome after uterine injury.

  15. Three-dimensional graphene foams loaded with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells promote skin wound healing with reduced scarring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhonghua [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China); Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, The Fourth People' s Hospital Of Jinan, Jinan 250031 (China); Wang, Haiqin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Fifth People' s Hospital Of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Yang, Bo; Sun, Yukai [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, The Fourth People' s Hospital Of Jinan, Jinan 250031 (China); Huo, Ran, E-mail: rhuo12@163.com [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China)

    2015-12-01

    The regeneration of functional skin remains elusive, due to poor engraftment, deficient vascularization, and excessive scar formation. Aiming to overcome these issues, the present study proposed the combination of a three-dimensional graphene foam (GF) scaffold loaded with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to improve skin wound healing. The GFs demonstrated good biocompatibility and promoted the growth and proliferation of MSCs. Meanwhile, the GFs loaded with MSCs obviously facilitated wound closure in animal model. The dermis formed in the presence of the GF structure loaded with MSCs was thicker and possessed a more complex structure at day 14 post-surgery. The transplanted MSCs correlated with upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), which may lead to neo-vascularization. Additionally, an anti-scarring effect was observed in the presence of the 3D-GF scaffold and MSCs, as evidenced by a downregulation of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) together with an increase of TGF-β3. Altogether, the GF scaffold could guide the wound healing process with reduced scarring, and the MSCs were crucial to enhance vascularization and provided a better quality neo-skin. The GF scaffold loaded with MSCs possesses necessary bioactive cues to improve wound healing with reduced scarring, which may be of great clinical significance for skin wound healing. - Highlights: • The GFs promoted the growth and proliferation of MSCs. • The GFs loaded with MSCs obviously facilitated wound closure in the animal model. • An anti-scarring effect was observed in the presence of 3D-GF scaffold and MSCs. • The GF scaffold loaded with MSCs has great effect on skin wound healing.

  16. Complement C1q regulates LPS-induced cytokine production in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masahide; Oritani, Kenji; Kaisho, Tsuneyasu; Ishikawa, Jun; Yoshida, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Isao; Kawamoto, Shinichirou; Ishida, Naoko; Ujiie, Hidetoshi; Masaie, Hiroaki; Botto, Marina; Tomiyama, Yoshiaki; Matsuzawa, Yuji

    2004-01-01

    We show here that C1q suppresses IL-12p40 production in LPS-stimulated murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC). Serum IL-12p40 concentration of C1q-deficient mice was higher than that of wild-type mice after intraperitoneal LPS-injection. Because neither globular head of C1q (gC1q) nor collagen-like region of C1q (cC1q) failed to suppress LPS-induced IL-12p40 production, both gC1q and cC1q, and/or some specialized conformation of native C1q may be required for the inhibition. While C1q did not affect mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), MD-2, and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), BMDC treated with C1q showed the reduced activity of NF-kappaB and the delayed phosphorylation of p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase after LPS-stimulation. CpG oligodeoxynucleotide-induced IL-12p40 and TNF-alpha production, another MyD88-dependent TLR-mediated signal, was also suppressed by C1q treatment. Therefore, C1q is likely to suppress MyD88-dependent pathway in TLR-mediated signals. In contrast, C1q failed to suppress colony formation of B cells responding to LPS or LPS-induced CD40 and CD86 expression on BMDC in MyD88-deficient mice, indicating that inhibitory effects of C1q on MyD88-independent pathways may be limited. Taken together, C1q may regulate innate and adaptive immune systems via modification of signals mediated by interactions between invading pathogens and TLR.

  17. Comparative study of adipose-derived stem cells and bone marrow-derived stem cells in similar microenvironmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guneta, Vipra [Division of Materials Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Tan, Nguan Soon [School of Biological Science, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); KK Research Centre, KK Women' s and Children Hospital, 100 Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 229899 (Singapore); Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Agency for Science Technology & Research - A*STAR, 61 Biopolis Drive, Proteos, Singapore 138673 (Singapore); Chan, Soon Kiat Jeremy [School of Biological Science, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Tanavde, Vivek [Bioinformatics Institute, Agency for Science Technology & Research - A*STAR, 30 Biopolis Street, Matrix, Singapore 138671 (Singapore); Lim, Thiam Chye [Division of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Department of Surgery, National University Hospital (NUH) and National University of Singapore (NUS), Kent Ridge Wing, Singapore 119074 (Singapore); Wong, Thien Chong Marcus [Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery Section, Tan Tock Seng Hospital (TTSH), 11, Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore 308433 (Singapore); Choong, Cleo, E-mail: cleochoong@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Materials Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); KK Research Centre, KK Women' s and Children Hospital, 100 Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 229899 (Singapore)

    2016-11-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which were first isolated from the bone marrow, are now being extracted from various other tissues in the body, including the adipose tissue. The current study presents systematic evidence of how the adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Bm-MSCs) behave when cultured in specific pro-adipogenic microenvironments. The cells were first characterized and identified as MSCs in terms of their morphology, phenotypic expression, self-renewal capabilities and multi-lineage potential. Subsequently, the proliferation and gene expression profiles of the cell populations cultured on two-dimensional (2D) adipose tissue extracellular matrix (ECM)-coated tissue culture plastic (TCP) and in three-dimensional (3D) AlgiMatrix® microenvironments were analyzed. Overall, it was found that adipogenesis was triggered in both cell populations due to the presence of adipose tissue ECM. However, in 3D microenvironments, ASCs and Bm-MSCs were predisposed to the adipogenic and osteogenic lineages respectively. Overall, findings from this study will contribute to ongoing efforts in adipose tissue engineering as well as provide new insights into the role of the ECM and cues provided by the immediate microenvironment for stem cell differentiation. - Highlights: • Native adipose tissue ECM coated on 2D TCP triggers adipogenesis in both ASCs and Bm-MSCs. • A 3D microenvironment with similar stiffness to adipose tissue induces adipogenic differentiation of ASCs. • ASCs cultured in 3D alginate scaffolds exhibit predisposition to adipogenesis. • Bm-MSCs cultured in 3D alginate scaffolds exhibit predisposition to osteogenesis. • The native microenvironment of the cells affects their differentiation behaviour in vitro.

  18. Effects of Portulaca oleracea L. Polysaccharides on Phenotypic and Functional Maturation of Murine Bone Marrow Derived Dendritic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Hui; Cai, Yaping

    2015-01-01

    Portulaca oleracea L. is an annual plant widely distributed from the temperate to the tropical zones. POL-P3b, a polysaccharide fraction purified from Portulaca oleracea L., is able to enhance immunity and inhibit tumor formation. Induction of antitumor immunity by dendritic-tumor fusion cells can be modulated by their activation status. Mature dendritic cells are significantly better than immature dendritic cells at cytotoxic T-lymphocyte induction. In this study, we analyzed the effects of POL-P3b on the maturation and function of murine bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and relevant mechanisms. The phenotypic maturation of DCs was confirmed by flow cytometry. We found that POL-P3b upregulated the expression of CD80, CD86, CD83, and major histocompatibility complex class II molecules on DCs, stimulated production of more interleukin (IL)-12, tumor necrosis factor-α, and less IL-10. Also, DCs pulsed POL-P3b and freeze-thaw antigen increased DCs-driven T cells' proliferation and promoted U14 cells' apoptosis. Furthermore, the expression of TLR-4 was significantly increased on DCs treated by POL-P3b. These results suggested that POL-P3b may induce DCs maturation through TLR-4. Taken together, our results may have important implications for the molecular mechanisms of immunopotentiation of POL-P3b, and provide direct evidence to suggest that POL-P3b should be considered as a potent adjuvant nutrient supplement for DC-based vaccines.

  19. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells effectively regenerate fibrotic liver in bile duct ligation rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Hoda E; Elswefy, Sahar E; Rashed, Laila A; Younis, Nahla N; Shaheen, Mohamed A; Ghanim, Amal M H

    2016-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have attracted lots of attention for the treatment of acute liver failure and end-stage liver diseases. This study aimed at investigating the fundamental mechanism by which bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) induce liver regeneration of fibrotic liver in rats. Rats underwent bile duct ligation (BDL) surgery and four weeks later they were treated with either BM-MSCs (3 × 10(6) cells /rat, once, tail vein injection) or silymarin (100 mg/kg, daily, orally) for four weeks. Liver function tests and hepatic oxidative stress were determined. Hepatic injury and fibrosis were assessed by H and E, Sirus red staining and immunohistochemical expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and the gene expression of cytokeratin-19 (CK-19) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in liver tissue were determined. BDL induced cholestatic liver injury characterized by elevated ALT and AST activities, bilirubin and decreased albumin. The architecture damage was staged as Metavir score: F3, A3. Fibrosis increased around proliferating bile duct as indicated by sirus red staining and α-SMA immunostaining. Fibrogenesis was favored over fibrolysis and confirmed by decreased HGF with increased expression of CK-19, but decreased MMP-2 expression. BM-MSCs treatment restored deteriorated liver functions and restored the histological changes, resolved fibrosis by improving liver regenerative capabilities (P liver regenerative capabilities can be stimulated by BM-MSCs via augmentation of HGF that subsequently up-regulate MMP-2 mRNA while downregulating CK-19 mRNA. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  20. Neurotrophin-3 promotes proliferation and cholinergic neuronal differentiation of bone marrow- derived neural stem cells via notch signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu-Hui; Li, Shao-Heng; Gao, Zhong; Zou, Sa-Feng; Li, Hong-Yan; Tao, Zhen-Yu; Song, Jie; Yang, Jing-Xian

    2016-12-01

    Recently, the potential for neural stem cells (NSCs) to be used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been reported; however, the therapeutic effects are modest by virtue of the low neural differentiation rate. In our study, we transfected bone marrow-derived NSCs (BM-NSCs) with Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), a superactive neurotrophic factor that promotes neuronal survival, differentiation, and migration of neuronal cells, to investigate the effects of NT-3 gene overexpression on the proliferation and differentiation into cholinergic neuron of BM-NSCs in vitro and its possible molecular mechanism. BM-NSCs were generated from BM mesenchymal cells of adult C57BL/6 mice and cultured in vitro. After transfected with NT-3 gene, immunofluorescence and RT-PCR method were used to determine the ability of BM-NSCs on proliferation and differentiation into cholinergic neuron; Acetylcholine Assay Kit was used for acetylcholine (Ach). RT-PCR and WB analysis were used to characterize mRNA and protein level related to the Notch signaling pathway. We found that NT-3 can promote the proliferation and differentiation of BM-NSCs into cholinergic neurons and elevate the levels of acetylcholine (ACh) in the supernatant. Furthermore, NT-3 gene overexpression increase the expression of Hes1, decreased the expression of Mash1 and Ngn1 during proliferation of BM-NSCs. Whereas, the expression of Hes1 was down-regulated, and Mash1 and Ngn1 expression were up-regulated during differentiation of BM-NSCs. Our findings support the prospect of using NT-3-transduced BM-NSCs in developing therapies for AD due to their equivalent therapeutic potential as subventricular zone-derived NSCs (SVZ-NSCs), greater accessibility, and autogenous attributes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Three-dimensional graphene foams loaded with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells promote skin wound healing with reduced scarring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhonghua; Wang, Haiqin; Yang, Bo; Sun, Yukai; Huo, Ran

    2015-01-01

    The regeneration of functional skin remains elusive, due to poor engraftment, deficient vascularization, and excessive scar formation. Aiming to overcome these issues, the present study proposed the combination of a three-dimensional graphene foam (GF) scaffold loaded with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to improve skin wound healing. The GFs demonstrated good biocompatibility and promoted the growth and proliferation of MSCs. Meanwhile, the GFs loaded with MSCs obviously facilitated wound closure in animal model. The dermis formed in the presence of the GF structure loaded with MSCs was thicker and possessed a more complex structure at day 14 post-surgery. The transplanted MSCs correlated with upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), which may lead to neo-vascularization. Additionally, an anti-scarring effect was observed in the presence of the 3D-GF scaffold and MSCs, as evidenced by a downregulation of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) together with an increase of TGF-β3. Altogether, the GF scaffold could guide the wound healing process with reduced scarring, and the MSCs were crucial to enhance vascularization and provided a better quality neo-skin. The GF scaffold loaded with MSCs possesses necessary bioactive cues to improve wound healing with reduced scarring, which may be of great clinical significance for skin wound healing. - Highlights: • The GFs promoted the growth and proliferation of MSCs. • The GFs loaded with MSCs obviously facilitated wound closure in the animal model. • An anti-scarring effect was observed in the presence of 3D-GF scaffold and MSCs. • The GF scaffold loaded with MSCs has great effect on skin wound healing

  2. Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Enhanced by Platelet-Rich Plasma Maintain Adhesion to Scaffolds in Arthroscopic Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberman, Alexander R; Cirino, Carl; McCarthy, Mary Beth; Cote, Mark P; Pauzenberger, Leo; Beitzel, Knut; Mazzocca, Augustus D; Dyrna, Felix

    2018-03-01

    To assess the response of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (bMSCs) enhanced by platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the setting of a normal human tendon (NHT), a demineralized bone matrix (DBM), and a fibrin scaffold (FS) with simulated arthroscopic mechanical washout stress. Bone marrow was aspirated from the humeral head and concentrated. BMSCs were counted, plated, and grown to confluence. Cells were seeded onto 3 different scaffolds: (1) NHT, (2) DBM, and (3) FS. Each scaffold was treated with a combination of (+)/(-) PRP and (+)/(-) arthroscopic washout simulation. A period of 60 minutes was allotted before arthroscopic washout. Adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation assays were performed to assess cellular activity in each condition. Significant differences were seen in mesenchymal stromal cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation among the scaffolds. DBM and FS showed superior results to NHT for cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. PRP significantly enhanced cellular adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. Arthroscopic simulation did not significantly decrease bMSC adhesion. We found that the type of scaffold impacts bMSCs' behavior. Both scaffolds (DBM and FS) were superior to NHT. The use of an arthroscopic simulator did not significantly decrease the adhesion of bMSCs to the scaffolds nor did it decrease their biologic differentiation potential. In addition, PRP enhanced cellular adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. Improved healing after tendon repair can lead to better clinical outcomes. BMSCs are attractive for enhancing healing given their accessibility and regenerative potential. Application of bMSCs using scaffolds as cell carriers relies on arthroscopic feasibility. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Repression of COUP-TFI Improves Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation into Insulin-Producing Cells

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    Tao Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Identifying molecular mechanisms that regulate insulin expression in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs can provide clues on how to stimulate the differentiation of bmMSCs into insulin-producing cells (IPCs, which can be used as a therapeutic approach against type 1 diabetes (T1D. As repression factors may inhibit differentiation, the efficiency of this process is insufficient for cell transplantation. In this study, we used the mouse insulin 2 (Ins2 promoter sequence and performed a DNA affinity precipitation assay combined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify the transcription factor, chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcriptional factor I (COUP-TFI. Functionally, bmMSCs were reprogrammed into IPCs via COUP-TFI suppression and MafA overexpression. The differentiated cells expressed higher levels of genes specific for islet endocrine cells, and they released C-peptide and insulin in response to glucose stimulation. Transplantation of IPCs into streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice caused a reduction in hyperglycemia. Mechanistically, COUP-TFI bound to the DR1 (direct repeats with 1 spacer element in the Ins2 promoter, thereby negatively regulating promoter activity. Taken together, the data provide a novel mechanism by which COUP-TFI acts as a negative regulator in the Ins2 promoter. The differentiation of bmMSCs into IPCs could be improved by knockdown of COUP-TFI, which may provide a novel stem cell-based therapy for T1D. Keywords: siRNAs, differentiation, stem cell transplantation, diabetes, mesenchymal stem cells

  4. Advances of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of cartilage defects: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Kaliappan; Amirhamed, Haji Alizadeh; Kamarul, Tunku

    2014-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapies represent a new option for treating damaged cartilage. However, the outcomes following its clinical application have seldom been previously compared. The present paper presents the systematic review of current literatures on MSC-based therapy for cartilage repair in clinical applications. Ovid, Scopus, PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and Google Scholar online databases were searched using several keywords, which include "cartilage" and "stem cells". Only studies using bone marrow-derived MSC (BM-MSC) to treat cartilage defects clinically were included in this review. The clinical outcomes were compared, and the quality of the tissue repair was analysed where possible. Of the 996 articles, only six (n = 6) clinical studies have described the use of BM-MSC in clinical applications. Two studies were cohort observational trials, three were case series, and one was a case report. In the two comparative trials, BM-MSCs produced superior repair to cartilage treatment without cells and have comparable outcomes to autologous chondrocyte implantation. The case series and case-control studies have demonstrated that use of BM-MSCs resulted in better short- to long-term clinical outcomes with minimal complications. In addition, histological analyses in two studies have resulted in good repair tissue formation at the damaged site, composed mainly of hyaline-like cartilage. Although results of the respective studies are highly indicative that BM-MSC-based therapy is superior, due to the differences in methods and selection criteria used, it was not possible to make direct comparison between the studies. In conclusion, published studies do suggest that BM-MSCs could provide superior cartilage repair. However, due to limited number of reports, more robust studies might be required before a definitive conclusion can be drawn.

  5. Hepatocyte growth factor modulates interleukin-6 production in bone marrow derived macrophages: implications for inflammatory mediated diseases.

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    Gina M Coudriet

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The generation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β fuel the acute phase response (APR. To maintain body homeostasis, the increase of inflammatory proteins is resolved by acute phase proteins via presently unknown mechanisms. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF is transcribed in response to IL-6. Since IL-6 production promotes the generation of HGF and induces the APR, we posited that accumulating HGF might be a likely candidate for quelling excess inflammation under non-pathological conditions. We sought to assess the role of HGF and how it influences the regulation of inflammation utilizing a well-defined model of inflammatory activation, lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulation of bone marrow derived macrophages (BMM. BMM were isolated from C57BL6 mice and were stimulated with LPS in the presence or absence of HGF. When HGF was present, there was a decrease in production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6, along with an increase in the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Altered cytokine production correlated with an increase in phosphorylated GSK3β, increased retention of the phosphorylated NFκB p65 subunit in the cytoplasm, and an enhanced interaction between CBP and phospho-CREB. These changes were a direct result of signaling through the HGF receptor, MET, as effects were reversed in the presence of a selective inhibitor of MET (SU11274 or when using BMM from macrophage-specific conditional MET knockout mice. Combined, these data provide compelling evidence that under normal circumstances, HGF acts to suppress the inflammatory response.

  6. Isolation of Mature (Peritoneum-Derived Mast Cells and Immature (Bone Marrow-Derived Mast Cell Precursors from Mice.

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    Steffen K Meurer

    Full Text Available Mast cells (MCs are a versatile cell type playing key roles in tissue morphogenesis and host defence against bacteria and parasites. Furthermore, they can enhance immunological danger signals and are implicated in inflammatory disorders like fibrosis. This granulated cell type originates from the myeloid lineage and has similarities to basophilic granulocytes, both containing large quantities of histamine and heparin. Immature murine mast cells mature in their destination tissue and adopt either the connective tissue (CTMC or mucosal (MMC type. Some effector functions are executed by activation/degranulation of MCs which lead to secretion of a typical set of MC proteases (MCPT and of the preformed or newly synthesized mediators from its granules into the local microenvironment. Due to the potential accumulation of mutations in key signalling pathway components of corresponding MC cell-lines, primary cultured MCs are an attractive mean to study general features of MC biology and aspects of MC functions relevant to human disease. Here, we describe a simple protocol for the simultaneous isolation of mature CTMC-like murine MCs from the peritoneum (PMCs and immature MC precursors from the bone marrow (BM. The latter are differentiated in vitro to yield BM-derived MCs (BMMC. These cells display the typical morphological and phenotypic features of MCs, express the typical MC surface markers, and can be propagated and kept in culture for several weeks. The provided protocol allows simple amplification of large quantities of homogenous, non-transformed MCs from the peritoneum and bone marrow-derived mast cells for cell- and tissue-based biomedical research.

  7. Comparative study of adipose-derived stem cells and bone marrow-derived stem cells in similar microenvironmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guneta, Vipra; Tan, Nguan Soon; Chan, Soon Kiat Jeremy; Tanavde, Vivek; Lim, Thiam Chye; Wong, Thien Chong Marcus; Choong, Cleo

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which were first isolated from the bone marrow, are now being extracted from various other tissues in the body, including the adipose tissue. The current study presents systematic evidence of how the adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Bm-MSCs) behave when cultured in specific pro-adipogenic microenvironments. The cells were first characterized and identified as MSCs in terms of their morphology, phenotypic expression, self-renewal capabilities and multi-lineage potential. Subsequently, the proliferation and gene expression profiles of the cell populations cultured on two-dimensional (2D) adipose tissue extracellular matrix (ECM)-coated tissue culture plastic (TCP) and in three-dimensional (3D) AlgiMatrix® microenvironments were analyzed. Overall, it was found that adipogenesis was triggered in both cell populations due to the presence of adipose tissue ECM. However, in 3D microenvironments, ASCs and Bm-MSCs were predisposed to the adipogenic and osteogenic lineages respectively. Overall, findings from this study will contribute to ongoing efforts in adipose tissue engineering as well as provide new insights into the role of the ECM and cues provided by the immediate microenvironment for stem cell differentiation. - Highlights: • Native adipose tissue ECM coated on 2D TCP triggers adipogenesis in both ASCs and Bm-MSCs. • A 3D microenvironment with similar stiffness to adipose tissue induces adipogenic differentiation of ASCs. • ASCs cultured in 3D alginate scaffolds exhibit predisposition to adipogenesis. • Bm-MSCs cultured in 3D alginate scaffolds exhibit predisposition to osteogenesis. • The native microenvironment of the cells affects their differentiation behaviour in vitro.

  8. Impact of culture medium on maturation of bone marrow-derived murine dendritic cells via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilchmann, Anne; Krause, Maren; Heilmann, Monika; Burgdorf, Sven; Vieths, Stefan; Toda, Masako

    2012-05-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) plays a role in modulating dendritic cell (DC) immunity. Iscove's modified Dulbecco's medium (IMDM) contains higher amounts of AhR ligands than RPMI1640 medium. Here, we examined the influence of AhR ligand-containing medium on the maturation and T-cell stimulatory capacity of bone marrow-derived murine dendritic cells (BMDCs). BMDCs generated in IMDM (BMDCs/IMDM) expressed higher levels of co-stimulatory and MHC class II molecules, and lower levels of pattern-recognition receptors, especially toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR4, and scavenger receptor class A (SR-A), compared to BMDCs generated in RPMI1640 medium (BMDCs/RPMI). Cytokine responses against ligands of TLRs and antigen uptake mediated by SR-A were remarkably reduced in BMDCs/IMDM, whereas the T-cell stimulatory capacity of the cells was enhanced, compared to BMDCs/RPMI. The enhanced maturation of BMDCs/IMDM was attenuated in the presence of an AhR antagonist, indicating involvement of AhR in the maturation. Interestingly, BMDCs/IMDM induced Th2 and Th17 differentiation at low and high concentrations of antigen respectively, when co-cultured with CD4(+) T-cells from antigen-specific T-cell receptor transgenic mice. In contrast, BMDCs/RPMI induced Th1 differentiation predominantly in the co-culture. Taken together, optimal selection of medium seems necessary when studying BMDCs, depending on the target receptors on the cell surface of DCs and type of helper T-cells for the co-culture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Neural stem cells induce bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to generate neural stem-like cells via juxtacrine and paracrine interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexanian, Arshak R.

    2005-01-01

    Several recent reports suggest that there is far more plasticity that previously believed in the developmental potential of bone-marrow-derived cells (BMCs) that can be induced by extracellular developmental signals of other lineages whose nature is still largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) co-cultured with mouse proliferating or fixed (by paraformaldehyde or methanol) neural stem cells (NSCs) generate neural stem cell-like cells with a higher expression of Sox-2 and nestin when grown in NS-A medium supplemented with N2, NSC conditioned medium (NSCcm) and bFGF. These neurally induced MSCs eventually differentiate into β-III-tubulin and GFAP expressing cells with neuronal and glial morphology when grown an additional week in Neurobasal/B27 without bFGF. We conclude that juxtacrine interaction between NSCs and MSCs combined with soluble factors released from NSCs are important for generation of neural-like cells from bone-marrow-derived adherent MSCs

  10. Transgelin is a TGFβ-inducible gene that regulates osteoblastic and adipogenic differentiation of human skeletal stem cells through actin cytoskeleston organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsafadi, E; Manikandan, M; Dawud, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative medicine is a novel approach for treating conditions in which enhanced bone regeneration is required. We identified transgelin (TAGLN), a transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ)-inducible gene, as an upregulated gene during in vitro osteoblastic and adipocytic differentiation of human......MSC by regulating cytoskeleton organization. Targeting TAGLN is a plausible approach to enrich for committed hMSC cells needed for regenerative medicine application....... bone marrow-derived stromal (skeletal) stem cells (hMSC). siRNA-mediated gene silencing of TAGLN impaired lineage differentiation into osteoblasts and adipocytes but enhanced cell proliferation. Additional functional studies revealed that TAGLN deficiency impaired hMSC cell motility and in vitro...... transwell cell migration. On the other hand, TAGLN overexpression reduced hMSC cell proliferation, but enhanced cell migration, osteoblastic and adipocytic differentiation, and in vivo bone formation. In addition, deficiency or overexpression of TAGLN in hMSC was associated with significant changes...

  11. Osteoclasts but not osteoblasts are affected by a calcified surface treated with zoledronic acid in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindeler, Aaron; Little, David G.

    2005-01-01

    Bisphosphonates are potent inhibitors of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Recent interest has centered on the effects of bisphosphonates on osteoblasts. Chronic dosing of osteoblasts with solubilized bisphosphonates has been reported to enhance osteogenesis and mineralization in vitro. However, this methodology poorly reflects the in vivo situation, where free bisphosphonate becomes rapidly bound to mineralized bone surfaces. To establish a more clinically relevant cell culture model, we cultured bone cells on calcium phosphate coated quartz discs pre-treated with the potent nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid (ZA). Binding studies utilizing [ 14 C]-labeled ZA confirmed that the bisphosphonate bound in a concentration-dependent manner over the 1-50 μM dose range. When grown on ZA-treated discs, the viability of bone-marrow derived osteoclasts was greatly reduced, while the viability and mineralization of the osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell line were largely unaffected. This suggests that only bone resorbing cells are affected by bound bisphosphonate. However, this system does not account for transient exposure to unbound bisphosphonate in the hours following a clinical dosing. To model this event, we transiently treated osteoblasts with ZA in the absence of a calcified surface. Osteoblasts proved highly resistant to all transitory treatment regimes, even when utilizing ZA concentrations that prevented mineralization and/or induced cell death when dosed chronically. This study represents a pharmacologically more relevant approach to modeling bisphosphonate treatment on cultured bone cells and implies that bisphosphonate therapies may not directly affect osteoblasts at bone surfaces

  12. Progenitor Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty-Santos, Leilani

    2015-01-01

    Insulin-producing β cells within the vertebrate fetal pancreas acquire their fate in a step-wise manner. Whereas the intrinsic factors dictating the transcriptional or epigenetic status of pancreatic lineages have been intensely examined, less is known about cell–cell interactions that might constitute a niche for the developing β cell lineage. It is becoming increasingly clear that understanding and recapitulating these steps may instruct in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem cells and/or therapeutic regeneration. Indeed, directed differentiation techniques have improved since transitioning from 2D to 3D cultures, suggesting that the 3D microenvironment in which β cells are born is critical. However, to date, it remains unknown whether the changing architecture of the pancreatic epithelium impacts the fate of cells therein. An emerging challenge in the field is to elucidate how progenitors are allocated during key events, such as the stratification and subsequent resolution of the pre-pancreatic epithelium, as well as the formation of lumens and branches. Here, we assess the progenitor epithelium and examine how it might influence the emergence of pancreatic multipotent progenitors (MPCs), which give rise to β cells and other pancreatic lineages. PMID:26216134

  13. Bone Formation by Sheep Stem Cells in an Ectopic Mouse Model: Comparison of Adipose and Bone Marrow Derived Cells and Identification of Donor-Derived Bone by Antibody Staining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Kjærgaard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Scaffolds for bone tissue engineering (BTE can be loaded with stem and progenitor cells (SPC from different sources to improve osteogenesis. SPC can be found in bone marrow, adipose tissue, and other tissues. Little is known about osteogenic potential of adipose-derived culture expanded, adherent cells (A-CEAC. This study compares in vivo osteogenic capacity between A-CEAC and bone marrow derived culture expanded, adherent cells (BM-CEAC. Method. A-CEAC and BM-CEAC were isolated from five female sheep and seeded on hydroxyapatite granules prior to subcutaneous implantation in immunodeficient mice. The doses of cells in the implants were 0.5 × 106, 1.0 × 106, or 1.5 × 106 A-CEAC and 0.5 × 106 BM-CEAC, respectively. After eight weeks, bone volume versus total tissue volume (BV/TV was quantified using histomorphometry. Origin of new bone was assessed using human vimentin (HVIM antibody staining. Results. BM-CEAC yielded significantly higher BV/TV than any A-CEAC group, and differences between A-CEAC groups were not statistically significant. HVIM antibody stain was successfully used to identify sheep cells in this model. Conclusion. A-CEAC and BM-CEAC were capable of forming bone, and BM-CEAC yielded significantly higher BV/TV than any A-CEAC group. In vitro treatment to enhance osteogenic capacity of A-CEAC is suggested for further research in ovine bone tissue engineering.

  14. Low bone mass and changes in the osteocyte network in mice lacking autophagy in the osteoblast lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piemontese, Marilina; Onal, Melda; Xiong, Jinhu; Han, Li; Thostenson, Jeff D; Almeida, Maria; O'Brien, Charles A

    2016-04-11

    Autophagy maintains cell function and homeostasis by recycling intracellular components. This process is also required for morphological changes associated with maturation of some cell types. Osteoblasts are bone forming cells some of which become embedded in bone and differentiate into osteocytes. This transformation includes development of long cellular projections and a reduction in endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. We examined the role of autophagy in osteoblasts by deleting Atg7 using an Osterix1-Cre transgene, which causes recombination in osteoblast progenitors and their descendants. Mice lacking Atg7 in the entire osteoblast lineage had low bone mass and fractures associated with reduced numbers of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Suppression of autophagy also reduced the amount of osteocyte cellular projections and led to retention of endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria in osteocytes. These results demonstrate that autophagy in osteoblasts contributes to skeletal homeostasis and to the morphological changes associated with osteocyte formation.

  15. LIGHT (TNFSF14 Increases the Survival and Proliferation of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

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    Sook-Kyoung Heo

    Full Text Available LIGHT (HVEM-L, TNFSF14, or CD258, an entity homologous to lymphotoxins, with inducible nature and the ability to compete with herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D for herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM/tumor necrosis factor (TNF-related 2, is a member of the TNF superfamily. It is expressed as a homotrimer on activated T cells and dendritic cells (DCs, and has three receptors: HVEM, LT-β receptor (LTβR, and decoy receptor 3 (DcR3. So far, three receptors with distinct cellular expression patterns are known to interact with LIGHT. Follicular DCs and stromal cells bind LIGHT through LTβR. We monitored the effects of LIGHT on human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs. At first, we checked the negative and positive differentiation markers of BM-MSCs. And we confirmed the quality of MSCs by staining cells undergoing adipogenesis (Oil Red O staining, chondrogenesis (Alcian blue staining, and osteogenesis (Alizarin red staining. After rhLIGHT treatment, we monitored the count, viability, and proliferation of cells and cell cycle distribution. PDGF and TGFβ production by rhLIGHT was examined by ELISA, and the underlying biological mechanisms were studied by immunoblotting by rhLIGHT treatment. LTβR was constitutively expressed on the surface of human BM-MSCs. Cell number and viability increased after rhLIGHT treatment. BM-MSC proliferation was induced by an increase in the S/G2/M phase. The expression of not only diverse cyclins such as cyclin B1, D1, D3, and E, but also CDK1 and CDK2, increased, while that of p27 decreased, after rhLIGHT treatment. RhLIGHT-induced PDGF and TGFβ production mediated by STAT3 and Smad3 activation accelerated BM-MSC proliferation. Thus, LIGHT and LTβR interaction increases the survival and proliferation of human BM-MSCs, and therefore, LIGHT might play an important role in stem cell therapy.

  16. Immunomodulatory effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in a swine hemi-facial allotransplantation model.

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    Yur-Ren Kuo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In this study, we investigated whether the infusion of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, combined with transient immunosuppressant treatment, could suppress allograft rejection and modulate T-cell regulation in a swine orthotopic hemi-facial composite tissue allotransplantation (CTA model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Outbred miniature swine underwent hemi-facial allotransplantation (day 0. Group-I (n = 5 consisted of untreated control animals. Group-II (n = 3 animals received MSCs alone (given on days -1, +1, +3, +7, +14, and +21. Group-III (n = 3 animals received CsA (days 0 to +28. Group-IV (n = 5 animals received CsA (days 0 to +28 and MSCs (days -1, +1, +3, +7, +14, and +21. The transplanted face tissue was observed daily for signs of rejection. Biopsies of donor tissues and recipient blood sample were obtained at specified predetermined times (per 2 weeks post-transplant or at the time of clinically evident rejection. Our results indicated that the MSC-CsA group had significantly prolonged allograft survival compared to the other groups (P<0.001. Histological examination of the MSC-CsA group displayed the lowest degree of rejection in alloskin and lymphoid gland tissues. TNF-α expression in circulating blood revealed significant suppression in the MSC and MSC-CsA treatment groups, as compared to that in controls. IHC staining showed CD45 and IL-6 expression were significantly decreased in MSC-CsA treatment groups compared to controls. The number of CD4+/CD25+ regulatory T-cells and IL-10 expressions in the circulating blood significantly increased in the MSC-CsA group compared to the other groups. IHC staining of alloskin tissue biopsies revealed a significant increase in the numbers of foxp3(+T-cells and TGF-β1 positive cells in the MSC-CsA group compared to the other groups. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that MSCs significantly prolong hemifacial CTA survival. Our data indicate the MSCs did not

  17. Promoting effect of small molecules in cardiomyogenic and neurogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanabdali R

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ramin Khanabdali,1 Anbarieh Saadat,1 Maizatul Fazilah,1 Khairul Fidaa’ Khairul Bazli,1 Rida-e-Maria Qazi,2 Ramla Sana Khalid,2 Durriyyah Sharifah Hasan Adli,1 Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi,1 Nadia Naeem,2 Irfan Khan,2 Asmat Salim,2 ShamsulAzlin Ahmad Shamsuddin,1 Gokula Mohan1 1Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Dr Panjwani Center for Molecular Medicine and Drug Research, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan Abstract: Small molecules, growth factors, and cytokines have been used to induce differentiation of stem cells into different lineages. Similarly, demethylating agents can trigger differentiation in adult stem cells. Here, we investigated the in vitro differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs into cardiomyocytes by a demethylating agent, zebularine, as well as neuronal-like cells by β-mercaptoethanol in a growth factor or cytokines-free media. Isolated bone marrow-derived MSCs cultured in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium exhibited a fibroblast-like morphology. These cells expressed positive markers for CD29, CD44, and CD117 and were negative for CD34 and CD45. After treatment with 1 µM zebularine for 24 hours, the MSCs formed myotube-like structures after 10 days in culture. Expression of cardiac-specific genes showed that treated MSCs expressed significantly higher levels of cardiac troponin-T, Nkx2.5, and GATA-4 compared with untreated cells. Immunocytochemical analysis showed that differentiated cells also expressed cardiac proteins, GATA-4, Nkx 2.5, and cardiac troponin-T. For neuronal differentiation, MSCs were treated with 1 and 10 mM β-mercaptoethanol overnight for 3 hours in complete and serum-free Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium, respectively. Following overnight treatment, neuron-like cells with axonal and dendritic-like projections originating from the

  18. The role of growth factors in maintenance of stemness in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Young Woo; Oh, Ji-Eun [Cell Therapy and Tissue Engineering Center, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong In [Department of Hematology-Oncology, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Baik, Soon Koo [Cell Therapy and Tissue Engineering Center, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Department of Internal Medicine, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Ki-Jong [Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, College of Health Sciences, Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Ha Cheol; Kim, Yong Man [Pharmicell Co., Ltd., Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Chan Mug [Department of Basic Science, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Kong, Jee Hyun [Department of Hematology-Oncology, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Soo, E-mail: khsmd@pharmicell.com [Pharmicell Co., Ltd., Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Kwang Yong, E-mail: kyshim@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Hematology-Oncology, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-28

    Highlights: • Expression of FGF-2, FGF-4, EGF, and HGF decreased during long-term culture of BMSCs. • Loss of growth factors induced autophagy, senescence and decrease of stemness. • FGF-2 increased proliferation potential via AKT and ERK activation in BMSCs. • FGF-2 suppressed LC3-II expression and down-regulated senescence of BMSCs. • HGF was important in maintenance of the differentiation potential of BMSCs. - Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an active topic of research in regenerative medicine due to their ability to secrete a variety of growth factors and cytokines that promote healing of damaged tissues and organs. In addition, these secreted growth factors and cytokines have been shown to exert an autocrine effect by regulating MSC proliferation and differentiation. We found that expression of EGF, FGF-4 and HGF were down-regulated during serial passage of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Proliferation and differentiation potentials of BMSCs treated with these growth factors for 2 months were evaluated and compared to BMSCs treated with FGF-2, which increased proliferation of BMSCs. FGF-2 and -4 increased proliferation potentials at high levels, about 76- and 26-fold, respectively, for 2 months, while EGF and HGF increased proliferation of BMSCs by less than 2.8-fold. Interestingly, differentiation potential, especially adipogenesis, was maintained only by HGF treatment. Treatment with FGF-2 rapidly induced activation of AKT and later induced ERK activation. The basal level of phosphorylated ERK increased during serial passage of BMSCs treated with FGF-2. The expression of LC3-II, an autophagy marker, was gradually increased and the population of senescent cells was increased dramatically at passage 7 in non-treated controls. But FGF-2 and FGF-4 suppressed LC3-II expression and down-regulated senescent cells during long-term (i.e. 2 month) cultures. Taken together, depletion of growth factors during serial passage

  19. Recipient bone marrow-derived stromal cells prolong graft survival in a rat hind limb allotransplantation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeguchi, Ryosuke; Kakinoki, Ryosuke; Ohta, Souichi; Oda, Hiroki; Yurie, Hirofumi; Kaizawa, Yukitoshi; Mitsui, Hiroto; Aoyama, Tomoki; Toguchida, Junya; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2017-09-01

    Recent studies have indicated that bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs) have immunomodulatory properties that suppress the T cell responses that cause graft rejection. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of recipient BMSCs intravenous infusion for immunomodulation in a rat vascularized composite allotransplantation model. A total of nine Wistar (WIS) rats and thirty Lewis (LEW) rats were used. BMSCs were harvested from three LEW rats. Twenty-four LEW rats were used as recipients and divided randomly into four groups: BMSC group, FK group, UT group, and Iso group. In the BMSC group, orthotopic rat hind limb transplantation was performed between WIS donor and LEW recipient rats. Recipient rats were injected intravenously with 2 × 10 6 recipient BMSCs on day 6, and with 0.2 mg/kg/day tacrolimus administered over 7 days (n = 6). In the FK group, recipient rats were treated with tacrolimus alone (n = 6). Rats in the UT group received no immunosuppressive treatment (n = 6). In the Iso group, transplantation was performed from three LEW donor rats to six LEW recipient rats without any immunosuppressive treatment (n = 6). Graft survival was assessed by daily inspection and histology. The immunological reactions of recipients were also evaluated. The graft survival of recipient rats in the BMSC group (24.5 days) was significantly prolonged in comparison with that of the FK group (18 days) (P Recipient rats in the BMSC group had significantly reduced serum IFN-γ cytokine levels (1.571 ± 0.779 pg/ml) in comparison with that of the FK group (7.059 ± 1.522 pg/ml) (P = .001). In in vitro study, BMSCs induce T cell hyporesponsiveness in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. BMSCs induce T cell hyporesponsiveness and prolong graft survival in the rat vascularized composite allotransplantation model. BMSCs exhibit immunomodulatory properties against acute rejection that can be realized without the need for significant recipient

  20. Genetically modified human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells for improving the outcome of human islet transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Mundra

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the potential of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs as gene carriers for improving the outcome of human islet transplantation. hBMSCs were characterized for the expression of phenotypic markers and transduced with Adv-hVEGF-hIL-1Ra to overexpress human vascular endothelial growth factor (hVEGF and human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (hIL-1Ra. Human islets were co-cultured with hBMSCs overexpressing hVEGF and hIL-1Ra. Islet viability was determined by membrane fluorescent method and glucose stimulation test. Transduced hBMSCs and human islets were co-transplanted under the kidney capsule of NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid Il2rg(tm1Wjl /SzJ (NSG diabetic mice and blood glucose levels were measured over time to demonstrate the efficacy of genetically modified hBMSCs. At the end of study, immunofluorescent staining of kidney section bearing islets was performed for insulin and von Willebrand Factor (vWF. hBMSCs were positive for the expression of CD73, CD90, CD105, CD146 and Stro-1 surface markers as determined by flow cytometry. Transduction of hBMSCs with adenovirus did not affect their stemness and differentiation potential as confirmed by mRNA levels of stem cell markers and adipogenic differentiation of transduced hBMSCs. hBMSCs were efficiently transduced with Adv-hVEGF-hIL-1Ra to overexpress hVEGF and hIL-1Ra. Live dead cell staining and glucose stimulation test have shown that transduced hBMSCs improved the viability of islets against cytokine cocktail. Co-transplantation of human islets with genetically modified hBMSCs improved the glycemic control of diabetic NSG mice as determined by mean blood glucose levels and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. Immunofluorescent staining of kidney sections was positive for human insulin and vWF. In conclusion, our results have demonstrated that hBMSCs may be used as gene carriers and nursing cells to improve the outcome of islet

  1. Autologous Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Modulate Molecular Markers of Inflammation in Dogs with Cruciate Ligament Rupture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Muir

    Full Text Available Mid-substance rupture of the canine cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CR and associated stifle osteoarthritis (OA is an important veterinary health problem. CR causes stifle joint instability and contralateral CR often develops. The dog is an important model for human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL rupture, where rupture of graft repair or the contralateral ACL is also common. This suggests that both genetic and environmental factors may increase ligament rupture risk. We investigated use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs to reduce systemic and stifle joint inflammatory responses in dogs with CR. Twelve dogs with unilateral CR and contralateral stable partial CR were enrolled prospectively. BM-MSCs were collected during surgical treatment of the unstable CR stifle and culture-expanded. BM-MSCs were subsequently injected at a dose of 2x106 BM-MSCs/kg intravenously and 5x106 BM-MSCs by intra-articular injection of the partial CR stifle. Blood (entry, 4 and 8 weeks and stifle synovial fluid (entry and 8 weeks were obtained after BM-MSC injection. No adverse events after BM-MSC treatment were detected. Circulating CD8+ T lymphocytes were lower after BM-MSC injection. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP was decreased at 4 weeks and serum CXCL8 was increased at 8 weeks. Synovial CRP in the complete CR stifle was decreased at 8 weeks. Synovial IFNγ was also lower in both stifles after BM-MSC injection. Synovial/serum CRP ratio at diagnosis in the partial CR stifle was significantly correlated with development of a second CR. Systemic and intra-articular injection of autologous BM-MSCs in dogs with partial CR suppresses systemic and stifle joint inflammation, including CRP concentrations. Intra-articular injection of autologous BM-MSCs had profound effects on the correlation and conditional dependencies of cytokines using causal networks. Such treatment effects could ameliorate risk of a second CR by modifying the stifle joint

  2. The role of growth factors in maintenance of stemness in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Young Woo; Oh, Ji-Eun; Lee, Jong In; Baik, Soon Koo; Rhee, Ki-Jong; Shin, Ha Cheol; Kim, Yong Man; Ahn, Chan Mug; Kong, Jee Hyun; Kim, Hyun Soo; Shim, Kwang Yong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Expression of FGF-2, FGF-4, EGF, and HGF decreased during long-term culture of BMSCs. • Loss of growth factors induced autophagy, senescence and decrease of stemness. • FGF-2 increased proliferation potential via AKT and ERK activation in BMSCs. • FGF-2 suppressed LC3-II expression and down-regulated senescence of BMSCs. • HGF was important in maintenance of the differentiation potential of BMSCs. - Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an active topic of research in regenerative medicine due to their ability to secrete a variety of growth factors and cytokines that promote healing of damaged tissues and organs. In addition, these secreted growth factors and cytokines have been shown to exert an autocrine effect by regulating MSC proliferation and differentiation. We found that expression of EGF, FGF-4 and HGF were down-regulated during serial passage of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Proliferation and differentiation potentials of BMSCs treated with these growth factors for 2 months were evaluated and compared to BMSCs treated with FGF-2, which increased proliferation of BMSCs. FGF-2 and -4 increased proliferation potentials at high levels, about 76- and 26-fold, respectively, for 2 months, while EGF and HGF increased proliferation of BMSCs by less than 2.8-fold. Interestingly, differentiation potential, especially adipogenesis, was maintained only by HGF treatment. Treatment with FGF-2 rapidly induced activation of AKT and later induced ERK activation. The basal level of phosphorylated ERK increased during serial passage of BMSCs treated with FGF-2. The expression of LC3-II, an autophagy marker, was gradually increased and the population of senescent cells was increased dramatically at passage 7 in non-treated controls. But FGF-2 and FGF-4 suppressed LC3-II expression and down-regulated senescent cells during long-term (i.e. 2 month) cultures. Taken together, depletion of growth factors during serial passage

  3. Long-Term Results of Cartilage Repair after Allogeneic Transplantation of Cartilaginous Aggregates Formed from Bone Marrow-Derived Cells for Large Osteochondral Defects in Rabbit Knees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Tomokazu; Mishima, Hajime; Sakai, Shinsuke; Uemura, Toshimasa

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term results of cartilage repair after allogeneic transplantation of cartilaginous aggregates formed from bone marrow-derived cells. Bone marrow cells were harvested from 12-day-old rabbits. The cells were subjected to a monolayer culture, and the spindle-shaped cells attached to the flask surface were defined as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells. After the monolayer culture, a 3-dimensional cartilaginous aggregate was formed using a bioreactor with chondrogenesis. We created osteochondral defects, measuring 5 mm in diameter and 4 mm in depth, at the femoral trochlea of 10-week-old rabbits. Two groups were established, the transplanted group in which the cartilaginous aggregate was transplanted into the defect, and the control group in which the defect was left untreated. Twenty-six and 52 weeks after surgery, the rabbits were sacrificed and their tissue repair status was evaluated macroscopically (International Cartilage Repair Society [ICRS] score) and histologically (O'Driscoll score). The ICRS scores were as follows: at week 26, 7.2 ± 0.5 and 7.6 ± 0.8; at week 52, 7.6 ± 1.1 and 9.7 ± 0.7, for the transplanted and control groups, respectively. O'Driscoll scores were as follows: at week 26, 12.6 ± 1.9 and 10.1 ± 1.9; at week 52, 9.6 ± 3.0 and 14.0 ± 1.4, each for transplanted and control groups, respectively. No significant differences were observed between the groups. This study demonstrates that allogeneic transplantation of cartilaginous aggregates formed from bone marrow-derived cells produces comparable long-term results based on macroscopic and histological outcome measures when compared with osteochondral defects that are left untreated.

  4. Role of bone marrow-derived CD11c+ dendritic cells in systolic overload-induced left ventricular inflammation, fibrosis and hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Kwak, Dongmin; Fassett, John; Liu, Xiaohong; Yao, Wu; Weng, Xinyu; Xu, Xin; Xu, Yawei; Bache, Robert J; Mueller, Daniel L; Chen, Yingjie

    2017-05-01

    Inflammatory responses play an important role in the development of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and dysfunction. Recent studies demonstrated that increased T-cell infiltration and T-cell activation contribute to LV hypertrophy and dysfunction. Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells that orchestrate immune responses, especially by modulating T-cell function. In this study, we investigated the role of bone marrow-derived CD11c + DCs in transverse aortic constriction (TAC)-induced LV fibrosis and hypertrophy in mice. We observed that TAC increased the number of CD11c + cells and the percentage of CD11c + MHCII + (major histocompatibility complex class II molecule positive) DCs in the LV, spleen and peripheral blood in mice. Using bone marrow chimeras and an inducible CD11c + DC ablation model, we found that depletion of bone marrow-derived CD11c + DCs significantly attenuated LV fibrosis and hypertrophy in mice exposed to 24 weeks of moderate TAC. CD11c + DC ablation significantly reduced TAC-induced myocardial inflammation as indicated by reduced myocardial CD45 + cells, CD11b + cells, CD8 + T cells and activated effector CD8 + CD44 + T cells in LV tissues. Moreover, pulsing of autologous DCs with LV homogenates from TAC mice promoted T-cell proliferation. These data indicate that bone marrow-derived CD11c + DCs play a maladaptive role in hemodynamic overload-induced cardiac inflammation, hypertrophy and fibrosis through the presentation of cardiac self-antigens to T cells.

  5. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells propagate immunosuppressive/anti-inflammatory macrophages in cell-to-cell contact-independent and -dependent manners under hypoxic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Naoki; Okubo, Naoto; Kamo, Masaharu; Chosa, Naoyuki; Mikami, Toshinari; Suzuki, Keita; Yokota, Seiji; Ibi, Miho; Ohtsuka, Masato; Taira, Masayuki; Yaegashi, Takashi; Ishisaki, Akira; Kyakumoto, Seiko

    2017-09-15

    Immunosuppressive/anti-inflammatory macrophage (Mφ), M2-Mφ that expressed the typical M2-Mφs marker, CD206, and anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-10, is beneficial and expected tool for the cytotherapy against inflammatory diseases. Here, we demonstrated that bone marrow-derived lineage-positive (Lin+) blood cells proliferated and differentiated into M2-Mφs by cooperation with the bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) under hypoxic condition: MSCs not only promoted proliferation of undifferentiated M2-Mφs, pre-M2-Mφs, in the Lin+ fraction via a proliferative effect of the MSCs-secreted macrophage colony-stimulating factor, but also promoted M2-Mφ polarization of the pre-M2-Mφs through cell-to-cell contact with the pre-M2-Mφs. Intriguingly, an inhibitor for intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 receptor/lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1, Rwj50271, partially suppressed expression of CD206 in the Lin+ blood cells but an inhibitor for VCAM-1 receptor/VLA-4, BIO5192, did not, suggesting that the cell-to-cell adhesion through LFA-1 on pre-M2-Mφs and ICAM-1 on MSCs was supposed to promoted the M2-Mφ polarization. Thus, the co-culture system consisting of bone marrow-derived Lin+ blood cells and MSCs under hypoxic condition was a beneficial supplier of a number of M2-Mφs, which could be clinically applicable to inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Repaired but Did Not Prevent Gentamicin-Induced Acute Kidney Injury through Paracrine Effects in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Luciana A.; Borges, Fernanda T.; Simões, Manuel J.; Borges, Andrea A.; Sinigaglia-Coimbra, Rita; Schor, Nestor

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) or their conditioned medium (CM) on the repair and prevention of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) induced by gentamicin (G). Animals received daily injections of G up to 20 days. On the 10(th) day, injections of BMSCs, CM, CM+trypsin, CM+RNase or exosome-like microvesicles extracted from the CM were administered. In the prevention groups, the animals received the BMSCs 24 h before or on the 5(th) day of G treatmen...

  7. Repair of large full-thickness articular cartilage defects in the rabbit: the effects of joint distraction and autologous bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, T; Ishii, T; Chang, F; Ochiai, N

    2005-05-01

    We produced large full-thickness articular cartilage defects in 33 rabbits in order to evaluate the effect of joint distraction and autologous culture-expanded bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal cell transplantation (ACBMT) at 12 weeks. After fixing the knee on a hinged external fixator, we resected the entire surface of the tibial plateau. We studied three groups: 1) with and without joint distraction; 2) with joint distraction and collagen gel, and 3) with joint distraction and ACBMT and collagen gel. The histological scores were significantly higher in the groups with ACBMT collagen gel (p distraction, collagen gel and ACBMT.

  8. Bone marrow-derived and peritoneal macrophages have different inflammatory response to oxLDL and M1/M2 marker expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Line S; Mogensen, Christina K; Rosendahl, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are heterogeneous and can polarize into specific subsets, e.g. pro-inflammatory M1-like and re-modelling M2-like macrophages. To determine if peritoneal macrophages (PEMs) or bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) resembled aortic macrophages from ApoE-/- mice, their M1/M2 phenotype,......, ACSL1, SRB1, DGAT1, and cpt1a) was decreased in advanced versus early lesions. In conclusion, PEMs and BMDMs are phenotypically distinct and differ from macrophages in lesions with respect to expression of M1/M2 markers and lipid metabolism genes....

  9. Transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells rescues partially rachitic phenotypes induced by 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D deficiency in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zengli; Yin, Shaomeng; Xue, Xian; Ji, Ji; Tong, Jian; Goltzman, David; Miao, Dengshun

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether the transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) can improve the 1,25(OH)2D deficiency-induced rachitic phenotype, 2×106 BM-MSCs from wild-type mice or vehicle were transplanted by tail vein injection into mice deficient in 1,25(OH)2D due to targeted deletion of 1α(OH)ase (1α(OH)ase-/-). Our results show that 1α(OH)ase mRNA was expressed in the BM-MSCs derived from wild-type mice, and was detected in long bone, kidney and intestine from BM-MSC-t...

  10. Continuous Lymphoid Cell Lines with Characteristics of B Cells (Bone-Marrow-Derived), Lacking the Epstein-Barr Virus Genome and Derived from Three Human Lymphomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, George; Lindahl, Tomas; Jondal, Mikael; Leibold, Wolfgang; Menézes, José; Nilsson, Kenneth; Sundström, Christer

    1974-01-01

    Three exceptional cell lines have been tested for the presence of the Epstein-Barr virus genome by nucleic acid hybridization (complementary RNA·DNA) and Epstein-Barr virus-determined nuclear antigen tests. Two lines were derived from Swedish lymphoma cases and one from an African Burkitt-like lymphoma biopsy that was negative for Epstein-Barr virus DNA and the virus-determined nuclear antigen. All three lines apparently lacked the viral genome. Two of the three lines clearly had characteristics of B-cells (bone-marrow-derived). PMID:4369887

  11. Microtubule nucleation in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells is regulated by the concerted action of GIT1/βPIX proteins and calcium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sulimenko, Vadym; Hájková, Zuzana; Černohorská, Markéta; Sulimenko, Tetyana; Sládková, Vladimíra; Dráberová, Lubica; Vinopal, Stanislav; Dráberová, Eduarda; Dráber, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 194, č. 9 (2015), s. 4099-4111 ISSN 0022-1767 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP302/12/1673; GA ČR GPP302/11/P709; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-09807S; GA ČR GA15-22194S; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13015; GA MŠk LH12050; GA MZd NT14467 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Bone Marrow-Derived Mast Cells * Microtubule Nucleation * GIT1/beta PIX Proteins * Calcium Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.985, year: 2015

  12. [Multi-channel promotion of lung cancer progress by bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells in tumor microenvironment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, D; Hu, S Y; Liu, G X

    2018-02-23

    Objective: To observe the growth and metastasis of lung cancer promoted by bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in tumor microenvironment and investigate the underlined mechanisms. Methods: Specific chemotaxis of BMSCs towards lung cancer was observed, and the tumor growth and metastasis were assessed in vivo . Furthermore, CD34 expression determined by immunohistochemistry was used to assess the microvessel density (MVD), and the expressions of GFP and α-SMA determined by immunofluorescence were used to detect the BMSCs derived mesenchymal cells. We investigated the effect of BMSCs on migration, invasion of lung cancer cells including A549 and H446 cells by using scratch assays and Transwell Assay in vitro. We also explored the effect of BMSCs on epithelial mesenchymal transition of A549 and H446 cells by observing the phenotype transition and E-Cadherin protein expression detected by Western blot. At last, we screened the potentially key soluble factors by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: In NOD mice, labeled BMSCs injected via tail vein were special chemotaxis to tumor cells, and promoted the tumor growth [the time of tumor formation in A549+ BMSCs and A549 alone was (5.0±1.5) days and (10.0±3.6) days, respectively, P cell carcinoma and promoted the migration and invasion of lung cancer cells (the A of cells in the migrated lower chambers of A549+ BMSCs and A549 alone was 1.9±0.2 and 1.1±0.1, respectively, P cells in the migrated lower chambers of H446+ BMSCs and H446 alone was 1.9±0.3 and 0.9±0.2, respectively, P cell shape was longer and sharper, the intercellular junctions were reduced and the relative expression level of E-Cadherin protein in A549 co-cultured with BMDCs was 0.36, significantly down-regulated when compared to 0.55 of A549 alone ( P cells alone ( P <0.05). The concentration of IL-6 in the conditional medium of BMSCs, A549 co-cultured with BMSCs and H446 co-cultured with BMSCs was 910.5, 957.2, and 963

  13. Ihh controls cartilage development by antagonizing Gli3, but requires additional effectors to regulate osteoblast and vascular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Matthew J; Tu, Xiaolin; Cook, Julie; Hu, Hongliang; Long, Fanxin

    2005-10-01

    Indian hedgehog (Ihh) controls multiple aspects of endochondral skeletal development, including proliferation and maturation of chondrocytes, osteoblast development and cartilage vascularization. Although it is known that Gli transcription factors are key effectors of hedgehog signaling, it has not been established which Gli protein mediates Ihh activity in skeletal development. Here, we show that removal of Gli3 in Ihh-null mouse embryos restored normal proliferation and maturation of chondrocytes, but only partially rescued the defects in osteoblast development and cartilage vascularization. Remarkably, in both Ihh-/- and Ihh-/-; Gli3-/- embryos, vascularization promoted osteoblast development in perichondrial progenitor cells. Our results not only establish Gli3 as a critical effector for Ihh activity in the developing skeleton, but also identify an osteogenic role for a vasculature-derived signal, which integrates with Ihh and Wnt signals to determine the osteoblast versus chondrocyte fate in the mesenchymal progenitors.

  14. Knockdown of Indian hedgehog protein induces an inhibition of cell growth and differentiation in osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ang; Zhang, Hongqi; Hu, Minyu; Liu, Shaohua; Gao, Qile; Wang, Yuxiang; Guo, Chaofeng

    2017-01-01

    Indian hedgehog protein (Ihh) is evolutionarily conserved and serves important roles in controlling the differentiation of progenitor cells into osteoblasts. Ihh null mutant mice exhibit a failure of osteoblast development in endochondral bone. Although studies have demonstrated that Ihh signaling is a potent local factor that regulates osteoblast differentiation, the specific transcription factors that determine osteoblast differentiation remain unclear. Further studies are required to determine the precise mechanism through which Ihh regulates osteoblast differentiation. In the present study, Ihh was knocked down in osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells using short hairpin RNA, to investigate the function of Ihh in osteoblast proliferation and differentiation and to examine the potential mechanism through which Ihh induces osteoblast apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. It was observed that the knockdown of Ihh induced a marked inhibition of cell growth and increased the apoptosis rate compared with the negative control osteoblasts. Downregulation of Ihh resulted in a cell cycle arrest at the G1 to S phase boundary in osteoblasts. In addition, the knockdown of Ihh decreased the alkaline phosphatase activity and mineral deposition of osteoblasts. The inhibitory roles of Ihh downregulation in osteoblast growth and differentiation may be associated with the transforming growth factor-β/mothers against decapentaplegic homolog and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 11B/tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 11 signaling pathways. Manipulating either Ihh expression or its signaling components may be of benefit for the treatment of skeletal diseases. PMID:28990069

  15. Knockdown of Indian hedgehog protein induces an inhibition of cell growth and differentiation in osteoblast MC3T3‑E1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ang; Zhang, Hongqi; Hu, Minyu; Liu, Shaohua; Gao, Qile; Wang, Yuxiang; Guo, Chaofeng

    2017-12-01

    Indian hedgehog protein (Ihh) is evolutionarily conserved and serves important roles in controlling the differentiation of progenitor cells into osteoblasts. Ihh null mutant mice exhibit a failure of osteoblast development in endochondral bone. Although studies have demonstrated that Ihh signaling is a potent local factor that regulates osteoblast differentiation, the specific transcription factors that determine osteoblast differentiation remain unclear. Further studies are required to determine the precise mechanism through which Ihh regulates osteoblast differentiation. In the present study, Ihh was knocked down in osteoblast MC3T3‑E1 cells using short hairpin RNA, to investigate the function of Ihh in osteoblast proliferation and differentiation and to examine the potential mechanism through which Ihh induces osteoblast apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. It was observed that the knockdown of Ihh induced a marked inhibition of cell growth and increased the apoptosis rate compared with the negative control osteoblasts. Downregulation of Ihh resulted in a cell cycle arrest at the G1 to S phase boundary in osteoblasts. In addition, the knockdown of Ihh decreased the alkaline phosphatase activity and mineral deposition of osteoblasts. The inhibitory roles of Ihh downregulation in osteoblast growth and differentiation may be associated with the transforming growth factor‑β/mothers against decapentaplegic homolog and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 11B/tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 11 signaling pathways. Manipulating either Ihh expression or its signaling components may be of benefit for the treatment of skeletal diseases.

  16. Osteoblast role in osteoarthritis pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruotti, Nicola; Corrado, Addolorata; Cantatore, Francesco P

    2017-11-01

    Even if osteoarthritis pathogenesis is still poorly understood, numerous evidences suggest that osteoblasts dysregulation plays a key role in osteoarthritis pathogenesis. An abnormal expression of OPG and RANKL has been described in osteoarthritis osteoblasts, which is responsible for abnormal bone remodeling and decreased mineralization. Alterations in genes expression are involved in dysregulation of osteoblast function, bone remodeling, and mineralization, leading to osteoarthritis development. Moreover, osteoblasts produce numerous transcription factors, growth factors, and other proteic molecules which are involved in osteoarthritis pathogenesis. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Reliable and inexpensive expression of large, tagged, exogenous proteins in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages using a second generation lentiviral system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Miller

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, researchers have struggled to efficiently express foreign DNA in primary macrophages, impeding research progress. The applications of lipofection, electroporation, microinjection, and viral-mediated transfer typically result in disruptions in macrophage differentiation and function, low expression levels of exogenous proteins, limited efficiency and high cell mortality. In this report, after extensive optimization, we present a method of expressing large tagged proteins at high efficiency, consistency, and low cost using lentiviral infection. This method utilizes laboratory-propagated second generation plasmids to produce efficient virus that can be stored for later use. The expression of proteins up to 150 kDa in size is achieved in 30–70% of cells while maintaining normal macrophage differentiation and morphology as determined by fluorescence microscopy and Western blot analysis. This manuscript delineates the reagents and methods used to produce lentivirus to express exogenous DNA in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages sufficient for single cell microscopy as well as functional assays requiring large numbers of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages.

  18. Epidermis–dermis junction as a novel location for bone marrow-derived cells to reside in response to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Junko; Kojima, Hideto; Katagi, Miwako; Nakae, Yuki; Terashima, Tomoya; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Kurakane, Takeshi; Okamoto, Naoki; Morohashi, Keita; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Udagawa, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) can migrate into the various organs in the mice irradiated by ionizing radiation (IR). However, it may not be the case in the skin. While IR is used for bone marrow (BM) transplantation, studying with the epidermal sheets demonstrated that the BMDC recruitment is extraordinarily rare in epidermis in the mouse. Herein, using the chimera mice with BM from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice, we simply examined if BMDCs migrate into any layers in the total skin, as opposed to the epidermal sheets, in response to IR. Interestingly, we identified the presence of GFP-positive (GFP + ) cells in the epidermis-dermis junction in the total skin sections although the epidermal cell sheets failed to have any GFP cells. To examine a possibility that the cells in the junction could be mechanically dissociated during separating epidermal sheets, we then salvaged such dissociated cells and examined its characteristics. Surprisingly, some GFP + cells were found in the salvaged cells, indicating that these cells could be derived from BM. In addition, such BMDCs were also associated with inflammation in the junction. In conclusion, BMDCs can migrate to and reside in the epidermis-dermis junction after IR. - Highlights: • Bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) migrate in the epidermis due to ionizing radiation (IR). • BMDCs dissociate from the epidermis-dermis junction in preparing epidermal sheets. • The doses of IR determine the location and the number of migrating BMDCs in the skin

  19. Epidermis–dermis junction as a novel location for bone marrow-derived cells to reside in response to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okano, Junko, E-mail: jokano@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp [Division of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Shiga (Japan); Kojima, Hideto; Katagi, Miwako [Department of Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Shiga (Japan); Nakae, Yuki [Department of Internal Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Shiga (Japan); Terashima, Tomoya [Department of Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Shiga (Japan); Nakagawa, Takahiko [TMK Project, Medical Innovation Center, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Kurakane, Takeshi; Okamoto, Naoki; Morohashi, Keita [Division of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Shiga (Japan); Maegawa, Hiroshi [Department of Internal Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Shiga (Japan); Udagawa, Jun [Division of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Shiga (Japan)

    2015-06-12

    Bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) can migrate into the various organs in the mice irradiated by ionizing radiation (IR). However, it may not be the case in the skin. While IR is used for bone marrow (BM) transplantation, studying with the epidermal sheets demonstrated that the BMDC recruitment is extraordinarily rare in epidermis in the mouse. Herein, using the chimera mice with BM from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice, we simply examined if BMDCs migrate into any layers in the total skin, as opposed to the epidermal sheets, in response to IR. Interestingly, we identified the presence of GFP-positive (GFP{sup +}) cells in the epidermis-dermis junction in the total skin sections although the epidermal cell sheets failed to have any GFP cells. To examine a possibility that the cells in the junction could be mechanically dissociated during separating epidermal sheets, we then salvaged such dissociated cells and examined its characteristics. Surprisingly, some GFP{sup +} cells were found in the salvaged cells, indicating that these cells could be derived from BM. In addition, such BMDCs were also associated with inflammation in the junction. In conclusion, BMDCs can migrate to and reside in the epidermis-dermis junction after IR. - Highlights: • Bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) migrate in the epidermis due to ionizing radiation (IR). • BMDCs dissociate from the epidermis-dermis junction in preparing epidermal sheets. • The doses of IR determine the location and the number of migrating BMDCs in the skin.

  20. Interactions of proteoliposomes from serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis with bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and macrophages: adjuvant effects and antigen delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Tamara; Pérez, Oliver; Ménager, Nathalie; Ugrinovic, Sanja; Bracho, Gustavo; Mastroeni, Pietro

    2005-01-26

    Exposure to proteoliposomes from serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (PL) induced up-regulation of MHC-II, MHC-I, CD40, CD80 and CD86 expression on the surface of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DC). CD40, CD80 and CD86 were up-regulated on bone marrow-derived macrophages (MPhi) upon stimulation with PL. Both DC and MPhi released TNFalpha, but only DC produced IL12(p70) in response to PL. A small increase in the expression of MHC-II, CD40 and CD86, as well as production of IL12(p70), was observed on the cell surface of DC, but not MPhi from LPS-non-responder C3H/HeJ after exposure to PL. DC, but not MPhi, incubated with PL containing ovalbumin (PL-OVA) presented OVA-specific peptides to CD4+ and CD8+ OVA-specific T-cell hybridomas. These data clearly indicate that PL exert an immunomodulatory effect on DC and MPhi, with some contribution of non-LPS components besides the main role of LPS. The work also shows the potential of PL as a general system to deliver antigens to DC for presentation to CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells.

  1. The role of bone marrow-derived cells in bone fracture repair in a green fluorescent protein chimeric mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, Kazuhiro; Ogawa, Rei; Migita, Makoto; Hanawa, Hideki; Ito, Hiromoto; Orimo, Hideo

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the role of bone marrow cells in bone fracture repair using green fluorescent protein (GFP) chimeric model mice. First, the chimeric model mice were created: bone marrow cells from GFP-transgenic C57BL/6 mice were injected into the tail veins of recipient wild-type C57BL/6 mice that had been irradiated with a lethal dose of 10 Gy from a cesium source. Next, bone fracture models were created from these mice: closed transverse fractures of the left femur were produced using a specially designed device. One, three, and five weeks later, fracture lesions were extirpated for histological and immunohistochemical analyses. In the specimens collected 3 and 5 weeks after operation, we confirmed calluses showing intramembranous ossification peripheral to the fracture site. The calluses consisted of GFP- and osteocalcin-positive cells at the same site, although the femur consisted of only osteocalcin-positive cells. We suggest that bone marrow cells migrated outside of the bone marrow and differentiated into osteoblasts to make up the calluses

  2. MEK5 suppresses osteoblastic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneshiro, Shoichi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Japan Community Health Care Organization Osaka Hospital, 4-2-78 Fukushima, Fukushima Ward, Osaka City, Osaka 553-0003 (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Otsuki, Dai; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Higuchi, Chikahisa, E-mail: c-higuchi@umin.ac.jp [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2015-07-31

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family and is activated by its upstream kinase, MAPK kinase 5 (MEK5), which is a member of the MEK family. Although the role of MEK5 has been investigated in several fields, little is known about its role in osteoblastic differentiation. In this study, we have demonstrated the role of MEK5 in osteoblastic differentiation in mouse preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and bone marrow stromal ST2 cells. We found that treatment with BIX02189, an inhibitor of MEK5, increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the gene expression of ALP, osteocalcin (OCN) and osterix, as well as it enhanced the calcification of the extracellular matrix. Moreover, osteoblastic cell proliferation decreased at a concentration of greater than 0.5 μM. In addition, knockdown of MEK5 using siRNA induced an increase in ALP activity and in the gene expression of ALP, OCN, and osterix. In contrast, overexpression of wild-type MEK5 decreased ALP activity and attenuated osteoblastic differentiation markers including ALP, OCN and osterix, but promoted cell proliferation. In summary, our results indicated that MEK5 suppressed the osteoblastic differentiation, but promoted osteoblastic cell proliferation. These results implied that MEK5 may play a pivotal role in cell signaling to modulate the differentiation and proliferation of osteoblasts. Thus, inhibition of MEK5 signaling in osteoblasts may be of potential use in the treatment of osteoporosis. - Highlights: • MEK5 inhibitor BIX02189 suppresses proliferation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 knockdown and MEK5 inhibitor promote differentiation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 overexpression inhibits differentiation of osteoblasts.

  3. Estrogen and estrogen receptor alpha promotes malignancy and osteoblastic tumorigenesis in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sweta; Tai, Qin; Gu, Xiang; Schmitz, James; Poullard, Ashley; Fajardo, Roberto J; Mahalingam, Devalingam; Chen, Xiaodong; Zhu, Xueqiong; Sun, Lu-Zhe

    2015-12-29

    The role of estrogen signaling in regulating prostate tumorigenesis is relatively underexplored. Although, an increasing body of evidence has linked estrogen receptor beta (ERß) to prostate cancer, the function of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in prostate cancer is not very well studied. We have discovered a novel role of ERα in the pathogenesis of prostate tumors. Here, we show that prostate cancer cells express ERα and estrogen induces oncogenic properties in prostate cancer cells through ERα. Importantly, ERα knockdown in the human prostate cancer PacMetUT1 cells as well as pharmacological inhibition of ERα with ICI 182,780 inhibited osteoblastic lesion formation and lung metastasis in vivo. Co-culture of pre-osteoblasts with cancer cells showed a significant induction of osteogenic markers in the pre-osteoblasts, which was attenuated by knockdown of ERα in cancer cells suggesting that estrogen/ERα signaling promotes crosstalk between cancer and osteoblastic progenitors to stimulate osteoblastic tumorigenesis. These results suggest that ERα expression in prostate cancer cells is essential for osteoblastic lesion formation and lung metastasis. Thus, inhibition of ERα signaling in prostate cancer cells may be a novel therapeutic strategy to inhibit the osteoblastic lesion development as well as lung metastasis in patients with advanced prostate cancer.

  4. Gene expression patterns related to osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells during ex vivo expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granchi, Donatella; Ochoa, Gorka; Leonardi, Elisa; Devescovi, Valentina; Baglìo, Serena Rubina; Osaba, Lourdes; Baldini, Nicola; Ciapetti, Gabriela

    2010-06-01

    Bone marrow is commonly used as a source of adult multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), defined for their ability to differentiate in vitro into multiple lineages. The ex vivo-expanded MSCs are currently being evaluated as a strategy for the restoration of function in damaged skeletal tissue, both in cell therapy and tissue engineering applications. The aim of this study was to define gene expression patterns underlying the differentiation of MSCs into mature osteoblasts during the expansion in vitro, and to explore a variety of cell functions that cannot be easily evaluated using morphological, cytochemical, and biochemical assays. Cell cultures were obtained from bone marrow samples of six individuals undergoing total hip replacement, and a large-scale transcriptome analysis, using Affymetrix HG-U133A Plus 2.0 array (Affymetrix((R)), Santa Clara, CA), was performed at the occurrence of specific events, including the appearance of MSC surface markers, formation of colonies, and deposition of mineral nodules. We focused our attention on 213 differentially upregulated genes, some belonging to well-known pathways and some having one or more Gene Ontology annotations related to bone cell biology, including angiogenesis, bone-related genes, cell communication, development and morphogenesis, transforming growth factor-beta signaling, and Wnt signaling. Twenty-nine genes, whose role in bone cell pathophysiology has not been described yet, were found. In conclusion, gene expression patterns that characterize the early, intermediate, and late phases of the osteogenic differentiation process of ex vivo-expanded MSCs were defined. These signatures represent a useful tool to monitor the osteogenic process, and to analyze a broad spectrum of functions of MSCs cultured on scaffolds, especially when the constructs are conceived for releasing growth factors or other signals to promote bone regeneration.

  5. Hepatic progenitors for liver disease: current position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Conigliaro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Alice Conigliaro1, David A Brenner2, Tatiana Kisseleva21University “La Sapienza”, Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Cellulari ed Ematologia Policlinico Umberto I, V Clinica Medica, Rome, Italy; 2Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USAAbstract: Liver regeneration restores the original functionality of hepatocytes and cholangiocytes in response to injury. It is regulated on several levels, with different cellular populations contributing to this process, eg, hepatocytes, liver precursor cells, intrahepatic stem cells. In response to injury, mature hepatocytes have the capability to proliferate and give rise to new hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. Meanwhile, liver precursor cells (oval cells have become the most recognized bipotential precursor cells in the damaged liver. They rapidly proliferate, change their cellular composition, and differentiate into hepatocytes and cholangiocytes to compensate for the cellular loss and maintain liver homeostasis. There is a growing body of evidence that oval cells originate from the intrahepatic stem cell(s, which in turn give(s rise to epithelial, including oval cells, and/or other hepatic cells of nonepithelial origin. Since there is a close relationship between the liver and hematopoiesis, bone marrow derived cells can also contribute to liver regeneration by the fusion of myeloid cells with damaged hepatocytes, or differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into hepatocyte-like cells. The current review discusses the contribution of different cells to liver regeneration and their characteristics.Keywords: hepatic progenitor, liver disease, liver precursor cells, oval cells, hepatocytes, intrahepatic stem cells, cholangiocytes

  6. Induction of osteoblast differentiation by selective activation of kinase-mediated actions of the estrogen receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousteni, Stavroula; Almeida, Maria; Han, Li; Bellido, Teresita; Jilka, Robert L; Manolagas, Stavros C

    2007-02-01

    Estrogens control gene transcription by cis or trans interactions of the estrogen receptor (ER) with target DNA or via the activation of cytoplasmic kinases. We report that selective activation of kinase-mediated actions of the ER with 4-estren-3alpha,17beta-diol (estren) or an estradiol-dendrimer conjugate, each a synthetic compound that stimulates kinase-mediated ER actions 1,000 to 10,000 times more potently than direct DNA interactions, induced osteoblastic differentiation in established cell lines of uncommitted osteoblast precursors and primary cultures of osteoblast progenitors by stimulating Wnt and BMP-2 signaling in a kinase-dependent manner. In sharp contrast, 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) suppressed BMP-2-induced osteoblast progenitor commitment and differentiation. Consistent with the in vitro findings, estren, but not E(2), stimulated Wnt/beta-catenin-mediated transcription in T-cell factor-lacZ transgenic mice. Moreover, E(2) stimulated BMP signaling in mice in which ERalpha lacks DNA binding activity and classical estrogen response element-mediated transcription (ERalpha(NERKI/-)) but not in wild-type controls. This evidence reveals for the first time the existence of a large signalosome in which inputs from the ER, kinases, bone morphogenetic proteins, and Wnt signaling converge to induce differentiation of osteoblast precursors. ER can either induce it or repress it, depending on whether the activating ligand (and presumably the resulting conformation of the receptor protein) precludes or accommodates ERE-mediated transcription.

  7. Imbalances in Mobilization and Activation of Pro-Inflammatory and Vascular Reparative Bone Marrow-Derived Cells in Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshini Chakravarthy

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is a sight-threatening complication of diabetes, affecting 65% of patients after 10 years of the disease. Diabetic metabolic insult leads to chronic low-grade inflammation, retinal endothelial cell loss and inadequate vascular repair. This is partly due to bone marrow (BM pathology leading to increased activity of BM-derived pro-inflammatory monocytes and impaired function of BM-derived reparative circulating angiogenic cells (CACs. We propose that diabetes has a significant long-term effect on the nature and proportion of BM-derived cells that circulate in the blood, localize to the retina and home back to their BM niche. Using a streptozotocin mouse model of diabetic retinopathy with GFP BM-transplantation, we have demonstrated that BM-derived circulating pro-inflammatory monocytes are increased in diabetes while reparative CACs are trapped in the BM and spleen, with impaired release into circulation. Diabetes also alters activation of splenocytes and BM-derived dendritic cells in response to LPS stimulation. A majority of the BM-derived GFP cells that migrate to the retina express microglial markers, while others express endothelial, pericyte and Müller cell markers. Diabetes significantly increases infiltration of BM-derived microglia in an activated state, while reducing infiltration of BM-derived endothelial progenitor cells in the retina. Further, control CACs injected into the vitreous are very efficient at migrating back to their BM niche, whereas diabetic CACs have lost this ability, indicating that the in vivo homing efficiency of diabetic CACs is dramatically decreased. Moreover, diabetes causes a significant reduction in expression of specific integrins regulating CAC migration. Collectively, these findings indicate that BM pathology in diabetes could play a role in both increased pro-inflammatory state and inadequate vascular repair contributing to diabetic retinopathy.

  8. The effect of intracoronary infusion of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells on all-cause mortality in acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathur, Anthony; Arnold, Roman; Assmus, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    Over the past 13 years bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) have been widely investigated for clinical efficacy in patients following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). These early phase II trials have used various surrogate markers to judge efficacy and, although promising, the results...... have been inconsistent. The phase III BAMI trial has therefore been designed to demonstrate that intracoronary infusion of BM-MNCs is safe and will significantly reduce the time to first occurrence of all-cause death in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction after successful...... of optimal standard of care. The control group will receive optimal standard of care. The primary endpoint is time from randomization to all-cause death. The BAMI trial is pivotal and the largest trial to date of BM-MNCs in patients with impaired left ventricular function following AMI. The aim of the trial...

  9. EMMPRIN regulates tumor growth and metastasis by recruiting bone marrow-derived cells through paracrine signaling of SDF-1 and VEGF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanke; Gou, Xingchun; Kong, Derek Kai; Wang, Xiaofei; Wang, Jianhui; Chen, Zeming; Huang, Chen; Zhou, Jiangbing

    2015-10-20

    EMMPRIN, a cell adhesion molecule highly expressed in a variety of tumors, is associated with poor prognosis in cancer patients. Mechanistically, EMMPRIN has been characterized to contribute to tumor development and progression by controlling the expression of MMPs and VEGF. In the present study, by using fluorescently labeled bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs), we found that the down-regulation of EMMPRIN expression in cancer cells reduces tumor growth and metastasis, and is associated with the reduced recruitment of BMDCs. Further protein profiling studies suggest that EMMPRIN controls BMDC recruitment through regulating the secretion of soluble factors, notably, VEGF and SDF-1. We demonstrate that the expression and secretion of SDF-1 in tumor cells are regulated by EMMPRIN. This study reveals a novel mechanism by which EMMPRIN promotes tumor growth and metastasis by recruitment of BMDCs through controlling secretion and paracrine signaling of SDF-1 and VEGF.

  10. Human gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells are superior to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for cell therapy in regenerative medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomar, Geetanjali B.; Srivastava, Rupesh K.; Gupta, Navita; Barhanpurkar, Amruta P.; Pote, Satish T. [National Center for Cell Science, University of Pune Campus, Pune 411 007 (India); Jhaveri, Hiral M. [Department of Periodontics and Oral Implantology, Dr. D.Y. Patil Dental College and Hospital, Pune (India); Mishra, Gyan C. [National Center for Cell Science, University of Pune Campus, Pune 411 007 (India); Wani, Mohan R., E-mail: mohanwani@nccs.res.in [National Center for Cell Science, University of Pune Campus, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2010-03-12

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into multiple cell lineages. Presently, bone marrow is considered as a prime source of MSCs; however, there are some drawbacks and limitations in use of these MSCs for cell therapy. In this study, we demonstrate that human gingival tissue-derived MSCs have several advantages over bone marrow-derived MSCs. Gingival MSCs are easy to isolate, homogenous and proliferate faster than bone marrow MSCs without any growth factor. Importantly, gingival MSCs display stable morphology and do not loose MSC characteristic at higher passages. In addition, gingival MSCs maintain normal karyotype and telomerase activity in long-term cultures, and are not tumorigenic. Thus, we reveal that human gingiva is a better source of MSCs than bone marrow, and large number of functionally competent clinical grade MSCs can be generated in short duration for cell therapy in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.

  11. Human gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells are superior to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for cell therapy in regenerative medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomar, Geetanjali B.; Srivastava, Rupesh K.; Gupta, Navita; Barhanpurkar, Amruta P.; Pote, Satish T.; Jhaveri, Hiral M.; Mishra, Gyan C.; Wani, Mohan R.

    2010-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into multiple cell lineages. Presently, bone marrow is considered as a prime source of MSCs; however, there are some drawbacks and limitations in use of these MSCs for cell therapy. In this study, we demonstrate that human gingival tissue-derived MSCs have several advantages over bone marrow-derived MSCs. Gingival MSCs are easy to isolate, homogenous and proliferate faster than bone marrow MSCs without any growth factor. Importantly, gingival MSCs display stable morphology and do not loose MSC characteristic at higher passages. In addition, gingival MSCs maintain normal karyotype and telomerase activity in long-term cultures, and are not tumorigenic. Thus, we reveal that human gingiva is a better source of MSCs than bone marrow, and large number of functionally competent clinical grade MSCs can be generated in short duration for cell therapy in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.

  12. Gastritis promotes an activated bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell with a phenotype reminiscent of a cancer-promoting cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Jessica M; Engevik, Amy C; Engevik, Melinda; Schumacher, Michael A; Xiao, Chang; Yang, Li; Worrell, Roger T; Zavros, Yana

    2014-03-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) promote gastric cancer in response to gastritis. In culture, BM-MSCs are prone to mutation with continued passage but it is unknown whether a similar process occurs in vivo in response to gastritis. The purpose of this study was to identify the role of chronic gastritis in the transformation of BM-MSCs leading to an activated cancer-promoting phenotype. Age matched C57BL/6 (BL/6) and gastrin deficient (GKO) mice were used for isolation of stomach, serum and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) at 3 and 6 months of age. MSC activation was assessed by growth curve analysis, fluorescence-activated cell sorting and xenograft assays. To allow for the isolation of bone marrow-derived stromal cells and assay in response to chronic gastritis, IRG/Vav-1(Cre) mice that expressed both enhanced green fluorescent protein-expressing hematopoietic cells and red fluorescent protein-expressing stromal cells were generated. In a parabiosis experiment, IRG/Vav-1(Cre) mice were paired to either an uninfected Vav-1(Cre) littermate or a BL/6 mouse inoculated with Helicobacter pylori. GKO mice displayed severe atrophic gastritis accompanied by elevated gastric tissue and circulating transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) by 3 months of age. Compared to BM-MSCs isolated from uninflamed BL/6 mice, BM-MSCs isolated from GKO mice displayed an increased proliferative rate and elevated phosphorylated-Smad3 suggesting active TGFβ signaling. In xenograft assays, mice injected with BM-MSCs from 6-month-old GKO animals displayed tumor growth. RFP+ stromal cells were rapidly recruited to the gastric mucosa of H. pylori parabionts and exhibited changes in gene expression. Gastritis promotes the in vivo activation of BM-MSCs to a phenotype reminiscent of a cancer-promoting cell.

  13. Autologous fat graft and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells assisted fat graft for treatment of Parry-Romberg syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianhui, Zhao; Chenggang, Yi; Binglun, Lu; Yan, Han; Li, Yang; Xianjie, Ma; Yingjun, Su; Shuzhong, Guo

    2014-09-01

    Progressive facial hemiatrophy, also called Parry-Romberg syndrome (PRS), is characterized by slowly progressive atrophy of one side of the face and primarily involves the subcutaneous tissue and fat. The restoration of facial contour and symmetry in patients affected by PRS still remains a challenge clinically. Fat graft is a promising treatment but has some shortcomings, such as unpredictability and low rate of graft survival due to partial necrosis. To obviate these disadvantages, fat graft assisted by bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) was used to treat PRS patients and the outcome was evaluated in comparison with the conventional treatment by autologous fat graft. Autologous fat graft was harvested by tumescent liposuction. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells were then isolated by human Lymphocytes Separation Medium through density gradient centrifugation. Twenty-six patients were treated with autologous fat graft only (group A), whereas 10 other patients were treated with BMSC-assisted fat graft (group B). The Coleman technique was applied in all fat graft injections. The follow-up period was 6 to 12 months in this study, In group A, satisfactory outcome judged by symmetrical appearances was obtained with 1 injection in 12 patients, 2 injections in 8 patients, and 3 injections in 4 patients. However, the result of 1 patient was not satisfactory and 1 patient was overcorrected. In group B, 10 patients obtained satisfactory outcomes and almost reached symmetry by 1 injection. No complications (infection, hematoma, or subcutaneous mass) were observed. The results suggest that BMSC-assisted fat graft is effective and safe for soft tissue augmentation and may be superior to conventional lipoinjection. Additional study is necessary to further evaluate the efficacy of this technique.

  14. Smoking decreases the level of circulating CD34+ progenitor cells in young healthy women - a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumann Gert

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decreased levels of circulating bone marrow-derived progenitor cells have been associated with risk factors and cardiovascular diseases. Smoking is the most important modifiable risk factor for atherosclerosis in young women. The aim of this pilot study was to assess in healthy premenopausal women without other risk factors for cardiovascular disease the influence of nicotine abuse on the number of circulating progenitor cells in relation to endothelial function. Methods The number of endothelial progenitor cells, measured as colony-forming units in a cell-culture assay (EPC-CFU and the number of circulating CD34 + and CD34 + /CD133 + cells, measured by flow cytometry, was estimated in 32 women at the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle. In addition, flow-mediated dilation (FMD was assessed as a marker for vascular function. In a subgroup of these women (n = 20, progenitor cells were also investigated at the mid-follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Results Compared to non-smokers, the abundance of circulating CD34 + cells was significantly lower in smoking women in the menstrual, mid-luteal, and mid-follicular phases of the menstrual cycle. The number of CD34 + progenitor cells was revealed to have significant positive correlation with FMD in young healthy women, whereas CD34 + /CD133 + progenitor cells and EPC-CFU showed no significant correlation. Conclusion The number of CD34 + progenitor cells positively correlates with FMD in young healthy women and is decreased by smoking.

  15. Osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 Cells Prefer Glycolysis for ATP Production but Adipocyte-like 3T3-L1 Cells Prefer Oxidative Phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntur, Anyonya R; Gerencser, Akos A; Le, Phuong T; DeMambro, Victoria E; Bornstein, Sheila A; Mookerjee, Shona A; Maridas, David E; Clemmons, David E; Brand, Martin D; Rosen, Clifford J

    2018-06-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are early progenitors that can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. We hypothesized that osteoblasts and adipocytes utilize distinct bioenergetic pathways during MSC differentiation. To test this hypothesis, we compared the bioenergetic profiles of preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells and calvarial osteoblasts with preadipocyte 3T3L1 cells, before and after differentiation. Differentiated MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts met adenosine triphosphate (ATP) demand mainly by glycolysis with minimal reserve glycolytic capacity, whereas nondifferentiated cells generated ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. A marked Crabtree effect (acute suppression of respiration by addition of glucose, observed in both MC3T3-E1 and calvarial osteoblasts) and smaller mitochondrial membrane potential in the differentiated osteoblasts, particularly those incubated at high glucose concentrations, indicated a suppression of oxidative phosphorylation compared with nondifferentiated osteoblasts. In contrast, both nondifferentiated and differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes met ATP demand primarily by oxidative phosphorylation despite a large unused reserve glycolytic capacity. In sum, we show that nondifferentiated precursor cells prefer to use oxidative phosphorylation to generate ATP; when they differentiate to osteoblasts, they gain a strong preference for glycolytic ATP generation, but when they differentiate to adipocytes, they retain the strong preference for oxidative phosphorylation. Unique metabolic programming in mesenchymal progenitor cells may influence cell fate and ultimately determine the degree of bone formation and/or the development of marrow adiposity. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  16. The effect of cyclic hydrostatic pressure on the functional development of cartilaginous tissues engineered using bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, E G; Buckley, C T; Steward, A J; Kelly, D J

    2011-10-01

    Mechanical signals can play a key role in regulating the chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The objective of this study was to determine if the long-term application of cyclic hydrostatic pressure could be used to improve the functional properties of cartilaginous tissues engineered using bone marrow derived MSCs. MSCs were isolated from the femora of two porcine donors, expanded separately under identical conditions, and then suspended in cylindrical agarose hydrogels. Constructs from both donors were maintained in a chemically defined media supplemented with TGF-β3 for 42 days. TGF-β3 was removed from a subset of constructs from day 21 to 42. Loaded groups were subjected to 10 MPa of cyclic hydrostatic pressurisation at 1 Hz for one hour/day, five days/week. Loading consisted either of continuous hydrostatic pressure (CHP) initiated at day 0, or delayed hydrostatic pressure (DHP) initiated at day 21. Free swelling (FS) constructs were cultured in parallel as controls. Constructs were assessed at days 0, 21 and 42. MSCs isolated from both donors were morphologically similar, demonstrated comparable colony forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) numbers, and accumulated near identical levels of collagen and GAG following 42 days of free swelling culture. Somewhat unexpectedly the two donors displayed a differential response to hydrostatic pressure. For one donor the application of CHP resulted in increased collagen and GAG accumulation by day 42, resulting in an increased dynamic modulus compared to FS controls. In contrast, CHP had no effect on matrix accumulation for the other donor. The application of DHP had no effect on either matrix accumulation or construct mechanical properties for both donors. Variability in the response to hydrostatic pressure was also observed for three further donors. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the application of long-term hydrostatic pressure can be used to improve the functional properties of

  17. The influence of construct scale on the composition and functional properties of cartilaginous tissues engineered using bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Conor T; Meyer, Eric G; Kelly, Daniel J

    2012-02-01

    Engineering cartilaginous tissue of a scale necessary to treat defects observed clinically is a well-documented challenge in the field of cartilage tissue engineering. The objective of this study was to determine how the composition and mechanical properties of cartilaginous tissues that are engineered by using bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) depend on the scale of the construct. Porcine bone marrow-derived MSCs were encapsulated in agarose hydrogels, and constructs of different cylindrical geometries (Ø4×1.5 mm; Ø5×3 mm; Ø6×4.5 mm; Ø8×4.5 mm) were fabricated and maintained in a chemically defined serum-free medium supplemented with transforming growth factor-β3 for 42 days. Total sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) accumulation by day 42 increased from 0.14% w/w to 0.88% w/w as the construct geometry increased from Ø4×1.5 to Ø8×4.5 mm, with collagen accumulation increasing from 0.31% w/w to 1.62% w/w. This led to an increase in the dynamic modulus from 90.81 to 327.51 kPa as the engineered tissue increased in scale from Ø4×1.5 to Ø8×4.5 mm. By decreasing the external oxygen tension from 20% to 5%, it was possible to achieve these higher levels of mechanical functionality in the smaller engineered tissues. Constructs were then sectioned into smaller subregions to quantify the spatial accumulation of extracellular matrix components, and a model of oxygen diffusion and consumption was used to predict spatial gradients in oxygen concentration throughout the construct. sGAG accumulation was always highest in regions where oxygen concentration was predicted to be lowest. In addition, as the size of the engineered construct increased, different regions of the construct preferentially supported either sGAG or collagen accumulation, thus suggesting that gradients in regulatory factors other than oxygen were playing a role in determining levels of collagen synthesis. The identification of such factors and the means to control their

  18. Platelet lysate as a novel serum-free media supplement for the culture of equine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskou, Maria C; Sumner, Scarlett M; Chocallo, Anna; Kemelmakher, Hannah; Thoresen, Merrilee; Copland, Ian; Galipeau, Jacques; Peroni, John F

    2018-03-22

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) produced for clinical purposes rely on culture media containing fetal bovine serum (FBS) which is xenogeneic and has the potential to significantly alter the MSC phenotype, rendering these cells immunogenic. As a result of bovine-derived exogenous proteins expressed on the cell surface, MSCs may be recognized by the host immune system as non-self and be rejected. Platelet lysate (PL) may obviate some of these concerns and shows promising results in human medicine as a possible alternative to FBS. Our goal was to evaluate the use of equine platelet lysate (ePL) pooled from donor horses in place of FBS to culture equine MSCs. We hypothesized that ePL, produced following apheresis, will function as the sole media supplement to accelerate the expansion of equine bone marrow-derived MSCs without altering their phenotype and their immunomodulatory capacity. Platelet concentrate was obtained via plateletpheresis and ePL were produced via freeze-thaw and centrifugation cycles. Population doublings (PD) and doubling time (DT) of bone marrow-derived MSCs (n = 3) cultured with FBS or ePL media were calculated. Cell viability, immunophenotypic analysis, and trilineage differentiation capacity of MSCs were assessed accordingly. To assess the ability of MSCs to modulate inflammatory responses, E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated monocytes were cocultured with MSCs cultured in the two different media formulations, and cell culture supernatants were assayed for the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Our results showed that MSCs cultured in ePL media exhibited similar proliferation rates (PD and DT) compared with those cultured in FBS at individual time points. MSCs cultured in ePL showed a statistically significant increased viability following a single washing step, expressed similar levels of MSC markers compared to FBS, and were able to differentiate towards the three lineages. Finally, MSCs cultured in ePL efficiently suppressed

  19. Select polyphenolic fractions from dried plum enhance osteoblast activity through BMP-2 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graef, Jennifer L; Rendina-Ruedy, Elizabeth; Crockett, Erica K; Ouyang, Ping; King, Jarrod B; Cichewicz, Robert H; Lucas, Edralin A; Smith, Brenda J

    2018-05-01

    Dried plum supplementation has been shown to enhance bone formation while suppressing bone resorption. Evidence from previous studies has demonstrated that these responses can be attributed in part to the fruit's polyphenolic compounds. The purpose of this study was to identify the most bioactive polyphenolic fractions of dried plum with a focus on their osteogenic activity and to investigate their mechanisms of action under normal and inflammatory conditions. Utilizing chromatographic techniques, six fractions of polyphenolic compounds were prepared from a crude extract of dried plum. Initial screening assays revealed that two fractions (DP-FrA and DP-FrB) had the greatest osteogenic potential. Subsequent experiments using primary bone-marrow-derived osteoblast cultures demonstrated these two fractions enhanced extracellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an indicator of osteoblast activity, and mineralized nodule formation under normal conditions. Both fractions enhanced bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, as indicated by increased Bmp2 and Runx2 gene expression and protein levels of phosphorylated Smad1/5. DP-FrB was most effective at up-regulating Tak1 and Smad1, as well as protein levels of phospho-p38. Under inflammatory conditions, TNF-α suppressed ALP and tended to decrease nodule formation (P=.0674). This response coincided with suppressed gene expression of Bmp2 and the up-regulation of Smad6, an inhibitor of BMP signaling. DP-FrA and DP-FrB partially normalized these responses. Our results show that certain fractions of polyphenolic compounds in dried plum up-regulate osteoblast activity by enhancing BMP signaling, and when this pathway is inhibited by TNF-α, the osteogenic response is attenuated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Delivery of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improves Tear Production in a Mouse Model of Sjögren’s Syndrome

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    Hema S. Aluri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to test the potential of mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BD-MSCs in improving tear production in a mouse model of Sjögren’s syndrome dry eye and to investigate the underlying mechanisms involved. NOD mice (n=20 were randomized to receive i.p. injection of sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS, control or murine BD-MSCs (1 × 106 cells. Tears production was measured at baseline and once a week after treatment using phenol red impregnated threads. Cathepsin S activity in the tears was measured at the end of treatment. After 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed and the lacrimal glands were excised and processed for histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and RNA analysis. Following BD-MSC injection, tears production increased over time when compared to both baseline and PBS injected mice. Although the number of lymphocytic foci in the lacrimal glands of treated animals did not change, the size of the foci decreased by 40.5% when compared to control animals. The mRNA level of the water channel aquaporin 5 was significantly increased following delivery of BD-MSCs. We conclude that treatment with BD-MSCs increases tear production in the NOD mouse model of Sjögren’s syndrome. This is likely due to decreased inflammation and increased expression of aquaporin 5.

  1. Comparative miRNA-Based Fingerprinting Reveals Biological Differences in Human Olfactory Mucosa- and Bone-Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

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    Susan Louise Lindsay

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Previously we reported that nestin-positive human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs derived from the olfactory mucosa (OM enhanced CNS myelination in vitro to a greater extent than bone-marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs. miRNA-based fingerprinting revealed the two MSCs were 64% homologous, with 26 miRNAs differentially expressed. We focused on miR-146a-5p and miR-140-5p due to their reported role in the regulation of chemokine production and myelination. The lower expression of miR-140-5p in OM-MSCs correlated with higher secretion of CXCL12 compared with BM-MSCs. Addition of CXCL12 and its pharmacological inhibitors to neural co-cultures supported these data. Studies on related miR-146a-5p targets demonstrated that OM-MSCs had lower levels of Toll-like receptors and secreted less pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IL-8, and CCL2. OM-MSCs polarized microglia to an anti-inflammatory phenotype, illustrating potential differences in their inflammatory response. Nestin-positive OM-MSCs could therefore offer a cell transplantation alternative for CNS repair, should these biological behaviors be translated in vivo.

  2. A novel rat fibrosarcoma cell line from transformed bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells with maintained in vitro and in vivo stemness properties

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    Wang, Meng-Yu; Nestvold, Janne; Rekdal, Øystein; Kvalheim, Gunnar; Fodstad, Øystein

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests a possible relationship between mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and sarcoma. MSCs are hypothesized to be the cells initiating sarcomagenesis, and cancer stem cells (CSCs) sharing features of MSCs have been identified in sarcomas. Here, we report on the characteristics of a bone marrow-derived rat mesenchymal stem cell line that spontaneously transformed in long-term culture. The rat transformed mesenchymal stem cells (rTMSCs) produced soft-tissue fibrosarcomas in immunocompromised mice and immunocompetent rats. In vitro, the rTMSCs displayed increased proliferation capacity compared to the untransformed cell line. The transformed MSCs maintained the mesenchymal phenotype by expression of the stem cell marker CD 90 and the lack of hematopoietic and endothelial markers. Cytogenetic analysis detected trisomy 6 in the rTMSCs. Side population (SP) isolation and tumorsphere cultivation of the transformed cells confirmed the presence of CSCs among the rTMSCs. Importantly, the rTMSCs retained their differentiation capacity towards osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. This transformed MSC-based cell line may be valuable in examining the balance in a mixed cell population between cancer stem cell properties and the ability to differentiate to specific non-transformed cell populations. Moreover, it may also be a useful tool to evaluate the efficacy of novel targeted immunotherapies in vivo. - Highlights: • Spontaneously transformed rat MSCs (rTMSCs) share characteristics with normal MSCs. • rTMSCs possess a side population, enriched with tumorigenic cells. • rTMSCs model fibrosarcoma in vivo.

  3. Targeted inhibition of osteosarcoma tumor growth by bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells expressing cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine in tumor-bearing mice.

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    NguyenThai, Quynh-Anh; Sharma, Neelesh; Luong, Do Huynh; Sodhi, Simrinder Singh; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Kim, Nameun; Oh, Sung-Jong; Jeong, Dong Kee

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered as an attractive approach for gene or drug delivery in cancer therapy. In the present study, the ability of human bone marrow-derived MSCs expressing the cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine prodrug (CD/5-FC MSCs) to target the human osteosarcoma cell line Cal72 was evaluated. The stable CD/5-FC MSC cell line was established by transfection of pEGFP containing the cytosine deaminase gene into MSCs with G418 selection. The anti-tumor effect was verified by a bystander effect assay in vitro and co-injection of Cal72 and CD/5-FC MSCs in cancer-bearing mice. The therapeutic CD/5-FC MSCs retained the characteristics of multipotent cells, such as differentiation into adipocytes/osteocytes and expression of mesenchymal markers (CD90 and CD44), and showed migration toward Cal72 cells to a greater extent than the native MSCs. The bystander effect assay showed that the CD/5-FC MSCs significantly augmented Cal72 cytotoxicity in direct co-culture and in the presence of 5-FC through the application of conditioned medium. In osteosarcoma-bearing mice, the CD/5-FC MSCs inhibited tumor growth compared to control mice subcutaneously injected with only Cal72 cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that CD/5-FC MSCs may be suitable for targeting human osteosarcoma. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Effect of Transplantation of Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Platelets Rich Plasma on Experimental Model of Radiation Induced Oral Mucosal Injury in Albino Rats

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    Basma Elsaadany

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal tissue damage following radiotherapy is still a major problem in cancer treatment. Therefore, the current work aimed at exploring the possible role of systemically injected bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs and/or locally injected platelet rich plasma (PRP in ameliorating the side effects of ionizing radiation on the rat’s tongue. Twelve rats served as control group (N and 48 rats received a single radiation dose of 13 Gy to the head and neck region; then, they were equally divided into 4 experimental groups: irradiated only (C, irradiated + MSCs (S, irradiated + (PRP (P, and combined group (PS. Animal scarification occurred in 3 and 7 days after radiation. Then, tongues were dissected and examined histologically and for expression of bcl-2 by RT-PCR. Histological examination of the treated groups (S, (P, and (PS revealed an obvious improvement in the histological structure of the tongue, compared to group (C, in addition to upregulated expression of bcl-2, indicating decreased apoptotic activity. Conclusion. BM-MSCs and PRP have shown positive effect in minimizing the epithelial atrophy of normal oral mucosa after regional radiotherapy, which was emphasized by decreasing apoptotic activity in these tissues. Nevertheless, combined use of BM-MSCs and PRP did not reveal the assumed synergetic effect in oral tissue protection.

  5. A novel rat fibrosarcoma cell line from transformed bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells with maintained in vitro and in vivo stemness properties

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    Wang, Meng-Yu [Department of Cell Therapy, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Nestvold, Janne, E-mail: j.m.nestvold@medisin.uio.no [Department of Molecular Medicine, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo (Norway); Rekdal, Øystein [Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø (Norway); Kvalheim, Gunnar [Department of Cell Therapy, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Fodstad, Øystein [Department of Tumor Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway)

    2017-03-15

    Increasing evidence suggests a possible relationship between mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and sarcoma. MSCs are hypothesized to be the cells initiating sarcomagenesis, and cancer stem cells (CSCs) sharing features of MSCs have been identified in sarcomas. Here, we report on the characteristics of a bone marrow-derived rat mesenchymal stem cell line that spontaneously transformed in long-term culture. The rat transformed mesenchymal stem cells (rTMSCs) produced soft-tissue fibrosarcomas in immunocompromised mice and immunocompetent rats. In vitro, the rTMSCs displayed increased proliferation capacity compared to the untransformed cell line. The transformed MSCs maintained the mesenchymal phenotype by expression of the stem cell marker CD 90 and the lack of hematopoietic and endothelial markers. Cytogenetic analysis detected trisomy 6 in the rTMSCs. Side population (SP) isolation and tumorsphere cultivation of the transformed cells confirmed the presence of CSCs among the rTMSCs. Importantly, the rTMSCs retained their differentiation capacity towards osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. This transformed MSC-based cell line may be valuable in examining the balance in a mixed cell population between cancer stem cell properties and the ability to differentiate to specific non-transformed cell populations. Moreover, it may also be a useful tool to evaluate the efficacy of novel targeted immunotherapies in vivo. - Highlights: • Spontaneously transformed rat MSCs (rTMSCs) share characteristics with normal MSCs. • rTMSCs possess a side population, enriched with tumorigenic cells. • rTMSCs model fibrosarcoma in vivo.

  6. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Negatively Regulates the Differentiation of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Toward Myofibroblasts in Liver Fibrogenesis

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    Shuangshuang Jia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs have been confirmed to have capacity to differentiate toward hepatic myofibroblasts, which contribute to fibrogenesis in chronic liver diseases. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, a ligand-activated transcription factor, has gained a great deal of recent attention as it is involved in fibrosis and cell differentiation. However, whether it regulates the differentiation of BMSCs toward myofibroblasts remains to be defined. Methods: Carbon tetrachloride or bile duct ligation was used to induce mouse liver fibrosis. Expressions of PPARγ, α-smooth muscle actin, collagen α1 (I and collagen α1 (III were detected by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot or immunofluorescence assay. Results: PPARγ expression was decreased in mouse fibrotic liver. In addition, PPARγ was declined during the differentiation of BMSCs toward myofibroblasts induced by transforming growth factor β1. Activation of PPARγ stimulated by natural or synthetic ligands suppressed the differentiation of BMSCs. Additionally, knock down of PPARγ by siRNA contributed to BMSC differentiation toward myofibroblasts. Furthermore, PPARγ activation by natural ligand significantly inhibited the differentiation of BMSCs toward myofibroblasts in liver fibrogenesis and alleviated liver fibrosis. Conclusions: PPARγ negatively regulates the differentiation of BMSCs toward myofibroblasts, which highlights a further mechanism implicated in the BMSC differentiation.

  7. MicroRNA-29 facilitates transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to alleviate pelvic floor dysfunction by repressing elastin.

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    Jin, Minfei; Wu, Yuelin; Wang, Jun; Ye, Weiping; Wang, Lei; Yin, Peipei; Liu, Wei; Pan, Chenhao; Hua, Xiaolin

    2016-11-17

    Pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) is a condition affecting many women worldwide, with symptoms including stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and pelvic organ prolapse (POP). We have previously demonstrated stable elastin-expressing bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) attenuated PFD in rats, and aim to further study the effect of microRNA-29a-3p regulation on elastin expression and efficacy of BMSC transplantation therapy. We inhibited endogenous microRNA-29a-3p in BMSCs and investigated its effect on elastin expression by RT-PCR and Western blot. MicroRNA-29-inhibited BMSCs were then transplanted into PFD rats, accompanied by sustained release of bFGF using formulated bFGF in poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NP), followed by evaluation of urodynamic tests. MicroRNA-29a-3p inhibition resulted in upregulated expression and secretion of elastin in in vitro culture of BMSCs. After co-injection with PLGA-loaded bFGF NP into the PFD rats in vivo, microRNA-29a-3p-inhibited BMSCs significantly improved the urodynamic test results. Our multidisciplinary study, combining microRNA biology, genetically engineered BMSCs, and nanoparticle technology, provides an excellent stem cell-based therapy for repairing connective tissues and treating PFD.

  8. Niacin and olive oil promote skewing to the M2 phenotype in bone marrow-derived macrophages of mice with metabolic syndrome.

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    Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio; Naranjo, Maria C; Lopez, Sergio; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J G; Bermudez, Beatriz

    2016-05-18

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with obesity, dyslipemia, type 2 diabetes and chronic low-grade inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the role of high-fat low-cholesterol diets (HFLCDs) rich in SFAs (HFLCD-SFAs), MUFAs (HFLCD-MUFAs) or MUFAs plus omega-3 long-chain PUFAs (HFLCD-PUFAs) on polarisation and inflammatory potential in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) from niacin (NA)-treated Lep(ob/ob)LDLR(-/-) mice. Animals fed with HFLCD-SFAs had increased weight and serum triglycerides, and their BMDMs accumulated triglycerides over the animals fed with HFLCD-MUFAs or -PUFAs. Furthermore, BMDMs from animals fed with HFLCD-SFAs were polarised towards the M1 phenotype with functional competence to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, whereas BMDMs from animals fed with HFLCD-MUFAs or -PUFAs were skewed to the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. These findings open opportunities for developing novel nutritional strategies with olive oil as the most important dietary source of MUFAs (notably oleic acid) to prevent development and progression of metabolic complications in the NA-treated MetS.

  9. In vitro analysis of equine, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells demonstrates differences within age- and gender-matched horses.

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    Carter-Arnold, J L; Neilsen, N L; Amelse, L L; Odoi, A; Dhar, M S

    2014-09-01

    Stem cell therapies are used routinely in equine practice. Most published reports characterise stem cells derived from younger horses; however, middle-aged horses are often in athletic performance, and experience degenerative medical conditions. Thus, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from this group should be investigated. To describe differences in in vitro adherence, proliferation and potential for differentiation of equine bone marrow-derived MSCs (equine BMMSCs) harvested from middle-aged (10-13 years old) female donors. Descriptive study of stem cell characteristics. Equine BMMSCs from 6 horses were cultured in vitro and evaluated for viability, proliferation, osteogenesis, chondrogenesis, adipogenesis, cluster-of-differentiation markers and gene expression. Equine BMMSCs from all 6 donors demonstrated fibroblastic, cellular morphology, adherence to plastic and expression of cluster-of-differentiation markers. They varied in their rate of proliferation and trilineage differentiation. The equine BMMSCs of one of 6 donors demonstrated a higher rate of proliferation, enhanced ability for cell passaging and a more robust in vitro differentiation. Comparatively, equine BMMSCs from 2 donors demonstrated a lower rate of proliferation and lack of osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. The results of this study confirm that donor-to-donor variation in equine BMMSCs exists and this variation can be documented using in vitro assays. Subjective assessment suggests that the rate of proliferation tends to correlate with differentiation potential. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  10. Herbal preparation (HemoHIM) enhanced functional maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells mediated toll-like receptor 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Ju; Kim, Jong-Jin; Kang, Kyung-Yun; Hwang, Yun-Ho; Jeong, Gil-Yeon; Jo, Sung-kee; Jung, Uhee; Park, Hae-Ran; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2016-02-19

    HemoHIM, which is an herbal preparation of three edible herbs (Angelicam gigas Nakai, Cnidium offinale Makino, and Peaonia japonica Miyabe), is known to have various biological and immunological activities, but the modulatory effects of this preparation on dendritic cells (DCs)-mediated immune responses have not been examined previously. DCs are a unique group of white blood cells that initiate primary immune responses by capturing, processing, and presenting antigens to T cells. In the present study, we investigated the effect of HemoHIM on the functional and phenotypic maturation of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) both in vitro and in vivo. The expression of co-stimulatory molecules (CD40, CD80, CD86, MHC I, and MHC II) and the production of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12p70, and TNF-α) were increased by HemoHIM in BMDCs. Furthermore, the antigen-uptake ability of BMDCs was decreased by HemoHIM, and the antigen-presenting ability of HemoHIM-treated mature BMDCs increased TLR4-dependent CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses. Our findings demonstrated that HemoHIM induces TLR4-mediated BMDCs functional and phenotypic maturation through in vivo and in vitro. And our study showed the antigen-presenting ability that HemoHIM-treated mature BMDCs increase CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses by in vitro. These results suggest that HemoHIM has the potential to mediate DC immune responses.

  11. Cancer stemness and metastatic potential of the novel tumor cell line K3: an inner mutated cell of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hui; Ding, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Jiao; Mao, Fei; Sun, Zixuan; Jia, Haoyuan; Yin, Lei; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Bin; Yan, Yongmin; Zhu, Wei; Xu, Wenrong

    2017-06-13

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation has been used for therapeutic applications in various diseases. Here we report MSCs can malignantly transform in vivo. The novel neoplasm was found on the tail of female rat after injection with male rat bone marrow-derived MSCs (rBM-MSCs) and the new tumor cell line, K3, was isolated from the neoplasm. The K3 cells expressed surface antigens and pluripotent genes similar to those of rBM-MSCs and presented tumor cell features. Moreover, the K3 cells contained side population cells (SP) like cancer stem cells (CSCs), which might contribute to K3 heterogeneity and tumorigenic capacity. To investigate the metastatic potential of K3 cells, we established the nude mouse models of liver and lung metastases and isolated the corresponding metastatic cell lines K3-F4 and K3-B6. Both K3-F4 and K3-B6 cell lines with higher metastatic potential acquired more mesenchymal and stemness-related features. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is a potential mechanism of K3-F4 and K3-B6 formation.

  12. Intravenous administration of bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells has a neutral effect on obesity-induced diabetic cardiomyopathy

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    Sebastián D Calligaris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major global health issue. Obese patients develop metabolic syndrome, which is a cluster of clinical features characterized by insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Its cardiac manifestation, diabetic cardiomyopathy, leads to heart failure. Bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells, also referred to as mesenchymal stem cells (MSC are envisioned as a therapeutic tool not only for cardiovascular diseases but also for other degenerative conditions. Our aim was to evaluate whether the intravenous administration of MSC modifies cardiac dysfunction in obese mice. To this end, C57BL/6 mice were fed a regular (normal or high-fat diet (obese. Obese animals received the vehicle (obese, a single dose (obese + 1x MSC or three doses (obese + 3x MSC of 0.5x10(6 syngeneic MSC. Two to three months following MSC administration, cardiac function was assessed by cardiac catheterization, at basal condition and after a pharmacological stress. Compared to normal mice, obese mice presented hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypercholesterolemia and cardiac dysfunction after stress condition. Exogenous MSC neither improved nor impaired this cardiac dysfunction. Thus, intravenous administration of MSC has neutral effect on obesity-induced diabetic cardiomyopathy

  13. Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Cell Reactions to 316L Stainless Steel: An in Vitro Study on Cell Viability and Interleukin-6 Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Iwan Budiwan; Santoso, Asep; Saputra, Eko; Ismail, Rifky; Jamari, J.; Van der Heide, Emile

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cell (hBMC) reactions to 316L stainless steel (316L-SS) have never been evaluated. The objective of this study was to assess cell viability and interleukin-6 expression of hBMC cultures upon treatment with a 316L-SS implant. Methods: A cytotoxicity analysis was conducted with a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol 2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay after a period of 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation. Expression of interleukin-6 was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Cell viability measurement was performed via IC50 formula. All treatment group showed a > 50 % cell viability with a range of 56,5 - 96,9 % at 24 hours, 51,8-77,3% at 48 hours and 70,1- 120 % at 72 hours. Interleukin-6 expression was downregulated subsequent to treatment with 316L-SS compared to the control group. Conclusion: We found that 316L-SS did not exhibit toxicity towards hBMC culture. PMID:28761837

  14. Anti-angiogenesis therapy based on the bone marrow-derived stromal cells genetically engineered to express sFlt-1 in mouse tumor model

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    Chen X-C

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs are important for development, tissue cell replenishment, and wound healing in physiological and pathological conditions. BMSCs were found to preferably reach sites undergoing the process of cell proliferation, such as wound and tumor, suggesting that BMSCs may be used as a vehicle for gene therapy of tumor. Methods Mouse BMSCs were loaded with recombinant adenoviruses which express soluble Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1 (sFlt-1. The anti-angiogenesis of sFlt-1 in BMSCs was determined using endothelial cells proliferation inhibition assay and alginate encapsulation assay. The anti-tumor effects of BMSCs expressing sFlt-1 through tail-vein infusion were evaluated in two mouse tumor metastases models. Results BMSCs genetically modified with Adv-GFP-sFlt-1 could effectively express and secret sFlt-1. BMSCs loaded with sFlt-1 gene could preferentially home to tumor loci and decrease lung metastases and prolong lifespan in mouse tumor model through inducing anti-angiogenesis and apoptosis in tumors. Conclusion We demonstrated that BMSCs might be employed as a promising vehicle for tumor gene therapy which can effectively not only improve the concentration of anticancer therapeutics in tumors, but also modify the tumor microenvironment.

  15. Chromatin organization regulated by EZH2-mediated H3K27me3 is required for OPN-induced migration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lingling; Luo, Qing; Sun, Jinghui; Ju, Yang; Morita, Yasuyuki; Song, Guanbin

    2018-03-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a chemokine-like extracellular matrix-associated protein involved in the migration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). An increasing number of studies have found that chromatin organization may affect cellular migration. However, whether OPN regulates chromatin organization is not understood, nor are the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the link between chromatin organization and BMSC migration and demonstrated that OPN-mediated BMSC migration leads to elevated levels of heterochromatin marker histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) through the methyltransferase EZH2. The expression of EZH2 reorganizes the chromatin structure of BMSCs. Pharmacological inhibition or depletion of EZH2 blocks BMSC migration. Moreover, using an atomic force microscope (AFM), we found that chromatin decondensation alters the mechanical properties of the nucleus. In addition, inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signals represses OPN-promoted chromatin condensation and cell migration. Thus, our results identify a mechanism by which ERK1/2 signalling drives specific chromatin modifications in BMSCs, which alters chromatin organization and thereby enables OPN-mediated BMSC migration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. What Makes Umbilical Cord Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Superior Immunomodulators When Compared to Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells?

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    R. N. Bárcia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available MSCs derived from the umbilical cord tissue, termed UCX, were investigated for their immunomodulatory properties and compared to bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs, the gold-standard in immunotherapy. Immunogenicity and immunosuppression were assessed by mixed lymphocyte reactions, suppression of lymphocyte proliferation and induction of regulatory T cells. Results showed that UCX were less immunogenic and showed higher immunosuppression activity than BM-MSCs. Further, UCX did not need prior activation or priming to exert their immunomodulatory effects. This was further corroborated in vivo in a model of acute inflammation. To elucidate the potency differences observed between UCX and BM-MSCs, gene expression related to immune modulation was analysed in both cell types. Several gene expression profile differences were found between UCX and BM-MSCs, namely decreased expression of HLA-DRA, HO-1, IGFBP1, 4 and 6, ILR1, IL6R and PTGES and increased expression of CD200, CD273, CD274, IL1B, IL-8, LIF and TGFB2. The latter were confirmed at the protein expression level. Overall, these results show that UCX seem to be naturally more potent immunosuppressors and less immunogenic than BM-MSCs. We propose that these differences may be due to increased levels of immunomodulatory surface proteins such as CD200, CD273, CD274 and cytokines such as IL1β, IL-8, LIF and TGFβ2.

  17. Glycyrrhizic Acid Promotes M1 Macrophage Polarization in Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages Associated with the Activation of JNK and NF-κB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yulong; Wang, Baikui; Xu, Xin; Du, Wei; Li, Weifen; Wang, Youming

    2015-01-01

    The roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza species (licorice) have been widely used as natural sweeteners and herbal medicines. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) from licorice on macrophage polarization. Both phenotypic and functional activities of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) treated by GA were assessed. Our results showed that GA obviously increased the cell surface expression of CD80, CD86, and MHCII molecules. Meanwhile, GA upregulated the expression of CCR7 and the production of TNF-α, IL-12, IL-6, and NO (the markers of classically activated (M1) macrophages), whereas it downregulated the expression of MR, Ym1, and Arg1 (the markers of alternatively activated (M2) macrophage). The functional tests showed that GA dramatically enhanced the uptake of FITC-dextran and E. coli K88 by BMDMs and decreased the intracellular survival of E. coli K88 and S. typhimurium. Moreover, we demonstrated that JNK and NF-κB activation are required for GA-induced NO and M1-related cytokines production, while ERK1/2 pathway exhibits a regulatory effect via induction of IL-10. Together, these findings indicated that GA promoted polarization of M1 macrophages and enhanced its phagocytosis and bactericidal capacity. The results expanded our knowledge about the role of GA in macrophage polarization.

  18. Probable impact of age and hypoxia on proliferation and microRNA expression profile of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells

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    Norlaily Mohd Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Decline in the therapeutic potential of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC is often seen with older donors as compared to young. Although hypoxia is known as an approach to improve the therapeutic potential of MSC in term of cell proliferation and differentiation capacity, its effects on MSC from aged donors have not been well studied. To evaluate the influence of hypoxia on different age groups, MSC from young (60 years donors were expanded under hypoxic (5% O2 and normal (20% O2 culture conditions. MSC from old donors exhibited a reduction in proliferation rate and differentiation potential together with the accumulation of senescence features compared to that of young donors. However, MSC cultured under hypoxic condition showed enhanced self-renewing and proliferation capacity in both age groups as compared to normal condition. Bioinformatic analysis of the gene ontology (GO and KEGG pathway under hypoxic culture condition identified hypoxia-inducible miRNAs that were found to target transcriptional activity leading to enhanced cell proliferation, migration as well as decrease in growth arrest and apoptosis through the activation of multiple signaling pathways. Overall, differentially expressed miRNA provided additional information to describe the biological changes of young and aged MSCs expansion under hypoxic culture condition at the molecular level. Based on our findings, the therapeutic potential hierarchy of MSC according to donor’s age group and culture conditions can be categorized in the following order: young (hypoxia > young (normoxia > old aged (hypoxia > old aged (normoxia.

  19. Different culture media affect growth characteristics, surface marker distribution and chondrogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmann, Sebastien; Moradi, Babak; Frank, Sebastian; Dreher, Thomas; Kämmerer, Peer Wolfgang; Richter, Wiltrud; Gotterbarm, Tobias

    2013-07-30

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) play an important role in modern tissue engineering, while distinct variations of culture media compositions and supplements have been reported. Because MSCs are heterogeneous regarding their regenerative potential and their surface markers, these parameters were compared in four widely used culture media compositions. MSCs were isolated from bone marrow and expanded in four established cell culture media. MSC yield/1000 MNCs, passage time and growth index were observed. In P4, typical MSC surface markers were analysed by fluorescence cytometry. Additionally, chondrogenic, adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation potential were evaluated. Growth index and P0 cell yield varied importantly between the media. The different expansion media had a significant influence on the expression of CD10, CD90, CD105, CD140b CD146 and STRO-1. While no significant differences were observed regarding osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation, chondrogenic differentiation was superior in medium A as reflected by GAG/DNA content. The choice of expansion medium can have a significant influence on growth, differentiation potential and surface marker expression of mesenchymal stromal cells, which is of fundamental importance for tissue engineering procedures.

  20. Administration of autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells in children with incurable neurological disorders and injury is safe and improves their quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Alok; Gokulchandran, Nandini; Chopra, Guneet; Kulkarni, Pooja; Lohia, Mamta; Badhe, Prerna; Jacob, V C

    2012-01-01

    Neurological disorders such as muscular dystrophy, cerebral palsy, and injury to the brain and spine currently have no known definitive treatments or cures. A study was carried out on 71 children suffering from such incurable neurological disorders and injury. They were intrathecally and intramuscularly administered autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells. Assessment after transplantation showed neurological improvements in muscle power and a shift on assessment scales such as FIM and Brooke and Vignos scale. Further, imaging and electrophysiological studies also showed significant changes in selective cases. On an average follow-up of 15 ± 1 months, overall 97% muscular dystrophy cases showed subjective and functional improvement, with 2 of them also showing changes on MRI and 3 on EMG. One hundred percent of the spinal cord injury cases showed improvement with respect to muscle strength, urine control, spasticity, etc. Eighty-five percent of cases of cerebral palsy cases showed improvements, out of which 75% reported improvement in muscle tone and 50% in speech among other symptoms. Eighty-eight percent of cases of other incurable neurological disorders such as autism, Retts Syndrome, giant axonal neuropathy, etc., also showed improvement. No significant adverse events were noted. The results show that this treatment is safe, efficacious, and also improves the quality of life of children with incurable neurological disorders and injury.

  1. 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-Prostaglandin J2 Inhibits Homing of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Triggered by Chronic Liver Injury via Redox Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs have capacity to migrate to the damaged liver and contribute to fibrogenesis in chronic liver diseases. 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2, an endogenous ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, is considered a new inhibitor of cell migration. However, the actions of 15d-PGJ2 on BMSC migration remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of 15d-PGJ2 on the migration of BMSCs using a mouse model of chronic liver fibrosis and primary mouse BMSCs. Our results demonstrated that in vivo, 15d-PGJ2 administration inhibited the homing of BMSCs to injured liver by flow cytometric analysis and, in vitro, 15d-PGJ2 suppressed primary BMSC migration in a dose-dependent manner determined by Boyden chamber assay. Furthermore, the repressive effect of 15d-PGJ2 was blocked by reactive oxygen species (ROS inhibitor, but not PPARγ antagonist, and action of 15d-PGJ2 was not reproduced by PPARγ synthetic ligands. In addition, 15d-PGJ2 triggered a significant ROS production and cytoskeletal remodeling in BMSCs. In conclusion, our results suggest that 15d-PGJ2 plays a crucial role in homing of BMSCs to the injured liver dependent on ROS production, independently of PPARγ, which may represent a new strategy in the treatment of liver fibrosis.

  2. Comparison of allogeneic platelet lysate and fetal bovine serum for in vitro expansion of equine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jong-pil; Tsuzuki, Nao; Haneda, Shingo; Yamada, Kazutaka; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Sasaki, Naoki

    2013-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for cell-based therapy and tissue engineering approaches. Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is commonly used for in vitro MSC expansion; however, the use of FBS may be associated with ethical, scientific, and safety issues. This study aimed to compare the ability of allogeneic platelet lysate (PL) and FBS to cause equine bone marrow-derived MSC expansion. MSCs were isolated from bone marrow aspirate in media supplemented with either PL or FBS, and cell proliferation properties and characteristics were examined. There were no significant differences in MSC yield, colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) assay, and population doubling time between PL and FBS cultures. In addition, both PL-MSCs and FBS-MSCs showed similar results in term of ALP staining, osteogenic differentiation, and RT-PCR, although there were subtle differences in morphology, growth pattern, and adhesive properties. These results suggest that PL is a suitable alternative to FBS for use in equine MSC expansion, without the problems related to FBS use. Published by Elsevier India Pvt Ltd.

  3. Bone marrow-derived cells for cardiovascular cell therapy: an optimized GMP method based on low-density gradient improves cell purity and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radrizzani, Marina; Lo Cicero, Viviana; Soncin, Sabrina; Bolis, Sara; Sürder, Daniel; Torre, Tiziano; Siclari, Francesco; Moccetti, Tiziano; Vassalli, Giuseppe; Turchetto, Lucia

    2014-09-27

    Cardiovascular cell therapy represents a promising field, with several approaches currently being tested. The advanced therapy medicinal product (ATMP) for the ongoing METHOD clinical study ("Bone marrow derived cell therapy in the stable phase of chronic ischemic heart disease") consists of fresh mononuclear cells (MNC) isolated from autologous bone marrow (BM) through density gradient centrifugation on standard Ficoll-Paque. Cells are tested for safety (sterility, endotoxin), identity/potency (cell count, CD45/CD34/CD133, viability) and purity (contaminant granulocytes and platelets). BM-MNC were isolated by density gradient centrifugation on Ficoll-Paque. The following process parameters were optimized throughout the study: gradient medium density; gradient centrifugation speed and duration; washing conditions. A new manufacturing method was set up, based on gradient centrifugation on low density Ficoll-Paque, followed by 2 washing steps, of which the second one at low speed. It led to significantly higher removal of contaminant granulocytes and platelets, improving product purity; the frequencies of CD34+ cells, CD133+ cells and functional hematopoietic and mesenchymal precursors were significantly increased. The methodological optimization described here resulted in a significant improvement of ATMP quality, a crucial issue to clinical applications in cardiovascular cell therapy.

  4. Physical Activity Increases the Total Number of Bone-Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Enhances Their Osteogenic Potential, and Inhibits Their Adipogenic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Marędziak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging and sedentary lifestyle are common nowadays and are associated with the increasing number of chronic diseases. Thus, physical activity is recommended as one of three healthy behavior factors that play a crucial role in health prophylaxis. In the present study, we were interested whether physical activity influences the number and potential of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells BMMSCs. In this study, four-week-old male C57Bl/6 mice were trained on a treadmill at progressive speeds over a 5-week period. Comparisons made between exercised (EX and sedentary animal groups revealed (i significantly higher number of MSCs in EX animals, (ii elevated alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, (iii increased level of osteopontin (OPN and osteocalcin (OCL, and (iv reduced marrow cavity fat. The results obtained support the thesis that EX may play a substantial role in the regeneration of mesenchymal tissues. Therefore, EX may represent a novel, nonpharmacological strategy of slowing down age-related decline of the musculoskeletal functions.

  5. Resident Arterial Cells and Circulating Bone Marrow-Derived Cells both Contribute to Intimal Hyperplasia in a Rat Allograft Carotid Transplantation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi He

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Neointimal formation following vascular injury remains a major mechanism of restenosis, whereas the precise sources of neointimal cells are still uncertain. We tested the hypothesis that both injured arterial cells and non-arterial cells contribute to intimal hyperplasia. Methods: Following allograft transplantation of the balloon-injured carotid common artery (n = 3-6, the cellular composition of the transplant grafts and the origins of neointimal cells were measured by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. Results: Smooth muscle actin (SMA-positive and CD68-positive cells were clearly observed 14 days later in the neointima after allograft transplantation of the balloon-injured carotid common artery, where re-endothelialization was not yet complete. Green fluorescent protein (GFP and wild-type (WT allograft transplantation revealed that the majority of the neointima cells were apparently from the recipient (≈85% versus the donor (≈15%. Both monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/CCR2 and stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling were involved in intimal hyperplasia, with bone marrow-derived cells also playing a role. Conclusion: These data support the hypothesis that intimal hyperplasia could develop in our novel rat allograft transplantation model of arterial injury, where neointima is attributable not only to local arterial cells but also non-arterial cells including the bone marrow.

  6. Hydrostatic pressure in combination with topographical cues affects the fate of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells for bone tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinwald, Yvonne; El Haj, Alicia J

    2018-03-01

    Topographical and mechanical cues are vital for cell fate, tissue development in vivo, and to mimic the native cell growth environment in vitro. To date, the combinatory effect of mechanical and topographical cues as not been thoroughly investigated. This study investigates the effect of PCL nanofiber alignment and hydrostatic pressure on stem cell differentiation for bone tissue regeneration. Bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells were seeded onto standard tissue culture plastic and electrospun random and aligned nanofibers. These substrates were either cultured statically or subjected to intermittent hydrostatic pressure at 270 kPa, 1 Hz for 60 min daily over 21 days in osteogenic medium. Data revealed higher cell metabolic activities for all mechanically stimulated cell culture formats compared with non-stimulated controls; and random fibers compared with aligned fibers. Fiber orientation influenced cell morphology and patterns of calcium deposition. Significant up-regulation of Collagen-I, ALP, and Runx-2 were observed for random and aligned fibers following mechanical stimulation; highest levels of osteogenic markers were expressed when hydrostatic pressure was applied to random fibers. These results indicate that fiber alignment and hydrostatic pressure direct stem cell fate and are important stimulus for tissue regeneration. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: A: 629-640, 2018. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Biological Response of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Commercial Tantalum Coatings with Microscale and Nanoscale Surface Topographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Shelby A.; Kumar, Girish; Goering, Peter L.; Williams, Brian; Stiglich, Jack; Narayan, Roger J.

    2016-06-01

    Tantalum is a promising orthopaedic implant coating material due to its robust mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and excellent biocompatibility. Previous studies have demonstrated improved biocompatibility and tissue integration of surface-treated tantalum coatings compared to untreated tantalum. Surface modification of tantalum coatings with biologically inspired microscale and nanoscale features may be used to evoke optimal tissue responses. The goal of this study was to evaluate commercial tantalum coatings with nanoscale, sub-microscale, and microscale surface topographies for orthopaedic and dental applications using human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). Tantalum coatings with different microscale and nanoscale surface topographies were fabricated using a diffusion process or chemical vapor deposition. Biological evaluation of the tantalum coatings using hBMSCs showed that tantalum coatings promote cellular adhesion and growth. Furthermore, hBMSC adhesion to the tantalum coatings was dependent on surface feature characteristics, with enhanced cell adhesion on sub-micrometer- and micrometer-sized surface topographies compared to hybrid nano-/microstructures. Nanostructured and microstructured tantalum coatings should be further evaluated to optimize the surface coating features to promote osteogenesis and enhance osseointegration of tantalum-based orthopaedic implants.

  8. Combination of HIF-1α gene transfection and HIF-1-activated bone marrow-derived angiogenic cell infusion improves burn wound healing in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, J; Liu, L; Lay, F; Wang, Q; Dou, C; Zhang, X; Hosseini, S M; Simon, A; Rees, D J; Ahmed, A K; Sebastian, R; Sarkar, K; Milner, S; Marti, G P; Semenza, G L; Harmon, J W

    2013-11-01

    Impaired burn wound healing in the elderly represents a major clinical problem. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcriptional activator that orchestrates the cellular response to hypoxia. Its actions in dermal wounds promote angiogenesis and improve healing. In a murine burn wound model, aged mice had impaired wound healing associated with reduced levels of HIF-1. When gene therapy with HIF-1 alone did not correct these deficits, we explored the potential benefit of HIF-1 gene therapy combined with the intravenous infusion of bone marrow-derived angiogenic cells (BMDACs) cultured with dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG). DMOG is known to reduce oxidative degradation of HIF-1. The mice treated with a plasmid DNA construct expressing a stabilized mutant form of HIF-1α (CA5-HIF-1α)+BMDACs had more rapid wound closure. By day 17, there were more mice with completely closed wounds in the treated group (χ(2), P=0.05). The dermal blood flow measured by laser Doppler showed significantly increased wound perfusion on day 11. Homing of BMDACs to the burn wound was dramatically enhanced by CA5-HIF-1α gene therapy. HIF-1α mRNA expression in the burn wound was increased after transfection with CA5-HIF-1α plasmid. Our findings offer insight into the pathophysiology of burns in the elderly and point to potential targets for developing new therapeutic strategies.

  9. Bone marrow-derived stromal cells are more beneficial cell sources for tooth regeneration compared with adipose-derived stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lanfeng; Chen, Lin; Feng, Fan; Cui, Junhui; Li, Kaide; Li, Zhiyong; Liu, Lei

    2015-10-01

    Tooth loss is presently a global epidemic and tooth regeneration is thought to be a feasible and ideal treatment approach. Choice of cell source is a primary concern in tooth regeneration. In this study, the odontogenic differentiation potential of two non-dental-derived stem cells, adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) and bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs), were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. ADSCs and BMSCs were induced in vitro in the presence of tooth germ cell-conditioned medium (TGC-CM) prior to implantation into the omentum majus of rats, in combination with inactivated dentin matrix (IDM). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to detect the mRNA expression levels of odontogenic-related genes. Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical assays were used to detect the protein levels of odontogenic-specific genes, such as DSP and DMP-1 both in vitro and in vivo. The results suggest that both ADSCs and BMSCs have odontogenic differentiation potential. However, the odontogenic potential of BMSCs was greater compared with ADSCs, showing that BMSCs are a more appropriate cell source for tooth regeneration. © 2015 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  10. Local Xenotransplantation of Bone Marrow Derived Mast Cells (BMMCs) Improves Functional Recovery of Transected Sciatic Nerve in Cat: A Novel Approach in Cell Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Rahim; Anousheh, Dana; Alaei, Mohammad-Hazhir; Nikpasand, Amin; Rostami, Hawdam; Shahrooz, Rasoul

    2018-04-01

    To determine the effects of bone marrow derived mast cells (BMMCs) on functional recovery of transected sciatic nerve in animal model of cat. A 20-mm sciatic nerve defect was bridged using a silicone nerve guide filled with BMMCs in BMMC group. In Sham-surgery group (SHAM), the sciatic nerve was only exposed and manipulated. In control group (SILOCONE) the gap was repaired with a silicone nerve guide and both ends were sealed using sterile Vaseline to avoid leakage and the nerve guide was filled with 100 μL of phosphate-buffered saline alone. In cell treated group ([SILOCONE/BMMC) the nerve guide was filled with 100 μL BMMCs (2× 106 cells/100 μL). The regenerated nerve fibers were studied, biomechanically, histologically and immunohiscochemically 6 months later. Biomechanical studies confirmed faster recovery of regenerated axons in BMMCs transplanted animals compared to control group ( p <0.05). Morphometric indices of the regenerated fibers showed that the number and diameter of the myelinated fibers were significantly higher in BMMCs transplanted animals than in control group ( p <0.05). In immunohistochemistry, location of reactions to S-100 in BMMCs transplanted animals was clearly more positive than that in control group. BMMCs xenotransplantation could be considered as a readily accessible source of cells that could improve recovery of transected sciatic nerve.

  11. Osteoblastic cells: differentiation and trans-differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Abdallah, Basem; Saeed, Hamid

    2008-01-01

    The osteoblast is the bone forming cell and is derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) present among the bone marrow stroma. MSC are capable of multi-lineage differentiation into mesoderm-type cells such as osteoblasts and adipocytes. Understanding the mechanisms underlying osteoblast different...

  12. Reversing resistance to vascular-disrupting agents by blocking late mobilization of circulating endothelial progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Melissa; Billiot, Fanny; Marty, Virginie; Rouffiac, Valérie; Cohen, Patrick; Tournay, Elodie; Opolon, Paule; Louache, Fawzia; Vassal, Gilles; Laplace-Builhé, Corinne; Vielh, Philippe; Soria, Jean-Charles; Farace, Françoise

    2012-05-01

    The prevailing concept is that immediate mobilization of bone marrow-derived circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEP) is a key mechanism mediating tumor resistance to vascular-disrupting agents (VDA). Here, we show that administration of VDA to tumor-bearing mice induces 2 distinct peaks in CEPs: an early, unspecific CEP efflux followed by a late yet more dramatic tumor-specific CEP burst that infiltrates tumors and is recruited to vessels. Combination with antiangiogenic drugs could not disrupt the early peak but completely abrogated the late VDA-induced CEP burst, blunted bone marrow-derived cell recruitment to tumors, and resulted in striking antitumor efficacy, indicating that the late CEP burst might be crucial to tumor recovery after VDA therapy. CEP and circulating endothelial cell kinetics in VDA-treated patients with cancer were remarkably consistent with our preclinical data. These findings expand the current understanding of vasculogenic "rebounds" that may be targeted to improve VDA-based strategies. Our findings suggest that resistance to VDA therapy may be strongly mediated by late, rather than early, tumor-specific recruitment of CEPs, the suppression of which resulted in increased VDA-mediated antitumor efficacy. VDA-based therapy might thus be significantly enhanced by combination strategies targeting late CEP mobilization. © 2012 AACR

  13. Haploinsufficiency of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor enhances endothelial repair and favorably modifies angiogenic progenitor cell phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuldasheva, Nadira Y; Rashid, Sheikh Tawqeer; Haywood, Natalie J; Cordell, Paul; Mughal, Romana; Viswambharan, Hema; Imrie, Helen; Sukumar, Piruthivi; Cubbon, Richard M; Aziz, Amir; Gage, Matthew; Mbonye, Kamatamu Amanda; Smith, Jessica; Galloway, Stacey; Skromna, Anna; Scott, D Julian A; Kearney, Mark T; Wheatcroft, Stephen B

    2014-09-01

    Defective endothelial regeneration predisposes to adverse arterial remodeling and is thought to contribute to cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus. We recently demonstrated that the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) is a negative regulator of insulin sensitivity and nitric oxide bioavailability. In this report, we examined partial deletion of the IGF1R as a potential strategy to enhance endothelial repair. We assessed endothelial regeneration after wire injury in mice and abundance and function of angiogenic progenitor cells in mice with haploinsufficiency of the IGF1R (IGF1R(+/-)). Endothelial regeneration after arterial injury was accelerated in IGF1R(+/-) mice. Although the yield of angiogenic progenitor cells was lower in IGF1R(+/-) mice, these angiogenic progenitor cells displayed enhanced adhesion, increased secretion of insulin-like growth factor-1, and enhanced angiogenic capacity. To examine the relevance of IGF1R manipulation to cell-based therapy, we transfused IGF1R(+/-) bone marrow-derived CD117(+) cells into wild-type mice. IGF1R(+/-) cells accelerated endothelial regeneration after arterial injury compared with wild-type cells and did not alter atherosclerotic lesion formation. Haploinsufficiency of the IGF1R is associated with accelerated endothelial regeneration in vivo and enhanced tube forming and adhesive potential of angiogenic progenitor cells in vitro. Partial deletion of IGF1R in transfused bone marrow-derived CD117(+) cells enhanced their capacity to promote endothelial regeneration without altering atherosclerosis. Our data suggest that manipulation of the IGF1R could be exploited as novel therapeutic approach to enhance repair of the arterial wall after injury. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Lysophosphatidic acid-functionalised titanium as a superior surface for supporting human osteoblast (MG63 maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JP Mansell

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Covalent modifications of titanium with small molecules known to promote human osteoblast maturation are especially attractive in developing superior biomaterials. An important step in securing competent bone formation at implant sites is promoting the formation of mature osteoblasts, either from committed pre-osteoblasts or from their mesenchymal progenitors. To this end our research has focussed on identifying molecules that enhance human osteoblast formation and maturation and to develop ways of covalently attaching these molecules to implant surfaces so that they are more likely to withstand the rigors of the implantation process whilst still retaining their bioactivity. Herein we report the novel production of lipid-functionalised titanium using lysophosphatidic acid or a related compound, (3S 1-fluoro-3-hydroxy-4-butyl-1-phosphonate. Both lipids were especially effective at co-operating with calcitriol to promote human osteoblast maturation at these modified Ti surfaces in vitro. The novel findings presented offer enticing new developments towards the fabrication of next-generation implant devices with the potential to significantly enhance the osseointegration process and with it improvements in future prosthesis performance and longevity.

  15. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells repaired but did not prevent gentamicin-induced acute kidney injury through paracrine effects in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana A Reis

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs or their conditioned medium (CM on the repair and prevention of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI induced by gentamicin (G. Animals received daily injections of G up to 20 days. On the 10(th day, injections of BMSCs, CM, CM+trypsin, CM+RNase or exosome-like microvesicles extracted from the CM were administered. In the prevention groups, the animals received the BMSCs 24 h before or on the 5(th day of G treatment. Creatinine (Cr, urea (U, FENa and cytokines were quantified. The kidneys were evaluated using hematoxylin/eosin staining and immunohystochemistry. The levels of Cr, U and FENa increased during all the periods of G treatment. The BMSC transplantation, its CM or exosome injections inhibited the increase in Cr, U, FENa, necrosis, apoptosis and also increased cell proliferation. The pro-inflammatory cytokines decreased while the anti-inflammatory cytokines increased compared to G. When the CM or its exosomes were incubated with RNase (but not trypsin, these effects were blunted. The Y chromosome was not observed in the 24-h prevention group, but it persisted in the kidney for all of the periods analyzed, suggesting that the injury is necessary for the docking and maintenance of BMSCs in the kidney. In conclusion, the BMSCs and CM minimized the G-induced renal damage through paracrine effects, most likely through the RNA carried by the exosome-like microvesicles. The use of the CM from BMSCs can be a potential therapeutic tool for this type of nephrotoxicity, allowing for the avoidance of cell transplantations.

  16. A comparison of three-dimensional culture systems to evaluate in vitro chondrogenesis of equine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Ashlee E; Ackerman-Yost, Jeremy C; Nixon, Alan J

    2013-10-01

    To compare in vitro three-dimensional (3D) culture systems that model chondrogenesis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). MSCs from five horses 2-3 years of age were consolidated in fibrin 0.3% alginate, 1.2% alginate, 2.5×10(5) cell pellets, 5×10(5) cell pellets, and 2% agarose, and maintained in chondrogenic medium with supplemental TGF-β1 for 4 weeks. Pellets and media were tested at days 1, 14, and 28 for gene expression of markers of chondrogenic maturation and hypertrophy (ACAN, COL2B, COL10, SOX9, 18S), and evaluated by histology (hematoxylin and eosin, Toluidine Blue) and immunohistochemistry (collagen type II and X). alginate, fibrin alginate (FA), and both pellet culture systems resulted in chondrogenic transformation. Adequate RNA was not obtained from agarose cultures at any time point. There was increased COL2B, ACAN, and SOX9 expression on day 14 from both pellet culture systems. On day 28, increased expression of COL2B was maintained in 5×10(5) cell pellets and there was no difference in ACAN and SOX9 between FA and both pellet cultures. COL10 expression was significantly lower in FA cultures on day 28. Collagen type II was abundantly formed in all culture systems except alginate and collagen type X was least in FA hydrogels. equine MSCs respond to 3D culture in FA blended hydrogel and both pellet culture systems with chondrogenic induction. For prevention of terminal differentiation and hypertrophy, FA culture may be superior to pellet culture systems.

  17. TGF-β1, GDF-5, and BMP-2 stimulation induces chondrogenesis in expanded human articular chondrocytes and marrow-derived stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Meghan K; Huey, Daniel J; Hu, Jerry C; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A

    2015-03-01

    Replacement of degenerated cartilage with cell-based cartilage products may offer a long-term solution to halt arthritis' degenerative progression. Chondrocytes are frequently used in cell-based FDA-approved cartilage products; yet human marrow-derived stromal cells (hMSCs) show significant translational potential, reducing donor site morbidity and maintaining their undifferentiated phenotype with expansion. This study sought to investigate the effects of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), growth/differentiation factor 5 (GDF-5), and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) during postexpansion chondrogenesis in human articular chondrocytes (hACs) and to compare chondrogenesis in passaged hACs with that of passaged hMSCs. Through serial expansion, chondrocytes dedifferentiated, decreasing expression of chondrogenic genes while increasing expression of fibroblastic genes. However, following expansion, 10 ng/mL TGF-β1, 100 ng/mL GDF-5, or 100 ng/mL BMP-2 supplementation during three-dimensional aggregate culture each upregulated one or more markers of chondrogenic gene expression in both hACs and hMSCs. Additionally, in both cell types, the combination of TGF-β1, GDF-5, and BMP-2 induced the greatest upregulation of chondrogenic genes, that is, Col2A1, Col2A1/Col1A1 ratio, SOX9, and ACAN, and synthesis of cartilage-specific matrix, that is, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and ratio of collagen II/I. Finally, TGF-β1, GDF-5, and BMP-2 stimulation yielded mechanically robust cartilage rich in collagen II and GAGs in both cell types, following 4 weeks maturation. This study illustrates notable success in using the self-assembling method to generate robust, scaffold-free neocartilage constructs using expanded hACs and hMSCs. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  18. TGF-β1 is Involved in Vitamin D-Induced Chondrogenic Differentiation of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Regulating the ERK/JNK Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorui Jiang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Osteoarthritis (OA is characterized by degradation of cartilage, sole cell type of which is chondrocytes. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs possess multipotency and can be directionally differentiated into chondrocytes under stimulation. This study was aimed to explore the possible roles of vitamin D and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 in the chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Methods: BMSCs were isolated from femurs and tibias of rats and characterized by flow cytometry. After stimulation with vitamin D, BMSC proliferation and migration were measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8 and Transwell assays, respectively. Chondrogenic differentiation was estimated through expression levels of specific markers by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. After stable transfection, the effects of aberrantly expressed TGF-β1 on vitamin D-induced alterations, including BMSC viability, migration and chondrogenic differentiation, were all evaluated utilizing CCK-8 assay, Transwell assay, qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Finally, the phosphorylation levels of key kinases in the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK pathways were determined by Western blot analysis. Results: Vitamin D remarkably promoted BMSC viability, migration and chondrogenic differentiation. These alterations of BMSCs induced by vitamin D were reinforced by TGF-β1 overexpression while were reversed by TGF-β1 silencing. Additionally, the phosphorylation levels of ERK, JNK and c-Jun were enhanced by TGF-β1 overexpression but were reduced by TGF-β1 knockdown. Conclusion: Vitamin D promoted BMSC proliferation, migration and chondrogenic differentiation. TGF-β1 might be implicated in the vitamin D-induced alterations of BMSCs through regulating ERK/JNK pathway.

  19. Effect of Chromatin-Remodeling Agents in Hepatic Differentiation of Rat Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danna Ye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic events, including covalent histone modifications and DNA methylation, play fundamental roles in the determination of lineage-specific gene expression and cell fates. The aim of this study was to determine whether the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor (DNMTi 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC and the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi trichostatin A (TSA promote the hepatic differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rBM-MSCs and their therapeutic effect on liver damage. 1 μM TSA and 20 μM 5-aza-dC were added to standard hepatogenic medium especially at differentiation and maturation steps and their potential function on hepatic differentiation in vitro and in vivo was determined. Exposure of rBM-MSCs to 1 μM TSA at both the differentiation and maturation steps considerably improved hepatic differentiation. TSA enhanced the development of the hepatocyte shape, promoted the chronological expression of hepatocyte-specific markers, and improved hepatic functions. In contrast, treatment of rBM-MSCs with 20 μM 5-aza-dC alone or in combination with TSA was ineffective in improving hepatic differentiation in vitro. TSA and/or 5-aza-dC derived hepatocytes-like cells failed to improve the therapeutic potential in liver damage. We conclude that HDACis enhance hepatic differentiation in a time-dependent manner, while DNMTis do not induce the hepatic differentiation of rBM-MSCs in vitro. Their in vivo function needs further investigation.

  20. NKT cells act through third party bone marrow-derived cells to suppress NK cell activity in the liver and exacerbate hepatic melanoma metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadegh, Leila; Chen, Peter W; Brown, Joseph R; Han, Zhiqiang; Niederkorn, Jerry Y

    2015-09-01

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common intraocular tumor in adults and liver metastasis is the leading cause of death in UM patients. We have previously shown that NKT cell-deficient mice develop significantly fewer liver metastases from intraocular melanomas than do wild-type (WT) mice. Here, we examine the interplay between liver NKT cells and NK cells in resistance to liver metastases from intraocular melanomas. NKT cell-deficient CD1d(-/-) mice and WT C57BL/6 mice treated with anti-CD1d antibody developed significantly fewer liver metastases than WT mice following either intraocular or intrasplenic injection of B16LS9 melanoma cells. The increased number of metastases in WT mice was associated with reduced liver NK cytotoxicity and decreased production of IFN-γ. However, liver NK cell-mediated cytotoxic activity was identical in non-tumor bearing NKT cell-deficient mice and WT mice, indicating that liver metastases were crucial for the suppression of liver NK cells. Depressed liver NK cytotoxicity in WT mice was associated with production of IL-10 by bone marrow-derived liver cells that were neither Kupffer cells nor myeloid-derived suppressor cells and by increased IL-10 receptor expression on liver NK cells. IL-10(-/-) mice had significantly fewer liver metastases than WT mice, but were not significantly different from NKT cell-deficient mice. Thus, development of melanoma liver metastases is associated with upregulation of IL-10 in the liver and an elevated expression of IL-10 receptor on liver NK cells. This impairment of liver NK activity is NKT cell-dependent and only occurs in hosts with melanoma liver metastases. © 2015 UICC.

  1. Decreased nuclear stiffness via FAK-ERK1/2 signaling is necessary for osteopontin-promoted migration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lingling, E-mail: liulingling2012@163.com [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Luo, Qing, E-mail: qing.luo@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Sun, Jinghui, E-mail: sunjhemail@163.com [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Wang, Aoli, E-mail: leaf13332@163.com [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Shi, Yisong, E-mail: shiyis@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Ju, Yang, E-mail: ju@mech.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Morita, Yasuyuki, E-mail: morita@mech.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Song, Guanbin, E-mail: song@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Migration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) plays an important role in many physiological and pathological settings, including wound healing. During the migration of BMSCs through interstitial tissues, the movement of the nucleus must be coordinated with the cytoskeletal dynamics, which in turn affects the cell migration efficiency. Our previous study indicated that osteopontin (OPN) significantly promotes the migration of rat BMSCs. However, the nuclear behaviors and involved molecular mechanisms in OPN-mediated BMSC migration are largely unclear. In the present study, using an atomic force microscope (AFM), we found that OPN could decrease the nuclear stiffness of BMSCs and reduce the expression of lamin A/C, which is the main determinant of nuclear stiffness. Increased lamin A/C expression attenuates BMSC migration by increasing nuclear stiffness. Decreased lamin A/C expression promotes BMSC migration by decreasing nuclear stiffness. Furthermore, OPN promotes BMSC migration by diminishing lamin A/C expression and decreasing nuclear stiffness via the FAK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway. This study provides strong evidence for the role of nuclear mechanics in BMSC migration as well as new insight into the molecular mechanisms of OPN-promoted BMSC migration. - Highlights: • OPN promotes BMSC migration by decreasing nuclear stiffness. • Lamin A/C knockdown decreases, while its overexpression enhances, the nuclear stiffness of BMSCs. • Lamin A/C overexpression and downregulation affect the migration of BMSCs. • OPN diminishes lamin A/C expression and decreases nuclear stiffness through the activation of the FAK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway. • OPN promotes BMSC migration via the FAK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

  2. Bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells and peritoneal mast cells as targets of a growth activity secreted by BALB/3T3 fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jozaki, K.; Kuriu, A.; Hirota, S.; Onoue, H.; Ebi, Y.; Adachi, S.; Ma, J.Y.; Tarui, S.; Kitamura, Y.

    1991-01-01

    When fibroblast cell lines were cultured in contact with bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells (CMC), both NIH/3T3 and BALB/3T3 cell lines supported the proliferation of CMC. In contrast, when contact between fibroblasts and CMC was prohibited by Biopore membranes or soft agar, only BALB/3T3 fibroblasts supported CMC proliferation, suggesting that BALB/3T3 but not NIH/3T3 cells secreted a significant amount of a mast cell growth activity. Moreover, the BALB/3T3-derived growth activity induced the incorporation of [3H]thymidine by CMC and the clonal growth of peritoneal mast cells in methylcellulose. The mast cell growth activity appeared to be different from interleukin 3 (IL-3) and interleukin 4 (IL-4), because mRNAs for these interleukins were not detectable in BALB/3T3 fibroblasts. Although mast cells are genetically deficient in tissues of W/Wv mice, CMC did develop when bone marrow cells of W/Wv mice were cultured with pokeweed mitogen-stimulated spleen cell-conditioned medium. Because BALB/3T3 fibroblast-conditioned medium (BALB-FCM) did not induce the incorporation of [3H]thymidine by W/Wv CMC, the growth activity in BALB-FCM appeared to be a ligand for the receptor encoded by the W (c-kit) locus. Because CMC and peritoneal mast cells are obtained as homogeneous suspensions rather easily, these cells may be potentially useful as targets for the fibroblast-derived mast cell growth activity

  3. Trophic effects of adipose-tissue-derived and bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells enhance cartilage generation by chondrocytes in co-culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleumeekers, M M; Nimeskern, L; Koevoet, J L M; Karperien, M; Stok, K S; van Osch, G J V M

    2018-01-01

    Combining mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and chondrocytes has great potential for cell-based cartilage repair. However, there is much debate regarding the mechanisms behind this concept. We aimed to clarify the mechanisms that lead to chondrogenesis (chondrocyte driven MSC-differentiation versus MSC driven chondroinduction) and whether their effect was dependent on MSC-origin. Therefore, chondrogenesis of human adipose-tissue-derived MSCs (hAMSCs) and bone-marrow-derived MSCs (hBMSCs) combined with bovine articular chondrocytes (bACs) was compared. hAMSCs or hBMSCs were combined with bACs in alginate and cultured in vitro or implanted subcutaneously in mice. Cartilage formation was evaluated with biochemical, histological and biomechanical analyses. To further investigate the interactions between bACs and hMSCs, (1) co-culture, (2) pellet, (3) Transwell® and (4) conditioned media studies were conducted. The presence of hMSCs-either hAMSCs or hBMSCs-increased chondrogenesis in culture; deposition of GAG was most evidently enhanced in hBMSC/bACs. This effect was similar when hMSCs and bAC were combined in pellet culture, in alginate culture or when conditioned media of hMSCs were used on bAC. Species-specific gene-expression analyses demonstrated that aggrecan was expressed by bACs only, indicating a predominantly trophic role for hMSCs. Collagen-10-gene expression of bACs was not affected by hBMSCs, but slightly enhanced by hAMSCs. After in-vivo implantation, hAMSC/bACs and hBMSC/bACs had similar cartilage matrix production, both appeared stable and did not calcify. This study demonstrates that replacing 80% of bACs by either hAMSCs or hBMSCs does not influence cartilage matrix production or stability. The remaining chondrocytes produce more matrix due to trophic factors produced by hMSCs.

  4. Feline bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) show similar phenotype and functions with regards to neuronal differentiation as human MSCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Jessian L; Greco, Steven J; Patel, Shyam A; Sherman, Lauren S; Bhatt, Suresh; Bhatt, Rekha S; Shrensel, Jeffrey A; Guan, Yan-Zhong; Xie, Guiqin; Ye, Jiang-Hong; Rameshwar, Pranela; Siegel, Allan

    2012-09-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) show promise for treatment of a variety of neurological and other disorders. Cat has a high degree of linkage with the human genome and has been used as a model for analysis of neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease and motor disorders. The present study was designed to characterize bone marrow-derived MSCs from cats and to investigate the capacity to generate functional peptidergic neurons. MSCs were expanded with cells from the femurs of cats and then characterized by phenotype and function. Phenotypically, feline and human MSCs shared surface markers, and lacked hematopoietic markers, with similar morphology. As compared to a subset of human MSCs, feline MSCs showed no evidence of the major histocompatibility class II. Since the literature suggested Stro-1 as an indicator of pluripotency, we compared early and late passages feline MSCs and found its expression in >90% of the cells. However, the early passage cells showed two distinct populations of Stro-1-expressing cells. At passage 5, the MSCs were more homogeneous with regards to Stro-1 expression. The passage 5 MSCs differentiated to osteogenic and adipogenic cells, and generated neurons with electrophysiological properties. This correlated with the expression of mature neuronal markers with concomitant decrease in stem cell-associated genes. At day 12 induction, the cells were positive for MAP2, Neuronal Nuclei, tubulin βIII, Tau and synaptophysin. This correlated with electrophysiological maturity as presented by excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs). The findings indicate that the cat may constitute a promising biomedical model for evaluation of novel therapies such as stem cell therapy in such neurological disorders as Alzheimer's disease and stroke. Copyright © 2012 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Probing the interaction forces of prostate cancer cells with collagen I and bone marrow derived stem cells on the single cell level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ediz Sariisik

    Full Text Available Adhesion of metastasizing prostate carcinoma cells was quantified for two carcinoma model cell lines LNCaP (lymph node-specific and PC3 (bone marrow-specific. By time-lapse microscopy and force spectroscopy we found PC3 cells to preferentially adhere to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SCP1 cell line. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM based force spectroscopy, the mechanical pattern of the adhesion to SCP1 cells was characterized for both prostate cancer cell lines and compared to a substrate consisting of pure collagen type I. PC3 cells dissipated more energy (27.6 aJ during the forced de-adhesion AFM experiments and showed significantly more adhesive and stronger bonds compared to LNCaP cells (20.1 aJ. The characteristic signatures of the detachment force traces revealed that, in contrast to the LNCaP cells, PC3 cells seem to utilize their filopodia in addition to establish adhesive bonds. Taken together, our study clearly demonstrates that PC3 cells have a superior adhesive affinity to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, compared to LNCaP. Semi-quantitative PCR on both prostate carcinoma cell lines revealed the expression of two Col-I binding integrin receptors, α1β1 and α2β1 in PC3 cells, suggesting their possible involvement in the specific interaction to the substrates. Further understanding of the exact mechanisms behind this phenomenon might lead to optimized therapeutic applications targeting the metastatic behavior of certain prostate cancer cells towards bone tissue.

  6. Comparison of the behavior of fibroblast and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell on nitrogen plasma-treated gelatin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasertsung, I.; Kanokpanont, S.; Mongkolnavin, R.; Wong, C.S.; Panpranot, J.; Damrongsakkul, S.

    2013-01-01

    The attachment and growth behavior of mouse fibroblast (L929) and rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) on nitrogen plasma-treated and untreated gelatin films was investigated and compared. The gelatin films were prepared by solution casting (0.05% w/v) and crosslinked using dehydrothermal treatment. The crosslinked gelatin films were treated with nitrogen alternating current (AC) 50 Hz plasma systems at various treatment time. The results on the attachment and growth of two cells; L929 and MSC, on plasma-treated gelatin film showed that the number of attached and proliferated cells on plasma-treated gelatin films was significantly increased compared to untreated samples. However, no significant difference between the number of attached L929 and MSC on plasma-treated gelatin was observed. The shorter population doubling time and higher growth rate of cells cultured on plasma-treated film indicated the greater growth of cells, compared to ones on untreated films. The greatest enhancement of cell attachment and growth were noticed when the film was treated with nitrogen plasma for 9 to 15 s. This suggested that the greater attachment and growth of both cells on gelatin films resulted from the change of surface properties, i.e. hydrophilicity, surface energy, and chemistry. The suitable water contact angle and oxygen/nitrogen ratio (O/N) of gelatin film for best L929 and MSC attachment were observed at 27–32° and 1.4, respectively. These conditions also provided the best proliferation of cells on plasma-treated gelatin films. - Highlights: • We compared the attachment and growth behavior of L929 and MSC. • The attachment of two cells on plasma-treated gelatin was significantly increased. • The shorter population doubling time and higher growth rate of cells were observed. • L929 fibroblast exhibited the greater proliferation, compared to MSC

  7. Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Attenuate Immune-Mediated Liver Injury and Compromise Virus Control During Acute Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Mengmeng; Yuan, Xu; Liu, Dan; Ma, Yuhong; Zhu, Jun; Cui, Jun; Yu, Mengxue; Li, Changyong; Guo, Deyin

    2017-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used as therapeutic tools not only for their ability to differentiate toward different cells, but also for their unique immunomodulatory properties. However, it is still unknown how MSCs may affect immunity during hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This study was designed to explore the effect of bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) on hepatic natural killer (NK) cells in a mouse model of acute HBV infection. Mice were injected with 1 × 10 6 BM-MSCs, which stained with chloromethyl derivatives of fluorescein diacetate fluorescent probe, 24 h before hydrodynamic injection of viral DNA (pHBV1.3) through the tail vein. In vivo imaging system revealed that BM-MSCs were accumulated in the injured liver, and they attenuated immune-mediated liver injury during HBV infection, as shown by lower alanine aminotransferase levels, reduced proinflammatory cytokine production, and decreased inflammatory cell infiltration in the liver. Importantly, administration of BM-MSCs restrained the increased expression of natural-killer group 2, member D (NKG2D), an important receptor required for NK cell activation in the liver from HBV-infected mice. BM-MSCs also reduced NKG2D expression on NK cells and suppressed the cytotoxicity of NK cells in vitro. Furthermore, BM-MSC-derived transforming growth factor-β1 suppressed NKG2D expression on NK cells. As a consequence, BM-MSC treatment enhanced HBV gene expression and replication in vivo. These results demonstrate that adoptive transfer of BM-MSCs influences innate immunity and limits immune-mediated liver injury during acute HBV infection by suppressing NK cell activity. Meanwhile, the effect of BM-MSCs on prolonging virus clearance needs to be considered in the future.

  8. Transplantation of bone-marrow-derived cells into a nerve guide resulted in transdifferentiation into Schwann cells and effective regeneration of transected mouse sciatic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Lopes, Fátima Rosalina; Frattini, Flávia; Marques, Suelen Adriani; Almeida, Fernanda Martins de; de Moura Campos, Lenira Camargo; Langone, Francesco; Lora, Silvano; Borojevic, Radovan; Martinez, Ana Maria Blanco

    2010-10-01

    Peripheral nerves possess the capacity of self-regeneration after traumatic injury. Nevertheless, the functional outcome after peripheral-nerve regeneration is often poor, especially if the nerve injuries occur far from their targets. Aiming to optimize axon regeneration, we grafted bone-marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) into a collagen-tube nerve guide after transection of the mouse sciatic nerve. The control group received only the culture medium. Motor function was tested at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after surgery, using the sciatic functional index (SFI), and showed that functional recovery was significantly improved in animals that received the cell grafts. After 6 weeks, the mice were anesthetized, perfused transcardially, and the sciatic nerves were dissected and processed for transmission electron microscopy and light microscopy. The proximal and distal segments of the nerves were compared, to address the question of improvement in growth rate; the results revealed a maintenance and increase of nerve regeneration for both myelinated and non-myelinated fibers in distal segments of the experimental group. Also, quantitative analysis of the distal region of the regenerating nerves showed that the numbers of myelinated fibers, Schwann cells (SCs) and g-ratio were significantly increased in the experimental group compared to the control group. The transdifferentiation of BMDCs into Schwann cells was confirmed by double labeling with S100/and Hoechst staining. Our data suggest that BMDCs transplanted into a nerve guide can differentiate into SCs, and improve the growth rate of nerve fibers and motor function in a transected sciatic-nerve model.

  9. Validity of T2 mapping in characterization of the regeneration tissue by bone marrow derived cell transplantation in osteochondral lesions of the ankle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, M., E-mail: milva.battaglia@ior.it [Service of Ecography and Radiology, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, via Pupilli n. 1, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Rimondi, E. [Service of Ecography and Radiology, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, via Pupilli n. 1, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Monti, C. [Service of CT and MRI, Casa di Cura Madre Fortunata Toniolo, Bologna (Italy); Guaraldi, F. [Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Sant' Andrea, A. [Service of CT and MRI, Casa di Cura Madre Fortunata Toniolo, Bologna (Italy); Buda, R.; Cavallo, M.; Giannini, S.; Vannini, F. [Clinical Orthopaedic and Traumatology Unit II, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: Bone marrow derived cell transplantation (BMDCT) has been recently suggested as a possible surgical technique to repair osteochondral lesions. To date, no qualitative MRI studies have evaluated its efficacy. The aim of our study is to investigate the validity of MRI T2-mapping sequence in characterizing the reparative tissue obtained and its ability to correlate with clinical results. Methods and materials: 20 patients with an osteochondral lesion of the talus underwent BMDCT and were evaluated at 2 years follow up using MRI T2-mapping sequence. 20 healthy volunteers were recruited as controls. MRI images were acquired using a protocol suggested by the International Cartilage Repair Society, MOCART scoring system and T2 mapping. Results were then correlated with AOFAS clinical score. Results: AOFAS score increased from 66.8 {+-} 14.5 pre-operatively to 91.2 {+-} 8.3 (p < 0.0005) at 2 years follow-up. T2-relaxation time value of 35-45 ms was derived from healthy ankles evaluation and assumed as normal hyaline cartilage value and used as a control. Regenerated tissue with a T2-relaxation time value comparable to hyaline cartilage was found in all the cases treated, covering a mean of 78% of the repaired lesion area. A high clinical score was related directly to isointense signal in DPFSE fat sat (p = 0.05), and percentage of regenerated hyaline cartilage (p = 0.05), inversely to the percentage of regenerated fibrocartilage. Lesion's depth negatively related to the integrity of the repaired tissue's surface (tau = -0.523, p = 0.007), and to the percentage of regenerated hyaline cartilage (rho = -0.546, p = 0.013). Conclusions: Because of its ability to detect cartilage's quality and to correlate to the clinical score, MRI T2-mapping sequence integrated with Mocart score represent a valid, non-invasive technique for qualitative cartilage assessment after regenerative surgical procedures.

  10. TOB1 Deficiency Enhances the Effect of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Tendon-Bone Healing in a Rat Rotator Cuff Repair Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulei Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This study investigated the effect of silencing TOB1 (Transducer of ERBB2, 1 expression in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs on MSC-facilitated tendon-bone healing in a rat supraspinatus repair model. Methods: Rat MSCs were transduced with a recombinant lentivirus encoding short hairpin RNA (shRNA against TOB1. MSC cell proliferation was analyzed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assays. The effect of MSCs with TOB1 deficiency on tendon-bone healing in a rat rotator cuff repair model was evaluated by biomechanical testing, histological analysis and collagen type I and II gene expression. An upstream regulator (miR-218 of TOB1 was determined in MSCs. Results: We found that knockdown of TOB1 significantly increased the proliferative activity of rat MSCs in vitro. When MSCs with TOB1 deficiency were injected into injured rat supraspinatus tendon-bone junctions, the effect on tendon-bone healing was enhanced compared to treatment with control MSCs with normal TOB1 expression, as evidenced by elevated levels of ultimate load to failure and stiffness, increased amount of fibrocartilage and augmented expression of collagen type I and type II genes. In addition, we found that the TOB1 3′ untranslated region is a direct target of miR-218. Similar to the effect of TOB1 deficiency, overexpression of miR-218 effectively promoted tendon-bone healing in rat. Conclusion: These results suggest that TOB1 may play a negative role in the effect of MSCs on tendon-bone healing, and imply that expression of TOB1 may be regulated by miR-218.

  11. Preferential magnetic nanoparticle uptake by bone marrow derived macrophages sub-populations: effect of surface coating on polarization, toxicity, and in vivo MRI detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Faraj, Achraf, E-mail: aalfaraj@ksu.edu.sa [College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Molecular and Cellular Imaging Lab, Department of Radiological Sciences (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-07-15

    Noninvasive imaging of macrophages activity has raised increasing interest for diagnosis of different diseases, which make them attractive vehicles to deliver contrast agents or drugs for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. In this study, the effect of polyethylene glycol functionalization of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and their further surface modification with carboxylic groups on bone marrow-derived M1 and M2 macrophages phenotype, labeling efficiency, uptake mechanism, biocompatibility, and their in vivo MR detection was assessed. An enhanced labeling efficiency was observed for carboxylic surface-modified superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) compared to PEGylated SPIO and to a higher extent to plain SPIO along with a higher uptake by M2 subsets. Magnetic nanoparticles were found located in the periphery of the vesicles dispersed in the cytoplasm in TEM. Investigation of the labeling mechanism by inhibiting different uptake pathways revealed that endocytosis via scavenger receptor A, a process known to be clathrin mediated, plays a central role in the cellular uptake kinetics of both macrophages subpopulations. Biocompatibility evaluation showed no variation in cell viability and mitochondrial membrane potential with a low release of ROS. Flow cytometry and measurement of iNOS and Arginase 1 activity as marker of M1 and M2 macrophages polarization confirmed that magnetic labeling of macrophages subsets did not affect their polarization. In addition, no variation was observed in the biodistribution of magnetic iron oxide-labeled M1 and M2 macrophages subsets when monitored using noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging with a better detection for the enhanced SPIO-PEG-COOH-labeled cells.

  12. Caspase-8 regulates the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Siv H; Westhrin, Marita; Zahoor, Muhammad; Nørgaard, Nikolai N; Hella, Hanne; Størdal, Berit; Sundan, Anders; Nilsen, Nadra J; Sponaas, Anne-Marit; Standal, Therese

    2016-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells, also called mesenchymal stromal cells, MSCs, have great potential in stem cell therapy partly due to their immunosuppressive properties. How these cells respond to chronic inflammatory stimuli is therefore of importance. Toll-like receptors (TLR)s are innate immune receptors that mediate inflammatory signals in response to infection, stress, and damage. Caspase-8 is involved in activation of NF-kB downstream of TLRs in immune cells. Here we investigated the role of caspase-8 in regulating TLR-induced cytokine production from human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSCs). Cytokine expression in hBMCs in response to poly(I:C) and LPS was evaluated by PCR, multiplex cytokine assay, and ELISA. TLR3, TRIF, and caspase-8 were silenced using siRNA. Caspase-8 was also inhibited using a caspase-8 inhibitor, z-IEDT. We found that TLR3 agonist poly(I:C) and TLR4 agonist LPS induced secretion of several pro-inflammatory cytokines in a TLR-dependent manner which required the TLR signaling adaptor molecule TRIF. Further, poly(I:C) reduced the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines HGF and TGFβ whereas LPS reduced HGF expression only. Notably, caspase-8 was involved in the induction of IL- IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL10, and in the inhibition of HGF and TGFβ. Caspase-8 appears to modulate hBMSCs into gaining a pro-inflammatory phenotype. Therefore, inhibiting caspase-8 in hBMSCs might promote an immunosuppressive phenotype which could be useful in clinical applications to treat inflammatory disorders.

  13. Preferential magnetic nanoparticle uptake by bone marrow derived macrophages sub-populations: effect of surface coating on polarization, toxicity, and in vivo MRI detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Faraj, Achraf

    2013-01-01

    Noninvasive imaging of macrophages activity has raised increasing interest for diagnosis of different diseases, which make them attractive vehicles to deliver contrast agents or drugs for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. In this study, the effect of polyethylene glycol functionalization of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and their further surface modification with carboxylic groups on bone marrow-derived M1 and M2 macrophages phenotype, labeling efficiency, uptake mechanism, biocompatibility, and their in vivo MR detection was assessed. An enhanced labeling efficiency was observed for carboxylic surface-modified superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) compared to PEGylated SPIO and to a higher extent to plain SPIO along with a higher uptake by M2 subsets. Magnetic nanoparticles were found located in the periphery of the vesicles dispersed in the cytoplasm in TEM. Investigation of the labeling mechanism by inhibiting different uptake pathways revealed that endocytosis via scavenger receptor A, a process known to be clathrin mediated, plays a central role in the cellular uptake kinetics of both macrophages subpopulations. Biocompatibility evaluation showed no variation in cell viability and mitochondrial membrane potential with a low release of ROS. Flow cytometry and measurement of iNOS and Arginase 1 activity as marker of M1 and M2 macrophages polarization confirmed that magnetic labeling of macrophages subsets did not affect their polarization. In addition, no variation was observed in the biodistribution of magnetic iron oxide-labeled M1 and M2 macrophages subsets when monitored using noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging with a better detection for the enhanced SPIO–PEG–COOH-labeled cells

  14. Decreased nuclear stiffness via FAK-ERK1/2 signaling is necessary for osteopontin-promoted migration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Lingling; Luo, Qing; Sun, Jinghui; Wang, Aoli; Shi, Yisong; Ju, Yang; Morita, Yasuyuki; Song, Guanbin

    2017-01-01

    Migration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) plays an important role in many physiological and pathological settings, including wound healing. During the migration of BMSCs through interstitial tissues, the movement of the nucleus must be coordinated with the cytoskeletal dynamics, which in turn affects the cell migration efficiency. Our previous study indicated that osteopontin (OPN) significantly promotes the migration of rat BMSCs. However, the nuclear behaviors and involved molecular mechanisms in OPN-mediated BMSC migration are largely unclear. In the present study, using an atomic force microscope (AFM), we found that OPN could decrease the nuclear stiffness of BMSCs and reduce the expression of lamin A/C, which is the main determinant of nuclear stiffness. Increased lamin A/C expression attenuates BMSC migration by increasing nuclear stiffness. Decreased lamin A/C expression promotes BMSC migration by decreasing nuclear stiffness. Furthermore, OPN promotes BMSC migration by diminishing lamin A/C expression and decreasing nuclear stiffness via the FAK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway. This study provides strong evidence for the role of nuclear mechanics in BMSC migration as well as new insight into the molecular mechanisms of OPN-promoted BMSC migration. - Highlights: • OPN promotes BMSC migration by decreasing nuclear stiffness. • Lamin A/C knockdown decreases, while its overexpression enhances, the nuclear stiffness of BMSCs. • Lamin A/C overexpression and downregulation affect the migration of BMSCs. • OPN diminishes lamin A/C expression and decreases nuclear stiffness through the activation of the FAK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway. • OPN promotes BMSC migration via the FAK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

  15. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells regress aortic aneurysm via the NF-kB, Smad3 and Akt signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamawaki-Ogata, Aika; Oshima, Hideki; Usui, Akihiko; Narita, Yuji

    2017-10-01

    We have confirmed that aortic aneurysm (AA) can be regressed by the administration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs). We investigated the kinetics of signaling pathways in AA following treatment with BM-MSCs. Angiotensin II-infused apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were treated by intravenous injection of 1 × 10 6 BM-MSCs in 0.2 mL saline (BM-MSCs group, n = 5) or 0.2 mL saline (saline group, n = 5). Mice were sacrificed 2 weeks after injection and subjected to measurements of the incidence of AA and levels of phosphorylated proteins. Levels of proteins in conditioned media of BM-MSCs were also measured. The incidence of AA in the BM-MSCs group was reduced (BM-MSC 40% versus saline 100%, P kB and pSTAT1 were reduced (pNF-kB: 0.28 versus 0.45 unit/mL, P kB, pAkt, and pSmad3 were correlated with aortic diameters. Trophic factors including IGFPB-3, NRF, Activin A and PDGF-AA were secreted from BM-MSCs (IGFBP-3: 35.2 pg/mL, NRF: 3.1 pg/mL, Activin A: 3.1 pg/mL, PDGF-AA: 0.45 pg/mL). Our findings suggested that the therapeutic mechanism of BM-MSC-mediated AA regression could contribute to regulation of the NF-kB, Smad3 and Akt signaling pathways. In addition, paracrine actions by factors including NRF, IGFBP-3, Activin A and PDGF-AA might have affected these signaling pathways. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comprehensive Effects of Suppression of MicroRNA-383 in Human Bone-Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Treating Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Jun Wei

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Transplantation of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs promotes neural cell regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI. Recently, we showed that suppression of microRNA-383 (miR-383 in MSCs increased the protein levels of glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, resulting in improved therapeutic effects on SCI. However, the overall effects of miR-383 suppression in MSCs on SCI therapy were not determined yet. Here, we addressed this question. Methods: We used bioinformatics tools to predict all miR-383-targeting genes, confirmed the functional bindings in a dual luciferase reporter assay. The effects of alteration of candidate genes in MSCs on cell proliferation were analyzed by MTT assay and by Western blotting for PCNA. The effects on angiogenesis were assessed by HUVEC assay. The effects on SCI in vivo were analyzed by transplantation of the modified MSCs into nude rats that underwent SCI. Results: Suppression of miR-383 in MSCs not only upregulated GDNF protein, but also increased vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A and cyclin-dependent kinase 19 (CDK19, two other miR-383 targets. MiR-383-suppression-induced increases in CDK19 resulted in a slight but significant increase in MSC proliferation, while miR-383-suppression-induced increases in VEGF-A resulted in a slight but significant increase in MSC-mediated angiogenesis. Conclusions: Upregulation of CDK19 and VEGF-A by miR-383 suppression in MSCs further improve the therapeutic potential of MSCs in treating SCI in rats.

  17. Msh homeobox 1 (Msx1)- and Msx2-overexpressing bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells resemble blastema cells and enhance regeneration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghiyar, Leila; Hesaraki, Mahdi; Sayahpour, Forough Azam; Satarian, Leila; Hosseini, Samaneh; Aghdami, Naser; Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza

    2017-06-23

    Amputation of the proximal region in mammals is not followed by regeneration because blastema cells (BCs) and expression of regenerative genes, such as Msh homeobox ( Msx ) genes, are absent in this animal group. The lack of BCs and positional information in other cells is therefore the main obstacle to therapeutic approaches for limb regeneration. Hence, this study aimed to create blastema-like cells (BlCs) by overexpressing Msx1 and Msx2 genes in mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (mBMSCs) to regenerate a proximally amputated digit tip. We transduced mBMSCs with Msx1 and Msx2 genes and compared osteogenic activity and expression levels of several Msx -regulated genes ( Bmp4 , Fgf8 , and keratin 14 ( K14 )) in BlC groups, including MSX1, MSX2, and MSX1/2 (in a 1:1 ratio) with those in mBMSCs and BCs in vitro and in vivo following injection into the amputation site. We found that Msx gene overexpression increased expression of specific blastemal markers and enhanced the proliferation rate and osteogenesis of BlCs compared with mBMSCs and BCs via activation of Fgf8 and Bmp4 Histological analyses indicated full regrowth of digit tips in the Msx -overexpressing groups, particularly in MSX1/2, through endochondral ossification 6 weeks post-injection. In contrast, mBMSCs and BCs formed abnormal bone and nail. Full digit tip was regenerated only in the MSX1/2 group and was related to boosted Bmp4, Fgf8 , and K14 gene expression and to limb-patterning properties resulting from Msx1 and Msx2 overexpression. We propose that Msx -transduced cells that can regenerate epithelial and mesenchymal tissues may potentially be utilized in limb regeneration. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. The recovery of bone marrow derived GM-CFU in baboons unilaterally exposed to a total body LD50/30d mixed neutron-gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herodin, F.; Orfeuvre, H.; Janodet, D.; Mestries, J.C.; Fatome, M.

    1990-01-01

    The unilateral exposure of baboons to a total body LD 50/30d mixed neutron/gamma irradiation was characterized to be non uniform in dose distribution. The pattern of recovery of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors in bone marrow samples collected from entrance and exit sides respectively is consistent with this observed heterogeneity [fr

  19. New titanium and titanium/hydroxyapatite coatings on ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene-in vitro osteoblastic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M A; Lopes, M A; Santos, J D; Fernandes, M H; Gomes, P S; Vila, M; Silva, R F

    2010-01-01

    The development of optimized hip joint materials is one of the most challenging opportunities in prosthetic technologies. In current approaches, ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been a favorite material for the acetabular component and, regarding the cementless technique, several coating options may be considered to contain and stabilize bearing surfaces and establish an improved interface with bone. In this work, newly developed constructs of UHMWPE coated with either commercially pure titanium (cpTi-UHMWPE), by DC magnetron sputtering, or with commercially pure titanium and hydroxyapatite (cpTi/HA-UHMWPE), by DC/RF magnetron co-sputtering, have been prepared and biologically characterized with human bone marrow-derived osteoblastic cultures. The cpTi-UHMWPE samples allowed a high cell growth and the expression of the complete osteoblastic phenotype, with high alkaline phosphatase activity, expression of osteogenic-associated genes and evident cell-mediated mineralization of the extracellular matrix. In comparison, the cpTi/HA-UHMWPE samples reported lower cell proliferation but earlier cell-mediated matrix mineralization. Accordingly, these newly developed systems may be suitable candidates to improve the osteointegration process in arthroplastic devices; nevertheless, further biological evaluation should be conducted.

  20. Low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field pretreated bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote the regeneration of crush-injured rat mental nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, NaRi; Lee, Sung-Ho; Ju, Kyung Won; Woo, JaeMan; Kim, BongJu; Kim, SoungMin; Jahng, Jeong Won; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2018-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been shown to promote the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves. Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) reportedly promotes the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of BMSCs. Low-frequency PEMF can induce the neuronal differentiation of BMSCs in the absence of nerve growth factors. This study was designed to investigate the effects of low-frequency PEMF pretreatment on the proliferation and function of BMSCs and the effects of low-frequency PEMF pre-treated BMSCs on the regeneration of injured peripheral nerve using in vitro and in vivo experiments. In in vitro experiments, quantitative DNA analysis was performed to determine the proliferation of BMSCs, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect S100 (Schwann cell marker), glial fibrillary acidic protein (astrocyte marker), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor (neurotrophic factors) mRNA expression. In the in vivo experiments, rat models of crush-injured mental nerve established using clamp method were randomly injected with low-frequency PEMF pretreated BMSCs, unpretreated BMSCs or PBS at the injury site (1 × 10 6 cells). DiI-labeled BMSCs injected at the injury site were counted under the fluorescence microscope to determine cell survival. One or two weeks after cell injection, functional recovery of the injured nerve was assessed using the sensory test with von Frey filaments. Two weeks after cell injection, axonal regeneration was evaluated using histomorphometric analysis and retrograde labeling of trigeminal ganglion neurons. In vitro experiment results revealed that low-frequency PEMF pretreated BMSCs proliferated faster and had greater mRNA expression of growth factors than unpretreated BMSCs. In vivo experiment results revealed that compared with injection of unpretreated BMSCs, injection of low-frequency PEMF pretreated BMSCs led to higher myelinated axon count and axon density and

  1. Lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 expresses in mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and stimulates their proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fenxi; Wang, Congrui; Jing, Suhua; Ren, Tongming; Li, Yonghai; Cao, Yulin; Lin, Juntang

    2013-01-01

    The bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs) have been widely used in cell transplant therapy, and the proliferative ability of bmMSCs is one of the determinants of the therapy efficiency. Lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) as a transmembrane protein is responsible for binding, internalizing and degrading oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). It has been identified that LOX-1 is expressed in endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts and monocytes. In these cells, low concentration of ox-LDL (<40 μg/mL) stimulates their proliferation via LOX-1 activation. However, it is poor understood that whether LOX-1 is expressed in bmMSCs and which role it plays. In this study, we investigated the status of LOX-1 expression in bmMSCs and its function on bmMSC proliferation. Our results showed that primary bmMSCs exhibiting a typical fibroblast-like morphology are positive for CD44 and CD90, but negative for CD34 and CD45. LOX-1 in both mRNA and protein levels is highly expressed in bmMSCs. Meanwhile, bmMSCs exhibit a strong potential to take up ox-LDL. Moreover, LOX-1 expression in bmMSCs is upregulated by ox-LDL with a dose- and time-dependent manner. Presence of ox-LDL also enhances the proliferation of bmMSCs. Knockdown of LOX-1 expression significantly inhibits ox-LDL-induced bmMSC proliferation. These findings indicate that LOX-1 plays a role in bmMSC proliferation. - Highlights: ► LOX-1 expresses in bmMSCs and mediates uptake of ox-LDL. ► Ox-LDL stimulates upregulation of LOX-1 in bmMSCs. ► Ox-LDL promotes bmMSC proliferation and expression of Mdm2, phosphor-Akt, phosphor-ERK1/2 and phosphor-NF-κB. ► LOX-1 siRNA inhibits ox-LDL-induced bmMSC proliferation and expression cell survival signals

  2. Plasmid-based genetic modification of human bone marrow-derived stromal cells: analysis of cell survival and transgene expression after transplantation in rat spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronsyn, Mark W; Daans, Jasmijn; Spaepen, Gie; Chatterjee, Shyama; Vermeulen, Katrien; D'Haese, Patrick; Van Tendeloo, Viggo Fi; Van Marck, Eric; Ysebaert, Dirk; Berneman, Zwi N; Jorens, Philippe G; Ponsaerts, Peter

    2007-12-14

    Bone marrow-derived stromal cells (MSC) are attractive targets for ex vivo cell and gene therapy. In this context, we investigated the feasibility of a plasmid-based strategy for genetic modification of human (h)MSC with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and neurotrophin (NT)3. Three genetically modified hMSC lines (EGFP, NT3, NT3-EGFP) were established and used to study cell survival and transgene expression following transplantation in rat spinal cord. First, we demonstrate long-term survival of transplanted hMSC-EGFP cells in rat spinal cord under, but not without, appropriate immune suppression. Next, we examined the stability of EGFP or NT3 transgene expression following transplantation of hMSC-EGFP, hMSC-NT3 and hMSC-NT3-EGFP in rat spinal cord. While in vivo EGFP mRNA and protein expression by transplanted hMSC-EGFP cells was readily detectable at different time points post-transplantation, in vivo NT3 mRNA expression by hMSC-NT3 cells and in vivo EGFP protein expression by hMSC-NT3-EGFP cells was, respectively, undetectable or declined rapidly between day 1 and 7 post-transplantation. Further investigation revealed that the observed in vivo decline of EGFP protein expression by hMSC-NT3-EGFP cells: (i) was associated with a decrease in transgenic NT3-EGFP mRNA expression as suggested following laser capture micro-dissection analysis of hMSC-NT3-EGFP cell transplants at day 1 and day 7 post-transplantation, (ii) did not occur when hMSC-NT3-EGFP cells were transplanted subcutaneously, and (iii) was reversed upon re-establishment of hMSC-NT3-EGFP cell cultures at 2 weeks post-transplantation. Finally, because we observed a slowly progressing tumour growth following transplantation of all our hMSC cell transplants, we here demonstrate that omitting immune suppressive therapy is sufficient to prevent further tumour growth and to eradicate malignant xenogeneic cell transplants. In this study, we demonstrate that genetically modified hMSC lines can survive

  3. Reinforced chitosan-based heart valve scaffold and utility of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for cardiovascular tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanna, Mohammad Zaki

    Recent research has demonstrated a strong correlation between the differentiation profile of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and scaffold stiffness. Chitosan is being widely studied for tissue engineering applications due to its biocompatibility and biodegradability. However, its use in load-bearing applications is limited due to moderate to low mechanical properties. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of a fiber reinforcement method for enhancing the mechanical properties of chitosan scaffolds. Chitosan fibers were fabricated using a solution extrusion and neutralization method and incorporated into porous chitosan scaffolds. The effects of different fiber/scaffold mass ratios, fiber mechanical properties and fiber lengths on scaffold mechanical properties were studied. The results showed that incorporating fibers improved scaffold strength and stiffness in proportion to the fiber/scaffold mass ratio. A fiber-reinforced heart valve leaflet scaffold achieved strength values comparable to the radial values of human pulmonary and aortic valves. Additionally, the effects of shorter fibers (2 mm) were found to be up to 3-fold greater than longer fibers (10 mm). Despite this reduction in fiber mechanical properties caused by heparin crosslinking, the heparin-modified fibers still improved the mechanical properties of the reinforced scaffolds, but to a lesser extent than the unmodified fibers. The results demonstrate that chitosan fiber-reinforcement can be used to generate tissue-matching mechanical properties in porous chitosan scaffolds and that fiber length and mechanical properties are important parameters in defining the degree of mechanical improvement. We further studied various chemical and physical treatments to improve the mechanical properties of chitosan fibers. With combination of chemical and physical treatments, fiber stiffness improved 40fold compared to unmodified fibers. We also isolated ovine bone marrow-derived MSCs and evaluated their

  4. Intrapancreatic injection of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells alleviates hyperglycemia and modulates the macrophage state in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norimitsu Murai

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a progressive disease caused by the destruction of pancreatic β-cells, resulting in insulin dependency and hyperglycemia. While transplanted bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BMMSCs have been explored as an alternative therapeutic approach for diseases, the choice of delivery route may be a critical factor determining their sustainability. This study evaluated the effects of intrapancreatic and intravenous injection of human BMMSCs (hBMMSCs in streptozotocin (STZ-induced type 1 diabetic mouse model. C57/BL6 mice were intraperitoneally injected with 115 mg/kg STZ on day 0. hBMMSCs (1 × 106 cells or vehicle were injected into the pancreas or jugular vein on day 7. Intrapancreatic, but not intravenous, hBMMSC injection significantly reduced blood glucose levels on day 28 compared with vehicle injection by the same route. This glucose-lowering effect was not induced by intrapancreatic injection of human fibroblasts as the xenograft control. Intrapancreatically injected fluorescence-labeled hBMMSCs were observed in the intra- and extra-lobular spaces of the pancreas, and intravenously injected cells were in the lung region, although the number of cells mostly decreased within 2 weeks of injection. For hBMMSCs injected twice into the pancreatic region on days 7 and 28, the injected mice had further reduced blood glucose to borderline diabetic levels on day 56. Animals injected with hBMMSCs twice exhibited increases in the plasma insulin level, number and size of islets, insulin-positive proportion of the total pancreas area, and intensity of insulin staining compared with vehicle-injected animals. We found a decrease of Iba1-positive cells in islets and an increase of CD206-positive cells in both the endocrine and exocrine pancreas. The hBMMSC injection also reduced the number of CD40-positive cells merged with glucagon immunoreactions in the islets. These results suggest that intrapancreatic injection

  5. Bone Marrow-Derived Cell Accumulation in the Spinal Cord Is Independent of Peripheral Mobilization in a Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peake, Kyle; Manning, John; Lewis, Coral-Ann; Tran, Kevin; Rossi, Fabio; Krieger, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) are capable of migrating across the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and accumulating in the central nervous system (CNS) when transplanted into recipients conditioned with whole-body irradiation or chemotherapy. We used the chemotherapeutic agents busulfan and treosulfan to condition recipient mice for transplantation with bone marrow (BM) cells isolated from donor mice ubiquitously expressing green fluorescent protein. We attempted to increase the accumulation of BMDCs in the CNS by mobilization of BMDCs using either, or both, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) or plerixafor (AMD3100). We also used several concentrations of busulfan. We hypothesized that higher concentrations of busulfan and BMDC mobilization would increase numbers of GFP+ cells in the CNS. The doses of busulfan employed (60–125 mg/kg) all resulted in high levels of sustained chimerism (>85% 1 year post-transplant) in both the blood and BM of wild-type (WT) mice and an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mouse model. Moreover, cells accumulated within the CNS in a dose-, time-, and disease-dependent manner. Conditioning with the hydrophilic busulfan analog treosulfan, which is unable to cross the BBB efficiently, also resulted in a high degree of BM chimerism. However, few GFP+ BMDCs were found within the CNS of WT or ALS mice of treosulfan-conditioned mice. Mobilization of BMDCs into the circulation using GCSF and/or AMD3100 did not lead to increased accumulation of GFP+ BMDCs within the CNS of WT or ALS mice. Weekly analysis of BMDC accumulation revealed that BMDCs accumulated more rapidly and to a greater extent in the CNS of ALS mice conditioned with a high dose (125 mg/kg) of busulfan compared to a lower dose (80 mg/kg). The number of GFP+ BMDCs in the CNS labeling with the proliferation marker Ki67 increased in parallel with BMDC accumulation within the CNS. Our results indicate that establishment of high levels of blood and BM chimerism

  6. Lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 expresses in mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and stimulates their proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fenxi [Department of Anatomy, Sanquan College, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang 453003 (China); Stem Cell and Biotheraphy Technology Research Center, College of Lifescience and Technology, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang 453003 (China); Wang, Congrui [Stem Cell and Biotheraphy Technology Research Center, College of Lifescience and Technology, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang 453003 (China); Jing, Suhua [ICU Center, The Third Hospital of Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang 453003 (China); Ren, Tongming [Department of Anatomy, Sanquan College, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang 453003 (China); Li, Yonghai; Cao, Yulin [Stem Cell and Biotheraphy Technology Research Center, College of Lifescience and Technology, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang 453003 (China); Lin, Juntang, E-mail: juntang.lin@googlemail.com [Stem Cell and Biotheraphy Technology Research Center, College of Lifescience and Technology, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang 453003 (China)

    2013-04-15

    The bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs) have been widely used in cell transplant therapy, and the proliferative ability of bmMSCs is one of the determinants of the therapy efficiency. Lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) as a transmembrane protein is responsible for binding, internalizing and degrading oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). It has been identified that LOX-1 is expressed in endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts and monocytes. In these cells, low concentration of ox-LDL (<40 μg/mL) stimulates their proliferation via LOX-1 activation. However, it is poor understood that whether LOX-1 is expressed in bmMSCs and which role it plays. In this study, we investigated the status of LOX-1 expression in bmMSCs and its function on bmMSC proliferation. Our results showed that primary bmMSCs exhibiting a typical fibroblast-like morphology are positive for CD44 and CD90, but negative for CD34 and CD45. LOX-1 in both mRNA and protein levels is highly expressed in bmMSCs. Meanwhile, bmMSCs exhibit a strong potential to take up ox-LDL. Moreover, LOX-1 expression in bmMSCs is upregulated by ox-LDL with a dose- and time-dependent manner. Presence of ox-LDL also enhances the proliferation of bmMSCs. Knockdown of LOX-1 expression significantly inhibits ox-LDL-induced bmMSC proliferation. These findings indicate that LOX-1 plays a role in bmMSC proliferation. - Highlights: ► LOX-1 expresses in bmMSCs and mediates uptake of ox-LDL. ► Ox-LDL stimulates upregulation of LOX-1 in bmMSCs. ► Ox-LDL promotes bmMSC proliferation and expression of Mdm2, phosphor-Akt, phosphor-ERK1/2 and phosphor-NF-κB. ► LOX-1 siRNA inhibits ox-LDL-induced bmMSC proliferation and expression cell survival signals.

  7. Cadmium modulates hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and skews toward myelopoiesis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yandong; Yu, Xinchun; Sun, Shuhui; Li, Qian; Xie, Yunli; Li, Qiang; Zhao, Yifan; Pei, Jianfeng; Zhang, Wenmin; Xue, Peng; Zhou, Zhijun; Zhang, Yubin

    2016-01-01

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is known to modulate immunity and cause osteoporosis. However, how Cd influences on hematopoiesis remain largely unknown. Herein, we show that wild-type C57BL/6 (B6) mice exposed to Cd for 3 months had expanded bone marrow (BM) populations of long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs), common myeloid progenitors (CMPs) and granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMPs), while having reduced populations of multipotent progenitors (MPPs) and common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs). A competitive mixed BM transplantation assay indicates that BM from Cd-treated mice had impaired LT-HSC ability to differentiate into mature cells. In accordance with increased myeloid progenitors and decreased lymphoid progenitors, the BM and spleens of Cd-treated mice had more monocytes and/or neutrophils and fewer B cells and T cells. Cd impaired the ability of the non-hematopoietic system to support LT-HSCs, in that lethally irradiated Cd-treated recipients transplanted with normal BM cells had reduced LT-HSCs after the hematopoietic system was fully reconstituted. This is consistent with reduced osteoblasts, a known critical component for HSC niche, observed in Cd-treated mice. Conversely, lethally irradiated control recipients transplanted with BM cells from Cd-treated mice had normal LT-HSC reconstitution. Furthermore, both control mice and Cd-treated mice that received Alendronate, a clinical drug used for treating osteoporosis, had BM increases of LT-HSCs. Thus, the results suggest Cd increase of LT-HSCs is due to effects on HSCs and not on osteoblasts, although, Cd causes osteoblast reduction and impaired niche function for maintaining HSCs. Furthermore, Cd skews HSCs toward myelopoiesis. - Highlights: • Cd increases the number of LT-HSCs but impairs their development. • Cd-treated hosts have compromised ability to support LT-HSCs. • Cd promotes myelopoiesis at the expense of lymphopoiesis at the MPP level.

  8. Cadmium modulates hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and skews toward myelopoiesis in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yandong; Yu, Xinchun [School of Public Health and Key Laboratory of Public Health, MOE, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Sun, Shuhui [Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Li, Qian [School of Public Health and Key Laboratory of Public Health, MOE, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Xie, Yunli [Insititute of Brain Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Li, Qiang [Putuo District Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai 200062 (China); Zhao, Yifan; Pei, Jianfeng; Zhang, Wenmin; Xue, Peng; Zhou, Zhijun [School of Public Health and Key Laboratory of Public Health, MOE, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Zhang, Yubin, E-mail: yz001@fudan.edu.cn [School of Public Health and Key Laboratory of Public Health, MOE, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2016-12-15

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is known to modulate immunity and cause osteoporosis. However, how Cd influences on hematopoiesis remain largely unknown. Herein, we show that wild-type C57BL/6 (B6) mice exposed to Cd for 3 months had expanded bone marrow (BM) populations of long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs), common myeloid progenitors (CMPs) and granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMPs), while having reduced populations of multipotent progenitors (MPPs) and common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs). A competitive mixed BM transplantation assay indicates that BM from Cd-treated mice had impaired LT-HSC ability to differentiate into mature cells. In accordance with increased myeloid progenitors and decreased lymphoid progenitors, the BM and spleens of Cd-treated mice had more monocytes and/or neutrophils and fewer B cells and T cells. Cd impaired the ability of the non-hematopoietic system to support LT-HSCs, in that lethally irradiated Cd-treated recipients transplanted with normal BM cells had reduced LT-HSCs after the hematopoietic system was fully reconstituted. This is consistent with reduced osteoblasts, a known critical component for HSC niche, observed in Cd-treated mice. Conversely, lethally irradiated control recipients transplanted with BM cells from Cd-treated mice had normal LT-HSC reconstitution. Furthermore, both control mice and Cd-treated mice that received Alendronate, a clinical drug used for treating osteoporosis, had BM increases of LT-HSCs. Thus, the results suggest Cd increase of LT-HSCs is due to effects on HSCs and not on osteoblasts, although, Cd causes osteoblast reduction and impaired niche function for maintaining HSCs. Furthermore, Cd skews HSCs toward myelopoiesis. - Highlights: • Cd increases the number of LT-HSCs but impairs their development. • Cd-treated hosts have compromised ability to support LT-HSCs. • Cd promotes myelopoiesis at the expense of lymphopoiesis at the MPP level.

  9. Ihh signaling is directly required for the osteoblast lineage in the endochondral skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Fanxin; Chung, Ung-il; Ohba, Shinsuke; McMahon, Jill; Kronenberg, Henry M; McMahon, Andrew P

    2004-03-01

    Indian hedgehog (Ihh) is indispensable for development of the osteoblast lineage in the endochondral skeleton. In order to determine whether Ihh is directly required for osteoblast differentiation, we have genetically manipulated smoothened (Smo), which encodes a transmembrane protein that is essential for transducing all Hedgehog (Hh) signals. Removal of Smo from perichondrial cells by the Cre-LoxP approach prevents formation of a normal bone collar and also abolishes development of the primary spongiosa. Analysis of chimeric embryos composed of wild-type and Smo(n/n) cells indicates that Smo(n/n) cells fail to contribute to osteoblasts in either the bone collar or the primary spongiosa but generate ectopic chondrocytes. In order to assess whether Ihh is sufficient to induce bone formation in vivo, we have analyzed the bone collar in the long bones of embryos in which Ihh was artificially expressed in all chondrocytes by the UAS-GAL4 bigenic system. Although ectopic Ihh does not induce overt ossification along the entire cartilage anlage, it promotes progression of the bone collar toward the epiphysis, suggesting a synergistic effect between ectopic Ihh and endogenous factors such as the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). In keeping with this model, Hh signaling is further found to be required in BMP-induced osteogenesis in cultures of a limb-bud cell line. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Ihh signaling is directly required for the osteoblast lineage in the developing long bones and that Ihh functions in conjunction with other factors such as BMPs to induce osteoblast differentiation. We suggest that Ihh acts in vivo on a potential progenitor cell to promote osteoblast and prevent chondrocyte differentiation.

  10. Treating fat grafts with human endothelial progenitor cells promotes their vascularization and improves their survival in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Saher; Ben-Nun, Ohad; Egozi, Dana; Keren, Aviad; Malyarova, Nastya; Kruchevsky, Danny; Gilhar, Amos; Ullmann, Yehuda

    2012-10-01

    Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells are required for vascularization of a fat graft to form a functional microvasculature within the graft and to facilitate its integration into the surrounding tissues. Organ transplantation carries a high risk of graft loss and rejection in patients with diabetes mellitus because endothelial progenitor cell function is impaired. The authors investigated the influence of endothelial progenitor cell treatment on the phenotype and survival of human fat grafts in immunocompromised mice with experimentally induced diabetes mellitus. The authors injected 1 ml of human fat tissue into the scalps of 14 nondiabetic and 28 diabetic immunocompromised mice, and then treated some of the grafts with endothelial progenitor cells that was isolated from the blood of a human donor. The phenotype of the endothelial progenitor cell-treated fat grafts from the 14 diabetic mice was compared with that of the untreated fat grafts from 14 nondiabetic and 14 diabetic mice, 18 days and 15 weeks after fat transplantation. Determination of graft phenotype included measurements of weight and volume, vascular endothelial growth factor levels, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and caspase 3 expression levels, and histologic analysis of the extent of vascularization. The untreated grafts from the diabetic mice were fully resorbed 15 weeks after fat transplantation. The phenotype of endothelial progenitor cell-treated fat grafts from the diabetic mice was similar to that of the untreated fat grafts from the nondiabetic mice. Endothelial progenitor cell treatment of transplanted fat can increase the survival of a fat graft by inducing its vascularization and decreasing the extent of apoptosis.

  11. Rosuvastatin reduces atherosclerotic lesions and promotes progenitor cell mobilisation and recruitment in apolipoprotein E knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeter, Marco R; Humboldt, Tim; Schäfer, Katrin; Konstantinides, Stavros

    2009-07-01

    Statins enhance incorporation of bone marrow-derived cells into experimental neointimal lesions. However, the contribution of progenitor cells to progression of spontaneous atherosclerotic plaques, and the possible modulatory role of statins in this process, remain poorly understood. We compared the effects of rosuvastatin (1 and 10mg/kg BW) and pravastatin (10mg/kg) on progenitor cell mobilisation, recruitment into atherosclerotic plaques, and lesion growth. Statins were administered over 8 weeks to apolipoprotein E knockout mice on atherogenic diet. In addition, mice were lethally irradiated, followed by transplantation of bone marrow from LacZ transgenic mice. Rosuvastatin reduced lesion area and intima-to-media ratio at the brachiocephalic artery compared to vehicle, while both parameters were not significantly altered by pravastatin. Rosuvastatin also augmented endothelialisation (P<0.05) and reduced the smooth muscle cells (SMC) content (P=0.042) of lesions. Numbers of c-kit, sca-1 and flk-1, sca-1 double-positive progenitor cells were significantly increased in rosuvastatin compared to control-treated mice, both in the bone marrow and the peripheral blood. Similarly, the number of spleen-derived acLDL, lectin double-positive progenitor cells (P=0.001) and colony-forming units (P=0.0104) was significantly increased in mice treated with rosuvastatin compared to vehicle alone. In the bone marrow, increased Akt and p42/44 MAP kinase phosphorylation and upregulated SDF1alpha mRNA expression were observed. Importantly, rosuvastatin treatment also increased the plasma levels of c-kit ligand (P=0.003), and the number of c-kit-positive cells within atherosclerotic lesions (P=0.041). Our findings suggest that rosuvastatin reduces the size of atherosclerotic plaques, and this effect appears to involve progenitor cell mobilisation and recruitment into vascular lesions.

  12. Normal hematopoiesis and lack of β-catenin activation in osteoblasts of patients and mice harboring Lrp5 gain of function mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galan-Diez, Marta; Isa, Adiba; Ponzetti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    of hematopoiesis and leukemogenic properties of β-catenin activation in osteoblasts, that lead to development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Using mice with gain-of-function (GOF) Lrp5 alleles (Lrp5(A214V)) that recapitulate the human high bone mass (HBM) phenotype, as well as patients with the T253I HBM Lrp5...... mutation, we show here that Lrp5 GOF mutations in both humans and mice do not activate β-catenin signaling in osteoblasts. Consistent with a lack of β-catenin activation in their osteoblasts, Lrp5(A214V) mice have normal trilinear hematopoiesis. In contrast to leukemic mice with constitutive activation...... of β-catenin in osteoblasts (Ctnnb1(CAosb)), accumulation of early myeloid progenitors, a characteristic of AML, myeloid-blasts in blood, and segmented neutrophils or dysplastic megakaryocytes in the bone marrow, are not observed in Lrp5(A214V) mice. Likewise, peripheral blood count analysis in HBM...

  13. Characterization of vascular endothelial progenitor cells from chicken bone marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Chunyu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC are a type of stem cell used in the treatment of atherosclerosis, vascular injury and regeneration. At present, most of the EPCs studied are from human and mouse, whereas the study of poultry-derived EPCs has rarely been reported. In the present study, chicken bone marrow-derived EPCs were isolated and studied at the cellular level using immunofluorescence and RT-PCR. Results We found that the majority of chicken EPCs were spindle shaped. The growth-curves of chicken EPCs at passages (P 1, -5 and -9 were typically “S”-shaped. The viability of chicken EPCs, before and after cryopreservation was 92.2% and 81.1%, respectively. Thus, cryopreservation had no obvious effects on the viability of chicken EPCs. Dil-ac-LDL and FITC-UAE-1 uptake assays and immunofluorescent detection of the cell surface markers CD34, CD133, VEGFR-2 confirmed that the cells obtained in vitro were EPCs. Observation of endothelial-specific Weibel-Palade bodies using transmission electron microscopy further confirmed that the cells were of endothelial lineage. In addition, chicken EPCs differentiated into endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells upon induction with VEGF and PDGF-BB, respectively, suggesting that the chicken EPCs retained multipotency in vitro. Conclusions These results suggest that chicken EPCs not only have strong self-renewal capacity, but also the potential to differentiate into endothelial and smooth muscle cells. This research provides theoretical basis and experimental evidence for potential therapeutic application of endothelial progenitor cells in the treatment of atherosclerosis, vascular injury and diabetic complications.

  14. Breast carcinoma cells modulate the chemoattractive activity of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells by interfering with CXCL12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobus, Manja; List, Catrin; Dittrich, Tobias; Dhawan, Abhishek; Duryagina, Regina; Arabanian, Laleh S; Kast, Karin; Wimberger, Pauline; Stiehler, Maik; Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Jakob, Franz; Ehninger, Gerhard; Anastassiadis, Konstantinos; Bornhäuser, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether breast tumor cells can modulate the function of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) with a special emphasis on their chemoattractive activity towards hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Primary MSCs as well as a MSC line (SCP-1) were cocultured with primary breast cancer cells, MCF-7, MDA-MB231 breast carcinoma or MCF-10A non-malignant breast epithelial cells or their conditioned medium. In addition, the frequency of circulating clonogenic hematopoietic progenitors was determined in 78 patients with breast cancer and compared with healthy controls. Gene expression analysis of SCP-1 cells cultured with MCF-7 medium revealed CXCL12 (SDF-1) as one of the most significantly downregulated genes. Supernatant from both MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 reduced the CXCL12 promoter activity in SCP-1 cells to 77% and 47%, respectively. Moreover, the CXCL12 mRNA and protein levels were significantly reduced. As functional consequence of lower CXCL12 levels, we detected a decreased trans-well migration of HSPCs towards MSC/tumor cell cocultures or conditioned medium. The specificity of this effect was confirmed by blocking studies with the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100. Downregulation of SP1 and increased miR-23a levels in MSCs after contact with tumor cell medium as well as enhanced TGFβ1 expression were identified as potential molecular regulators of CXCL12 activity in MSCs. Moreover, we observed a significantly higher frequency of circulating colony-forming hematopoietic progenitors in patients with breast cancer compared with healthy controls. Our in vitro results propose a potential new mechanism by which disseminated tumor cells in the bone marrow may interfere with hematopoiesis by modulating CXCL12 in protected niches. © 2014 UICC.

  15. Engraftment Outcomes after HPC Co-Culture with Mesenchymal Stromal Cells and Osteoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M. Cook

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Haematopoietic stem cell (HSC transplantation is an established cell-based therapy for a number of haematological diseases. To enhance this therapy, there is considerable interest in expanding HSCs in artificial niches prior to transplantation. This study compared murine HSC expansion supported through co-culture on monolayers of either undifferentiated mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs or osteoblasts. Sorted Lineage− Sca-1+ c-kit+ (LSK haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HPC demonstrated proliferative capacity on both stromal monolayers with the greatest expansion of LSK shown in cultures supported by osteoblast monolayers. After transplantation, both types of bulk-expanded cultures were capable of engrafting and repopulating lethally irradiated primary and secondary murine recipients. LSKs co-cultured on MSCs showed comparable, but not superior, reconstitution ability to that of freshly isolated LSKs. Surprisingly, however, osteoblast co-cultured LSKs showed significantly poorer haematopoietic reconstitution compared to LSKs co-cultured on MSCs, likely due to a delay in short-term reconstitution. We demonstrated that stromal monolayers can be used to maintain, but not expand, functional HSCs without a need for additional haematopoietic growth factors. We also demonstrated that despite apparently superior in vitro performance, co-injection of bulk cultures of osteoblasts and LSKs in vivo was detrimental to recipient survival and should be avoided in translation to clinical practice.

  16. The effects of cyclic hydrostatic pressure on chondrogenesis and viability of human adipose- and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in three-dimensional agarose constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puetzer, Jennifer; Williams, John; Gillies, Allison; Bernacki, Susan; Loboa, Elizabeth G

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of cyclic hydrostatic pressure (CHP) on chondrogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) in three-dimensional (3-D) agarose constructs maintained in a complete growth medium without soluble chondrogenic inducing factors. hASCs were seeded in 2% agarose hydrogels and exposed to 7.5 MPa CHP for 4 h per day at a frequency of 1 Hz for up to 21 days. On days 0, 7, 14, and 21, the expression levels of collagen II, Sox9, aggrecan, and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) were examined by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Gene expression analysis found collagen II mRNA expression in only the CHP-loaded construct at day 14 and at no other time during the study. CHP-loaded hASCs exhibited upregulated mRNA expression of Sox9, aggrecan, and COMP at day 7 relative to unloaded controls, suggesting that CHP initiated chondrogenic differentiation of hASCs in a manner similar to human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). By day 14, however, loaded hASC constructs exhibited significantly lower mRNA expression of the chondrogenic markers than unloaded controls. Additionally, by day 21, the samples exhibited little measurable mRNA expression at all, suggesting a decreased viability. Histological analysis validated the lack of mRNA expression at day 21 for both the loaded and unloaded control samples with a visible decrease in the cell number and change in morphology. A comparative study with hASCs and hMSCs further examined long-term cell viability in 3-D agarose constructs of both cell types. Decreased cell metabolic activity was observed throughout the 21-day experimental period in both the CHP-loaded and control constructs of both hMSCs and hASCs, suggesting a decrease in cell metabolic activity, alluding to a decrease in cell viability. This suggests that a 2% agarose hydrogel may not optimally support hASC or hMSC viability in a complete growth medium in the

  17. Effects of timing on intracoronary autologous bone marrow-derived cell transplantation in acute myocardial infarction: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia-Ying; Liu, Dai; Zhong, Yang; Huang, Rong-Chong

    2017-10-16

    Several cell-based therapies for adjunctive treatment of acute myocardial infarction have been investigated in multiple clinical trials, but the timing of transplantation remains controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to investigate the effects of timing on bone marrow-derived cell (BMC) therapy in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). A systematic literature search of PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Evidence-Based Medicine databases from January 2000 to June 2017 was performed on randomized controlled trials with at least a 3-month follow-up for patients with AMI undergoing emergency percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and receiving intracoronary BMC transfer thereafter. The defined end points were left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, LV end-diastolic and end-systolic index. The data were analyzed to evaluate the effects of timing on BMC therapy. Thirty-four RCTs comprising a total of 2,307 patients were included; the results show that, compared to the control group, AMI patients who received BMC transplantation showed significantly improved cardiac function. BMC transplantation 3-7 days after PCI (+3.32%; 95% CI, 1.91 to 4.74; P BMC transplantation 3-7 days after PCI reduced LV end-diastolic indexes (-4.48; 95% CI, -7.98 to -0.98; P = 0.01) and LV end-systolic indexes (-6.73; 95% CI, -11.27 to -2.19; P = 0.004). However, in the groups who received BMC transplantation either within 24 hours or later than 7 days there was no significant effect on treatment outcome. In subgroup analysis, the group with LVEF ≤ 50% underwent a significant decrease in LV end-diastolic index after BMC transplantation (WMD = -3.29, 95% CI, -4.49 to -2.09; P BMC transplantation in the group with LVEF ≤ 50% (WMD = -5.25, 95% CI, -9.30 to -1.20; P = 0.01), as well as in patients who received a dose of 10^7-10^8 cells (WMD = -12.99, 95% CI, -19.07 to -6.91; P BMC transfer at 3 to 7 days post-AMI was

  18. Enhancement of Tendon–Bone Healing for Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL Reconstruction Using Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Infected with BMP-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyi Chen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At present, due to the growing attention focused on the issue of tendon–bone healing, we carried out an animal study of the use of genetic intervention combined with cell transplantation for the promotion of this process. Here, the efficacy of bone marrow stromal cells infected with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 on tendon–bone healing was determined. A eukaryotic expression vector containing the BMP-2 gene was constructed and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bMSCs were infected with a lentivirus. Next, we examined the viability of the infected cells and the mRNA and protein levels of BMP-2-infected bMSCs. Gastrocnemius tendons, gastrocnemius tendons wrapped by bMSCs infected with the control virus (bMSCs+Lv-Control, and gastrocnemius tendons wrapped by bMSCs infected with the recombinant BMP-2 virus (bMSCs+Lv-BMP-2 were used to reconstruct the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL in New Zealand white rabbits. Specimens from each group were harvested four and eight weeks postoperatively and evaluated using biomechanical and histological methods. The bMSCs were infected with the lentivirus at an efficiency close to 100%. The BMP-2 mRNA and protein levels in bMSCs were significantly increased after lentiviral infection. The bMSCs and BMP-2-infected bMSCs on the gastrocnemius tendon improved the biomechanical properties of the graft in the bone tunnel; specifically, bMSCs infected with BMP-2 had a positive effect on tendon–bone healing. In the four-week and eight-week groups, bMSCs+Lv-BMP-2 group exhibited significantly higher maximum loads of 29.3 ± 7.4 N and 45.5 ± 11.9 N, respectively, compared with the control group (19.9 ± 6.4 N and 21.9 ± 4.9 N (P = 0.041 and P = 0.001, respectively. In the eight-week groups, the stiffness of the bMSCs+Lv-BMP-2 group (32.5 ± 7.3 was significantly higher than that of the bMSCs+Lv-Control group (22.8 ± 7.4 or control groups (12.4 ± 6.0 (p = 0.036 and 0.001, respectively. Based on the

  19. Autologous cell therapy with CD133+ bone marrow-derived stem cells for refractory Asherman's syndrome and endometrial atrophy: a pilot cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Xavier; Cabanillas, Sergio; Cervelló, Irene; Arbona, Cristina; Raga, Francisco; Ferro, Jaime; Palmero, Julio; Remohí, Jose; Pellicer, Antonio; Simón, Carlos

    2016-05-01

    Could cell therapy using autologous peripheral blood CD133+ bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMDSCs) offer a safe and efficient therapeutic approach for patients with refractory Asherman's syndrome (AS) and/or endometrial atrophy (EA) and a wish to conceive? In the first 3 months, autologous cell therapy, using CD133+ BMDSCs in conjunction with hormonal replacement therapy, increased the volume and duration of menses as well as the thickness and angiogenesis processes of the endometrium while decreasing intrauterine adhesion scores. AS is characterized by the presence of intrauterine adhesions and EA prevents the endometrium from growing thicker than 5 mm, resulting in menstruation disorders and infertility. Many therapies have been attempted for these conditions, but none have proved effective. This was a prospective, experimental, non-controlled study. There were 18 patients aged 30-45 years with refractory AS or EA were recruited, and 16 of these completed the study. Medical history, physical examination, endometrial thickness, intrauterine adhesion score and neoangiogenesis were assessed before and 3 and 6 months after cell therapy. After the initial hysteroscopic diagnosis, BMDSC mobilization was performed by granulocyte-CSF injection, then CD133+ cells were isolated through peripheral blood aphaeresis to obtain a mean of 124.39 million cells (range 42-236), which were immediately delivered into the spiral arterioles by catheterization. Subsequently, endometrial treatment after stem cell therapy was assessed in terms of restoration of menses, endometrial thickness (by vaginal ultrasound), adhesion score (by hysteroscopy), neoangiogenesis and ongoing pregnancy rate. The study was conducted at Hospital Clínico Universitario of Valencia and IVI Valencia (Spain). All 11 AS patients exhibited an improved uterine cavity 2 months after stem cell therapy. Endometrial thickness increased from an average of 4.3 mm (range 2.7-5) to 6.7 mm (range 3.1-12) ( ITALIC! P = 0

  20. An axial distribution of seeding, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells and rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells across a 3D Thai silk fibroin/gelatin/hydroxyapatite scaffold in a perfusion bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinlapabodin, Salita; Amornsudthiwat, Phakdee; Damrongsakkul, Siriporn; Kanokpanont, Sorada, E-mail: sorada.k@chula.ac.th

    2016-01-01

    In cell culture, a perfusion bioreactor provides effective transportation of nutrients, oxygen, and waste removal to and from the core of the scaffold. In addition, it provides mechanical stimuli for enhancing osteogenic differentiation. In this study, we used an axial distribution of cell numbers, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzyme activity, and calcium content across 4 cross-sections of 10 mm thick scaffold, made of Thai silk fibroin (SF)/gelatin (G)/hydroxyapatite (HA), as a tool to evaluate the suitable perfusion flow rate. These evaluations cover all cellular developmental phases starting from seeding, to proliferation, and later osteogenic differentiation. Mouse pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell lines were used as a cell model during seeding and proliferation. The bioreactor seeded scaffold provided more uniform cell distribution across the scaffold compared to centrifugal and agitation seeding, while the overall number of adhered cells from bioreactor seeding was slightly lower than agitation seeding. The dynamic culture using 1 ml/min perfusion flow rate (initial shear stress of 0.1 dyn/cm{sup 2}) enabled statistically higher MC3T3-E1 proliferation, ALP activity, and calcium deposition than those observed in the static-culturing condition. However, the perfusion flow rate of 1 ml/min seemed not to be enough for enhancing ALP expression across all sections of the scaffold. Rat bone marrow derived stromal cells (rMSC) were used in the detachment test and osteogenic differentiation. It was found that perfusion flow rate of 5 ml/min caused statistically higher cell detachment than that of 1 and 3 ml/min. The perfusion flow rate of 3 ml/min gave the highest rMSC osteogenic differentiation on a SF/G/HA scaffold than other flow rates, as observed from the significantly highest number of ALP enzyme activity and the calcium content without any significant cell growth. In addition, all of these parameters were evenly distributed across all scaffold sections. - Highlights

  1. Bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells as a target for cytomegalovirus infection: Implications for hematopoiesis, self-renewal and differentiation potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Sergey V.; Harbacheuski, Ryhor; Lewis-Antes, Anita; Zhu Hua; Rameshwar, Pranela; Kotenko, Sergei V.

    2007-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in bone marrow (BM) regulate the differentiation and proliferation of adjacent hematopoietic precursor cells and contribute to the regeneration of mesenchymal tissues, including bone, cartilage, fat and connective tissue. BM is an important site for the pathogenesis of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) where the virus establishes latency in hematopoietic progenitors and can transmit after reactivation to neighboring cells. Here we demonstrate that BM-MSCs are permissive to productive HCMV infection, and that HCMV alters the function of MSCs: (i) by changing the repertoire of cell surface molecules in BM-MSCs, HCMV modifies the pattern of interaction between BM-MSCs and hematopoietic cells; (ii) HCMV infection of BM-MSCs undergoing adipogenic or osteogenic differentiation impaired the process of differentiation. Our results suggest that by altering BM-MSC biology, HCMV may contribute to the development of various diseases

  2. Nurse’s A-Phase Material Enhance Adhesion, Growth and Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Stromal Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Rabadan-Ros

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity and cell response of a well-characterized Nurse’s A-phase (7CaO·P2O5·2SiO2 ceramic and its effect compared to a control (tissue culture polystyrene-TCPS on the adhesion, viability, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of ahMSCs in vitro. Cell proliferation (Alamar Blue Assay, Alizarin Red-S (AR-s staining, alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, osteocalcin (OCN, and collagen I (Col I were evaluated. Also, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM images were acquired in order to visualise the cells and the topography of the material. The proliferation of cells growing in a direct contact with the material was slower at early stages of the study because of the new environmental conditions. However, the entire surface was colonized after 28 days of culture in growth medium (GM. Osteoblastic differentiation markers were significantly enhanced in cells growing on Nurse’s A phase ceramic and cultured with osteogenic medium (OM, probably due to the role of silica to stimulate the differentiation of ahMSCs. Moreover, calcium nodules were formed under the influence of ceramic material. Therefore, it is predicted that Nurse’s A-phase ceramic would present high biocompatibility and osteoinductive properties and would be a good candidate to be used as a biomaterial for bone tissue engineering.

  3. Progenitors of white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drilling, J.S.; Schoenberner, D.

    1985-01-01

    Direct observational evidence is presented which indicates that the immediate progenitors of white dwarfs are the central stars of planetary nebulae (approximately 70%), other post-AGB objects (approximately 30%), and post-HB objects not massive enough to climb the AGB (approximately 0.3%). The combined birth rate for these objects is in satisfactory agreement with the death rate of main-sequence stars and the birth rate of white dwarfs

  4. Wnts enhance neurotrophin-induced neuronal differentiation in adult bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells via canonical and noncanonical signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Li Tsai

    Full Text Available Wnts were previously shown to regulate the neurogenesis of neural stem or progenitor cells. Here, we explored the underlying molecular mechanisms through which Wnt signaling regulates neurotrophins (NTs in the NT-induced neuronal differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs. NTs can increase the expression of Wnt1 and Wnt7a in hMSCs. However, only Wnt7a enables the expression of synapsin-1, a synaptic marker in mature neurons, to be induced and triggers the formation of cholinergic and dopaminergic neurons. Human recombinant (hrWnt7a and general neuron makers were positively correlated in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, the expression of synaptic markers and neurites was induced by Wnt7a and lithium, a glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibitor, in the NT-induced hMSCs via the canonical/β-catenin pathway, but was inhibited by Wnt inhibitors and frizzled-5 (Frz5 blocking antibodies. In addition, hrWnt7a triggered the formation of cholinergic and dopaminergic neurons via the non-canonical/c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK pathway, and the formation of these neurons was inhibited by a JNK inhibitor and Frz9 blocking antibodies. In conclusion, hrWnt7a enhances the synthesis of synapse and facilitates neuronal differentiation in hMSCS through various Frz receptors. These mechanisms may be employed widely in the transdifferentiation of other adult stem cells.

  5. Masses of supernova progenitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinsley, B.M.

    1977-01-01

    The possible nature and masses of supernovae progenitors, and the bearing of empirical results on some unsolved theoretical problems concerning the origin of supernovae, are discussed. The author concentrates on two main questions: what is the lower mass limit for stars to die explosively and what stars initiate type I supernovae. The evidence considered includes local supernova rates, empirical estimates of msub(w) (the upper mass limit for death as a white dwarf), the distributions of supernovae among stellar populations in galaxies and the colors of supernova producing galaxies. (B.D.)

  6. Constitutive β-catenin activation in osteoblasts impairs terminal osteoblast differentiation and bone quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Quanwei; Chen, Sixu; Qin, Hao [State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burn and Combined injury, Department of Trauma Surgery, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, ChongQing 400042 (China); Feng, Jianquan [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Baylor College of Dentistry, Texas A& M Health Science Center, Dallas, TX 75246 (United States); Liu, Huayu; Liu, Daocheng; Li, Ang; Shen, Yue; Zhong, Xiaozheng; Li, Junfeng [State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burn and Combined injury, Department of Trauma Surgery, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, ChongQing 400042 (China); Zong, Zhaowen, E-mail: zongzhaowen@sina.cn [State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burn and Combined injury, Department of Trauma Surgery, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, ChongQing 400042 (China)

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays a central role in controlling bone mass. We previously reported that constitutive activation of β-catenin (CA-β-catenin) in osteoblasts potentially has side effects on the bone growth and bone remodeling process, although it could increase bone mass. The present study aimed to observe the effects of osteoblastic CA-β-catenin on bone quality and to investigate possible mechanisms of these effects. It was found that CA-β-catenin mice exhibited lower mineralization levels and disorganized collagen in long bones as confirmed by von Kossa staining and sirius red staining, respectively. Also, bone strength decreased significantly in CA-β-catenin mice. Then the effect of CA-β-catenin on biological functions of osteoblasts were investigated and it was found that the expression levels of osteocalcin, a marker for the late differentiation of osteoblasts, decreased in CA-β-catenin mice, while the expression levels of osterix and alkaline phosphatase, two markers for the early differentiation of osteoblasts, increased in CA-β-catenin mice. Furthermore, higher proliferation rate were revealed in osteoblasts that were isolated from CA-β-catenin mice. The Real-time PCR and western blot examination found that the expression level of c-myc and cyclin D1, two G1 progression-related molecules, increased in osteoblasts that were isolated from the CA-β-catenin mice, and the expression levels of CDK14 and cyclin Y, two mitotic-related molecules that can accelerate cells entering into S and G2/M phases, increased in osteoblasts that were isolated from the CA-β-catenin mice. In summary, osteoblastic CA-β-catenin kept osteoblasts in high proliferative state and impaired the terminal osteoblast differentiation, and this led to changed bone structure and decreased bone strength. - Highlights: • Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays a central role in controlling bone mass. • CA-β-catenin has side effects on the bone

  7. Targeting of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells by Cre-Recombinase Transgenes Commonly Used to Target Osteoblast Lineage Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingzhu; Link, Daniel C

    2016-11-01

    The targeting specificity of tissue-specific Cre-recombinase transgenes is a key to interpreting phenotypes associated with their use. The Ocn-Cre and Dmp1-Cre transgenes are widely used to target osteoblasts and osteocytes, respectively. Here, we used high-resolution microscopy of bone sections and flow cytometry to carefully define the targeting specificity of these transgenes. These transgenes were crossed with Cxcl12 gfp mice to identify Cxcl12-abundant reticular (CAR) cells, which are a perivascular mesenchymal stromal population implicated in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell maintenance. We show that in addition to osteoblasts, Ocn-Cre targets a majority of CAR cells and arteriolar pericytes. Surprisingly, Dmp1-Cre also targets a subset of CAR cells, in which expression of osteoblast-lineage genes is enriched. Finally, we introduce a new tissue-specific Cre-recombinase, Tagln-Cre, which efficiently targets osteoblasts, a majority of CAR cells, and both venous sinusoidal and arteriolar pericytes. These data show that Ocn-Cre and Dmp1-Cre target broader stromal cell populations than previously appreciated and may aid in the design of future studies. Moreover, these data highlight the heterogeneity of mesenchymal stromal cells in the bone marrow and provide tools to interrogate this heterogeneity. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  8. Toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles against osteoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Sifeng; Jia Jingfu; Guo Xiaokui; Zhao Yaping; Liu Boyu; Chen Desheng; Guo Yongyuan; Zhang Xianlong

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles have been widely used for tissue repair, magnetic resonance imaging, immunoassays and drug delivery. They are very promising in orthopaedic applications and several magnetic nanoparticles have been exploited for the treatment of orthopaedic disease. Here, we conducted an in vitro study to examine the interaction of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with human osteoblasts to evaluate the dose-related toxicity of the nanoparticles on osteoblasts. A transmission electron microscope was used to visualise the internalised magnetic nanoparticles in osteoblasts. The CCK-8 results revealed increased cell viability (107.5 % vitality compared with the control group) when co-cultured at a low concentration (20 μg/mL) and decreased cell viability (59.5 % vitality in a concentration of 300 μg/mL and 25.9 % in 500 μg/mL) when co-cultured in high concentrations. The flow cytometric detection revealed similar results with 5.48 % of apoptosis in a concentration of 20 μg/mL, 23.40 % of apoptosis in a concentration of 300 μg/mL and 28.49 % in a concentration of 500 μg/mL. The disrupted cytoskeleton of osteoblasts was also revealed using a laser scanning confocal microscope. We concluded that use of a low concentration of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles is important to avoid damage to osteoblasts.

  9. Toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles against osteoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Sifeng [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shanghai Sixth People' s Hospital (China); Jia Jingfu [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Chemistry and Chemical Technology (China); Guo Xiaokui [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Institutes of Medical Sciences (China); Zhao Yaping [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Chemistry and Chemical Technology (China); Liu Boyu [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Institutes of Medical Sciences (China); Chen Desheng; Guo Yongyuan; Zhang Xianlong, E-mail: zhangxianlong20101@163.com [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shanghai Sixth People' s Hospital (China)

    2012-09-15

    Magnetic nanoparticles have been widely used for tissue repair, magnetic resonance imaging, immunoassays and drug delivery. They are very promising in orthopaedic applications and several magnetic nanoparticles have been exploited for the treatment of orthopaedic disease. Here, we conducted an in vitro study to examine the interaction of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with human osteoblasts to evaluate the dose-related toxicity of the nanoparticles on osteoblasts. A transmission electron microscope was used to visualise the internalised magnetic nanoparticles in osteoblasts. The CCK-8 results revealed increased cell viability (107.5 % vitality compared with the control group) when co-cultured at a low concentration (20 {mu}g/mL) and decreased cell viability (59.5 % vitality in a concentration of 300 {mu}g/mL and 25.9 % in 500 {mu}g/mL) when co-cultured in high concentrations. The flow cytometric detection revealed similar results with 5.48 % of apoptosis in a concentration of 20 {mu}g/mL, 23.40 % of apoptosis in a concentration of 300 {mu}g/mL and 28.49 % in a concentration of 500 {mu}g/mL. The disrupted cytoskeleton of osteoblasts was also revealed using a laser scanning confocal microscope. We concluded that use of a low concentration of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles is important to avoid damage to osteoblasts.

  10. Cord blood-derived macrophage-lineage cells rapidly stimulate osteoblastic maturation in mesenchymal stem cells in a glycoprotein-130 dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania J Fernandes

    Full Text Available In bone, depletion of osteoclasts reduces bone formation in vivo, as does osteal macrophage depletion. How osteoclasts and macrophages promote the action of bone forming osteoblasts is, however, unclear. Since recruitment and differentiation of multi-potential stromal cells/mesenchymal stem cells (MSC generates new active osteoblasts, we investigated whether human osteoclasts and macrophages (generated from cord blood-derived hematopoietic progenitors induce osteoblastic maturation in adipose tissue-derived MSC. When treated with an osteogenic stimulus (ascorbate, dexamethasone and β-glycerophosphate these MSC form matrix-mineralising, alkaline phosphatase-expressing osteoblastic cells. Cord blood-derived progenitors were treated with macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF to form immature proliferating macrophages, or with M-CSF plus receptor activator of NFκB ligand (RANKL to form osteoclasts; culture medium was conditioned for 3 days by these cells to study their production of osteoblastic factors. Both osteoclast- and macrophage-conditioned medium (CM greatly enhanced MSC osteoblastic differentiation in both the presence and absence of osteogenic medium, evident by increased alkaline phosphatase levels within 4 days and increased mineralisation within 14 days. These CM effects were completely ablated by antibodies blocking gp130 or oncostatin M (OSM, and OSM was detectable in both CM. Recombinant OSM very potently stimulated osteoblastic maturation of these MSC and enhanced bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 actions on MSC. To determine the influence of macrophage activation on this OSM-dependent activity, CM was collected from macrophage populations treated with M-CSF plus IL-4 (to induce alternative activation or with GM-CSF, IFNγ and LPS to cause classical activation. CM from IL-4 treated macrophages stimulated osteoblastic maturation in MSC, while CM from classically-activated macrophages did not. Thus, macrophage-lineage cells

  11. Inactivation of the forkhead transcription factor FoxO3 is essential for PKB-mediated survival of hematopoietic progenitor cells by kit ligand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engström, Maria; Karlsson, Richard; Jönsson, Jan-Ingvar

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Kit ligand (KL) is a major survival factor for hematopoietic stem cells. Although anti-apoptotic bcl-2 family members are expressed in these cells, the survival effects by KL appear to involve other mechanisms. Survival signals can also be elicited by the activation of phosphatidylinos......OBJECTIVE: Kit ligand (KL) is a major survival factor for hematopoietic stem cells. Although anti-apoptotic bcl-2 family members are expressed in these cells, the survival effects by KL appear to involve other mechanisms. Survival signals can also be elicited by the activation......, immunofluorescence, and subcellular fractionation, we analyzed the effects of KL on PKB and different forkhead family members in two factor-dependent cell lines, FDCP-mix and FDC-P1, as well as primary mouse bone marrow-derived Lin(-) progenitors. Forced overexpression of triple mutated form of FoxO3 by retroviral...

  12. Delayed post-treatment with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells is neurorestorative of striatal medium-spiny projection neurons and improves motor function after neonatal rat hypoxia-ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Stella H; Alwakeel, Amr J; Goddard, Liping; Hobbs, Catherine E; Gowing, Emma K; Barnett, Elizabeth R; Kohe, Sarah E; Sizemore, Rachel J; Oorschot, Dorothy E

    2015-09-01

    Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia is a major cause of striatal injury and may lead to cerebral palsy. This study investigated whether delayed administration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), at one week after neonatal rat hypoxia-ischemia, was neurorestorative of striatal medium-spiny projection neurons and improved motor function. The effect of a subcutaneous injection of a high-dose, or a low-dose, of MSCs was investigated in stereological studies. Postnatal day (PN) 7 pups were subjected to hypoxia-ischemia. At PN14, pups received treatment with either MSCs or diluent. A subset of high-dose pups, and their diluent control pups, were also injected intraperitoneally with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), every 24h, on PN15, PN16 and PN17. This permitted tracking of the migration and survival of neuroblasts originating from the subventricular zone into the adjacent injured striatum. Pups were euthanized on PN21 and the absolute number of striatal medium-spiny projection neurons was measured after immunostaining for DARPP-32 (dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein-32), double immunostaining for BrdU and DARPP-32, and after cresyl violet staining alone. The absolute number of striatal immunostained calretinin interneurons was also measured. There was a statistically significant increase in the absolute number of DARPP-32-positive, BrdU/DARPP-32-positive, and cresyl violet-stained striatal medium-spiny projection neurons, and fewer striatal calretinin interneurons, in the high-dose mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) group compared to their diluent counterparts. A high-dose of MSCs restored the absolute number of these neurons to normal uninjured levels, when compared with previous stereological data on the absolute number of cresyl violet-stained striatal medium-spiny projection neurons in the normal uninjured brain. For the low-dose experiment, in which cresyl violet-stained striatal medium-spiny neurons alone were measured, there was a lower statistically

  13. Osteoblast and osteocyte: games without frontiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capulli, Mattia; Paone, Riccardo; Rucci, Nadia

    2014-11-01

    The portrait of osteoblasts and osteocytes has been subjected to a revision, since a large body of evidence is attributing these cells amazing roles both inside and outside the bone. The osteoblast, long confined to its bone building function, is actually a very eclectic cell, actively regulating osteoclast formation and function as well as hematopoietic stem cells homeostasis. It is also an endocrine cell, affecting energy metabolism, male fertility and cognition through the release of osteocalcin, a perfect definition-fitting hormone in its uncarboxylated state. As for the osteocytes, many evidence shows that they do not merely represent the final destination of the osteoblasts, but they are instead very active cells that, besides a mechanosensorial function, actively contribute to the bone remodelling by regulating bone formation and resorption. The regulation is exerted by the production of sclerostin (SOST), which in turn inhibits osteoblast differentiation by blocking Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. At the same time, osteocytes influence bone resorption both indirectly, by producing RANKL, which stimulates osteoclastogenesis, and directly by means of a local osteolysis, which is observed especially under pathological conditions. The great versatility of both these cells reflects the complexity of the bone tissue, which has not only a structural role, but influences and is influenced by different organs, taking part in homeostatic and adaptive responses affecting the whole organism. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Irisin Enhances Osteoblast Differentiation In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziana Colaianni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been recently demonstrated that exercise activity increases the expression of the myokine Irisin in skeletal muscle, which is able to drive the transition of white to brown adipocytes, likely following a phenomenon of transdifferentiation. This new evidence supports the idea that muscle can be considered an endocrine organ, given its ability to target adipose tissue by promoting energy expenditure. In accordance with these new findings, we hypothesized that Irisin is directly involved in bone metabolism, demonstrating its ability to increase the differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells into mature osteoblasts. Firstly, we confirmed that myoblasts from mice subjected to 3 weeks of free wheel running increased Irisin expression compared to nonexercised state. The conditioned media (CM collected from myoblasts of exercised mice induced osteoblast differentiation in vitro to a greater extent than those of mice housed in resting conditions. Furthermore, the differentiated osteoblasts increased alkaline phosphatase and collagen I expression by an Irisin-dependent mechanism. Our results show, for the first time, that Irisin directly targets osteoblasts, enhancing their differentiation. This finding advances notable perspectives in future studies which could satisfy the ongoing research of exercise-mimetic therapies with anabolic action on the skeleton.

  15. Transplantation of endothelial progenitor cells ameliorates vascular dysfunction and portal hypertension in carbon tetrachloride-induced rat liver cirrhotic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Masaharu; Nakamura, Toru; Torimura, Takuji; Iwamoto, Hideki; Masuda, Hiroshi; Koga, Hironori; Abe, Mitsuhiko; Hashimoto, Osamu; Ueno, Takato; Sata, Michio

    2013-01-01

    In cirrhosis, sinusoidal endothelial cell injury results in increased endothelin-1 (ET-1) and decreased nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, leading to portal hypertension. However, the effects of transplanted endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) on the cirrhotic liver have not yet been clarified. We investigated whether EPC transplantation reduces portal hypertension. Cirrhotic rats were created by the administration of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4) ) twice weekly for 10 weeks. From week 7, rat bone marrow-derived EPCs were injected via the tail vein in this model once a week for 4 weeks. Endothelial NOS (eNOS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and caveolin expressions were examined by Western blots. Hepatic tissue ET-1 was measured by a radioimmunoassay (RIA). Portal venous pressure, mean aortic pressure, and hepatic blood flow were measured. Endothelial progenitor cell transplantation reduced liver fibrosis, α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells, caveolin expression, ET-1 concentration and portal venous pressure. EPC transplantation increased hepatic blood flow, protein levels of eNOS and VEGF. Immunohistochemical analyses of eNOS and isolectin B4 demonstrated that the livers of EPC-transplanted animals had markedly increased vascular density, suggesting reconstitution of sinusoidal blood vessels with endothelium. Transplantation of EPCs ameliorates vascular dysfunction and portal hypertension, suggesting this treatment may provide a new approach in the therapy of portal hypertension with liver cirrhosis. © 2012 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Capillary arterialization requires the bone-marrow-derived cell (BMC)-specific expression of chemokine (C-C motif) receptor-2, but BMCs do not transdifferentiate into microvascular smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Meghan M; Burke, Caitlin W; Meisner, Joshua K; Shuptrine, Casey W; Song, Ji; Price, Richard J

    2009-01-01

    Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor-2 (CCR2) regulates arteriogenesis and angiogenesis, facilitating the MCP-1-dependent recruitment of growth factor-secreting bone marrow-derived cells (BMCs). Here, we tested the hypothesis that the BMC-specific expression of CCR2 is also required for new arteriole formation via capillary arterialization. Following non-ischemic saphenous artery occlusion, we measured the following in gracilis muscles: monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in wild-type (WT) C57Bl/6J mice by ELISA, and capillary arterialization in WT-WT and CCR2(-/-)-WT (donor-host) bone marrow chimeric mice, as well as BMC transdifferentiation in EGFP(+)-WT mice, by smooth muscle (SM) alpha-actin immunochemistry. MCP-1 levels were significantly elevated 1 day after occlusion in WT mice. In WT-WT mice at day 7, compared to sham controls, arterial occlusion induced a 34% increase in arteriole length density, a 46% increase in SM alpha-actin(+) vessels, and a 45% increase in the fraction of vessels coated with SM alpha-actin, indicating significant capillary arterialization. However, in CCR2(-/-)-WT mice, no differences were observed between arterial occlusion and sham surgery. In EGFP(+)-WT mice, EGFP and SM alpha-actin never colocalized. We conclude that BMC-specific CCR2 expression is required for skeletal muscle capillary arterialization following arterial occlusion; however, BMCs do not transdifferentiate into smooth muscle.

  17. Implication of C-type natriuretic peptide-3 signaling in glycosaminoglycan synthesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy during TGF-β1 induced chondrogenic differentiation of chicken bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocamaz, Erdogan; Gok, Duygu; Cetinkaya, Ayse; Tufan, A Cevik

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the involvement of CNP-3, chick homologue for human C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), in TGF-β1 induced chondrogenic differentiation of chicken bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs in pellet cultures was induced by TGF-β1. Chondrogenic differentiation and glycosaminoglycan synthesis were analyzed on the basis of basic histology, collagen type II expression, and Alcian blue staining. Antibodies against CNP and NPR-B were used to block their function during these processes. Results revealed that expression of CNP-3 and NPR-B in MSCs were regulated by TGF-β1 in monolayer cultures at mRNA level. In pellet cultures of MSCs, TGF-β1 successfully induced chondrogenic differentiation and glycosaminoglycan synthesis. Addition of CNP into the TGF-β1 supplemented chondrogenic differentiation medium further induced the glycosaminoglycan synthesis and hypertrophy of differentiated chondrocytes in these pellets. Pellets induced with TGF-β1 and treated with antibodies against CNP and NPR-B, did show collagen type II expression, however, Alcian blue staining showing glycosaminoglycan synthesis was significantly suppressed. In conclusion, CNP-3/NPR-B signaling may strongly be involved in synthesis of glycosaminoglycans of the chondrogenic matrix and hypertrophy of differentiated chondrocytes during TGF-β1 induced chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs.

  18. The use of osteochondral allograft with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells and hinge joint distraction in the treatment of post-collapse stage of osteonecrosis of the femoral head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagala, J; Tarczynska, M; Gaweda, K; Matuszewski, L

    2014-09-01

    Osteonecrosis of the femoral head is an entity which occurs mainly in young and active patients aged between 20 and 50. The success of hip joint preserving treatments ranges from 15% to 50% depending on the stage and amount of osteonecrotic lesion. Total hip replacement is indicated in late post-collapse hips but it has unsatisfactory survival because of the wear and osteolysis in young and active patients. Osteochondral allografts have been reported in the treatment of large articular lesions with defects in underlying bone in knee, talus and shoulder. By combining osteoconductive properties of osteochondral allograft with osteogenic abilities of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells it has a potential to be an alternative to an autologous graft. The adjunct of hinged joint distraction should minimize stresses in subchondral bone to promote creeping substitution and prevent femoral head collapse. Unlike current treatment modalities, it would provide both structural support and allow bony and articular substitution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Co-infusion of autologous adipose tissue derived insulin-secreting mesenchymal stem cells and bone marrow derived hematopoietic stem cells: Viable therapy for type III.C. a diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umang G Thakkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Transition from acute pancreatitis to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM is a rare manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism caused by parathyroid adenoma because of impaired glucose tolerance and suppresses insulin secretion. We report the case of a 26-year-old male with pancreatic diabetes caused by parathyroid adenoma induced chronic pancreatitis. He had serum C-peptide 0.12 ng/ml, glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody 5.0 IU/ml, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C 8.9%, and required 72 IU/day of biphasic-isophane insulin injection for uncontrolled hyperglycemia. We treated him with his own adipose tissue derived insulin-secreting mesenchymal stem-cells (IS-ADMSC along with his bone marrow derived hematopoietic stem cells (BM-HSC. Autologous IS-ADMSC + BM-HSC were infused into subcutaneous tissue, portal and thymic circulation without any conditioning. Over a follow-up of 27 months, the patient is maintaining fasting and postprandial blood sugar levels of 132 and 165 mg/dl, respectively, with HbA1C 6.8% and requiring 36 IU/day of biphasic-isophane insulin. Co-infusion of IS-ADMSC + BM-HSC offers a safe and viable therapy for type III.C.a Diabetes Mellitus.

  20. Bone Formation by Sheep Stem Cells in an Ectopic Mouse Model: Comparison of Adipose and Bone Marrow Derived Cells and Identification of Donor-Derived Bone by Antibody Staining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Kristian; Dreyer, Chris Halling; Ditzel, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    expanded, adherent cells (A-CEAC). This study compares in vivo osteogenic capacity between A-CEAC and bone marrow derived culture expanded, adherent cells (BM-CEAC). Method. A-CEAC and BM-CEAC were isolated from five female sheep and seeded on hydroxyapatite granules prior to subcutaneous implantation...... in immunodeficient mice. The doses of cells in the implants were 0.5 × 106, 1.0 × 106, or 1.5 × 106 A-CEAC and 0.5 × 106 BM-CEAC, respectively. After eight weeks, bone volume versus total tissue volume (BV/TV) was quantified using histomorphometry. Origin of new bone was assessed using human vimentin (HVIM) antibody...... staining. Results. BM-CEAC yielded significantly higher BV/TV than any A-CEAC group, and differences between A-CEAC groups were not statistically significant. HVIM antibody stain was successfully used to identify sheep cells in this model. Conclusion. A-CEAC and BM-CEAC were capable of forming bone, and BM...

  1. Anti-inflammatory activity of 6-hydroxy-2,7-dimethoxy-1,4-henanthraquinone from tuberous roots of yam (Dioscorea batatas) through inhibition of prostaglandin D₂ and leukotriene C₄ production in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Meihua; Lu, Yue; Yang, Ju Hye; Jo, Tae Hyung; Park, Young In; Lee, Chong-Kil; Park, Sang-Jo; Son, Kun Ho; Chang, Hyeun Wook

    2011-09-01

    6-Hydroxy-2,7-dimethoxy-1,4-phenanthraquinone (PAQ) isolated from the tuberous roots of Yam (Dioscorea batatas) inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) dependent prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)) generation in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells in a concentration-dependent manner with IC(50) values of 0.08 μM and 0.27 μM, respectively. In the Western blotting with specific anti-COX-2 antibodies, the decrease of the quantity of PGD(2) was accompanied by a decrease in the COX-2 protein level. But PAQ did not affect COX-1 protein level. In addition, this compound inhibited 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) dependent production of leukotriene C(4) in a dose-dependent manner, with an IC(50) of 0.032 μM. These results demonstrate that PAQ has a dual COX-2/5-LOX inhibitory activity. This compound also inhibited the degranulation reaction in a dose-dependent manner with an IC(50) of 2.7 μM. Thus, these results suggest that PAQ may be useful in regulating mast cell-mediated inflammatory diseases.

  2. Co-infusion of autologous adipose tissue derived neuronal differentiated mesenchymal stem cells and bone marrow derived hematopoietic stem cells, a viable therapy for post-traumatic brachial plexus injury: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umang G Thakkar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy is emerging as a viable approach in regenerative medicine. A 31-year-old male with brachial plexus injury had complete sensory-motor loss since 16 years with right pseudo-meningocele at C5-D1 levels and extra-spinal extension up to C7-D1, with avulsion on magnetic resonance imaging and irreversible damage. We generated adipose tissue derived neuronal differentiated mesenchymal stem cells (N-AD-MSC and bone marrow derived hematopoietic stem cells (HSC-BM. Neuronal stem cells expressed β-3 tubulin and glial fibrillary acid protein which was confirmed on immunofluorescence. On day 14, 2.8 ml stem cell inoculum was infused under local anesthesia in right brachial plexus sheath by brachial block technique under ultrasonography guidance with a 1.5-inch-long 23 gauge needle. Nucleated cell count was 2 × 10 4 /μl, CD34+ was 0.06%, and CD45-/90+ and CD45-/73+ were 41.63% and 20.36%, respectively. No untoward effects were noted. He has sustained recovery with re-innervation over a follow-up of 4 years documented on electromyography-nerve conduction velocity study.

  3. The human umbilical cord blood: a potential source for osteoblast progenitor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Cecilia Rosada; Melsvik, Dorte; Ebbesen, Peter

    2003-01-01

    -density mononuclear cells isolated from hUCB formed few adherent colonies with fibroblast-like morphology after a few days in culture. At confluence, the polyclonal cell populations were characterized. Using FACS analysis and immunocytochemistry, the cells were found to express HLA-ABC, CD9, vimentin, the b subunit...... visualized by Alizarin red staining. In the presence of normal horse serum and dexamethasone (10(-7) M), the cells formed foci of adipocytes. When the cells were implanted mixed with hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate powder in the subcutis of immunocompromised mice for 8 weeks, they formed osteogenic...... tissue and a myelosupportive microenviroment that enclosed hematopoietic cells and adipocytes. Our results demonstrate the presence of circulating stem cells with osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential in hUCB and may encourage the use of hUCB as a potential source for stem cells...

  4. A Fermented Whole Grain Prevents Lipopolysaccharides-Induced Dysfunction in Human Endothelial Progenitor Cells

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    Laura Giusti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous and exogenous signals derived by the gut microbiota such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS orchestrate inflammatory responses contributing to development of the endothelial dysfunction associated with atherosclerosis in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, bone marrow derived stem cells, promote recovery of damaged endothelium playing a pivotal role in cardiovascular repair. Since healthy nutrition improves EPCs functions, we evaluated the effect of a fermented grain, Lisosan G (LG, on early EPCs exposed to LPS. The potential protective effect of LG against LPS-induced alterations was evaluated as cell viability, adhesiveness, ROS production, gene expression, and NF-kB signaling pathway activation. Our results showed that LPS treatment did not affect EPCs viability and adhesiveness but induced endothelial alterations via activation of NF-kB signaling. LG protects EPCs from inflammation as well as from LPS-induced oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress reducing ROS levels, downregulating proinflammatory and proapoptotic factors, and strengthening antioxidant defense. Moreover, LG pretreatment prevented NF-kB translocation from the cytoplasm into the nucleus caused by LPS exposure. In human EPCs, LPS increases ROS and upregulates proinflammatory tone, proapoptotic factors, and antioxidants. LG protects EPCs exposed to LPS reducing ROS, downregulating proinflammatory and proapoptotic factors, and strengthening antioxidant defenses possibly by inhibiting NF-κB nuclear translocation.

  5. Butein Inhibits Angiogenesis of Human Endothelial Progenitor Cells via the Translation Dependent Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hu Chung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Compelling evidence indicates that bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs can contribute to postnatal neovascularization and tumor angiogenesis. EPCs have been shown to play a “catalytic” role in metastatic progression by mediating the angiogenic switch. Understanding the pharmacological functions and molecular targets of natural products is critical for drug development. Butein, a natural chalcone derivative, has been reported to exert potent anticancer activity. However, the antiangiogenic activity of butein has not been addressed. In this study, we found that butein inhibited serum- and vascular endothelial growth factor- (VEGF- induced cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation of human EPCs in a concentration dependent manner without cytotoxic effect. Furthermore, butein markedly abrogated VEGF-induced vessels sprouting from aortic rings and suppressed microvessel formation in the Matrigel implant assay in vivo. In addition, butein concentration-dependently repressed the phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR, and the major downstream effectors, p70S6K, 4E-BP1, and eIF4E in EPCs. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time that butein exhibits the antiangiogenic effect both in vitro and in vivo by targeting the translational machinery. Butein is a promising angiogenesis inhibitor with the potential for treatment of cancer and other angiogenesis-related diseases.

  6. Contribution of endothelial progenitors and proangiogenic hematopoietic cells to vascularization of tumor and ischemic tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Hans-Georg; Ramos, Carlos A.; Rafii, Shahin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review During the last several years, a substantial amount of evidence from animal as well as human studies has advanced our knowledge of how bone marrow derived cells contribute to neoangiogenesis. In the light of recent findings, we may have to redefine our thinking of endothelial cells as well as of perivascular mural cells. Recent findings Inflammatory hematopoietic cells, such as macrophages, have been shown to promote neoangiogenesis during tumor growth and wound healing. Dendritic cells, B lymphocytes, monocytes, and other immune cells have also been found to be recruited to neoangiogenic niches and to support neovessel formation. These findings have led to the concept that subsets of hematopoietic cells comprise proangiogenic cells that drive adult revascularization processes. While evidence of the importance of endothelial progenitor cells in adult vasculogenesis increased further, the role of these comobilized hematopoietic cells has been intensely studied in the last few years. Summary Angiogenic factors promote mobilization of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1-positive hematopoietic cells through matrix metalloproteinase-9 mediated release of soluble kit-ligand and recruit these proangiogenic cells to areas of hypoxia, where perivascular mural cells present stromal-derived factor 1 (CXCL-12) as an important retention signal. The same factors are possibly involved in mobilization of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-positive endothelial precursors that may participate in neovessel formation. The complete characterization of mechanisms, mediators and signaling pathways involved in these processes will provide novel targets for both anti and proangiogenic therapeutic strategies. PMID:16567962

  7. Connective Tissue Growth Factor reporter mice label a subpopulation of mesenchymal progenitor cells that reside in the trabecular bone region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Strecker, Sara; Liu, Yaling; Wang, Liping; Assanah, Fayekah; Smith, Spenser; Maye, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Few gene markers selectively identify mesenchymal progenitor cells inside the bone marrow. We have investigated a cell population located in the mouse bone marrow labeled by Connective Tissue Growth Factor reporter expression (CTGF-EGFP). Bone marrow flushed from CTGF reporter mice yielded an EGFP+ stromal cell population. Interestingly, the percentage of stromal cells retaining CTGF reporter expression decreased with age in vivo and was half the frequency in females compared to males. In culture, CTGF reporter expression and endogenous CTGF expression marked the same cell types as those labeled using Twist2-Cre and Osterix-Cre fate mapping approaches, which previously had been shown to identify mesenchymal progenitors in vitro. Consistent with this past work, sorted CTGF+ cells displayed an ability to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes in vitro and into osteoblast, adipocyte, and stromal cell lineages after transplantation into a parietal bone defect. In vivo examination of CTGF reporter expression in bone tissue sections revealed that it marked cells highly localized to the trabecular bone region and was not expressed in the perichondrium or periosteum. Mesenchymal cells retaining high CTGF reporter expression were adjacent to, but distinct from mature osteoblasts lining bone surfaces and endothelial cells forming the vascular sinuses. Comparison of CTGF and Osterix reporter expression in bone tissue sections indicated an inverse correlation between the strength of CTGF expression and osteoblast maturation. Down-regulation of CTGF reporter expression also occurred during in vitro osteogenic differentiation. Collectively, our studies indicate that CTGF reporter mice selectively identify a subpopulation of bone marrow mesenchymal progenitor cells that reside in the trabecular bone region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mesenchymal progenitor cells for the osteogenic lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Noriaki; Kronenberg, Henry M

    2015-09-01

    Mesenchymal progenitors of the osteogenic lineage provide the flexibility for bone to grow, maintain its function and homeostasis. Traditionally, colony-forming-unit fibroblasts (CFU-Fs) have been regarded as surrogates for mesenchymal progenitors; however, this definition cannot address the function of these progenitors in their native setting. Transgenic murine models including lineage-tracing technologies based on the cre-lox system have proven to be useful in delineating mesenchymal progenitors in their native environment. Although heterogeneity of cell populations of interest marked by a promoter-based approach complicates overall interpretation, an emerging complexity of mesenchymal progenitors has been revealed. Current literatures suggest two distinct types of bone progenitor cells; growth-associated mesenchymal progenitors contribute to explosive growth of bone in early life, whereas bone marrow mesenchymal progenitors contribute to the much slower remodeling process and response to injury that occurs mainly in adulthood. More detailed relationships of these progenitors need to be studied through further experimentation.

  9. Osteoblast-specific transcription factor Osterix increases vitamin D receptor gene expression in osteoblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Zhang

    Full Text Available Osterix (Osx is an osteoblast-specific transcription factor required for osteoblast differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells. In Osx knock-out mice, no bone formation occurs. The vitamin D receptor (VDR is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily that regulates target gene transcription to ensure appropriate control of calcium homeostasis and bone development. Here, we provide several lines of evidence that show that the VDR gene is a target for transcriptional regulation by Osx in osteoblasts. For example, calvaria obtained from Osx-null embryos displayed dramatic reductions in VDR expression compared to wild-type calvaria. Stable overexpression of Osx stimulated VDR expression in C2C12 mesenchymal cells. Inhibition of Osx expression by siRNA led to downregulation of VDR. In contrast, Osx levels remained unchanged in osteoblasts in VDR-null mice. Mechanistic approaches using transient transfection assays showed that Osx directly activated a 1 kb fragment of the VDR promoter in a dose-dependent manner. To define the region of the VDR promoter that was responsive to Osx, a series of VDR promoter deletion mutants were examined and the minimal Osx-responsive region was refined to the proximal 120 bp of the VDR promoter. Additional point mutants were used to identify two GC-rich regions that were responsible for VDR promoter activation by Osx. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that endogenous Osx was associated with the native VDR promoter in primary osteoblasts in vivo. Cumulatively, these data strongly support a direct regulatory role for Osx in VDR gene expression. They further provide new insight into potential mechanisms and pathways that Osx controls in osteoblasts and during the process of osteoblastic cell differentiation.

  10. Progenitor cells in auricular cartilage demonstrate cartilage-forming capacity in 3D hydrogel culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IA Otto

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Paramount for the generation of auricular structures of clinically-relevant size is the acquisition of a large number of cells maintaining an elastic cartilage phenotype, which is the key in producing a tissue capable of withstanding forces subjected to the auricle. Current regenerative medicine strategies utilize chondrocytes from various locations or mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs. However, the quality of neo-tissues resulting from these cell types is inadequate due to inefficient chondrogenic differentiation and endochondral ossification, respectively. Recently, a subpopulation of stem/progenitor cells has been identified within the auricular cartilage tissue, with similarities to MSCs in terms of proliferative capacity and cell surface biomarkers, but their potential for tissue engineering has not yet been explored. This study compared the in vitro cartilage-forming ability of equine auricular cartilage progenitor cells (AuCPCs, bone marrow-derived MSCs and auricular chondrocytes in gelatin methacryloyl (gelMA-based hydrogels over a period of 56 d, by assessing their ability to undergo chondrogenic differentiation. Neocartilage formation was assessed through gene expression profiling, compression testing, biochemical composition and histology. Similar to MSCs and chondrocytes, AuCPCs displayed a marked ability to generate cartilaginous matrix, although, under the applied culture conditions, MSCs outperformed both cartilage-derived cell types in terms of matrix production and mechanical properties. AuCPCs demonstrated upregulated mRNA expression of elastin, low expression of collagen type X and similar levels of proteoglycan production and mechanical properties as compared to chondrocytes. These results underscored the AuCPCs’ tissue-specific differentiation potential, making them an interesting cell source for the next generation of elastic cartilage tissue-engineered constructs.

  11. Endothelial-to-Osteoblast Conversion Generates Osteoblastic Metastasis of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Song-Chang; Lee, Yu-Chen; Yu, Guoyu; Cheng, Chien-Jui; Zhou, Xin; Chu, Khoi; Murshed, Monzur; Le, Nhat-Tu; Baseler, Laura; Abe, Jun-Ichi; Fujiwara, Keigi; deCrombrugghe, Benoit; Logothetis, Christopher J; Gallick, Gary E; Yu-Lee, Li-Yuan; Maity, Sankar N; Lin, Sue-Hwa

    2017-06-05

    Prostate cancer (PCa) bone metastasis is frequently associated with bone-forming lesions, but the source of the osteoblastic lesions remains unclear. We show that the tumor-induced bone derives partly from tumor-associated endothelial cells that have undergone endothelial-to-osteoblast (EC-to-OSB) conversion. The tumor-associated osteoblasts in PCa bone metastasis specimens and patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) were found to co-express endothelial marker Tie-2. BMP4, identified in PDX-conditioned medium, promoted EC-to-OSB conversion of 2H11 endothelial cells. BMP4 overexpression in non-osteogenic C4-2b PCa cells led to ectopic bone formation under subcutaneous implantation. Tumor-induced bone was reduced in trigenic mice (Tie2 cre /Osx f/f /SCID) with endothelial-specific deletion of osteoblast cell-fate determinant OSX compared with bigenic mice (Osx f/f /SCID). Thus, tumor-induced EC-to-OSB conversion is one mechanism that leads to osteoblastic bone metastasis of PCa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Notch Inhibits Osteoblast Differentiation and Causes Osteopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotti, Stefano; Smerdel-Ramoya, Anna; Stadmeyer, Lisa; Durant, Deena; Radtke, Freddy; Canalis, Ernesto

    2008-01-01

    Notch receptors are determinants of cell fate decisions. To define the role of Notch in the adult skeleton, we created transgenic mice overexpressing the Notch intracellular domain (NICD) under the control of the type I collagen promoter. First-generation transgenics were small and osteopenic. Bone histomorphometry revealed that NICD caused a decrease in bone volume, secondary to a reduction in trabecular number; osteoblast and osteoclast number were decreased. Low fertility of founder mice and lethality of young pups did not allow the complete establishment of transgenic lines. To characterize the effect of Notch overexpression in vitro, NICD was induced in osteoblasts and stromal cells from Rosanotch mice, in which a STOP cassette flanked by loxP sites is upstream of NICD, by transduction with an adenoviral vector expressing Cre recombinase (Cre) under the control of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter (Ad-CMV-Cre). NICD impaired osteoblastogenesis and inhibited Wnt/β-catenin signaling. To determine the effects of notch1 deletion in vivo, mice in which notch1 was flanked by loxP sequences (notch1loxP/loxP) were mated with mice expressing Cre recombinase under the control of the osteocalcin promoter. Conditional null notch1 mice had no obvious skeletal phenotype, possibly because of rescue by notch2; however, 1-month-old females exhibited a modest increase in osteoclast surface and eroded surface. Osteoblasts from notch1loxP/loxP mice, transduced with Ad-CMV-Cre and transfected with Notch2 small interfering RNA, displayed increased alkaline phosphatase activity. In conclusion, Notch signaling in osteoblasts causes osteopenia and impairs osteo-blastogenesis by inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. PMID:18420737

  13. Lactate induces osteoblast differentiation by stabilization of HIF1α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu; Wang, Miaomiao; Feng, Haihua; Peng, Ying; Sun, Jieyun; Qu, Xiuxia; Li, Chunping

    2017-09-05

    Aerobic glycolysis is involved in osteoblast differentiation induced by Wnt signaling or PTH treatment. However, it is still unclear whether lactate, the end product of aerobic glycolysis, plays any role in osteoblast differentiation. Herein we report that in cultures of osteoblast-lineage cells, lactate promoted alkaline phosphatase-positive cell formation, increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase, and induced the expression of osteocalcin. This osteoblast differentiation-inducing effect of lactate can be inhibited by blocking its entry into cells with MCT1 siRNA or inhibitors, and by interfering with its metabolism by using specific siRNAs for LDHB and PDH. Moreover, lactate stabilized HIF1α expression and inhibited HIF1α activity, with BAY87-2243 lowering the osteoblast differentiation-inducing effect of lactate. Thus, these findings reveal an unrecognized role for aerobic glycolysis in osteoblast differentiation via its end product, lactate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A comparative study of the effect of Bio-Oss® in combination with concentrated growth factors or bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in canine sinus grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Li, Qiong; Wang, Zuolin

    2017-08-01

    To compare the effects of Bio-Oss ® in combination with concentrated growth factors (CGFs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on bone regeneration for maxillary sinus floor augmentation in beagle dogs. Six beagle dogs received bilateral maxillary sinus floor augmentation. Venous blood drawn from dogs was collected and centrifuged to obtain CGFs. BMSCs derived from canine bone marrow were cultured using density gradient centrifugation. The suspension of BMSCs was added onto Bio-Oss ® granules at a density of 2 × 10 6 cells/ml, and the BMSCs/Bio-Oss ® constructs were incubated for an additional 4 h before use. Twelve sinuses were grafted with a mixture of CGFs/Bio-Oss ® , BMSCs/Bio-Oss ® construct, or Bio-Oss ® alone. Six months later, the bone formation of bilateral sinuses was evaluated by Micro-CT, microhardness test, histological examination, and histomorphometry. No adverse effect was found in these dogs. The dome-shaped augmentation protruded into the sinus cavity. Micro-CT revealed that there was significant difference in BV/TV but not in Tb. N, between groups A, B, and C. The extent of microhardness in groups A and B was significantly higher than in group C. The proportion of newly formed bone in groups A and B showed significant difference when compared to group C (P ≤ 0.01). The amount of residual grafts in groups A and B was significantly lower than in group C. Grafting with Bio-Oss ® in combination with CGFs can increase new bone formation more efficiently than using Bio-Oss ® alone in a canine model. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Dental pulp-derived stromal cells exhibit a higher osteogenic potency than bone marrow-derived stromal cells in vitro and in a porcine critical-size bone defect model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs was compared with that of dental pulp-derived stromal cells (DPSCs in vitro and in a pig calvaria critical-size bone defect model. Methods: BMSCs and DPSCs were extracted from the tibia bone marrow and the molar teeth of each pig, respectively. BMSCs and DPSCs were cultured in monolayer and on a three-dimensional (3D polycaprolactone (PCL – hyaluronic acid – tricalcium phosphate (HT-PCL scaffold. Population doubling (PD, alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, and calcium deposition were measured in monolayer. In the 3D culture ALP activity, DNA content, and calcium deposition were evaluated. Six non-penetrating critical-size defects were made in each calvarium of 14 pigs. Three paired sub-studies were conducted: (1 empty defects vs. HT-PCL scaffolds; (2 PCL scaffolds vs. HT-PCL scaffolds; and (3 autologous BMSCs on HT-PCL scaffolds vs. autologous DPSCs on HT-PCL scaffolds. The observation time was five weeks. Bone volume fractions (BV/TV were assessed with micro-computed tomography (μCT and histomorphometry. Results and discussion: The results from the in vitro study revealed a higher ALP activity and calcium deposition of the DPSC cultures compared with BMSC cultures. Significantly more bone was present in the HT-PCL group than in both the pure PCL scaffold group and the empty defect group in vivo. DPSCs generated more bone than BMSCs when seeded on HT-PCL. In conclusion, DPSCs exhibited a higher osteogenic potential compared with BMSCs both in vitro and in vivo, making it a potential cell source for future bone tissue engineering.

  16. Exosomes secreted from mutant-HIF-1α-modified bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells attenuate early steroid-induced avascular necrosis of femoral head in rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haile; Liu, Danping; Li, Chen; Zhou, Shanjian; Tian, Dachuan; Xiao, Dawei; Zhang, Huan; Gao, Feng; Huang, Jianhua

    2017-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-derived exosomes exhibit protective effects on damaged or diseased tissues. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) plays a critical role in bone development. However, HIF-1α is easily biodegradable under normoxic conditions. The bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were transfected with adenovirus carrying triple point-mutations (amino acids 402, 564, and 803) in the HIF-1α coding sequence (CDS). The mutant HIF-1α can efficiently express functional proteins under normoxic conditions. To date, no study has reported the role of exosomes secreted by mutant HIF-1α modified BMSCs in the recovery of the early steroid-induced avascular necrosis of femoral head (SANFH). In this study, we firstly analyzed exosomes derived from BMSCs modified by mutant (BMSC-Exos MU ) or wild-type HIF-1α (BMSC-Exos WT ). In vitro, we investigated the osteogenic differentiation capacity of BMSCs modified by BMSC-Exos MU or BMSC-Exos WT , and the angiogenesis effects of BMSC-Exos MU and BMSC-Exos WT on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Besides, the healing of the femoral head was also assessed in vivo. We found that the potential of osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs treated with BMSC-Exos MU was higher than the wild-type group in vitro. In addition, BMSC-Exos MU stimulated the proliferation, migration, and tube formation of HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with the BMSC-Exos WT or PBS control group, the injection of BMSC-Exos MU into the necrosis region markedly accelerated the bone regeneration and angiogenesis, which were indicated by the increased trabecular reconstruction and microvascular density. Taken together, our data suggest that BMSC-Exos MU facilitates the repair of SANFH by enhancing osteogenesis and angiogenesis. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  17. The Protein Content of Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Expanded Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived CD133+ and Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Partially Explains Why both Sources are Advantageous for Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulski, Addeli B B; Capriglione, Luiz G; Batista, Michel; Marcon, Bruna H; Senegaglia, Alexandra C; Stimamiglio, Marco A; Correa, Alejandro

    2017-04-01

    Adult stem cells have beneficial effects when exposed to damaged tissue due, at least in part, to their paracrine activity, which includes soluble factors and extracellular vesicles (EVs). Given the multiplicity of signals carried by these vesicles through the horizontal transfer of functional molecules, human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSCs) and CD133 + cell-derived EVs have been tested in various disease models and shown to recover damaged tissues. In this study, we profiled the protein content of EVs derived from expanded human CD133 + cells and bone marrow-derived hMSCs with the intention of better understanding the functions performed by these vesicles/cells and delineating the most appropriate use of each EV in future therapeutic procedures. Using LC-MS/MS analysis, we identified 623 proteins for expanded CD133 + -EVs and 797 proteins for hMSCs-EVs. Although the EVs from both origins were qualitatively similar, when protein abundance was considered, hMSCs-EVs and CD133 + -EVs were different. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis in CD133 + -EVs revealed proteins involved in a variety of angiogenesis-related functions as well proteins related to the cytoskeleton and highly implicated in cell motility and cellular activation. In contrast, when overrepresented proteins in hMSCs-EVs were analyzed, a GO cluster of immune response-related genes involved with immune response-regulating factors acting on phagocytosis and innate immunity was identified. Together our data demonstrate that from the point of view of protein content, expanded CD133 + -EVs and hMSCs-EVs are in part similar but also sufficiently different to reflect the main beneficial paracrine effects widely reported in pre-clinical studies using expanded CD133 + cells and/or hBM-MSCs.

  18. Changes in numbers and types of mast cell colony-forming cells in the peritoneal cavity of mice after injection of distilled water: evidence that mast cells suppress differentiation of bone marrow-derived precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanakura, Y.; Kuriu, A.; Waki, N.; Nakano, T.; Asai, H.; Yonezawa, T.; Kitamura, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Two different types of cells in the peritoneal cavity of mice produce mast cell colonies in methylcellulose. Large mast cell colonies are produced by bone marrow-derived precursors resembling lymphoid cells by light microscopy (L-CFU-Mast), whereas medium and small mast cell colonies are produced by morphologically identifiable mast cells (M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast, respectively). In the present study we eradicated peritoneal mast cells by intraperitoneal (IP) injection of distilled water. The regeneration process was investigated to clarify the relationship between L-CFU-Mast, M-CFU-Mast, and S-CFU-Mast. After injection of distilled water, M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast disappeared, but L-CFU-Mast increased, and then M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast appeared, suggesting the presence of a hierarchic relationship. When purified peritoneal mast cells were injected two days after the water injection, the L-CFU-Mast did not increase. In the peritoneal cavity of WBB6F1-+/+ mice that had been lethally irradiated and rescued by bone marrow cells of C57BL/6-bgJ/bgJ (beige, Chediak-Higashi syndrome) mice, L-CFU-Mast were of bgJ/bgJ type, but M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast were of +/+ type. The injection of distilled water to the radiation chimeras resulted in the development of bgJ/bgJ-type M-CFU-Mast and then S-CFU-Mast. The presence of mast cells appeared to suppress the recruitment of L-CFU-Mast from the bloodstream and to inhibit the differentiation of L-CFU-Mast to M-CFU-Mast

  19. Effect of vitamin D on endothelial progenitor cells function.

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    Yoav Hammer

    Full Text Available Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs are a population of bone marrow-derived cells, which have an important role in the process of endothelialization and vascular repair following injury. Impairment of EPCs, which occurs in patients with diabetes, was shown to be related to endothelial dysfunction, coronary artery disease (CAD and adverse clinical outcomes. Recent evidence has shown that calcitriol, the active hormone of vitamin D, has a favorable impact on the endothelium and cardiovascular system. There is limited data on the effect of vitamin D on EPCs function.To examine the in vitro effects of Calcitriol on EPCs from healthy subjects and patients with diabetes.Fifty-one patients with type 2 diabetes (60±11 years, 40% women, HbA1C: 9.1±0.8% and 23 healthy volunteers were recruited. EPCs were isolated and cultured with and without calcitriol. The capacity of the cells to form colony-forming units (CFUs, their viability (measured by MTT assay, KLF-10 levels and angiogenic markers were evaluated after 1 week of culture.In diabetic patients, EPC CFUs and cell viability were higher in EPCs exposed to calcitriol vs. EPCs not exposed to calcitriol [EPC CFUs: 1.25 (IQR 1.0-2.0 vs. 0.5 (IQR 0.5-1.9, p < 0.001; MTT:0.62 (IQR 0.44-0.93 vs. 0.52 (IQR 0.31-0.62, p = 0.001]. KLF-10 levels tended to be higher in EPCs exposed to vitamin D, with no differences in angiopoietic markers. In healthy subjects, calcitriol supplementation also resulted in higher cell viability [MTT: 0.23 (IQR 0.11-0.46 vs. 0.19 (0.09-0.39, p = 0.04], but without differences in CFU count or angiopoietic markers.In patients with diabetes mellitus, in vitro vitamin D supplementation improved EPCs capacity to form colonies and viability. Further studies regarding the mechanisms by which vitamin D exerts its effect are required.

  20. Osteoblast-secreted collagen upregulates paracrine Sonic hedgehog signaling by prostate cancer cells and enhances osteoblast differentiation

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    Zunich Samantha M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Induction of osteoblast differentiation by paracrine Sonic hedgehog (Shh signaling may be a mechanism through which Shh-expressing prostate cancer cells initiate changes in the bone microenvironment and promote metastases. A hallmark of osteoblast differentiation is the formation of matrix whose predominant protein is type 1 collagen. We investigated the formation of a collagen matrix by osteoblasts cultured with prostate cancer cells, and its effects on interactions between prostate cancer cells and osteoblasts. Results In the presence of exogenous ascorbic acid (AA, a co-factor in collagen synthesis, mouse MC3T3 pre-osteoblasts in mixed cultures with human LNCaP prostate cancer cells or LNCaP cells modified to overexpress Shh (LNShh cells formed collagen matrix with distinct fibril ultrastructural characteristics. AA increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase and the expression of the alkaline phosphatase gene Akp2, markers of osteoblast differentiation, in MC3T3 pre-osteoblasts cultured with LNCaP or LNShh cells. However, the AA-stimulated increase in Akp2 expression in MC3T3 pre-osteoblasts cultured with LNShh cells far exceeded the levels observed in MC3T3 cells cultured with either LNCaP cells with AA or LNShh cells without AA. Therefore, AA and Shh exert a synergistic effect on osteoblast differentiation. We determined whether the effect of AA on LNShh cell-induced osteoblast differentiation was mediated by Shh signaling. AA increased the expression of Gli1 and Ptc1, target genes of the Shh pathway, in MC3T3 pre-osteoblasts cultured with LNShh cells to at least twice their levels without AA. The ability of AA to upregulate Shh signaling and enhance alkaline phosphatase activity was blocked in MC3T3 cells that expressed a dominant negative form of the transcription factor GLI1. The AA-stimulated increase in Shh signaling and Shh-induced osteoblast differentiation was also inhibited by the specific collagen synthesis

  1. Building strong bones: molecular regulation of the osteoblast lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Fanxin

    2011-12-22

    The past 15 years have witnessed tremendous progress in the molecular understanding of osteoblasts, the main bone-forming cells in the vertebrate skeleton. In particular, all of the major developmental signals (including WNT and Notch signalling), along with an increasing number of transcription factors (such as RUNX2 and osterix), have been shown to regulate the differentiation and/or function of osteoblasts. As evidence indicates that osteoblasts may also regulate the behaviour of other cell types, a clear understanding of the molecular identity and regulation of osteoblasts is important beyond the field of bone biology.

  2. Serotonin regulates osteoblast proliferation and function in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, S.Q.; Yu, L.P. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Shi, X. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Wu, H. [Emergency Department, The First Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Shao, P.; Yin, G.Y.; Wei, Y.Z. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2014-08-01

    The monoamine serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), a well-known neurotransmitter, also has important functions outside the central nervous system. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of 5-HT in the proliferation, differentiation, and function of osteoblasts in vitro. We treated rat primary calvarial osteoblasts with various concentrations of 5-HT (1 nM to 10 µM) and assessed the rate of osteoblast proliferation, expression levels of osteoblast-specific proteins and genes, and the ability to form mineralized nodules. Next, we detected which 5-HT receptor subtypes were expressed in rat osteoblasts at different stages of osteoblast differentiation. We found that 5-HT could inhibit osteoblast proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization at low concentrations, but this inhibitory effect was mitigated at relatively high concentrations. Six of the 5-HT receptor subtypes (5-HT{sub 1A}, 5-HT{sub 1B}, 5-HT{sub 1D}, 5-HT{sub 2A}, 5-HT{sub 2B}, and 5-HT{sub 2C}) were found to exist in rat osteoblasts. Of these, 5-HT{sub 2A} and 5-HT{sub 1B} receptors had the highest expression levels, at both early and late stages of differentiation. Our results indicated that 5-HT can regulate osteoblast proliferation and function in vitro.

  3. Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells regulate the regeneration of their niche by secreting Angiopoietin-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bo O; Ding, Lei; Morrison, Sean J

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are maintained by a perivascular niche in bone marrow but it is unclear whether the niche is reciprocally regulated by HSCs. Here, we systematically assessed the expression and function of Angiopoietin-1 (Angpt1) in bone marrow. Angpt1 was not expressed by osteoblasts. Angpt1 was most highly expressed by HSCs, and at lower levels by c-kit+ hematopoietic progenitors, megakaryocytes, and Leptin Receptor+ (LepR+) stromal cells. Global conditional deletion of Angpt1, or deletion from osteoblasts, LepR+ cells, Nes-cre-expressing cells, megakaryocytes, endothelial cells or hematopoietic cells in normal mice did not affect hematopoiesis, HSC maintenance, or HSC quiescence. Deletion of Angpt1 from hematopoietic cells and LepR+ cells had little effect on vasculature or HSC frequency under steady-state conditions but accelerated vascular and hematopoietic recovery after irradiation while increasing vascular leakiness. Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and LepR+ stromal cells regulate niche regeneration by secreting Angpt1, reducing vascular leakiness but slowing niche recovery. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05521.001 PMID:25821987

  4. Zoledronic acid at subtoxic dose extends osteoblastic stage span of primary human osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zara, Susi; De Colli, Marianna; di Giacomo, Viviana; Zizzari, Vincenzo Luca; Di Nisio, Chiara; Di Tore, Umberto; Salini, Vincenzo; Gallorini, Marialucia; Tetè, Stefano; Cataldi, Amelia

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to check the effect of zoledronic acid (ZA) at subtoxic dose on human osteoblasts (HOs) in terms of cell viability, apoptosis occurrence, and differentiation induction. ZA belongs to the family of bisphosphonates (BPs), largely used in the clinical practice for the treatment of bone diseases, often associated with jaw osteonecrosis onset. Their pharmacological action consists in the direct block of the osteoclast-mediated bone resorption along with indirect action on osteoblasts. HOs were treated choosing the highest limit concentration (10(-5) M) which does not induce toxic effects. Live/dead staining, flow cytometry, mitochondrial membrane potential assay, osteocalcin western blotting, gp38 RT-PCR, collagen type I, PGE2, and IL-6 ELISA assays were performed. Similar viability level between control and ZA-treated samples is found along with no significant increase of apoptotic and necrotic cells in ZA-treated sample. To establish if an early apoptotic pathway was triggered, Bax expression and mitochondrial membrane potential were evaluated finding a higher protein expression in control sample and a good integrity of mitochondrial membrane in both experimental points. Type I collagen secretion and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity appear increased in ZA-treated sample, osteocalcin expression level is reduced in ZA-treated cells, whereas no modifications of gp38 mRNA level are evidenced. No statistical differences are identified in PGE2 secretion level whereas IL-6 secretion is lower in ZA-treated HOs with respect to control ones. These results highlight that ZA, delaying the osteoblastic differentiation process versus the osteocytic lineage, strengthens its pharmacological activity enhancing bone density. The knowledge of ZA effects on osteoblasts at subtoxic dose allows to improve therapeutic protocols in order to strengthen drug pharmacological activity through a combined action on both osteoclastic and osteoblastic cells.

  5. Lin- CD34hi CD117int/hi FcεRI+ cells in human blood constitute a rare population of mast cell progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Joakim S; Malinovschi, Andrei; Öhrvik, Helena; Sandelin, Martin; Janson, Christer; Alving, Kjell; Hallgren, Jenny

    2016-01-28

    Mast cells are rare tissue-resident immune cells that are involved in allergic reactions, and their numbers are increased in the lungs of asthmatics. Murine lung mast cells arise from committed bone marrow-derived progenitors that enter the blood circulation, migrate through the pulmonary endothelium, and mature in the tissue. In humans, mast cells can be cultured from multipotent CD34(+) progenitor cells. However, a population of distinct precursor cells that give rise to mast cells has remained undiscovered. To our knowledge, this is the first report of human lineage-negative (Lin(-)) CD34(hi) CD117(int/hi) FcεRI(+) progenitor cells, which represented only 0.0053% of the isolated blood cells in healthy individuals. These cells expressed integrin β7 and developed a mast cell-like phenotype, although with a slow cell division capacity in vitro. Isolated Lin(-) CD34(hi) CD117(int/hi) FcεRI(+) blood cells had an immature mast cell-like appearance and expressed high levels of many mast cell-related genes as compared with human blood basophils in whole-transcriptome microarray analyses. Furthermore, serglycin, tryptase, and carboxypeptidase A messenger RNA transcripts were detected by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Altogether, we propose that the Lin(-) CD34(hi) CD117(int/hi) FcεRI(+) blood cells are closely related to human tissue mast cells and likely constitute an immediate precursor population, which can give rise to predominantly mast cells. Furthermore, asthmatics with reduced lung function had a higher frequency of Lin(-) CD34(hi) CD117(int/hi) FcεRI(+) blood mast cell progenitors than asthmatics with normal lung function. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  6. Notch Signaling in Prostate Cancer Cells Promotes Osteoblastic Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this...function and number while inducing osteoblast proliferation. Our results suggest that Notch signaling from cancer cells promotes osteoblastic...Participants and other collaborating organizations: I initiated collaboration with Dr. Evan Keller at University of Michigan to interrogate PCa bone

  7. Tridax procumbens flavonoids promote osteoblast differentiation and bone formation

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    Md. Abdullah Al Mamun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tridaxprocumbens flavonoids (TPFs are well known for their medicinal properties among local natives. Besides traditionally used for dropsy, anemia, arthritis, gout, asthma, ulcer, piles, and urinary problems, it is also used in treating gastric problems, body pain, and rheumatic pains of joints. TPFs have been reported to increase osteogenic functioning in mesenchymal stem cells. Our previous study showed that TPFs were significantly suppressed the RANKL-induced differentiation of osteoclasts and bone resorption. However, the effects of TPFs to promote osteoblasts differentiation and bone formation remain unclear. TPFs were isolated from Tridax procumbens and investigated for their effects on osteoblasts differentiation and bone formation by using primary mouse calvarial osteoblasts RESULTS: TPFs promoted osteoblast differentiation in a dose-dependent manner demonstrated by up-regulation of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin. TPFs also upregulated osteoblast differentiation related genes, including osteocalcin, osterix, and Runx2 in primary osteoblasts. TPFs treated primary osteoblast cells showed significant upregulation of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs including Bmp-2, Bmp-4, and Bmp-7. Addition of noggin, a BMP specific-antagonist, inhibited TPFs induced upregulation of the osteocalcin, osterix, and Runx2 CONCLUSION: Our findings point towards the induction of osteoblast differentiation by TPFs and suggested that TPFs could be a potential anabolic agent to treat patients with bone loss-associated diseases such as osteoporosis

  8. Effect of bone marrow-derived CD11b(+)F4/80 (+) immature dendritic cells on the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in DBA/1 mice with collagen-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jingjing; Zhang, Lingling; Song, Shanshan; Sheng, Kangliang; Li, Ying; Li, Peipei; Song, Shasha; Wang, Qingtong; Chu, Jianhong; Wei, Wei

    2014-05-01

    To explore the effect of bone marrow-derived CD11b(+)F4/80(+) immature dendritic cells (BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+)iDC) on the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in DBA/1 mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+)iDC were induced with rmGM-CSF and rmIL-4, and were identified by the expressions of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2), indoleamine 2,3-deoxygenase (IDO), interleukin (IL)-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR). CIA was established in DBA/1 mice by immunization with type II collagen. CIA mice were injected intravenously with BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+)iDC three times after immunization. The effect of BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+)iDC on CIA was evaluated by the arthritis index, joint histopathology, body weight, thymus index, thymocytes proliferation, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-17, IL-10 and TGF-β1 levels. BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+)iDC induced with rmGM-CSF and rmIL-4 expressed high levels of TLR-2, IDO, IL-10 and TGF-β1. Infusion of BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+)iDC in CIA mice significantly reduced the arthritis index and pathological scores of joints, recovered the weight, decreased the thymus index and inhibited thymocyte proliferation. Levels of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-17 were decreased in BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+)iDC-treated mice. BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+)iDC can be induced successfully with rmGM-CSF and rmIL-4. BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+)iDC treatment can ameliorate the development and severity of CIA by regulating the balance between pro-inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory cytokines.

  9. Periodontal Wound Healing by Transplantation of Jaw Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Chitosan/Anorganic Bovine Bone Carrier Into One-Wall Infrabony Defects in Beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Shengqi; Jin, Lei; Kang, Shuai; Hu, Xin; Wang, Meng; Wang, Jinjin; Chen, Bo; Peng, Bo; Wang, Qintao

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to evaluate the performance of chitosan/anorganic bovine bone (C/ABB) scaffold seeded with human jaw bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hJBMMSCs) in supporting the healing/repair of 1-wall critical-size periodontal defects. Physical properties of the C/ABB scaffold were compared with those of the chitosan scaffold. hJBMMSCs were obtained from healthy human alveolar bone during the extraction of third molar impacted teeth. One-wall (7 × 4 mm) infrabony defects were surgically created at the bilateral mandibular third premolars and first molars in six beagles. The defects were randomly assigned to six groups and implanted with different scaffolds: 1) chitosan (C) scaffold; 2) C scaffold with hJBMMSCs (C + cell); 3) C/ABB scaffold (C/ABB); 4) C/ABB scaffold with hJBMMSCs (C/ABB + cell); 5) ABB scaffold (ABB); and 6) open flap debridement (control). The animals were euthanized 8 weeks after surgery for histologic analysis. The C/ABB scaffold had a porous structure and increased compressive strength. Both C/ABB and C/ABB + cell exhibited the newly formed cellular mixed-fiber cementum, woven/lamellar bone, and periodontal ligament. Cementum formation was significantly greater in group C/ABB + cell than in group C/ABB (2.64 ± 0.50 mm versus 0.91 ± 0.55 mm, P <0.05). For new bone (NB) height, group C/ABB + cell and C/ABB showed mean ± SD values of 2.83 ± 0.29 mm and 2.65 ± 0.52 mm and for NB area 8.89 ± 1.65 mm and 8.73 ± 1.94 mm(2), respectively. For NB (height and area), there was no significant difference between the two groups. The combination of hJBMMSCs and C/ABB scaffolds could promote periodontal repair. Future studies are expected to further optimize the combination and lead to an ideal periodontal regeneration.

  10. COMPARE CPM-RMI Trial: Intramyocardial Transplantation of Autologous Bone Marrow-Derived CD133+ Cells and MNCs during CABG in Patients with Recent MI: A Phase II/III, Multicenter, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Mohammad Hassan; Madani, Hoda; Ahmadi Tafti, Seyed Hossein; Moshkani Farahani, Maryam; Kazemi Saleh, Davood; Hosseinnejad, Hossein; Hosseini, Saeid; Hekmat, Sepideh; Hossein Ahmadi, Zargham; Dehghani, Majid; Saadat, Alireza; Mardpour, Soura; Hosseini, Seyedeh Esmat; Esmaeilzadeh, Maryam; Sadeghian, Hakimeh; Bahoush, Gholamreza; Bassi, Ali; Amin, Ahmad; Fazeli, Roghayeh; Sharafi, Yaser; Arab, Leila; Movahhed, Mansour; Davaran, Saeid; Ramezanzadeh, Narges; Kouhkan, Azam; Hezavehei, Ali; Namiri, Mehrnaz; Kashfi, Fahimeh; Akhlaghi, Ali; Sotoodehnejadnematalahi, Fattah; Vosough Dizaji, Ahmad; Gourabi, Hamid; Syedi, Naeema; Shahverdi, Abdol Hosein; Baharvand, Hossein; Aghdami, Nasser

    2018-07-01

    The regenerative potential of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (MNCs) and CD133+ stem cells in the heart varies in terms of their pro-angiogenic effects. This phase II/III, multicenter and double-blind trial is designed to compare the functional effects of intramyocardial autologous transplantation of both cell types and placebo in patients with recent myocardial infarction (RMI) post-coronary artery bypass graft. This was a phase II/III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial COMPARE CPM-RMI (CD133, Placebo, MNCs - recent myocardial infarction) conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki that assessed the safety and efficacy of CD133 and MNCs compared to placebo in patients with RMI. We randomly assigned 77 eligible RMI patients selected from 5 hospitals to receive CD133+ cells, MNC, or a placebo. Patients underwent gated single photon emission computed tomography assessments at 6 and 18 months post-intramyocardial transplantation. We tested the normally distributed efficacy outcomes with a mixed analysis of variance model that used the entire data set of baseline and between-group comparisons as well as within subject (time) and group×time interaction terms. There were no related serious adverse events reported. The intramyocardial transplantation of both cell types increased left ventricular ejection fraction by 9% [95% confidence intervals (CI): 2.14% to 15.78%, P=0.01] and improved decreased systolic wall thickening by -3.7 (95% CI: -7.07 to -0.42, P=0.03). The CD133 group showed significantly decreased non-viable segments by 75% (P=0.001) compared to the placebo and 60% (P=0.01) compared to the MNC group. We observed this improvement at both the 6- and 18-month time points. Intramyocardial injections of CD133+ cells or MNCs appeared to be safe and efficient with superiority of CD133+ cells for patients with RMI. Although the sample size precluded a definitive statement about clinical outcomes, these results have provided the

  11. Effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells on the axonal outgrowth through activation of PI3K/AKT signaling in primary cortical neurons followed oxygen-glucose deprivation injury.

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    Yong Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transplantation with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs improves the survival of neurons and axonal outgrowth after stroke remains undetermined. Here, we investigated whether PI3K/AKT signaling pathway is involved in these therapeutic effects of BMSCs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: (1 BMSCs and cortical neurons were derived from Sprague-Dawley rats. The injured neurons were induced by Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation (OGD, and then were respectively co-cultured for 48 hours with BMSCs at different densities (5×10(3, 5×10(5/ml in transwell co-culture system. The average length of axon and expression of GAP-43 were examined to assess the effect of BMSCs on axonal outgrowth after the damage of neurons induced by OGD. (2 The injured neurons were cultured with a conditioned medium (CM of BMSCs cultured for 24 hours in neurobasal medium. During the process, we further identified whether PI3K/AKT signaling pathway is involved through the adjunction of LY294002 (a specific phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase (PI3K inhibitor. Two hours later, the expression of pAKT (phosphorylated AKT and AKT were analyzed by Western blotting. The length of axons, the expression of GAP-43 and the survival of neurons were measured at 48 hours. RESULTS: Both BMSCs and CM from BMSCs inreased the axonal length and GAP-43 expression in OGD-injured cortical neurons. There was no difference between the effects of BMSCs of 5×10(5/ml and of 5×10(3/ml on axonal outgrowth. Expression of pAKT enhanced significantly at 2 hours and the neuron survival increased at 48 hours after the injured neurons cultured with the CM, respectively. These effects of CM were prevented by inhibitor LY294002. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: BMSCs promote axonal outgrowth and the survival of neurons against the damage from OGD in vitro by the paracrine effects through PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

  12. Periodontal Bioengineering: A Discourse in Surface Topographies, Progenitor Cells and Molecular Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangaria, Smit J.

    2011-12-01

    Stem/progenitor cells are a population of cells capable of providing replacement cells for a given differentiated cell type. We have applied progenitor cell-based technologies to generate novel tissue-engineered implants that use biomimetic strategies with the ultimate goal of achieving full regeneration of lost periodontal tissues. Mesenchymal periodontal tissues such as cementum, alveolar bone (AB), and periodontal ligament (PDL) are neural crest-derived entities that emerge from the dental follicle (DF) at the onset of tooth root formation. Using a systems biology approach we have identified key differences between these periodontal progenitors on the basis of global gene expression profiles, gene cohort expression levels, and epigenetic modifications, in addition to differences in cellular morphologies. On an epigenetic level, DF progenitors featured high levels of the euchromatin marker H3K4me3, whereas PDL cells, AB osteoblasts, and cementoblasts contained high levels of the transcriptional repressor H3K9me3. Secondly, we have tested the influence of natural extracellular hydroxyapatite matrices on periodontal progenitor differentiation. Dimension and structure of extracellular matrix surfaces have powerful influences on cell shape, adhesion, and gene expression. Here we show that natural tooth root topographies induce integrin-mediated extracellular matrix signaling cascades in tandem with cell elongation and polarization to generate physiological periodontium-like tissues. In this study we replanted surface topography instructed periodontal ligament progenitors (PDLPs) into rat alveolar bone sockets for 8 and 16 weeks, resulting in complete attachment of tooth roots to the surrounding alveolar bone with a periodontal ligament fiber apparatus closely matching physiological controls along the entire root surface. Displacement studies and biochemical analyses confirmed that progenitor-based engineered periodontal tissues were similar to control teeth and

  13. Intracortical osteoblastic osteosarcoma with oncogenic rickets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, T.; Hirohashi, Setsuo; Shimoda, Tadakazu; Yokoyama, Ryohei; Beppu, Yasuo; Maeda, Shotaro

    1999-01-01

    Intracortical osteosarcoma is the rarest variant of osteosarcoma, occurring within, and usually confined to, the cortical bone. Oncogenic osteomalacia, or rickets, is an unusual clinicopathologic entity in which vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia, or rickets, occurs in association with some tumors of soft tissue or bone. We present a case of oncogenic rickets associated with intracortical osteosarcoma of the tibia in a 9-year-old boy, whose roentgenographic abnormalities of rickets disappeared and pertinent laboratory data except for serum alkaline phosphatase became normal after surgical resection of the tumor. Histologically, the tumor was an osteosarcoma with a prominent osteoblastic pattern. An unusual microscopic feature was the presence of matrix mineralization showing rounded calcified structures (calcified spherules). Benign osteoblastic tumors, such as osteoid osteoma and osteoblastoma, must be considered in the differential diagnosis because of the relatively low cellular atypia and mitotic activity of this tumor. The infiltrating pattern with destruction or engulfment of normal bone is a major clue to the correct diagnosis of intracortical osteosarcoma. The co-existing radiographic changes of rickets were due to the intracortical osteosarcoma. (orig.)

  14. Intracortical osteoblastic osteosarcoma with oncogenic rickets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, T.; Hirohashi, Setsuo [Pathology Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Shimoda, Tadakazu [Clinical Laboratory Division, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Yokoyama, Ryohei; Beppu, Yasuo [Orthopedic Division, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Maeda, Shotaro [Department of Pathology, Nippon Medical School Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-01-01

    Intracortical osteosarcoma is the rarest variant of osteosarcoma, occurring within, and usually confined to, the cortical bone. Oncogenic osteomalacia, or rickets, is an unusual clinicopathologic entity in which vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia, or rickets, occurs in association with some tumors of soft tissue or bone. We present a case of oncogenic rickets associated with intracortical osteosarcoma of the tibia in a 9-year-old boy, whose roentgenographic abnormalities of rickets disappeared and pertinent laboratory data except for serum alkaline phosphatase became normal after surgical resection of the tumor. Histologically, the tumor was an osteosarcoma with a prominent osteoblastic pattern. An unusual microscopic feature was the presence of matrix mineralization showing rounded calcified structures (calcified spherules). Benign osteoblastic tumors, such as osteoid osteoma and osteoblastoma, must be considered in the differential diagnosis because of the relatively low cellular atypia and mitotic activity of this tumor. The infiltrating pattern with destruction or engulfment of normal bone is a major clue to the correct diagnosis of intracortical osteosarcoma. The co-existing radiographic changes of rickets were due to the intracortical osteosarcoma. (orig.) With 8 figs., 25 refs.

  15. Myeloma cells suppress osteoblasts through sclerostin secretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colucci, S; Brunetti, G; Oranger, A [Department of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari (Italy); Mori, G [Department of Biomedical Science, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Sardone, F [Department of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari (Italy); Specchia, G; Rinaldi, E; Curci, P; Liso, V [Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, Hematology Section, Bari University Medical School, Bari (Italy); Passeri, G [Department of Internal Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Center for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Parma, Parma (Italy); Zallone, A [Department of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari (Italy); Rizzi, R [Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, Hematology Section, Bari University Medical School, Bari (Italy); Grano, M [Department of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari (Italy)

    2011-06-01

    Wingless-type (Wnt) signaling through the secretion of Wnt inhibitors Dickkopf1, soluble frizzled-related protein-2 and -3 has a key role in the decreased osteoblast (OB) activity associated with multiple myeloma (MM) bone disease. We provide evidence that another Wnt antagonist, sclerostin, an osteocyte-expressed negative regulator of bone formation, is expressed by myeloma cells, that is, human myeloma cell lines (HMCLs) and plasma cells (CD138+ cells) obtained from the bone marrow (BM) of a large number of MM patients with bone disease. We demonstrated that BM stromal cells (BMSCs), differentiated into OBs and co-cultured with HMCLs showed, compared with BMSCs alone, reduced expression of major osteoblastic-specific proteins, decreased mineralized nodule formation and attenuated the expression of members of the activator protein 1 transcription factor family (Fra-1, Fra-2 and Jun-D). Moreover, in the same co-culture system, the addition of neutralizing anti-sclerostin antibodies restored OB functions by inducing nuclear accumulation of β-catenin. We further demonstrated that the upregulation of receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand and the downregulation of osteoprotegerin in OBs were also sclerostin mediated. Our data indicated that sclerostin secretion by myeloma cells contribute to the suppression of bone formation in the osteolytic bone disease associated to MM.

  16. Osteoblastic Metastases Mimickers on Contrast Enhanced CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Al-Lhedan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary osseous involvement in lymphoma is more common compared to primary bone lymphoma. The finding of osseous lesion can be incidentally discovered during the course of the disease. However, osseous metastases are infrequently silent. Detection of osseous metastases is crucial for accurate staging and optimal treatment planning of lymphoma. The aim of imaging is to identify the presence and extent of osseous disease and to assess for possible complications such as pathological fracture of the load-bearing bones and cord compression if the lesion is spinal. We are presenting two patients with treated lymphoma who were in complete remission. On routine follow-up contrast enhanced CT, there were new osteoblastic lesions in the spine worrisome for metastases. Additional studies were performed for further evaluation of both of them which did not demonstrate any corresponding suspicious osseous lesion. The patients have a prior history of chronic venous occlusive thrombosis that resulted in collaterals formation. Contrast enhancement of the vertebral body marrow secondary to collaterals formation and venous flow through the vertebral venous plexus can mimic the appearance of spinal osteoblastic metastases.

  17. Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cell Expansion in Contact with Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in a Hanging Drop Model Uncovers Disadvantages of 3D Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Schmal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic stem cells with a concomitant preservation of stemness and self-renewal potential is still an unresolved ambition. Increased numbers of methods approaching this issue using three-dimensional (3D cultures were reported. Here, we describe a simplified 3D hanging drop model for the coculture of cord blood-derived CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs. When seeded as a mixed cell suspension, MSCs segregated into tight spheroids. Despite the high expression of niche-specific extracellular matrix components by spheroid-forming MSCs, HSPCs did not migrate into the spheroids in the initial phase of coculture, indicating strong homotypic interactions of MSCs. After one week, however, HSPC attachment increased considerably, leading to spheroid collapse as demonstrated by electron microscopy and immunofluorescence staining. In terms of HSPC proliferation, the conventional 2D coculture system was superior to the hanging drop model. Furthermore, expansion of primitive hematopoietic progenitors was more favored in 2D than in 3D, as analyzed in colony-forming assays. Conclusively, our data demonstrate that MSCs, when arranged with a spread (monolayer shape, exhibit better HSPC supportive qualities than spheroid-forming MSCs. Therefore, 3D systems are not necessarily superior to traditional 2D culture in this regard.

  18. Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cell Expansion in Contact with Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in a Hanging Drop Model Uncovers Disadvantages of 3D Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmal, Olga; Seifert, Jan; Schäffer, Tilman E; Walter, Christina B; Aicher, Wilhelm K; Klein, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Efficient ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic stem cells with a concomitant preservation of stemness and self-renewal potential is still an unresolved ambition. Increased numbers of methods approaching this issue using three-dimensional (3D) cultures were reported. Here, we describe a simplified 3D hanging drop model for the coculture of cord blood-derived CD34(+) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). When seeded as a mixed cell suspension, MSCs segregated into tight spheroids. Despite the high expression of niche-specific extracellular matrix components by spheroid-forming MSCs, HSPCs did not migrate into the spheroids in the initial phase of coculture, indicating strong homotypic interactions of MSCs. After one week, however, HSPC attachment increased considerably, leading to spheroid collapse as demonstrated by electron microscopy and immunofluorescence staining. In terms of HSPC proliferation, the conventional 2D coculture system was superior to the hanging drop model. Furthermore, expansion of primitive hematopoietic progenitors was more favored in 2D than in 3D, as analyzed in colony-forming assays. Conclusively, our data demonstrate that MSCs, when arranged with a spread (monolayer) shape, exhibit better HSPC supportive qualities than spheroid-forming MSCs. Therefore, 3D systems are not necessarily superior to traditional 2D culture in this regard.

  19. A stromal cell-derived factor-1 releasing matrix enhances the progenitor cell response and blood vessel growth in ischaemic skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Kuraitis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Although many regenerative cell therapies are being developed to replace or regenerate ischaemic muscle, the lack of vasculature and poor persistence of the therapeutic cells represent major limiting factors to successful tissue restoration. In response to ischaemia, stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 is up-regulated by the affected tissue to stimulate stem cell-mediated regenerative responses. Therefore, we encapsulated SDF-1 into alginate microspheres and further incorporated these into an injectable collagen-based matrix in order to improve local delivery. Microsphere-matrix impregnation reduced the time for matrix thermogelation, and also increased the viscosity reached. This double-incorporation prolonged the release of SDF-1, which maintained adhesive and migratory bioactivity, attributed to chemotaxis in response to SDF-1. In vivo, treatment of ischaemic hindlimb muscle with microsphere-matrix led to increased mobilisation of bone marrow-derived progenitor cells, and also improved recruitment of angiogenic cells expressing the SDF-1 receptor (CXCR4 from bone marrow and local tissues. Both matrix and SDF-1-releasing matrix were successful at restoring perfusion, but SDF-1 treatment appeared to play an earlier role, as evidenced by arterioles that are phenotypically older and by increased angiogenic cytokine production, stimulating the generation of a qualitative microenvironment for a rapid and therefore more efficient regeneration. These results support the release of implanted SDF-1 as a promising method for enhancing progenitor cell responses and restoring perfusion to ischaemic tissues via neovascularisation.

  20. Levels of circulating CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+ progenitor cells correlate with outcome in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, F; Gross-Goupil, M; Tournay, E; Taylor, M; Vimond, N; Jacques, N; Billiot, F; Mauguen, A; Hill, C; Escudier, B

    2011-01-01

    Background: Predicting the efficacy of antiangiogenic therapy would be of clinical value in patients (pts) with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). We tested the hypothesis that circulating endothelial cell (CEC), bone marrow-derived CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+ progenitor cell or plasma angiogenic factor levels are associated with clinical outcome in mRCC pts undergoing treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Methods: Fifty-five mRCC pts were prospectively monitored at baseline (day 1) and day 14 during treatment (46 pts received sunitinib and 9 pts received sorafenib). Circulating endothelial cells (CD45−CD31+CD146+7-amino-actinomycin (7AAD)− cells) were measured in 1 ml whole blood using four-color flow cytometry (FCM). Circulating CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+7AAD− progenitor cells were measured in progenitor-enriched fractions by four-color FCM. Plasma VEGF, sVEGFR2, SDF-1α and sVCAM-1 levels were determined by ELISA. Correlations between baseline CEC, CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+7AAD− progenitor cells, plasma factors, as well as day 1–day 14 changes in CEC, CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+7AAD− progenitor, plasma factor levels, and response to TKI, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were examined. Results: No significant correlation between markers and response to TKI was observed. No association between baseline CEC, plasma VEGF, sVEGFR-2, SDF-1α, sVCAM-1 levels with PFS and OS was observed. However, baseline CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+7AAD− progenitor cell levels were associated with PFS (P=0.01) and OS (P=0.006). Changes in this population and in SDF-1α levels between day 1 and day 14 were associated with PFS (P=0.03, P=0.002). Changes in VEGF and SDF-1α levels were associated with OS (P=0.02, P=0.007). Conclusion: Monitoring CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+ progenitor cells, plasma VEGF and SDF-1α levels could be of clinical interest in TKI-treated mRCC pts to predict outcome. PMID:21386843

  1. Normal hematopoiesis and lack of β-catenin activation in osteoblasts of patients and mice harboring Lrp5 gain-of-function mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán-Díez, Marta; Isa, Adiba; Ponzetti, Marco; Nielsen, Morten Frost; Kassem, Moustapha; Kousteni, Stavroula

    2016-03-01

    Osteoblasts are emerging regulators of myeloid malignancies since genetic alterations in them, such as constitutive activation of β-catenin, instigate their appearance. The LDL receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5), initially proposed to be a co-receptor for Wnt proteins, in fact favors bone formation by suppressing gut-serotonin synthesis. This function of Lrp5 occurring in the gut is independent of β-catenin activation in osteoblasts. However, it is unknown whether Lrp5 can act directly in osteoblast to influence other functions that require β-catenin signaling, particularly, the deregulation of hematopoiesis and leukemogenic properties of β-catenin activation in osteoblasts, that lead to development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Using mice with gain-of-function (GOF) Lrp5 alleles (Lrp5(A214V)) that recapitulate the human high bone mass (HBM) phenotype, as well as patients with the T253I HBM Lrp5 mutation, we show here that Lrp5 GOF mutations in both humans and mice do not activate β-catenin signaling in osteoblasts. Consistent with a lack of β-catenin activation in their osteoblasts, Lrp5(A214V) mice have normal trilinear hematopoiesis. In contrast to leukemic mice with constitutive activation of β-catenin in osteoblasts (Ctnnb1(CAosb)), accumulation of early myeloid progenitors, a characteristic of AML, myeloid-blasts in blood, and segmented neutrophils or dysplastic megakaryocytes in the bone marrow, are not observed in Lrp5(A214V) mice. Likewise, peripheral blood count analysis in HBM patients showed normal hematopoiesis, normal percentage of myeloid cells, and lack of anemia. We conclude that Lrp5 GOF mutations do not activate β-catenin signaling in osteoblasts. As a result, myeloid lineage differentiation is normal in HBM patients and mice. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tumor Microenvironment Regulation of Cancer Cell Survival, Metastasis, Inflammation, and Immune Surveillance edited by Peter Ruvolo and Gregg L. Semenza. Published

  2. The poster as modernist progenitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Hauser

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ruth E. Iskin’s The Poster: Art, Advertising. Design, and Collecting, 1860s-1900s positions the late-nineteenth-century advertising poster as the progenitor of valued modernist practices typically attached solely to photography and film. Modernist biases separating high art from mass culture account for scholars ignoring posters, however the poster ushered in an innovative reductive graphic style as well as pioneered the notion of multiple originals.

  3. PROGENITORS OF RECOMBINING SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriya, Takashi J., E-mail: takashi.moriya@ipmu.jp [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2012-05-01

    Usual supernova remnants have either ionizing plasma or plasma in collisional ionization equilibrium, i.e., the ionization temperature is lower than or equal to the electron temperature. However, the existence of recombining supernova remnants, i.e., supernova remnants with ionization temperature higher than the electron temperature, has been recently confirmed. One suggested way to have recombining plasma in a supernova remnant is to have a dense circumstellar medium at the time of the supernova explosion. If the circumstellar medium is dense enough, collisional ionization equilibrium can be established in the early stage of the evolution of the supernova remnant and subsequent adiabatic cooling, which occurs after the shock wave gets out of the dense circumstellar medium, makes the electron temperature lower than the ionization temperature. We study the circumstellar medium around several supernova progenitors and show which supernova progenitors can have a circumstellar medium dense enough to establish collisional ionization equilibrium soon after the explosion. We find that the circumstellar medium around red supergiants (especially massive ones) and the circumstellar medium dense enough to make Type IIn supernovae can establish collisional ionization equilibrium soon after the explosion and can evolve to become recombining supernova remnants. Wolf-Rayet stars and white dwarfs have the possibility to be recombining supernova remnants but the fraction is expected to be very small. As the occurrence rate of the explosions of red supergiants is much higher than that of Type IIn supernovae, the major progenitors of recombining supernova remnants are likely to be red supergiants.

  4. Exercise training-induced different improvement profile of endothelial progenitor cells function in mice with or without myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuan; Peng, Ran; Liu, Qiong; Xu, Danyan

    2016-10-15

    Neovascularization in response to ischemia after myocardial infarction (MI) has been widely considered as being initiated by endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Well-documented evidences in recent years have proved exercise training (ET) improving EPC function. However, whether ET-induced improvement of EPC function under or without ischemic state is different has not been reported. Mice performed ET following an exercise prescription 1week after MI or non-MI surgery respectively. Bone marrow-derived EPCs were isolated at 0day, 3days, 1week, 2weeks, 4weeks, and 8weeks of ET. After 7days cultivation, EPC functions including proliferation, adhesion, migration, and in vitro angiogenesis were measured. AKT/glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) signaling pathway was tested by western blotting. EPC function in mice underwent non-MI surgery was attenuated overtime, while ET ameliorated this tendency. EPC function was peaked at 4weeks ET in non-MI surgery mice and maintained with an extended exercise time. Besides, simple ischemia was sufficient to enhanced EPC function, with a maximum at 2weeks of MI surgery. In MI mice, ET further improved EPC function and achieved peak at 2weeks exercise. Furthermore, AKT/GSK3β signaling pathway activation was consistent with EPC function change after ischemia, which was further promoted by 4weeks exercise. ET significantly increased EPC function in mice both with and without MI, but the time points of peak function were different. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Osteoblast recruitment routes in human cancellous bone remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Helene Bjørg; Andersen, Thomas Levin; Marcussen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly proposed that bone forming osteoblasts recruited during bone remodeling originate from bone marrow perivascular cells, bone remodeling compartment canopy cells, or bone lining cells. However, an assessment of osteoblast recruitment during adult human cancellous bone remodeling...... is lacking. We addressed this question by quantifying cell densities, cell proliferation, osteoblast differentiation markers, and capillaries in human iliac crest biopsy specimens. We found that recruitment occurs on both reversal and bone-forming surfaces, as shown by the cell density and osterix levels...

  6. Autologous bone marrow concentrate enriched in progenitor cells — An adjuvant in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Sanghi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in revascularization techniques, acute myocardial infarction (AMI still carries significant morbidity and mortality. Over the past decade, the use of regenerative medicine methodologies, and specifically bone marrow derived progenitor cell therapy has been tested in more than 35 Phase I and Phase II clinical studies demonstrating overall safety and measurable clinical benefit, 12–61 months post-treatment as evaluated by improvement in the Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction (LVEF and changes in infarct size post AMI. Recent meta-analysis on the subject highlighted several important parameters that include timing of the cell therapy post AMI, the cell dose, and the baseline LVEF on enrollment. We further postulate that the mythologies and timing for cell handling and delivery including the specific devices are essential for clinical efficacy. Addressing this we have developed a rapid 60 to 90 minute process and integrated system which is carried out in the heart catheter lab, using a combination product (U.S. Food and Drug broadly defined as the combination of co-labeled optimized “cell friendly” devices, effective cell/biological formulation and dose for harvesting, processing, verifying, and delivering an autologous dose of bone marrow progenitor/stem cells via the intracoronary artery proximal to the infarct myocardial region. The methodology has been demonstrated to be safe and feasible for autologous in vivo use and presented by our groups' earlier studies1–3 and most recently used in a Phase Ib critical limb ischemia trial of 17 subjects (NCT01472289 (manuscript under preparation. This is the first case study prior to beginning the AMIRST trial [Acute Myocardial Infarction Rapid Stem cell Therapy], specific to our proprietary combination product kit for acute myocardial infarction, and was completed under the Independent Ethics Committee and Institutional Committee for Stem Cell Research and Therapy approval (TIEC

  7. Hematological effects: comparative studies on the radiation survival characteristics in vivo and in vitro of bone marrow-derived clonogenic populations (CFU-C and PFU-C) and some observations on bone marrow cellularity in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, F.D.; O'Grady, L.; Momeni, M.; Wheeling, J.A.; Klein, K.; Graham, R.; Jow, N.; Di Bartola, S.

    1975-01-01

    Data accumulated for the hematological effects program are reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to the effects of acute and chronic irradiation on hematopoietic progenitor populations (CFU-C, colony-forming units in culture) and ''candidate'' mesenchymal progenitors (PFU-C, plaque-forming units in culture) using methylcellulose bone marrow culture systems and both in vivo and in vitro radiation exposure protocols. Preliminary results of studies on the temporal effects of acute x-irradiation on the capacity of PFU-C to generate colony stimulating activity (CSA) are also presented. The results of such experiments are providing the basis upon which future RBE studies on a variety of nuclides will be structured. Data (including age related changes) is also presented on in vivo bone marrow cellularity determinations, as well as for marrow stem cell quantitative studies using nondestructive techniques for normal Beagles. In these studies, two techniques for correction of variable effects of hemodilution are compared. Such studies are also providing baseline data for the 60 Co hematological effects program

  8. Measurement of oxygen consumption rate of osteoblasts from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-05-10

    May 10, 2011 ... E-mail: kedongsong@dlut.edu.cn. Tel: +86 411 ... the experiments, including inverted phase contrast microscope. (IX70-Olympus ... The pictures showed that the osteoblasts still had very high cellular viability. consumption of ...

  9. Transdifferentiation of adipocytes to osteoblasts: potential for orthopaedic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Daphne P L; Dass, Crispin R

    2018-03-01

    As both adipocytes and osteoblasts originate from the same pool of mesenchymal stem cells, increasing clinical evidence has emerged of the plasticity between the two lineages. For instance, the downregulation of osteoblast differentiation and upregulation of adipogenesis are common features of conditions such as multiple myeloma, obesity and drug-induced bone loss in diabetes mellitus. However, despite in-vitro and in-vivo observations of adipocyte transdifferentiation into osteoblasts, little is known of the underlying mechanisms. This review summarises the current knowledge of this particular transdifferentiation process whereby the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway and Runx2 overexpression have been postulated to play a critical role. Furthermore, due to the possibility of a novel therapy in the treatment of bone conditions, a number of agents with the potential to induce adipo-to-osteoblast transdifferentiation have been investigated such as all-trans retinoic acid, bone morphogenetic protein-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor. © 2018 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  10. Mechanisms regulating osteoblast response to surface microtopography and vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Bryan Frederick, Jr.

    A comprehensive understanding of the interactions between orthopaedic and dental implant surfaces with the surrounding host tissue is essential in the design of advanced biomaterials that better promote bone growth and osseointegration of implants. Dental implants with roughened surfaces and high surface energy are well known to promote osteoblast differentiation in vitro and promote increased bone-to-implant contact in vivo. In addition, increased surface roughness increases osteoblasts response to the vitamin D metabolite 1alpha,25(OH)2D3. However, the exact mechanisms mediating cell response to surface properties and 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 are still being elucidated. The central aim of the thesis is to investigate whether integrin signaling in response to rough surface microtopography enhances osteoblast differentiation and responsiveness to 1alpha,25(OH)2D3. The hypothesis is that the integrin alpha5beta1 plays a role in osteoblast response to surface microtopography and that 1alpha,25(OH) 2D3 acts through VDR-independent pathways involving caveolae to synergistically enhance osteoblast response to surface roughness and 1alpha,25(OH) 2D3. To test this hypothesis the objectives of the studies performed in this thesis were: (1) to determine if alpha5beta 1 signaling is required for osteoblast response to surface microstructure; (2) to determine if increased responsiveness to 1alpha,25(OH)2D 3 requires the vitamin D receptor, (3) to determine if rough titanium surfaces functionalized with the peptides targeting integrins (RGD) and transmembrane proteoglycans (KRSR) will enhance both osteoblast proliferation and differentiation, and (4) to determine whether caveolae, which are associated with integrin and 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 signaling, are required for enhance osteogenic response to surface microstructure and 1alpha,25(OH)2D 3. The results demonstrate that integrins, VDR, and caveolae play important roles in mediating osteoblast response to surface properties and 1alpha,25

  11. The impact of doped silicon quantum dots on human osteoblasts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ostrovská, L.; Brož, Antonín; Fučíková, A.; Bělinová, T.; Sugimoto, H.; Kanno, T.; Fujii, M.; Valenta, J.; Kalbáčová, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 68 (2016), s. 63403-63413 ISSN 2046-2069 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : silicon quantum dots * osteoblasts * cytotoxicity * photoluminiscence bioimaging Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 3.108, year: 2016

  12. Osteoblast cell response to surface-modified carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Faming; Weidmann, Arne; Nebe, J. Barbara; Burkel, Eberhard

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the interaction of cells with modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for their potential biomedical applications, the MWCNTs were chemically modified with carboxylic acid groups (–COOH), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer and biomimetic apatite on their surfaces. Additionally, human osteoblast MG-63 cells were cultured in the presence of the surface-modified MWCNTs. The metabolic activities of osteoblastic cells, cell proliferation properties, as well as cell morphology were studied. The surface modification of MWCNTs with biomimetic apatite exhibited a significant increase in the cell viability of osteoblasts, up to 67.23%. In the proliferation phases, there were many more cells in the biomimetic apatite-modified MWCNT samples than in the MWCNTs–COOH. There were no obvious changes in cell morphology in osteoblastic MG-63 cells cultured in the presence of these chemically-modified MWCNTs. The surface modification of MWCNTs with apatite achieves an effective enhancement of their biocompatibility.

  13. Progenitor's Signatures in Type Ia Supernova Remnants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiotellis, A.; Kosenko, D.; Schure, K.M.; Vink, J.

    2013-01-01

    The remnants of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) can provide important clues about their progenitor histories. We discuss two well-observed supernova remnants (SNRs) that are believed to have resulted from SNe Ia, and use various tools to shed light on the possible progenitor histories. We find that

  14. Prostate cancer cells induce osteoblastic differentiation via semaphorin 3A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuzhou; Shen, Weiwei; Qiu, Hao; Hu, Xu; Zhang, Chao; Chu, Tongwei

    2015-03-01

    Prostate cancer metastasis to bone is the second most commonly diagnosed malignant disease among men worldwide. Such metastatic disease is characterized by the presence of osteoblastic bone lesions, and is associated with high rates of mortality. However, the various mechanisms involved in prostate cancer-induced osteoblastic differentiation have not been fully explored. Semaphorin 3A (Sema 3A) is a newly identified regulator of bone metabolism which stimulates differentiation of pre-osteoblastic cells under physiological conditions. We investigated in this study whether prostate cancer cells can mediate osteoblastic activity through Sema 3A. We cultured osteoprogenitor MC3T3-E1 cells in prostate cancer-conditioned medium, and analyzed levels of Sema 3A protein in diverse prostate cancer cell lines to identify cell lines in which Sema 3A production showed a positive correlation with osteo-stimulation. C4-2 cells were stably transfected with Sema 3A short hairpin RNA to further determine whether Sema 3A contributes to the ability of C4-2 cells to induce osteoblastic differentiation. Down-regulation of Sema 3A expression decreased indicators of C4-2 CM-induced osteoblastic differentiation, including alkaline phosphatase production and mineralization. Additionally, silencing or neutralizing Sema 3A in C4-2 cells resulted in diminished β-catenin expression in osteogenitor MC3T3-E1 cells. Our results suggest that prostate cancer-induced osteoblastic differentiation is at least partially mediated by Sema 3A, and may be regulated by the β-catenin signalling pathway. Sema 3A may represent a novel target for treatment of prostate cancer-induced osteoblastic lesions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Pulpal progenitors and dentin repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harichane, Y; Hirata, A; Dimitrova-Nakov, S; Granja, I; Goldberg, A; Kellermann, O; Poliard, A

    2011-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are present in the dental pulp. They have been shown to contribute to dentin-like tissue formation in vitro and to participate in bone repair after a mandibular lesion. However, their capacity to contribute efficiently to reparative dentin formation after pulp lesion has never been explored. After pulp exposure, we have identified proliferative cells within 3 zones. In the crown, zone I is near the cavity, and zone II corresponds to the isthmus between the mesial and central pulp. In the root, zone III, near the apex, at a distance from the inflammatory site, contains mitotic stromal cells which may represent a source of progenitor cells. Stem-cell-based strategies are promising treatments for tissue injury in dentistry. Our experiments focused on (1) location of stem cells induced to leave their quiescent state early after pulp injury and (2) implantation of pulp progenitors, a substitute for classic endodontic treatments, paving the way for pulp stem-cell-based therapies.

  16. Osteoblast-targeted overexpression of TAZ increases bone mass in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Yeon Yang

    Full Text Available Osteoblasts are derived from mesenchymal progenitors. Differentiation to osteoblasts and adipocytes is reciprocally regulated. Transcriptional coactivator with a PDZ-binding motif (TAZ is a transcriptional coactivator that induces differentiation of mesenchymal cells into osteoblasts while blocking differentiation into adipocytes. To investigate the role of TAZ on bone metabolism in vivo, we generated transgenic mice that overexpress TAZ under the control of the procollagen type 1 promoter (Col1-TAZ. Whole body bone mineral density (BMD of 6- to 19-week-old Col-TAZ mice was 4% to 7% higher than that of their wild-type (WT littermates, whereas no difference was noticed in Col.1-TAZ female mice. Microcomputed tomography analyses of proximal tibiae at 16 weeks of age demonstrated a significant increase in trabecular bone volume (26.7% and trabecular number (26.6% with a reciprocal decrease in trabecular spacing (14.2% in Col1-TAZ mice compared with their WT littermates. In addition, dynamic histomorphometric analysis of the lumbar spine revealed increased mineral apposition rate (42.8% and the serum P1NP level was also significantly increased (53% in Col.1-TAZ mice. When primary calvaria cells were cultured in osteogenic medium, alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity was significantly increased and adipogenesis was significantly suppressed in Col1-TAZ mice compared with their WT littermates. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that expression of collagen type 1, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, ALP, osterix, and Runx2 was significantly increased in calvaria cells from Col1-TAZ mice compared to their WT littermates. In vitro, TAZ enhanced Runx2-mediated transcriptional activity while suppressing the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma signaling pathway. TAZ also enhanced transcriptional activity from 3TP-Lux, which reflects transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β-mediated signaling. In addition, TAZ enhanced TGF

  17. Differentiation stage-specific regulation of primitive human hematopoietic progenitor cycling by exogenous and endogenous inhibitors in an in vivo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, J D; Clark-Lewis, I; Eaves, A C; Eaves, C J

    1999-12-01

    Nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice transplanted with human cord blood or adult marrow cells and injected 6 weeks posttransplant with 2 daily doses of transforming growth factor-beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), or a nonaggregating form of macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha) showed unique patterns of inhibition of human progenitor proliferation 1 day later. TGF-beta(1) was active on long-term culture initiating cells (LTC-IC) and on primitive erythroid and granulopoietic colony-forming cells (HPP-CFC), but had no effect on mature CFC. MCP-1 inhibited the cycling of both types of HPP-CFC but not LTC-IC. MIP-1alpha did not inhibit either LTC-IC or granulopoietic HPP-CFC but was active on erythroid HPP-CFC and mature granulopoietic CFC. All of these responses were independent of the source of human cells transplanted. LTC-IC of either human cord blood or adult marrow origin continue to proliferate in NOD/SCID mice for many weeks, although the turnover of all types of human CFC in mice transplanted with adult human marrow (but not cord blood) is downregulated after 6 weeks. Interestingly, administration of either MIP-1beta, an antagonist of both MIP-1alpha and MCP-1 or MCP-1(9-76), an antagonist of MCP-1 (and MCP-2 and MCP-3), into mice in which human marrow-derived CFC had become quiescent, caused the rapid reactivation of these progenitors in vivo. These results provide the first definition of stage-specific inhibitors of human hematopoietic progenitor cell cycling in vivo. In addition they show that endogenous chemokines can contribute to late graft failure, which can be reversed by the administration of specific antagonists.

  18. Ultrastructural and metabolic changes in osteoblasts exposed to uranyl nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasat, D.R.; Orona, N.S.; Mandalunis, P.M.; Cabrini, R.L.; Ubios, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to uranium is an occupational hazard to workers who continually handle uranium and an environmental risk to the population at large. Since the cellular and molecular pathways of uranium toxicity in osteoblast cells are still unknown, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the adverse effects of uranyl nitrate (UN) on osteoblasts both in vivo and in vitro. Herein we studied the osteoblastic ultrastructural changes induced by UN in vivo and analyzed cell proliferation, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), apoptosis, and alkaline phosphatase (APh) activity in osteoblasts exposed to various UN concentrations (0.1, 1, 10, and 100 μM) in vitro. Cell proliferation was quantified by means of the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, ROS was determined using the nitro blue tetrazolium test, apoptosis was morphologically determined using Hoechst 3332 and APh activity was assayed spectrophotometrically. Electron microscopy revealed that the ultrastructure of active and inactive osteoblasts exposed to uranium presented cytoplasmic and nuclear alterations. In vitro, 1-100 μM UN failed to modify cell proliferation ratio and to induce apoptosis. ROS generation increased in a dose-dependent manner in all tested doses. APh activity was found to decrease in 1-100 μM UN-treated cells vs. controls. Our results show that UN modifies osteoblast cell metabolism by increasing ROS generation and reducing APh activity, suggesting that ROS may play a more complex role in cell physiology than simply causing oxidative damage. (orig.)

  19. The role of osteoblasts in peri-prosthetic osteolysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, S C

    2013-08-01

    Peri-prosthetic osteolysis and subsequent aseptic loosening is the most common reason for revising total hip replacements. Wear particles originating from the prosthetic components interact with multiple cell types in the peri-prosthetic region resulting in an inflammatory process that ultimately leads to peri-prosthetic bone loss. These cells include macrophages, osteoclasts, osteoblasts and fibroblasts. The majority of research in peri-prosthetic osteolysis has concentrated on the role played by osteoclasts and macrophages. The purpose of this review is to assess the role of the osteoblast in peri-prosthetic osteolysis. In peri-prosthetic osteolysis, wear particles may affect osteoblasts and contribute to the osteolytic process by two mechanisms. First, particles and metallic ions have been shown to inhibit the osteoblast in terms of its ability to secrete mineralised bone matrix, by reducing calcium deposition, alkaline phosphatase activity and its ability to proliferate. Secondly, particles and metallic ions have been shown to stimulate osteoblasts to produce pro inflammatory mediators in vitro. In vivo, these mediators have the potential to attract pro-inflammatory cells to the peri-prosthetic area and stimulate osteoclasts to absorb bone. Further research is needed to fully define the role of the osteoblast in peri-prosthetic osteolysis and to explore its potential role as a therapeutic target in this condition.

  20. Mechanisms of palmitate-induced cell death in human osteoblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaratnam, Krishanthi; Vidal, Christopher; Boadle, Ross; Thekkedam, Chris; Duque, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Summary Lipotoxicity is an overload of lipids in non-adipose tissues that affects function and induces cell death. Lipotoxicity has been demonstrated in bone cells in vitro using osteoblasts and adipocytes in coculture. In this condition, lipotoxicity was induced by high levels of saturated fatty acids (mostly palmitate) secreted by cultured adipocytes acting in a paracrine manner. In the present study, we aimed to identify the underlying mechanisms of lipotoxicity in human osteoblasts. Palmitate induced autophagy in cultured osteoblasts, which was preceded by the activation of autophagosomes that surround palmitate droplets. Palmitate also induced apoptosis though the activation of the Fas/Jun kinase (JNK) apoptotic pathway. In addition, osteoblasts could be protected from lipotoxicity by inhibiting autophagy with the phosphoinositide kinase inhibitor 3-methyladenine or by inhibiting apoptosis with the JNK inhibitor SP600125. In summary, we have identified two major molecular mechanisms of lipotoxicity in osteoblasts and in doing so we have identified a new potential therapeutic approach to prevent osteoblast dysfunction and death, which are common features of age-related bone loss and osteoporosis. PMID:24285710

  1. Time-lapse Raman imaging of osteoblast differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Aya; Yamaguchi, Yoshinori; Chiu, Liang-Da; Morimoto, Chiaki; Fujita, Katsumasa; Takedachi, Masahide; Kawata, Satoshi; Murakami, Shinya; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2015-07-01

    Osteoblastic mineralization occurs during the early stages of bone formation. During this mineralization, hydroxyapatite (HA), a major component of bone, is synthesized, generating hard tissue. Many of the mechanisms driving biomineralization remain unclear because the traditional biochemical assays used to investigate them are destructive techniques incompatible with viable cells. To determine the temporal changes in mineralization-related biomolecules at mineralization spots, we performed time-lapse Raman imaging of mouse osteoblasts at a subcellular resolution throughout the mineralization process. Raman imaging enabled us to analyze the dynamics of the related biomolecules at mineralization spots throughout the entire process of mineralization. Here, we stimulated KUSA-A1 cells to differentiate into osteoblasts and conducted time-lapse Raman imaging on them every 4 hours for 24 hours, beginning 5 days after the stimulation. The HA and cytochrome c Raman bands were used as markers for osteoblastic mineralization and apoptosis. From the Raman images successfully acquired throughout the mineralization process, we found that β-carotene acts as a biomarker that indicates the initiation of osteoblastic mineralization. A fluctuation of cytochrome c concentration, which indicates cell apoptosis, was also observed during mineralization. We expect time-lapse Raman imaging to help us to further elucidate osteoblastic mineralization mechanisms that have previously been unobservable.

  2. Transplanting oligodendrocyte progenitors into the adult CNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, R.J.M.; Blakemore, W.F.; Cambridge Univ.

    1997-01-01

    This review covers a number of aspects of the behaviour of oligodendrocyte progenitors following transplantation into the adult CNS. First, an account is given of the ability of transplanted oligodendrocyte progenitors, grown in tissue culture in the presence of PDGF and bFGF, to extensively remyelinate focal areas of persistent demyelination. Secondly, we describe how transplanted clonal cell lines of oligodendrocyte progenitors will differentiate in to astrocytes as will oligodendrocytes following transplantation into pathological environments in which both oligodendrocytes and astrocytes are absent, thereby manifesting the bipotentially demonstrable in vitro but not during development. Finally, a series of studies examining the migratory behaviour of transplanted oligodendrocyte progenitors (modelled using the oligodendrocyte progenitor cell line CG4) are described. (author)

  3. Trophic factors from adipose tissue-derived multi-lineage progenitor cells promote cytodifferentiation of periodontal ligament cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, Keigo [Department of Periodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka (Japan); Takedachi, Masahide, E-mail: takedati@dent.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Periodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka (Japan); Yamamoto, Satomi; Morimoto, Chiaki; Ozasa, Masao; Iwayama, Tomoaki [Department of Periodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka (Japan); Lee, Chun Man [Medical Center for Translational Research, Osaka University Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Okura, Hanayuki; Matsuyama, Akifumi [Research on Disease Bioresources, Platform of Therapeutics for Rare Disease, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Osaka (Japan); Kitamura, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinya [Department of Periodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka (Japan)

    2015-08-14

    Stem and progenitor cells are currently being investigated for their applicability in cell-based therapy for periodontal tissue regeneration. We recently demonstrated that the transplantation of adipose tissue-derived multi-lineage progenitor cells (ADMPCs) enhances periodontal tissue regeneration in beagle dogs. However, the molecular mechanisms by which transplanted ADMPCs induce periodontal tissue regeneration remain to be elucidated. In this study, trophic factors released by ADMPCs were examined for their paracrine effects on human periodontal ligament cell (HPDL) function. ADMPC conditioned medium (ADMPC-CM) up-regulated osteoblastic gene expression, alkaline phosphatase activity and calcified nodule formation in HPDLs, but did not significantly affect their proliferative response. ADMPCs secreted a number of growth factors, including insulin-like growth factor binding protein 6 (IGFBP6), hepatocyte growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor. Among these, IGFBP6 was most highly expressed. Interestingly, the positive effects of ADMPC-CM on HPDL differentiation were significantly suppressed by transfecting ADMPCs with IGFBP6 siRNA. Our results suggest that ADMPCs transplanted into a defect in periodontal tissue release trophic factors that can stimulate the differentiation of HPDLs to mineralized tissue-forming cells, such as osteoblasts and cementoblasts. IGFBP6 may play crucial roles in ADMPC-induced periodontal regeneration. - Highlights: • ADMPC-derived humoral factors stimulate cytodifferentiation of HPDLs. • ADMPCs secret growth factors including IGFBP6, VEGF and HGF. • IGFBP6 is involved in the promotion effect of ADMPC-CM on HPDL cytodifferentiation.

  4. Trophic factors from adipose tissue-derived multi-lineage progenitor cells promote cytodifferentiation of periodontal ligament cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Keigo; Takedachi, Masahide; Yamamoto, Satomi; Morimoto, Chiaki; Ozasa, Masao; Iwayama, Tomoaki; Lee, Chun Man; Okura, Hanayuki; Matsuyama, Akifumi; Kitamura, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Stem and progenitor cells are currently being investigated for their applicability in cell-based therapy for periodontal tissue regeneration. We recently demonstrated that the transplantation of adipose tissue-derived multi-lineage progenitor cells (ADMPCs) enhances periodontal tissue regeneration in beagle dogs. However, the molecular mechanisms by which transplanted ADMPCs induce periodontal tissue regeneration remain to be elucidated. In this study, trophic factors released by ADMPCs were examined for their paracrine effects on human periodontal ligament cell (HPDL) function. ADMPC conditioned medium (ADMPC-CM) up-regulated osteoblastic gene expression, alkaline phosphatase activity and calcified nodule formation in HPDLs, but did not significantly affect their proliferative response. ADMPCs secreted a number of growth factors, including insulin-like growth factor binding protein 6 (IGFBP6), hepatocyte growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor. Among these, IGFBP6 was most highly expressed. Interestingly, the positive effects of ADMPC-CM on HPDL differentiation were significantly suppressed by transfecting ADMPCs with IGFBP6 siRNA. Our results suggest that ADMPCs transplanted into a defect in periodontal tissue release trophic factors that can stimulate the differentiation of HPDLs to mineralized tissue-forming cells, such as osteoblasts and cementoblasts. IGFBP6 may play crucial roles in ADMPC-induced periodontal regeneration. - Highlights: • ADMPC-derived humoral factors stimulate cytodifferentiation of HPDLs. • ADMPCs secret growth factors including IGFBP6, VEGF and HGF. • IGFBP6 is involved in the promotion effect of ADMPC-CM on HPDL cytodifferentiation

  5. Intratracheal transplantation of endothelial progenitor cells attenuates smoking-induced COPD in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Z

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zhihui Shi,1 Yan Chen,1 Jun Cao,2 Huihui Zeng,1 Yue Yang,1 Ping Chen,1 Hong Luo,1 Hong Peng,1 Shan Cai,1 Chaxiang Guan3 1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Respiratory Disease, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central-South University, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Respiratory Disease, The People’s Hospital of Hunan Province, 3Department of Physiology, Xiangya Medical School, Central-South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China Background: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs might play a protective role in COPD. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intratracheal allogeneic transplantation of bone-marrow-derived EPCs would attenuate the development of smoking-induced COPD in mice.Methods: Isolated mononuclear cells from the bone marrow of C57BL/6J mice were cultured in endothelial cell growth medium-2 for 10 days, yielding EPCs. A murine model of COPD was established by passive 90-day exposure of cigarette smoke. On day 30, EPCs or phosphate-buffered saline alone was administered into the trachea. On day 90, EPCs or 30 µL phosphate-buffered saline alone was administered into the trachea, and on day 120, inflammatory cells, antioxidant activity, apoptosis, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2, and MMP-9 were measured.Results: After EPC treatment, the lung function of the mice had improved compared with the untreated mice. Mean linear intercept and destructive index were reduced in the EPCs-treated group compared with the untreated group. In addition, the EPCs-treated mice exhibited less antioxidant activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid compared with the untreated mice. Moreover, decreased activities of MMP-2, MMP-9, and TUNEL-positive cells in lung tissues were detected in EPCs-treated mice.Conclusion: Intratracheal transplantation of EPCs attenuated the development of pulmonary emphysema and lung function disorder probably by alleviating inflammatory infiltration, decelerating apoptosis

  6. Evolution of the osteoblast: skeletogenesis in gar and zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eames B Frank

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the vertebrate skeleton arose in the sea 500 million years ago, our understanding of the molecular fingerprints of chondrocytes and osteoblasts may be biased because it is informed mainly by research on land animals. In fact, the molecular fingerprint of teleost osteoblasts differs in key ways from that of tetrapods, but we do not know the origin of these novel gene functions. They either arose as neofunctionalization events after the teleost genome duplication (TGD, or they represent preserved ancestral functions that pre-date the TGD. Here, we provide evolutionary perspective to the molecular fingerprints of skeletal cells and assess the role of genome duplication in generating novel gene functions. We compared the molecular fingerprints of skeletogenic cells in two ray-finned fish: zebrafish (Danio rerio--a teleost--and the spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus--a "living fossil" representative of a lineage that diverged from the teleost lineage prior to the TGD (i.e., the teleost sister group. We analyzed developing embryos for expression of the structural collagen genes col1a2, col2a1, col10a1, and col11a2 in well-formed cartilage and bone, and studied expression of skeletal regulators, including the transcription factor genes sox9 and runx2, during mesenchymal condensation. Results Results provided no evidence for the evolution of novel functions among gene duplicates in zebrafish compared to the gar outgroup, but our findings shed light on the evolution of the osteoblast. Zebrafish and gar chondrocytes both expressed col10a1 as they matured, but both species' osteoblasts also expressed col10a1, which tetrapod osteoblasts do not express. This novel finding, along with sox9 and col2a1 expression in developing osteoblasts of both zebrafish and gar, demonstrates that osteoblasts of both a teleost and a basally diverging ray-fin fish express components of the supposed chondrocyte molecular fingerprint. Conclusions Our

  7. Cuscuta chinensis extract promotes osteoblast differentiation and mineralization in human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyun Mo; Shin, Hyun-Kyung; Kang, Young-Hee; Kim, Jin-Kyung

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the aqueous extract of To-Sa-Za (TSZ-AE), the seed of Cuscuta chinensis Lam., which is a traditional medicinal herb commonly used in Korea and other oriental countries, could induce osteogenic activity in human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells. TSZ-AE treatment mildly promoted the proliferation of MG-63 cells at doses of 500 and 1,000 microg/mL in the 24-hour culture period. Dose-dependent increases in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and collagen synthesis were shown at 48 and 72 hours of incubation. The release of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 but not osteocalcin in the MG-63 cells was induced by TSZ-AE at 72 hours (100-1,000 microg/mL). In addition, TSZ-AE markedly increased mRNA expression of ALP, collagen, and BMP-2 in the MG-63 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Mineralization in the culture of MG-63 cells was significantly induced at 500 and 1,000 microg/mL TSZ-AE treatment. In conclusion, this study shows that TSZ-AE enhanced ALP activity, collagen synthesis, BMP-2 expression, and mineralization in MG-63 cells. These results strongly suggest that C. chinensis can play an important role in osteoblastic bone formation and may possibly lead to the development of bone-forming drugs.

  8. Nanostructured magnesium has fewer detrimental effects on osteoblast function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng L

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Lucy Weng, Thomas J Webster School of Engineering and Department of Orthopedics, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA Abstract: Efforts have been made recently to implement nanoscale surface features on magnesium, a biodegradable metal, to increase bone formation. Compared with normal magnesium, nanostructured magnesium has unique characteristics, including increased grain boundary properties, surface to volume ratio, surface roughness, and surface energy, which may influence the initial adsorption of proteins known to promote the function of osteoblasts (bone-forming cells. Previous studies have shown that one way to increase nanosurface roughness on magnesium is to soak the metal in NaOH. However, it has not been determined if degradation of magnesium is altered by creating nanoscale features on its surface to influence osteoblast density. The aim of the present in vitro study was to determine the influence of degradation of nanostructured magnesium, created by soaking in NaOH, on osteoblast density. Our results showed a less detrimental effect of magnesium degradation on osteoblast density when magnesium was treated with NaOH to create nanoscale surface features. The detrimental degradation products of magnesium are of significant concern when considering use of magnesium as an orthopedic implant material, and this study identified a surface treatment, ie, soaking in NaOH to create nanoscale features for magnesium that can improve its use in numerous orthopedic applications. Keywords: nanostructured magnesium, degradation, detrimental effects, osteoblasts

  9. Stimulatory effect of undecylenic acid on mouse osteoblast differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung Hee; Shim, Ki Shuk; Lee, Su-Ui; Kim, Young Sup; Min, Yong Ki; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2010-04-01

    Natural compounds with bone-forming (or anabolic) activity have been recently focused on in bone research. The present study investigated the effect of undecylenic acid (UA) on osteoblast differentiation in mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 subclone 4 cells and primary mouse calvarial cells. Low concentrations of UA (up to 5 microM) exhibited no cytotoxicity and significantly increased the expression and activity of alkaline phosphatase (early differentiation marker of osteoblast) and calcium deposition with the induction of expression of the osteocalcin gene in both cells. Interestingly, at low concentration of UA, the induction of NF-kappaB p65 translocation into nucleus and the up-regulation of AP-1 and NFATc1 transcript levels were also observed, suggesting that the stimulatory effect of UA on osteoblast differentiation could be mediated through the activation of transcription factors. Additionally, although the patterns of UA-induced activation of MAP kinases (JNK and p38) were not completely consistent with the increase of both ALP activity and calcium deposition by UA, MAP kinases might be partially involved in the biological function of UA during the early and late stages of osteoblast differentiation. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Adhesion of osteoblasts to a nanorough titanium implant surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongadze E

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ekaterina Gongadze1, Doron Kabaso2, Sebastian Bauer3, Tomaž Slivnik2, Patrik Schmuki3, Ursula van Rienen1, Aleš Iglič21Institute of General Electrical Engineering, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany; 2Laboratory of Biophysics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia; 3Department of Materials Science, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nurenberg, Erlangen, GermanyAbstract: This work considers the adhesion of cells to a nanorough titanium implant surface with sharp edges. The basic assumption was that the attraction between the negatively charged titanium surface and a negatively charged osteoblast is mediated by charged proteins with a distinctive quadrupolar internal charge distribution. Similarly, cation-mediated attraction between fibronectin molecules and the titanium surface is expected to be more efficient for a high surface charge density, resulting in facilitated integrin mediated osteoblast adhesion. We suggest that osteoblasts are most strongly bound along the sharp convex edges or spikes of nanorough titanium surfaces where the magnitude of the negative surface charge density is the highest. It is therefore plausible that nanorough regions of titanium surfaces with sharp edges and spikes promote the adhesion of osteoblasts.Keywords: osteoblasts, nanostructures, adhesion, titanium implants, osteointegration

  11. Progenitor cells in pulmonary vascular remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Michael E.; Frid, Maria G.; Stenmark, Kurt R.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is characterized by cellular and structural changes in the walls of pulmonary arteries. Intimal thickening and fibrosis, medial hypertrophy and fibroproliferative changes in the adventitia are commonly observed, as is the extension of smooth muscle into the previously non-muscularized vessels. A majority of these changes are associated with the enhanced presence of α-SM-actin+ cells and inflammatory cells. Atypical abundances of functionally distinct endothelial cells, particularly in the intima (plexiform lesions), and also in the perivascular regions, are also described. At present, neither the origin(s) of these cells nor the molecular mechanisms responsible for their accumulation, in any of the three compartments of the vessel wall, have been fully elucidated. The possibility that they arise from either resident vascular progenitors or bone marrow–derived progenitor cells is now well established. Resident vascular progenitor cells have been demonstrated to exist within the vessel wall, and in response to certain stimuli, to expand and express myofibroblastic, endothelial or even hematopoietic markers. Bone marrow–derived or circulating progenitor cells have also been shown to be recruited to sites of vascular injury and to assume both endothelial and SM-like phenotypes. Here, we review the data supporting the contributory role of vascular progenitors (including endothelial progenitor cells, smooth muscle progenitor cells, pericytes, and fibrocytes) in vascular remodeling. A more complete understanding of the processes by which progenitor cells modulate pulmonary vascular remodeling will undoubtedly herald a renaissance of therapies extending beyond the control of vascular tonicity and reduction of pulmonary artery pressure. PMID:22034593

  12. Bone sialoprotein II synthesized by cultured osteoblasts contains tyrosine sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecarot-Charrier, B.; Bouchard, F.; Delloye, C.

    1989-01-01

    Isolated mouse osteoblasts that retain their osteogenic activity in culture were incubated with [35S] sulfate. Two radiolabeled proteins, in addition to proteoglycans, were extracted from the calcified matrix of osteoblast cultures. All the sulfate label in both proteins was in the form of tyrosine sulfate as assessed by amino acid analysis and thin layer chromatography following alkaline hydrolysis. The elution behavior on DEAE-Sephacel of the major sulfated protein and the apparent Mr on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels were characteristic of bone sialoprotein II extracted from rat. This protein was shown to cross-react with an antiserum raised against bovine bone sialoprotein II, indicating that bone sialoprotein II synthesized by cultured mouse osteoblasts is a tyrosine-sulfated protein. The minor sulfated protein was tentatively identified as bone sialoprotein I or osteopontin based on its elution properties on DEAE-Sephacel and anomalous behavior on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels similar to those reported for rat bone sialoprotein I

  13. Characterization of Cellular and Molecular Heterogeneity of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsafadi, Mona; Manikandan, Muthurangan; Atteya, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    and osteoblast differentiation genes which included several homeobox genes: TBX15, HOXA2 and HOXA10, and IGF1, FGFR3, BMP6, MCAM, ITGA10, IGFBP5, and ALP. siRNA-based downregulation of the ALP gene in CL1 impaired osteoblastic and adipocytic differentiation. Our studies demonstrate the existence of molecular......Human bone marrow-derived stromal stem cells (hBMSC) exhibit multiple functions, including differentiation into skeletal cells (progenitor function), hematopoiesis support, and immune regulation (nonprogenitor function). We have previously demonstrated the presence of morphological and functional...... and functional heterogeneity in cultured hBMSC. ALP can be employed to identify osteoblastic and adipocytic progenitor cells in the heterogeneous hBMSC cultures...

  14. Vitamin a is a negative regulator of osteoblast mineralization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lind

    Full Text Available An excessive intake of vitamin A has been associated with an increased risk of fractures in humans. In animals, a high vitamin A intake leads to a reduction of long bone diameter and spontaneous fractures. Studies in rodents indicate that the bone thinning is due to increased periosteal bone resorption and reduced radial growth. Whether the latter is a consequence of direct effects on bone or indirect effects on appetite and general growth is unknown. In this study we therefore used pair-feeding and dynamic histomorphometry to investigate the direct effect of a high intake of vitamin A on bone formation in rats. Although there were no differences in body weight or femur length compared to controls, there was an approximately halved bone formation and mineral apposition rate at the femur diaphysis of rats fed vitamin A. To try to clarify the mechanism(s behind this reduction, we treated primary human osteoblasts and a murine preosteoblastic cell line (MC3T3-E1 with the active metabolite of vitamin A; retinoic acid (RA, a retinoic acid receptor (RAR antagonist (AGN194310, and a Cyp26 inhibitor (R115866 which blocks endogenous RA catabolism. We found that RA, via RARs, suppressed in vitro mineralization. This was independent of a negative effect on osteoblast proliferation. Alkaline phosphatase and bone gamma carboxyglutamate protein (Bglap, Osteocalcin were drastically reduced in RA treated cells and RA also reduced the protein levels of Runx2 and Osterix, key transcription factors for progression to a mature osteoblast. Normal osteoblast differentiation involved up regulation of Cyp26b1, the major enzyme responsible for RA degradation, suggesting that a drop in RA signaling is required for osteogenesis analogous to what has been found for chondrogenesis. In addition, RA decreased Phex, an osteoblast/osteocyte protein necessary for mineralization. Taken together, our data indicate that vitamin A is a negative regulator of osteoblast mineralization.

  15. Effects of space-relevant radiation on pre-osteoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yueyuan

    2014-01-01

    Until now limited research has been conducted to address the mechanisms leading ionizing radiation exposure induced bone loss. This is relevant for cancer radiotherapy and human spaceflight. Exposure to radiation can result in elevated bone fracture risk in patients receiving cancer radiotherapy. In human spaceflight, astronauts are exposed to space radiation which is a very complex mixture consisting primarily of high-energy charged particles. Osteoblasts are of mesenchymal origin and responsible for creating and maintaining skeletal architecture; these cells produce extracellular matrix proteins and regulators of matrix mineralization during initial bone formation and later bone remodeling. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of ionizing radiation on pre-osteoblasts including cellular survival, cell cycle regulation and differentiation modification. Experiments with the pre-osteoblast cell line OCT-1 and the mesenchymal stem cell line C3H10T1/2 showed that radiation cell killing depends on dose and linear energy transfer (LET) and is most effective at an LET of ∝150 keV/μm. High-LET radiation has a much more pronounced ability to induce cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. After both X-rays and heavy ions exposure, expression of the cell cycle regulator CDKN1A was significantly up-regulated in a dose-dependent manner. The findings suggest that cell cycle regulation is more sensitive to high-LET radiation than cell survival, which is not solely regulated through elevated CDKN1A expression. Radiation exposure enhances osteoblastic differentiation and maturation, and mediates Runx2 and TGF-β1 expression during early differentiation of pre-osteoblasts. Osteogenic differentiation did not alter cellular radiosensitivity, DNA repair of radiation-induced damages and the effects of radiation on proliferation. Further experiments are needed to elucidate possible synergistic effects of microgravity and radiation on osteoblast differentiation. This may

  16. Identification and proteomic analysis of osteoblast-derived exosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Min; Ke, Ronghu; Cai, Tianyi; Yang, Junyi; Mu, Xiongzheng, E-mail: cranio@vip.163.com

    2015-11-06

    Exosomes are nanometer-sized vesicles with the function of intercellular communication, and they are released by various cell types. To reveal the knowledge about the exosomes from osteoblast, and explore the potential functions of osteogenesis, we isolated microvesicles from supernatants of mouse Mc3t3 by ultracentrifugation, characterized exosomes by electron microscopy and immunoblotting and presented the protein profile by proteomic analysis. The result demonstrated that microvesicles were between 30 and 100 nm in diameter, round shape with cup-like concavity and expressed exosomal marker tumor susceptibility gene (TSG) 101 and flotillin (Flot) 1. We identified a total number of 1069 proteins among which 786 proteins overlap with ExoCarta database. Gene Oncology analysis indicated that exosomes mostly derived from plasma membrane and mainly involved in protein localization and intracellular signaling. The Ingenuity Pathway Analysis showed pathways are mostly involved in exosome biogenesis, formation, uptake and osteogenesis. Among the pathways, eukaryotic initiation factor 2 pathways played an important role in osteogenesis. Our study identified osteoblast-derived exosomes, unveiled the content of them, presented potential osteogenesis-related proteins and pathways and provided a rich proteomics data resource that will be valuable for further studies of the functions of individual proteins in bone diseases. - Highlights: • We for the first time identified exosomes from mouse osteoblast. • Osteoblasts-derived exosomes contain osteoblast peculiar proteins. • Proteins from osteoblasts-derived exosomes are intently involved in EIF2 pathway. • EIF2α from the EIF2 pathway plays an important role in osteogenesis.

  17. Effects of space-relevant radiation on pre-osteoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Yueyuan

    2014-02-12

    Until now limited research has been conducted to address the mechanisms leading ionizing radiation exposure induced bone loss. This is relevant for cancer radiotherapy and human spaceflight. Exposure to radiation can result in elevated bone fracture risk in patients receiving cancer radiotherapy. In human spaceflight, astronauts are exposed to space radiation which is a very complex mixture consisting primarily of high-energy charged particles. Osteoblasts are of mesenchymal origin and responsible for creating and maintaining skeletal architecture; these cells produce extracellular matrix proteins and regulators of matrix mineralization during initial bone formation and later bone remodeling. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of ionizing radiation on pre-osteoblasts including cellular survival, cell cycle regulation and differentiation modification. Experiments with the pre-osteoblast cell line OCT-1 and the mesenchymal stem cell line C3H10T1/2 showed that radiation cell killing depends on dose and linear energy transfer (LET) and is most effective at an LET of ∝150 keV/μm. High-LET radiation has a much more pronounced ability to induce cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. After both X-rays and heavy ions exposure, expression of the cell cycle regulator CDKN1A was significantly up-regulated in a dose-dependent manner. The findings suggest that cell cycle regulation is more sensitive to high-LET radiation than cell survival, which is not solely regulated through elevated CDKN1A expression. Radiation exposure enhances osteoblastic differentiation and maturation, and mediates Runx2 and TGF-β1 expression during early differentiation of pre-osteoblasts. Osteogenic differentiation did not alter cellular radiosensitivity, DNA repair of radiation-induced damages and the effects of radiation on proliferation. Further experiments are needed to elucidate possible synergistic effects of microgravity and radiation on osteoblast differentiation. This may

  18. Combined use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) and platelet rich plasma (PRP) stimulates proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts in vitro: new therapeutic perspectives for skeletal muscle repair/regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassoli, Chiara; Vallone, Larissa; Tani, Alessia; Chellini, Flaminia; Nosi, Daniele; Zecchi-Orlandini, Sandra

    2018-02-05

    Satellite cell-mediated skeletal muscle repair/regeneration is compromised in cases of extended damage. Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) hold promise for muscle healing but some criticisms hamper their clinical application, including the need to avoid animal serum contamination for expansion and the scarce survival after transplant. In this context, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) could offer advantages. Here, we compare the effects of PRP or standard culture media on C2C12 myoblast, satellite cell and BM-MSC viability, survival, proliferation and myogenic differentiation and evaluate PRP/BM-MSC combination effects in promoting myogenic differentiation. PRP induced an increase of mitochondrial activity and Ki67 expression comparable or even greater than that elicited by standard media and promoted AKT signaling activation in myoblasts and BM-MSCs and Notch-1 pathway activation in BM-MSCs. It stimulated MyoD, myogenin, α-sarcomeric actin and MMP-2 expression in myoblasts and satellite cell activation. Notably, PRP/BM-MSC combination was more effective than PRP alone. We found that BM-MSCs influenced myoblast responses through a paracrine activation of AKT signaling, contributing to shed light on BM-MSC action mechanisms. Our results suggest that PRP represents a good serum substitute for BM-MSC manipulation in vitro and could be beneficial towards transplanted cells in vivo. Moreover, it might influence muscle resident progenitors' fate, thus favoring the endogenous repair/regeneration mechanisms. Finally, within the limitations of an in vitro experimentation, this study provides an experimental background for considering the PRP/BM-MSC combination as a potential therapeutic tool for skeletal muscle damage, combining the beneficial effects of BM-MSCs and PRP on muscle tissue, while potentiating BM-MSC functionality.

  19. Rat bone marrow progenitor cells transduced in situ by rSV40 vectors differentiate into multiple central nervous system cell lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louboutin, Jean-Pierre; Liu, Bianling; Reyes, Beverly A S; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J; Strayer, David S

    2006-12-01

    Using bone marrow-directed gene transfer, we tested whether bone marrow-derived cells may function as progenitors of central nervous system (CNS) cells in adult animals. SV40-derived gene delivery vectors were injected directly into femoral bone marrow, and we examined transgene expression in blood and brain for 0-16 months thereafter by immunostaining for FLAG epitope marker. An average of 5% of peripheral blood cells and 25% of femoral marrow cells were FLAG(+) throughout the study. CNS FLAG-expressing cells were mainly detected in the dentate gyrus (DG) and periventricular subependymal zone (PSZ). Although absent before 1 month and rare at 4 months, DG and PSZ FLAG(+) cells were abundant 16 months after bone marrow injection. Approximately 5% of DG cells expressed FLAG, including neurons (48.6%) and microglia (49.7%), and occasional astrocytes (1.6%), as determined by double immunostaining for FLAG and lineage markers. These data suggest that one or more populations of cells resident within adult bone marrow can migrate to the brain and differentiate into CNS-specific cells.

  20. Direct Cell-Cell Contact between Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Endothelial Progenitor Cells Induces a Pericyte-Like Phenotype In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Loibl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering techniques for the regeneration of large bone defects require sufficient vascularisation of the applied constructs to ensure a sufficient supply of oxygen and nutrients. In our previous work, prevascularised 3D scaffolds have been successfully established by coculture of bone marrow derived stem cells (MSCs and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs. We identified stabilising pericytes (PCs as part of newly formed capillary-like structures. In the present study, we report preliminary data on the interactions between MSCs and EPCs, leading to the differentiation of pericyte-like cells. MSCs and EPCs were seeded in transwell cultures, direct cocultures, and single cultures. Cells were cultured for 10 days in IMDM 10% FCS or IMDM 5% FCS 5% platelet lysate medium. Gene expression of PC markers, CD146, NG2, αSMA, and PDGFR-β, was analysed using RT-PCR at days 0, 3, 7, and 10. The upregulation of CD146, NG2, and αSMA in MSCs in direct coculture with EPCs advocates the MSCs’ differentiation towards a pericyte-like phenotype in vitro. These results suggest that pericyte-like cells derive from MSCs and that cell-cell contact with EPCs is an important factor for this differentiation process. These findings emphasise the concept of coculture strategies to promote angiogenesis for cell-based tissue engineered bone grafts.

  1. Diabetes-Induced Oxidative Stress in Endothelial Progenitor Cells May Be Sustained by a Positive Feedback Loop Involving High Mobility Group Box-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is considered to be a critical factor in diabetes-induced endothelial progenitor cell (EPC dysfunction, although the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the role of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1 in diabetes-induced oxidative stress. HMGB-1 was upregulated in both serum and bone marrow-derived monocytes from diabetic mice compared with control mice. In vitro, advanced glycation end productions (AGEs induced, expression of HMGB-1 in EPCs and in cell culture supernatants in a dose-dependent manner. However, inhibition of oxidative stress with N-acetylcysteine (NAC partially inhibited the induction of HMGB-1 induced by AGEs. Furthermore, p66shc expression in EPCs induced by AGEs was abrogated by incubation with glycyrrhizin (Gly, while increased superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in cell culture supernatants was observed in the Gly treated group. Thus, HMGB-1 may play an important role in diabetes-induced oxidative stress in EPCs via a positive feedback loop involving the AGE/reactive oxygen species/HMGB-1 pathway.

  2. Defining an EPOR- regulated transcriptome for primary progenitors, including Tnfr-sf13c as a novel mediator of EPO- dependent erythroblast formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Singh

    Full Text Available Certain concepts concerning EPO/EPOR action modes have been challenged by in vivo studies: Bcl-x levels are elevated in maturing erythroblasts, but not in their progenitors; truncated EPOR alleles that lack a major p85/PI3K recruitment site nonetheless promote polycythemia; and Erk1 disruption unexpectedly bolsters erythropoiesis. To discover novel EPO/EPOR action routes, global transcriptome analyses presently are applied to interrogate EPO/EPOR effects on primary bone marrow-derived CFUe-like progenitors. Overall, 160 EPO/EPOR target transcripts were significantly modulated 2-to 21.8-fold. A unique set of EPO-regulated survival factors included Lyl1, Gas5, Pim3, Pim1, Bim, Trib3 and Serpina 3g. EPO/EPOR-modulated cell cycle mediators included Cdc25a, Btg3, Cyclin-d2, p27-kip1, Cyclin-g2 and CyclinB1-IP-1. EPO regulation of signal transduction factors was also interestingly complex. For example, not only Socs3 plus Socs2 but also Spred2, Spred1 and Eaf1 were EPO-induced as negative-feedback components. Socs2, plus five additional targets, further proved to comprise new EPOR/Jak2/Stat5 response genes (which are important for erythropoiesis during anemia. Among receptors, an atypical TNF-receptor Tnfr-sf13c was up-modulated >5-fold by EPO. Functionally, Tnfr-sf13c ligation proved to both promote proerythroblast survival, and substantially enhance erythroblast formation. The EPOR therefore engages a sophisticated set of transcriptome response circuits, with Tnfr-sf13c deployed as one novel positive regulator of proerythroblast formation.

  3. Nanostructured magnesium has fewer detrimental effects on osteoblast function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Lucy; Webster, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Efforts have been made recently to implement nanoscale surface features on magnesium, a biodegradable metal, to increase bone formation. Compared with normal magnesium, nanostructured magnesium has unique characteristics, including increased grain boundary properties, surface to volume ratio, surface roughness, and surface energy, which may influence the initial adsorption of proteins known to promote the function of osteoblasts (bone-forming cells). Previous studies have shown that one way to increase nanosurface roughness on magnesium is to soak the metal in NaOH. However, it has not been determined if degradation of magnesium is altered by creating nanoscale features on its surface to influence osteoblast density. The aim of the present in vitro study was to determine the influence of degradation of nanostructured magnesium, created by soaking in NaOH, on osteoblast density. Our results showed a less detrimental effect of magnesium degradation on osteoblast density when magnesium was treated with NaOH to create nanoscale surface features. The detrimental degradation products of magnesium are of significant concern when considering use of magnesium as an orthopedic implant material, and this study identified a surface treatment, ie, soaking in NaOH to create nanoscale features for magnesium that can improve its use in numerous orthopedic applications.

  4. ent-Kaurane diterpenoids from Croton tonkinensis stimulate osteoblast differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dao, Trong-Tuan; Lee, Kwang-Youl; Jeong, Hyung-Min

    2011-01-01

    Four new ent-kaurane diterpenoids (1-4) were isolated from the leaves of Croton tonkinensis by bioactivity-guided fractionation using an in vitro osteoblast differentiation assay. Their structures were identified as ent-11β-acetoxykaur-16-en-18-ol (1), ent-11α-hydroxy-18-acetoxykaur-16-ene (2), e...