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Sample records for marrow haemopoiesis studied

  1. Short-term myeloid growth factor mediated expansion of bone marrow haemopoiesis studied by localized magnetic resonance proton spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K E; Hansen, P B; Larsen, V A

    1994-01-01

    -density cell proliferation rate in marrow samples increased from median 21.9 (range 4.5-31) x 10(3) cpm to 54.7 (range 13.9-94) x 10(3) cpm and the total number of myeloid progenitors enumerated as day 7/14 GM-CFUs per volume aspirated marrow increased from median 11/8 x 10(3) (range 4.0-87.5/2.2-103.0) to 64...

  2. Short-term myeloid growth factor mediated expansion of bone marrow haemopoiesis studied by localized magnetic resonance proton spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K E; Hansen, P B; Larsen, V A

    1994-01-01

    (day 0), day 5 and day 12. Spectroscopic examinations were performed with the stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM) method on a 1.5 T clinical whole-body imaging unit. A cubic volume of interest (VOI) was selected in the bone marrow of the left iliac bone. The patients responded with a rise in blood...

  3. CHANGES OF INDICATORS OF THE PERIPHERAL BLOOD AND HAEMOPOIESIS AT INKORPORATION OF THE DEPLETED URANIUM IN THE EXPERIMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Gerasimov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In article is considered the experiment with incorporation of the solution of the mixed oxides of the depleted uranium to laboratory animals (the rats and following the cytological study of the peripheral blood and marrow after influence. The changes of indicators of the peripheral blood and haemopoiesis of experimental animals are indicative of the effort processes of indemnification, that shows depleted uranium’s radioactive and toxicological effects and insolvency of natural protective mechanisms of the organism. The results of the research have shown that changes of the haemopoiesis were ambiguous. There was shown the oppression myeloid haemopoiesis and leukopenia to the third month of the experiment. In same time existed the increase an erythroid parts of hemopoiesis. The parameters of the peripheral blood and haemopoiesis to completion of the experiment did not reach checking importances that points to practicability of the long observation for animal after one-shot influence with DU.

  4. The production of IL-1, IL-3, CSA by bone marrow nuclears during bone marrow haemopoiesis after lethal irradiation and syngenic bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dygaj, A.M.; Buznik, D.V.; Bogdashin, I.V.; Agafonov, V.I.

    1994-01-01

    The production of haemopoietic factors (IL-1, IL-3, CSA) by adherent and unadherent cells of lethally irradiate CBA mice bone marrow and after syngenic myelokaryocyte transplantation was studied. Radioresistant myelokaryocytes capable to produce haemopoetic factors IL-1, CSA as early as 24 hr after irradiation were found in adherent cell fraction. The synthesis of humoral factors (IL-3, CSA) by unadherent bone marrow elements was realised in a late of experiment (3-6 days) that was connected with forming of functionally valuable cell forms from transplanted or viable stem cells

  5. Epidural extramedullary haemopoiesis in thalassaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyacigil, S.; Ali, A.; Ardic, S.; Yuksel, E.

    2002-01-01

    lntrathoracic extramedullary haematopoiesis is a rare condition. Involvement of the spinal epidural space with haematopoietic tissue is rather unusual. A 31-year-old-man with a known diagnosis of β-thalassaemia was referred with focal back pain. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse bone-marrow changes, thoracic paraspinal masses and lobulated epidural masses, suggesting extramedullary haemopoiesis. The patient was treated with radiotherapy and blood transfusions. Follow-up MRI was performed for evaluation efficacy of the treatment. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  6. Bone marrow from Balb/c mice radiocontaminated with 241Am in utero shows a deficient in vitro haemopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuvel, R.L. van den

    1990-01-01

    Radiation damage from 241 Am to bone marrow cells was manifest in long-term bone marrow cultures (LTC) from offspring of mice radiocontaminated at 14th day of gestation (119, 479, 803, 1754 kBq 241 Am kg). Offspring were reared by their own contaminated mother for 3 weeks postnatal. LTC from these offspring were less able to support in vitro CFC proliferation than control LTC. This radiation damage persisted 71 weeks after radiocontamination in utero. Damage was observed at lower doses if 241 Am contamination occurred at foetal rather than adult ages. Radiation damage was observed only using LTC. After culturing LTC in 25% FCS and recharging the stromal adherent layer with bone marrow cell suspensions originating either from control offspring or from offspring contaminated with 241 Am in utero evidence was found that the proliferation capacity of haemopoietic cells was diminished. However, the nature of effects on the stromal elements is currently somewhat equivocal. Following in utero contamination stromal adherent cells appeared to support better production of in vitro CFC. (author)

  7. MRI findings of extramedullary haemopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chourmouzi, D.; Pistevou-Gompaki, K.; Plataniotis, G.; Skaragas, G.; Papadopoulos, L.; Drevelegas, A.

    2001-01-01

    Extramedullary haemopoiesis (EH) is a compensatory process associated with chronic haemolytic anaemia. It is rare, however, for such an abnormality to cause spinal cord compression. We present two patients with known beta-thalassaemia intermedia who developed spinal cord compression due to masses of extramedullary haematopoietic tissue in the epidural space of the thoracic spine. The EH masses were diagnosed by MRI as an isointense epidural lesion on both T1- and T2-weighted images, compressing severely the spinal cord. After administration of a paramagnetic agent, an intermediate enhancement of the masses was evident. All the vertebral bodies had low to intermediate signal intensity as a result of displacement of fatty marrow by haematopoietic marrow. Expansion of thoracic ribs with bilateral paravertebral masses were characteristic. A small dose of radiotherapy was given and marked improvement in neurological symptoms was evident. An MRI examination established shrinkage of the mass and decompression of spinal cord. The role of MRI in diagnosis of EH masses is essential and radiation therapy is a very effective treatment for this rare complication. (orig.)

  8. The influence of U-2 fraction of a tortoise spleen extract on the formation of ectopic locus of haemopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turdyev, A.A.; Prus, E.K.; Basova, A.R.

    1990-01-01

    The implantation of a bone marrow fragment of intact mouse donors below the kidney capsule of irradiated (7 Gy) recipients leads to the formation of the haemopoiesis locus that somewhat exceeds, by mass and cellularity, the new-formed locus of control animals. The U-2 fraction of a tortoise spleen extract administered to recipients irradiated with the same dose increases the mass and cellularity of the haemopoiesis locus by 2.2 and 4.9 times respectively

  9. On kinetic study of blood cells and bone marrow under fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teterina, V.I.

    1977-01-01

    To study the changes in the cellular composition of bone marrow during irradiation experiments on the guinea pigs have been carried out. Animals were subjected to fractionated irradiation; daily dose of 12 rad, total doses of 250, 500, 750, 1000 and 1500 rad, total duration of radiation of 1,2,3,4 and 6 monts. Experiments have shown that with small levels of total doses of the ionizing radiation haemopoiesis in the bone marrow reached its maximum. This led to suppression of anaemia and profound leukaemia in the peripheral blood. With the increase of total doses phase of insufficient compensation of harmful effects of radiation has been reached, which with continuing radiation may lead to the exhaustion of reserve possibilities of bone marrow and to the development of pancytopenia

  10. Mathematical Model for Post-Irradiation Haemopoiesis

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    Okunewick, J. P.; Kretchmar, A. L. [Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, CA (United States); Medical Division, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1968-08-15

    A model for haemopoiesis has been constructed based on the following hypothesis: (a) Haemopoietic stem cells have the capability of either reproducing as stem cells or differentiating into specialized blood cells of at least two different types; (b) The size of the stem-cell compartment is in part regulated by the rate of increase due to stem-cell reproduction and in part by the rate of loss of stem cells through differentiation; (c) In addition, the size of the stem-cell compartment is in part regulated by a competitive cell-to-cell interaction between the stem-cells themselves and between the differentiating cells and the stem-cells, such that the presence of an exceptionally large number of either cell type would have a repressive effect on the rate of increase of the stem-cell population. This model has been applied to the post-irradiation erythropoietic behaviour of the rat. In the computer studies with the model, an X-ray dose sufficient to inhibit reproduction in 50% of the erythroid stem cells was assumed. It was also assumed that reproduction and differentiation are genetically separately controlled processes and that, therefore, some part of the reproductively injured cells were still capable of differentiation. Under these conditions the model predicted an abortive rise in reticulocyte number, peaking at about 6 days. True recovery was predicted to occur at about 16 days. Both the abortive rise and the true recovery were also present in those segments of the model representing earlier erythroid cells, occurring at progressively earlier times in progressively more primitive cells. Comparison of the model's predictions with experimentally obtained data for post-irradiation erythroid recovery showed a good agreement both with respect to the time of the abortive peak and the time of true recovery. (author)

  11. Mathematical Model for Post-Irradiation Haemopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okunewick, J.P.; Kretchmar, A.L.

    1968-01-01

    A model for haemopoiesis has been constructed based on the following hypothesis: (a) Haemopoietic stem cells have the capability of either reproducing as stem cells or differentiating into specialized blood cells of at least two different types; (b) The size of the stem-cell compartment is in part regulated by the rate of increase due to stem-cell reproduction and in part by the rate of loss of stem cells through differentiation; (c) In addition, the size of the stem-cell compartment is in part regulated by a competitive cell-to-cell interaction between the stem-cells themselves and between the differentiating cells and the stem-cells, such that the presence of an exceptionally large number of either cell type would have a repressive effect on the rate of increase of the stem-cell population. This model has been applied to the post-irradiation erythropoietic behaviour of the rat. In the computer studies with the model, an X-ray dose sufficient to inhibit reproduction in 50% of the erythroid stem cells was assumed. It was also assumed that reproduction and differentiation are genetically separately controlled processes and that, therefore, some part of the reproductively injured cells were still capable of differentiation. Under these conditions the model predicted an abortive rise in reticulocyte number, peaking at about 6 days. True recovery was predicted to occur at about 16 days. Both the abortive rise and the true recovery were also present in those segments of the model representing earlier erythroid cells, occurring at progressively earlier times in progressively more primitive cells. Comparison of the model's predictions with experimentally obtained data for post-irradiation erythroid recovery showed a good agreement both with respect to the time of the abortive peak and the time of true recovery. (author)

  12. Repair of mouse haemopoiesis at later times after long-term external (137Cs) and internal (3H) irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzanov, V.M.; Murzina, L.D.; Kirillova, E.N.

    1982-01-01

    In experiments on CBA mice it was shown that the haemopoiesis recovery was incomplete during 18 months after termination of internal exposure to tritium oxide or external γ-irradiation in the equivalent daily and cumulative doses. in mice given the radionuclide, the increment of CFUsub(s) and bone marrow nucleate cells was accompanied by leuko- and thrombocytopenia. In mice externally exposed to γ-rays, cytopenia did not develop at a lower content of CFUsub(s) and myelocaryocytes. It is suggested that the revealed diversions in the pattern of recovery of the haemopoiesis of mice of the compared groups are conditioned by the changes in functional activity of haemopoietic stem cells

  13. Effect of 241-americium on bone marrow stroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuvel, R. van den

    1990-01-01

    The regulation of haemopoiesis occurs via complex interactions between the stroma and the haemopoietic cells. An attempt to further clarifying the mechanisms and the exact role of the stroma in the regulation was made in a study. Results revealed that the murine bone marrow stromal cells are highly radiosensitive after injection with 241-americium and can thus be considered as a target population after internal contamination. In addition, observations are made which may be important for risk estimation for the developing animal and during pregnancy. Contamination in utero and by lactation shows persistent damage up to 1 year after contamination at an average annual dose of 5 cGy. (author)

  14. Feed-Back Regulation of Haemopoiesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, M. [Department of Cell Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovoth (Israel)

    1968-08-15

    Studies ate reported on the feed-back regulation of erythropoiesis by means of the intrasplenic cloning system of haemopoietic cells. Polycythaemia, produced by passive transfusion of synzeneic, allogeneic or xenogeneic red blood cells, inhibited the formation of bone-marrow derived erythroid clones. Polycythaemia also inhibited the formation of erythroid clones of endogenous stem cells. Oxygen overloading was found to be a necessary factor in the suppression of erythroid clone formation: no suppression of erythroid colonies was observed when polycythaemic animals were kept under hypoxic conditions. Erythropoietin, either of exogenous or of endogenous origin, elicited a reformation of erythroid clones in 'suppressed' animals. Studies on the kinetics of reformation of erythroid clones after the administration of erythropoietin suggested that the colony-forming stem cell can replicate a few times in the absence of erythropoietin and the cell progeny thus formed are the target cells for erythropoietin action. If, indeed, the colony-forming cell replicates in the absence of the specific inducer, then the cells thus formed should themselves be stem cells. This was substantiated by demonstrating that the cloning efficiency of spleens of polycythaemic recipients was higher than that of non-polycythaemic animals. Experiments indicating that erythroid clones produced by erythropoietin in polycythaemic animals disappeared after the discontinuance of erythropoietin application demonstrated the distinction between the 'mitogenic' and the 'morphogenetic' effects of erythropoietin. The latter seemed to be operated by an early transcription of RNA for proteins necessary for the complete maturation of the red blood cell, Erythroid clones produced by foetal haemopoietic stem cells seemed to be regulated by a different mechanism from that which controls the formation of bone-marrow derived clones. Clones produced by foetal cells were only partially suppressed in the polycythaemic

  15. Marrow uptake index (MUI): A quantitative scintigraphic study of bone marrow in aplastic anaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padhy, A.K.; Garg, A.; Kochupillai, V.; Gopinath, P.G.; Basu, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    Aplastic anaemia affects the entire bone marrow. This prospective study was undertaken to develop and standardise a new nuclear medicine technique called 'dynamic bone marrow imaging'. Eleven patients and ten controls were studied. Serial images of the pelvis were obtained in frame mode following intravenous injection of 185-370 mBq of 99m Tc S. Colloid, and an index, called the bone marrow uptake index was calculated by taking into consideration the time activity curve obtained over the iliac crest. This was followed by static imaging of the entire bone marrow in all cases. It was possible to obtain excellent information regarding topographic distribution of bone marrow as well as detect early changes in bone marrow function following treatment. An attempt was also made to correlate bone marrow cellularity as obtained by bone marrow biopsy with results of dynamic bone marrow scintigraphy. On the basis of the encouraging results obtained in the present study, the authors feel that dynamic bone marrow imaging is an excellent technique for the objective evaluation of bone marrow in aplastic anaemia. 20 refs.; 4 figs.; 5 tabs

  16. Studies on the distribution of hematopoietic bone marrow by bone marrow scintigraphy, 2. The bone marrow distribution in leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimori, K [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1976-04-01

    Distribution of the leukemic marrow was investigated in 42 cases by bone marrow scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid in association with clinical findings and ferrokinetics studies in order to clarify hematopoietic function in leukemia. 17 of chronic myelogenous leukemia, 3 of lymphatic leukemia, 2 of monocytic leukemia, 7 of atypical leukemia and one of erythroleukemia. 12 acute myelogenous leukemia were classified into 3 types A, B and C. Type A showed the distribution similar to those obtained with normal controls. Ferrokinetics studies, however, indicated complete absence of erythropoiesis. Type B showed complete lack of sup(99m)Tc activity in usual marrow sites, although ferrokinetics data showed normal erythropoeitic function. Type C showed abnormal concentration of sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid in the tibiae. 17 chronic myelogenous leukemia showed reduced sup(99m)Tc activity in usual marrow sites and remarkable expanded marrow extending into distal femurs, proximal and distal tibiae and bones of feet. 2 acute lymphotic leukemia patients showed complete absence of sup(99m)Tc activity. The one chronic type showed almost normal distribution. Monocytic leukemia showed decreased marrow distribution in the sternum and vertebrae. Of 6 atypical leukemias one showed almost normal distribution. The others, including a case with hypoplastic luekemia, demonstrated marrow extension similar to that observed in chronic myelogenous leukemia or monocytic leukemia. Erythroleukemia showed increased concentrations of sup(99m)Tc activity in the usual marrow sites and marked marrow expansion throughout all long bones. These results suggest that there is a discrepancy between bone marrow distribution and hematopoietic function in the cases of acute myelogenous leukemia.

  17. Studies on the distribution of hematopoietic bone marrow by bone marrow scintigraphy, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, Katsuhiko

    1976-01-01

    Distribution of the leukemic marrow was investigated in 42 cases by bone marrow scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid in association with clinical findings and ferrokinetics studies in order to clarify hematopoietic function in leukemia. 17 of chronic myelogenous leukemia, 3 of lymphatic leukemia, 2 of monocytic leukemia, 7 of atypical leukemia and one of erythroleukemia. 12 acute myelogenous leukemia were classified into 3 types A, B and C. Type A showed the distribution similar to those obtained with normal controls. Ferrokinetics studies, however, indicated complete absence of erythropoiesis. Type B showed complete lack of sup(99m)Tc activity in usual marrow sites, although ferrokinetics data showed normal erythropoeitic function. Type C showed abnormal concentration of sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid in the tibiae. 17 chronic myelogenous leukemia showed reduced sup(99m)Tc activity in usual marrow sites and remarkable expanded marrow extending into distal femurs, proximal and distal tibiae and bones of feet. 2 acute lymphotic leukemia patients showed complete absence of sup(99m)Tc activity. The one chronic type showed almost normal distribution. Monocytic leukemia showed decreased marrow distribution in the sternum and vertebrae. Of 6 atypical leukemias one showed almost normal distribution. The others, including a case with hypoplastic luekemia, demonstrated marrow extension similar to that observed in chronic myelogenous leukemia or monocytic leukemia. Erythroleukemia showed increased concentrations of sup(99m)Tc activity in the usual marrow sites and marked marrow expansion throughout all long bones. These results suggest that there is a discrepancy between bone marrow distribution and hematopoietic function in the cases of acute myelogenous leukemia. (J.P.N.)

  18. Effect of single lithium doses on haemopoiesis regeneration after radiation exposure in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajewski, K.

    1988-01-01

    The reported experiment failed to demonstrate any effect of single doses of lithium carbonate on haemopoiesis regeneration in experimental haematological syndrome of acute radiation sickness. The effects of gamma radiation on blood formation are shown. 3 figs., 6 refs. (author)

  19. Elevation of extracellular adenosine enhances haemopoiesis-stimulating effects of G-CSF in normal and gamma-irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofer, M.; Pospisil, M.; Netikiva, J.; Hola, J. [Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (Czech Republic)

    1997-03-01

    Effects of combined treatment with drugs elevating extracellular adenosine (dipyridamole /DP/, inhibiting the extracellular uptake of adenosine, and adenosine monophosphate /AMP/, an adenosine pro-drug), and G-CSF (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) on haemopoiesis of normal and gamma-irradiated mice were ascertained. The agents were administered alone or in combination in a 4-day regimen. In normal, unirradiated animals, the haematological endpoints were determined 24 hours after the completion of the treatment. It was shown that the effects of G-CSF, i.e., increases in peripheral blood neutrophils, granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells (GM-CFC) and morphologically recognizable granulocyte cells in femoral marrow and a decrease in the marrow erythroid cells, can be enhanced by the combination of DP plus AMP administrated 30 minutes before G-CSF. Furthermore, it was found that the stimulatory action of DP plus AMP was expressed particularly at lower doses of G-CSF (1.5, 3, and 4.5 {mu}g/d). In experiments with irradiated mice, when the 4-day therapeutic regimen was applied on days 3 to 6 following irradiation with the dose of 4 Gy, analogical stimulation of granulopoiesis was observed in the recovery phase on days 14 and 18 after irradiation. As example, see Fig. 1 for counts of granulocyte cells in femoral bone marrow. (authors)

  20. Elevation of extracellular adenosine enhances haemopoiesis-stimulating effects of G-CSF in normal and gamma-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, M.; Pospisil, M.; Netikiva, J.; Hola, J.

    1997-01-01

    Effects of combined treatment with drugs elevating extracellular adenosine (dipyridamole /DP/, inhibiting the extracellular uptake of adenosine, and adenosine monophosphate /AMP/, an adenosine pro-drug), and G-CSF (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) on haemopoiesis of normal and gamma-irradiated mice were ascertained. The agents were administered alone or in combination in a 4-day regimen. In normal, unirradiated animals, the haematological endpoints were determined 24 hours after the completion of the treatment. It was shown that the effects of G-CSF, i.e., increases in peripheral blood neutrophils, granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells (GM-CFC) and morphologically recognizable granulocyte cells in femoral marrow and a decrease in the marrow erythroid cells, can be enhanced by the combination of DP plus AMP administrated 30 minutes before G-CSF. Furthermore, it was found that the stimulatory action of DP plus AMP was expressed particularly at lower doses of G-CSF (1.5, 3, and 4.5 μg/d). In experiments with irradiated mice, when the 4-day therapeutic regimen was applied on days 3 to 6 following irradiation with the dose of 4 Gy, analogical stimulation of granulopoiesis was observed in the recovery phase on days 14 and 18 after irradiation. As example, see Fig. 1 for counts of granulocyte cells in femoral bone marrow. (authors)

  1. Bone marrow transplantations to study gene function in hematopoietic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winther, Menno P. J.; Heeringa, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Immune cells are derived from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. Experimental replacement of bone marrow offers the unique possibility to replace immune cells, to study gene function in mouse models of disease. Over the past decades, this technique has been used extensively to study, for

  2. Studies on the distribution of hematopoietic bone marrow by bone marrow scintigraphy, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, Katsuhiko

    1976-01-01

    In 42 patients with hypoplastic anemia, 10 mCi of sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid was injected intravenously, and scanning was performed one hour later with a Pho/Gamma III scintillation camera. Active bone marrow was usually found in the sternum, vertebrae, pelvis, and the poximal ends of humeri and femurs. These 42 cases were classified into 5 types according to distribution pattern. Type 1 (4 cases) showed complete lack of sup(99m)Tc activity in the usual marrow sites. Ferrokinetic studies indicated remarkable erythropoietic hypofunction. Type 2 (18 cases) showed island-like distribution of marrow in the pelvis or in the heads of humeri and femurs. Type 3 (6 cases) showed approximately normal uptake of sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid in the sternum and the vertebrae, but no activity in the pelvis; or showed the apposite distribution. Marrow specimens obtained from the sternum and the pelvis showed differences in cellularity in such cases. Type 4 (8 cases) were divided into two groups, A and B. Four patients of group A showed decreased uptake of the colloid in the usual marrow sites, but expanded marrow extending into distal femous, proximal and distal tibiae and bones of the feet. These patients subsequently developed leukemia. The diagnosis was confirmed at autopsy or when leukemic features appeared during the clinical course. The remaining cases, group B, showed island-like sup(99m)Tc activity in the tibia. Until then, there had been no signs of leukemia. Type 5 (6 cases) showed normal distribution with below-normal uptake. It is concluded that the reduction of hematopoietic tissue mass is the main cause of decreased hematopoiesis in hypoplastic anemia. (J.P.N.)

  3. Effect of low-dose irradiation on pregnant mouse haemopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, S.R.; McCarthy, E.G.; MacVittie, T.J.; Baum, S.J.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of low-dose gamma radiation to haemopoietic progenitor cell compartments of the marrow and spleen of virgin female mice and pregnant mice were studied. Microplasma clot cultures were used to assess burst-forming uniterythroid (BFU-E) and colony-forming unit-erythroid (CFU-E) activity, and double-layer agar cultures were established to evaluate granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming cell (GM-CFC) and macrophage colony-forming cell (M-CFC). The apparent shift in maternal erythropoiesis from the bone marrow to the enlarged spleen was reflected by an increase in CFU-E and BFU-E per spleen and a concomitant decrease in CFU-E and BFU-E per femur. Whereas maternal GM-CFC values per femur increased 36%, maternal GM-CFC per spleen increased by 172% compared to virgin values. Total-body irradiation to the day-10.5 pregnant mouse caused a further suppression of day-14.5 medullary erythropoiesis (i.e. decreased CFU-E values) compared to the virgin female mouse. An ability of the maternal spleen to support further compensatory erythropoiesis following increasing doses of radiation was demonstrated. Four days after 1.0 Gy exposure, maternal values for GM-CFC per femur or spleen decreased to nonirradiated virgin mice values. M-CFC per maternal femur decreased to nonirradiated virgin mice values. M-CFC per maternal femur decreased following 1.5 Gy, but M-CFC per spleen appeared to be unaffected with doses from 0.5 to 2.0 Gy. (author)

  4. Studies on the distribution of hematopoietic bone marrow by bone marrow scintigraphy, 3. The bone marrow scintigraphy with /sup 111/In-chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimori, K [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1976-04-01

    A study was made to determine wheter or not bone marrow scintigraphy with /sup 111/In chloride delineates the real distribution of hematopoietic cells. In a patient with acute myelogenous luekemia at the stage of complete remission, there was a significant incorporation of /sup 111/In into bone marrow cells (20 - 28% compared with 6% in the controls). Incorporation of /sup 111/In into peripheral blood cells was 0 at after 10 hours and 5% to 6% after 7 days. The plasma disappearance curve of /sup 111/In consisted of 2 exponential components, one with a half-life of 6.5 to 9.5 hours followed by a slow component with a half-life of 20 to 30 hours. 5 to 7% of the injected dose was excreted in the urine in 24 hours. The distribution of active marrow was investigated with bone marrow scintigraphy in various hematological disorders and the results were compared with those obtained with sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid. The results obtained in this study suggest that /sup 111/In is incorporated into erythroid precursors, and that this property of /sup 111/In makes in an ideal bone marrow scanning agent for observation of real hematopoietic bone marrow distribution in blood disease.

  5. Damage to haemopoiesis, therapeutic strategies and repair mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangenheim, K.H. von; Peterson, H.P.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1993-01-01

    Investigations were carried out into the question as to whether stem cells surviving irradiation remain intact, which is suggested by radiobiological experience to date, or have suffered permanent lesions. The development of a test system gauging the quality of stem cells and their progeny on the basis of their proliferation ability led to the conclusion that radiation caused long-term injuries that permanently compromised the entire haemopoietic system. Observations of the regeneration of normal and irradiated bone marrow under homogeneous conditions in animal donors subjected to high-dose radiation as well as determinations of spleen colony size, proliferation factor and number of stem cells pointed to the fact that the vast majority of stem cells were permanently damaged. It could be shown that unspecific genetic lesions remained unchanged in surviving stem cells and were passed on to their progeny. Refinements to the original proliferation test and the in vitro determination of the proliferation ability of stem cells and various blood cell lines permitted to differentiate between several causative factors. Studies on ways to diminish stem cell injuries either by influencing humoral proliferation stimuli during the regenerative phase or by the use of radiation protection substances are already in progress. In addition to the primary studies, tests were performed to examine the effects of low dose irradiation, vitamin E deficiency and a static magnetic field. (orig./MG) [de

  6. Megakaryocytic alterations in thrombocytopenia: A bone marrow aspiration study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhury Manas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Dysplastic changes are well documented in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS. However, they are also observed in non-MDS hematological conditions. Aims: To evaluate the megakaryocytic alterations in the bone marrow aspirations in cases of non-MDS related thrombocytopenia. Setting and Design: A prospective study of 144 bone marrow aspirates was conducted in the department of pathology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore. The aspirates were studied to assess the number and morphology of the megakaryocytes in non-MDS related thrombocytopenia and evaluate their significance when compared to changes in MDS. Materials and Methods: The bone marrow aspiration smears were stained with Leishman stain and examined under light microscope. Statistical Analysis Used: Fisher′s exact test. A P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Sensitivity and specificity was calculated for those features which were significant in the relevant hematological disorders. Results: The sensitivity of immature megakaryocytes, dysplastic forms and micromegakaryocytes in cases of immune thrombocytopenic purpura was 100%, 89% and 42% respectively. The specificity of emperipolesis was 74%. In cases of infection-associated thrombocytopenia, immature megakaryocytes had a sensitivity of 100% and cytoplasmic vacuolization were 86% specific. The sensitivity of the dysplastic forms in megaloblastic anemia was 75%. However, no platelet budding was observed. The presence of micromegakaryocyte had a specificity of 83% in MDS, and was statistically significant when compared to cases of non-MDS conditions (P< 0.05. Conclusions: Careful understanding of the morphological changes of megakaryocytes in bone marrow aspirates can improve the diagnostic accuracy for a wide range of hematological disorders thereby enabling proper therapeutic interventions.

  7. Protective environment for marrow transplant recipients. A prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckner, C.D.; Clift, R.A.; Sanders, J.E.; Meyers, J.D.; Counts, G.W.; Farewell, V.T.; Thomas, E.D.

    1978-01-01

    Laminar air flow isolation and decontamination procedures were evaluated in a prospective randomized study in patients with aplastic anemia or acute leukemia undergoing marrow transplantation from HLA-matched siblings. Patients transplanted in the laminar air flow group had significantly less septicemia and major local infections than did patients in the control group. Nineteen of 46 laminar air flow patients and six of 44 control patients are alive at present. In patients with aplastic anemia the survival was 13 of 17 in the laminar air flow group compared with four of 17 in the control group. In patients with acute leukemia the survival was six of 29 in the laminar air flow group versus two of 27 in the control group. These differences were not statistically significant. Death in both the laminar air flow and control groups was predominantly due to interstitial pneumonitis or recurrent leukemia, which were unaffected by isolation and decontamination

  8. [Study of migration and distribution of bone marrow cells transplanted animals with B16 melanoma ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveshchenko, A F; Solovieva, A O; Zubareva, K E; Strunkin, D N; Gricyk, O B; Poveshchenko, O V; Shurlygina, A V; Konenkov, V I

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. Reveal features migration and distribution of syngeneic bone marrow cells (BMC) and subpopulations (MSC) after transplantation into the recipient carrier B16 melanoma bodies. Methods. We used mouse male and female C57BL/6 mice. Induction of Tumor Growth: B16 melanoma cells implanted subcutaneously into right hind paw of female C57BL/6 mice at a dose of 2.5 x 105 cells / mouse. migration study in vivo distribution and BMC and MSC was performed using genetic markers - Y-chromosome specific sequence line male C57Bl/6 syngeneic intravenous transplantation in females using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in real time on Authorized Termal Cycler - Light Cycler 480 II / 96 (Roche). Introduction suspension of unseparated bone marrow cells, mesenchymal stem cells from donor to recipient male mice (syngeneic recipient female C57BL/6), followed by isolation of recipients of organs was performed at regular intervals, then of organ recipients isolated DNA. Results. It was shown that bone marrow cells positive for Y-chromosome in migrate lymphoid (lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow) or in non-lymphoid organs (liver, heart, brain, skin) syngeneic recipients. In addition to the migration of cells from the bone marrow to other organs, there is a way back migration of cells from the circulation to the bone marrow. B16 melanoma stimulates the migration of transplanted MSCs and BMC in bone marrow. It is found that tumor growth enhanced migration of transplanted bone marrow cells, including populations of MSCs in the bone marrow. In the early stages of tumor formation MSC migration activity higher than the BMC. In the later stages of tumor formation undivided population of bone marrow cells migrate to the intense swelling compared with a population of MSCs. Conclusion. The possibility of using bone marrow MSCs for targeted therapy of tumor diseases, because migration of MSCs in tumor tissue can be used to effectively deliver anticancer drugs.

  9. Greater sparing of stromal progenitor cells than of haemopoietic stem cells in γ-irradiated mouse marrow using low dose-rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, J.H.; Wang, S.B.; Testa, N.G.

    1984-01-01

    The Do value fibroblastoid colony-forming units in mouse bone-marrow increased from 1.7 Gy using γ-rays at 4.2 Gy/minute, to 2.6 Gy at 4.5 cGy/minute. In contrast, the sensitivity of bone-marrow stem cells was very little changed (Do approximately 0.9 Gy). At 7.5 Gy acute single dose, the dose sparing achieved for CFU-F using 4.5 cGy/minute was a factor of 1.4, inbetween the values reported for lung of 1.8 and for haemopoiesis of 1.2. Although the role of CFU-F in the haemopoietic environment has not been established, the content of CFU-F can predict the ability of irradiated marrow to sustain haemopoiesis in the long term. Hence the data imply that the haemopoiesis environment, as well as the dose-limiting lung, benefits from the use of low dose-rates for haemopoietic ablations in the treatment of leukaemia. No significant further sparing of CFU-F was achieved using a lower dose-rate of 1.4 cGy per minute

  10. Study on peripheral expansion of bone marrow in hematologic patients and its clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yong; Liu Dai; Kang Fu

    1995-01-01

    It is found previously that the changing patterns of bone marrow scintigraphy resulting from hematologic disorders were various. This study focused on discussing the imaging features and regularity of expanded peripheral bone marrow (PBM) in some blood diseases as well as their clinical usefulness. Bone marrow scintigraphy with 99m Tc-sulfur colloid 370∼550 MBq was performed in 130 cases with different types of blood diseases (iron-deficiency anemia 17 cases, chronic hemolytic 13 cases, aplastic 41 cases; leukemia 37 cases, marrow dyshyperplasia syndrome 22 cases) and various stages of the disease (19 cases). The aspiration in PBM comparing with central bone marrow (CBM) was made in 12 aplastic anemia and 10 leukemia patients. The expansion rate of PBM was 58.5% and the various blood diseases had different expansion regions. Repeated imaging showed that the expanded PBM tended to retract during clinical recovery. Aspiration from the expanding PBM defined more active hematopoiesis and higher count of leukemia blast cells than that from iliac crest. The results indicated the presence of 'focal residual leukemia' (FRL) in PBM of complete remission leukemia patient. The result of this study suggested that the expansion patterns of PBM in various hematologic disorders have definite features, which are helpful for the differential diagnosis, valuable for evaluation of the reserved capability of active marrow and prognosis of the patients according to the further analysis of the PBM state. The bone marrow imaging is also an indispensable technique for finding FRL

  11. Assessment of bone marrow inflammation in patients with myelofibrosis: an {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derlin, Thorsten [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover (Germany); University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Alchalby, Haefaa; Triviai, Ioanna; Kroeger, Nicolaus [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Clinic for Stem Cell Transplantation, Hamburg (Germany); Bannas, Peter [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Veldhoen, Simon [University Medical Center Wuerzburg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Apostolova, Ivayla [Otto-von-Guericke University, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Magdeburg (Germany); Bengel, Frank M. [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    Myelofibrosis is a haematopoietic stem cell neoplasm characterized by bone marrow inflammation, reactive marrow fibrosis and extramedullary haematopoiesis. The aim of this study was to determine if {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT can be used to noninvasively visualize and quantify the extent and activity of bone marrow involvement. In 30 patients, the biodistribution of {sup 18}F-FDG was analysed by measuring the standardized uptake value in the bone marrow compartment and spleen. Imaging findings were compared with laboratory, cytogenetic and histopathological data. Retention of {sup 18}F-FDG was observed in bone marrow and spleen. Bone marrow involvement varied, ranging from mildly increased uptake in the central skeleton to extensive uptake in most parts of the skeleton. The extent of bone marrow involvement decreased over time from initial diagnosis (r{sub s} = -0.43, p = 0.019). Metabolic activity of the bone marrow decreased as the histopathological grade of fibrosis increased (r{sub s} = -0.37, p = 0.04). There was a significant positive correlation between the metabolic activity of the bone marrow and that of the spleen (p = 0.04). {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT is as a promising technique for the quantitation of bone marrow inflammation in myelofibrosis. Our data indicate that the intensity of bone marrow {sup 18}F-FDG uptake decreases as bone marrow fibrosis increases. Further evaluation in prospective studies is required to determine the potential clinical impact and prognostic significance of PET. (orig.)

  12. Studies on 99Tcm-sulfur colloid bone marrow scintigraphy in myeloproliferative disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yong; Zhang Yifan; Jia Fangxian; Kang Fu; Jian Shiquan

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the imaging features and changing patterns of bone marrow scintigraphy in myeloproliferative disorders (MPD) as well as its clinical significance. Methods: Bone marrow scintigraphy using 99 Tc m -sulfur colloid 370-550 MBq was performed on 85 MPD patients, including 40 cases of idiopathic myelofibrosis (IMF), 15 of polycythemia vera (PV), 5 of essential thrombocythaemia (ET), 30 of chronic granulocytic leukemia. Also, 40 cases of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) were observed in this study. Results: Abnormal bone marrow imaging was found in 88.2% of the 85 patients. The suppression rate of central bone marrow (CBM) and expansion rate of peripheral bone marrow (PBM) in these MPD patients were 61.2% and 56.5%, respectively. The imaging patterns was classified into three types according to the distribution and activity of bone marrow. 1) reduced imaging (31.8%); 2) increased and expanded imaging (27.1%); 3) depressed and expanded imaging (29.4%). Splenomegaly with minimal residual marrow activity was typical for late stages of MPD. Expansion of PBM was the further feature, but of no major importance for improving hematopoiesis of MPD, and it tended to retract during clinical recovery in chronic granulocytic leukemia (CGL). With expanding PBM, unmatched peripheral blood decreasing was found in MDS. The expansion pattern of PBM in different MPD was of relatively definite features. Conclusions: The imaging pattern of bone marrow was correlated with blood work-up data and clinical course or stages of MPD. Bone marrow scintigraphy may be proven useful in differential diagnosis and evaluation of clinical staging and prognosis of MPD

  13. Sandwich radioimmunolabeling for the study of surface properties of bone marrow lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Y.; Uchino, H.; Kuribayashi, K.; Shimizu, S.; Konda, S.

    1980-01-01

    A modification of sandwich radioautographic method was applied to the study of surface immunoglobulin and/or specific antigens on small lymphocytes in mouse and human bone marrow. After incubation of marrow cell suspensions at 37 0 C, cells were reacted at 0 0 C for 30 min with graded dilutions of rabbit anti-mouse or anti-human immunoglobulin followed by further reaction with a sheep anti-rabbit immunoglobulin labeled with 125 I. Detectable surface immunoglobulin was demonstrated in approximately one-third of mouse marrow lymphocytes and 20-25% of human marrow lymphocytes. The densities of surface immunoglobulin as assessed by grain counts on individual labeled lymphocytes tended to be lower in the marrow than in spleen or peripheral blood. When the same rabbit antiserum was used to compare the sensitivity of the sandwich method with that of the direct radioautography, the former was found sufficiently sensitive to give a plateau level of labeling without seriously increasing background grains. The advantages of the method are discussed with reference to studies on T and B cell specific antigens on human bone marrow lymphocytes. (Auth.)

  14. Immune transfer studies in canine allogeneic marrow graft donor-recipient pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse-Wilde, H.; Krumbacher, K.; Schuening, F.D.; Doxiadis, I.; Mahmoud, H.K.; Emde, C.; Schmidt-Weinmar, A.; Schaefer, U.W.

    1986-01-01

    Transfer of immunity occurring with bone marrow grafting was studied using the dog as a preclinical model. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) was performed between DLA-identical beagle litter-mates. The donors were immunized with tetanus toxoid (TT) or sheep red blood cells (SRBC), and their humoral response was monitored by hemagglutination. The recipients of bone marrow from TT-immunized donors showed a marked increase of antibody titer one week posttransplantation, while in the recipients of marrow from SRBC immunized donors the antibody titers were considerably lower. Within the following 60 days the antibody titers in both groups diminished gradually to pregrafting levels. Control experiments in which cell-free plasma from donors immunized with TT and SRBC respectively was transfused indicated that the initial rise of specific antibody titers after marrow grafting is likely to be due to a passive transfer of humoral immunity. A single challenge of these marrow graft recipients with the respective antigen 15-18 weeks posttransplantation led to a secondary type of humoral immune response. It could be demonstrated that transfer of memory against TT or SRBC was independent from the actual antibody titer and the time of vaccination of the donor. One dog was immunized with TT after serving as marrow donor. When the donor had shown an antibody response, a peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) transfusion was given to his chimera. Subsequent challenge of the latter resulted in a secondary type of specific antibody response. This indicates that specific cellular-bound immunological memory can be transferred after BMT from the donor to his allogeneic bone marrow chimera by transfusion of peripheral blood leukocytes. The data may be of importance in clinical BMT to protect patients during the phase of reduced immune reactivity by transfer of memory cells

  15. Age-related contrast enhancement study of normal bone marrow in lumbar spinal MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young A; Ha, Doo Hoe

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the degree of contrast enhancement of normal bone marrow in L-spine relating to aging and to determine the range of contrast enhancement in normal bone marrow. We analyzed a total of 120 patients (20 per decade) who had undergone lumbar spinal MRI and who ranged in age from the 2nd decade to more than the 7th. Bone marrow revealed no abnormal pathology. Sagittal T1-weighted spin echo sequences were obtained before and after gadolinium administration. For each sequence, a region of interest was drawn within the L1 vertebral body from the midsagittal slice. Signal intensity (SI) values of each sequence were ascertained and the percentage increase in SI was calculated. After contrast enhancement, lumbar MRI revealed no statistically significant in the percentage increase in SI of normal bone marrow in relation to aging. Most patients (99%) however showed an SI increase of between 10% and 49%. In only four, none of whom were aged over 40, was this increase above 50%. Lumbar MRI, revealed no statistically significant difference in percentage increase in SI in normal bone marrow relating to aging, but when the increase is above 50% in a patient aged over 40, bone marrow pathology should be further investigated

  16. Studies on bone marrow damages after 60Co irradiation using uncalcified method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Mitsuaki

    1976-01-01

    Acute bone marrow degeneration and early regeneration after local 60 Co irradiation to rat bone marrow were studied histologically with the use of a ''Cut-all microtome''. With the use of Epon embedding, this method makes it possible to observe bone marrow in the natural state, especially to observe sinusoidal and stromal changes. After 60 Co irradiation of 500 and 1000 r to rat bone marrow, degeneration and disappearance of hematopoietic elements of the erythropoietic and granulopoietic series were noted within three days. In the hematopoietic elements of the megakaryocytic series, after 60 Co irradiation of 500 r, only mild changes were found, but after 60 Co irradiation of 1000 r, significant changes were noted. Sinusoidal and stromal reaction was also noted. Hematopoietic depression and regeneration were correlated with the disappearance and regeneration of the sinusoidal microcirculation. Against the previous reports, in the non-irradiated bone marrow, mild degeneration of the sinusoid was noted. In this study, associated with the degeneration of sinusoid -dilatation of the sinusoid and exudation-, disappearance of hematopoietic cells was noted. The etiology of the above fact is not know at present. (Evans, J.)

  17. Quantitative studies on the influence of radiophosphorus (P-32) on bone marrow in young mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Il Young; Kwon, Dal Gwan

    1984-01-01

    This study was performed to observe the effect of internal radioactive source on the bone marrow of mice at various stages of development (1 day, 1,2,3, and 4 weeks). Radiophosphorus (P-32) was injected to mice intraperitoneally at the dose rate of 1.0 uCi/g body weight. Mice were autopsied at weekly intervals up to six weeks and observed on pronormoblats and normoblasts, granulocytes total and lymphocytes of bone marrow in 130 mice. 1. The erythroid cells show rapid decreases in their percentage due to their destruction. 2. The myeloid cells undergo accelerated maturation resulting in increased percentage of segmented form in bone marrow. 3. The percentage of lymphocytes is also decreased with some signs of their destruction. 4. The regeneration sets in and a normal picture is seen by the time the animals become adult

  18. 5-fluorocytosine-related bone-marrow depression and conversion to fluorouracil: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermes, András; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; van Kuilenburg, Andre B. P.; Dankert, Jacob

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether fluorouracil (5-FU) could be responsible for bone-marrow depression occurring in fluorocytosine 5-FC) treated patients. Six 5-FC treated patients were included in this pilot study. Toxicity was monitored by means of thrombocyte and leucocyte counts.

  19. Studies of bone marrow scintigrams with sup(99m)technetium sulfur colloid on various hematological disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Takashi

    1984-01-01

    One hundred and eighty-five bone marrow scintigraphy on the whole body was performed on eight healthy adults and 151 patients with various hematologic diseases including 64 leukemia, 41 anemia, 23 other malignancy, etc. The positions of the investigated bone marrow were divided into the central marrow (five positions on the trunk bones) and the peripheral marrow (11 positions on the upper and 11 positions on the lower extremities) on the scintigram. The bone marrow scintigram was estimated by following three criteria. The first, ''Yuu-ryoiki'' (positive area), was the existence of sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid accumulation on bone marrow (two grades; presence or absence). The second, ''Bunpu-kei'' (distribution form), was the extent of the sup(99m)Tc accumulation area of the investigated bone marrow and was divided into five grades. The last, ''Kido'' (intensity of radioactivity), was the density of the sup(99m)Tc accumulation on the area and was divided into five grades. Using this estimation, in the diseases with bone marrow hyperplasia such as Primary Thrombocythemia and Hemolytic Anemia, ''Yuu-ryoiki'' was enlarged, ''Bunpu-kei'' was extended, and ''Kido'' was increased comparing with those in healty adult. In contrast, in the diseases with bone marrow hypoplasia such as Myelofibrosis and Aplastic Anemia, ''Yuu-ryoiki'' was reduced, ''Bunpu-kei'' was contracted, and ''Kido'' was decreased. However, the enlargement of ''Yuu-ryoiki'' did not always mean bone marrow hyperplasia. The author could evaluate not only the range and distribution of hemopoiesis as a whole in malignant or benign diseases but also the residual effective hemopoiesis to know the suitable time of the initiation of the therapy or to predict the prognosis of these cases. In this study it was shown that the bone marrow scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid was an useful method to estimate the hemopoietic activity of the bone marrow. (J.P.N.)

  20. EFFECT OF USE OF BONE-MARROW CENTRIFUGATE ON MUSCLE INJURY TREATMENT: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Daniel Ferreira Fernandes; Guarniero, Roberto; Vaz, Carlos Eduardo Sanches; de Santana, Paulo José

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bone-marrow centrifugate on the healing of muscle injuries in rabbits. Methods: This experimental study involved use of fifteen adult male New Zealand White rabbits. Each animal received a transverse lesion in the middle of the right tibialis anterior muscle, to which an absorbable collagen sponge, soaked in a centrifugate of bone marrow aspirate from the ipsilateral iliac bone, was added. The left hind limb was used as a control and underwent the same injury, but in this case only the absorbable collagen sponge. Thirty days later, the animals were sacrificed to study the muscle healing. These muscle areas were subjected to histological analysis with histomorphometry, with the aim of measuring the number of muscle cells per square micrometer undergoing regeneration and the proportion of resultant fibrosis. Results: The centrifugation method used in this study resulted in an average concentration of nucleated cells greater than the number of these cells in original aspirates, without causing significant cell destruction. Addition of the bone marrow centrifugate did not result in any significant increase in the number of muscle cells undergoing regeneration, in relation to the control group. There was also no significant difference in the proportion of resultant fibrosis, compared with the control group. Conclusion: Administration of the bone marrow centrifugate used in this study did not favor healing of muscle injuries in rabbits. PMID:27047832

  1. Haemopoiesis-enhancing effects of repeatedly administered carboxymethylglucan in mice exposed to fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, M.; Pospisil, M.; Pipalova, I.; Hola, J.

    1995-01-01

    Carboxymethylglucan (CMG), a water-soluble glucan derivative, enhanced the number of granulocytes in the peripheral blood as well as other indices of haemopoietic recovery (total cellularity and the number of granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells in femoral marrow, spleen weight) investigated after fractionated gamma-irradiation of mice (five doses of 2 Gy each, or three, four and five doses of 3 Gy each given at 24 hours' intervals). An increased liver weight and a more pronounced anaemia found in the CMG-treated mice suggested that also inflammatory side effects were evoked by repeated CMG administration. On the other hand, the development of tolerance, i.e., a decreased effectiveness of CMG treatment on repeated administration did not seem to play a major role under the experimental conditions studied because the protective effects of CMG increased with the increasing number of CMG injections. (author) 2 figs., 16 refs

  2. Bone marrow aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliac crest tap; Sternal tap; Leukemia - bone marrow aspiration; Aplastic anemia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelodysplastic syndrome - bone marrow aspiration; Thrombocytopenia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelofibrosis - bone marrow aspiration

  3. The clinical application study of bone marrow immunoscintigraphy using 99Tcm-BW250/183 in evaluating patients with aplastic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zengli; Wu Jinchang; Tang Jun; Wang Wei

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical value of bone marrow immunoscintigraphy for evaluation of patients with aplastic anemia. Methods: Twelve patients with aplastic anemia underwent bone marrow immunoscintigraphy using 99 Tc m labelled anti-granulocyte monoclonal antibody BW250/183, 10 of them also underwent bone marrow imaging using 99 Tc m -sulfur colloid (SC) 2 - 3 days later. The semiquantitative indexes of bone marrow immunoscintigraphy of the patients were compared with those of control patients. Results: Bone marrow immunoscintigraphy was superior to 99 Tc m -SC bone marrow imaging. In patients with aplastic anemia, the accumulation of 99 Tc m -BW250/183 in bone marrow and spleen was lower and in liver and kidney was higher than those of control patients. Nine patients were found with multiple focal accumulation in bone marrow. Conclusion: Bone marrow immunoscintigraphy with 99 Tc m -BW250/183 plays an important role in evaluating patients with aplastic anemia

  4. Studies on the clinical usefulness of the 111indium chloride bone marrow scintigraphy in patients with aplastic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ino, Teruo; Ito, Naoya; Takeda, Nobuhide

    1985-01-01

    111 Indium chloride ( 111 In-Cl 3 ) appears to be a radionuclide appropriate for a bone marrow scanning because of its physical and chemical characteristics; it is, like iron, bound to and transported by transferrin and it has a photopeak suitable for scintigraphy. This study was undertaken to assess the bone marrow function by 111 In-Cl 3 bone marrow scintigraphy in patients with asplastic anemia. Bone marrow scintigraphy was performed in 21 patients with aplastic anemia with varying degrees of severity including 15 who had no previous treatments. The scintigrams were taken 48 hours after intravenous injection of 111 MBq(3 mCi) of 111 In-Cl 3 . All of them showed various degrees of reduction in uptake of 111 In-Cl 3 by the marrow. The abnormal scan grade was classified into 3 types: Type I, non-accumulation (5); Type II, low-accumulation (15); Type III, uneven accumulation (1). In type III, degree of radioisotope accumulation between the sternum and the ilium was different, and this difference correlated with that of bone marrow cellularity. In 2 patients of type II, hematological improvement occurred after treatment, which was also accompanied by simultaneous increase of 111 In-Cl 3 uptake by the marrow. These findings suggested that the degree of radioisotope accumulation in the marrow reflects that of bone marrow cellularity. Type I patients were clinically severe and poor in prognosis as compared to type II and type III patients; four out of 5 died within 2 months. Bone marrow transplantation may be the treatment of choice in type I patients when feasible. (author)

  5. Efficient generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulin, X; Lizhen, L; Lifei, Z; Shan, F; Ru, L; Kaimin, H; Huang, H

    2012-01-01

    Ectopic expression of defined sets of genetic factors can reprogramme somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) that closely resemble embryonic stem cells. However, the low reprogramming efficiency is a significant handicap for mechanistic studies and potential clinical application. In this study, we used human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs) as target cells for reprogramming and investigated efficient iPSC generation from hBMMSCs using the compounds of p53 siRNA, valproic acid (VPA) and vitamin C (Vc) with four transcription factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC (compound induction system). The synergetic mechanism of the compounds was studied. Our results showed that the compound induction system could efficiently reprogramme hBMMSCs to iPSCs. hBMMSC-derived iPSC populations expressed pluripotent markers and had multi-potential to differentiate into three germ layer-derived cells. p53 siRNA, VPA and Vc had a synergetic effect on cell reprogramming and the combinatorial use of these substances greatly improved the efficiency of iPSC generation by suppressing the expression of p53, decreasing cell apoptosis, up-regulating the expression of the pluripotent gene OCT4 and modifying the cell cycle. Therefore, our study highlights a straightforward method for improving the speed and efficiency of iPSC generation and provides versatile tools for investigating early developmental processes such as haemopoiesis and relevant diseases. In addition, this study provides a paradigm for the combinatorial use of genetic factors and molecules to improve the efficiency of iPSC generation.

  6. Effects of cadmium on haemopoiesis in irradiated and non-irradiated mice: 2. Relationship to the number of circulating blood cells and haemopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackova, N.O.; Lenikova, S.; Fedorocko, P.; Brezani, P.; Fedorockova, A.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of administration of cadmium alone in non-irradiated mice as well as the effect of pre-irradiation administration of cadmium on the reparation processes were investigated in mice irradiated with a dose of 7.5 Gy. The pre-irradiation administration of cadmium accelerated the reparation process in the bone marrow and spleen as well as the number of leukocytes and thrombocytes in the peripheral blood. The administration of cadmium alone caused a temporary weight decrease of the thymus and reduced the number of erythrocytes, reticulocytes, and the haemoglobin values in the peripheral blood. The temporary rapid increase in the number of leukocytes on the 21st day after cadmium administration was investigated. 3 figs., 28 refs

  7. Review of Preclinical and Clinical Studies of Bone Marrow-Derived Cell Therapies for Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Rosado-de-Castro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is the second leading cause of mortality worldwide, causing millions of deaths annually, and is also a major cause of disability-adjusted life years. Hemorrhagic stroke accounts for approximately 10 to 27% of all cases and has a fatality rate of about 50% in the first 30 days, with limited treatment possibilities. In the past two decades, the therapeutic potential of bone marrow-derived cells (particularly mesenchymal stem cells and mononuclear cells has been intensively investigated in preclinical models of different neurological diseases, including models of intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage. More recently, clinical studies, most of them small, unblinded, and nonrandomized, have suggested that the therapy with bone marrow-derived cells is safe and feasible in patients with ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. This review discusses the available evidence on the use of bone marrow-derived cells to treat hemorrhagic strokes. Distinctive properties of animal studies are analyzed, including study design, cell dose, administration route, therapeutic time window, and possible mechanisms of action. Furthermore, clinical trials are also reviewed and discussed, with the objective of improving future studies in the field.

  8. Age-related pattern of normal cranial bone marrow: MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Shinong; Li Qi; Li Wei; Chen Zhian; Wu Zhenhua; Guo Qiyong; Liu Yunhui

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the age-related pattern of normal skull bone marrow with 3.0 T MR T 1 WI. Methods: Cranial MR T 1 WI images which were defined to be normal were retrospectively reviewed in 360 cases. Patients with known diffuse bone marrow disease, focal lesions, history of radiation treatment or steroid therapy were excluded, while patients whose cranial MRI and follow-up visits were all normal were included in this study. All the subjects were divided into 7 groups according to the age: 50 years group. Mid- and para- sagittal T 1 WI images were used to be analyzed and the type of cranial bone marrow was classified according to the thickness of diploe and the pattern of the signal characteristics. Statistical analysis was conducted to reveal the relationship between the age and the type. Results: The normal skull bone marrow could be divided into four types as follows: (1) Type-I: 115 cases, 47 of which appeared type- Ia and the mean thickness was (1.24±0.31) mm; 68 of which appeared type-Ib and the mean thickness was (1.76±0.37) mm. Type-II: 57 cases and the mean thickness was (2.78 ± 0.69) mm. Type-III: 148 cases, 18 of which appeared type-IIIa and the mean thickness was (2.33 ± 0.65) mm; 88 of which appeared type-IIIb and the mean thickness was (4.01± 0.86) mm; 42 of which appeared type-IIIc and the mean thickness was (4.31±0.73) mm. Type-IV: 40 cases, 25 of which appeared type-IVa and the mean thickness was (5.17±1.02) mm; 15 of which appeared type-IVb and the mean thickness was (5.85±1.45) mm. (2) 2 =266.36, P<0.01). Conclusion: There is characteristic in the distribution of normal skull bone marrow with age growing. And skull bone marrow transforms gradually from type-I to IV with aging. (authors)

  9. Marrow transfusions into normal recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brecher, G.

    1983-01-01

    During the past several years we have explored the transfusion of bone marrow into normal nonirradiated mice. While transfused marrow proliferates readily in irradiated animals, only minimal proliferation takes place in nonirradiated recipients. It has generally been assumed that this was due to the lack of available proliferative sites in recipients with normal marrow. Last year we were able to report that the transfusion of 200 million bone marrow cells (about 2/3 of the total complement of marrow cells of a normal mouse) resulted in 20% to 25% of the recipient's marrow being replaced by donor marrow. Thus we can now study the behavior of animals that have been transfused (donor) and endogenous (recipient) marrow cells, although none of the tissues of either donor or recipient have been irradiated. With these animals we hope to investigate the nature of the peculiar phenomenon of serial exhaustion of marrow, also referred to as the limited self-replicability of stem cells

  10. Studies of bone marrow scintigrams with sup(99m)technetium sulfur colloid on various hematological disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuno, Takashi (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)

    1984-02-01

    One hundred and eighty-five bone marrow scintigraphy on the whole body was performed on eight healthy adults and 151 patients with various hematologic diseases including 64 leukemia, 41 anemia, 23 other malignancy, etc. The positions of the investigated bone marrow were divided into the central marrow (five positions on the trunk bones) and the peripheral marrow (11 positions on the upper and 11 positions on the lower extremities) on the scintigram. The bone marrow scintigram was estimated by following three criteria. The first, ''Yuu-ryoiki'' (positive area), was the existence of sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid accumulation on bone marrow (two grades; presence or absence). The second, ''Bunpu-kei'' (distribution form), was the extent of the sup(99m)Tc accumulation area of the investigated bone marrow and was divided into five grades. The last, ''Kido'' (intensity of radioactivity), was the density of the sup(99m)Tc accumulation on the area and was divided into five grades. Using this estimation, in the diseases with bone marrow hyperplasia such as Primary Thrombocythemia and Hemolytic Anemia, ''Yuu-ryoiki'' was enlarged, ''Bunpu-kei'' was extended, and ''Kido'' was increased comparing with those in healthy adult. In contrast, in the diseases with bone marrow hypoplasia such as Myelofibrosis and Aplastic Anemia, ''Yuu-ryoiki'' was reduced, ''Bunpu-kei'' was contracted, and ''Kido'' was decreased. However, the enlargement of ''Yuu-ryoiki'' did not always mean bone marrow hyperplasia. The author could evaluate not only the range and distribution of hemopoiesis as a whole in malignant or benign diseases but also the residual effective hemopoiesis to know the suitable time of the initiation of the therapy or to predict the prognosis of these cases. In this study it was shown

  11. Feasibility study of helical tomotherapy for total body or total marrow irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui, Susanta K.; Kapatoes, Jeff; Fowler, Jack; Henderson, Douglas; Olivera, Gustavo; Manon, Rafael R.; Gerbi, Bruce; Mackie, T. R.; Welsh, James S.

    2005-01-01

    Total body radiation (TBI) has been used for many years as a preconditioning agent before bone marrow transplantation. Many side effects still plague its use. We investigated the planning and delivery of total body irradiation (TBI) and selective total marrow irradiation (TMI) and a reduced radiation dose to sensitive structures using image-guided helical tomotherapy. To assess the feasibility of using helical tomotherapy (A) we studied variations in pitch, field width, and modulation factor on total body and total marrow helical tomotherapy treatments. We varied these parameters to provide a uniform dose along with a treatment times similar to conventional TBI (15-30 min). (B) We also investigated limited (head, chest, and pelvis) megavoltage CT (MVCT) scanning for the dimensional pretreatment setup verification rather than total body MVCT scanning to shorten the overall treatment time per treatment fraction. (C) We placed thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) inside a Rando phantom to measure the dose at seven anatomical sites, including the lungs. A simulated TBI treatment showed homogeneous dose coverage (±10%) to the whole body. Doses to the sensitive organs were reduced by 35%-70% of the target dose. TLD measurements on Rando showed an accurate dose delivery (±7%) to the target and critical organs. In the TMI study, the dose was delivered conformally to the bone marrow only. The TBI and TMI treatment delivery time was reduced (by 50%) by increasing the field width from 2.5 to 5.0 cm in the inferior-superior direction. A limited MVCT reduced the target localization time 60% compared to whole body MVCT. MVCT image-guided helical tomotherapy offers a novel method to deliver a precise, homogeneous radiation dose to the whole body target while reducing the dose significantly to all critical organs. A judicious selection of pitch, modulation factor, and field size is required to produce a homogeneous dose distribution along with an acceptable treatment time. In

  12. Bone marrow stroma in idiopathic myelofibrosis and other haematological diseases. An immunohistochemical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I; Hasselbalch, H; Junker, P

    1991-01-01

    Bone marrow stroma was investigated immunohistochemically in 31 patients with haematological diseases, mainly idiopathic myelofibrosis (n = 8) and related chronic myeloproliferative disorders (n = 14). The bone marrow from patients with idiopathic myelofibrosis and some CML patients showed marked...

  13. Diagnostic problems of MRI in studying the effect of G-CSF therapy in bone marrow of patients with malignoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layer, G.; Sander, W.; Traeber, F.; Block, W.; Koenig, R.; Vahlensieck, M.; Schild, H.H.; Ko, Y.; Ziske, C.G.

    2000-01-01

    Aim. To study the effect of G-CSF therapy directly by MRI and 1 H MRS in the lumbar and femoral bone marrow and differentiate between malignant bone marrow infiltration (MBMI) and reconversion of red marrow. Methods. Thirteen patients could be examined twice, before and during G-CSF medication and another six only during treatment. T1 weighted spin-echo and opposed-phase gradient-echo images as well as the spectroscopic data (T2 values, water content) were analysed. Results. After G-CSF a pathologic bone marrow signal intensity was seen in 8/13 (lumbar) and 11/13 (femoral) patients respectively. The majority of the signal alterations were diffuse (6 and 8), the minority focal (2 and 3). If a patient was successfully stimulated, a significant increase in water content occurred (21% lumbar, 34% femoral). T2 values did not change significantly, nor did they correlate with the stimulation success. Conclusions. MR tomography and -spectroscopy are suitable to detect lumbar and femoral bone marrow stimulation by G-CSF quantitatively and qualitatively. The changes may simulate MBMI. The adequate judgement of G-CSF treated bone marrow without pretherapeutic images is not possible. (orig.) [de

  14. Selection of unrelated donors for bone marrow transplantation studied in rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagemaker, G.; Bekkum, D.W. van

    Graft versus Host disease (GvHD) remains to be a severe limitation to a more general application of bone marrow transplantation. Clinically acceptable results are restricted to those potential recipients for which a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) identical sibling donor is available. At an average family size of 2 to 3 siblings, the frequency of such donors is not more than approximately 30%. This pre-clinical study in rhesus monkeys is directed at the selection of donors for recipients which lack an MHC identical sibling. (Auth.)

  15. A study of megakaryocyte morphology in bone marrow aspiration smears of cases of thrombocytopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashikala Vinayakamurthy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thrombocytopenia may be encountered in various hematological and nonhematological conditions and may be associated with dysplastic megakaryocytes which is a feature of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS, even though they can be observed in non-MDS hematological conditions. Objective: To study the morphological variations of megakaryocytes on bone marrow aspiration smears in non-MDS-related thrombocytopenia in a Medical College in Bengaluru, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: It was a prospective study of 86 cases of non-MDS thrombocytopenia whose bone marrow aspirates were studied morphologically. Results: The most common cause of thrombocytopenia was acute leukemia followed by other systemic malignancies, megaloblastic anemia, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Both dysplastic and nondysplastic features were observed in the above-mentioned conditions. The most common dysplastic feature was nuclear segmentation followed by micromegakaryocytes and hypogranular forms. Among nondysplastic features, the most common were immature forms, bare nuclei, and hypolobation. Emperipolesis and cytoplasmic vacuoles were noted in a case of pyrexia of unknown origin. Conclusion: Dysplastic megakaryocytes are common in non-MDS-related thrombocytopenia and their mere presence should not lead to the diagnosis of MDS. Hence, proper diagnosis should be made on megakaryocyte morphology, patient's clinical findings, and other hematological parameters. This understanding can improve the diagnostic accuracy for wide range of hematological disorders.

  16. Quality of harvest and role of cell dose in unrelated bone marrow transplantation: an Italian Bone Marrow Donor Registry-Gruppo Italiano Trapianto di Midollo Osseo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagioli, Franca; Quarello, Paola; Pollichieni, Simona; Lamparelli, Teresa; Berger, Massimo; Benedetti, Fabio; Barat, Veronica; Marciano, Renato; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Sacchi, Nicoletta

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the factors affecting cell dose harvest and the role of cell dose on outcome. We analysed data from a cohort of 703 patients who underwent unrelated bone marrow transplantation facilitated by IBMDR in GITMO centers between 2002 and 2008. The median-infused cell doses is 3.7 × 10(8)/kg, the correlation between the nucleated cells requested from transplant centers and those harvested by collection centers was adequate. A harvested/requested cells ratio lower than 0.5 was observed only in 3% of harvests. A volume of harvested marrow higher than the median value of 1270 ml was related to a significant lower infused cell dose (χ(2): 44.4; P < 0.001). No patient- or donor-related variables significantly influenced the cell dose except for the recipient younger age (χ(2): 95.7; P < 0.001) and non-malignant diseases (χ(2): 33.8; P < 0.001). The cell dose resulted an independent predictor factor for a better outcome in patients affected by non-malignant disease (P = 0.05) while early disease malignant patients receiving a lower cell dose showed a higher risk of relapse (P = 0.05).

  17. A clinical and molecular study of a Bedouin family with dysmegakaryopoiesis, mild anemia, and neutropenia cured by bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamary, H; Yaniv, I; Stein, J; Dgany, O; Shalev, Z; Shechter, T; Resnitzky, P; Shaft, D; Zoldan, M; Kornreich, L; Levy, R; Cohen, A; Moser, R A; Kapelushnik, J; Shalev, H

    2003-09-01

    Familial thrombocytopenia is a relatively rare and heterogeneous group of clinical and genetic syndromes of unknown etiology. Recently, mutations in a few hematopoietic transcription factors were implicated in dysmegakaryopoiesis with and without dyserythropoietic anemia. The aim of the present study was to describe the clinical and hematologic picture of members of a Bedouin family with severe congenital thrombocytopenia associated with neutropenia and anemia and to determine the possible involvement of hematopoietic transcription factor genes in their disease. Four members of a Bedouin family presented with severe bleeding tendency, including intracranial hemorrhage in three. Three of the four were successfully treated with allogenic human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched bone marrow transplants. Measurements of serum erythropoietin and thrombopoietin levels, bone marrow electron microscopy, and megakaryocytic colony were grown for each patient in addition to DNA amplification and single-strand conformation polymorphism of each exon of the NF-E2, Fli-1, FOG-1, and Gfi-1b in genes. Bone marrow studies revealed dysmegakaryopoiesis and mild dyserythropoiesis. A low number of bone marrow megakaryocyte colony-forming units was found, as well as a slightly elevated serum thrombopoietin level. No mutation was identified in any of the transcription factor genes examined. A unique autosomal recessive bone marrow disorder with prominent involvement of megakaryocytes is described. Defects were not identified in transcription factors affecting the common myeloid progenitor.

  18. Comparative study of internal contamination of different radiators in skeleton on induction of mutagenic effect in bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shoupeng; Wang Liuyi; Yang Weidong

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to ascertain comparative retention of 134 Cs or 147 Pm in skeleton on induction of chromosome aberrations and PCE's micronucleus formation in bone marrow cells. Results indicated that after iv signal nuclide 134 Cs, through 7 weeks observation, the retention data in skeleton could be well described by an exponential expression. Experiments indicated that the retention value and the absorption dose of 147 Pm in skeleton were significantly higher in comparison with 134 Cs. Both internal contamination of 134 Cs or 147 Pm could induce chromosome aberrations and PCE's micronucleus formation in bone marrow cells. Among the type of chromosome aberrations of bone marrow cells induced by 134 Cs or 147 Pm included gap, chromatid breakage, chromosome breakage and translocation. Moreover, the chromosome aberration rates were elevated when the intake of radioactivity of 134 Cs or 147 Pm were enlarged. At the same time, chromosome fragment of bone marrow cells also induced by 134 Cs or 147 Pm only through high radioactive contamination. Studies showed that chromosome translocation was appeared only through high radioactivity of 147 Pm contamination. By comparing with 1 '4 7 Pm, however, the induction of chromosome aberrations and PCE's micronucleus formation rates on bone marrow cells induced by 134 Cs was quite low

  19. A magnetic resonance imaging study on changes in rat mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue after high-dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wan; Lee, Byung Do [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Wonkwang Dental Research Institute, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang Kyoo [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Bioscience, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    This study was designed to evaluate whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is appropriate for detecting early changes in the mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue of rats after high-dose irradiation. The right mandibles of Sprague-Dawley rats were irradiated with 10 Gy (Group 1, n=5) and 20 Gy (Group 2, n=5). Five non-irradiated animals were used as controls. The MR images of rat mandibles were obtained before irradiation and once a week until week 4 after irradiation. From the MR images, the signal intensity (SI) of the mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue of the incisor was interpreted. The MR images were compared with the histopathologic findings. The SI of the mandibular bone marrow had decreased on T2-weighted MR images. There was little difference between Groups 1 and 2. The SI of the irradiated groups appeared to be lower than that of the control group. The histopathologic findings showed that the trabecular bone in the irradiated group had increased. The SI of the irradiated pulp tissue had decreased on T2-weighted MR images. However, the SI of the MR images in Group 2 was high in the atrophic pulp of the incisor apex at week 2 after irradiation. These patterns seen on MRI in rat bone marrow and pulp tissue were consistent with histopathologic findings. They may be useful to assess radiogenic sclerotic changes in rat mandibular bone marrow.

  20. Study of /sup 201/Tl uptake by bone and bone marrow on /sup 201/Tl scintigraphy. With special reference to bone marrow abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Tadashige; Tanaka, Masao; Hirose, Yoshiki; Hirayama, Jiro; Handa, Kenjiro; Nakanishi, Fumiko; Yano, Kesato; Ueda, Hitoshi

    1989-04-01

    Thallium-201 (Tl-201) uptake in the bone and bone marrow was examined in a total of 93 patients with various diseases. Sternal uptake of Tl-201 was observed when patients had bone marrow abnormality especially associated with hematopoietic disease. It was associated with proliferation of immature cells and of various types of bone marrow cells, especially erythroblastic and plasma cells. Whole-body Tl-201 scanning showed a high uptake (82%) in the sternum, chest, lumbar vertebrae, and pelvis. Thallium-201 was definitively taken up by the sternum in polycythemia (5/41), hemolytic anemia (2/2), iron deficiency anemia (2/2), and multiple myeloma (2/5). For leukemia, Tl-201 uptake was slight or negative. Thallium-201 scanning proved useful in visualizing bone marrow abnormality, although careful interpretation of bone and bone marrow uptake is required. (Namekawa, K).

  1. Studies on hematopoietic cell apoptosis and the relative gene expression in irradiated mouse bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Ruiyun; Wang Dewen; Xiong Chengqi; Gao Yabing; Yang Hong; Cui Yufang; Wang Baozhen

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study apoptosis and expressions bcl-2 and p53 in irradiated mouse bone marrow. Methods: LACA mice were irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays. By means of in situ terminal labelling, in situ hybridization and image analysis, the authors studied radiation-induced apoptosis of hematopoietic cells and the expressions of bcl-2 and p53. Results: The characteristics of apoptosis appeared in hematopoietic cells at 6 hrs after irradiation. The expression of bcl-2 was obviously decreased when apoptosis of hematopoietic cells occurred, whereas it increased in the early recovery phase; p53 protein increased during both apoptosis of hematopoietic cells and the recovery phase, and mutant type p53 DNA was positive only in the recovery phase. Conclusion: Radiation may induced apoptosis of hematopoietic cells in a dose-dependent manner; Both bcl-2 and p53 genes play an important role in apoptosis and recovery phase

  2. Postmortem bone marrow analysis in forensic science: study of 73 cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattoli, Lucia; Tsokos, Michael; Sautter, Julia; Anagnostopoulos, Joannis; Maselli, Eloisa; Ingravallo, Giuseppe; Delia, Mario; Solarino, Biagio

    2014-01-01

    In forensic sciences, bone marrow (BM) is an alternative matrix in postmortem toxicology because of its good resistance to autolysis and contaminations. Nevertheless, few studies have been focused on postmortem BM morphological changes after pathological stimuli. We examined 73 BM samples from forensic autopsies; causes of death were both natural and traumatic. BM samples were collected from the sternum by needle aspiration and biopsy; in selected cases, immunohistochemistry was performed. Few autolytic changes were found; BM cellularity decreased with increasing age and postmortem interval. Notable cell changes were detected in 45 cases (61.64%): neoplastic (n=4), and non-neoplastic BM findings (n=41), including multiorgan failure/sepsis (n=26), myelodisplastic-like conditions (n=11), and anaphylactic reactions (n=4). The results showed that BM cellularity supported circumstantial and autopsy findings, suggesting that BM samples could be a useful tool in forensic science applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Autologous bone marrow purging with LAK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliodori, L; Moretti, L; Stramigioli, S; Luchetti, F; Annibali, G M; Baldi, A

    1993-12-01

    In this study we will demonstrate that LAK cells, in vitro, can lyse hematologic neoplastic cells with a minor toxicity of the staminal autologous marrow cells. In fact, after bone marrow and LAK co-culture at a ratio of 1/1 for 8 hours, the inhibition on the GEMM colonies resulted to be 20% less compared to the untreated marrow. These data made LAK an inviting agent for marrow purging in autologous bone marrow transplantation.

  4. Contribution to diagnosis and treatment of bone marrow aspirate results in critically ill patients undergoing bone marrow aspiration: a retrospective study of 193 consecutive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Laure; Pereira, Bruno; Sapin, Anne-Françoise; Mareynat, Gabrielle; Lautrette, Alexandre; Souweine, Bertrand

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the work was to assess the contribution to diagnosis and/or treatment (CDT) of bone marrow aspiration (BMA) in the critically ill patient. The retrospective study included 193 patients. On the basis of BMA findings, contribution to diagnosis was defined by one of four previously unestablished diagnoses (maturation arrest of granulocyte precursors, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, hematological malignancy, marrow infiltration with cancer cells) and to treatment as the initiation or withdrawal of a specific treatment including the decision to forgo life-sustaining treatment (DFLST). A CDT of BMA was observed in 40/193 patients (20.7%). BMA contributed to diagnosis in 37 cases (granulocyte precursor maturation arrest, N  = 10; hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, N  = 12; hematological malignancy, N  = 15) and to treatment in 14, including three DFLSTs. In multivariate analysis, the factors associated with a CDT were hematological malignancy, cancer or non-malignant hematological abnormality known on admission, indication for BMA excluding isolated thrombocytopenia, higher pre-BMA HScore (calculated prior to BMA), and higher SOFA score with or without platelet-count SOFA subscore. In the 160 patients without hematological malignancy or cancer known on admission, non-malignant hematological abnormality known on admission, indication for BMA excluding isolated thrombocytopenia, higher pre-BMA HScore, and higher SOFA score calculated with or without platelet-count SOFA subscore were independently associated with a CDT of BMA. BMA can have a significant CDT in ICU patients with or without a known hematological malignancy or cancer on admission. An HScore calculated before BMA can be a valuable tool for predicting a CDT of BMA.

  5. Cartilage Repair With Autologous Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation: Review of Preclinical and Clinical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Shinya; Mera, Hisashi; Itokazu, Maki; Hashimoto, Yusuke; Wakitani, Shigeyuki

    2014-10-01

    Clinical trials of various procedures, including bone marrow stimulation, mosaicplasty, and autologous chondrocyte implantation, have been explored to treat articular cartilage defects. However, all of them have some demerits. We focused on autologous culture-expanded bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC), which can proliferate without losing their capacity for differentiation. First, we transplanted BMSC into the defective articular cartilage of rabbit and succeeded in regenerating osteochondral tissue. We then applied this transplantation in humans. Our previous reports showed that treatment with BMSC relieves the clinical symptoms of chondral defects in the knee and elbow joint. We investigated the efficacy of BMSC for osteoarthritic knee treated with high tibial osteotomy, by comparing 12 BMSC-transplanted patients with 12 cell-free patients. At 16-month follow-up, although the difference in clinical improvement between both groups was not significant, the arthroscopic and histological grading score was better in the cell-transplanted group. At the over 10-year follow-up, Hospital for Special Surgery knee scores improved to 76 and 73 in the BMSC-transplanted and cell-free groups, respectively, which were better than preoperative scores. Additionally, neither tumors nor infections were observed in all patients, and in the clinical study, we have never observed hypertrophy of repaired tissue, thereby guaranteeing the clinical safety of this therapy. Although we have never observed calcification above the tidemark in rabbit model and human histologically, the repair cartilage was not completely hyaline cartilage. To elucidate the optimum conditions for cell therapy, other stem cells, culture conditions, growth factors, and gene transfection methods should be explored.

  6. Radiobiological studies on target cell populations in murine bone marrow transplantation recipients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, Ronald Peter

    1994-01-01

    The experiments presented in this thesis were designed to investigate the role of total body irradiation (TBI) in conditioning murine recipients of syngeneic and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). ... Zie: Summary

  7. A Preliminary Study of the Suitability of Archival Bone Marrow and Peripheral Blood Smears for Diagnosis of CML Using FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Charwudzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. FISH is a molecular cytogenetic technique enabling rapid detection of genetic abnormalities. Facilities that can run fresh/wet samples for molecular diagnosis and monitoring of neoplastic disorders are not readily available in Ghana and other neighbouring countries. This study aims to demonstrate that interphase FISH can successfully be applied to archival methanol-fixed bone marrow and peripheral blood smear slides transported to a more equipped facility for molecular diagnosis of CML. Methods. Interphase FISH was performed on 22 archival methanol-fixed marrow (BM and 3 peripheral blood (PB smear slides obtained at diagnosis. The BM smears included 20 CML and 2 CMML cases diagnosed by morphology; the 3 PB smears were from 3 of the CML patients at the time of diagnosis. Six cases had known BCR-ABL fusion results at diagnosis by RQ-PCR. Full blood count reports at diagnosis were also retrieved. Result. 19 (95% of the CML marrow smears demonstrated the BCR-ABL translocation. There was a significant correlation between the BCR-ABL transcript detected at diagnosis by RQ-PCR and that retrospectively detected by FISH from the aged BM smears at diagnosis (r=0.870; P=0.035. Conclusion. Archival methanol-fixed marrow and peripheral blood smears can be used to detect the BCR-ABL transcript for CML diagnosis.

  8. Study on human mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow pretreated with low dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yan; Wang Guangjun; Wang Juan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study effects of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSC) from bone marrow pretreated with low dose radiation (LDR). Methods: The cells were the hBM-MSC. They were exposed to X rays at the dose of 50 mGy, 75 mGy, 100 mGy (dose rate 12.5 mGy/min). The growth curve, cell cycle and apoptosis of hBM-MSC treated by LDR were investigated. The content changes of stem cell factor(SCF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), macrophage colony stimulating factor(M-CSF) secreted by hBM-MSC after treated by LDR were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. Results: The growth rates of hBM-MSC treated by LDR obviously increase from 72 h. The cell cycle and apoptosis were examined with FORTRAN Atomatic Checkout Systom. The results show that the G 0 /G 1 stage cells decrease after exposure to LDR, the percent of G 0 /G 1 stage cells of 75 mGy at 72 h is the lowest(30.86%). However, the S stage cells percentage gradually increase at 48 h and 72 h. The most one is 75 mGy group at 72 h, which reaches to 68.88%. The apoptosis percentages have increased tendency at 24 h and 48h in all dose groups, especially in 100 mGy at 24 h(25.99%), while have decreased tendency at 72 h and the most decreased group is the 50 mGy(6.8%), transient enhancement of apoptosis in the early stage and soon being decreased. The contents of SCF have increased tendency at 24 h, 48 h. As for IL-6, the contents in different dose groups at 24 h and 48 h have up-regulation. These groups, 50 mGy at 24 h, 48 h, 75 mGy at 24 h, 48 h, 100 mGy at 24 h have statistical difference compared with their control groups respectively. The content of IL-6 has greatest enhancement at dose of 50 mGy. The contents of M-SCF in all the groups at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h except for the 50 mGy dose at 72 h have also been found increased. The greatest increased content occur in the 75 mGy dose group at 72 h. Conclusion: This conclusion show that LDR has hormesis effect on hBM-MSC in cell growth, cell cycle and content

  9. Autologous Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cell Therapy for Autism: An Open Label Proof of Concept Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular therapy is an emerging therapeutic modality with a great potential for the treatment of autism. Recent findings show that the major underlying pathogenetic mechanisms of autism are hypoperfusion and immune alterations in the brain. So conceptually, cellular therapy which facilitates counteractive processes of improving perfusion by angiogenesis and balancing inflammation by immune regulation would exhibit beneficial clinical effects in patients with autism. This is an open label proof of concept study of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs intrathecal transplantation in 32 patients with autism followed by multidisciplinary therapies. All patients were followed up for 26 months (mean 12.7. Outcome measures used were ISAA, CGI, and FIM/Wee-FIM scales. Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography (PET-CT scan recorded objective changes. Out of 32 patients, a total of 29 (91% patients improved on total ISAA scores and 20 patients (62% showed decreased severity on CGI-I. The difference between pre- and postscores was statistically significant (P<0.001 on Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test. On CGI-II 96% of patients showed global improvement. The efficacy was measured on CGI-III efficacy index. Few adverse events including seizures in three patients were controlled with medications. The encouraging results of this leading clinical study provide future directions for application of cellular therapy in autism.

  10. A pilot study of autologous bone marrow transplantation followed by recombinant interleukin-2 in malignant lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vey, N; Blaise, D; Tiberghien, P; Attal, M; Pico, J L; Reiffers, J; Harrousseau, J L; Fiere, D; Tabilio, A; Gabus, R; Brandely, M; Maraninchi, D

    1996-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) after high dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) in 25 patients with refractory or relapsed Hodgkin's disease (HD) (11 patients) and non Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) (14 patients). 48% of patients had resistant disease, 84% achieved complete remission after ABMT. rIL-2 was started at a median of 54 days post-transplant and consisted of a first cycle of 5 days followed by 4 cycles of 2 days every other week. Patients received a mean of 160 x 10(6) IU/m2 rIL-2 and hematological toxicity was moderate and transient. None of the 5 evaluable patients with measurable disease responded to rIL-2. After a 5 year median follow-up, the probability of survival and DFS is 72% (HD: 73% and NHL: 70%, p = NS) and 45% (HD: 36% and NHL: 48%, p = NS) respectively. These somewhat encouraging results warrant further evaluation of rIL-2 after ABMT in controlled studies, especially in NHL patients stratified for previous chemosensitivity.

  11. Clinical studies on bone marrow transplantation of acute leukemia and aplastic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishima, Yasuo

    1979-01-01

    Since 1974, we have done bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in six patients of acute leukemia and two of aplastic anemia. Leukemia patients were premedicated by CY+TBI method; cyclophosphamide (CY) 60 mg/kg/day was administered for two successive days and two days later, total body irradiation (TBI) was done in a dose of 800 - 1000 rad at a rate of 20-28 rad/min by linear accerelator. Patients with aplastic anemia were premedicated by CY method; CY 50 mg/kg/day for four successive days. Bone marrow graft was obtained from donor under general anesthesia. The nucleated bone marrow cells, ranged from 0.7 x 10 10 to 1.4 x 10 10 were transfused into the patient intravenously. Any lethal side effects did not develop in all patient during these procedures. Two died on day 10 and 12 with septicemia. The other 6 patients showed engraftment of bone marrow indicated by rising blood counts, return of marrow cellularity and in one case by blood cytogenetic markers. Relapse of leukemia did not occur in five patients treated with CY + TBI method. Three patients with allogeneic BMT developed moderately severe to severe Graft versus Host Disease. Survival time after BMT were 12, 35, 63, 68, 98, 125 days. 15 months in leukemia, and 10 days, 12 + months in aplastic anemia. (author)

  12. In vitro studies on the radiosensitivity of multipotent hemopoietic progenitors in canine bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreja, L.; Weinsheimer, W.; Nothdurft, W.

    1991-01-01

    The in vitro radiation response to 280-kV x-rays (does rate 72 cGy/min) of multipotent hemopoietic progenitor cells, mixed colony-forming units (CFU-mix), from canine bone marrow was assayed and compared to the radiation response characteristics of early erythroid progenitors, erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E). To improve the colony-forming efficiency, the effect of various bone marrow cell separation techniques on colony formation of both progenitors was examined. The separation of bone marrow aspirates by discontinuous buoyant gradient centrifugation using the lymphocyte separation medium Lymphoprep with a density of 1.070 g/ml allowed the establishment of reproducible survival curves. The survival curves for both progenitors were strictly exponential, and CFU-mix were found to be more radiosensitive (D0 = 12 ± 2 cGy) than BFU-E (D0 = 16 ± 2 cGy)

  13. Prospective neurodevelopmental studies of two children treated with total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation for acute leukemia in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaleita, T.; Tesler, A.; Feig, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Five-year neurodevelopmental studies of two infants with acute leukemia are presented. Both patients underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT) after conditioning with cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation (TBI). Neither patient was treated with intrathecal chemotherapy. Their outcome is remarkable for normal development of intelligence, language, perception, and motor coordination. These results suggest that TBI and BMT should be considered in future therapeutic studies of infants with acute leukemia, who are at great risk for failure of conventional therapy

  14. Influence of bone marrow on osseointegration in long bones: an experimental study in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Fabrizio; Lang, Niklaus P; Bengazi, Franco; Baffone, Davide; Vila Morales, C Dadonim; Botticelli, Daniele

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the influence of yellow bone marrow on osseointegration of titanium oral implants using a long bone model. The two tibiae of eight sheep were used as experimental sites. Two osteotomies for implant installation were prepared in each tibia. At the control sites, no further treatments were performed while, at the test sites, bone marrow was removed from the osteotomy site with a curette to an extent that exceeded the implant dimensions. As a result, the apical portion of the implants at the control sites was in contact with bone marrow while, at the test sites, it was in contact with the blood clot. After 2 months, the same procedures were performed in the contralateral side. After another month, the animal was sacrificed. Ground sections were obtained for histological analysis. After 1 month of healing, no differences between test and control sites were found in the apical extension of osseointegration and the percentage of new bone-to-implant contact. However, after 3 months of healing, a higher percentage of new bone-to-implant contact was found at the test compared to the control sites in the marrow compartment. The apical extension of osseointegration, however, was similar to that found at the 1-month healing period both for test and control sites. Osseointegration appeared to be favored by the presence of a blood clot when compared to the presence of yellow fatty bone marrow. Moreover, the contact with cortical bone appeared to be a prerequisite for the osseointegration process in the long bone model. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Clinical application study of bone marrow immunoscintigraphy using 99mTc-labelled anti-granulocyte monoclonal antibody BW250/183

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zengli; Wu Jinchang; Shi Yizhen; Tang Jun

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study: (1) The labelling method of 99m Tc-BW250/183 and its organ distribution pattern after injection. (2) The clinical value of bone marrow immunoscintigraphy of evaluation of patients with aplastic anemia. (3) The clinical value of bone marrow immunoscintigraphy of determination of bone metastasis. Methods: (1) Whole body imaging was performed to one volunteer after injection of 555 MBq 99m Tc-BW250/183, meanwhile, 2 ml blood samples was taken from a cubital vein. The percentage of radioactivity of different organs and the kinetic data of in-vivo 99m Tc-BW250/183 was then calculated. In all the blood samples the peripheral leukocytes were counted by a standard procedure. (2) Bone marrow immunoscintigraphy were performed to 8 patients with aplastic anemia 4 h after injection of 99m Tc-BW250/183, 6 of them also underwent bone marrow imaging with 99m Tc-SC. (3) Bone marrow immunoscintigraphy and conventional bone scan were performed to 14 patients with suspected bone metastases to detect bone metastases. The results was compared with X-ray, X-CT or MRI. Results: 99m Tc-BW250/183 is a safe and ideal bone marrow imaging agent. Bone marrow immunoscintigraphy plays an important role in evaluating patients with aplastic anemia and determining bone metastases

  16. Bone marrow-derived cells and biophysical stimulation for talar osteochondral lesions: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadossi, Matteo; Buda, Roberto Emanuele; Ramponi, Laura; Sambri, Andrea; Natali, Simone; Giannini, Sandro

    2014-10-01

    Osteochondral lesions of the talus (OLT) frequently occur after ankle sprains in young patients participating in sports activities. These injuries may lead to chronic pain, joint swelling, and finally osteoarthritis, therefore, surgical repair is frequently needed. A collagen scaffold seeded with bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) harvested from patient's iliac crest and implanted into the OLT through a single arthroscopic procedure has been recently proposed as an effective treatment option. Nevertheless, BMDCs, embedded in an inflammatory environment, tend to differentiate toward a fibroblast phenotype with a consequential loss of mechanical characteristics. Biophysical stimulation with pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) has been shown to promote anabolic chondrocyte activity, stimulate proteoglycan synthesis, and reduce the release of the most relevant pro-inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of PEMFs on clinical outcome in patients who underwent BMDCs transplantation for OLT. Thirty patients affected by grade III and IV Outerbridge OLT underwent BMDCs transplantation. After surgery, patients were randomly assigned to either experimental group (PEMFs 4 hours per day for 60 days starting within 3 days after operation) or control group. Clinical outcome was evaluated with (American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society) AOFAS score, Visual Analog Scale (VAS), and Short Form-36 (SF-36). Significantly higher AOFAS score was recorded in the experimental group both at 6 or 12 months follow-up. At 60 days and 6 and 12 months follow-up, significant lower pain was observed in the experimental group. No significant difference was found in SF-36 between groups. A superior clinical outcome was found in the experimental group with more than 10 points higher AOFAS score at final follow-up. Biophysical stimulation started soon after surgery aided patient recovery leading to pain control and a better clinical outcome

  17. Liver, bone marrow, pancreas and pituitary gland iron overload in young and adult thalassemic patients: a T2 relaxometry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argyropoulou, Maria I.; Astrakas, Loukas; Metafratzi, Zafiria; Efremidis, Stavros C.; Kiortsis, Dimitrios N.; Chalissos, Nikolaos

    2007-01-01

    Thirty-seven patients with β-thalassemia major, including 14 adolescents (15.2 ± 3.0 years) and 23 adults (26.4 ± 6.9 years), were studied. T2 relaxation time (T2) of the liver, bone marrow, pancreas and pituitary gland was measured in a 1.5-Tesla magnetic resonance (MR) imager, using a multiecho spin-echo sequence (TR/TE 2,000/20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160 ms). Pituitary gland height was evaluated in a midline sagittal scan of a spin-echo sequence (TR/TE, 500/20 ms). The T2 of the pituitary gland was higher in adolescents (59.4 ± 15 ms) than in adults (45.3 ± 10.4 ms), P < 0.05. The T2 of the pancreas was lower in adolescents (43.6 ± 10.3 ms) than in adults (54.4 ± 10.4 ms). No difference among groups was found in the T2 of the liver and bone marrow. There was no significant correlation of the T2 among the liver, pancreas, pituitary gland and bone marrow. There was no significant correlation between serum ferritin and T2 of the liver, pancreas and bone marrow. Pituitary T2 showed a significant correlation with pituitary gland height (adolescents: R = 0.63, adults: R = 0.62, P < 0.05) and serum ferritin (adolescents: R = -0.60, adults: R = -0.50, P < 0.05). In conclusion, iron overload evaluated by T2 is organ specific. After adolescence, age-related T2 changes are predominantly associated with pituitary siderosis and fatty degeneration of the pancreas. Pituitary size decreases with progressing siderosis. (orig.)

  18. Liver, bone marrow, pancreas and pituitary gland iron overload in young and adult thalassemic patients: a T2 relaxometry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, Maria I.; Astrakas, Loukas; Metafratzi, Zafiria; Efremidis, Stavros C. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, Dimitrios N. [University of Ioannina, Laboratory of Physiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Chalissos, Nikolaos [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); University of Ioannina, Laboratory of Physiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2007-12-15

    Thirty-seven patients with {beta}-thalassemia major, including 14 adolescents (15.2 {+-} 3.0 years) and 23 adults (26.4 {+-} 6.9 years), were studied. T2 relaxation time (T2) of the liver, bone marrow, pancreas and pituitary gland was measured in a 1.5-Tesla magnetic resonance (MR) imager, using a multiecho spin-echo sequence (TR/TE 2,000/20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160 ms). Pituitary gland height was evaluated in a midline sagittal scan of a spin-echo sequence (TR/TE, 500/20 ms). The T2 of the pituitary gland was higher in adolescents (59.4 {+-} 15 ms) than in adults (45.3 {+-} 10.4 ms), P < 0.05. The T2 of the pancreas was lower in adolescents (43.6 {+-} 10.3 ms) than in adults (54.4 {+-} 10.4 ms). No difference among groups was found in the T2 of the liver and bone marrow. There was no significant correlation of the T2 among the liver, pancreas, pituitary gland and bone marrow. There was no significant correlation between serum ferritin and T2 of the liver, pancreas and bone marrow. Pituitary T2 showed a significant correlation with pituitary gland height (adolescents: R = 0.63, adults: R = 0.62, P < 0.05) and serum ferritin (adolescents: R = -0.60, adults: R = -0.50, P < 0.05). In conclusion, iron overload evaluated by T2 is organ specific. After adolescence, age-related T2 changes are predominantly associated with pituitary siderosis and fatty degeneration of the pancreas. Pituitary size decreases with progressing siderosis. (orig.)

  19. The capacity of peripheral blood stem cells mobilised with chemotherapy plus G-CSF to repopulate irradiated marrow stroma in vitro is similar to that of bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demuynck, H.; Dexter, T.M.; Testa, N.G.; Pettengell, R.; Campos, E. de

    1992-01-01

    After treatment of patients with intermediate or high grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma with chemotherapy plus G-CSF the numbers of haemopoietic progenitor cells in the circulation increased to a mean of 226-fold for mixed CFC (Mix-CFC), 278-fold for GM-CFC and 29-fold for erythroid burst forming unit (BFU-E). The mean increase was modest (7-12-fold) for patients treated with chemotherapy alone. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells harvested at the time of the peak in the numbers of progenitors, or 2-4 days before the peak, seeded onto irradiated marrow stroma in vitro, repopulated the stroma and generated active haemopoiesis at least as effectively as bone marrow cells on a cell per cell basis. This is in contrast to the poor repopulating capacity of pretreatment blood. The results indicate that not only the progenitor cells, but also the repopulating stem cells migrated into the blood after chemotherapy plus G-CSF in sufficient numbers to allow harvesting and successful grafting without the possible complication of late haemopoietic failure. (author)

  20. Cytogenetic studies on recipients of allogeneic bone marrow transplants after fractionated total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, N; Goedde-Salz, E; Loeffler, H [Christian-Albrechts-Univ., Kiel (Germany, F.R.)

    1985-06-01

    Cytogenetic findings from the bone marrow (BM) and the peripheral blood (PB) of nine consecutive patients after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for acute or chronic myelogenous leukaemia are reported. After a conditioning regimen consisting of cyclophosphamide and fractionated total body irradiation (TBI) given in five or six fractions of 2 Gy, persistence of host cells was detected in four out of seven cases with permanent engraftment. While one of these patients relapsed 4 months after host cells had been found in BM and PB, the other patients stayed relapse-free 124, 257 and 347 d after grafting. Before transplantation, the leukaemic cells in all three cases carried unique cytogenetic abnormalities giving the opportunity to distinguish the leukaemic population from chromosomally non-aberrant cells thought to represent residual normal host cells. As the persisting host cells after BMT lacked any cytogenetic abnormalities, it is suggested that they were members of residual normal clones not involved in the leukaemic process.

  1. Cytogenetic studies on recipients of allogeneic bone marrow transplants after fractionated total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, N.; Goedde-Salz, E.; Loeffler, H.

    1985-01-01

    Cytogenetic findings from the bone marrow (BM) and the peripheral blood (PB) of nine consecutive patients after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for acute or chronic myelogenous leukaemia are reported. After a conditioning regimen consisting of cyclophosphamide and fractionated total body irradiation (TBI) given in five or six fractions of 2 Gy, persistence of host cells was detected in four out of seven cases with permanent engraftment. While one of these patients relapsed 4 months after host cells had been found in BM and PB, the other patients stayed relapse-free 124, 257 and 347 d after grafting. Before transplantation, the leukaemic cells in all three cases carried unique cytogenetic abnormalities giving the opportunity to distinguish the leukaemic population from chromosomally non-aberrant cells thought to represent residual normal host cells. As the persisting host cells after BMT lacked any cytogenetic abnormalities, it is suggested that they were members of residual normal clones not involved in the leukaemic process. (author)

  2. Intra-osseous injection of donor mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) into the bone marrow in living donor kidney transplantation; a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyunah; Park, Jae Berm; Lee, Sanghoon; Baek, Soyoung; Kim, HyunSoo; Kim, Sung Joo

    2013-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multi-potent non-hematopoietic progenitor cells possessing an immune-regulatory function, with suppression of proliferation of activated lymphocytes. In this study, adult living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) recipients were given MSCs derived from the donor bone marrow to evaluate the safety and the feasibility of immunological changes related to the intra-osseous injection of MSC into the bone marrow. Methods MSCs were derived from negative ...

  3. Bone Marrow Examination in Cases of New-onset Pancytopenia: A Four-year Study from a Medical College in the Rural Hilly Setting of Western Himalayas, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Kaul Raina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available New-onset pancytopenia is a common diagnostic challenge. Pancytopenia is an indication for bone marrow examination. The present study has been carried out to determine the frequencies of various etiologies of pancytopenia based on bone marrow morphology in a defined geographical location. All cases of new-onset pancytopenia, diagnosed on peripheral smear and seen over a four-year period from January 2012 to December 2015 in the department of pathology, were analysed. Patients lacking representative bone marrow in the aspirate or receiving chemotherapy were excluded. Out of 69 cases, 29 were males and 40 were females. Most of the patients were in the age group of 19-60 years (52.2%. Nineteen (26.1% of them were less than 18 years old. The three major causes of pancytopenia were: megaloblastic anemia (hypercellular marrow with megaloblastic erythropoiesis in 25 (36.2% cases, hypercellular marrow with dimorphic erythropoiesis in 13 (18.8% cases, and haematological malignancies in 12 (17.4% cases of the study. Bone marrow examination along with laboratory evaluation helps to establish specific diagnosis in cases of new-onset pancytopenia.

  4. Hematological effects: comparative studies on the radiation survival characteristics in vivo and in vitro of bone marrow-derived clonogenic populations (CFU-C and PFU-C) and some observations on bone marrow cellularity in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, F.D.; O'Grady, L.; Momeni, M.; Wheeling, J.A.; Klein, K.; Graham, R.; Jow, N.; Di Bartola, S.

    1975-01-01

    Data accumulated for the hematological effects program are reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to the effects of acute and chronic irradiation on hematopoietic progenitor populations (CFU-C, colony-forming units in culture) and ''candidate'' mesenchymal progenitors (PFU-C, plaque-forming units in culture) using methylcellulose bone marrow culture systems and both in vivo and in vitro radiation exposure protocols. Preliminary results of studies on the temporal effects of acute x-irradiation on the capacity of PFU-C to generate colony stimulating activity (CSA) are also presented. The results of such experiments are providing the basis upon which future RBE studies on a variety of nuclides will be structured. Data (including age related changes) is also presented on in vivo bone marrow cellularity determinations, as well as for marrow stem cell quantitative studies using nondestructive techniques for normal Beagles. In these studies, two techniques for correction of variable effects of hemodilution are compared. Such studies are also providing baseline data for the 60 Co hematological effects program

  5. A study of 23 unicameral bone cysts of the calcaneus: open chip allogeneic bone graft versus percutaneous injection of bone powder with autogenous bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Il-Hyung; Micic, Ivan Dragoljub; Jeon, In-Ho

    2008-02-01

    The treatment of unicameral bone cyst varies from percutaneous needle biopsy, aspiration and local injection of steroid, autologous bone marrow, or demineralized bone matrix to curettage and open bone-grafting. The purpose of this study was to compare the results of open chip allogeneic bone graft versus percutaneous injection of demineralized bone powder with autogenous bone marrow in management of calcaneal cysts. Twenty-three calcaneal unicameral cysts in 20 patients were treated. Lyophilized irradiated chip allogeneic bone (CAB) and autogenous bone marrow were used for treatment of 13 cysts in 11 patients, and 10 cysts in 9 patients were treated with percutaneous injection of irradiated allogeneic demineralized bone powder (DBP) and autogenous bone marrow. There were 11 males and 9 female patients with mean age of 17 years. The patients were followed for an average of 49.4 months. Complete healing was achieved in 9 cysts treated with chip allogeneic bone and in 5 cysts treated with powdered bone. Four cysts treated with CAB and 3 cysts treated with DBP healed with a defect. Two cysts treated with powdered bone and autogenous bone marrow were classified as persistent. No infections or pathological fractures were observed during the followup period. Percutaneous injection of a mixture of allogeneic bone powder with autogenous bone marrow is a minimal invasive method and could be an effective alternative in the treatment of unicameral calcaneal bone cysts. The postoperative morbidity was low, the hospital stay was brief, and patient's comfort for unrestricted activity was enhanced.

  6. In vitro radiation studies on Ewing's sarcoma cell lines and human bone marrow: application to the clinical use of total body irradiation (TBI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinsella, T.J.; Mitchell, J.B.; McPherson, S.; Miser, J.; Triche, T.; Glatstein, E.

    1984-01-01

    Patients with Ewing's sarcoma who present with a central axis or proximal extremity primary and/or with metastatic disease have a poor prognosis despite aggressive combination chemotherapy and local irradiation. In this high risk group of patients, total body irradiation (TBI) has been proposed as a systemic adjuvant. To aid in the design of a clinical TBI protocol, the authors have studied in the in vitro radiation response of two established cell lines of Ewing's sarcoma and human bone marrow CFUc. The Ewing's lines showed a larger D 0 and anti-n compared to the bone marrow CFU. No repair of potentially lethal radiation damage (PLDR) was found after 4.5 Gy in plateau phase Ewing's sarcoma cells. A theoretical split dose survival curve for both the Ewing's sarcoma lines and human bone marrow CFUc using this TBI schedule shows a significantly lower surviving fraction (10 -4 -10 -5 ) for the bone marrow CFUc. Based on these in vitro results, two 4.0 Gy fractions separated by 24 hours is proposed as the TBI regimen. Because of the potentially irreversible damage to bone marrow, autologous bone marrow transplantation following the TBI is felt to be necessary. The details of this clinical protocol in high risk Ewing's sarcoma patients are outlined

  7. Bone marrow transplantation in the patients with malignant tumor. Studies on supralethal total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuno, Ikuro; Saito, Yasuo

    1984-11-01

    Based on evidence gained from ten patients of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and eight patients of autologous BMT, recent knowledge on literatures of BMT and total body irradiation (TBI) is summarized. Interstitial pneumonia after BMT has a strong correlation with TBI. Low dose-rate and fractionation of TBI are seemed to reduce the lung injury, thereby reducing the incidence of nonleukemia deaths. BMT is applied to not only acute leukemia, malignant lymphoma and solid tumors but also to chronic leukemia. It is emphasized that several of the important prognostic factors are within the control of the transplantation team.

  8. Quantitative studies on the effects of radiophosphorus (P-32) on bone marrow of Swiss albino mice during postnatal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A; Srivastava, P N [Rajasthan Univ., Jaipur (India). Radiation Biology Lab.

    1977-11-01

    Radiophosphorus was injected to mice at various stages of development (1 day, 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks) at the dose-rate of 1.0 ..mu..Ci/g body weight. Animals were autopsied at weekly intervals upto six weeks and quantitative study of pronormoblast, normoblast, granulocyte and lymphocyte counts have been made. The erythroid cells show rapid decrease in their percentage due to irradiation. The myeloid cells undergo accelerated maturation resulting in increased percentage of segmented forms in bone marrow. The percentage of lymphocytes is also decreased. The regeneration sets in and a normal picture is seen by the time the animals become adult.

  9. Irradiation of the red bone marrow and the health implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physiology and function of the bone is looked at as to the role in housing bone marrow. The bone marrow and particularly the red bone marrow is discussed. Sources of radiation are discussed and the health implications highlighted for caution and for study or evaluation. Key Words: Bone marrow, Irradiation, Radiation, ...

  10. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR agonists suppress interleukin-6 expression by bone marrow stromal cells: an immunotoxicology study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlezinger Jennifer J

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone marrow stromal cells produce cytokines required for the normal growth and development of all eight hematopoietic cell lineages. Aberrant cytokine production by stromal cells contributes to blood cell dyscrasias. Consequently, factors that alter stromal cell cytokine production may significantly compromise the development of normal blood cells. We have shown that environmental chemicals, such as aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR agonists, suppress B lymphopoiesis by modulating bone marrow stromal cell function. Here, we extend these studies to evaluate the potential for two prototypic AhR agonists, 7,12-dimethylbenz [a]anthracene (DMBA and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, to alter stromal cell cytokine responses. Methods Bone marrow stromal cells were treated with AhR agonists and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS to mimic innate inflammatory cytokine responses and to study the effects of AhR ligands on those responses. Steady state cytokine RNA levels were screened by RNAse protection assays (RPA and quantified by real-time PCR. Cytokine (IL-6 protein production was measured by ELISA. NF-κB EMSAs were used to study IL-6 transcriptional regulation. Results RPAs indicated that AhR+ bone marrow stromal cells consistently up-regulated genes encoding IL-6 and LIF in response to LPS, presumably through activation of Toll-like receptor 4. Pre-treatment with low doses of DMBA or TCDD selectively abrogated IL-6 gene induction but had no effect on LIF mRNA. Real-time-PCR indicated a significant inhibition of IL-6 mRNA by AhR ligands within 1 hour of LPS challenge which was reflected in a profound down-regulation of IL-6 protein induction, with DMBA and TCDD suppressing IL-6 levels as much as 65% and 88%, respectively. This potent inhibitory effect persisted for at least 72 hours. EMSAs measuring NF-κB binding to IL-6 promoter sequences, an event known to induce IL-6 transcription, indicated a significant decrease in

  11. Effect of human milk on blood and bone marrow cells in a malnourished mice model; comparative study with cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Isabel; Salva, Susana; Zelaya, Hortensia; Villena, Julio; Agüero, Graciela

    2013-11-01

    It has been demonstrated that the alterations caused by nutrient deficiency can be reverted by adequate nutritional repletion. To perform comparative studies between human and cow milks in order to evaluate the impact of both milks on the recovery of blood and bone marrow cells affected in malnourished mice. Weaned mice were malnourished after consuming a protein free diet for 21 days. Malnourished mice received cow or human milk (CM or HM) for 7 or 14 consecutive days. During the period of administration of milk, the mice consumed the protein free diet ad libitum. The malnourished control (MNC) group received only protein free diet whereas the wellnourished control (WNC) mice consumed the balanced conventional diet. Both milks normalized serum albumin levels and improved thymus weight. Human milk was less effective than cow milk to increase body weight and serum transferrin levels. In contrast, human milk was more effective than cow milk to increase the number of leukocytes (WNC: 6.90 ± 1.60a; MNC: 2.80 ± 0.90b; CM 7d: 3.74 ± 1.10b; HM 7d: 7.16 ± 1.90a; CM 14d: 4.35 ± 1.20b; HM 14d: 6.75 ± 1.20a (109/L); p milks induced an increment in mitotic pool cells in bone marrow and α-naphthyl butyrate esterase positive cells in peripheral blood. They also normalized phagocytic function in blood neutrophils and oxidative burst in peritoneal cells. Both milks were equally effective to exert favorable effects on the number of the bone marrow cells and the functions of the blood and peritoneal cells involved in immune response. However, only human milk normalized the number of leukocytes and increased the number of neutrophils in peripheral blood. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of vaccination with Bordetella pertussis cells on haemopoiesis in sublethally irradiated mice and their radiation lethality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiek, S.; Bitny-Szlachto, S.

    1978-01-01

    Post-irradiation lethality of CFW mice has turned out to be enhanced by vaccination with Bordetella pertussis cells 10 min., 48 hrs. prior or 48 hrs. after the exposure to X-rays. The sensitization factor was found to be 1.23, as it revealed by decrease of radiation LD 50 . Granulopoiesis and erythropoiesis proved to be stimulated by vaccination, in mice irradiated with 200 or 400 R but not in those after 600 R. Direct radiosensitivity of CFU was not altered by vaccination, but the subsequent loss of bone marrow stem cells was enhanced in vaccinated mice. On the other hand, endocolonization of spleens with bone marrow stem cells has turned out to be highly enhanced by the vaccine, resulting in confluent growth of colonies. This effect of the vaccine was not abolished by hydroxyurea given 15 min. or 1 hr. after vaccination. Enhanced post-irradiation lethality is considered to result from fall of the bone marrow stem cell pool below the level indispensable to ensure the post-irradiation recovery of the haemopoietic system. (author)

  13. CYTOGENETIC STUDIES OF THREE TRIAZINE HERBICIDES II. IN VIVO MICRONUCLEUS STUDIES IN MOUSE BONE MARROW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atrazine, simazine, and cyanazine are widely used preemergence and postemergence triazine herbicides that have made their way into the potable water supply of many agricultural communities. There are several contradictory studies in the literature. Our previous in vitro studies...

  14. MRI in bone marrow lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, A.; Theissen, P.; Schauerte, G.; Schicha, H.; Diehl, V.

    1989-01-01

    MRI has the potential to demonstrate bone marrow pathology due to its good soft tissue contrast. Inflammation and necrosis can be detected very early before there is evidence of radiological changes. In bone tumors intramedullary infiltration can be visualized in addition to soft tissue changes. Metastases of bone and bone marrow, especially in spinal and pelvic regions, are well depicted, often before bone scintigraphy yields pathological findings. In haematological disorders MRI permits follow-up studies due to its good reproducibility. Infiltration by malignant lymphoma and multiple myeloma and its extension in bone marrow can be visualized by MRI, too. However, the most common pathological MRI findings in bone marrow are not very specific, and final diagnosis requires further clinical or histological information. (orig.) [de

  15. The experimental study on tropism of magnetic labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shuangqing; Wang Peijun; Li Minghua; Zhang Wei; Dai gonghua

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To label rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) and to explore the tropism of BMSCs for hepatocellular carcinoma cells after transplantation in vivo. Methods: BMSCs from bone marrow of Sprague-Dawly (SD) rats were cultured isolated and purified. Labeled BMSCs was achieved using Feridex. Twenty-four hepatocellular carcinoma models of SD rats were induced two weeks before transplantation. The models were divided into three groups in random: the labeled BMSCs and unlabeled BMSCs were transplanted respectively into the rat's livers of experimental group (n=12) and control group A (n=6) via spleens, and no transplant was done for control group B (n=6). MR imaging was performed to monitor the transplanted cells after 1,3,7,14 d using 1.5 T MR system. Signal intensity ratio (SI/SI * ) between tumor and hepatic tissue on T 2 * WI were measured and compared by one-factor analysis of variance. After MR imaging, Prussian blue staining was performed. MR imaging findings were compared with histological sections. Results: Prussian blue staining confirmed the labeling efficiency of BMSCs was above 90%. SI/SI * of experimental group before and 1, 3, 7, 14 d after transplantation were 3.18±0.21, 1.98±0.20, 2.38±0.28, 2.70±0.25 and 3.16±0.24 respectively. Following transplantation of BMSCs, signal intensity decrease was found in hepatocellular carcinoma of experimental group (F=56.65, P 2 * WI (P>0.05). A large number of Prussian blue staining positive cells were found in hepatocellular carcinoma in experimental group. Histological section with Prussian blue staining had a good correlation with the signal intensity changes on MR images at different time. Conclusion: BMSCs display significant tropism to hepatocellular carcinoma and may be an ideal gene therapy vehicle against hepatocellular carcinoma. (authors)

  16. Effect of K and Mg salts of aspartic acid on haemopoiesis and recovery from radiation damage in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospisil, M.; Netikova, J.; Pipalova, I.; Mikeska, J.

    1980-01-01

    Male mice of non-inbred strain ''H'' were used to test the effect of a 10-day peroral administration of K and Mg aspartates on haemopoietic functions. The salts were proved to stimulate the proliferation and differentiation processes in the thymus, bone marrow and spleen tissues. Mice exposed to a single whole-body X-irradiation after pretreatment with K, Mg aspartate exhibited a more conspicuous postirradiation regeneration of haemopoietic organs and an increased postirradiation survival. The results suggest the possibility of using K, Mg aspartate for radioprotective purposes. (author)

  17. The study of indicators of bone marrow and peripheral blood of rats with diabetes and transplanted liver tumor after intravenous injection of gold nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikht, Nataliya I.; Bucharskaya, Alla B.; Maslyakova, Galina N.; Terentyuk, Georgy S.; Matveeva, Olga V.; Navolokin, Nikita A.; Khlebtsov, Boris N.; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.

    2015-03-01

    In study the evaluation of the influence of gold nanorods on morphological indicators of red bone marrow and peripheral blood of rats with diabetes and transplanted liver tumor after intravenous administration of gold nanorods was conducted. We used gold nanorods with length 41 ± 8 nm and diameter of 10.2±2 nm, synthesized in the laboratory of nanobiotechnology IBPPM RAS (Saratov). After intravenous administration of gold nanorods the decrease of leukocytes, platelets and lymphocytes was observed in animals of control group in blood. It was marked the decrease of the number of mature cellular elements of the leukocyte germ in bone marrow - stab neutrophils and segmented leukocytes, and the increase of immature elements- metamyelocytes, indicating the activation of leukocyte germ after nanoparticle administration. The decrease of leukocyte amount was noted in blood and the increase of cellular elements of the leukocyte germ was revealed in bone marrow, indicating the activation of leukocyte germ in rats with alloxan diabetes and transplanted tumors. The changes of morphological indicators of blood and bone marrow testify about stimulation of myelocytic sprouts of hemopoiesis in bone marrow as a result of reduction of mature cells in peripheral blood after gold nanoparticle administration.

  18. Experimental study of low dose radiation stimulate the haematogenesis reconstitution of the recipient after bone marrow transplantation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Liyuan; Yang Shun; Zhang Ye; Zhang Mingzhi; Jiang Jiagui; Jiang Jianping

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate if low dose radiation can stimulate the haematogenesis reconstitution of the recipient after bone marrow transplantation in mice. Methods: Bone marrow cells were irradiated in vitro by different low dose radiation and then cultured in vitro. 3 H-TdR incorporation was used to measure the reproductive activity of cells, and then the radiation dose with the best stimulating effect was determined. The donator myeloid cells were exposed to low dose radiation before the recipient mice received bone marrow transplantation; then the irradiated myeloid cells were infused to the recipient; and lastly, the counts of peripheral blood cells (PBC) and bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNC) were monitored in order to observe the effect of low dose radiation on haematogenesis reconstitution of the recipient animal after bone marrow transplantation. Results: The reproductive activity of the bone marrow cells irradiated by 6 and 8 cGy could be improved significantly in vitro. When the recipient mice received bone marrow transplantation of the myeloid cells after low dose radiation, the counts of BMMNC and PBC were higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusions: Low dose radiation can stimulate the haematogenesis reconstitution of the recipient after bone marrow transplantation. (authors)

  19. Study of thermoluminescence and semiconductors in dosimetry. Application of dosimetry of the whole body in view of bone marrow grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naudy, Suzanne.

    1981-05-01

    From this study one deduces that thermoluminescence remains the moss reliable process for the measurement of dose in vivo: precision, reproducibility and easy calibration. The semiconductors do not present the quality needed to a reliable use in dosimetry. The limits of each techniques have been established in our study, we have applied them simultaneously in dosimetric irradiations of the whole body in view of bone marrow grafting. Semiconductors allow to follow the irradiation and to intervene instantaneously if necessary, thermoluminescent dosimeter insure precise knowledge of the delivered dose. One hundred and ten patients have been treated before bone narrow grafting at the Gustave Roussy Institut and fifty two of them render account of the results obtained with this experimental dosimetric protocol [fr

  20. Chromosome studies on bone marrow cells of chinese hamsters fed a radiosterilized diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, H.W.

    1977-01-01

    Metaphase preparations of chromosomes from bone marrow cells of Chinese hamsters were examined for mutagenic effects following the feeding of a radiosterilized diet. No increase in the incidence of structural chromosomal aberrations was observed. As far as numerical aberrations were concerned, the proportion of cells with polyploidy increased to between 4 to 5 times the control level, irrespective of the moisture content of the diet. This polyploidy effect occurred very early, being detectable within 24 h, if the diet fed had been irradiated with an absorbed dose of 4.5x10 6 rad. The incidence of polyploidy remained below 0.5%, however, nor did it rise with higher radiation doses. When the feeding of the irradiated diet was stopped, the proportion of polyploid cells returned to the control level within a maximum of 6 weeks. If the diet was stored (initially) for 6 weeks following irradiation before being fed to the animals no increase in the number of polyploid cells was noted. These results are not interpreted as a mutagenic effect of the irradiated diet. (author)

  1. Initial study of optimal single-voxel 1H-MR spectroscopy parameters on femoral bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhenhua; Meng Quanfei; Zhou Chunxiang; Lin Erjian; Deng Demao

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To choose proper proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) parameters to fit for practical femoral marrow cavity and to produce short-timed, well-repeated and excellent 1 H-MRS images. Methods: The tentative study of 1 H-MRS on the normal femoral bone marrow in 26 volunteers was performed with a 1.5 T MR after the informed consent. The single-voxel spectroscopy and stimulated echo acquisition mode were used for 1 H-MRS collection. 1 H-MRS parameters for 12 volunteers were 128 acquisitions, 1 cm x 1 cm x 1 cm volume of interest (VOI) size and repeatedly 2-3 times within the same location. 1 H-MRS parameters for another 14 volunteers were different numbers of acquisition (128 and 256 times, respectively) and different VOl sizes (2 cm x2 cm x2 cm and 1 cm x 1 cm x 1 cm, respectively). Results: For 1 H-MRS with 1 cm x 1 cm x 1 cm size of VOI and 128 times of acquisition with the full width half max of water ≤8-12 Hz, the base-line was steady and the signal-noise ratio was high up to 11.31. 1 H-MRS was different in the different femoral locations showing the maximum peak sites at near 0.90 ppm( x 10 -6 ) or 1.65 ppm, but 1 H-MRS within the same location was always same or similar with different VOI sizes (1 cm x 1 cm x 1 cm or 2 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm) or different numbers of acquisition(128 or 256 times). 1 H-MRS acquisition time was not related with the size of VOI but with the numbers of acquisition. 128 and 256 times of acquisition cost 199 s and 391 s, respectively. Conclusion: With the technique of small size of VOI(1 cm x 1 cm x 1 cm) and decreased numbers of acquisition (128 times), it is propable to get well-repeated and excellent 1 H-MRS within less time. It is also more practical for clinics to achieve 1 H-MRS of the femoral marrow with the proper technique. (authors)

  2. Intracoronary infusion of autologous mononuclear bone marrow cells in patients with acute myocardial infarction treated with primary PCI : Pilot study of the multicenter HEBE trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirsch, Alexander; Nijveldt, Robin; van der Vleuten, Pieter A.; Tio, Rene A.; van der Giessen, Willem J.; Marques, Koen M. J.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Waltenberger, Johannes; ten Berg, Jurrien M.; Aengevaeren, Wim R. M.; Biemond, Bart J.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; van Rossum, Albert C.; Piek, Jan J.; Zijlstra, Felix

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study was a pilot trial to determine safety and feasibility of intracoronary infusion of mononuclear bone marrow cells (MBMC) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI). Background: Studies reporting the effect of MBMC therapy on improvement of left ventricular (LV) function

  3. Extended flow cytometry characterization of normal bone marrow progenitor cells by simultaneous detection of aldehyde dehydrogenase and early hematopoietic antigens: implication for erythroid differentiation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascariello Caterina

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH is a cytosolic enzyme highly expressed in hematopoietic precursors from cord blood and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor mobilized peripheral blood, as well as in bone marrow from patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia. As regards human normal bone marrow, detailed characterization of ALDH+ cells has been addressed by one single study (Gentry et al, 2007. The goal of our work was to provide new information about the dissection of normal bone marrow progenitor cells based upon the simultaneous detection by flow cytometry of ALDH and early hematopoietic antigens, with particular attention to the expression of ALDH on erythroid precursors. To this aim, we used three kinds of approach: i multidimensional analytical flow cytometry, detecting ALDH and early hematopoietic antigens in normal bone marrow; ii fluorescence activated cell sorting of distinct subpopulations of progenitor cells, followed by in vitro induction of erythroid differentiation; iii detection of ALDH+ cellular subsets in bone marrow from pure red cell aplasia patients. Results In normal bone marrow, we identified three populations of cells, namely ALDH+CD34+, ALDH-CD34+ and ALDH+CD34- (median percentages were 0.52, 0.53 and 0.57, respectively. As compared to ALDH-CD34+ cells, ALDH+CD34+ cells expressed the phenotypic profile of primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells, with brighter expression of CD117 and CD133, accompanied by lower display of CD38 and CD45RA. Of interest, ALDH+CD34- population disclosed a straightforward erythroid commitment, on the basis of three orders of evidences. First of all, ALDH+CD34- cells showed a CD71bright, CD105+, CD45- phenotype. Secondly, induction of differentiation experiments evidenced a clear-cut expression of glycophorin A (CD235a. Finally, ALDH+CD34- precursors were not detectable in patients with pure red cell aplasia (PRCA. Conclusion Our study, comparing surface antigen expression of

  4. Comparative study of adipose-derived stem cells and bone marrow-derived stem cells in similar microenvironmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guneta, Vipra [Division of Materials Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Tan, Nguan Soon [School of Biological Science, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); KK Research Centre, KK Women' s and Children Hospital, 100 Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 229899 (Singapore); Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Agency for Science Technology & Research - A*STAR, 61 Biopolis Drive, Proteos, Singapore 138673 (Singapore); Chan, Soon Kiat Jeremy [School of Biological Science, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Tanavde, Vivek [Bioinformatics Institute, Agency for Science Technology & Research - A*STAR, 30 Biopolis Street, Matrix, Singapore 138671 (Singapore); Lim, Thiam Chye [Division of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Department of Surgery, National University Hospital (NUH) and National University of Singapore (NUS), Kent Ridge Wing, Singapore 119074 (Singapore); Wong, Thien Chong Marcus [Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery Section, Tan Tock Seng Hospital (TTSH), 11, Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore 308433 (Singapore); Choong, Cleo, E-mail: cleochoong@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Materials Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); KK Research Centre, KK Women' s and Children Hospital, 100 Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 229899 (Singapore)

    2016-11-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which were first isolated from the bone marrow, are now being extracted from various other tissues in the body, including the adipose tissue. The current study presents systematic evidence of how the adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Bm-MSCs) behave when cultured in specific pro-adipogenic microenvironments. The cells were first characterized and identified as MSCs in terms of their morphology, phenotypic expression, self-renewal capabilities and multi-lineage potential. Subsequently, the proliferation and gene expression profiles of the cell populations cultured on two-dimensional (2D) adipose tissue extracellular matrix (ECM)-coated tissue culture plastic (TCP) and in three-dimensional (3D) AlgiMatrix® microenvironments were analyzed. Overall, it was found that adipogenesis was triggered in both cell populations due to the presence of adipose tissue ECM. However, in 3D microenvironments, ASCs and Bm-MSCs were predisposed to the adipogenic and osteogenic lineages respectively. Overall, findings from this study will contribute to ongoing efforts in adipose tissue engineering as well as provide new insights into the role of the ECM and cues provided by the immediate microenvironment for stem cell differentiation. - Highlights: • Native adipose tissue ECM coated on 2D TCP triggers adipogenesis in both ASCs and Bm-MSCs. • A 3D microenvironment with similar stiffness to adipose tissue induces adipogenic differentiation of ASCs. • ASCs cultured in 3D alginate scaffolds exhibit predisposition to adipogenesis. • Bm-MSCs cultured in 3D alginate scaffolds exhibit predisposition to osteogenesis. • The native microenvironment of the cells affects their differentiation behaviour in vitro.

  5. Nosocomial coagulase-negative staphylococcal infections in bone marrow transplantation recipients with central vein catheter. A 5-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhard, D; Elishoov, H; Strauss, N; Naparstek, E; Nagler, A; Simhon, A; Raveh, D; Slavin, S; Or, R

    1996-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine coagulase-negative staphylococcal infections in bone marrow transplantation (BMT) patients with central vein catheters by investigating incidence, clinical relevance, risk factors, methicillin resistance, clinical impact of initial empiric antimicrobial therapy without vancomycin, and management of documented catheter-related infections. A 5-year prospective study was conducted with daily evaluation of 242 BMT patients during hospitalization, including clinical assessment and blood culture via the Hickman/Broviac catheter. If fever or infected appearance occurred, peripheral blood cultures or exit site cultures, respectively, were done. Results showed a septicemia incidence of 7.0%, including in 6 patients following colonization, in 1 patient with tunnel infection, in 1 patient with thrombophlebitis, in 1 patient with exit site infection, and in 8 patients with septicemia of unknown origin. Total colonization incidence was 7%, with colonization only in 11 patients who had 16 episodes; incidence of exit site infection was 3.7%. Age > or = 18 years was the only identified risk factor for developing staphylococcal infection (P = 0.03). Despite a methicillin resistance rate of 45% and omission of vancomycin from the routine initial empiric antimicrobial regimen, the clinical course of coagulase-negative staphylococcal infections was relatively benign. A single patient, who experienced marrow rejection, died on day +31 with septicemia and only one patient experienced microbiological failure with recurrent colonization. Bacteria grown in both aerobic and anaerobic bottles were more likely true bacteremia than contaminant (P = 0.03). We conclude that the hazard of coagulase-negative staphylococcal infection does not mandate inclusion of a glycopeptide in the initial empiric antimicrobial regimen in BMT patients, even during febrile neutropenia. Hickman/Broviac-related staphylococcal infections, except for tunnel infection or

  6. Motivations, experiences, and perspectives of bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cell donors: thematic synthesis of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Maria C; Chapman, Jeremy R; Shaw, Peter J; Gottlieb, David J; Ralph, Angelique; Craig, Jonathan C; Tong, Allison

    2013-07-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation using bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cells is a lifesaving treatment for patients with leukemia or other blood disorders. However, donors face the risk of physical and psychosocial complications. We aimed to synthesize qualitative studies on the experiences and perspectives of HSC donors. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Google Scholar, and reference lists of relevant articles to November 13, 2012. Thematic synthesis was used to analyze the findings. Thirty studies involving 1552 donors were included. The decision to donate included themes of saving life, family loyalty, building a positive identity, religious conviction, fear of invasive procedures, and social pressure and obligation. Five themes about the donation experience were identified: mental preparedness (pervasive pain, intense disappointment over recipient death, exceeding expectations, and valuing positive recipient gains), burden of responsibility (striving to be a quality donor, unresolved guilt, and exacerbated grief), feeling neglected (medical dismissiveness and family inattention), strengthened relationships (stronger family ties, establishing blood bonds), and personal sense of achievement (satisfaction and pride, personal development, hero status, and social recognition). Although HSC donation was appreciated as an opportunity to save life, some donors felt anxious and unduly compelled to donate. HSC donors became emotionally invested and felt responsible for their recipient's outcomes and were profoundly grieved and disappointed if the transplantation was unsuccessful. To maximize donor satisfaction and mitigate the psychosocial risks for HSC donors, strategies to address the emotional challenges of anxiety, sense of coercion, guilt, and grief in donors are warranted. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative study of adipose-derived stem cells and bone marrow-derived stem cells in similar microenvironmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guneta, Vipra; Tan, Nguan Soon; Chan, Soon Kiat Jeremy; Tanavde, Vivek; Lim, Thiam Chye; Wong, Thien Chong Marcus; Choong, Cleo

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which were first isolated from the bone marrow, are now being extracted from various other tissues in the body, including the adipose tissue. The current study presents systematic evidence of how the adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Bm-MSCs) behave when cultured in specific pro-adipogenic microenvironments. The cells were first characterized and identified as MSCs in terms of their morphology, phenotypic expression, self-renewal capabilities and multi-lineage potential. Subsequently, the proliferation and gene expression profiles of the cell populations cultured on two-dimensional (2D) adipose tissue extracellular matrix (ECM)-coated tissue culture plastic (TCP) and in three-dimensional (3D) AlgiMatrix® microenvironments were analyzed. Overall, it was found that adipogenesis was triggered in both cell populations due to the presence of adipose tissue ECM. However, in 3D microenvironments, ASCs and Bm-MSCs were predisposed to the adipogenic and osteogenic lineages respectively. Overall, findings from this study will contribute to ongoing efforts in adipose tissue engineering as well as provide new insights into the role of the ECM and cues provided by the immediate microenvironment for stem cell differentiation. - Highlights: • Native adipose tissue ECM coated on 2D TCP triggers adipogenesis in both ASCs and Bm-MSCs. • A 3D microenvironment with similar stiffness to adipose tissue induces adipogenic differentiation of ASCs. • ASCs cultured in 3D alginate scaffolds exhibit predisposition to adipogenesis. • Bm-MSCs cultured in 3D alginate scaffolds exhibit predisposition to osteogenesis. • The native microenvironment of the cells affects their differentiation behaviour in vitro.

  8. Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cell reactions to 316L stainless steel : An in vitro study on cell viability and interleukin-6 expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anwar, I.B.; Santoso, A.; Saputra, E.; Ismail, R.; Jamari, J.; van der Heide, E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cell (hBMC) reactions to 316L stainless steel (316L-SS) have never been evaluated. The objective of this study was to assess cell viability and interleukin-6 expression of hBMC cultures upon treatment with a 316L-SS implant. Methods: A cytotoxicity

  9. Bone marrow morphology and disease progression in congenital thrombocytopenia: a detailed clinicopathologic and genetic study of eight cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Hamilton C; Bussel, James B; Mathew, Susan; Liu, Yen-Chun; Imahiyerobo, Allison A; Orazi, Attilio; Geyer, Julia T

    2017-04-01

    Patients with congenital thrombocytopenia have an increased risk of developing myeloid neoplasms. In these cases, the morphologic distinction between disease at baseline and at progression is challenging. This report analyzes clinicopathologic features of congenital thrombocytopenia with long-term follow-up at one referral center. Records from the last 20 years were searched for cases of congenital thrombocytopenia with bone marrow biopsies and peripheral blood smears. The clinical, morphologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular features were analyzed. Six adult and two pediatric patients were identified (six male, two female). Age range at first biopsy was 1-47 (median, 31) years. Underlying diseases included thrombocytopenia-absent radius syndrome, congenital thrombocytopenia with radial-ulnar synostosis, MYH9-related disorder, shortened telomere syndrome, congenital thrombocytopenia with ANKRD26 mutation, and familial platelet disorder with predisposition to acute myeloid leukemia. Four patients had myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm-like marrow changes such as hypercellularity, increased myeloid to erythroid ratio, numerous micromegakaryocytes (highlighted by CD42b), and marrow fibrosis. Two patients had marrow hypoplasia and two had unremarkable marrow morphology. Three patients-all in the myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm-like group-developed disease progression characterized by erythroid and myeloid dysplasia, elevated bone marrow blasts, and new cytogenetic abnormalities. Unlike non-familial myeloid neoplasms, congenital thrombocytopenia patients in the myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm-like group had a long and indolent clinical course (average age at disease progression, 47 years). In summary, three distinct morphologic types of congenital thrombocytopenia were identified: a hyperplastic myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm-like group, a hypoplastic bone marrow failure-like group, and a group with relatively normal marrow

  10. Cytogenetic and morphological assessment of bone marrow in therapeutic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, U.; Das, B.P.; Singhal, R.M.; Radhakrishnaiah, Y.; Rath, G.K.; Padmaraju, I.; Bhargava, V.L.

    1978-01-01

    Morphological and cytogenetic study from the irradiated bone marrow, in 59 cases of radically irradiated carcinoma cervix was done. Regeneration of a marrow adjudged on cellular morphology was after 12 months whereas cytogenetic studies revealed it at the end of three months. It is concluded that cytogenetic study is a more sensitive parameter in assessing the recovery of bone marrow. (author)

  11. Comparative study of the chondrogenic potential of human bone marrow stromal cells, neonatal chondrocytes and adult chondrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Sushmita; Kirkham, Jennifer; Wood, David; Curran, Stephen; Yang, Xuebin

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → This study has characterised three different cell types under conditions similar to those used for autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) for applications in cartilage repair/regeneration. → Compared for the first time the chondrogenic potential of neonatal chondrocytes with human bone marrow stromal cells (HBMSCs) and adult chondrocytes. → Demonstrated that adult chondrocytes hold greatest potential for use in ACI based on their higher proliferation rates, lower alkaline phosphatise activity and enhanced expression of chondrogenic genes. → Demonstrated the need for chondroinduction as a necessary pre-requisite to efficient chondrogenesis in vitro and, by extrapolation, for cell based therapy (e.g. ACI or cartilage tissue engineering). -- Abstract: Cartilage tissue engineering is still a major clinical challenge with optimisation of a suitable source of cells for cartilage repair/regeneration not yet fully addressed. The aims of this study were to compare and contrast the differences in chondrogenic behaviour between human bone marrow stromal cells (HBMSCs), human neonatal and adult chondrocytes to further our understanding of chondroinduction relative to cell maturity and to identify factors that promote chondrogenesis and maintain functional homoeostasis. Cells were cultured in monolayer in either chondrogenic or basal medium, recapitulating procedures used in existing clinical procedures for cell-based therapies. Cell doubling time, morphology and alkaline phosphatase specific activity (ALPSA) were determined at different time points. Expression of chondrogenic markers (SOX9, ACAN and COL2A1) was compared via real time polymerase chain reaction. Amongst the three cell types studied, HBMSCs had the highest ALPSA in basal culture and lowest ALPSA in chondrogenic media. Neonatal chondrocytes were the most proliferative and adult chondrocytes had the lowest ALPSA in basal media. Gene expression analysis revealed a difference in the

  12. Comparative study of the chondrogenic potential of human bone marrow stromal cells, neonatal chondrocytes and adult chondrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Sushmita [Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Group, Leeds Dental Institute, University of Leeds, LS29LU (United Kingdom); Kirkham, Jennifer [Biomineralisation Group, Leeds Dental Institute, University of Leeds, LS29LU (United Kingdom); NIHR Leeds Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit, University of Leeds, Chapel Allerton Hospital, Leeds LS74SA (United Kingdom); Wood, David [Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Group, Leeds Dental Institute, University of Leeds, LS29LU (United Kingdom); Curran, Stephen [Smith and Nephew Research Centre, YO105DF (United Kingdom); Yang, Xuebin, E-mail: X.B.Yang@leeds.ac.uk [Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Group, Leeds Dental Institute, University of Leeds, LS29LU (United Kingdom); NIHR Leeds Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit, University of Leeds, Chapel Allerton Hospital, Leeds LS74SA (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields} This study has characterised three different cell types under conditions similar to those used for autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) for applications in cartilage repair/regeneration. {yields} Compared for the first time the chondrogenic potential of neonatal chondrocytes with human bone marrow stromal cells (HBMSCs) and adult chondrocytes. {yields} Demonstrated that adult chondrocytes hold greatest potential for use in ACI based on their higher proliferation rates, lower alkaline phosphatise activity and enhanced expression of chondrogenic genes. {yields} Demonstrated the need for chondroinduction as a necessary pre-requisite to efficient chondrogenesis in vitro and, by extrapolation, for cell based therapy (e.g. ACI or cartilage tissue engineering). -- Abstract: Cartilage tissue engineering is still a major clinical challenge with optimisation of a suitable source of cells for cartilage repair/regeneration not yet fully addressed. The aims of this study were to compare and contrast the differences in chondrogenic behaviour between human bone marrow stromal cells (HBMSCs), human neonatal and adult chondrocytes to further our understanding of chondroinduction relative to cell maturity and to identify factors that promote chondrogenesis and maintain functional homoeostasis. Cells were cultured in monolayer in either chondrogenic or basal medium, recapitulating procedures used in existing clinical procedures for cell-based therapies. Cell doubling time, morphology and alkaline phosphatase specific activity (ALPSA) were determined at different time points. Expression of chondrogenic markers (SOX9, ACAN and COL2A1) was compared via real time polymerase chain reaction. Amongst the three cell types studied, HBMSCs had the highest ALPSA in basal culture and lowest ALPSA in chondrogenic media. Neonatal chondrocytes were the most proliferative and adult chondrocytes had the lowest ALPSA in basal media. Gene expression analysis revealed

  13. Pericyte coverage of abnormal blood vessels in myelofibrotic bone marrows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zetterberg, Eva; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Migliaccio, Anna Rita

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Myelofibrotic bone marrow displays abnormal angiogenesis but the pathogenic mechanisms of this are poorly understood. Since pericyte abnormalities are described on solid tumor vessels we studied whether vessel morphology and pericyte coverage in bone marrow samples from...

  14. Autologous Bone Marrow Stem Cells in Spinal Cord Injury; Our Experience in Clinical Studies, Animal Studies, Obstacles faced and steps for future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyappan S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Following traumatic vertebral injuries and resultant spinal cord injury, most patients are doomed to a life either of quadriplegia or paraplegia. Current treatment option is limited to the stabilization of the vertebral fracture along with medications to prevent secondary damage leading to further deterioration and wishful waiting for recovery. In most instances recovery is insignificant. Safety of intrathecal injection of autologous bone marrow stem cells is proven but its efficacy varies between patients (1. Intralesional application has been reported to be more efficacious than intrathecal application (2, 3, 4. We have analyzed our experience in human patients followed up for 3 year period and have found several grey areas in spinal cord injury(5 one of them is to explore the differences between Intrathecal and intralesional application of stem cells with and without scaffolds in the latter technique. Towards achieving this goal we started a pilot study in animals where instead of post-vertebral fixation intrathecal injection, we have performed intralesional application of autologous BMSC along with scaffolds (6. These scaffolds not only help retain the transplanted cells at the site of injury but also allow more neural precursors to grow compared to application without scaffolds (7. This study analyses the data retrospectively to plan further prospective studies with a view to improvise the results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study 1 : 100 to 120 ml of Bone marrow was tapped from the right posterior iliac crest under local anesthesia from human spinal injury victims (n=108; 76 males, 32 females about 3 weeks to 18 months after surgical fixation of the vertebrae. The Level of injury was varied- Cervical (13 patients. Upper Thorax- T1-T7 (35 patients Lower thorax T8-T12 (46 patients Lumbar (2 patients. Age Group Range: 8 yrs to 55 yrs. The bone marrow mononuclear cells were processed under cGMP SOP’s Class 10000 clean room and class

  15. Survival of allografts from bone marrow donors in temporary dog radiation chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vriesendorp, H.M.

    Complete radiation chimeras accept indefinitely a skin or a kidney graft from the bone marrow (BM) donor. The advantages of this method of inducing graft acceptance are that it does not require the use of toxic post-operative immunosuppressive agents and that the immune reactivity against antigens other than the ones carried by the BM donor remains intact. The disadvantages of this approach are that supralethal total body irradiation (TBI) causes toxicity and that allogeneic BM cells can cause lethal Graft versus Host reactions. Attempts were made to diminish the significance of these disadvantages by using lower dose TBI and giving fewer BM cells. It is shown that, in dogs, 7.5 Gy TBI followed by 4 X 10 8 BM cells.kg -1 body weight of a DLA identical sibling leads to the development of complete radiation chimeras. The exclusive presence of donor type haemopoiesis can be demonstrated by determinations of 'informative' genetic markers, i.e., markers that show different genotypes in donor and recipient. (Auth.)

  16. Inherited Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes (IBMFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI IBMFS Cohort Study consists of affected individuals and their immediate families in North America who have an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome (IBMFS)-either one that has been specifically identified and defined, or bone marrow failure that appears to be inherited but has not yet been clearly identified as having a genetic basis.

  17. Different expression of MIB1 in primary site of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and its bone marrow deposits, a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malysz J

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Jozef Malysz,1 Juanita J Evans,2 Malcolm Acon-Laws,3 Michael G Bayerl,1 Michael H Creer1 1Department of Pathology, Penn State Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, 2Department of Pathology, St. John Heath – Providence, Southfield, MI, USA; 3Laboratorio de Patologia Hospital Cima, San Jose, Costa Rica Abstract: Evaluation of mindbomb E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 (MIB1 (Ki67 proliferation index (PI in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas is increasingly a common addition to classification of lymphoma and staging procedures. Clinicians relay on PI as a surrogate marker of biologic activity; however, no established guidelines have been published whether PI at the primary site of the tumor gives the same answer as evaluation of tumor in staging marrow. In our study, dual immunohistochemical staining for MIB1 and CD20 was performed on tissue from primary site and bone marrow involved by B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma to compare PI for each individual patient. For all patients, MIB1 expression was higher at primary tumor site as compared to staging marrow. Additional analysis was performed to investigate the degree of difference depending on lymphoma morphology. Patients with large cell lymphoma at the primary site and large cell morphology in the marrow (LCL-L, those with large cell morphology at the primary site and small cell morphology in the marrow (LCL-S, and those with small cell morphology at the primary site and small cells in the marrow (SCL-S were compared. As expected, LCL cases had a higher mean PI at the primary site when compared to SCL cases (28.5% vs 2.8%, P=0.0001. In addition, the most significant difference between medullary and extramedullary PI was observed in cases with discordant morphology (LCL-S (21% vs 1.1%, P=0.009. Our results indicate that PI of lymphoma within the bone marrow should not be used as a surrogate prognostic indicator of lymphoma biology in its primary site. Keywords: proliferation index, biologic behavior

  18. Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS): bone marrow-derived stem cells in the treatment of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jeffrey N.; Levy, Steven; Benes, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    The Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS) is currently the largest-scale stem cell ophthalmology trial registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT01920867). SCOTS utilizes autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) to treat optic nerve and retinal diseases. Treatment approaches include a combination of retrobulbar, subtenon, intravitreal, intra-optic nerve, subretinal, and intravenous injection of autologous BMSCs according to the nature of the disease, the degree of visual loss, and any risk factors related to the treatments. Patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy had visual acuity gains on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) of up to 35 letters and Snellen acuity improvements from hand motion to 20/200 and from counting fingers to 20/100. Visual field improvements were noted. Macular and optic nerve head nerve fiber layer typically thickened. No serious complications were seen. The increases in visual acuity obtained in our study were encouraging and suggest that the use of autologous BMSCs as provided in SCOTS for ophthalmologic mitochondrial diseases including Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy may be a viable treatment option. PMID:27904503

  19. A quality of life study in 20 adult long-term survivors of unrelated donor bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, D I; Gale, D J; Vedhara, K; Bird, J M

    1999-07-01

    There are few specific data available concerning quality of life (QOL) of survivors of unrelated donor bone marrow transplantation (UD-BMT). The procedure is expensive, difficult and is being employed increasingly yet we have little information concerning the QOL of survivors to justify this intervention. In this study, 20 long-term (>1 year post-BMT) survivors were studied with four self report questionnaires designed to assess quality of life, satisfaction with life, social support and employment status. Overall, satisfaction with life measures was above average but there was dissatisfaction with physical strength and appearance. The post-transplant employment data indicates that 60% of long-term survivors returned to full-time work and 15% to part-time work. Failure to return to work was not correlated with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), relapse, age at or time since transplant. In general, there was a good correlation between the clinician's and patient's view of their health but the clinician's assessment of the patients mental health and energy was higher than the patients reported. Further research is required in the area of QOL post-UD-BMT. This will enable transplant physicians to counsel patients better pre-BMT and to evaluate fully the results achieved by different centres performing the procedure.

  20. Proton MR spectroscopy of hyperplastic hematopoietic marrow in aplastic anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Yasuo; Kumazaki, Tatsuo [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan); Arai, Nobuyuki

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the findings of magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy of hyperplastic hematopoietic marrow with those of normal bone marrow. Twenty-four samples of normal marrow from eight control subjects and 19 samples of hyperplastic marrow in aplastic anemia were examined with a 1.5 T MR unit. The former showed low intensity on opposed-phase T1-weighted images, while the latter showed high intensity on both fast STIR and opposed-phase T1-weighted images. MR spectroscopy quantitatively confirmed that the water; fat ratio was increased and the transverse relaxation time of water was changed in hyperplastic bone marrow, compared with normal bone marrow. In summary, MR imaging is able to detect hematopoietic regions among a wide range of bone marrow of aplastic anemia, while MR spectroscopy allowed us to quantitatively analyze the cell population of hyperplastic hematopoietic marrow in aplastic anemia. (author)

  1. Proton MR spectroscopy of hyperplastic hematopoietic marrow in aplastic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yasuo; Kumazaki, Tatsuo; Arai, Nobuyuki.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the findings of magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy of hyperplastic hematopoietic marrow with those of normal bone marrow. Twenty-four samples of normal marrow from eight control subjects and 19 samples of hyperplastic marrow in aplastic anemia were examined with a 1.5 T MR unit. The former showed low intensity on opposed-phase T1-weighted images, while the latter showed high intensity on both fast STIR and opposed-phase T1-weighted images. MR spectroscopy quantitatively confirmed that the water; fat ratio was increased and the transverse relaxation time of water was changed in hyperplastic bone marrow, compared with normal bone marrow. In summary, MR imaging is able to detect hematopoietic regions among a wide range of bone marrow of aplastic anemia, while MR spectroscopy allowed us to quantitatively analyze the cell population of hyperplastic hematopoietic marrow in aplastic anemia. (author)

  2. Functional bone marrow scintigraphy in psoriatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munz, D.; Altmeyer, P.; Chilf, G.; Schlesinger, G.; Holzmann, H.; Hoer, G.

    1982-01-01

    24 psoriatics as well as 24 normal healthy adults were studied by functional bone marrow scintigraphy using Tc-99m-labeled human serum albumin millimicrospheres (Tc-99m-HSA-MM). Functional bone marrow scintigraphy is an in vivo test system for the assessment of various functional properties of fixed macrophages. 58% of psoriatics who had no systemic drug treatment demonstrated peripheral extension of the bone marrow space indicating hyperplasia of bone marrow macrophages. This phenomenon could be observed only in one normal subject who was a high-performance sportsman. 83% (n=6) of psoriatics with cirrhosis of liver demonstrated bone marrow extension. The 'capacity' of bone marrow macrophages to engulf Tc-99m-HSA-MM ('uptake ratio') was diminished in 42% of non-treated as well as 66% of psoriatics treated with aromatic retinoid. The phagocytic and proteolytic turnover of Tc-99m-HSA-MM in bone marrow, spleen, and liver was found to be accelerated in 66% of non-treated psoriatics, normal, accelerated or delayed in psoriatics treated with aromatic retinoid as well as considerably delayed in all of the psoriatics with cirrhosis of liver. Functional bone marrow scintigraphy proved to be an appropriate in vivo test system to reveal abnormalities of fixed macrophages in psoriatics. Furthermore, theratpeutic effects as well as influences of pre-existing disorders on different macrophage populations can be assessed. (Author)

  3. The Role od Bone Marrow Aspirate and Trephine Samples in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other disorders diagnosed after bone marrow examination include myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), aplastic anaemia, megaloblastic anaemia and myelofibrosis. Only 8.75% of these patients had a normal bone marrow. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated the complexity of using bone marrow examination in ...

  4. Prognostic significance of increased bone marrow microcirculation in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: results of a prospective DCE-MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, Maximilian; Hillengass, Jens [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); University of Heidelberg, Department of Hematology, Oncology and Rheumatology, Heidelberg (Germany); Moehler, Thomas M.; Ritsch, Judith; Delorme, Stefan [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Baeuerle, Tobias [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Zechmann, Christian M. [Rinecker Proton Therapy, Muenchen (Germany); Wagner, Barbara; Hose, Dirk [University of Heidelberg, Department of Hematology, Oncology and Rheumatology, Heidelberg (Germany); Jauch, Anna [University of Heidelberg, Institute of Human Genetics, Heidelberg (Germany); Kunz, Christina; Hielscher, Thomas [German Cancer Research Center, Department of Biostatistics, Heidelberg (Germany); Laue, Hendrik [Fraunhofer MEVIS, Bremen (Germany); Goldschmidt, Hartmut [University of Heidelberg, Department of Hematology, Oncology and Rheumatology, Heidelberg (Germany); National Center for Tumor Diseases, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Aim of this prospective study was to investigate prognostic significance of increased bone marrow microcirculation as detected by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) for survival and local complications in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). We performed DCE-MRI of the lumbar spine in 131 patients with newly diagnosed MM and analysed data according to the Brix model to acquire amplitude A and exchange rate constant k{sub ep}. In 61 patients a second MRI performed after therapy was evaluated to assess changes in vertebral height and identify vertebral fractures. Correlation analysis revealed significant positive association between beta2-microglobulin as well as immunoparesis with DCE-MRI parameters A and k{sub ep}. Additionally, A was negatively correlated with haemoglobin levels and k{sub ep} was positively correlated with LDH levels. Higher baseline k{sub ep} values were associated with decreased vertebral height in a second MRI (P = 0.007) and A values were associated with new vertebral fractures in the lower lumbar spine (P = 0.03 for L4). Pre-existing lytic bone lesions or remission after therapy had no impact on the occurrence of vertebral fractures. Multivariate analysis revealed that amplitude A is an independent adverse risk factor for overall survival. DCE-MRI is a non-invasive tool with significance for systemic prognosis and vertebral complications. (orig.)

  5. Study on the accumulation of 147Pm in tissues and its mutagenic effect on bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shoupeng; Zheng Siying; Wang Chongdao; Cao Genfa

    1987-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to ascertain the correlation between the retentive peculiarity of 147 Pm and its possible mutagenic effect in organism administered once or for consecutive 5 days. After 147 Pm was given iv for once to male rats, it was selectively localized in liver in early stage. 5 days later, 147 Pm was located in skeleton predominantly. It caused marked chromosome aberrations on bone marrow cells. There was positive relationship between chromosome aberration rates and the amount of 147 Pm administered. When 147 Pm was administered for consecutive 5 days, it was firstly and chiefly localized in skeleton. The retention data were well described by a two exponential expressions. Retentive T 1/2 ranged from 5.89 d for the first component to 1155 d for the second slow component. Biological T 1/2 in urine for the slow component was 121.58 d. These data pointed out that the excretion of 147 Pm was slow. Among the types of aberration induced by 147 Pm were of chromatid type. Chromatid deletions were predominant, accompanied with a few chromosome aberrations

  6. Prospective Study of Functional Bone Marrow-Sparing Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With Concurrent Chemotherapy for Pelvic Malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Yun; Bydder, Mark; Yashar, Catheryn M.; Rose, Brent S.; Cornell, Mariel; Hoh, Carl K.; Lawson, Joshua D.; Einck, John; Saenz, Cheryl; Fanta, Paul; Mundt, Arno J.; Bydder, Graeme M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can reduce radiation dose to functional bone marrow (BM) in patients with pelvic malignancies (phase IA) and estimate the clinical feasibility and acute toxicity associated with this technique (phase IB). Methods and Materials: We enrolled 31 subjects (19 with gynecologic cancer and 12 with anal cancer) in an institutional review board-approved prospective trial (6 in the pilot study, 10 in phase IA, and 15 in phase IB). The mean age was 52 years; 8 of 31 patients (26%) were men. Twenty-one subjects completed 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) simulation and magnetic resonance imaging by use of quantitative IDEAL (IDEAL IQ; GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI). The PET/CT and IDEAL IQ were registered, and BM subvolumes were segmented above the mean standardized uptake value and below the mean fat fraction within the pelvis and lumbar spine; their intersection was designated as functional BM for IMRT planning. Functional BM-sparing vs total BM-sparing IMRT plans were compared in 12 subjects; 10 were treated with functional BM-sparing pelvic IMRT per protocol. Results: In gynecologic cancer patients, the mean functional BM V 10 (volume receiving ≥10 Gy) and V 20 (volume receiving ≥20 Gy) were 85% vs 94% (P 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT and IDEAL IQ. The efficacy of BM-sparing IMRT is being tested in a phase II trial.

  7. In vitro radiation response studies on bone marrow fibroblasts (CFU-F) obtained from normal and chronically irradiated dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.K.; Stitzel, K.A.; Greenberg, B.; Woo, L.

    1984-01-01

    The radiation resistance of bone marrow fibroblasts as measured by their proliferative potential was evaluated in chronically irradiated dogs. Bone marrows were obtained from eight dogs that had been chronically irradiated beginning at 21 days of gestation or after birth and eight age-matched controls. Of these irradiated dogs, four were either preleukemic or exhibited frank acute nonlymphocytic leukemia. The other four were clinically normal but demonstrated abnormalities in their marrow that could be attributed to radiation effects and/or other pathologic changes. Fibroblasts from six of the irradiated dogs were significantly more radioresistant than those of their controls. Five of these six dogs subsequently succumbed to hematopathologic disease, while the two irradiated dogs with normal fibroblasts remained clinically normal, suggesting that this observed radioresistance may be linked to the disease process. (author)

  8. Multi-institutional Feasibility Study of a Fast Patient Localization Method in Total Marrow Irradiation With Helical Tomotherapy: A Global Health Initiative by the International Consortium of Total Marrow Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yutaka; Vagge, Stefano; Agostinelli, Stefano; Han, Eunyoung; Matulewicz, Lukasz; Schubert, Kai; Chityala, Ravishankar; Ratanatharathorn, Vaneerat; Tournel, Koen; Penagaricano, Jose A.; Florian, Sterzing; Mahe, Marc-Andre; Verneris, Michael R.; Weisdorf, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop, characterize, and implement a fast patient localization method for total marrow irradiation. Methods and Materials: Topographic images were acquired using megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) detector data by delivering static orthogonal beams while the couch traversed through the gantry. Geometric and detector response corrections were performed to generate a megavoltage topogram (MVtopo). We also generated kilovoltage topograms (kVtopo) from the projection data of 3-dimensional CT images to reproduce the same geometry as helical tomotherapy. The MVtopo imaging dose and the optimal image acquisition parameters were investigated. A multi-institutional phantom study was performed to verify the image registration uncertainty. Forty-five MVtopo images were acquired and analyzed with in-house image registration software. Results: The smallest jaw size (front and backup jaws of 0) provided the best image contrast and longitudinal resolution. Couch velocity did not affect the image quality or geometric accuracy. The MVtopo dose was less than the MVCT dose. The image registration uncertainty from the multi-institutional study was within 2.8 mm. In patient localization, the differences in calculated couch shift between the registration with MVtopo-kVtopo and MVCT-kVCT images in lateral, cranial–caudal, and vertical directions were 2.2 ± 1.7 mm, 2.6 ± 1.4 mm, and 2.7 ± 1.1 mm, respectively. The imaging time in MVtopo acquisition at the couch speed of 3 cm/s was <1 minute, compared with ≥15 minutes in MVCT for all patients. Conclusion: Whole-body MVtopo imaging could be an effective alternative to time-consuming MVCT for total marrow irradiation patient localization

  9. Blood and Bone Marrow Transplant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics / Blood and Bone Marrow Transplant Blood and Bone Marrow Transplant Also known as Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant , Hematopoietic ... person, called a donor, it is an allogeneic transplant. Blood or bone marrow transplants most commonly are used to treat ...

  10. Bone Marrow Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains stem cells. The stem cells can ... the platelets that help with blood clotting. With bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem ...

  11. Sequential studies of cell inhibition of host fibroblasts in 51 patients given HLA-identical marrow grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoi, M.-S.; Storb, R.; Weiden, P.; Santos, E.; Kopecky, K.J.; Thomas, E.D.

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-four patients with leukemia, two with lymphoma and 15 with aplastic anemia, were studied sequentially between 33 and 666 days after treatment with high-dose cyclophosphamide and/or total body irradiation and marrow transplantation from HLA-identical siblings. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients and normals were tested for cell inhibition (CI) of cultured skin fibroblasts from patients and donors or unrelated individuals using the microcytotoxicity assay. In addition, blocking of Cl by factors in patient serum was studied. Twenty patients were tested three or more times during the first year, 15 patients were studied twice and 16 patients once. Results showed that during the first 2 mo postgrafting, mononuclear cells from 45% of the patients had neither Cl nor blocking activities, 50% had Cl and serum blocking, and 5% had Cl without blocking. As time after transplatation elapsed, the percentage of patients without Cl gradually increased, whereas the percentage of patients with Cl with or without blocking decreased. At the end of 1 yr, 89% of the patients showed neither Cl nor blocking compared with 11% who showed Cl and blocking. This trend was significant (p < 0.005). The results were in agreement with our previus conclusion that serum-blocking factors were not important in the maintenance of the stable chimeric state. Early after grafting, there was a suggestive correlation (p < 0.08) between the in vitro finding of Cl of host fibroblasts by chimeric cells and the in vivo finding of acute graft-vs-host disease. However, there was no evidence that presence or absence of serum-blocking factors early after grafting was correlated with presence or absence of graft-vs-host disease

  12. Studies on the migration of micronucleated erythrocytes from bone marrow to the peripheral blood in irradiated Swiss mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaubey, R.C.; Bhilwade, H.N.; Chauhan, P.S.

    1993-01-01

    Micronucleated polychromatic (mn-PCE) and normochromatic erythrocytes (nm-NCE) were enumerated in the bone marrow and peripheral blood of Swiss male mice at different time intervals following whole-body (1.0 Gy) γ-irradiation. Polychromatic cells migrated to the peripheral blood soon after their formation in the bone marrow and nm-PCE achieved a frequency close to that of the bone marrow with a delay of about 12 h. The optimal time for peripheral sampling was found to be about 36 h after radiation exposure. The frequency of mn-NCE in bone marrow and peripheral blood showed only a moderate and gradual increase till 60 h, and was much lower in the latter. In another experiment, mice irradiated with 0.42 Gy γ-rays (0.21 Gy/h) once a day for 5, 10 or 15 days (5 days per week) showed a cumulative dose-dependent increase in the levels of mn-NCE in the peripheral blood, sampled at 7 or 21 days after the last exposure. (author)

  13. Bone marrow fat unsaturation in young adults is not affected by present or childhood obesity, but increases with age: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huovinen, Ville; Viljakainen, Heli; Hakkarainen, Antti; Saukkonen, Tero; Toiviainen-Salo, Sanna; Lundbom, Nina; Lundbom, Jesper; Mäkitie, Outi

    2015-11-01

    Obesity increases bone marrow fat (BMF) content. The association between early obesity and bone marrow fatty acid composition is unknown. We measured BMF unsaturation index (UI) in normal-weight and overweight young adults with a known weight status in early childhood and tested the relationship between BMF UI and exercise history, glycemic state, and other clinical characteristics. The study included 18 normal-weight (BMI young adults aged 15-27 years. BMF UI was assessed with magnetic resonance proton spectroscopy optimized to reduce water interference. Exercise information was obtained with a pedometer accompanied with the history of recent physical activity. Blood samples (insulin, glucose, HbA1c) and body characteristics (BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat composition) were assessed. BMF UI was not affected by obesity at the time of study or before age 7 years. BMF UI increased with age in normal-weight and overweight subjects (R=0.408, p=0.015) but did not associate with gender, physical activity or body fat composition; a suggestive association was observed with glucose (R=-0.289, p=0.10). The association of BMF UI with age in early adulthood may represent normal maturation of bone marrow. There was a trend toward an association with blood glucose, warranting further studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative study of human-induced pluripotent stem cells derived from bone marrow cells, hair keratinocytes, and skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streckfuss-Bömeke, Katrin; Wolf, Frieder; Azizian, Azadeh; Stauske, Michael; Tiburcy, Malte; Wagner, Stefan; Hübscher, Daniela; Dressel, Ralf; Chen, Simin; Jende, Jörg; Wulf, Gerald; Lorenz, Verena; Schön, Michael P; Maier, Lars S; Zimmermann, Wolfram H; Hasenfuss, Gerd; Guan, Kaomei

    2013-09-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide a unique opportunity for the generation of patient-specific cells for use in disease modelling, drug screening, and regenerative medicine. The aim of this study was to compare human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) derived from different somatic cell sources regarding their generation efficiency and cardiac differentiation potential, and functionalities of cardiomyocytes. We generated hiPSCs from hair keratinocytes, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and skin fibroblasts by using two different virus systems. We show that MSCs and fibroblasts are more easily reprogrammed than keratinocytes. This corresponds to higher methylation levels of minimal promoter regions of the OCT4 and NANOG genes in keratinocytes than in MSCs and fibroblasts. The success rate and reprogramming efficiency was significantly higher by using the STEMCCA system than the OSNL system. All analysed hiPSCs are pluripotent and show phenotypical characteristics similar to human embryonic stem cells. We studied the cardiac differentiation efficiency of generated hiPSC lines (n = 24) and found that MSC-derived hiPSCs exhibited a significantly higher efficiency to spontaneously differentiate into beating cardiomyocytes when compared with keratinocyte-, and fibroblast-derived hiPSCs. There was no significant difference in the functionalities of the cardiomyocytes derived from hiPSCs with different origins, showing the presence of pacemaker-, atrial-, ventricular- and Purkinje-like cardiomyocytes, and exhibiting rhythmic Ca2+ transients and Ca2+ sparks in hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, spontaneously and synchronously beating and force-developing engineered heart tissues were generated. Human-induced pluripotent stem cells can be reprogrammed from all three somatic cell types, but with different efficiency. All analysed iPSCs can differentiate into cardiomyocytes, and the functionalities of cardiomyocytes derived from different cell

  15. Linear accelerator-based intensity-modulated total marrow irradiation technique for treatment of hematologic malignancies: a dosimetric feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeginer, Mete; Roeske, John C; Radosevich, James A; Aydogan, Bulent

    2011-03-15

    To investigate the dosimetric feasibility of linear accelerator-based intensity-modulated total marrow irradiation (IM-TMI) in patients with hematologic malignancies. Linear accelerator-based IM-TMI treatment planning was performed for 9 patients using the Eclipse treatment planning system. The planning target volume (PTV) consisted of all the bones in the body from the head to the mid-femur, except for the forearms and hands. Organs at risk (OAR) to be spared included the lungs, heart, liver, kidneys, brain, eyes, oral cavity, and bowel and were contoured by a physician on the axial computed tomography images. The three-isocenter technique previously developed by our group was used for treatment planning. We developed and used a common dose-volume objective method to reduce the planning time and planner subjectivity in the treatment planning process. A 95% PTV coverage with the 99% of the prescribed dose of 12 Gy was achieved for all nine patients. The average dose reduction in OAR ranged from 19% for the lungs to 68% for the lenses. The common dose-volume objective method decreased the planning time by an average of 35% and reduced the inter- and intra- planner subjectivity. The results from the present study suggest that the linear accelerator-based IM-TMI technique is clinically feasible. We have demonstrated that linear accelerator-based IM-TMI plans with good PTV coverage and improved OAR sparing can be obtained within a clinically reasonable time using the common dose-volume objective method proposed in the present study. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Perfusion of subchondral bone marrow in knee osteoarthritis: A dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budzik, Jean-François, E-mail: Budzik.jean-francois@ghicl.net [Lille Catholic Hospitals, Imaging Department, Lille Catholic University, Lille (France); PMOI Physiopathology of Inflammatory Bone Diseases, EA 4490, Lille (France); Ding, Juliette, E-mail: Ding.juliette@gmail.com [Lille Catholic Hospitals, Imaging Department, Lille Catholic University, Lille (France); Norberciak, Laurène, E-mail: Norberciak.Laurene@ghicl.net [Lille Catholic Hospitals, Biostatistics Department, Lille Catholic University, Lille (France); Pascart, Tristan, E-mail: Pascart.tristan@ghicl.net [Lille Catholic Hospitals, Rheumatology Department, Lille Catholic University, Lille (France); Toumi, Hechmi, E-mail: hechmi.toumi@univ-orleans.fr [EA4708 I3MTO, Orleans Regional Hospital, University of Orleans, Orleans (France); Verclytte, Sébastien, E-mail: Verclytte.Sebastien@ghicl.net [Lille Catholic Hospitals, Imaging Department, Lille Catholic University, Lille (France); Coursier, Raphaël, E-mail: Coursier.Raphael@ghicl.net [Lille Catholic Hospitals, Orthopaedic Surgery Department, Lille Catholic University, Lille (France)

    2017-03-15

    The role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis is being given major interest, and inflammation is closely linked with vascularization. It was recently demonstrated that dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) could identify the subchondral bone marrow vascularization changes occurring in osteoarthritis in animals. These changes appeared before cartilage lesions were visible and were correlated with osteoarthritis severity. Thus the opportunity to obtain an objective assessment of bone vascularization in non-invasive conditions in humans might help better understanding osteoarthritis pathophysiology and finding new biomarkers. We hypothesized that, as in animals, DCE-MRI has the ability to identify subchondral bone marrow vascularization changes in human osteoarthritis. We performed knee MRI in 19 patients with advanced knee osteoarthritis. We assessed subchondral bone marrow vascularization in medial and lateral femorotibial compartments with DCE-MRI and graded osteoarthritis lesions on MR images. Statistical analysis assessed intra- and inter-observer agreement, compared DCE-MRI values between the different subchondral zones, and sought for an influence of age, sex, body mass index, and osteoarthritis garde on these values. The intra- and inter-observer agreement for DCE-MRI values were excellent. These values were significantly higher in the femorotibial compartment the most affected by osteoarthritis, both in femur and tibia (p < 0.0001) and were significantly and positively correlated with cartilage lesions (p = 0.02) and bone marrow oedema grade (p < 0.0001) after adjustment. We concluded that, as in animals, subchondral bone marrow vascularization changes assessed with DCE-MRI were correlated with osteoarthritis severity in humans.

  17. Perfusion of subchondral bone marrow in knee osteoarthritis: A dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budzik, Jean-François; Ding, Juliette; Norberciak, Laurène; Pascart, Tristan; Toumi, Hechmi; Verclytte, Sébastien; Coursier, Raphaël

    2017-01-01

    The role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis is being given major interest, and inflammation is closely linked with vascularization. It was recently demonstrated that dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) could identify the subchondral bone marrow vascularization changes occurring in osteoarthritis in animals. These changes appeared before cartilage lesions were visible and were correlated with osteoarthritis severity. Thus the opportunity to obtain an objective assessment of bone vascularization in non-invasive conditions in humans might help better understanding osteoarthritis pathophysiology and finding new biomarkers. We hypothesized that, as in animals, DCE-MRI has the ability to identify subchondral bone marrow vascularization changes in human osteoarthritis. We performed knee MRI in 19 patients with advanced knee osteoarthritis. We assessed subchondral bone marrow vascularization in medial and lateral femorotibial compartments with DCE-MRI and graded osteoarthritis lesions on MR images. Statistical analysis assessed intra- and inter-observer agreement, compared DCE-MRI values between the different subchondral zones, and sought for an influence of age, sex, body mass index, and osteoarthritis garde on these values. The intra- and inter-observer agreement for DCE-MRI values were excellent. These values were significantly higher in the femorotibial compartment the most affected by osteoarthritis, both in femur and tibia (p < 0.0001) and were significantly and positively correlated with cartilage lesions (p = 0.02) and bone marrow oedema grade (p < 0.0001) after adjustment. We concluded that, as in animals, subchondral bone marrow vascularization changes assessed with DCE-MRI were correlated with osteoarthritis severity in humans.

  18. A biosafety evaluation of synchrotron radiation X-ray to skin and bone marrow: single dose irradiation study of rats and macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yifan; Tang, Guanghui; Lin, Hui; Lin, Xiaojie; Jiang, Lu; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Wang, Yongting

    2017-06-01

    Very limited experimental data is available regarding the safe dosages related to synchrotron radiation (SR) procedures. We used young rats and macaques to address bone marrow and skin tolerance to various doses of synchrotron radiation. Rats were subjected to 0, 0.5, 2.5, 5, 25 or 100 Gy local SR X-ray irradiation at left hind limb. Rat blood samples were analyzed at 2-90 days after irradiation. The SR X-ray irradiated skin and tibia were sectioned for morphological examination. For non-human primate study, three male macaques were subjected to 0.5 or 2.5 Gy SR X-ray on crus. Skin responses of macaques were observed. All rats that received SR X-ray irradiation doses greater than 2.5 Gy experienced hair loss and bone-growth inhibition, which were accompanied by decreased number of follicles, thickened epidermal layer, and decreased density of bone marrow cells (p X-ray but showed significant hair loss when the dose was raised above 2.5 Gy. The safety threshold doses of SR X-ray for rat skin, bone marrow and macaque skin are between 0.5 and 2.5 Gy. Our study provided essential information regarding the biosafety of SR X-ray irradiation.

  19. bg/sup J//bg/sup J/:W/W/sup v/ bone marrow chimera. A model for studying stem cell regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patt, H M; Maloney, M A

    1978-01-01

    In studies with bg/sup J//bg/sup J/:W/W/sup v/ chimeric mice, we used the beige neutrophil marker as a criterion of W/W/sup v/ marrow replacement by implanted bg/sup J//bg/sup J/ stem cells. Data from a 50-fold range of inoculum doses and a 2 y period of observation indicate a hyperbolic pattern of replacement expressed as a log dose-response relationship. The saturating effect with increasing inoculum dose was interpreted as reflecting random initial stem cell seeding in bone marrow coupled with a decreasing efficiency of colonization by migration. From the statistics of random sampling and the exponential decrease of the 63% replacement dose with time, we estimate that W/W/sup v/ marrow contains about 2600 stem cell regulatory volumes of about 10/sup 8/ ..mu../sup 3/ (50 cell diameters) each, a dimension consistent with concepts of short-range cell-cell interactions. Our observations suggest that each regulatory volume is essentially self-contained and that stem cell migration is generally restricted to contiguous volumes.

  20. A validation study of new cryopreservation bags for implementation in a blood and marrow transplant laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomper, Gregory J; Wilson, Emily; Isom, Scott; Hurd, David D

    2011-06-01

    A new cryopreservation bag for hematopoietic cell transplantation requires validation as a safe alternative to the bag currently being used in the laboratory. The new bag was validated using both laboratory and clinical criteria. Laboratory validation proceeded using paired samples of mononuclear cells processed using standard procedures. Cells cryopreserved in the new and old bags were compared for viability, cell counts, CD34 enumeration, colony-forming unit assays, and bag integrity. After completion of laboratory investigations, engraftment with the new bags was followed and compared to historical engraftment using the old bags. There were no significant differences between the old and new bags detected using laboratory studies. Bag integrity was equivalent. The validation data suggested impaired cell function after cryopreservation in the new bags, but there were no significant differences in engraftment potential using either material. Days to engraftment was longer using the new bags, but statistical analysis revealed an association with CD34 dose and not with cryopreservation bag type. The new bags were noninferior to the old bags. A change in cryopreservation bag type may appear to affect cell function and potentially affect engraftment. Multiple analyses may be needed to understand the effect of cell processing changes. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  1. Bone - marrow postirradiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesztakova, E.; Bilek, J.; Benova, K.; Novakova, J.; Culenova, K.

    2006-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative changes in haemopoietic cells in chicken bone Marrow were investigated after acute single irradiation with doses 4.5 Gy and 5 Gy. Samples of bone marrow were obtained from proximal femoral epiphysis of decapitated chickens. Marrow smears were prepared and stained according to Pappenheim. Qualitative examination of myelogram showed proliferation of adipose tissue, hypocellularity, caryolyosis, caryorexis, disintegration of cells and proliferation of cells which could not be differentiated. Quantitative examination revealed high radiosensitivity of blast cells and lymphocytes shortly after irradiation. (authors)

  2. Bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storb, R.; Santos, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    Bone marrow transplantation has been increasingly used to treat patients with severe combined immunodeficiency diseases, severe aplastic anemia, and malignant hematologic diseases, especially leukemia. At the Workshop a number of problems were discussed, e.g., conditioning regimens aimed at overcoming the problem of marrow graft rejection and reducing the incidence of recurrent leukemia, prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), possible mechanisms involved in stable graft-host tolerance, graft-versus-leukemia effect in mice, and finally, the possible use of autologous marrow transplantation

  3. Bone marrow dosimetry for monoclonal antibody therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigler, R.E.; Zanzonico, P.B.; Leonard, R.

    1986-01-01

    Immunoglobulins must permeate through the basement membrane of capillaries in order to enter the extracellular space (ECS) of tissue. Since the process is quite slow, the blood plasma activity in various organs contributes considerably to the radiation dose of the dose-limiting tissues. In bone marrow the basement membrane is absent and the blood circulation is functionally open. Therefore, blood plasma and marrow ECS maintain equal concentrations of labeled immunoglobulins. A combination of factors including intravenous administration, slow absorption into most tissues, slow breakdown and elimination of labeled immunoglobulin, and rapid entry into bone marrow ECS as well as known radiosensitivity of marrow led the authors to expect this tissue would prove to be the primary tissue at risk for systemic monoclonal antibody therapy. They have developed and applied in a Phase I clinical study of 131 I labeled CEA antibody a procedure for estimation of radiation dose to red bone marrow. Serieal measurements of blood plasma and total body retention are carried out. Binding of labeled antibody to the cellular components of blood is verified to be very low. They have observed bone marrow depression at doses greater than 400 rad. If no special procedures are used to reconstitute marrow after radiation treatment, this level represents a much greater than generally recognized limitation to radiolabeled monoclonal antibody therapy. 25 references, 4 tables

  4. Can bone marrow differentiate into renal cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Enyu; Ito, Takahito

    2002-10-01

    A considerable plasticity of adult stem cells has been confirmed in a wide variety of tissues. In particular, the pluripotency of bone marrow-derived stem cells may influence the regeneration of injured tissues and may provide novel avenues in regenerative medicine. Bone marrow contains at least hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells, and both can differentiate into a wide range of differentiated cells. Side population (SP) cells, which are originally defined in bone marrow cells by high efflux of DNA-binding dye, seem to be a new class of multipotent stem cells. Irrespective of the approach used to obtain stem cells, the fates of marrow-derived cells following bone marrow transplantation can be traced by labeling donor cells with green fluorescence protein or by identifying donor Y chromosome in female recipients. So far, bone marrow-derived cells have been reported to differentiate into renal cells, including mesangial cells, endothelial cells, podocytes, and tubular cells in the kidney, although controversy exists. Further studies are required to address this issue. Cell therapy will be promising when we learn to control stem cells such as bone marrow-derived stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and resident stem cells in the kidney. Identification of factors that support stem cells or promote their differentiation should provide a relevant step towards cell therapy.

  5. Bone marrow transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Arrange medical leave from work Take care of bank or financial statements Arrange care of pets Arrange ... Bleeding during cancer treatment Bone marrow transplant - discharge Central venous catheter - dressing change Central venous catheter - flushing ...

  6. BONE MARROW ABONRMALITIES IN HIV INFECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Sharad Antiram Dhurve

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Hematological abnormalities are a common complication of HIV infection. Bone marrow abnormalities occur in all stages of HIV infection. Present work was carried out to study the bone marrow abnormalities in patients with HIV/AIDS. Methods 160 patients of HIV +ve were included in the study. A complete blood count, relevant biochemical investigations, CD4 counts were done, besides a thorough history and clinical examination. HIV positive patients were classified as those having AID...

  7. Bone marrow transplantation immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trentin, J.J.; Kiessling, R.; Wigzell, H.; Gallagher, M.T.; Datta, S.K.; Kulkarni, S.S.

    1977-01-01

    Tests were made to determine whether genetic resistance (GR) to bone marrow transplantation represents a natural lymphoma-leukemia defense mechanism, as follows: (C57 x AKR) F 1 hybrid mice show GR to C57 parental bone marrow cells, but not to AKR parental bone marrow cells (C3H x AKR) F 1 hybrids show no GR to bone marrow transplantation from either parental strain. However, transplantation of AKR lymphoma cells into lethally irradiated ''resistant'' (C57 x AKR) F 1 and ''nonresistant'' (C3H x AKR) F 1 hybrids produced lymphomatous spleen colonies in ''nonresistant'' hybrids but not in ''resistant'' hybrids. Thus ''resistant'' (C57 x AKR) F 1 hybrids can recognize and reject AKR lymphoma cells, but not normal AKR bone marrow cells. A normal biologic role of leukemia-lymphoma surveillance was postulated for genetic resistance to marrow transplantation, directed at antigens which, like TL, are expressed on normal hemopoietic cells of some strains, but only on leukemic cells of other strains

  8. Assessment of femoral head vascularity by technetium-99m antimony colloid bone marrow imaging within 24 hours of subcapital fracture: a prospective study of 30 patients followed for 2 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The rationale of preoperative imaging of bone marrow was based upon the demonstration of histochemical abnormalities secondary to ischaemia which first become apparent in marrow cells of the femoral head following interruption of the blood supply by subcapital fracture. These marrow abnormalities predate changes in bone cells by several days and may explain the absence of abnormality on conventional bone scans performed on avascular femoral heads within 24 hours of subcapital fracture. The use of an endoprosthesis for fresh femoral neck fractures in unselected patients results in high mortality, high infection rate, high incidence of thromboembolic disease and poor long term results. The successful prediction of avascular necrosis in 92% of 28 patients with active bone marrow in the femoral head in this study is sufficiently accurate to allow appropriate selection of patients for internal fixation or primary prosthetic replacement on the basis of preoperative Tc-99m antimony colloid imaging

  9. Augmented cartilage regeneration by implantation of cellular versus acellular implants after bone marrow stimulation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of animal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel W. Pot

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow stimulation may be applied to regenerate focal cartilage defects, but generally results in transient clinical improvement and formation of fibrocartilage rather than hyaline cartilage. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strive to develop new solutions to regenerate hyaline cartilage tissue. This systematic review and meta-analysis provides a comprehensive overview of current literature and assesses the efficacy of articular cartilage regeneration by implantation of cell-laden versus cell-free biomaterials in the knee and ankle joint in animals after bone marrow stimulation. PubMed and EMBASE (via OvidSP were systematically searched using tissue engineering, cartilage and animals search strategies. Included were primary studies in which cellular and acellular biomaterials were implanted after applying bone marrow stimulation in the knee or ankle joint in healthy animals. Study characteristics were tabulated and outcome data were collected for meta-analysis for studies applying semi-quantitative histology as outcome measure (117 studies. Cartilage regeneration was expressed on an absolute 0–100% scale and random effects meta-analyses were performed. Implantation of cellular biomaterials significantly improved cartilage regeneration by 18.6% compared to acellular biomaterials. No significant differences were found between biomaterials loaded with stem cells and those loaded with somatic cells. Culture conditions of cells did not affect cartilage regeneration. Cartilage formation was reduced with adipose-derived stem cells compared to other cell types, but still improved compared to acellular scaffolds. Assessment of the risk of bias was impaired due to incomplete reporting for most studies. Implantation of cellular biomaterials improves cartilage regeneration compared to acellular biomaterials.

  10. Augmented cartilage regeneration by implantation of cellular versus acellular implants after bone marrow stimulation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pot, Michiel W; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Gonzales, Veronica K; Buma, Pieter; IntHout, Joanna; de Vries, Rob B M; Daamen, Willeke F

    2017-01-01

    Bone marrow stimulation may be applied to regenerate focal cartilage defects, but generally results in transient clinical improvement and formation of fibrocartilage rather than hyaline cartilage. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strive to develop new solutions to regenerate hyaline cartilage tissue. This systematic review and meta-analysis provides a comprehensive overview of current literature and assesses the efficacy of articular cartilage regeneration by implantation of cell-laden versus cell-free biomaterials in the knee and ankle joint in animals after bone marrow stimulation. PubMed and EMBASE (via OvidSP) were systematically searched using tissue engineering, cartilage and animals search strategies. Included were primary studies in which cellular and acellular biomaterials were implanted after applying bone marrow stimulation in the knee or ankle joint in healthy animals. Study characteristics were tabulated and outcome data were collected for meta-analysis for studies applying semi-quantitative histology as outcome measure (117 studies). Cartilage regeneration was expressed on an absolute 0-100% scale and random effects meta-analyses were performed. Implantation of cellular biomaterials significantly improved cartilage regeneration by 18.6% compared to acellular biomaterials. No significant differences were found between biomaterials loaded with stem cells and those loaded with somatic cells. Culture conditions of cells did not affect cartilage regeneration. Cartilage formation was reduced with adipose-derived stem cells compared to other cell types, but still improved compared to acellular scaffolds. Assessment of the risk of bias was impaired due to incomplete reporting for most studies. Implantation of cellular biomaterials improves cartilage regeneration compared to acellular biomaterials.

  11. Transplantation of autologous bone marrow stem cells via hepatic artery for the treatment of acute hepatic injury: an experimental study in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yinghe; Han Jinling; Liu Yanping; Gao Jue; Xu Ke; Zhang Xitong; Ding Guomin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the transplantation of autologous bone marrow stem cells via hepatic artery in treating acute hepatic injury in experimental rabbit models and to clarify the synergistic effect of hepatocyte growth-promoting factor (pHGF) in stem cell transplantation therapy for liver injury. Methods Acute hepatic injury models were established in 15 experimental rabbits by daily subcutaneous injection of CCl 4 olive oil solution with the dose of 0.8 ml/kg for 4 days in succession. The experimental rabbits were randomly and equally divided into three groups: study group A (stem cell transplant, n = 5), study group B (stem cell transplant + pFHG, n = 5), and control group (n = 5). Bone marrow of 5 ml was drawn from the tibia in all rabbits of both study groups, from which bone marrow stem cells were isolated by using density gradient centrifugation, and 5 ml cellular suspension was prepared. Under fluoroscopic guidance, catheterization through the femoral artery was performed and the cellular suspension was infused into the liver via the hepatic artery. Only injection of saline was carried out in the rabbits of control group. For the rabbits in group B, pFHG (2.0 mg/kg) was administered intravenously every other day for 20 days. At 2, 4 and 8 weeks after stem cell transplantation, hepatic function was determined. Eight weeks after the transplantation all the rabbits were sacrificed and the liver specimens were collected and sent for pathological examination. Results After stem cell transplantation, the hepatic function was gradually improved.Eight weeks after the transplantation, the activity of AST, ALT and the content of ALB, TBIL were significantly lower than that before the procedure, while the content of GOLB was markedly increased in all rabbits. In addition, the difference in the above parameters between three groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Pathologically, the hepatocyte degeneration and the fiberous hyperplasia in the study groups

  12. Radionuclide imaging of bone marrow in hematologic systemic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessel, F.; Hahn, K.; Gamm, H.

    1987-02-01

    Radionuclide imaging studies of the bone marrow were carried out in 164 patients suffering from hematologic systemic disease. One third of 90 patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) or Non Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) displayed a pathological distribution pattern representing bone marrow expansion. In HL there were 17% accumulation defects caused by metastases in contrast to only 7% in NHL. Among 30 patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia bone marrow expansion was found in 60%, bone marrow displacement and aplasia 10%. Focal bone marrow defects were found in 3 patients. All patients with primary polycythemia rubra vera displayed a pathologic bone marrow distribution pattern as well as splenomegaly. All patients with acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) and one patient with an acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL) had a pathological distribution pattern with bone marrow expansion and displacement. Focal bone marrow defects were not seen. Multiple myeloma with bone marrow expansion was found in 6 of 12 patients and focal accumulation defects were found in 40%, the latter lesions being not visible or equivocal on skeletal imaging studies. Pathological changes in liver and spleen were found in a high percentage of the total collective. The results document the important clinical value of bone marrow scintigraphy among the hematologic diseases studied.

  13. Utilizing two-photon fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy to study human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell morphogenesis in chitosan scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ping-Jung; Huang, Chi-Hsiu; Huang, Yi-You; Lee, Hsuan-Sue; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2008-02-01

    A major goal of tissue engineering is to cultivate the cartilage in vitro. One approach is to implant the human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into the three dimensional biocompatible and biodegradable material. Through the action of the chondrogenic factor TGF-β3, the stem cells can be induced to secrete collagen. In this study, mesenchymal stem cells are implanted on the chitosan scaffold and TGF-β3 was added to produce the cartilage tissue and TP autofluorescence and SHG microscopy was used to image the process of chondrogenesis. With additional development, multiphoton microscopy can be developed into an effective tool for evaluating the quality of tissue engineering products.

  14. Intra-osseous injection of donor mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) into the bone marrow in living donor kidney transplantation; a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunah; Park, Jae Berm; Lee, Sanghoon; Baek, Soyoung; Kim, HyunSoo; Kim, Sung Joo

    2013-04-11

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multi-potent non-hematopoietic progenitor cells possessing an immune-regulatory function, with suppression of proliferation of activated lymphocytes. In this study, adult living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) recipients were given MSCs derived from the donor bone marrow to evaluate the safety and the feasibility of immunological changes related to the intra-osseous injection of MSC into the bone marrow. MSCs were derived from negative HLA cross-match donors. Donor bone marrow was harvested 5 weeks prior to KT. At the time of transplantation, 1 x 106 cell/kg of donor MSC was directly injected into the bone marrow of the recipient's right iliac bone. Patients' clinical outcomes, presence of mixed chimerism by short tandem repeat polymerase chain reaction, analysis of plasma FoxP3 mRNA and cytokine level, and mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) were performed. Seven patients enrolled in this study and received donor MSC injections simultaneously with LDKT. The median age of recipients was 36 years (32 ~ 48). The number of HLA mismatches was 3 or less in 5 and more than 3 in 2. No local complications or adverse events such as hypersensitivity occurred during or after the injection of donor MSC. There was no graft failure, but the biopsy-proven acute rejections were observed in 3 recipients during the follow-up period controlled well with steroid pulse therapy (SPT). The last serum creatinine was a median of 1.23 mg/dL (0.83 ~ 2.07). Mixed chimerism was not detected in the peripheral blood of the recipients at 1 and 8 week of post-transplantation. Donor-specific lymphocyte or T cell proliferation and Treg priming responses were observed in some patients. Plasma level of IL-10, a known mediator of MSC-induced immune suppression, increased in the patients with Treg induction. Donor MSC injection into the iliac bone at the time of KT was feasible and safe. A possible correlation was observed between the induction of inhibitory

  15. Intrathymic T cell differentiation in radiation bone marrow chimeras and its role in T cell emigration to the spleen. An immunohistochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirokawa, K.; Sado, T.; Kubo, S.; Kamisaku, H.; Hitomi, K.; Utsuyama, M.

    1985-01-01

    Immunohistochemical studies were made on the regeneration of T cells of host- and donor-type in the thymus and spleen of radiation bone marrow chimeras by using B10- and B10.BR-Thy-1 congenic mice. In Thy-1 congenic chimeras, thymocytes of donor bone marrow origin, were first recognized at day 7, when the thymus involuted to the smallest size after the irradiation. The thymocytes of donor-type then proliferated exponentially, showing a slightly faster rate when higher doses of bone marrow cells were used for reconstitution, reaching a level of 100 million by day 17 and completely replacing the cortical thymocytes of host origin by day 21. The replacement of medullary thymocytes from host- to donor-type occurred gradually between days 21 and 35, after the replacement in the cortex was completed. In the spleen, about 1 million survived cells were recovered at day 3 after the irradiation, and approximately 60% of them were shown to be host-type T cells that were observed in the white pulp areas. The host-type T cells in the spleen increased gradually after day 10, due to the influx of host-type T cells from the regenerating thymus. Thus a pronounced increase of T cells of host-type was immunohistochemically observed in the splenic white pulp between days 21 and 28, when thymocytes of host-type were present mainly in the thymic medulla. These host-type T cells were shown to persist in the spleen for a long time, as long as 420 days after the treatment. Phenotypically, they were predominantly Lyt-1+2+ when examined at day 28, but 5 mo later, they were about 50% Lyt-1+2+ and 50% Lyt-1+2-

  16. A qualitative study of blood and marrow transplant patient experiences participating in art making and music listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mische Lawson, Lisa; Wedan, Lindsay; Stock, Morgan; Glennon, Cathy

    2016-06-01

    To explore patient experiences of engaging in art making or music listening while receiving treatment in a blood and marrow transplant clinic. Researchers recruited 25 individuals receiving blood and marrow transplant (BMT) treatment, 12 men and 13 women aged 22 to 74, from a Midwestern outpatient BMT clinic. Participants engaged in a painting activity or listened to music on an iPad using an internet music application for one hour. Researchers interviewed participants after the one-hour activity to gain insight into participants' perceptions of the art making or music listening experience. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and independently coded by members of the research team. Researchers met on several occasions to analyse codes and agree on emerging themes. Nine themes emerged from the data including, Engaging in Activity, Art and Music in Daily Life, Expression, Engaging with Equipment, Novelty, BMT Process, Activity Process, Social Support, and Living Situation. Participants enjoyed art making and music listening and found the activities beneficial during treatment. Participants benefited from art making and music listening because these activities increased the variety of options available during treatment, allowed for self-expression, and could be done alone or with caregivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Endothelial cells and hematopoiesis: a light microscopic study of fetal, normal, and pathologic human bone marrow in plastic-embedded sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, A; Glomski, C; Henderson, E S

    1992-07-01

    The origin and morphological identity of hematopoietic progenitor cells, as well as their precursor, the pleuripotential hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), has not been established. Our studies of 2 microns sectioned undecalcified plastic-embedded bone marrow (BM) from healthy human fetuses; normal adults; patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and chronic granulocytic leukemia (CGL) in various stages (chronic, accelerated, acute blastic phase, and after autografting); and patients recovering from therapy-induced marrow hypoplasia suggest that proliferative hematopoietic zones exist near the endosteum (endosteal marrow) and the vascular endothelium (capillary and sinus-lining endothelium) and a maturational zone distal to these regions. In some of these areas, morphologically recognizable hematopoietic cells were seen and interpreted as emerging and maturing in a sequential progression, suggesting an origin from the endosteal or endothelial progenitors. In other loci, early hematopoietic cells were seen in close contact with the endosteal or vascular endothelial (VE) cells. This latter relationship suggested that these areas of cellular contact were important and represented sites of cell to cell interaction that may be associated with the liberation of growth factors by endosteal and endothelial cells and their action on hematopoietic progenitor cells. Following treatment-induced hypoplasia, the endosteal and VE cells were seen to modulate, transform, and migrate into the surrounding empty and edematous marrow space as fibroblasts. Later, as hemopoietic regeneration began, clusters of regenerating hematopoietic cells were seen adjacent to bone trabecule (BT) and near the vascular endothelium. We postulate that endosteal and VE cells are the equivalent of embryonal-stage, undifferentiated mesenchyme and, under the appropriate regulatory influence, are capable of modulation and transformation (differentiation) into stromal

  18. Effects of marrow storage at 4 degrees C on the subsequent generation of long-term marrow cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, M.; Singer, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of marrow preservation at 4 degrees C on subsequent long-term culture, which evaluates both hematopoietic precursor cells and hematopoietic microenvironmental cells. Storage of unfractionated marrow was superior to storage of buffy-coat cells in tissue culture medium with 20% fetal calf serum. CFU-C recovery in unfractionated marrow was 48.4% at four days and 21.4% at seven days. Long-term marrow cultures from cells stored at 4 degrees C for up to seven days produced CFU-C for up to seven weeks and established confluent marrow stromal cell layers. Suspension cultures of marrow cells preserved at 4 degrees C for seven days cultured with irradiated allogeneic marrow stromal cell layers from normal long-term marrow cultures showed significantly increased CFU-C production from week 2 to week 5 when compared with the control cultures without adherent cell layers. These data suggest that marrow storage at 4 degrees C for up to seven days preserves early hematopoietic precursor cells and microenvironmental cells and may be used for autologous rescue from marrow ablative therapy

  19. Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate-Enhanced Marrow Stimulation of Chondral Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Hermann; Orth, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from bone marrow play a critical role in osteochondral repair. A bone marrow clot forms within the cartilage defect either as a result of marrow stimulation or during the course of the spontaneous repair of osteochondral defects. Mobilized pluripotent MSCs from the subchondral bone migrate into the defect filled with the clot, differentiate into chondrocytes and osteoblasts, and form a repair tissue over time. The additional application of a bone marrow aspirate (BMA) to the procedure of marrow stimulation is thought to enhance cartilage repair as it may provide both an additional cell population capable of chondrogenesis and a source of growth factors stimulating cartilage repair. Moreover, the BMA clot provides a three-dimensional environment, possibly further supporting chondrogenesis and protecting the subchondral bone from structural alterations. The purpose of this review is to bridge the gap in our understanding between the basic science knowledge on MSCs and BMA and the clinical and technical aspects of marrow stimulation-based cartilage repair by examining available data on the role and mechanisms of MSCs and BMA in osteochondral repair. Implications of findings from both translational and clinical studies using BMA concentrate-enhanced marrow stimulation are discussed. PMID:28607559

  20. Comparative evaluation of hmopolesis and serum proteins from dogs with transmissible venereal tumor by natural ocorrence and induced by alogenic transplant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aptekmann, K.P.; Costa, M.T.; Fabeni, R. de C.; Santana, A.E.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the haemopoiesis and total serum proteins of dogs with canine Transmissible Venereal Tumour (TVT) (naturally occurring or induced by allogenic transplant). Complete haemogram, bone marrow evaluation, total serum protein, albumin determination and electrophoretic fractionation of serum proteins were performed. Results revealed normocytic normochromic anaemia and thrombocytopenia in dogs with naturally occurring TVT

  1. Transplantation of bone marrow cells into lethally irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viktora, L.; Hermanova, E.

    1978-01-01

    Morphological changes were studied of megakaryocytes in the bone marrow and spleen of lethally irradiated mice (0.2 C/kg) after transplantation of living bone marrow cells. It was observed that functional trombopoietic megakaryocytes occur from day 15 after transplantation and that functional active megakaryocytes predominate in bone marrow and spleen from day 20. In addition, other types of cells, primarily granulocytes, were detected in some megakaryocytes. (author)

  2. Overview of marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    Bone marrow transplantation is now an accepted form of therapy for many hematologic disorders including aplastic anemia, genetically determined diseases and malignant diseases, particularly leukemia, and for rescue of patients given intensive chemoradiotherapy for malignant disease. The donor may be a healthy identical twin, a family member or even an unrelated person. Selection is made on the basis of human leukocyte antigen tissue typing. Intensive chemoradiotherapy is used to suppress patients' immune systems to facilitate engraftment and destroy diseased marrow. Transfusion of platelets, erythrocytes and granulocytes (or all of these), antibiotic coverage and protection from infection are necessary during the pancytopenic period. Survival rates vary considerably depending on a patient's disease, clinical state and age. Patients with aplastic anemia transplanted early in the course of their disease have a survival rate of approximately 80%. Patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia are usually transplanted in a second or subsequent remission and have a survival rate of 25% to 40%. Patients with acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia in remission have survivals ranging from 45% to 70%. More than 200 patients in the chronic phase of chronic granulocytic leukemia have been transplanted with survival ranging from 50% to 70%. Complications of marrow transplantation include marrow graft rejection, graft-versus-host disease, immunologic insufficiency and the possibility of recurrence of the leukemia. 14 references

  3. Proposal of an Appropriate Decalcification Method of Bone Marrow Biopsy Specimens in the Era of Expanding Genetic Molecular Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Eun Choi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The conventional method for decalcification of bone specimens uses hydrochloric acid (HCl and is notorious for damaging cellular RNA, DNA, and proteins, thus complicating molecular and immunohistochemical analyses. A method that can effectively decalcify while preserving genetic material is necessary. Methods: Pairs of bilateral bone marrow biopsies sampled from 53 patients were decalcified according to protocols of two comparison groups: EDTA versus HCl and RDO GOLD (RDO versus HCl. Pairs of right and left bone marrow biopsy samples harvested from 28 cases were allocated into the EDTA versus HCl comparison group, and 25 cases to the RDO versus HCl comparison group. The decalcification protocols were compared with regards to histomorphology, immunohistochemistry, and molecular analysis. For molecular analysis, we randomly selected 5 cases from the EDTA versus HCl and RDO versus HCl groups. Results: The decalcification time for appropriate histomorphologic analysis was the longest in the EDTA method and the shortest in the RDO method. EDTA was superior to RDO or HCl in DNA yield and integrity, assessed via DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction, and silver in situ hybridization using DNA probes. The EDTA method maintained intact nuclear protein staining on immunohistochemistry, while the HCl method produced poor quality images. Staining after the RDO method had equivocal results. RNA in situ hybridization using kappa and lambda RNA probes measured RNA integrity; the EDTA and RDO method had the best quality, followed by HCl. Conclusions: The EDTA protocol would be the best in preserving genetic material. RDO may be an acceptable alternative when rapid decalcification is necessary.

  4. Autologous cell therapy as a new approach to treatment of radiation-induced bone marrow aplasia: preliminary study in a baboon model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herodin, F.; Drouet, M. [Radiohematology Unit, Centre de Recherches du Service de Sante des Armees, La Tronche CEDEX (France)

    2002-07-01

    The sparing of viable hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells located in underexposed bone marrow territories associated with the relative radioresistance of certain stem cell populations is the rationale for autologous cell therapy consisting of ex vivo expansion of residual cells after collection postirradiation. The feasibility of this treatment mainly depends on time constraints and hematopoietic cell threshold. We showed in this study that in the absence of early-acting mobilizing agent administration, subliminar amounts of CD34{sup +} cells can be collected (1 x 10{sup 6} CD34{sup +} cells/100 mL bone marrow or for 1 L apheresis) from 6-Gy {gamma} globally irradiated baboons. Residual CD34{sup +} cells were successfully expanded in serum-free medium in the presence of antiapoptotic cytokine combination (stem cell factor + FLT-3 ligand + thrombopoietin + interleukin 3, 50 ng/mL each, i.e., 4F): K{sub CD34{sup +}} = x2.8 and x13.7 (n=2). Moreover, we demonstrated the short-term neutrophil engraftment potential of a low-size mixed expanded graft (1.5 x 10{sup 6} final CD34{sup +}cells/kg) issued from the coculture of unirradiated (20%) and 2.5-Gy in vitro irradiated (80%) CD34{sup +} cells on an allogeneic stromal cell layer in the presence of 4F. Further preclinical research needs to be performed to clearly establish this therapeutic approach that could be optimized by the early administration of antiapoptotic cytokines. (author)

  5. Bone marrow cells other than stem cells seed the bone marrow after rescue transfusion of fatally irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronkite, E.P.; Inoue, T.; Bullis, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    In a previous publication, iodinated deoxyuridine ( 125 IUdR) incorporation data were interpreted as indicating that spleen colony-forming units (CFU-S) in DNA synthesis preferentially seeded bone marrow. In the present studies, the CFU-S content of marrow from irradiated, bone-marrow transfused mice was directly determined. Pretreatment of the transfused cells with cytocidal tritiated thymidine resulted in an insignificant diminution in CFU-S content when compared with nontritiated thymidine pretreatment, implying that there is no preferential seeding. The 125 IUdR incorporation data have been reinterpreted as being a result of the proliferation of other progenitor cells present that have seeded the bone marrow

  6. Bone marrow scintigraphy with 111In-chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, Masayasu; Miyamae, Tatsuya

    1977-01-01

    111 In-chloride as a useful bone marrow-scanning agent has been used for various hematological diseases. We also have studied the distribution of indium-111 by scintigraphy in 28 patients with systemic hematopoietic disorders and other: 4 with aplastic anemia, 8 with leucemia, 3 with iron-deficiency anemia, one with pernicious anemia, 2 with myelofibrosis, 3 with multiple myeloma, one with malignant lymphoma, 3 with liver cirrhosis or Banti-syndrome and 3 with seminoma received post operative irradiation. The results of scintigraphy (the image of bone marrow, liver, spleen, kidney and intestine) were compared with bone marrow biopsies, ferrokinetic data and Se.I./TIBC. The bone marrow image was interpreted on a three-point scale: normal distribution of activity (+), abnormal distribution (+-), body back ground level (-). In the cases of iron-deficiency anemia and pernicious anemia with hyperplastic erythroid marrow, regardless of its severe anemia, the scintigrams showed clearly delineated bone marrow images and normal organ distribution of indium. On the other hand, the scan images revealed severe suppressions of bone marrow activity and markedly increased renal activity in some cases of aplastic anemia, acute leucemia and malignant lymphoma with hypoplastic and/or tumour-cell infiltrative marrows. Thus, it may be said that the bone marrow uptake of indium-111 correlates well with the degree of erythroid elements, no correlation with nucleated cell counts, and there is a strong tendency to increased renal activity in the cases of markedly decreased erythropoietic cell counts. (auth.)

  7. Abscopal suppression of bone marrow erythropoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werts, E.D.; Johnson, M.J.; DeGowin, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    Abscopal responses of hemopoietic tissue, which we noted in preliminary studies of mice receiving partial-body irradiation, led us to clarify these effects. In studies reported here, one hind leg of CF-1 female mice received 1000, 5000, or 10,000 rad of x radiation. We found a persistent shift from medullary to splenic erythropoiesis preventing anemia in mice receiving 5000 or 10,000 rad. Splenectomy prior to 5000-rad irradiation resulted in anemia, which was not ameliorated by exposure to intermittent hypoxia. Despite evidence for increased levels of erythropoietin in the animals, namely, a reticulocytosis and increased erythrocyte radioiron incorporation, both 59 Fe uptake and erythroblast counts in shielded marrow remained below normal. We found 50 to 90% suppression of the growth of marrow stromal colonies (MSC) from bone marrow aspirates of the shielded and irradiated femoral marrow at 1 month and at least 20% depression of MSC at 1 year, with each dose. We conclude that: (i) high doses of x radiation to one leg of mice caused prolonged suppression of medullary erythropoiesis with splenic compensation to prevent anemia; (ii) splenectomy, anemia, and hypoxia prevented the severe abscopal depression of medullary erythropoiesis; and (iii) suppressed medullary erythropoiesis with decreased growth of MSC suggested a change in the hemopoietic microenvironment of the bone marrow

  8. Changes in T1 relaxation processes in the bone marrow following treatment in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A magnetic resonance imaging study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K E; Thomsen, C; Henriksen, O

    1990-01-01

    data from bone marrow biopsies obtained in close association to the MR examinations. Ten age matched children were examined as a control group. A 1.5 Tesla whole body scanner was used for the measurements. The pretreatment T1 relaxation times of the bone marrow were significantly prolonged, compared...

  9. Immunohistochemical study of Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1 (UEA-1) binding of megakaryocytes in bone marrow biopsy specimens: demonstration of heterogeneity in staining pattern reflecting the stages of differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S M; Li, C Y

    1996-01-01

    During differentiation, megakaryocytes undergo nuclear endoreplication, an increase in cell size, cytoplasmic granulation, and release of platelets. The changes in highly lobulated nuclei with varying degree of polyploidy and increasing cell size are easily recognized morphologically. However, the actual cytoplasmic changes are more difficult to perceive morphologically. With the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) method using UEA-1 as the binding protein to the alpha-L-fucose of glycoprotein synthesized by megakaryocytes, we observed significant variation in cytoplasmic staining of megakaryocytes in routinely processed bone marrow biopsy sections. A total of 3344 megakaryocytes in bone marrow sections from 10 patients with nonhematologic diseases and from 10 patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) was studied. According to the intensity and pattern of cytoplasmic staining, we divided megakaryocytes into at least six groups: (1) low granular (LG), (2) diffuse granular (DG), (3) diffuse dense granular (DDG), (4) marginal granular (MG), (5) denuded (DMK), and (6) endomitotic (EndoM). Most of the megakaryocytes were DG (mean, 42.75% +/- 19.21%) and DDG (mean, 50.25% +/- 21.23%). In correlation with nuclear morphology and cell size, it appears that substances binding to UEA-1 are located in the paranuclear region in early megakaryocytes and produce a low granular focal staining pattern (LG cells). Next, the granules spread throughout the cytoplasm (DG cells) and increase in quantity (DDG). This is followed by migration of granules to the periphery of the cytoplasm (MG cells) and is associated with the liberation of platelets and eventual formation of DMK megakaryocytes. Endomitosis, regulated by unknown factors, occurred in the MG stage. In comparing the group with nonhematologic disease (mean DG, 35.4% +/- 18.48%; DDG, 58.4% +/- 21.8%) and the group with ITP (mean DG, 50.1% +/- 17.82%; DDG, 42.1% +/- 18.12%), we found an increasing proportion of DG

  10. Marrow heterotopia in thalassemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papavasiliou, C.; Gouliamos, A.; Andreou, J.

    1986-05-01

    The subject of marrow heterotopia has been reviewed on the basis of 15 cases suffering from thalassemia. Other cases reported in the literature were also reviewed. Using conventional radiography, scintigraphy, computerized tomography and myelography, 17% of the cases admitted into the hospital with the diagnosis of Thalassemia, were found to have macroscopic masses of marrow heterotopia. The most common site of development of these masses was the costovertebral gutter, followed by the anterior end of the ribs and the extradural space of the spinal canal. In one case, masses were located in the maxillary antra. The clinical implications, the pathogenesis of the masses and the differential diagnosis from other tumour-like entities are discussed. Three patients presented with symptoms and signs of spinal cord compression. All three patients were treated satisfactorily with small doses of radiotherapy.

  11. Ex vivo-expanded bone marrow CD34(+) for acute myocardial infarction treatment: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunetti, Monica; Noghero, Alessio; Molla, Fabiola; Staszewsky, Lidia Irene; de Angelis, Noeleen; Soldo, Annarita; Russo, Ilaria; Errichiello, Edoardo; Frasson, Chiara; Rustichelli, Deborah; Ferrero, Ivana; Gualandris, Anna; Berger, Massimo; Geuna, Massimo; Scacciatella, Paolo; Basso, Giuseppe; Marra, Sebastiano; Bussolino, Federico; Latini, Roberto; Fagioli, Franca

    2011-10-01

    Bone marrow (BM)-derived cells appear to be a promising therapeutic source for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, the quantity and quality of the cells to be used, along with the appropriate time of administration, still need to be defined. We thus investigated the use of BM CD34(+)-derived cells as cells suitable for a cell therapy protocol (CTP) in the treatment of experimental AMI. The need for a large number of cells was satisfied by the use of a previously established protocol allowing the expansion of human CD34(+) cells isolated from neonatal and adult hematopoietic tissues. We evaluated gene expression, endothelial differentiation potential and cytokine release by BM-derived cells during in vitro culture. Basal and expanded CD34(+) cells were used as a delivery product in a murine AMI model consisting of a coronary artery ligation (CAL). Cardiac function recovery was evaluated after injecting basal or expanded cells. Gene expression analysis of in vitro-expanded cells revealed that endothelial markers were up-regulated during culture. Moreover, expanded cells generated a CD14(+) subpopulation able to differentiate efficiently into VE-cadherin-expressing cells. In vivo, we observed a cardiac function recovery in mice sequentially treated with basal and expanded cells injected 4 h and 7 days after CAL, respectively. Our data suggest that combining basal and expanded BM-derived CD34(+) cells in a specific temporal pattern of administration might represent a promising strategy for a successful cell-based therapy.

  12. Shifting bone marrow edema of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moosikasuwan, Josh B.; Schultz, Elizabeth; Miller, Theodore T.; Math, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to describe shifting bone marrow edema in the knee as the MR imaging feature of intra-articular regional migratory osteoporosis of the knee. Five men, aged 45-73 years, were referred by orthopedic surgeons for MR imaging evaluation of knee pain, which had been present for 2 weeks to 6 months. One patient had a prior history of blunt trauma. None had risk factors for osteonecrosis. Four patients had two MR examinations and the patient with prior blunt trauma had four. Plain radiographs were obtained in all patients. In all cases, a large area of marrow edema initially involved a femoral condyle, with migration of the bone marrow edema to the other femoral condyle, tibia, and/or patella occurring over a 2- to 4-month period. Adjacent soft tissue edema was present in all five patients, while none had a joint effusion. Radiographs of two patients showed generalized osteopenia. In the absence of acute trauma or clinical suspicion of infection, a large area of bone marrow edema without a zone of demarcation may represent intra-articular regional migratory osteoporosis. Demonstration of shifting bone marrow edema on follow-up examinations suggests this diagnosis. (orig.)

  13. A phase I feasibility study of multi-modality imaging assessing rapid expansion of marrow fat and decreased bone mineral density in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Susanta K; Arentsen, Luke; Sueblinvong, Thanasak; Brown, Keenan; Bolan, Pat; Ghebre, Rahel G; Downs, Levi; Shanley, Ryan; Hansen, Karen E; Minenko, Anne G; Takhashi, Yutaka; Yagi, Masashi; Zhang, Yan; Geller, Melissa; Reynolds, Margaret; Lee, Chung K; Blaes, Anne H; Allen, Sharon; Zobel, Bruno Beomonte; Le, Chap; Froelich, Jerry; Rosen, Clifford; Yee, Douglas

    2015-04-01

    Cancer survivors are at an increased risk for fractures, but lack of effective and economical biomarkers limits quantitative assessments of marrow fat (MF), bone mineral density (BMD) and their relation in response to cytotoxic cancer treatment. We report dual energy CT (DECT) imaging, commonly used for cancer diagnosis, treatment and surveillance, as a novel biomarker of MF and BMD. We validated DECT in pre-clinical and phase I clinical trials and verified with water-fat MRI (WF-MRI), quantitative CT (QCT) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Basis material composition framework was validated using water and small-chain alcohols simulating different components of bone marrow. Histologic validation was achieved by measuring percent adipocyte in the cadaver vertebrae and compared with DECT and WF-MRI. For a phase I trial, sixteen patients with gynecologic malignancies (treated with oophorectomy, radiotherapy or chemotherapy) underwent DECT, QCT, WF-MRI and DXA before and 12months after treatment. BMD and MF percent and distribution were quantified in the lumbar vertebrae and the right femoral neck. Measured precision (3mg/cm(3)) was sufficient to distinguish test solutions. Adiposity in cadaver bone histology was highly correlated with MF measured using DECT and WF-MRI (r=0.80 and 0.77, respectively). In the clinical trial, DECT showed high overall correlation (r=0.77, 95% CI: 0.69, 0.83) with WF-MRI. MF increased significantly after treatment (p<0.002). Chemotherapy and radiation caused greater increases in MF than oophorectomy (p<0.032). L4 BMD decreased 14% by DECT, 20% by QCT, but only 5% by DXA (p<0.002 for all). At baseline, we observed a statistically significant inverse association between MF and BMD which was dramatically attenuated after treatment. Our study demonstrated that DECT, similar to WF-MRI, can accurately measure marrow adiposity. Both imaging modalities show rapid increase in MF following cancer treatment. Our results suggest that MF and

  14. Subtype assignment of CLL based on B-cell subset associated gene signatures from normal bone marrow – A proof of concept study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Caroline Holm; Jakobsen, Lasse Hjort; Gentles, Andrew J.

    2018-01-01

    . Our hypothesis is that by segregating CLL according to BAGS, we can identify subtypes with prognostic implications in support of pathogenetic value of BAGS. Microarray-based gene-expression samples from eight independent CLL cohorts (1,024 untreated patients) were BAGS-stratified into pre-BI, pre...... subtype resistance towards rituximab and cyclophosphamide varied for rituximab, whereas all subtypes were sensitive to cyclophosphamide. This study supports our hypothesis that BAGS-subtyping may be of tangible prognostic and pathogenetic value for CLL patients.......Diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) involves blood cell counts, immunophenotyping, IgVH mutation status, and cytogenetic analyses. We generated B-cell associated gene-signatures (BAGS) based on six naturally occurring B-cell subsets within normal bone marrow...

  15. The Clinical usefulness of 99mTc HMPAO Leukocyte/99mTc phytate bone marrow scintigraphy for diagnosis of prosthetic knee infection: A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kyung Pyo; Park, Ji Sun; Lee, Ah Young; Choi, Su Jung; Lee, Seok Mo; Bae, Sang Kyun

    2012-01-01

    The preferred radionuclide imaging procedure for diagnosing prosthetic joint infection is combined radiolabeled leukocyte/ 99mT c sulfur colloid bone marrow scintigraphy, which has an accuracy of over 90%. Unfortunately, sulfur colloid is no longer available in South Korea. in this study, we evaluated the usefulness of 99mT c phytate, a substitute for 99mT c sulfur colloid, when combined with radiolabeled leukocyte scintigraphy in suspected prosthetic knee infections. Eleven patients (nine women, two men; mean age 72±6 years) with painful knee prostheses and a suspicion of infection underwent both 99mT c phytate bone marrow scintigraphy (BMS). The combined images were interpreted as positive for infection when radioactivity in the LS at the sits of clinical interest clearly exceeded that of the BMS (discordant); they were interpreted as negative when the increased activity in the LS was consistent with an increased activity in the BMS(concordant). The final diagnosis was made with microbiological or intraoperative findings and a clinical follow up of at least 12 months. Five of eleven patients were diagnosed as having an infected prosthesis. The overall sensitivity, specificity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy of the combined LS/BMS were 100%, 83%, 83%, 100% and 91%, respectively. We find that combined 99mT c HMPAO LS/ 99mT c phytate BMS shows comparable diagnostic performance to other studies utilizing sulfur colloid. Combined 99mT c HMPAO LS/ 99mT c phytate BMS is therefore expected to be an acceptable alternative to combined radiolabeled LS/ 99ms ulfur colloid BMS for diagnosing prosthetic knee infections

  16. Recent progress in the differentiation of bone marrow derived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) are one of the cells found in bone marrow stromal. A large number of studies have shown that BMMSCs cannot only differentiate into hematopoietic stromal cells, but can migrate and position themselves in multiple non-hematopoietic organizations and differentiate into the ...

  17. Magnetic resonance in hematological diseases. Imaging of bone marrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a highly sensitive alternative to plain radiography, CT, and radionuclide studies for the imaging of normal and abnormal bone marrow. The cellularity and the corresponding fat/water ratio within the bone marrow show clear changes in haematological diseases. Thi...

  18. BONE MARROW ABONRMALITIES IN HIV INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad Antiram Dhurve

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction; Hematological abnormalities are a common complication of HIV infection.  Bone marrow abnormalities occur in all stages of HIV infection.  Present work was carried out to study the bone marrow abnormalities in patients with HIV/AIDS.  Methods: 160 patients of HIV +ve were included in the study. A complete blood count, relevant biochemical investigations, CD4   counts were done, besides a thorough history and clinical examination. HIV positive patients were classified as those having AIDS and those without AIDS according to NACO criteria.   Bone marrow examination was performed for indication of anemia, leucopenia, pancytopenia and thrombocytopenia. Results: As per CDC criteria 59.81% patients had AIDS in 107 patients. The most common hematological abnormality was anemia, seen in 93.12% patients.  Bone marrow was normocellular in 79.06% of non-AIDS and 79.68% of AIDS, hypocellular in 13.95%.Thrombocytopenia was seen in 4 cases of ART (4.93% and 3 cases (4.68% of AIDS group. Abnormal cells like plasma cell, histocyte and toxic granule found in bone marrow. Conclusions: Myelodysplasia was more common in AIDS than in non AIDS patients. Granulocytic series is most commonly associated with evidence of dysplasia. Anemia in HIV patients can be a good clinical indicator to predict and access the underlying immune status. Thus bone marrow study is imperative to methodically observe and follow clinical and laboratory aberration in such patients in order to improve our diagnostic and therapeutic skills pertinent to HIV/AIDS.

  19. Association of childhood adiposity measures with adulthood knee cartilage defects and bone marrow lesions: a 25-year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Tao; Thayer, Shaun; Venn, Alison; Wu, Feitong; Cicuttini, Flavia; March, Lyn; Dwyer, Terence; Halliday, Andrew; Cross, Marita; Laslett, Laura L; Jones, Graeme; Ding, Changhai; Antony, Benny

    2018-05-15

    To describe the associations between childhood adiposity measures and adulthood knee cartilage defects and bone marrow lesions (BMLs) measured 25 years later. 327 participants from the Australian Schools Health and Fitness Survey of 1985 (aged 7-15 years) were followed up 25 years later (aged 31-41 years). Childhood measures (weight, height and skinfolds) were collected in 1985. Body mass index (BMI), overweight status and fat mass were calculated. Participants underwent 1.5T knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during 2008-2010, and cartilage defects and BMLs were scored from knee MRI scans. Log binomial regressions were used to examine the associations. Among 327 participants (47.1% females), 21 (6.4%) were overweight in childhood. Childhood adiposity measures were associated with the increased risk of adulthood patellar cartilage defects (Weight relative risk (RR) 1.05/kg, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01 to 1.09; BMI 1.10/kg/m 2 , 1.01 to 1.19; Overweight 2.22/yes, 1.21 to 4.08; fat mass 1.11/kg, 1.01 to 1.22), but not tibiofemoral cartilage defects. Childhood adiposity measures were not significantly associated with adulthood knee BMLs except for the association between childhood overweight status and adulthood patellar BMLs (RR 2.87/yes, 95% CI 1.10 to 7.53). These significant associations persisted after adjustment for corresponding adulthood adiposity measure. Childhood adiposity measures were associated with the increased risk of adulthood patellar cartilage defects and, to a lesser extent, BMLs, independent of adulthood adiposity measures. These results suggest that adiposity in childhood has long-term effects on patellar structural abnormalities in young adults. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. [Experimental study of tissue engineered cartilage construction using oriented scaffold combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in vivo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wei; Da, Hu; Wang, Wentao; Lü, Shangjun; Xiong, Zhuo; Liu, Jian

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the feasibility of fabricating an oriented scaffold combined with chondrogenic-induced bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) for enhancement of the biomechanical property of tissue engineered cartilage in vivo. Temperature gradient-guided thermal-induced phase separation was used to fabricate an oriented cartilage extracellular matrix-derived scaffold composed of microtubules arranged in parallel in vertical section. No-oriented scaffold was fabricated by simple freeze-drying. Mechanical property of oriented and non-oriented scaffold was determined by measurement of compressive modulus. Oriented and non-oriented scaffolds were seeded with chondrogenic-induced BMSCs, which were obtained from the New Zealand white rabbits. Proliferation, morphological characteristics, and the distribution of the cells on the scaffolds were analyzed by MTT assay and scanning electron microscope. Then cell-scaffold composites were implanted subcutaneously in the dorsa of nude mice. At 2 and 4 weeks after implantation, the samples were harvested for evaluating biochemical, histological, and biomechanical properties. The compressive modulus of oriented scaffold was significantly higher than that of non-oriented scaffold (t=201.099, P=0.000). The cell proliferation on the oriented scaffold was significantly higher than that on the non-oriented scaffold from 3 to 9 days (P fibers with chondrocyte-like cells on the oriented-structure constructs. Total DNA, glycosaminoglycan (GAG), and collagen contents increased with time, and no significant difference was found between 2 groups (P > 0.05). The compressive modulus of the oriented tissue engineered cartilage was significantly higher than that of the non-oriented tissue engineered cartilage at 2 and 4 weeks after implantation (P < 0.05). Total DNA, GAG, collagen contents, and compressive modulus in the 2 tissue engineered cartilages were significantly lower than those in normal cartilage (P < 0.05). Oriented extracellular

  1. Autologous Transplantation in Follicular Lymphoma with Early Therapy Failure: A National LymphoCare Study and Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casulo, Carla; Friedberg, Jonathan W; Ahn, Kwang W; Flowers, Christopher; DiGilio, Alyssa; Smith, Sonali M; Ahmed, Sairah; Inwards, David; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Chen, Andy I; Choe, Hannah; Cohen, Jonathon; Copelan, Edward; Farooq, Umar; Fenske, Timothy S; Freytes, Cesar; Gaballa, Sameh; Ganguly, Siddhartha; Jethava, Yogesh; Kamble, Rammurti T; Kenkre, Vaishalee P; Lazarus, Hillard; Lazaryan, Aleksandr; Olsson, Richard F; Rezvani, Andrew R; Rizzieri, David; Seo, Sachiko; Shah, Gunjan L; Shah, Nina; Solh, Melham; Sureda, Anna; William, Basem; Cumpston, Aaron; Zelenetz, Andrew D; Link, Brian K; Hamadani, Mehdi

    2017-12-11

    Patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) experiencing early therapy failure (ETF) within 2 years of frontline chemoimmunotherapy have poor overall survival (OS). We analyzed data from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) and the National LymphoCare Study (NLCS) to determine whether autologous hematopoietic cell transplant (autoHCT) can improve outcomes in this high-risk FL subgroup. ETF was defined as failure to achieve at least partial response after frontline chemoimmunotherapy or lymphoma progression within 2 years of frontline chemoimmunotherapy. We identified 2 groups: the non-autoHCT cohort (patients from the NLCS with ETF not undergoing autoHCT) and the autoHCT cohort (CIBMTR patients with ETF undergoing autoHCT). All patients received rituximab-based chemotherapy as frontline treatment; 174 non-autoHCT patients and 175 autoHCT patients were identified and analyzed. There was no difference in 5-year OS between the 2 groups (60% versus 67%, respectively; P = .16). A planned subgroup analysis showed that patients with ETF receiving autoHCT soon after treatment failure (≤1 year of ETF; n = 123) had higher 5-year OS than those without autoHCT (73% versus 60%, P = .05). On multivariate analysis, early use of autoHCT was associated with significantly reduced mortality (hazard ratio, .63; 95% confidence interval, .42 to .94; P = .02). Patients with FL experiencing ETF after frontline chemoimmunotherapy lack optimal therapy. We demonstrate improved OS when receiving autoHCT within 1 year of treatment failure. Results from this unique collaboration between the NLCS and CIBMTR support consideration of early consolidation with autoHCT in select FL patients experiencing ETF. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Bone marrow scintigraphy with 111In-chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aburano, Tamio; Ueno, Kyoichi; Sugihara, Masami; Tada, Akira; Tonami, Norihisa

    1977-01-01

    It is assumed that 111 In-chloride is bound to serum transferrin and then transported into reticulocyte in erythropoietic marrow. However, several biochemical differences between radioiron and 111 In have been reported since these years. In present study, clinical usefulness of 111 In-chloride bone marrow scintigraphy was examined especially by comparing 111 In-chloride image with sup(99m)Tc-colloid. Obtained results are as follows: 1) In most cases, both 111 In-chloride and sup(99m)Tc-colloid images showed similar bone marrow distributions. 2) In three out of 7 cases with hypoplastic anemia and two patients with bone marrow irradiation (700-1,000 rad), the central marrow or irradiated marrow showed marked decreased uptake of 111 In, and showed normal uptake of sup(99m)Tc. 3) In two out of 3 cases with chronic myelogenous leucemia, central marrow showed normal uptake of 111 In, and showed decreased uptake of sup(99m)Tc. From the present study, the same dissociation findings as those between radioiron and radiocolloid could be obtained in hypoplastic anemia and bone marrow irradiation. 111 In-chloride would appear to be a useful erythropoietic imaging agent, although further study of exact comparison with radioiron should be necessary. (auth.)

  3. In vivo measurements of the T1 relaxation processes in the bone marrow in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. A magnetic resonance imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, K.E.; Nielsen, H.; Thomsen, C.; Soerensen, P.G.; Karle, H.; Christoffersen, P.; Henriksen, O. (Hvidovre Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. of Magnetic Resonance; Hvidovre Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. of Hematology; Hvidovre Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. of Pathology)

    Nine patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) were examined with magnetic resonance imaging and in vivo T1 relaxation time measurements of the vertebral bone marrow in a 1.5 tesla whole body scanner. Two patients underwent transformation to acute myeloid leukemia and were evaluated at follow-up examinations. At the time of diagnosis the T1 relaxation times of the vertebral bone marrow were significantly prolonged compared with normal values. The T1 relaxation times of the vertebral bone marrow in patients with MDS showed significantly lower values compared with patients with acute leukemia and did not differ from patients with polycythemia vera. (orig.).

  4. Detection of bone marrow involvement in patients with cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federico, M.; Silingardi, V.; Wright, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Current methods for the study of bone marrow to evaluate possible primary or metastatic cancers are reviewed. Bone marrow biopsy, radionuclide scan, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are analyzed with regard to their clinical usefulness at the time of diagnosis and during the course of the disease. Bone marrow biopsy is still the examination of choice not only in hematologic malignancies but also for tumors that metastasize into the marrow. Radionuclide scans are indicated for screening for skeletal metastases, except for those from thyroid carcinoma and multiple myeloma. Computed tomography is useful for cortical bone evaluation. MRI shows a high sensitivity in finding occult sites of disease in the marrow but its use has been restricted by high cost and limited availability. However, the future of MRI in bone marrow evaluation seems assured. MRI is alredy the method of choice for diagnosis of multiple myeloma, when radiography is negative, and for quantitative evaluation of lymphoma when a crucial therapeutic decision (i.e. bone marrow transplantation) must be made. Finally, methods are being developed that will enhance the sensitivity and specificity of MRI studies of bone marrow

  5. Improved cartilage regeneration by implantation of acellular biomaterials after bone marrow stimulation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of animal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel W. Pot

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microfracture surgery may be applied to treat cartilage defects. During the procedure the subchondral bone is penetrated, allowing bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to migrate towards the defect site and form new cartilage tissue. Microfracture surgery generally results in the formation of mechanically inferior fibrocartilage. As a result, this technique offers only temporary clinical improvement. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine may improve the outcome of microfracture surgery. Filling the subchondral defect with a biomaterial may provide a template for the formation of new hyaline cartilage tissue. In this study, a systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to assess the current evidence for the efficacy of cartilage regeneration in preclinical models using acellular biomaterials implanted after marrow stimulating techniques (microfracturing and subchondral drilling compared to the natural healing response of defects. The review aims to provide new insights into the most effective biomaterials, to provide an overview of currently existing knowledge, and to identify potential lacunae in current studies to direct future research. A comprehensive search was systematically performed in PubMed and EMBASE (via OvidSP using search terms related to tissue engineering, cartilage and animals. Primary studies in which acellular biomaterials were implanted in osteochondral defects in the knee or ankle joint in healthy animals were included and study characteristics tabulated (283 studies out of 6,688 studies found. For studies comparing non-treated empty defects to defects containing implanted biomaterials and using semi-quantitative histology as outcome measure, the risk of bias (135 studies was assessed and outcome data were collected for meta-analysis (151 studies. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed, using cartilage regeneration as outcome measure on an absolute 0–100% scale. Implantation of acellular

  6. Improved cartilage regeneration by implantation of acellular biomaterials after bone marrow stimulation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pot, Michiel W; Gonzales, Veronica K; Buma, Pieter; IntHout, Joanna; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; de Vries, Rob B M; Daamen, Willeke F

    2016-01-01

    Microfracture surgery may be applied to treat cartilage defects. During the procedure the subchondral bone is penetrated, allowing bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to migrate towards the defect site and form new cartilage tissue. Microfracture surgery generally results in the formation of mechanically inferior fibrocartilage. As a result, this technique offers only temporary clinical improvement. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine may improve the outcome of microfracture surgery. Filling the subchondral defect with a biomaterial may provide a template for the formation of new hyaline cartilage tissue. In this study, a systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to assess the current evidence for the efficacy of cartilage regeneration in preclinical models using acellular biomaterials implanted after marrow stimulating techniques (microfracturing and subchondral drilling) compared to the natural healing response of defects. The review aims to provide new insights into the most effective biomaterials, to provide an overview of currently existing knowledge, and to identify potential lacunae in current studies to direct future research. A comprehensive search was systematically performed in PubMed and EMBASE (via OvidSP) using search terms related to tissue engineering, cartilage and animals. Primary studies in which acellular biomaterials were implanted in osteochondral defects in the knee or ankle joint in healthy animals were included and study characteristics tabulated (283 studies out of 6,688 studies found). For studies comparing non-treated empty defects to defects containing implanted biomaterials and using semi-quantitative histology as outcome measure, the risk of bias (135 studies) was assessed and outcome data were collected for meta-analysis (151 studies). Random-effects meta-analyses were performed, using cartilage regeneration as outcome measure on an absolute 0-100% scale. Implantation of acellular biomaterials significantly

  7. Augmented cartilage regeneration by implantation of cellular versus acellular implants after bone marrow stimulation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of animal studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, M.W.; Kuppevelt, T.H. van; Gonzales, V.K.; Buma, P.; Hout, J. in't; Vries, R.B.M. de; Daamen, W.F.

    2017-01-01

    Bone marrow stimulation may be applied to regenerate focal cartilage defects, but generally results in transient clinical improvement and formation of fibrocartilage rather than hyaline cartilage. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strive to develop new solutions to regenerate hyaline

  8. Morphological study of the effect of cyclophosphamide, dimethylmyleran and whole-body irradiation for the conditioning of dogs to bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, L.

    1980-01-01

    Dogs were treated with either cyclophosphamide (CY) or dimethylmyleran (DMM), both cytostatics or with total body irradiation (TBI) in order to find out which agents are most suitable for conditioning for bone marrow (BM) transplantation. The histomorphological changes in various organs (lung, bone marrow, lymphatic tissues, digestive tract, liver, kidney, bladder, heart and gonads) after treatment with different doses are described. (orig./MG) [de

  9. Bone marrow transplantation for an infant with neutrophil dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camitta, B M; Quesenberry, P J; Parkman, R; Boxer, L A; Stossel, T P; Cassady, J R; Rappeport, J M; Nathan, D G [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. (USA); Tufts Univ., Boston, Mass. (USA). School of Medicine)

    1977-01-01

    A child with severe neutrophil dysfunction and intractable infections received bone marrow transplants from histocompatible siblings. After a first transplant preceded by cyclophosphamide (CY), antithymocyte serum (ATS) and procarbazine (PCB) preconditioning, there was no evidence for engraftment and autologous marrow function rapidly returned. Cell mediated lysis showed no evidence of patient sensitization against the marrow donor suggesting that graft rejection did not cause the transplant failure. A second transplant was performed utilizing another matched sibling donor. Total body irradiation was added to CY, ATS, and PCB for preconditioning after in vitro studies of the colony forming capacity (CFUsub(c)) of the patient's marrow cells showed normal sensitivity to radiation. Full engraftment ensued with correction of granulocyte function abnormalities. The patient eventually died of intractable pulmonary disease. Experience with this child suggests that cyclophosphamide alone may be insufficient preparation for marrow transplantation in some patients with non-neoplastic hematologic disorders. Experimental and clinical data supporting this contention are reviewed.

  10. Starvation marrow – gelatinous transformation of bone marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Osgood

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gelatinous bone marrow transformation (GMT, also known as starvation marrow, represents a rare pathological entity of unclear etiology, in which bone marrow histopathology demonstrates hypoplasia, fat atrophy, and gelatinous infiltration. The finding of gelatinous marrow transformation lacks disease specificity; rather, it is an indicator of severe illness and a marker of poor nutritional status, found in patients with eating disorders, acute febrile illnesses, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, alcoholism, malignancies, and congestive heart failure. We present a middle-aged woman with a history of alcoholism, depression, and anorexia nervosa who presented with failure to thrive and macrocytic anemia, with bone marrow examination demonstrative of gelatinous transformation, all of which resolved with appropriate treatment. To our knowledge, there are very few cases of GMT which have been successfully treated; thus, our case highlights the importance of proper supportive management.

  11. Bone-marrow MR imaging before and after autologous marrow transplantation in lymphoma patients without known bone-marrow involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lien, H.H.; Blomlie, V.; Blystad, A.K.; Holte, H.; Kvaloey, S.; Langholm, R.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To study lumbar bone marrow by means of MR imaging before and after bone-marrow transplantation in lymphoma patients. Particular emphasis was paid to heterogeneity and to focal manifestations, i.e. appearances that could simulate tumor. Material and Methods: Twenty-two patients who were disease-free for a minimum of 30 months after transplantation were studied in 107 MR examinations. Two radiologists visually evaluated coronal T1-weighted and short inversion time inversion-recovery (STIR) images. Results: T1-weighted images demonstrated a more heterogeneous marrow after transplantation than before it. Sharply defined focal low signal intensity areas appeared on this sequence in 5 (23%) of the 22 patients at between 21 and 60 weeks after transplantation. The mean age of these 5 patients was 48.4 years (range 42-54 years). The difference in age between these 5 patients and the remaining 17 patients, who had a mean age of 33.4 years (range 14-51 years), was statistically significant (p<0.01, Student's t-test, 2-sided test). Conclusion: Sharply defined focal low signal intensity areas may be seen on T1-weighted images of bone marrow in patients who are in complete remission after transplantation, particularly in those aged over 40-45 years. (orig.)

  12. Bone marrow edema syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korompilias, Anastasios V.; Lykissas, Marios G.; Beris, Alexandros E.; Karantanas, Apostolos H.

    2009-01-01

    Bone marrow edema syndrome (BMES) refers to transient clinical conditions with unknown pathogenic mechanism, such as transient osteoporosis of the hip (TOH), regional migratory osteoporosis (RMO), and reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD). BMES is primarily characterized by bone marrow edema (BME) pattern. The disease mainly affects the hip, the knee, and the ankle of middle-aged males. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of the disease. Unfortunately, the etiology of BMES remains obscure. The hallmark that separates BMES from other conditions presented with BME pattern is its self-limited nature. Laboratory tests usually do not contribute to the diagnosis. Histological examination of the lesion is unnecessary. Plain radiographs may reveal regional osseous demineralization. Magnetic resonance imaging is mainly used for the early diagnosis and monitoring the progression of the disease. Early differentiation from other aggressive conditions with long-term sequelae is essential in order to avoid unnecessary treatment. Clinical entities, such as TOH, RMO, and RSD are spontaneously resolving, and surgical treatment is not needed. On the other hand, early differential diagnosis and surgical treatment in case of osteonecrosis is of crucial importance. (orig.)

  13. Role of whole bone marrow, whole bone marrow cultured cells, and mesenchymal stem cells in chronic wound healing.

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    Rodriguez-Menocal, Luis; Shareef, Shahjahan; Salgado, Marcela; Shabbir, Arsalan; Van Badiavas, Evangelos

    2015-03-13

    Recent evidence has shown that bone marrow cells play critical roles during the inflammatory, proliferative and remodeling phases of cutaneous wound healing. Among the bone marrow cells delivered to wounds are stem cells, which can differentiate into multiple tissue-forming cell lineages to effect, healing. Gaining insight into which lineages are most important in accelerating wound healing would be quite valuable in designing therapeutic approaches for difficult to heal wounds. In this report we compared the effect of different bone marrow preparations on established in vitro wound healing assays. The preparations examined were whole bone marrow (WBM), whole bone marrow (long term initiating/hematopoietic based) cultured cells (BMC), and bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC). We also applied these bone marrow preparations in two murine models of radiation induced delayed wound healing to determine which had a greater effect on healing. Angiogenesis assays demonstrated that tube formation was stimulated by both WBM and BMC, with WBM having the greatest effect. Scratch wound assays showed higher fibroblast migration at 24, 48, and 72 hours in presence of WBM as compared to BM-MSC. WBM also appeared to stimulate a greater healing response than BMC and BM-MSC in a radiation induced delayed wound healing animal model. These studies promise to help elucidate the role of stem cells during repair of chronic wounds and reveal which cells present in bone marrow might contribute most to the wound healing process.

  14. In vitro studies of the sensitivity of canine bone-marrow erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E) and fibroblast colony-forming units (CFU-F) to X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreja, Ludwika; Baltschukat, Klaus; Nothdurft, Wilhelm

    1989-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of the early erythroid progenitor cells (BFU-E) and the progenitor cells of the stroma (CFU-F) in canine bone marrow was studied under steady-state conditions by in vitro irradiation with 280 kV X-rays. The dose-effect relationship for colony formation was determined for BFU-E obtained from the iliac crest marrow, and for CFU-F in bone marrow collected from the iliac crest and the humerus of adult beagles. The BFU-E were adequately stimulated with serum from lethally irradiated dogs to obtain a source of BPA (burst-promoting activity). The BFU-E proved to be extremely radiosensitive, (the survival curve was exponential (D o 15.3 ± 1.8 cGY)). Buffy-coat leukocytes separated from bone marrow leukocytes obtained by aspiration were an optimum source of CFU-F. A curve was fitted to data obtained for CFU-F obtained from iliac crest or humerus, resulting in D o = 241 ± 38 cGY and an extrapolation number n = 1.38 ± 0.62 or D o = 261 ± 40 cGY and n = 1.04 ± 0.42, respectively. (author)

  15. Pediatric cervical spine marrow T2 hyperintensity: a systematic analysis

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    Gefen, Ron [Cooper University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Candem, NJ (United States); Schweitzer, Mark E. [The Ottawa Hospital and University of Ottawa, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Ottawa (Canada); Shabshin, Nogah [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-HaShomer (Israel); Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Hyperintense areas of vertebral bone marrow on fluid-sensitive sequences are at times seen on pediatric MRI of the cervical spine in children without suspicious clinical conditions to explain marrow pathology. Although these likely have no clinical significance they may be mistaken for pathology. The purpose of this study is to systematically evaluate the locations and patterns of marrow T2 hyperintensity in the pediatric cervical spine, with respect to age. At 1.5 T, the C2 through T3 vertebrae of 82 children aged 0-17 years without clinically suspicious marrow abnormality were retrospectively reviewed by two musculoskeletal radiologists, who were blinded to patients' age. The frequency, intensity, and location of the foci of marrow T2 hyperintensity were recorded for each vertebra on a 12-point scoring system and were correlated with the patients' age. Foci of marrow hyperintensity were seen in 46/82 (56.1%) patients and in 241/734 (32.8%) vertebrae. Foci were most common in C4 (42% of patients), C5 (45.7%), and C6 (37.8%). The foci of T2 hyperintensity were more common inferiorly (188 foci) and adjacent to the anterior cortex (123). Analysis revealed no significant correlation between age and marrow score (Spearman = -0.147, P = 0.19), but did find a trend towards increased presence of marrow T2 hyperintensity in the ages of most rapid growth, 8-14 years (81.5% of patients). Vertebral body marrow T2 hyperintensity was most common endosteally and in the mid-cervical spine with a slight peak in adolescence. We therefore believe that these pediatric cervical marrow changes may be related to rapid bone growth at the point of maximal kyphotic stress. (orig.)

  16. Karyotype of cryopreserved bone marrow cells

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    M.L.L.F. Chauffaille

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of chromosomal abnormalities is important for the study of hematological neoplastic disorders since it facilitates classification of the disease. The ability to perform chromosome analysis of cryopreserved malignant marrow or peripheral blast cells is important for retrospective studies. In the present study, we compared the karyotype of fresh bone marrow cells (20 metaphases to that of cells stored with a simplified cryopreservation method, evaluated the effect of the use of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF as an in vitro mitotic index stimulator, and compared the cell viability and chromosome morphology of fresh and cryopreserved cells whenever possible (sufficient metaphases for analysis. Twenty-five bone marrow samples from 24 patients with hematological disorders such as acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, chronic myeloid leukemia, megaloblastic anemia and lymphoma (8, 3, 3, 8, 1, and 1 patients, respectively were selected at diagnosis, at relapse or during routine follow-up and one sample was obtained from a bone marrow donor after informed consent. Average cell viability before and after freezing was 98.8 and 78.5%, respectively (P < 0.05. Cytogenetic analysis was successful in 76% of fresh cell cultures, as opposed to 52% of cryopreserved samples (P < 0.05. GM-CSF had no proliferative effect before or after freezing. The morphological aspects of the chromosomes in fresh and cryopreserved cells were subjectively the same. The present study shows that cytogenetic analysis of cryopreserved bone marrow cells can be a reliable alternative when fresh cell analysis cannot be done, notwithstanding the reduced viability and lower percent of successful analysis that are associated with freezing.

  17. Karyotype of cryopreserved bone marrow cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauffaille, M L L F; Pinheiro, R F; Stefano, J T; Kerbauy, J

    2003-07-01

    The analysis of chromosomal abnormalities is important for the study of hematological neoplastic disorders since it facilitates classification of the disease. The ability to perform chromosome analysis of cryopreserved malignant marrow or peripheral blast cells is important for retrospective studies. In the present study, we compared the karyotype of fresh bone marrow cells (20 metaphases) to that of cells stored with a simplified cryopreservation method, evaluated the effect of the use of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as an in vitro mitotic index stimulator, and compared the cell viability and chromosome morphology of fresh and cryopreserved cells whenever possible (sufficient metaphases for analysis). Twenty-five bone marrow samples from 24 patients with hematological disorders such as acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, chronic myeloid leukemia, megaloblastic anemia and lymphoma (8, 3, 3, 8, 1, and 1 patients, respectively) were selected at diagnosis, at relapse or during routine follow-up and one sample was obtained from a bone marrow donor after informed consent. Average cell viability before and after freezing was 98.8 and 78.5%, respectively (P < 0.05). Cytogenetic analysis was successful in 76% of fresh cell cultures, as opposed to 52% of cryopreserved samples (P < 0.05). GM-CSF had no proliferative effect before or after freezing. The morphological aspects of the chromosomes in fresh and cryopreserved cells were subjectively the same. The present study shows that cytogenetic analysis of cryopreserved bone marrow cells can be a reliable alternative when fresh cell analysis cannot be done, notwithstanding the reduced viability and lower percent of successful analysis that are associated with freezing.

  18. Correlation between baseline femoral neck marrow status and the development of femoral head osteonecrosis in corticosteroid-treated patients: A longitudinal study by MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vande Berg, Bruno C.; Gilon, Raphael; Malghem, Jacques; Lecouvet, Frederic; Depresseux, Genevieve; Houssiau, Frederic A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that the development of corticosteroid (CS)-associated femoral head osteonecrosis (ON) is influenced by baseline femoral neck marrow status. Patients and methods: The population consisted of 20 untreated patients with a newly diagnosed rheumatic disease in whom a standardized CS regimen was planned. Before CS treatment, baseline femoral neck marrow status was determined by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging on T1-weighted images (proportion of surface area of femoral neck and intertrochanteric area occupied by fatty marrow; index of marrow conversion [IMC]) and on a quantitative MR sequence (bulk T1 values of femoral head and neck). The presence of ON was assessed by coronal T1-weighted MR images of the hips at 6 and 12 months. Results: None of the patients suffered from ON at baseline. Four patients (20%) developed bilateral femoral head ON at 6 months. The mean percentage of fat marrow in the femoral neck before treatment was significantly higher in ON-positive than in ON-negative patients (p = 0.0025). The mean baseline femoral neck IMC value, which parallels the degree of red to yellow marrow conversion, was higher in ON-positive than in ON-negative patients (p = 0.089). The mean baseline bulk T1 value of the femoral neck (but not of the femoral head), which inversely correlates with the amount of fat marrow, was significantly shorter in ON-positive than in ON-negative patients (p = 0.0298). Conclusion: The development of CS-associated femoral head ON is correlated with a high fat content in the proximal femur before CS therapy

  19. Minimally Manipulated Bone Marrow Concentrate Compared with Microfracture Treatment of Full-Thickness Chondral Defects: A One-Year Study in an Equine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Constance R; Fortier, Lisa A; Williams, Ashley; Payne, Karin A; McCarrel, Taralyn M; Bowers, Megan E; Jaramillo, Diego

    2018-01-17

    Microfracture is commonly performed for cartilage repair but usually results in fibrocartilage. Microfracture augmented by autologous bone marrow concentrate (BMC) was previously shown to yield structurally superior cartilage repairs in an equine model compared with microfracture alone. The current study was performed to test the hypothesis that autologous BMC without concomitant microfracture improves cartilage repair compared with microfracture alone. Autologous sternal bone marrow aspirate (BMA) was concentrated using a commercial system. Cells from BMC were evaluated for chondrogenic potential in vitro and in vivo. Bilateral full-thickness chondral defects (15-mm diameter) were created on the midlateral trochlear ridge in 8 horses. Paired defects were randomly assigned to treatment with BMC without concomitant microfracture, or to microfracture alone. The repairs were evaluated at 1 year by in vitro assessment, arthroscopy, morphological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), quantitative T2-weighted and ultrashort echo time enhanced T2* (UTE-T2*) MRI mapping, and histological assessment. Culture-expanded but not freshly isolated cells from BMA and BMC underwent cartilage differentiation in vitro. In vivo, cartilage repairs in both groups were fibrous to fibrocartilaginous at 1 year of follow-up, with no differences observed between BMC and microfracture by arthroscopy, T2 and UTE-T2* MRI values, and histological assessment (p > 0.05). Morphological MRI showed subchondral bone changes not observed by arthroscopy and improved overall outcomes for the BMC repairs (p = 0.03). Differences in repair tissue UTE-T2* texture features were observed between the treatment groups (p BMC was applied directly to critical-sized, full-thickness chondral defects in an equine model, the cartilage repair results were similar to those of microfracture. Our data suggest that, given the few mesenchymal stem cells in minimally manipulated BMC, other mechanisms such as paracrine, anti

  20. Optimal delivery route of bone marrow stromal cells for rat infarct brain – A study using non-invasive optical imaging

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    Tamaki N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND - Recent studies have indicated that bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC have the potential to improve neurological function when transplanted into animal model of central nervous system (CNS disorders. However, there still exist several questions to solved prior to clinical application. In this study, therefore, we aimed to clarify the optimal delivery route of BMSC transplantation over a reasonable time window.MATERIALS AND METHODS - The rats were subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. The BMSC were labeled with quantum dot (QD 800. The labeled BMSC were transplanted into the infarct brain directly or intravenously at 7 days after the insult. Motor function was serially assessed. The BMSC were also tracked using near infrared (NIR fluorescence imaging technique every week. The fate of the transplanted BMSC was examined at 5 weeks after transplantation, using Immunohistochemistry. RESULTS - Direct, but not intravenous, transplantation of BMSC significantly enhanced functional recovery. NIR fluorescence imaging could visualize their migration towards cerebral infarct in directly, but not intravenously, injected animals. The findings were supported on histological analysis. Thus, the BMSC were widely engrafted in the infarct brain in the directly injected animals, but few BMSC were observed in the intravenously injected ones. CONCLUSION - This study strongly suggests that direct transplantation of BMSC may be more beneficial in treating patients with ischemic stroke than their intravenous transplantation. Therapeutic time window must be called into account when considering the route of BMSC transplantation.

  1. Relationship between MRI-measured bone marrow adipose tissue and hip and spine bone mineral density in African-American and Caucasian participants: the CARDIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Scherzer, Rebecca; Gantz, Madeleine; Chen, Jun; Punyanitya, Mark; Lewis, Cora E; Grunfeld, Carl

    2012-04-01

    An increasing number of studies suggest that bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) might play a role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Our previous study of Caucasian women demonstrated that there is an inverse relationship between BMAT and whole-body bone mineral density (BMD). It is unknown whether visceral adipose tissue (VAT), sc adipose tissue (SAT), and skeletal muscle had an effect on the relationship between BMAT and BMD. In the present study we investigated the relationship between pelvic, hip, and lumbar spine BMAT with hip and lumbar spine BMD in the population-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) sample with adjustment for whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-measured VAT, SAT, and skeletal muscle. T1-weighted MRI was acquired for 210 healthy African-American and Caucasian men and women (age 38-52 yr). Hip and lumbar spine BMD were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Pelvic, hip, and lumbar spine BMAT had negative correlations with hip and lumbar spine BMD (r = -0.399 to -0.550, P BMAT and BMD remained strong after adjusting for demographics, weight, skeletal muscle, SAT, VAT, total adipose tissue (TAT), menopausal status, lifestyle factors, and inflammatory markers (standardized regression coefficients = -0. 296 to -0.549, P BMAT (standardized regression coefficients = 0.268-0.614, P BMAT and hip and lumbar spine BMD independent of demographics and body composition. These observations support the growing evidence linking BMAT with low bone density.

  2. Diffusion and perfusion imaging of bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biffar, Andreas; Dietrich, Olaf; Sourbron, Steven; Duerr, Hans-Roland; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Baur-Melnyk, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    In diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI), the observed MRI signal intensity is attenuated by the self-diffusion of water molecules. DWI provides information about the microscopic structure and organization of a biological tissue, since the extent and orientation of molecular motion is influenced by these tissue properties. The most common method to measure perfusion in the body using MRI is T1-weighted dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE-MRI). The analysis of DCE-MRI data allows determining the perfusion and permeability of a biological tissue. DWI as well as DCE-MRI are established techniques in MRI of the brain, while significantly fewer studies have been published in body imaging. In recent years, both techniques have been applied successfully in healthy bone marrow as well as for the characterization of bone marrow alterations or lesions; e.g., DWI has been used in particular for the differentiation of benign and malignant vertebral compression fractures. In this review article, firstly a short introduction to diffusion-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI is given. Non-quantitative and quantitative approaches for the analysis of DWI and semiquantitative and quantitative approaches for the analysis of DCE-MRI are introduced. Afterwards a detailed overview of the results of both techniques in healthy bone marrow and their applications for the diagnosis of various bone-marrow pathologies, like osteoporosis, bone tumors, and vertebral compression fractures are described.

  3. Iron overload following bone marrow transplantation in children: MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornreich, L.; Horev, G.; Grunebaum, M.; Yaniv, I.; Stein, J.; Zaizov, R.

    1997-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of post-transfusional iron overload in children after bone marrow transplantation by reviewing their magnetic resonance imaging (MR) findings. Materials and methods. We reviewed the abdominal MR studies of 13 children after autologous bone marrow transplantation. Nine of the children had also undergone MR prior to transplantation. Iron deposition in the liver, spleen and bone marrow was graded semi-quantitatively on both T1- and T2-weighted images. Serum ferritin levels and number of blood units given after bone marrow transplantation were recorded. Results. None of the pre-transplantation MR studies revealed iron overload. After bone marrow transplantation, three children showed normal liver and spleen. Iron overload in the liver was noted in ten patients (77 %), six of whom also showed iron overload in the spleen (46 %) and five in the bone marrow (38.5 %). The degree of hepatic iron overload was correlated significantly and splenic iron overload was correlated weakly with the number of blood transfusions (P 0.01 and P > 0.01, respectively), but neither was correlated with the serum ferritin level. Conclusion. Iron overload commonly accompanies bone marrow transplantation. The observed pattern of iron deposition, in which the spleen was uninvolved in 40 % of patients demonstrating iron overload, is not typical of post-transfusional hemochromatosis. (orig.)

  4. Bone Marrow Stromal Antigen 2 Is a Novel Plasma Biomarker and Prognosticator for Colorectal Carcinoma: A Secretome-Based Verification Study

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    Sum-Fu Chiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The cancer cell secretome has been recognized as a valuable reservoir for identifying novel serum/plasma biomarkers for different cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC. This study aimed to verify four CRC cell-secreted proteins (tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 2/trophoblast cell surface antigen 2 (TACSTD2/TROP2, tetraspanin-6 (TSPAN6, bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST2, and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 16 (NGFR as potential plasma CRC biomarkers. Methods. The study population comprises 152 CRC patients and 152 controls. Target protein levels in plasma and tissue samples were assessed by ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Results. Among the four candidate proteins examined by ELISA in a small sample set, only BST2 showed significantly elevated plasma levels in CRC patients versus controls. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the overexpression of BST2 in CRC tissues, and higher BST2 expression levels correlated with poorer 5-year survival (46.47% versus 65.57%; p=0.044. Further verification confirmed the elevated plasma BST2 levels in CRC patients (2.35 ± 0.13 ng/mL versus controls (1.04 ± 0.03 ng/mL (p<0.01, with an area under the ROC curve (AUC being 0.858 comparable to that of CEA (0.867. Conclusion. BST2, a membrane protein selectively detected in CRC cell secretome, may be a novel plasma biomarker and prognosticator for CRC.

  5. Differential susceptibility of C57BL/6NCr and B6.Cg-Ptprca mice to commensal bacteria after whole body irradiation in translational bone marrow transplant studies

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    Toubai Tomomi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mouse is an important and widely utilized animal model for bone marrow transplant (BMT translational studies. Here, we document the course of an unexpected increase in mortality of congenic mice that underwent BMT. Methods Thirty five BMTs were analyzed for survival differences utilizing the Log Rank test. Affected animals were evaluated by physical examination, necropsy, histopathology, serology for antibodies to infectious disease, and bacterial cultures. Results Severe bacteremia was identified as the main cause of death. Gastrointestinal (GI damage was observed in histopathology. The bacteremia was most likely caused by the translocation of bacteria from the GI tract and immunosuppression caused by the myeloablative irradiation. Variability in groups of animals affected was caused by increased levels of gamma and X-ray radiation and the differing sensitivity of the two nearly genetically identical mouse strains used in the studies. Conclusion Our retrospective analysis of thirty five murine BMTs performed in three different laboratories, identified C57BL/6NCr (Ly5.1 as being more radiation sensitive than B6.Cg-Ptprca/NCr (Ly5.2. This is the first report documenting a measurable difference in radiation sensitivity and its effects between an inbred strain of mice and its congenic counterpart eventually succumbing to sepsis after BMT.

  6. Insulin-producing Cells from Adult Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Could Control Chemically Induced Diabetes in Dogs: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabr, Mahmoud M; Zakaria, Mahmoud M; Refaie, Ayman F; Ismail, Amani M; Khater, Sherry M; Ashamallah, Sylvia A; Azzam, Maha M; Ghoneim, Mohamed A

    2018-01-01

    Ten mongrel dogs were used in this study. Diabetes was chemically induced in 7 dogs, and 3 dogs served as normal controls. For each diabetic dog, 5 million human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells/kg were differentiated to form insulin-producing cells using a trichostatin-based protocol. Cells were then loaded in 2 TheraCyte capsules which were transplanted under the rectus sheath. One dog died 4 d postoperatively from pneumonia. Six dogs were followed up with for 6 to 18 mo. Euglycemia was achieved in 4 dogs. Their glucose tolerance curves exhibited a normal pattern demonstrating that the encapsulated cells were glucose sensitive and insulin responsive. In the remaining 2 dogs, the fasting blood sugar levels were reduced but did not reach normal values. The sera of all transplanted dogs contained human insulin and C-peptide with a negligible amount of canine insulin. Removal of the transplanted capsules was followed by prompt return of diabetes. Intracytoplasmic insulin granules were seen by immunofluorescence in cells from the harvested capsules. Furthermore, all pancreatic endocrine genes were expressed. This study demonstrated that the TheraCyte capsule or a similar device can provide adequate immunoisolation, an important issue when stem cells are considered for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  7. Study on preventive and therapeutic effect of Chinese medicinal herbal extracts on rat with bone marrow injury induced by radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jun; Chen Baotian; Meng Hua; Liu Wenchao; Xie Wei; Sheng Rong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of Chinese medicinal herbal extracts, Danggui (Radix angelicae sinensis), Chuanxiong (Rhizoma chuanxiong), Huangqi (Radix astragali), and Danshen (Radix salviae miltiorrhizae) on rats with bone marrow injury induced with whole-body gamma-ray exposure. Methods: Sixty male rats were randomly divided into three groups, control group, model group (irradiation only with no administration of the extracts), and drug treatment group (irradiation and administration of Chinese medicinal herbal extracts). Rats were irradiated with 6 Gy cobolt-60 gamma rays after administration of the extracts for two weeks. The number of marrow nucleate cells was counted, and VEGF and PDGF expression were measured with Western blot method on the 7th day since the irradiation. Results: Bone marrow nucleate cells and VEGF and PDGF expression in bone marrow cells in the model group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.01), and these values in the drug treatment group were significantly higher than those in the model group (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Conclusion: The extracts of Chuanxiong, Danggui, Huangqi, and Danshen can be used to prevent from ration bone marrow injury in rats. (authors)

  8. Bone marrow examination: Indications and diagnostic value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashawri, Layla A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective was to identify the main indications for bone marrow examination in a University hospital setup and the most common diagnoses encountered. To also identify the extent of correlation, if any, between the preliminary diagnosis and the result of the final bone marrow diagnosis. The requests and reports of all bone marrow biopsies and aspirations carried out during a 12-year period from January 1988 through to December 1999, in King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were retrospectively reviewed. The information extracted included the main indications for performing this procedure, age groups involved, and the most common diagnoses encountered. A specially designed form was used for this purpose and the data was analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences. Randomly selected slides of the most common diagnoses were reviewed to concur with the diagnosis. There was a total of 1813 bone marrow biopsies or aspirations, or both, performed. The main indications for bone marrow examination in a descending order of frequency were the following: The diagnosis and management of acute leukemia 403 (22.2%), staging for lymphoma 276 (15.2%), evaluation of pancytopenia 215 (11.9%), thrombocytopenia 173 (9.5%), investigation of anemia 151 (8.3%), fever (pyrexia of unknown origin) 130 (7.2%), lymphadenopathy 120 (6.6%), and hepatosplenomegaly 80 (4.4%). The most common diagnoses encountered were: acute lymphoblastic leukemia 242 (13.3%), immune thrombocytopenia 123 (6.8%), acute myeloblastic leukemia 80 (4.4%), hypersplenism 79 (4.4%), chronic granulocytic leukemia 73 (4.0%), megaloblastic anemia 66 (3.6%), bone marrow positive for lymphomatous infiltration 63 (3.5%), chronic lymphocytic leukemia 40 (2.2%), and multiple myeloma 32 (1.8%). This study confirms that bone marrow examination is a very important investigation for establishing the diagnosis in many conditions, especially hematological neoplasms. The most common

  9. Migration of bone marrow cells to the thymus in sublethally irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlet, Andree; Lenaerts, Patrick; Houben-Defresne, M.P.; Boniver, Jacques

    1982-01-01

    In sublethally irradiated mice, thymus repopulation is due first to the proliferation of surviving thymocytes followed by the multiplication of bone marrow derived prothymocytes. The migration of bone marrow cells to the thymus after a single sublethal whole-body X irradiation was studied by using fluorescein isothiocyanate as a cell marker. Irradiation increases the permissiveness of the thymus to the immigration of bone marrow cells. Furthermore, the post-Rx regenerating bone marrow cells exhibit migration capacities greater than the normal ones. The radiation induced changes in the bone marrow thymus interaction might play an important role in thymus regeneration after sublethal irradiation [fr

  10. Maturational steps of bone marrow-derived dendritic murine epidermal cells. Phenotypic and functional studies on Langerhans cells and Thy-1+ dendritic epidermal cells in the perinatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbe, A; Tschachler, E; Steiner, G; Binder, A; Wolff, K; Stingl, G

    1989-10-15

    The adult murine epidermis harbors two separate CD45+ bone marrow (BM)-derived dendritic cell systems, i.e., Ia+, ADPase+, Thy-1-, CD3- Langerhans cells (LC) and Ia-, ADPase-, Thy-1+, CD3+ dendritic epidermal T cells (DETC). To clarify whether the maturation of these cells from their ill-defined precursors is already accomplished before their entry into the epidermis or, alternatively, whether a specific epidermal milieu is required for the expression of their antigenic determinants, we studied the ontogeny of CD45+ epidermal cells (EC). In the fetal life, there exists a considerable number of CD45+, Ia-, ADPase+ dendritic epidermal cells. When cultured, these cells become Ia+ and, in parallel, acquire the potential of stimulating allogeneic T cell proliferation. These results imply that CD45+, Ia-, ADPase+ fetal dendritic epidermal cells are immature LC precursors and suggest that the epidermis plays a decisive role in LC maturation. The day 17 fetal epidermis also contains a small population of CD45+, Thy-1+, ADPase-, CD3- round cells. Over the course of 2 to 3 wk, they are slowly replaced by an ever increasing number of round and, finally, dendritic CD45+, Thy-1+, CD3+ EC. Thus, CD45+, Thy-1+, ADPase-, CD3- fetal EC may either be DETC precursors or, alternatively, may represent a distinctive cell system of unknown maturation potential. According to this latter theory, these cells would be eventually outnumbered by newly immigrating CD45+, Thy-1+, CD3+ T cells--the actual DETC.

  11. Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Cell Reactions to 316L Stainless Steel: An in Vitro Study on Cell Viability and Interleukin-6 Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Iwan Budiwan; Santoso, Asep; Saputra, Eko; Ismail, Rifky; Jamari, J.; Van der Heide, Emile

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cell (hBMC) reactions to 316L stainless steel (316L-SS) have never been evaluated. The objective of this study was to assess cell viability and interleukin-6 expression of hBMC cultures upon treatment with a 316L-SS implant. Methods: A cytotoxicity analysis was conducted with a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol 2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay after a period of 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation. Expression of interleukin-6 was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Cell viability measurement was performed via IC50 formula. All treatment group showed a > 50 % cell viability with a range of 56,5 - 96,9 % at 24 hours, 51,8-77,3% at 48 hours and 70,1- 120 % at 72 hours. Interleukin-6 expression was downregulated subsequent to treatment with 316L-SS compared to the control group. Conclusion: We found that 316L-SS did not exhibit toxicity towards hBMC culture. PMID:28761837

  12. Reconstruction of irradiated bone segmental defects with a biomaterial associating MBCP+(R), microstructured collagen membrane and total bone marrow grafting: an experimental study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jégoux, Franck; Goyenvalle, Eric; Cognet, Ronan; Malard, Olivier; Moreau, Francoise; Daculsi, Guy; Aguado, Eric

    2009-12-15

    The bone tissue engineering models used today are still a long way from any oncologic application as immediate postimplantation irradiation would decrease their osteoinductive potential. The aim of this study was to reconstruct a segmental critical size defect in a weight-bearing bone irradiated after implantation. Six white New Zealand rabbits were immediately implanted with a biomaterial associating resorbable collagen membrane EZ(R) filled and micro-macroporous biphasic calcium phosphate granules (MBCP+(R)). After a daily schedule of radiation delivery, and within 4 weeks, a total autologous bone marrow (BM) graft was injected percutaneously into the center of the implant. All the animals were sacrificed at 16 weeks. Successful osseous colonization was found to have bridged the entire length of the defects. Identical distribution of bone ingrowth and residual ceramics at the different levels of the implant suggests that the BM graft plays an osteoinductive role in the center of the defect. Periosteum-like formation was observed at the periphery, with the collagen membrane most likely playing a role. This model succeeded in bridging a large segmental defect in weight-bearing bone with immediate postimplantation fractionated radiation delivery. This has significant implications for the bone tissue engineering approach to patients with cancer-related bone defects.

  13. European LeukemiaNet study on the reproducibility of bone marrow features in masked polycythemia vera and differentiation from essential thrombocythemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvasnicka, Hans Michael; Orazi, Attilio; Thiele, Juergen; Barosi, Giovanni; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos E; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Hasserjian, Robert P; Kiladjian, Jean-Jacques; Gianelli, Umberto; Silver, Richard; Mughal, Tariq I; Barbui, Tiziano

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess consensus and interobserver agreement among an international panel of six hematopathologists regarding characterization and reproducibility of bone marrow (BM) histologic features used to diagnose early stage myeloproliferative neoplasms, in particular differentiation of so-called masked/prodromal polycythemia vera (mPV) from JAK2-mutated essential thrombocythemia (ET). The six members of the hematopathology panel evaluated 98 BM specimens independently and in a blinded fashion without knowledge of clinical data. The specimens included 48 cases of mPV according to the originally published hemoglobin threshold values for this entity (male: 16.0-18.4 g/dL, female: 15.0-16.4 g/dL), 31 cases with overt PV according to the updated 2016 WHO criteria, and 19 control cases. The latter group included cases of JAK2-mutated ET, primary myelofibrosis, myelodysplastic syndrome, and various reactive conditions. Inter-rater agreement between the panelists was very high (overall agreement 92.6%, kappa 0.812), particularly with respect to separating mPV from ET. Virtually all cases of mPV were correctly classified as PV according to their BM morphology. In conclusion, a central blinded review of histology slides by six hematopathologists demonstrated that highly reproducible specific histological pattern characterize PV and confirmed the notion that there are no significant differences between mPV and overt PV in relation to BM morphology. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Hemopoietic stem cell niches, recovery from radiation and bone marrow transfusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronkite, E.P.; Carsten, A.L.; Brecher, G.; Feinendegen, L.

    1979-01-01

    Studies were conducted on the appearance of cells in recipient bone marrow with chromosome markers after bone marrow transfusion to recipients that had different treatments. Investigators tried to replete the bone marrow CFV spleen at various times after recovery from maximal sublethal doses of x radiation or during continuous exposure to tritiated water. Studies were made on the effect of diverse treatments on the acceptance of bone marrow transfusions as shown by chromosomal markers. Results showed that the bone marrow of animals rescued by transfusion of 4 x 10 6 bone marrow cells will accept from 0 to 25% of the second transfusion of bone marrow cells given one to 4 months after the first transfusion and examined 2 to 3 weeks after the second transfusion. This may be due to the second transfusion filling up empty niches

  15. Copper-64 labeled liposomes for imaging bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang-gyu; Gangangari, Kishore; Kalidindi, Teja Muralidhar; Punzalan, Blesida; Larson, Steven M.; Pillarsetty, Naga Vara Kishore

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Bone marrow is the soft tissue compartment inside the bones made up of hematopoietic cells, adipocytes, stromal cells, phagocytic cells, stem cells, and sinusoids. While [ 18 F]-FLT has been utilized to image proliferative marrow, to date, there are no reports of particle based positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents for imaging bone marrow. We have developed copper-64 labeled liposomal formulation that selectively targets bone marrow and therefore serves as an efficient PET probe for imaging bone marrow. Methods: Optimized liposomal formulations were prepared with succinyl PE, DSPC, cholesterol, and mPEG-DSPE (69:39:1:10:0.1) with diameters of 90 and 140 nm, and were doped with DOTA-Bn-DSPE for stable 64 Cu incorporation into liposomes. Results: PET imaging and biodistribution studies with 64 Cu-labeled liposomes indicate that accumulation in bone marrow was as high as 15.18 ± 3.69%ID/g for 90 nm liposomes and 7.01 ± 0.92%ID/g for 140 nm liposomes at 24 h post-administration. In vivo biodistribution studies in tumor-bearing mice indicate that the uptake of 90 nm particles is approximately 0.89 ± 0.48%ID/g in tumor and 14.22 ± 8.07%ID/g in bone marrow, but respective values for Doxil® like liposomes are 0.83 ± 0.49%ID/g and 2.23 ± 1.00%ID/g. Conclusion: Our results indicate that our novel PET labeled liposomes target bone marrow with very high efficiency and therefore can function as efficient bone marrow imaging agents.

  16. Contrast enhancement and morphological findings of hematopoietic regions of bone marrow on MR imaging. Comparative study with spondylitis and vertebral tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Yasuo; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Matsuura, Maki; Watari, Jun; Kumazaki, Tatsuo [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-06-01

    The enhanced MR findings of hematopoietic regions in aplastic anemia were compared with those of spondylitis, metastatic vertebral tumors and hematologic neoplasms. The enhanced MR images showed hematopoietic regions to homogeneously enhance and occupy the margin of vertebral bodies, while spondylitis and metastatic tumors appeared as round, inhomogeneously enhancing lesions. MR images of leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome showed homogeneous enhancement at the margins of vertebrae that was difficult to differentiate from hematopoietic regions. Enhanced MR images were useful in detecting the hematopoietic areas in marrow and differentiating them from spondylitis and metastatic tumors, although further experience is needed to distinguish between tumorous hyperplastic regions and benign hematopoietic regions in marrow. (author).

  17. Blood and Bone Marrow Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for a stem cell transplant. Risks Bone marrow donation The most serious risk associated with donating bone ... you feel fully recovered. Peripheral blood stem cell donation The risks of this type of stem cell ...

  18. In-vivo dosimetry with Gafchromic films for multi-isocentric VMAT irradiation of total marrow lymph-nodes: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancosu, Pietro; Navarria, Pierina; Reggiori, Giacomo; Cozzi, Luca; Fogliata, Antonella; Gaudino, Anna; Lobefalo, Francesca; Paganini, Lucia; Palumbo, Valentina; Sarina, Barbara; Stravato, Antonella; Castagna, Luca; Tomatis, Stefano; Scorsetti, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Total marrow (lymph-nodes) irradiation (TMI-TMLI) by volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) was shown to be feasible by dosimetric feasibility studies. It was demonstrated that several partially overlapping arcs with different isocenters are required to achieve the desired coverage of the hematopoietic or lymphoid tissues targets and to spare the neighbouring healthy tissues. The effect of isocenter shifts was investigated with the treatment planning system but an in- vivo verification of the procedure was not carried out. The objective of this study was the in-vivo verification of the consistency between the delivered and planned doses using bi-dimensional GafChromic EBT3 films. In a first phase a phantom study was carried out to quantify the uncertainties under controlled conditions. In a second phase three patients treated with TMLI were enrolled for in-vivo dosimetry. The dose prescription was 2Gy in single fraction. Ten arcs paired on 4-6 isocenters were used to cover the target. Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) was used to verify the patient positioning at each isocenter. GafChromic EBT3 films were placed below the patient on the top of a dedicated immobilization system specifically designed. The dose maps measured with the EBT3 films were compared with the corresponding calculations along the patient support couch. Gamma Agreement Index (GAI) with dose difference of 5% and distance to agreement of 5 mm was computed. In the phantom study, optimal target coverage and healthy tissue sparing was observed. GAI(5%,5 mm) was 99.4%. For the patient-specific measurements, GAI(5%,5 mm) was greater than 95% and GAI (5%,3 mm) > 90% for all patients. In vivo measurements demonstrated the delivered dose to be in good agreement with the planned one for the TMI-TMLI protocol where partially overlapping arcs with different isocenters are required

  19. Cutaneous mast cell maturation does not depend on an intact bone marrow microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charley, M.R.; Mikhael, A.; Sontheimer, R.D.; Gilliam, J.N.; Bennett, M.

    1984-01-01

    A study was made to determine whether the maturation of murine cutaneous mast cells from stem cells depends on an intact bone marrow microenvironment. Normal bone marrow cells (+/+) were infused into 2 groups of mast cell-deficient mice: WBB6F1-W/Wv mice and 89 Sr-pretreated W/Wv mice. 89 Sr is a long-lived bone-seeking radioisotope which provides continuous irradiation of the marrow and thereby ablates the marrow microenvironment. Skin biopsies revealed that the 89 Sr-pretreated mice and the controls had repopulated their skin with mast cells equally well. Natural killer cell function was significantly depressed in the 89 Sr-treated mice, confirming that the marrow microenvironment had been functionally altered. It appears that, although the precursors for cutaneous mast cells are marrow derived, they do not need an intact marrow microenvironment for maturation

  20. Effect of some chemical radioprotectors on mouse bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lata, Manju; Ghose, A.; Khanna, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Effect of 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (HT), AET and Se on mice bone marrow has been studied by counting bone marrow micronucleated cells and endogenous spleen colony count (CFU-S). Combination of HT and AET used as a radioprotector has not caused any significant variation in any of the parameter studied when administered once, it increases bone marrow micronucleated cells and decreases CFU-S slightly after daily administration for 7 days. The individual constituent of the combination administered singly does not increase micronucleated cell number. Seven consecutive doses of HT+AET and same in combination with Se enhances micronucleated cells to a higher level. Daily injection of Se alone up to 7 days also causes an increase in micronucleated cells up to same level. CFU-S pool does not show any significant change in number of bone marrow cells through out the study except in the groups where animals were treated with Se. (author). 15 refs., 3 tabs

  1. Granulocyte-mobilized bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcese, William; De Angelis, Gottardo; Cerretti, Raffaella

    2012-11-01

    In the last few years, mobilized peripheral blood has overcome bone marrow as a graft source, but, despite the evidence of a more rapid engraftment, the incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease is significantly higher with, consequently, more transplant-related mortality on the long follow-up. Overall, the posttransplant outcome of mobilized peripheral blood recipients is similar to that of patients who are bone marrow grafted. More recently, the use of bone marrow after granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) donor priming has been introduced in the transplant practice. Herein, we review biological acquisitions and clinical results on the use of G-CSF-primed bone marrow as a source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. G-CSF the increases the HSC compartment and exerts an intense immunoregulatory effect on marrow T-cells resulting in the shift from Th1 to Th2 phenotype with higher production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The potential advantages of these biological effects have been translated in the clinical practice by using G-CSF primed unmanipulated bone marrow in the setting of transplant from human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-haploidentical donor with highly encouraging results. For patients lacking an HLA-identical sibling, the transplant of G-CSF primed unmanipulated bone marrow from a haploidentical donor combined with an intense in-vivo immunosuppression is a valid alternative achieving results that are well comparable with those reported for umbilical cord blood, HLA-matched unrelated peripheral blood/bone marrow or T-cell-depleted haploidentical transplant.

  2. HLA in bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Kimiyoshi

    1989-01-01

    It has been well understood that human major histocompatibility antigen system, HLA is the most important role in the allo transplantation. Therefore, the structure of HLA genes was presented by the recent information (1987). Moreover, their functions in vitro and in vivo also were described. Finally, bone marrow transplantation and HLA network system in Japan against HLA mismatched case was proposed. It is eagerly expected that functional and clinical bone marrow transplantation in Japan could be succeeded. (author)

  3. THE PATHOLOGY OF BONE MARROW FAILURE

    OpenAIRE

    Leguit , Roos; Van Den Tweel , Jan G

    2010-01-01

    Abstract An important indication for bone marrow investigation is the presence of bone marrow failure, which manifests itself as (pan)cytopenia. The causes of cytopenia are varied and differ considerable between childhood and adulthood. In the paediatric age group, inherited bone marrow failure syndromes are important causes of bone marrow failure but they play only a minor role in later life. This review gives a comprehensive overview of bone marrow failure disorders in children a...

  4. Postirradiation bone marrow damage in chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skardova, I.; Ojeda, F.

    1994-01-01

    The frequency of bone marrow damage induced by the continuous gamma irradiation was studied. Effect of dose rate and level of cumulated doses of radiation was evaluated in clinical and hematological examinations and bone marrow damage was determined by chromosome aberrations in anaphase. The regulative ability of hematopoiesis of many cytokines are discussed. Positive regulators are inducers of cell proliferation, and negative regulators are inducers of apoptosis /programmed cell death/. Birds corresponding with similarities in thymus-T and bursal-B cells appear to be an interesting model for studying the possible participation of apoptosis in radiation disease. Our recent experimental studies continue to progress in this direction. (author) 17 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  5. F-18 FLT PET : A Noninvasive Diagnostic Tool for Visualization of the Bone Marrow Compartment in Patients With Aplastic Anemia A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agool, Ali; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Kluin, Philip M.; de Wolf, Joost Th. M.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Vellenga, Edo

    Rationale: A discordant relationship between bone marrow cellularity and peripheral blood findings is regularly noticed in patients with aplastic anemia (AA). Therefore, the feasibility of 3-F-18 fluoro-3-deoxy-L-thymidine (F-18 FLT PET was tested as a noninvasive tool to visualize the total

  6. In vivo measurements of the T1 relaxation processes in the bone marrow in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. A magnetic resonance imaging study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K E; Nielsen, H; Thomsen, C

    1989-01-01

    Nine patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) were examined with magnetic resonance imaging and in vivo T1 relaxation time measurements of the vertebral bone marrow in a 1.5 tesla whole body scanner. Two patients underwent transformation to acute myeloid leukemia and were evaluated at follow-...... not differ from patients with polycythemia vera....

  7. Improved cartilage regeneration by implantation of acellular biomaterials after bone marrow stimulation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of animal studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, M.W.; Gonzales, V.K.; Buma, P.; Hout, J. in't; Kuppevelt, T.H. van; Vries, R.B. de; Daamen, W.F.

    2016-01-01

    Microfracture surgery may be applied to treat cartilage defects. During the procedure the subchondral bone is penetrated, allowing bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to migrate towards the defect site and form new cartilage tissue. Microfracture surgery generally results in the formation of

  8. Graft Transit Time Has No Effect on Outcome of Unrelated Donor Hematopoietic Cell Transplants Performed in Australia and New Zealand: A Study from the Australasian Bone Marrow Transplant Recipient Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, William Nigel; Nivison-Smith, Ian; Bardy, Peter; Dodds, Anthony; Ma, David; Shaw, Peter John; Kwan, John; Wilcox, Leonie; Butler, Andrew; Carter, John M; Blacklock, Hilary; Szer, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    A previous study found that platelet recovery and mortality were worse in recipients of myeloablative bone marrow transplants where graft transit times were longer than 20 hours. This retrospective study of unrelated myeloablative allogeneic transplantation performed within Australia and New Zealand analyzed transplant outcomes according to graft transit times. Of 233 assessable cases, 76 grafts (33%) were sourced from bone marrow (BM) and 157 (67%) from peripheral blood. Grafts sourced from Australia and New Zealand (47% of total) were associated with a median transit time of 6 hours versus 32 hours for overseas sourced grafts (53% of total). Graft transit temperature was refrigerated in 85%, ambient in 6%, and unknown in 9% of cases, respectively. Graft transit times had no significant effect on neutrophil or platelet engraftment, treatment-related mortality, overall survival, and incidence of acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease. Separate analysis of BM grafts, although of reduced power, also showed no significant difference in either neutrophil or platelet engraftment or survival between short and longer transport times. This study gives reassurance that both peripheral blood stem cell and especially BM grafts subjected to long transit times and transported at refrigerated temperatures may not be associated with adverse recipient outcomes. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. PET/CT versus bone marrow biopsy in the initial evaluation of bone marrow infiltration in various pediatric malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Claudia P; Cuglievan, Branko; Zapata, Catalina M; Olavarrieta, Raquel; Raskin, Scott; Desai, Kavita; De Angulo, Guillermo

    2018-02-01

    Accurate staging is essential in the prognosis and management of pediatric malignancies. Current protocols require screening for marrow infiltration with bone marrow biopsy (BMB) as the gold standard. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) is commonly used to complete the staging process and can also be used to evaluate marrow infiltration. To compare PET-CT and BMB in the initial evaluation of bone marrow infiltration in pediatric cancers. We retrospectively reviewed new cases of EWS, rhabdomyosarcoma, neuroblastoma, and lymphoma diagnosed between January 2009 and October 2014. Each case had undergone both PET-CT and BMB within 4 weeks without treatment in the interval between screening modalities. We reviewed 69 cases. Bone marrow infiltration was demonstrated in 34 cases by PET-CT and in 18 cases by BMB. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of PET-CT were both 100%. Interestingly, the cases in which infiltration was not detected on BMB had an abnormal marrow signal on PET-CT focal or distant to iliac crest. PET-CT has a high sensitivity when assessing marrow infiltration in pediatric malignancies. Advances in radiologic modalities may obviate the use of invasive, painful, and costly procedures like BMB. Furthermore, biopsy results are limited by insufficient tissue or the degree of marrow infiltration (diffuse vs. focal disease). PET-CT can improve the precision of biopsy when used as a guiding tool. This study proposes the use of PET-CT as first-line screening for bone marrow infiltration to improve the accuracy of staging in new diagnoses. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Bone-marrow densitometry: Assessment of marrow space of human vertebrae by single energy high resolution-quantitative computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peña, Jaime A.; Damm, Timo; Bastgen, Jan; Barkmann, Reinhard; Glüer, Claus C.; Thomsen, Felix; Campbell, Graeme M.

    2016-01-01

    localization and densitometric assessment of marrow fat with residual accuracy errors sufficient to study disorders and therapies known to affect bone marrow composition. Additionally, the methods can be used to correct BMD for fat induced bias. Application and testing in vivo and in longitudinal studies are warranted to determine the clinical performance and value of these methods.

  11. Bone-marrow densitometry: Assessment of marrow space of human vertebrae by single energy high resolution-quantitative computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peña, Jaime A.; Damm, Timo; Bastgen, Jan; Barkmann, Reinhard; Glüer, Claus C., E-mail: glueer@rad.uni-kiel.de [Sektion Biomedizinische Bildgebung, Klinik für Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Campus Kiel, Kiel 24118 (Germany); Thomsen, Felix [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahía Blanca 8000 (Argentina); Campbell, Graeme M. [Sektion Biomedizinische Bildgebung, Klinik für Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Campus Kiel, Kiel 24118, Germany and Institut für Biomechanik, Technische Universität Hamburg-Harburg (TUHH), Hamburg 21073 (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    localization and densitometric assessment of marrow fat with residual accuracy errors sufficient to study disorders and therapies known to affect bone marrow composition. Additionally, the methods can be used to correct BMD for fat induced bias. Application and testing in vivo and in longitudinal studies are warranted to determine the clinical performance and value of these methods.

  12. Bone marrow abnormality associated with painful osteoarthritis of the knee. A cross-sectional study of magnetic resonance imaging findings with the radiographic stage and clinical findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Mitsuaki; Kurosawa, Hisashi; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Takazawa, Yuji; Kawasaki, Takayuki; Ishijima, Muneaki; Kim, Song-Gon; Seto, Hiroaki

    2009-01-01

    Bone marrow abnormalities (BMAs) are frequently found in osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Some reports have suggested BMA was correlated with the X-ray stage of OA and also with knee pain, but the reports depended on two-dimensional images without considering the spatial expansion of BMAs. To determine whether three-dimensional expansion of a BMA with MRI in patient with medial-type OA of the knee is correlated with the radiographic stage of OA and clinical findings using a semi-quantitative method. Cross-sectional study. This study enrolled 238 patients with medial-type OA. Radiography and MRI of the knee were taken in all participants. X-rays were graded using the Kellgren-Lawrence (K/L) grade (1-4). T2-weighted fat-suppressed MRI images were used to score the size of the BMA according to the whole-organ MRI score (WORMS). A new scoring system defined as the spatial BMA score (s-score), which specifically addressed the spatial expansion of BMAs, was examined to assess the size of the BMA. BMA frequency was examined in subdivisions of the articular surfaces of the knee according to the X-ray stages of the K/L grade and the correlation of the s-score to the clinical findings. BMA frequency in the medial femorotibial joint (MFTJ; 74%) was significantly higher than in the lateral femorotibial joint (LFTJ; 14%) and patellofemoral joint (PFJ; 14%; P<0.01). The s-score of the MFTJ was strongly correlated with the X-ray stage assessed by the K/L grade. The s-score of the MFTJ was also correlated with the clinical findings. The frequency and spatial expansion of BMAs in the MFTJ are strongly correlated with the X-ray stage of medial-type OA as well as the clinical findings. (author)

  13. Studies on the regeneration of the CFU-C population in blood and bone marrow or lethally irradiated dogs after autologous transfusion of cryopreserved mononuclear blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nothdurft, W.; Bruch, C.; Fliedner, T.M.; Rueber, E.

    1977-01-01

    In a group of 8 lethally irradiated (1200 R) dogs, that were transfused autologously with cryopreserved mononuclear cells (MNC) derived from the peripheral blood by leucapheresis the concentration of colony-forming units in agar (CFU-C) in bone marrow and peripheral blood was estimated at regular intervals after irradiation and transfusion of MNC. The numbers of MNC transfused per kg body weight ranged from 0.32 x 10 9 to 1.63 x 10 9 with an incidence of CFU-C between 0.02 x 10 5 and 1.38 x 10 5 . In 6 dogs the CFU-C levels in the bone marrow reached the normal preirradiation values between days 15 and 20. But in 2 dogs that had received the lowest CFU-C numbers the regeneration of the bone marrow CFU-C was markedly delayed. In general the time course of the bone marrow repopulation by CFU-C for single dogs was reflected by a corresponding regeneration pattern of the blood CFU-C. The time course of the curves for the blood CFU-C levels on the other hand was of the same kind as for the granulocyte values in the peripheral blood, that reached the normal levels mainly around day 30 and thereafter. Considerable fluctuations were seen in the blood CFU-C levels of single dogs before irradiation and after mononuclear leucocyte transfusion. Despite of such limitations the blood CFU-C content appeared to be a useful indicator of haematopoietic regeneration of the bone marrow. (author)

  14. Functional recovery of patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy treated with coronary artery bypass surgery and concomitant intramyocardial bone marrow mononuclear cell implantation: A long term follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifunović Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Intramyocardial bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNC implantation concomitant to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG surgery as an option for regenerative therapy in chronic ischemic heart failure was tested in a very few number of studies, with not consistent conclusions regarding improvement in left ventricular function, and with a follow-up period between 6 months and 1 year. This study was focused on testing of the hypothesis that intramyocardial BMMNC implantation, concomitant to CABG surgery in ischemic cardiomyopathy patients, leads to better postoperative long-term results regarding the primary endpoint of conditional status-functional capacity and the secondary endpoint of mortality than CABG surgery alone in a median follow-up period of 5 years. Methods. A total of 30 patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and the median left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF of 35.9 ± 4.7% were prospectively and randomly enrolled in a single center interventional, open labeled clinical trial as two groups: group I of 15 patients designated as the study group to receive CABG surgery and intramyocardial implantation of BMMNC and group II of 15 patients as the control group to receive only the CABG procedure. All the patients in both groups received the average of 3.4 ± 0.7 implanted coronary grafts, and all of them received the left internal mammary artery (LIMA to the left anterior descending (LAD and autovenous to other coronaries. Results. The group with BMMNC and CABG had the average of 17.5 ± 3.8 injections of BMMNC suspension with the average number of injected bone marrow mononuclear cells of 70.7 ± 32.4 × 106 in the total average volume of 5.7 ± 1.5 mL. In this volume the average count of CD34+ and CD133+ cells was 3.96 ± 2.77 × 106 and 2.65 ± 1.71 × 106, respectively. All the patients were followed up in 2.5 to 7.5 years (median, 5 years. At the end of the follow-up period, significantly more patients from the group

  15. Bone marrow and bone marrow derived mononuclear stem cells therapy for the chronically ischemic myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waksman, Ron; Baffour, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Bone marrow stem cells have been shown to differentiate into various phenotypes including cardiomyocytes, vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle. Bone marrow stem cells are mobilized and home in to areas of injured myocardium where they are involved in tissue repair. In addition, bone marrow secretes multiple growth factors, which are essential for angiogenesis and arteriogenesis. In some patients, these processes are not enough to avert clinical symptoms of ischemic disease. Therefore, in vivo administration of an adequate number of stem cells would be a significant therapeutic advance. Unfractionated bone marrow derived mononuclear stem cells, which contain both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells may be more appropriate for cell therapy. Studies in animal models suggest that implantation of different types of stem cells improve angiogenesis and arteriogenesis, tissue perfusion as well as left ventricular function. Several unanswered questions remain. For example, the optimal delivery approach, dosage and timing of the administration of cell therapy as well as durability of improvements need to be studied. Early clinical studies have demonstrated safety and feasibility of various cell therapies in ischemic disease. Randomized, double blind and placebo-controlled clinical trials need to be completed to determine the effectiveness of stem cell

  16. The effects of high nautal radioactivity on the bone marrow activities of Rattus-rattus in Ramsar: A chromosomal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamali, M.; Sahabi, Z.

    1993-01-01

    The area under study is Ramsar known as one of the high level natural radioactive areas in the world with radiation levels ranging from 0.8 to 5.5 mR.h -1 . The radioactivity of the area is due to 226 Ra and its daughters which have been brought up to the earth surface by the water of the warm springs. It is necessary to say that the radioactive area of Ramsar is divided into three parts: with high, medium and low radiation areas. The control area is Babol with a radius of 10 kilometers. The area has natural background radiation. In the control area thirty Rattus-rattus and in the area of study sixty Rattus-rattus were trapped. It was tried that the Rattuses chosen be from a distance of maximum 500 meters, and from the three different parts of the radioactive areas. Then all the ninety Rattuses were transported to Tehran for experiment. An average of 10-30 Rattuses were trapped for one week, and the maximum time between the trapping and the dissection was one month. The chromosomal study was followed by the Ford technique. The staining was routine and G. banding. No chromosomal disorders and morphological anomalies were considered. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig

  17. Study of the quantitative, functional, cytogenetic, and immunoregulatory properties of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontikoglou, Charalampos; Kastrinaki, Maria-Christina; Klaus, Mirjam; Kalpadakis, Christina; Katonis, Pavlos; Alpantaki, Kalliopi; Pangalis, Gerassimos A; Papadaki, Helen A

    2013-05-01

    The bone marrow (BM) microenvironment has clearly been implicated in the pathogenesis of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL). However, the potential involvement of BM stromal progenitors, the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), in the pathophysiology of the disease has not been extensively investigated. We expanded in vitro BM-MSCs from B-CLL patients (n=11) and healthy individuals (n=16) and comparatively assessed their reserves, proliferative potential, differentiation capacity, and immunoregulatory effects on T- and B-cells. We also evaluated the anti-apoptotic effect of patient-derived MSCs on leukemic cells and studied their cytogenetic characteristics in comparison to BM hematopoietic cells. B-CLL-derived BM MSCs exhibit a similar phenotype, differentiation potential, and ability to suppress T-cell proliferative responses as compared with MSCs from normal controls. Furthermore, they do not carry the cytogenetic abnormalities of the leukemic clone, and they exert a similar anti-apoptotic effect on leukemic cells and healthy donor-derived B-cells, as their normal counterparts. On the other hand, MSCs from B-CLL patients significantly promote normal B-cell proliferation and IgG production, in contrast to healthy-donor-derived MSCs. Furthermore, they have impaired reserves, defective cellular growth due to increased apoptotic cell death and exhibit aberrant production of stromal cell-derived factor 1, B-cell activating factor, a proliferation inducing ligand, and transforming growth factor β1, cytokines that are crucial for the survival/nourishing of the leukemic cells. We conclude that ex vivo expanded B-CLL-derived MSCs harbor intrinsic qualitative and quantitative abnormalities that may be implicated in disease development and/or progression.

  18. Donor cytomegalovirus status influences the outcome of allogeneic stem cell transplant: a study by the European group for blood and marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungman, Per; Brand, Ronald; Hoek, Jennifer; de la Camara, Rafael; Cordonnier, Catherine; Einsele, Hermann; Styczynski, Jan; Ward, Katherine N; Cesaro, Simone

    2014-08-15

    The use of a cytomegalovirus (CMV)-seronegative donor for a CMV-seronegative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipient is generally accepted. However, the importance of donor serostatus in CMV-seropositive patients is controversial. A total of 49 542 HSCT patients, 29 349 seropositive and 20 193 seronegative, were identified from the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation database. Cox multivariate models were fitted to estimate the effect of donor CMV serological status on outcome. Seronegative patients receiving seropositive unrelated-donor grafts had decreased overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.21; P donors, whereas no difference was seen in patients receiving HLA-matched sibling grafts. Seropositive patients receiving grafts from seropositive unrelated donors had improved overall survival (HR, 0.92; 95% CI, .86-.98; P donors, if they had received myeloablative conditioning. This effect was absent when they received reduced-intensity conditioning. No effect was seen in patients grafted from HLA-identical sibling donors. The same association was found if the study was limited to patients receiving transplants from the year 2000 onward. We confirm the negative impact on overall survival if a CMV-seropositive unrelated donor is selected for a CMV-seronegative patient. For a CMV-seropositive patient, our data support selecting a CMV-seropositive donor if the patient receives a myeloablative conditioning regimen. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Further studies on the genetic damage to bone marrow and other somatic effects following exposure to low level tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carsten, A.L.; Benz, R.D.; Commerford, S.L.; Hughes, W.; Ichimasa, Y.; Ikushima, T.; Tezuka, H.

    1984-01-01

    This paper emphasizes results obtained over the last 3 years, supplementing information presented at the first 3 H workshop. Sister chromtid exchange (SCE) measurements on mice maintained on 3.0 μCi/ml of tritiated water (HTO) or receiving an equal depth dose 137 Cs gamma exposure for 52 weeks have been completed. Small but significantly higher numbers of SCEs were found in animals receiving gamma exposures or maintained on HTO than in their controls. In animals removed from the HTO regimen after 27 weeks, the number of SCEs decreases with time, but did not return to control levels within the first 30 weeks. Comparative studies with the 137 Cs exposures indicate an RBE not significantly different than 1.0. Mice were also maintained on 7.5, 15.0 and 30.0 μCi/ml HTO for SCE studies. Results similar to those described for 3.0 μCi/ml were found. Maintaining animals on a 0.15% saccharin solution is the most effective of those tested for increasing the animals' water intake and for enhancing excretion of 3 H. The rate of disappearance of 3 H from animals maintained chronically on HTO indicated a two phase 3 H disappearance curve from hemoglobin. Single injections of HTO showed a brief delay in incorporation of 3 H followed by a disappearance paralleling the slower phase of the chronic exposure curve, and indicating a RBC lifetime of approximately 40 days. 21 references, 7 figures, 1 table

  20. Regulation of glycogenesis in bone marrow of irradiated body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkalaya, A I

    1976-02-01

    In connection with a stimulating effect of insulin on postradiation restoration of medullary hemopoiesis the authors studied the influence of insulin on glycogenesis of bone marrow in comparison with glycogenesis of the liver under the conditions of irradiation. As a result the experiment made on white mice the authors established that the level of glycogen in both tissues on the first two days after irradiation (750 R) increased. Later, the decrease of glycogen concentration was observed and its exhaustion was more marked. Insulin protected bone marrow and the liver from exhaustion of glycogen reserves and ensured a higher level of glycogen in the liver. It is supposed that the regulation mechanisms by means of insulin of glycogenesis in the bone marrow and the liver are mainly of the same type. The influence of insulin on carbohydrate metabolism in the bone marrow is likely to be of significance for postradiation hemopoiesis.

  1. Bone marrow in pediatric patients with Hodgkin's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fauzia Shafi; Hasan, Rabiya Fayyaz

    2012-01-01

    Hodgkin's disease is a malignant process of lymphoreticular system that constitutes 6% of childhood cancers Accurate staging of lymphoma is the basis for rational therapeutic planning and assessment of the presence or absence of marrow involvement is a basic part of the staging evaluation. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of marrow infiltration in paediatric patients with Hodgkin's disease and to ascertain its morphological spectrum in the marrow. The study included 85 paediatric patients with diagnosed Hodgkin's disease seen at The Children's Hospital/Institute of Child Health, Lahore, from January 2010 to December 2011, referred to haematology department for bone marrow biopsies. Ages ranged between two years to fourteen years with an average age of seven years, the male female ratio being 13:1. Mixed cellularity was the commonest histological type present in 66 (78%) cases. The presenting feature common in all cases was superficial lymphadenopathy followed by hepatomegaly in 17 (20%) cases and splenomegaly in 16 (19%). All the marrow aspirates were negative for infiltration. Trephine biopsies revealed marrow infiltration in 9 (10.5%). Five (56%) cases had bilateral while 4 (44%) had unilateral involvement. Pattern of infiltration was diffuse in 8 (89%) and focal in one (11%) trephines. Increased marrow fibrosis was present in eight (89%) cases. Diagnostic Reed Sternberg cells were identified in only one case and the mononuclear variants were present in six cases and atypical cells were present in two cases in these immunohistochemistry for CD15 and CD30 was performed which was positive. Granulomas in one and lymphoid aggregates were present in two trephine biopsies otherwise negative for Hodgkin's infiltration. Bone marrow infiltration was present in 10.5% cases, immunohistochemistry was used to confirm infiltration in two cases, the pattern of infiltration being diffuse in majority (89%).

  2. Psychiatric disorders in bone marrow transplant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.G.; Irfan, M.; Shamsi, T.S.; Hussain, M.

    2007-01-01

    To identify the psychiatric illnesses in patients with hematological/oncological disorders encountered during blood and bone marrow transplantation. All consecutive patients, aged 15 years and above, who fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria and underwent blood and bone marrow transplantation, were enrolled in this study. Psychiatric assessment comprised of a semi-structured interview based on Present Status Examination (PSE). The psychiatric diagnosis was made on the basis of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) system of classification devised by W.H.O. Eighty patients, who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, were inducted in this study. Thirty (37.5%) cases were found to have psychiatric disorders. Out of the total, 60 (75%) were males and 20 (25%) females. Adjustment disorder was the most frequent diagnosis (n=12), followed by major depression (n=7). Rest of the diagnoses made were generalized anxiety disorder, acute psychotic disorder, delirium and depressive psychosis. High psychiatric morbidity associated with blood and bone marrow transplantation was observed. It indicates the importance of psychiatric intervention during the isolation period of BMT as well as pre-transplant psychiatric assessment and counseling regarding procedure. (author)

  3. The Comparative Study Of Saprophytic Fungi In Air Canal, Air, Hospital Instruments And Clinical Samples From Patients With Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi S J

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone Marrow Transplantation is one of the most important therapeutic methods in much malignant and nonmalignant disease. Patients with Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT following radiotherapy and chemotherapy will suffer from immuno-suppression. Therefore they are susceptible to get saprophytic fungi infection that sometimes are killer. Materials and Methods: The purpose of this cross-sectional survey is isolation of saprophytic fungi from patients with BMT and wards space and instruments. Therefore sampling from ventilator system (HEPA filter and common filter, air canal, air, hospital instruments and clinical samples (nasal discharge, sputum, urine were done and cultured in sabouro dextrose agar with choloramphenicol (SC. In assessing total frequency from 4838 plates of wards space and instruments, 985 fungi colonies includes 21 genus were isolated. Results and Conclusion: Most fungi colonies present were Penicillium , Aspergillus and Cladosporium and low present were Trichoderma ,Stereptomyses, Chrysosporium, Rhizopus.

  4. ROLE OF BONE MARROW ASPIRATION IN DIAGNOSIS OF HAEMATOLOGICAL DISORDER

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    Poonam Nanwani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The bone marrow examination is an essential investigation for the diagnosis of disorders of the blood and bone marrow. This simple and relatively safe procedure is important, particularly in resource poor centres since access to adjuvant diagnostic techniques are often lacking or absent. MATERIALS AND METHODS 189 patients of all age groups were studied for haematological and non-haematological disorders by bone marrow aspiration in the Department of Pathology, MGM Medical College during the period of 2014 to 2016. RESULTS Majority of the patients who had bone marrow aspiration were aged 0-15 years. The male-to-female ratio was 1:1.03. Most (97% of the marrow aspirate examined had definitive pathologic features, while 14 (7% were normal marrow elements. Out of 189 cases of bone marrow aspiration, acute leukaemia was the most common haematological disease diagnosed using this procedure. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia was more common than acute myeloid leukaemia. Aplastic anaemia was seen in 16% cases. Megaloblastic anaemia occurred more commonly than other anaemias. Megaloblastic anaemia was seen in 13 cases (7% and microcytic anaemia was seen in 5 cases (3%. There were 10 cases (5% of Idiopathic Thrombocypenic Purpura. Myelodysplastic syndrome and multiple myeloma was seen in 7% and 2% cases respectively. Storage disorder was seen in 3 cases (2%, out of this 02 cases were Gaucher’s disease and one case was Niemann-Pick’s disease. CONCLUSION Bone marrow examination is an important step to arrive at the confirmatory diagnosis of many haematological disorders. This procedure remains a veritable tool in the diagnosis and management of a wide range of haematological diseases, especially in a resource poor centre.

  5. Ultrasonographic Findings in 41 Dogs Treated with Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate and Platelet-Rich Plasma for a Supraspinatus Tendinopathy: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Renee A; Canapp, Sherman O; Canapp, Debra A

    2018-01-01

    To report sonographic findings for dogs with a supraspinatus tendinopathy (ST) treated with an ultrasound-guided intratendinous injection of bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Medical records for dogs diagnosed with an ST and treated with a BMAC-PRP injection were reviewed. Data collected included patient signalment, radiographic findings at the time of initial evaluation, and sonographic findings, including cross-sectional area (CSA), fiber pattern, and echogenicity. Of 70 records reviewed, 41 met the inclusion criteria. Mean CSA of the supraspinatus tendon decreased by 0.06 cm 2 between baseline and 45 days post-treatment ( p = 0.0025), and 0.09 cm 2 between baseline and 90 days post-treatment ( p < 0.0001). Analysis of CSA in dogs with a unilateral ST at baseline revealed a difference of 0.08 cm 2 between the affected and unaffected tendon at baseline, with the affected tendon measuring larger than the contralateral tendon ( p < 0.0001). This difference became statistically insignificant by 45 days after treatment (u 1 -u 0 = 0.04 cm 2 , p = 0.2855) and remained so 90 days post-treatment (u 1 -u 0 = 0.03 cm 2 , p = 0.1910). In most cases (90.6%), the fiber pattern and echogenicity was considered improved 90 days post treatment. In a minority of these cases (13.8%) the fiber pattern and echogenicity abnormalities were considered resolved. Using qualitative and quantitative sonographic measures, BMAC-PRP was associated with an improvement in supraspinatus tendon size, fiber pattern, and echogenicity. Given the protracted nature of tendon healing, long-term evaluation may reveal continued improvements in chronic structural changes not captured during the current study. Functional studies are required to evaluate the clinical benefits of BMAC-PRP in the treatment of STs in dogs. An ST is a common contributor to forelimb lameness in dogs and remains notoriously difficult to treat. Previous studies have been associated with

  6. Ultrasonographic Findings in 41 Dogs Treated with Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate and Platelet-Rich Plasma for a Supraspinatus Tendinopathy: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee A. McDougall

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective To report sonographic findings for dogs with a supraspinatus tendinopathy (ST treated with an ultrasound-guided intratendinous injection of bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC and platelet-rich plasma (PRP.Methods Medical records for dogs diagnosed with an ST and treated with a BMAC-PRP injection were reviewed. Data collected included patient signalment, radiographic findings at the time of initial evaluation, and sonographic findings, including cross-sectional area (CSA, fiber pattern, and echogenicity.ResultsOf 70 records reviewed, 41 met the inclusion criteria. Mean CSA of the supraspinatus tendon decreased by 0.06 cm2 between baseline and 45 days post-treatment (p = 0.0025, and 0.09 cm2 between baseline and 90 days post-treatment (p < 0.0001. Analysis of CSA in dogs with a unilateral ST at baseline revealed a difference of 0.08 cm2 between the affected and unaffected tendon at baseline, with the affected tendon measuring larger than the contralateral tendon (p < 0.0001. This difference became statistically insignificant by 45 days after treatment (u1-u0 = 0.04 cm2, p = 0.2855 and remained so 90 days post-treatment (u1-u0 = 0.03 cm2, p = 0.1910. In most cases (90.6%, the fiber pattern and echogenicity was considered improved 90 days post treatment. In a minority of these cases (13.8% the fiber pattern and echogenicity abnormalities were considered resolved.Conclusions Using qualitative and quantitative sonographic measures, BMAC-PRP was associated with an improvement in supraspinatus tendon size, fiber pattern, and echogenicity. Given the protracted nature of tendon healing, long-term evaluation may reveal continued improvements in chronic structural changes not captured during the current study. Functional studies are required to evaluate the clinical benefits of BMAC-PRP in the treatment of STs in dogs.Clinical significance An ST is a common contributor to forelimb lameness in dogs and remains notoriously difficult to

  7. Allogeneic bone marrow grafts in genotyped swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaiman, M.

    1974-01-01

    The proof of a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) called SL-A enabled to promote bone marrow allografts. A study of the response to that kind of graft in irradiated pig states a number of interesting points. Bone marrow allografting complies with the rule of tissular compatibility with the major histocompatibility complex. The taking of SL-A incompatible bone marrow allografts could not be achieved under the experimental conditions. In spite of the high doses of radiation, 950 to 1050 rads, higher than 1.5 LD 100%, recipients were capable of rejecting their grafts, regularly. SL-A identify ensured 100%, initial achievement. However, animals developed regular fatal disease within a fairly short time. This development could by no means, be ascribed to the sole sequealae of radiation sickness since autografted animals at equal or even higher doses, showed none of the symptome. Assumption of a chronic graft-vs-host reactions, induced by the minor histocompatible systems, was put foreward, but should be confirmed histopathologically [fr

  8. Bone marrow contribution to eosinophilic inflammation

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    Denburg Judah A

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergen-induced bone marrow responses are observable in human allergic asthmatics, involving specific increases in eosinophil-basophil progenitors (Eo/B-CFU, measured either by hemopoietic assays or by flow cytometric analyses of CD34-positive, IL-3Ralpha-positive, and/or IL-5-responsive cell populations. The results are consistent with the upregulation of an IL-5-sensitive population of progenitors in allergen-induced late phase asthmatic responses. Studies in vitro on the phenotype of developing eosinophils and basophils suggest that the early acquisition of IL-5Ralpha, as well as the capacity to produce cytokines such as GM-CSF and IL-5, are features of the differentiation process. These observations are consistent with findings in animal models, indicating that allergen-induced increases in bone marrow progenitor formation depend on hemopoietic factor(s released post-allergen. The possibility that there is constitutive marrow upregulation of eosinophilopoiesis in allergic airways disease is also an area for future investigation.

  9. Qualitative Aspects of Bone Marrow Adiposity in Osteoporosis

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    Clifford J Rosen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The function of marrow adipocytes and their origin has not been defined although considerable research has centered on their presence in certain conditions such as osteoporosis. Less work has focused on the qualitative aspects of marrow fat. Bone marrow serum is composed of multiple nutrients that almost certainly relate to functional aspects of the niche. Previous studies using non-­‐invasive techniques have shown that osteoporotic individuals have more marrow fat and that the ratio of saturated: unsaturated fatty acid is high. We recently reported that bone marrow sera from osteoporotic patients with fracture showed a switch toward decreased content of total saturated versus unsaturated fatty acids, compared to patients without fracture highlighting a dynamic relationship between the composition of fatty acids in the bone microenvironment and the metabolic requirements of cells. The relative distribution of fatty acids differed considerably from that in the serum providing further evidence that energy utilization is high and that marrow adipocytes may contribute to this pool. Whether these lipids can affect osteoblast function in a positive or negative manner is still not certain but will require further investigation.

  10. Parathyroid Hormone Directs Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Cell Fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yi; Hanai, Jun-Ichi; Le, Phuong T; Bi, Ruiye; Maridas, David; DeMambro, Victoria; Figueroa, Carolina A; Kir, Serkan; Zhou, Xuedong; Mannstadt, Michael; Baron, Roland; Bronson, Roderick T; Horowitz, Mark C; Wu, Joy Y; Bilezikian, John P; Dempster, David W; Rosen, Clifford J; Lanske, Beate

    2017-03-07

    Intermittent PTH administration builds bone mass and prevents fractures, but its mechanism of action is unclear. We genetically deleted the PTH/PTHrP receptor (PTH1R) in mesenchymal stem cells using Prx1Cre and found low bone formation, increased bone resorption, and high bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT). Bone marrow adipocytes traced to Prx1 and expressed classic adipogenic markers and high receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (Rankl) expression. RANKL levels were also elevated in bone marrow supernatant and serum, but undetectable in other adipose depots. By cell sorting, Pref1 + RANKL + marrow progenitors were twice as great in mutant versus control marrow. Intermittent PTH administration to control mice reduced BMAT significantly. A similar finding was noted in male osteoporotic patients. Thus, marrow adipocytes exhibit osteogenic and adipogenic characteristics, are uniquely responsive to PTH, and secrete RANKL. These studies reveal an important mechanism for PTH's therapeutic action through its ability to direct mesenchymal cell fate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Reintegration after bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, F; Zabora, J; Polland, A; Wingard, J

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the problems of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) survivors in returning to "normal" life in the community after BMT. Before being released from The Johns Hopkins Oncology Center, 84 recipients of BMT were interviewed regarding their quality of life and psychosocial adaptation. Survivors were reinterviewed at 6 months, and at 1 year post-BMT, producing considerable qualitative data regarding their problems in living. Eighty-four patients who had received BMT completed qualitative interviews and standardized measures before treatment, before the return home, and at 6 and 12 months post-BMT. The interviews were subjected to a content analysis methodology to establish units and categories to examine the body of material. Content analysis of these interviews from the first year after BMT identified three areas of psychosocial morbidity; 1) physical problems, which included fatigue, appearance, troubles in eating, and physical restrictions; 2) psychological problems, which included fears about the future, sense of loss of control, anxiety, and depression; and 3) community reintegration problems, which included difficulty in returning to former social roles, separation from home, family, and friends, difficulty in resuming social relations, dealing with stigmatization, problems with family and children, and financial and employment difficulties. Identification of these problems for BMT survivors can be used to guide the development of specific materials and services to prepare recipients of BMTs and their families for life after the transplant. These qualitative results can also be used to direct the development of assessment tools to identify potential patient and family problems.

  12. Second allogeneic stem cell transplant for aplastic anaemia: a retrospective study by the Severe Aplastic Anaemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaro, Simone; Peffault de Latour, Regis; Tridello, Gloria; Pillon, Marta; Carlson, Kristina; Fagioli, Franca; Jouet, Jean-Pierre; Koh, Mickey B C; Panizzolo, Irene Sara; Kyrcz-Krzemien, Slawomira; Maertens, Johan; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Strahm, Brigitte; Blaise, Didier; Maschan, Alexei; Marsh, Judith; Dufour, Carlo

    2015-11-01

    We analysed the outcome of a second allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant (alloHSCT) in 162 patients reported to the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation between 1998 and 2009. Donor origin was a sibling in 110 and an unrelated donor in 52 transplants, respectively. The stem cell source was bone marrow in 31% and peripheral blood in 69% of transplants. The same donor as for the first alloHSCT was used in 81% of transplants whereas a change in the choice of stem cell source was reported in 56% of patients, mainly from bone marrow to peripheral blood. Neutrophil and platelet engraftment occurred in 85% and 72% of patients, after a median time of 15 and 17 days, respectively. Grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and chronic GVHD occurred in 21% and 37% of patients, respectively. Graft failure (GF) occurred in 42 patients (26%). After a median follow-up of 3·5 years, the 5-year overall survival (OS) was 60·7%. In multivariate analysis, the only factor significantly associated with a better outcome was a Karnofsky/Lansky score ≥80 (higher OS). We conclude that a second alloHSCT is feasible rescue option for GF in SAA, with a successful outcome in 60% of cases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Bone and marrow dose modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabin, Michael G.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear medicine therapy is being used increasingly in the treatment of cancer (thyroid, leukemia/lymphoma with RIT, primary and secondary bone malignancies, and neuroblastomas). In all cases it is marrow toxicity that limits the amount of treatment that can be administered safely. Marrow dose calculations are more difficult than for many major organs because of the intricate association of bone and soft tissue elements. In RIT, there appears to be no consensus on how to calculate that dose accurately, or of individual patients ability to tolerate planned therapy. Available dose models are designed after an idealized average, healthy individual. Patient-specific methods are applied in evaluation of biokinetic data, and need to be developed for treatment of the physical data (dose conversion factors) as well: age, prior patient therapy, disease status. Contributors to marrow dose: electrons and photons

  14. The paradoxes in patterns and mechanism of bone marrow regeneration after irradiation. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarantino, C.W.; Rubin, P.; Constine, L.S. III

    1984-01-01

    Bone marrow regeneration following irradiation has been largely studied as a dose-effect phenomenon, however, a large literature has simultaneously developed utilizing a wide variety of volumes, both in clinical studies and in experimental studies. Volume factors, more than dose, determine patterns of suppression and regeneration which have been documented by a variety of assay systems. Experimental evidence is presented which indicates that high dose irradiation to large volumes of bone marrow does not completely suppress bone marrow regeneration but results in a rapid compensatory response. Comparisons are made between the small and larger volumes at similar doses and indicate a greater overall compensatory response after the larger field irradiation, being more rapid in onset particularly after the 1000 rad dose. Although in-field regeneration of bone marrow occurs after single dose radiation to different volumes of bone marrow, experimental and clinical evidence from protracted conventional doses of irradiation to different volumes of bone marrow indicate significantly different response mechanisms. (Auth.)

  15. Good, Bad, or Ugly: the Biological Roles of Bone Marrow Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lakshman; Tyagi, Sonia; Myers, Damian; Duque, Gustavo

    2018-04-01

    Bone marrow fat expresses mixed characteristics, which could correspond to white, brown, and beige types of fat. Marrow fat could act as either energy storing and adipokine secreting white fat or as a source of energy for hematopoiesis and bone metabolism, thus acting as brown fat. However, there is also a negative interaction between marrow fat and other elements of the bone marrow milieu, which is known as lipotoxicity. In this review, we will describe the good and bad roles of marrow fat in the bone, while focusing on the specific components of the negative effect of marrow fat on bone metabolism. Lipotoxicity in the bone is exerted by bone marrow fat through the secretion of adipokines and free fatty acids (FFA) (predominantly palmitate). High levels of FFA found in the bone marrow of aged and osteoporotic bone are associated with decreased osteoblastogenesis and bone formation, decreased hematopoiesis, and increased osteoclastogenesis. In addition, FFA such as palmitate and stearate induce apoptosis and dysfunctional autophagy in the osteoblasts, thus affecting their differentiation and function. Regulation of marrow fat could become a therapeutic target for osteoporosis. Inhibition of the synthesis of FFA by marrow fat could facilitate osteoblastogenesis and bone formation while affecting osteoclastogenesis. However, further studies testing this hypothesis are still required.

  16. Widespread marrow necrosis during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knickerbocker, W.J.; Quenville, N.F.

    1982-01-01

    Recently, a 22-year-old Caucasian female was referred to our Hospital two days post-partum. She had been feeling unwell during the last few days of her pregnancy and complained of multiple aches and pains, worst in the abdomen and lower back. Her admission platelet count was severely depressed and a bone biopsy showed extensive marrow necrosis with viable bony trabeculae. There was no evidence of vasculitis, vascular thrombosis, or malignancy. Widespread marrow necrosis in pregnancy followed by recovery, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported. (orig.)

  17. Under a nonadherent state, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can be efficiently induced into functional islet-like cell clusters to normalize hyperglycemia in mice: a control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yihua; Dou, Zhongying

    2014-05-08

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) possess low immunogenicity and immunosuppression as an allograft, can differentiate into insulin-producing cells (IPCs) by in vitro induction, and may be a valuable cell source to regenerate pancreatic islets. However, the very low differentiation efficiency of BMSCs towards IPCs under adherent induction has thus far hindered the clinical exploitation of these cells. The aim of this study is to explore a new way to efficiently induce BMSCs into IPCs and lay the groundwork for their clinical exploitation. In comparison with adherent induction, BMSCs of human first-trimester abortus (hfBMSCs) under a nonadherent state were induced towards IPCs in noncoated plastic dishes using a three-stage induction procedure developed by the authors. Induction effects were evaluated by statistics of the cell clustering rate of induced cells, and ultrastructural observation, dithizone staining, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence assay, insulin and c-peptide release under glucose stimulus of cell clusters, as well as transplantation test of the cell clusters in diabetic model mice. With (6.175 ± 0.263) × 105 cells in 508.5 ± 24.5 cell clusters, (3.303 ± 0.331) × 105 single cells and (9.478 ± 0.208) × 105 total cell count on average, 65.08 ± 2.98% hfBMSCs differentiated into pancreatic islet-like cell clusters after nonadherent induction. With (3.993 ± 0.344) × 105 cells in 332.3 ± 41.6 cell clusters, (5.437 ± 0.434) × 105 single cells and (9.430 ± 0.340) × 105 total cell count on average, 42.37 ± 3.70% hfBMSCs differentiated into pancreatic islet-like cell clusters after adherent induction (P produced human insulin in recipients. Our studies demonstrate that nonadherent induction can greatly promote BMSCs to form pancreatic islet-like cell clusters, thereby improving the differentiation efficiency of BMSCs towards IPCs.

  18. Comparative Study of Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the Detection of Spinal Bone Marrow Infiltration in Untreated Patients with Multiple Myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, J.; Yoon, C.S.; Hoon Ryu, Y.; Yun, M.J.; Suh, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The presence and extent of osteolytic bone lesions in untreated patients with multiple myeloma are important factors in the staging of the disease, and the extent of bone lesions in multiple myeloma cases significantly influences decisions regarding therapy. Recently, fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been used to detect bone marrow involvement in patients with multiple myeloma. Purpose: To compare the efficacy of FDG-PET and MRI for the detection of bone marrow infiltration into the spine in untreated patients with multiple myeloma. Material and Methods: Twenty-two patients with multiple myeloma underwent both FDG-PET and spine MRI. The examined spinal regions by MRI included 21 thoracic and lumbar spines, one lumbar spine, and 12 cervical spines. The following imaging sequences were performed: T1-weighted spin-echo MRI with and without fat suppression, and T2-weighted spin-echo MRI in the sagittal plane. In the patients with bone marrow abnormalities, an additional contrast-enhanced T1-weighted spin-echo MR image and a fat-suppressed T1-weighted spin-echo MR image were obtained. Patients were divided into three groups on the basis of the criteria defined by Durie and Salmon: stage I (n=9), stage II (n=3), and stage III (n=10). The number and location of lesions detected in both FGD-PET and MRI were recorded, and the lesions were compared using the McNemar test. Bone marrow biopsy results, the patient's clinical examinations, and other imaging findings (MRI, FDG-PET, etc.) were used as references. Results: In stages I and II (37 lesions in 12 patients), FDG-PET and MRI detected lesions in 78% (29 of 37 lesions) and 86% (32 of 37 lesions), respectively. However, the difference between the abilities of FDG-PET and MRI to detect lesions was not statistically significant (P=0.317). In stage III (101 lesions in 10 patients), FDG-PET and MRI detected lesions in 80% (81 of 101 lesions) and 92

  19. Comparative Study of Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the Detection of Spinal Bone Marrow Infiltration in Untreated Patients with Multiple Myeloma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hur, J.; Yoon, C.S.; Hoon Ryu, Y.; Yun, M.J.; Suh, J.S. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology and Research Inst. of Radiological Science, and Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (KR))

    2008-05-15

    Background: The presence and extent of osteolytic bone lesions in untreated patients with multiple myeloma are important factors in the staging of the disease, and the extent of bone lesions in multiple myeloma cases significantly influences decisions regarding therapy. Recently, fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been used to detect bone marrow involvement in patients with multiple myeloma. Purpose: To compare the efficacy of FDG-PET and MRI for the detection of bone marrow infiltration into the spine in untreated patients with multiple myeloma. Material and Methods: Twenty-two patients with multiple myeloma underwent both FDG-PET and spine MRI. The examined spinal regions by MRI included 21 thoracic and lumbar spines, one lumbar spine, and 12 cervical spines. The following imaging sequences were performed: T1-weighted spin-echo MRI with and without fat suppression, and T2-weighted spin-echo MRI in the sagittal plane. In the patients with bone marrow abnormalities, an additional contrast-enhanced T1-weighted spin-echo MR image and a fat-suppressed T1-weighted spin-echo MR image were obtained. Patients were divided into three groups on the basis of the criteria defined by Durie and Salmon: stage I (n=9), stage II (n=3), and stage III (n=10). The number and location of lesions detected in both FGD-PET and MRI were recorded, and the lesions were compared using the McNemar test. Bone marrow biopsy results, the patient's clinical examinations, and other imaging findings (MRI, FDG-PET, etc.) were used as references. Results: In stages I and II (37 lesions in 12 patients), FDG-PET and MRI detected lesions in 78% (29 of 37 lesions) and 86% (32 of 37 lesions), respectively. However, the difference between the abilities of FDG-PET and MRI to detect lesions was not statistically significant (P=0.317). In stage III (101 lesions in 10 patients), FDG-PET and MRI detected lesions in 80% (81 of 101 lesions) and

  20. Fractionated total body irradiation and autologous bone marrow transplantation in dogs: Hemopoietic recovery after various marrow cell doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodenburger, U.; Kolb, H.J.; Thierfelder, S.; Netzel, B.; Schaeffer, E.; Kolb, H.

    1980-01-01

    Hemopoietic recovery was studied in dogs given 2400 R fractionated total body irradiation within one week and graded doses of cryopreserved autologous bone marrow. Complete hemopoietic recovery including histology was observed after this dose and sufficient doses of marrow cells. Doses of more than 5.5 x 10 7 mononuclear marrow cells/kg body weight were sufficient for complete recovery in all dogs, 1.5 to 5.5 x 10 7 cells/kg were effective in some of the dogs and less than 1.5 x 10 7 cells/kg were insufficient for complete recovery. Similarly, more than 30000 CFUsub(c)/kg body weight were required for hemopoietic recovery. The optimal marrow cell dose which has been defined as the minimal dose required for the earliest possible recovery of leukocyte and platelet counts was 7-8 x 10 7 mononuclear marrow cells/kg body weight. It has been concluded that fractionated total body irradiation with 2400 R dose not require greater doses of marrow cells for hemopoietic reconstitution than lower single doses and that the hemopoietic microenvironment is not persistently disturbed after this dose. (author)

  1. Assessment of functional displacement of bone marrow by osteoplastic metastases from prostatic carcinoma with bone marrow scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venz, S.; Cordes, M.; Friedrichs, R.; Hosten, N.; Neumann, K.; Langer, R.; Nagel, R.; Felix, R.

    1993-01-01

    The detailed examination of the skeleton in prostate cancer has become more critical since surgical treatment requires the non-evidence of bone metastases. The data of 30 patients have been evaluated. All patients had a bone scan and a bone marrow scintigraphy with [ 99m Tc[-anti-NCA95. In this study we compared the degree of bone marrow displacement with the extent of metastatic deposits identified on the bone scan. Six patients showing the criterias of a superscan (maximal avidity of the osteotrope radiatracer) had as a correlate a complete displacement of the hematopoesis in the bone marrow scintigraphy and an increased activity in liver and spleen. The degree of the peripheral extension correlated strongly with the decrease of the haemoglobin in blood samples. The grading was based upon the number of metastatic deposits identified on the scan (0=no metastases; 1≤6 metastases; 2=multiple metastases; 3=superscan). In 28 of 30 patients (93%) we found corresponding results in both the bone scan and the bone marrow scintigraphy. The bone marrow scintigraphy is a sensitive method in the detection of metastatic disease and gives additional information about the extent of bone marrow displacement by osteoplastic metastases. (orig.) [de

  2. Bone marrow edema of the knee joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitenseher, M.J.; Mayerhoefer, M.E.; Hofmann, S.

    2006-01-01

    Bone marrow edema of the knee joint is a frequent clinical picture in MR diagnostics. It can be accompanied by symptoms and pain in the joint. Diseases that are associated with bone marrow edema can be classified into different groups. Group 1 includes vascular ischemic bone marrow edema with osteonecrosis (synonyms: SONK or Ahlbaeck's disease), osteochondrosis dissecans, and bone marrow edema syndrome. Group 2 comprises traumatic or mechanical bone marrow edema. Group 3 encompasses reactive bone marrow edemas such as those occurring in gonarthrosis, postoperative bone marrow edemas, and reactive edemas in tumors or tumorlike diseases. Evidence for bone marrow edema is effectively provided by MRI, but purely morphological MR information is often unspecific so that anamnestic and clinical details are necessary in most cases for definitive disease classification. (orig.) [de

  3. Bone-marrow transplant - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone-marrow transplants are performed for: deficiencies in red blood cells (aplastic anemia) and white blood cells (leukemia or ... Bone-marrow transplants prolong the life of patients who might otherwise die. As with all major organ transplants, however, ...

  4. Evaluation of intervertebral disc regeneration with implantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) using quantitative T2 mapping: a study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Feng; Wu, Xiao-Tao; Xie, Xin-Hui; Wang, Feng; Hong, Xin; Zhuang, Su-Yang; Zhu, Lei; Rui, Yun-Feng; Shi, Rui

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the curative effects of transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on intervertebral disc regeneration and to investigate the feasibility of the quantitative T2 mapping method for evaluating repair of the nucleus pulposus after implantation of BMSCs. Forty-eight New Zealand white rabbits were used to establish the lumber disc degenerative model by stabbing the annulus fibrosus and then randomly divided into four groups, i.e. two weeks afterwards, BMSCs or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were transplanted into degenerative discs (BMSCs group and PBS group), while the operated rabbits without implantation of BMSCs or PBS served as the sham group and the rabbits without operation were used as the control group. At weeks two, six and ten after operation, the T2 values and disc height indices (DHI) were calculated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI 3.0 T), and the gene expressions of type II collagen (COL2) and aggrecan (ACAN) in degenerative discs were evaluated by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). T2 values for the nucleus pulposus were correlated with ACAN or COL2 expression by regression analysis. Cell clusters, disorganised fibres, interlamellar glycosaminoglycan (GAG) matrix and vascularisation were observed in lumber degenerative discs. BMSCs could be found to survive in intervertebral discs and differentiate into nucleus pulposus-like cells expressing COL2 and ACAN. The gene expression of COL2 and ACAN increased during ten weeks after transplantation as well as the T2 signal intensity and T2 value. The DHI in the BMSCs group decreased more slowly than that in PBS and sham groups. The T2 value correlated significantly with the gene expression of ACAN and COL2 in the nucleus pulposus. Transplantation of BMSCs was able to promote the regeneration of degenerative discs. Quantitative and non-invasive T2 mapping could be used to evaluate the regeneration of the nucleus

  5. MR imaging of bone marrow metastasis in patients with neuroblastoma. Comparison between mass-screened cases and clinically detected cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanegawa, Kimio; Akasaka, Yoshinori; Kawasaki, Ryuta; Nishiyama, Shoji; Mabuchi, Osamu; Muraji, Toshihiro

    1999-01-01

    Seventy-six patients with neuroblastoma who underwent bone marrow MRI were divided into two groups: the first group consisted of patients detected by mass screening (M group, n=55), and the second group of patients detected clinically (non-M group, n=21). Bone marrow metastasis was morphologically classified into two types, nodular type and diffuse type. We studied the incidence of bone marrow metastasis, relationship between the patterns of bone marrow metastasis and the presence of bone metastasis, and morphological changes of bone marrow metastasis after chemotherapy. In M group, the incidence of bone marrow metastasis was 7.3% (4 patients) and the patterns of bone marrow metastases were all nodular type not accompanied with bone metastasis and disappeared after chemotherapy. In non-M group, the incidence of bone marrow metastasis was 52.4% (11 patients). Bone marrow metastases had both patterns of metastasis. Forty-five per cent of diffuse type of bone marrow metastasis were accompanied with bone metastasis. All bone marrow metastases disappeared after chemotherapy, but in one of 11, there was recurrence of bone marrow metastasis. (author)

  6. GVHD suppression by incubation of bone marrow grafts with anti-t-cell globulin: effect in the canine model and application to clinical bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodt, H.; Kolb, H.J.; Netzel, B.; Rieder, I.; Janka, G.; Belohradsky, B.; Haas, R.J.; Thierfelder, S.

    1979-01-01

    The present studies were performed in order to establish the anti-GVHD effect of an incubation treatment in the dog, which is regarded as a model of particular relevance for clinical bone marrow transplantation. Application of this principle to a case of human marrow transplantation will be reported

  7. Individual differences in post radiation regeneration of the bone marrow in nonuniform irradiation (experimental investigation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalandarova, M.P.

    1980-01-01

    Reparative regeneration in bone marrow of sternum and iliac bone in each of 20 dogs was studied after single and two-time total X-ray irradiation. Extreme dose rates in bodies differed 5 and 8 times. It was shown that bone marrow repair did not depend on its composition before irradiation. Dogs whose bone narrow was rich of cellular elements before irradiation had both active and sharply reduced bone marrow regeneration after single and two-time irradiation in 0.75-1.45 Gy doses (sternum). Animals with a poor total cellular composition of bone marrow of sternum before irradiation also had differences in the course of reparative processes: in some of them they were considerably pronoUnced and in others bone marrow aplasia lasted for one month. IndiVidual differences in the bone marrow (iliac bone) irradiated with 1.85-3.2 Gy doses were less marked during the reparative regeneration

  8. Prevalence of bone marrow necrosis in Egyptian cancer patients referring to the National Cancer Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgamal, B.M.; Rashed, R.A.; Raslan, H.N.

    2011-01-01

    Bone marrow necrosis; Egyptian cancer patients Abstract Background: Bone marrow necrosis is a relatively rare entity which has been associated with a poor prognosis. It is most commonly found in patients with neoplastic disorders and severe infections. Methods: study comprised examination of 5043 bone marrow biopsy specimens performed at the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, over 7 years period (March 2004-March 2011). It included 5 years retrospective (2867 archived samples) and 2 years prospective (2176 samples). Results: Bone marrow necrosis was diagnosed in fifteen out of 5043 examined specimens with a percentage of 0.3% and ranged from mild to massive according to semiquantitative estimation. Prognosis of all patients was poor with survival not exceeding 6 months from the date of marrow necrosis diagnosis. Conclusion: In Egyptian patients, bone marrow necrosis in association with malignancy is a rare disorder which is accompanied by a poor outcome

  9. A feasibility study for in vitro evaluation of fixation between prosthesis and bone with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Yusuke; Yamasaki, Kenichi; Hattori, Koji

    2010-10-01

    It is difficult to quantitatively evaluate adhesive strength between an implant and the neighboring bone using animal experiments, because the degree of fixation of an implant depends on differences between individuals and the clearance between the material and the bone resulting from surgical technique. A system was designed in which rat bone marrow cells were used to quantitatively evaluate the adhesion between titanium alloy plates and bone plates in vitro. Three kinds of surface treatment were used: a sand-blasted surface, a titanium-sprayed surface and a titanium-sprayed surface coated with hydroxyapatite. Bone marrow cells obtained from rat femora were seeded on the titanium alloy plates, and the cells were cultured between the titanium alloy plates and the bone plates sliced from porcine ilium for 2 weeks. After cultivation, adhesive strength was measured using a tensile test, after which DNA amount and Alkaline phosphatase activity were measured. The seeded cells accelerated adhesion of the titanium alloy plate to the bone plate. Adhesive strength of the titanium-sprayed surface was lower than that of the sand-blasted surface because of lower initial contact area, although there was no difference in Alkaline phosphatase activity between two surface treatments. A hydroxyapatite coating enhanced adhesive strength between the titanium alloy palate and the bone plate, as well as enhancing osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow cells. It is believed that this novel experimental method can be used to simultaneously evaluate the osteogenic differentiation and the adhesive strength of an implant during in vitro cultivation. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Autologous cell therapy with CD133+ bone marrow-derived stem cells for refractory Asherman's syndrome and endometrial atrophy: a pilot cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Xavier; Cabanillas, Sergio; Cervelló, Irene; Arbona, Cristina; Raga, Francisco; Ferro, Jaime; Palmero, Julio; Remohí, Jose; Pellicer, Antonio; Simón, Carlos

    2016-05-01

    Could cell therapy using autologous peripheral blood CD133+ bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMDSCs) offer a safe and efficient therapeutic approach for patients with refractory Asherman's syndrome (AS) and/or endometrial atrophy (EA) and a wish to conceive? In the first 3 months, autologous cell therapy, using CD133+ BMDSCs in conjunction with hormonal replacement therapy, increased the volume and duration of menses as well as the thickness and angiogenesis processes of the endometrium while decreasing intrauterine adhesion scores. AS is characterized by the presence of intrauterine adhesions and EA prevents the endometrium from growing thicker than 5 mm, resulting in menstruation disorders and infertility. Many therapies have been attempted for these conditions, but none have proved effective. This was a prospective, experimental, non-controlled study. There were 18 patients aged 30-45 years with refractory AS or EA were recruited, and 16 of these completed the study. Medical history, physical examination, endometrial thickness, intrauterine adhesion score and neoangiogenesis were assessed before and 3 and 6 months after cell therapy. After the initial hysteroscopic diagnosis, BMDSC mobilization was performed by granulocyte-CSF injection, then CD133+ cells were isolated through peripheral blood aphaeresis to obtain a mean of 124.39 million cells (range 42-236), which were immediately delivered into the spiral arterioles by catheterization. Subsequently, endometrial treatment after stem cell therapy was assessed in terms of restoration of menses, endometrial thickness (by vaginal ultrasound), adhesion score (by hysteroscopy), neoangiogenesis and ongoing pregnancy rate. The study was conducted at Hospital Clínico Universitario of Valencia and IVI Valencia (Spain). All 11 AS patients exhibited an improved uterine cavity 2 months after stem cell therapy. Endometrial thickness increased from an average of 4.3 mm (range 2.7-5) to 6.7 mm (range 3.1-12) ( ITALIC! P = 0

  11. Evaluation of bone marrow in patients with pancytopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Pathak

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pancytopenia is a common hematological finding resulting from varieties of disease processes that require evaluation of bone marrow. This study was carried out to evaluate bone marrow findings in patients presenting with pancytopenia.Materials and Method: This was a prospective cross sectional study carried out to identify the causes of pancytopenia based on bone marrow examination. Bone marrow examinations were performed in 503 cases for different indications over a period of one year.Results: One hundred and two (20.27% cases fulfilled the criteria of pancytopenia. Trephine biopsy was possible only in 48 cases. In 75% cases aspiration findings were similar to biopsy. Mean age of patients was 38.8 years. Maximum number of cases was seen in age group of 15-30 years. Hypoplastic anemia was the commonest cause followed by hematological malignancies, megaloblastic anemia, leishmaniasis and Gaucher disease. Bone marrow examination alone was able to establish the diagnosis in 76.5% cases. In rest marrow findings were nonspecific and in 4.9% cases findings were normal.Conclusion: Bone marrow aspiration coupled with trephine biopsy can diagnose majority but not all the cases of pancytopenia. Hypoplastic anemia, hematological malignancies and megaloblastic anemia are the commonest causes of pancytopenia. Maximum diagnostic yield can be achieved by correlation with clinical findings, peripheral blood findings and with other laboratory and radiological parameters.Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2012 Vol. 2, 265-271DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v2i4.6875

  12. Incorporation of bone marrow cells in pancreatic pseudoislets improves posttransplant vascularization and endocrine function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Wittig

    Full Text Available Failure of revascularization is known to be the major reason for the poor outcome of pancreatic islet transplantation. In this study, we analyzed whether pseudoislets composed of islet cells and bone marrow cells can improve vascularization and function of islet transplants. Pancreatic islets isolated from Syrian golden hamsters were dispersed into single cells for the generation of pseudoislets containing 4×10(3 cells. To create bone marrow cell-enriched pseudoislets 2×10(3 islet cells were co-cultured with 2×10(3 bone marrow cells. Pseudoislets and bone marrow cell-enriched pseudoislets were transplanted syngeneically into skinfold chambers to study graft vascularization by intravital fluorescence microscopy. Native islet transplants served as controls. Bone marrow cell-enriched pseudoislets showed a significantly improved vascularization compared to native islets and pseudoislets. Moreover, bone marrow cell-enriched pseudoislets but not pseudoislets normalized blood glucose levels after transplantation of 1000 islet equivalents under the kidney capsule of streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals, although the bone marrow cell-enriched pseudoislets contained only 50% of islet cells compared to pseudoislets and native islets. Fluorescence microscopy of bone marrow cell-enriched pseudoislets composed of bone marrow cells from GFP-expressing mice showed a distinct fraction of cells expressing both GFP and insulin, indicating a differentiation of bone marrow-derived cells to an insulin-producing cell-type. Thus, enrichment of pseudoislets by bone marrow cells enhances vascularization after transplantation and increases the amount of insulin-producing tissue. Accordingly, bone marrow cell-enriched pseudoislets may represent a novel approach to increase the success rate of islet transplantation.

  13. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell therapy in ischemic stroke: mechanisms of action and treatment optimization strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guihong Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal and clinical studies have confirmed the therapeutic effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on cerebral ischemia, but their mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. Here, we summarize the transplantation approaches, directional migration, differentiation, replacement, neural circuit reconstruction, angiogenesis, neurotrophic factor secretion, apoptosis, immunomodulation, multiple mechanisms of action, and optimization strategies for bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of ischemic stroke. We also explore the safety of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation and conclude that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation is an important direction for future treatment of cerebral ischemia. Determining the optimal timing and dose for the transplantation are important directions for future research.

  14. Megakaryocytopoiesis and the number of thrombocytes after bone marrow cell transplantation in lethally irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viktora, L.; Hermanova, E.; Zoubkova, M.

    1977-01-01

    Changes were studied in the number of thrombocytes in the peripheral blood and megakaryocytes in the bone marrow and spleen in lethally irradiated mice after the transplantation of bone marrow cells. It was found that the thrombocytes increased in dependence on time after transplantation with the maximal values around the 20th day. An increased megakaryocytopoiesis was observed not only in the bone marrow but also in the spleen. These ascertainments suggest the importance of the transplantation of bone marrow cells and the role of thrombocytes for the survival of the organism after irradiation. (author)

  15. Bone marrow transplantation in miniature swine: I. Autologous and SLA matched allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennington, L.R.; Pescovitz, M.D.; Popitz, F.; Sachs, D.H.; Sakamoto, K.

    1986-01-01

    We developed a successful bone marrow transplant protocol in MHC-inbred miniature swine (MS). Three groups of MS were studied: irradiation controls, autologous bone marrow transplants and SLA matched bone marrow allografts. One day prior to irradiation, all animals underwent Hickman catheter placement via the external jugular vein. Bone marrow was harvested by direct mechanical removal of marrow from four long bones in Groups 2 and 3 one day prior to irradiation. All animals received 900 rads of midline body radiation from a Cobalt-60 source, were treated 1 g of cephalothin IV bid from day 1 to 14, 20 mg of genetamicin IV bid, from day 4 through 14 and 250 to 350 ml of fresh, irradiated whole blood from blood group identical donors on days 7, 11 and 14. Bone marrow was filtered, washed, stored overnight at 4 C and reinfused one to six hr after irradiation. Engraftment was defined by return of the peripheral WBC to 1000/mm 3 . All six animals in Group 1 died of aplasia between days 7 and 12. Marrow engrafted in eight of 12 animals in Group 2 and 7 of 10 animals in Group 3. This model provides a means to study the biological characteristics of bone marrow transplantation in immunologically well characterized large animals and should prove useful as a model for bone marrow transplants in man

  16. Investigating the Abscopal Effects of Radioablation on Shielded Bone Marrow in Rodent Models Using Multimodality Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Solmaz F; Zawaski, Janice A; Inoue, Taeko; Rendon, David A; Zieske, Arthur W; Punia, Jyotinder N; Sabek, Omaima M; Gaber, M Waleed

    2017-07-01

    The abscopal effect is the response to radiation at sites that are distant from the irradiated site of an organism, and it is thought to play a role in bone marrow (BM) recovery by initiating responses in the unirradiated bone marrow. Understanding the mechanism of this effect has applications in treating BM failure (BMF) and BM transplantation (BMT), and improving survival of nuclear disaster victims. Here, we investigated the use of multimodality imaging as a translational tool to longitudinally assess bone marrow recovery. We used positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and optical imaging to quantify bone marrow activity, vascular response and marrow repopulation in fully and partially irradiated rodent models. We further measured the effects of radiation on serum cytokine levels, hematopoietic cell counts and histology. PET/CT imaging revealed a radiation-induced increase in proliferation in the shielded bone marrow (SBM) compared to exposed bone marrow (EBM) and sham controls. T 2 -weighted MRI showed radiation-induced hemorrhaging in the EBM and unirradiated SBM. In the EBM and SBM groups, we found alterations in serum cytokine and hormone levels and in hematopoietic cell population proportions, and histological evidence of osteoblast activation at the bone marrow interface. Importantly, we generated a BMT mouse model using fluorescent-labeled bone marrow donor cells and performed fluorescent imaging to reveal the migration of bone marrow cells from shielded to radioablated sites. Our study validates the use of multimodality imaging to monitor bone marrow recovery and provides evidence for the abscopal response in promoting bone marrow recovery after irradiation.

  17. Bone marrow adsorbed dose of rhenium-186-HEDP and the relationship with decreased platelet counts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klerk, J.M.H. de; Dieren, E.B. van; Schip, A.D. van het

    1996-01-01

    Rhenium-186(Sn)-1,1-hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate ( 186 Re-HEDP) has been used for palliation of metastatic bone pain. The purpose of this study was to find a relationship between the bone marrow absorbed dose and the toxicity, expressed as the percentage decrease in the peripheral blood platelet count. The bone marrow absorbed dose was calculated according to the MIRD model using data obtained from ten treatments of patients suffering from metastatic prostate cancer; noninvasive and pharmacokinetic method were used. The bone marrow doses were related to toxicity using the pharmacodynamic sigmoid E max model. The mean bone marrow absorbed doses using the noninvasive and pharmacokinetic methods were in a close range to each other (1.07 mGy/MBq and 1.02 mGy/MBq, respectively). There was a good relationship between the toxicity and the bone marrow absorbed dose (r = 0.80). Furthermore, the EDrm 50 (i.e., the bone marrow absorbed dose producing a 50% platelet decrease) to bone marrow for 186 Re-HEDP was on the order of 2 Gy. Although the function of normal bone marrow is affected by metastases in patients with metastatic bone disease, the MIRD model can be used to relate toxicity to the bone marrow absorbed dose after a therapeutic dosage of 186 Re-HEDP. 33 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  18. Effect of nephrotoxic drugs on the development of radiation nephropathy after bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, C.A.; Fish, B.L.; Moulder, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Chronic renal failure is a significant cause of late morbidity in bone marrow transplant patients whose conditioning regimen includes total body irradiation (TBI). Radiation is a major cause of this syndrome (bone marrow transplant nephropathy), but it may not be the only cause. These studies use a rat syngeneic bone marrow transplant model to determine whether nephrotoxic agents used in conjunction with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) could be enhancing or accelerating the development of radiation nephropathy. Rats received 11-17 Gy TBI in six fractions over 3 days followed by syngeneic bone marrow transplant. In conjunction with the bone marrow transplants, animals received either no drugs, cyclosporine, amphotericin, gentamicin, or busulfan. Drugs were given in schedules analogous to their use in clinical bone marrow transplantation. Drug doses were chosen so that the drug regimen alone caused detectable acute nephrotoxicity. Animals were followed for 6 months with periodic renal function tests. Gentamicin had no apparent interactions with TBI. Amphotericin increased the incidence of engraftment failure, but did not enhance radiation nephropathy. Cyclosporin with TBI caused late morbidity that appeared to be due to neurological problems, but did not enhance radiation nephropathy. Busulfan resulted in a significant enhancement of radiation nephropathy. Of the nephrotoxins used in conjunction with bone marrow transplantation only radiation and busulfan were found to be risk factors for bone marrow transplant nephropathy. 34 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Late taste disorders in bone marrow transplantation: clinical evaluation with taste solutions in autologous and allogeneic bone marrow recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinone, M G; Rizzoni, D; Ferremi, P; Rossi, G; Izzi, T; Brusotti, C

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the type and the significance of taste disorders in allogeneic bone marrow transplanted patients. In a retrospective study the taste threshold of a cohort of 15 allogeneic bone marrow transplanted patients, 4-51 months after transplantation (mean: 30.6 +/- 15.8), was compared to the taste threshold of 8 autologous bone marrow recipients, 4-48 months after transplantation (mean: 24.12 +/- 12.18), and to the taste threshold of a group of 20 consecutive normal subjects. Allogeneic bone marrow transplanted patients showed a significant hypogeusia for salt (Pearson's chi square p = 0.0002; Yates' correction p = 0.0007) and sour (Pearson's chi square p = 0.001; Yates' correction p = 0.008). No significant variations were observed for sweet and bitter. Autologous bone marrow recipients did not show any significant variation of taste acuity for sweet, salt or sour; a constant reduction of the taste threshold for bitter was observed, but the values were not significantly different from normal (Pearson's chi square p = 0.47; Yates' correction p = 0.83). So, late and selective taste disorders are observed in allogeneic bone marrow transplanted patients. Since the severity of the disorders is not strictly related to the severity of chronic oral G.V.H.D., taste analysis could discover the slightest, clinically undetectable cases of chronic oral G.V.H.D. The mechanism of immune aggression on the sensorial taste cells is poorly understood. Further trials are needed to define variations of taste acuity not only after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, but also in systemic immune diseases.

  20. Use of long-term human marrow cultures to demonstrate progenitor cell precursors in marrow treated with 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winton, E.F.; Colenda, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    The continued retrieval of progenitor cells (CFU-GEMM, BFU-E, CFU-E, CFU-GM) from human long-term marrow cultures (LTMC) is not uncommonly used as evidence that proliferation and differentiation are occurring in more primitive hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in these cultures. Alternatively, the continued presence of progenitors in LTMC could be the result of survival and/or limited self-renewal of progenitor cells present when the culture was initiated, and such progenitors would have little relevance to the parent HSC. The following studies were designed to determine the relative contributions of precursors of progenitor cells to the total progenitor cells present in LTMC using a two-stage regeneration model. The adherent layer in LTMC was established over 3 weeks, irradiated (875 rad) to permanently eliminate resident hematopoietic cells, and recharged with autologous cryo-preserved marrow that was either treated or not treated (control) with 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide (4-HC, 100 micrograms/ml for 30 min). The 4-HC-treated marrow contained no progenitor cells, yet based on clinical autologous bone marrow transplant experience, has intact HSC. Within 1-3 weeks, progenitor cells reappeared in the irradiated LTMC recharged with 4-HC-treated marrow, and were preferentially located in the adherent layer. By 2-6 weeks, the number of progenitor cells in the adherent layer of LTMC recharged with 4-HC marrow was equivalent to control LTMC. The progenitors regenerating in the irradiated LTMC recharged with 4-HC-treated marrow appear to originate from precursors of progenitor cells, perhaps HSC. We propose this model may be useful in elucidating cellular and molecular correlates of progenitor cell regeneration from precursors

  1. Comparative studies on the proliferation and differentiation of granulocytic progenitor cells CFU-C from the blood and bone marrow of dogs under normal conditions and after 80 R whole-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faul, H.

    1984-01-01

    The study on hand was performed on dogs of both sexes and dealt with two complex issues: 1) the identity of the granulocytic progenitor cell CFU-C in the blood and bone marrow, and 2) possible verification of damage to stem cell store using the granulocytic progenitor cell CFU-C as an indicator for damage caused, in this case, by 80 rd whole body irradiation of dogs. A special culture technique was developed to study these issues, and was tested for its functionability. Examinations of the dogs with whole-body irradiation revealed the following results: a) Radiation damage to the stem cell store could be verified by the study object of CFU-C granulocytic progenitor cell of the bone marrow. A reduction of proliferative capacity linked with a change in the differentiation profiles for the different cell types in the suspension cultures was clearly verified. b) The suspension culture technique allows to verify damage by ionizing radiation both in the acute phase, i.c. two hours after irradiation, and in the late recovery phase. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Marrow signal changes observed in follow-up whole-body MRI studies in children and young adults with neurofibromatosis type 1 treated with imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) for plexiform neurofibromas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmazyn, Boaz; Cohen, Mervyn D. [Riley Hospital for Children, Indiana University Health, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Jennings, Samuel Gregory [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Robertson, Kent A. [Riley Hospital for Children, Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2012-10-15

    We observed bone marrow signal changes (BMSC) in patients with plexiform neurofibromas after treatment with imatinib mesylate (Gleevec). To evaluate the pattern and natural history of BMSC. The data were obtained from a pilot study of imatinib mesylate in patients with plexiform neurofibromas. All patients underwent baseline and sequential whole-body STIR 1.5-T MRI after treatment. The bone marrow signal on MRI was evaluated for abnormalities, location and pattern, and any change on follow-up studies. The study group included 16 patients (8 males) with a median age of 14 years (range 4 to 25 years). The mean whole-body MRI follow-up duration was 1.9 years. Of the 16 patients, 14 (88%) developed BMSC. The signal change was asymmetrical in 9 of the 14 patients (64%). The appendicular skeleton was involved in all 14 patients and the axial skeleton in 3 patients (21%). BMSC was followed in 13 patients and decreased signal was seen in 9 patients (69%) after a mean duration of 1.3 years of treatment (range 0.6 to 2.9 years); no complications were observed. BMSC appeared in most patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 following treatment with imatinib mesylate. BMSC was unusually asymmetrical and involved the lower extremities. On follow-up, BMSC often showed a decrease without complications. (orig.)

  3. Ivastimul used to increase radioresistance of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotkovska, D.; Vacek, A.; Bartonickova, A.

    1989-01-01

    A study was made of the effect of ivastimul (IS), an aqueous extract from unicellular Chlorella algae, on the radioresistance and some haemopoiesis parameters of mice exposed to 60 Co-γ-radiation. With median and absolutely lethal radiation doses, IS was shown to produce a pronounced protective effect displayed by the increased survival rate. With sublethal doses, IS elevated the postirradiation formation of endogenous colonies and restoration of bone marrow and spleen cellularity and spleen mass

  4. The marrow heterotopia in thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papavasiliou, C.; Gouliamos, A.; Andreou, J.

    1986-01-01

    The subject of marrow heterotopia has been reviewed on the basis of 15 cases suffering from thalassemia. Other cases reported in the literature were also reviewed. Using conventional radiography, scintigraphy, computerized tomography and myelography, 17% of the cases admitted into the hospital with the diagnosis of Thalassemia, were found to have macroscopic masses of marrow heterotopia. The most common site of development of these masses was the costovertebral gutter, followed by the anterior end of the ribs and the extradural space of the spinal canal. In one case, masses were located in the maxillary antra. The clinical implications, the pathogenesis of the masses and the differential diagnosis from other tumour-like entities are discussed. Three patients presented with symptoms and signs of spinal cord compression. All three patients were treated satisfactorily with small doses of radiotherapy. (orig.)

  5. Gillick, bone marrow and teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkassky, Lisa

    2015-09-01

    The Human Tissue Authority can authorise a bone marrow harvest on a child of any age if a person with parental responsibility consents to the procedure. Older children have the legal capacity to consent to medical procedures under Gillick, but it is unclear if Gillick can be applied to non-therapeutic medical procedures. The relevant donation guidelines state that the High Court shall be consulted in the event of a disagreement, but what is in the best interests of the teenage donor under s.1 of the Children Act 1989? There are no legal authorities on child bone marrow harvests in the United Kingdom. This article considers the best interests of the older saviour sibling and questions whether, for the purposes of welfare, the speculative benefits could outweigh the physical burdens. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. High-signal T2 changes of the bone marrow of the foot and ankle in children: red marrow or traumatic changes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabshin, Nogah; Schweitzer, Mark E.; Morrison, William B.; Carrino, John A.; Keller, Marc S.; Grissom, Leslie E.

    2006-01-01

    High-signal T2-weighted bone marrow changes can be found in both bone marrow edema and hematopoietic marrow and are often seen on pediatric MR images of the feet and ankle. To evaluate whether high-signal T2 changes of the bone marrow seen on pediatric MRI of feet and ankles represent residual hematopoietic marrow. A total of 402 bones in 41 pediatric MRI studies of feet and ankles (34 children, 1-18 years) were reviewed by two observers who were blinded to the patients' ages. The studies were reviewed for the presence of high-signal changes of the bone marrow on sagittal fluid-sensitive images. The frequency and location of these foci were correlated with the patients' ages. High-signal T2 changes of the bone marrow were seen in 45/402 bones (11%) and in 24/41 patients younger than 16 years (59%). The changes were most commonly located in the calcaneus (54%), followed by the talus (35%) and navicular bone (35%), invariably at the endosteal surface. In 16 ankles, such foci were seen in the feet but not in the distal tibia/fibula. Symmetric presence (two ankles) or absence (four ankles) of high-signal marrow were seen in six of seven patients with bilateral ankles. High-signal T2 changes of the bone marrow in pediatric feet and ankle MRIs have a symmetric, fairly consistent pattern and disappear after the age of 15 years. We believe that these high-signal areas are normal and represent residual hematopoietic marrow. (orig.)

  7. Bone--bone marrow interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patt, H.M.

    1976-01-01

    Within medullary cavities, blood formation tends to be concentrated near bone surfaces and this raises interesting questions about hematopoietic consequences of radionuclide fixation in osseous tissue. Thus, it may be important, on the one hand, to consider the medullary radiation dose distribution as well as total marrow dose from bone-bound radioelements and, on the other, to inquire about possible hematopoietic implications of radiation damage to endosteal surfaces per se. The reasons for this are discussed

  8. MRI diagnosis of bone marrow relapse in children with ALL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, J.H.; Hernanz-Schulman, Marta; Frangoul, Haydar A.; Connolly, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    Diffuse marrow replacement in acute leukemia is well known, but there are few reports describing the MRI features of pediatric leukemic relapse. Our purpose was to describe the MRI appearance of pediatric leukemic relapse. A total of 53 consecutive children with a history of ALL were referred for musculoskeletal MRI from 1 January 1998 to 28 February 2007 at one center, and from 1 January 2000 to 2 May 2007 at a second center. From this group, 14 children seen at initial diagnosis of leukemia and 2 children who underwent MRI after therapy for relapse were excluded. The remaining 37 children, 8 with relapse and 29 in remission, were studied. Images of patients with relapse and in remission were reviewed for type and configuration of marrow infiltration; coexisting marrow alterations including osteonecrosis or stress reaction were also reviewed. All eight children with relapse demonstrated nodular lesions with well-defined margins. Coexisting osteonecrosis was present in three children (38%) and pathologic fracture in one. Among the 29 children in remission, 9 showed stress reaction/fracture, 14 showed osteonecrosis and 9 showed ill-defined nodules, and in 5 the marrow was completely normal. Well-defined nodules in all patients with leukemic relapse suggest that this appearance is characteristic and distinct from the published findings of diffuse marrow replacement in acute leukemia. (orig.)

  9. Bone marrow MRI in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhao; Guo You; Wang Renfa; Zou Mingli; Liu Wenli; Xia Liming; Wang Chengyuan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the MR imaging of bone marrow in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and to reveal the rule of bone marrow infiltration and the role of MRI in diagnosing and predicting the prognosis of myelodysplastic syndromes. Methods: Thirty patients received MRI after the diagnosis based on clinic and FAB subtype study, including 16 with MDS and 14 with AML. MR image was obtained by T 1 -weighted spin echo and shot time inversion recovery in pelvis and femur. The examining results of morphology and blood routine were collected at the same time. 30 age-matched volunteers were selected as controls. Results: The MRI appearance was classified into their patterns based on scope of focus. MRI patterns from grade 1 to grade 3 was observed in patients with MDS. All patients with AML distributed in grade 2 to grade 3. The distribution of patterns had no significant difference between MDS and AML (P>0.05). The marrow ratio had significant difference among MDS, AML, and controls (P<0.05). The MRI grade was consistent with the clinic diagnostic indexes. Conclusion: MRI can provide a better understanding of the difference between MDS and AML. MRI can estimate the extent of disease in the marrow as a whole. MRI of bone marrow can provide imaging basis in diagnosis and predicting the prognosis for patients with MDS

  10. MRI diagnosis of bone marrow relapse in children with ALL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, J.H.; Hernanz-Schulman, Marta [Vanderbilt University, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt Children' s Hospital, Nashville, TN (United States); Frangoul, Haydar A. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, Vanderbilt Children' s Hospital, Nashville, TN (United States); Connolly, Susan A. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Diffuse marrow replacement in acute leukemia is well known, but there are few reports describing the MRI features of pediatric leukemic relapse. Our purpose was to describe the MRI appearance of pediatric leukemic relapse. A total of 53 consecutive children with a history of ALL were referred for musculoskeletal MRI from 1 January 1998 to 28 February 2007 at one center, and from 1 January 2000 to 2 May 2007 at a second center. From this group, 14 children seen at initial diagnosis of leukemia and 2 children who underwent MRI after therapy for relapse were excluded. The remaining 37 children, 8 with relapse and 29 in remission, were studied. Images of patients with relapse and in remission were reviewed for type and configuration of marrow infiltration; coexisting marrow alterations including osteonecrosis or stress reaction were also reviewed. All eight children with relapse demonstrated nodular lesions with well-defined margins. Coexisting osteonecrosis was present in three children (38%) and pathologic fracture in one. Among the 29 children in remission, 9 showed stress reaction/fracture, 14 showed osteonecrosis and 9 showed ill-defined nodules, and in 5 the marrow was completely normal. Well-defined nodules in all patients with leukemic relapse suggest that this appearance is characteristic and distinct from the published findings of diffuse marrow replacement in acute leukemia. (orig.)

  11. [MRI characteristic of proximal femur bone marrow edema syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xi-Yuan

    2014-07-01

    To study the MRI features of proximal femur bone marrow edema syndrome for further improve the understanding of the disease. MRI imaging of 10 patients with proximal femur bone marrow edema syndrome was retrospectively reviewed,including 6 males and 4 females with an average age of 41.5 years old ranging from 36 to 57. The courses of diseases ranged from 1 week to 3 months. Among them, 9 cases had clinical manifestations of sudden hip pain, 7 cases had limited ability of walking and hip movement;all patients had no obvious injury history, non of the female patients was pregnant. All patients were followed up from 3 to 12 months, the following-up were topped after MRI when the symptoms disappeared for 3 months. The MRI demonstrated diffuse bone marrow edema involving the femoral head, neck and the inter-trochanteric region, 13 hips of 10 patients with bone marrow edema included 6 cases in grade 1, 5 cases in grade 2,2 cases in grade 3; 9 hips with hip hydrarthrosis included 6 hips in grade I ,1 hip in grade II, 2 hips in grade III. After treatment for 3 to 12 months the hip symptoms of the patients disappeared and MRI images were normal. MRI is useful in defining the location and extent of proximal femur bone marrow edema syndrome.

  12. Lasting engraftment of histoincompatible bone marrow cells in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vriesendorp, H.M.; Klapwijk, W.M.; van Kessel, A.M.C.; Zurcher, C.; van Bekkum, D.W.

    1981-05-01

    Conditioning protocols were tested for their efficacy in increasng the incidence of engraftment of histoincompatible dog bone marrow cells. Cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation (TBI), Corynebacterium parvum and TBI, a 3- or 5-day delayed transfusion of bone marrow cells after TBI, or an increase in the number of donor bone marrow cells or lymphocytes appeared to be ineffective. These protocols were previously reported to promote recovery of splenic hemopoiesis in mice in short-term assays. The noted discrepancy between studies with mice and dogs invalidated allogeneic resistance as measured in the mouse spleen assay as a model for bone marrow allograft rejection. Intravenous treatment with silica particles or L-asparaginase did improve the engraftment rate after 7.5 Gy TBI. Low efficiency and significant extra toxicity restrict the applicability of these procedures. The most promising conditioning schedule found appeared to be two fractions of 6.0 Gy TBI separated by a 72-h interval. Prolonged survival was noted after transplantation of bone marrow cells from a one-DLA haplotype-mismatched donor. Possibilities for further improvement of this protocol are discussed.

  13. Lasting engraftment of histoincompatible bone marrow cells in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vriesendorp, H.M.; Klapwijk, W.M.; van Kessel, A.M.; Zurcher, C.; van Bekkum, D.W.

    1981-05-01

    Conditioning protocols were tested for their efficacy in increasing the incidence of engraftment of histoincompatible dog bone marrow cells. Cyclophosphamide and total body irradation (TBI), Corynebacterium parvum and TBI, a 3- or 5-day delayed transfusion of bone marrow cells after TBI, or an increase in the number of donor bone marrow cells or lymphocytes appeared to be ineffective. These protocols were previously reported to promote recovery of splenic hemopoiesis in mice in short-term assays. The noted discrepancy between studies with mice and dogs invalidated allogeneic resistance as measured in the mouse spleen assay as a model for bone marrow allograft rejection. Intravenous treatment with silica particles or L-asparaginase did improve the engraftment rate after 7.5 Gy TBI. Low efficiency and significant extra toxicity restrict the applicability of these procedures. The most promising conditioning schedule found appeared to be two fractions of 6.0 Gy TBI separated by a 72-hr interval. Prolonged survival was noted after transplantation of bone marrow cells from a one-DLA haplo-type-mismatched donor. Possibilities for further improvement of this protocol are discussed.

  14. Lasting engraftment of histoincompatible bone marrow cells in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vriesendorp, H.M.; Klapwijk, W.M.; van Kessel, A.M.C.; Zurcher, C.; van Bekkum, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    Conditioning protocols were tested for their efficacy in increasng the incidence of engraftment of histoincompatible dog bone marrow cells. Cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation (TBI), Corynebacterium parvum and TBI, a 3- or 5-day delayed transfusion of bone marrow cells after TBI, or an increase in the number of donor bone marrow cells or lymphocytes appeared to be ineffective. These protocols were previously reported to promote recovery of splenic hemopoiesis in mice in short-term assays. The noted discrepancy between studies with mice and dogs invalidated allogeneic resistance as measured in the mouse spleen assay as a model for bone marrow allograft rejection. Intravenous treatment with silica particles or L-asparaginase did improve the engraftment rate after 7.5 Gy TBI. Low efficiency and significant extra toxicity restrict the applicability of these procedures. The most promising conditioning schedule found appeared to be two fractions of 6.0 Gy TBI separated by a 72-h interval. Prolonged survival was noted after transplantation of bone marrow cells from a one-DLA haplotype-mismatched donor. Possibilities for further improvement of this protocol are discussed

  15. Noradrenergic and cholinergic innervation of the bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, Marco; Bosco, Sandro; Cavallotti, Carlo; Agostinelli, Enzo; Giuliani-Piccari, Gabriella; Sciorio, Salvatore; Cocco, Lucio; Vitale, Marco

    2002-07-01

    Bone marrow is supplied by sensory and autonomic innervation. Although it is well established that hematopoiesis is regulated by cytokines and cell-to-cell contacts, the role played by neuromediators on the proliferation, differentiation and release of hematopoietic cells is still controversial. We studied the innervation of rat femur bone marrow by means of fluorescence histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Glyoxylic acid-induced fluorescence was used to demonstrate catecholaminergic nerve fibers. The immunoperoxidase method with nickel amplification was applied to detect the distribution of nerve fibers using antibodies against the general neuronal marker PGP 9.5 (neuron-specific cytoplasmic protein), while the cholinacetyltransferase immunoreactivity was studied by immunohistochemistry. Our results show the presence of an extensive network of innervation in the rat bone marrow, providing a morphological basis for the neural modulation of hemopoiesis.

  16. Effects of Spaceflight on Cells of Bone Marrow Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Özçivici

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Once only a subject for science fiction novels, plans for establishing habitation on space stations, the Moon, and distant planets now appear among the short-term goals of space agencies. This article reviews studies that present biomedical issues that appear to challenge humankind for long-term spaceflights. With particularly focus on cells of bone marrow origin, studies involving changes in bone, immune, and red blood cell populations and their functions due to extended weightlessness were reviewed. Furthermore, effects of mechanical disuse on primitive stem cells that reside in the bone marrow were also included in this review. Novel biomedical solutions using space biotechnology will be required in order to achieve the goal of space exploration without compromising the functions of bone marrow, as spaceflight appears to disrupt homeostasis for all given cell types.

  17. Bone marrow edema in sports: General concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhoenacker, F.M.; Snoeckx, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper will discuss the value of medical imaging in the detection and follow-up of bone marrow edema (BME), resulting from acute and chronic trauma in sports. MR imaging is the only imaging technique that allows direct evaluation of bone marrow edema in sports medicine. The use of fat suppressed T2-weighted or STIR images is particularly appropriate to detect bone marrow edema. The extent of bone marrow edema reflects the biomechanics of trauma. Compressive forces between two bony structures will result in extensive areas of bone marrow edema, whereas distraction forces provoke more subtle areas of bone marrow edema at the insertion of supporting structures of joints. In most clinical situations, a combination of compression and distraction forces is present, causing a complex pattern of bone marrow edema. A meticulous pattern approach of the distribution of these bone marrow changes around a joint can reveal in most instances the underlying mechanism of trauma. This may be helpful to analyze which joint supporting structures may be at risk. In the acute setting, plain radiography and CT scan may have an additional role in the detection of small avulsion fractures occurring at the site of minor areas of bone marrow edema. The clinical significance and natural history of bone marrow edema is still a matter of debate

  18. Recovery processes in the elementary cells of the bone marrow after radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliedner, T.M.; Steinbach, K.H.; Raffler, H.

    1977-01-01

    The task of this investigation was to represent the conception of the haematpoietic elementary cell population and their physiological regeneration under conditions of physiological equilibrium and haemopoiesis. Furthermore, the question was dealt with on which factors the recreation processes in the elementary cell storage depend, after a whole or partial body irradiation. Finally, the problem of the recreation processes in the elementary cell storage after chronicle irradiation is discussed. (orig./AJ) [de

  19. The effect of low doses on the metabolism of thymidine in bone marrow cells of NMRI mice; an in vivo - in vitro study using labeled nucleic acid precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, C.

    1984-12-01

    Low-dose whole-body exposure of mice to less than 0.01 Gy causes a temporary inhibition of incorporation of thymidine into DNA of bone-marrow cells in vitro. This inhibition has its maximum at 4 hours after irradiation. The low-dose effect is due to the temporary inhibition of cellular thymidine kinase. This decrease in thymidine kinase activity involves only 35% of the entire cellular enzyme activity and, analogous to the depression of thymidine incorporation into the cells, is only seen in the presence of a physiological concentration of NaHCO 3 . The inhibition of TdR-kinase at very low doses should not be viewed as an expression of cell damage but might be part of a cellular protection mechanism different from known repair systems. (orig.) [de

  20. Consolidation chemoradiotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation versus continued chemotherapy for metastatic neuroblastoma: a report of two concurrent Children's Cancer Group studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stram, D O; Matthay, K K; O'Leary, M; Reynolds, C P; Haase, G M; Atkinson, J B; Brodeur, G M; Seeger, R C

    1996-09-01

    To compare event-free survival (EFS) for patients with stage IV neuroblastoma who were treated with induction chemotherapy followed by additional courses of the same chemotherapy or by intensive chemoradiotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT). Two hundred seven children who were diagnosed with stage IV neuroblastoma after 1 year of age were given five to seven courses of induction chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin, etoposide, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (CCC-321-P2). This chemotherapy was continued for 13 total courses for some patients, whereas intensive chemoradiotherapy with ABMT was given to others (CCG-321-P3). The decision to continue chemotherapy versus to consolidate with chemoradiotherapy was not randomized but was made by parents and physicians. Marrow used for ABMT was purged ex vivo and was free of immunocytologically detectable neuroblastoma cells. One hundred fifty-nine of 207 patients (77%) remained event-free during induction therapy. Of these, 67 received chemoradiotherapy/ABMT (CCG-321-P3) and 74 continued chemotherapy (CCG-321-P2). Using Cox regression analysis, the relative risk (RR) of an event after chemoradiotherapy/ABMT was estimated to be 58% of that for patients who continued chemotherapy (P = .01). Similarly, Kaplan-Meier analysis estimated EFS at four years for the chemoradiotherapy/ABMT and chemotherapy groups to be 40% and 19% respectively (P = .019). Subgroups appearing to benefit from chemoradiotherapy/ABMT were those with only a partial tumor response to induction chemotherapy (RR = 0.43; P = .008; EFS, 29% v 6%) and those whose tumors had amplification of the N-myc gene (RR = 0.26; P = .112; EFS, 67% v 0%). Consolidation with intensive, myeloablative chemoradiotherapy followed by purged ABMT may be more effective than continuing chemotherapy for patients with stage IV neuroblastoma.

  1. Percutaneous internal fixation of proximal fifth metatarsal jones fractures (Zones II and III) with Charlotte Carolina screw and bone marrow aspirate concentrate: an outcome study in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murawski, Christopher D; Kennedy, John G

    2011-06-01

    Internal fixation is a popular first-line treatment method for proximal fifth metatarsal Jones fractures in athletes; however, nonunions and screw breakage can occur, in part because of nonspecific fixation hardware and poor blood supply. To report the results from 26 patients who underwent percutaneous internal fixation with a specialized screw system of a proximal fifth metatarsal Jones fracture (zones II and III) and bone marrow aspirate concentrate. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Percutaneous internal fixation for a proximal fifth metatarsal Jones fracture (zones II and III) was performed on 26 athletic patients (mean age, 27.47 years; range, 18-47). All patients were competing at some level of sport and were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively using the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score and SF-12 outcome scores. The mean follow-up time was 20.62 months (range, 12-28). Of the 26 fractures, 17 were traditional zone II Jones fractures, and the remaining 9 were zone III proximal diaphyseal fractures. The mean Foot and Ankle Outcome Score significantly increased, from 51.15 points preoperatively (range, 14-69) to 90.91 at final follow-up (range, 71-100; P fracture healing on standard radiographs was 5 weeks after surgery (range, 4-24). Two patients did not return to their previous levels of sporting activity. One patient experienced a delayed union, and 1 healed but later refractured. Percutaneous internal fixation of proximal fifth metatarsal Jones fractures, with a Charlotte Carolina screw and bone marrow aspirate concentrate, provides more predictable results while permitting athletes a return to sport at their previous levels of competition, with few complications.

  2. Bone marrow ablation with Ho-166 pharmaceuticals as preparation for bone marrow transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, N.J.; Kawakami, T.; Avila, M.; White, R.; Cain, G.; Moore, P.F.

    1991-01-01

    Bone marrow ablation is required preparation for leukemia patients where bone marrow transplantation is to be the therapeutic modality. Presently, the total body irradiation that is used produces appreciable morbidity in terms of radiation sickness, but an evenly distributed dose to marrow. The authors have shown in Beagles that bone-seeking radiolanthanide (Ho-166, t 1/2 = 25 h, 1.8 MeB beta, carrier added) phosphonic acid chelates can be used to completely ablate bone marrow with little morbidity. The research plan, incorporating bone marrow ablation with bone-seeking radionuclides and in vitro purging of aspirated leukemic marrow for use in autologous marrow transplants, is presented. Phosphonic acid complexes of Sm-153 also localize in the skeleton and have found use in the palliation of bone pain. However, the dose distribution is uneven because these radiopharmaceuticals distribute according to available surface; 2-4 times the skeletal average in trabecular vs cortical bone. Thus, the marrow dose can vary. The authors' research group and the Radiation Interactions Division of NIST have announced the discovery that beta radiation-induced excited electrons are trapped in the hydroxyapatite mineral of bone and provide a potential direct dosimetric method for marrow dose when combined with routine bone marrow (and included bone) biopsies. The overall research plan sets the hypothesis that reduced morbidity marrow ablation can be successfully followed by bone marrow transplantation (BMT) with autologous marrow purged in vitro by antibody-targeted alpha emitters

  3. The effect of peripheral lymphoid cells on the incidence of lethal graft versus host disease following allogeneic mouse bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almaraz, R.; Ballinger, W.; Sachs, D.H.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    Experiments were performed to study the role of circulating lymphoid cells in the incidence of lethal graft versus host disease (GVHD) in radiation-induced fully allogeneic mouse chimeras. The incidence of GVHD was reduced significantly in BALB/c leads to C57BL/6 radiation chimeras if bone marrow donors were exsanguinated immediately prior to marrow harvest. Chimeras resulting from the injection of bone marrow from bled donors exhibited only donor cells in spleen, bone marrow and peripheral blood and normal levels of Thy 1+ and Ia+ cells were found in each of these lymphoid compartments. The addition of as few as 3 X 10(4) peripheral mononuclear cells to the marrow from exsanguinated donors uniformly led to lethal GVHD. 51 Cr-labeled cell traffic studies revealed that prior exsanguination of marrow donors led to about a 70% reduction in the number of circulating mononuclear cells contaminating the bone marrow at the time of marrow harvest. This decrease in contaminating peripheral cells was calculated to be in the appropriate range to account for the decreased GVHD seen when marrow from exsanguinated donors was used. It thus appears that peripheral cells contaminating marrow can be an important factor in causing lethal GVHD in allogeneic radiation chimeras. These results raise the possibility that the fulminant GVHD seen in human marrow transplantation is in part due to the major contamination of bone marrow with peripheral blood that results from the techniques currently used for human bone marrow harvest

  4. Treatment of Radiation Induced Biological Changes by Bone Marrow Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Missiry, M.A.; Shehata, G.; Roushdy, H.M; Fayed, Th.A.

    1999-01-01

    Preventing the propagation of radiation induced oxidative damage has been a subject of considerable investigations. The ultimate goal of the present study is to use bone marrow cells to ameliorate or to treat the radiation sickness. Transplantation of bone marrow cell has shown promising results in the present experimental radiation treatment. In this report, suspension of bone marrow cells was injected into rats 12 h. after exposure to 4.5 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. Significant results were recorded on the successful control of the radiation induced disorders in a number of biochemical parameters including certain enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase and glutathione) and certain parameters related to kidney function including creatinine, urea as well as Atpase Activity in blood serum, urine and kidney tissue

  5. MR imaging of normal bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stajgis, M.; Paprzycki, W.

    1994-01-01

    Principles of MR bone marrow imaging on the basis of retrospective analysis of MR examinations of bone marrow in different anatomic sites in 200 patients have been discussed. Significance of different physiologic factors and processes such as age, steatosis, osteoporosis, conversion and reconversion, which influence on MR bone marrow images, have been emphasized. T1-weighted images obtained with spin-echo sequences give the most of information about bone marrow structure in MR. Thorough knowledge of bone marrow physiology and clinical status of the patient is indispensable in correct interpretation of hypointensive lesions on T1-weighted images. When presence of disseminated bone marrow disease is suspected, authors propose routine imaging of lumbar vertebral column, pelvis and proximal parts of femoral bones. (author)

  6. Computational modelling of the mechanics of trabecular bone and marrow using fluid structure interaction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmingham, E; Grogan, J A; Niebur, G L; McNamara, L M; McHugh, P E

    2013-04-01

    Bone marrow found within the porous structure of trabecular bone provides a specialized environment for numerous cell types, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Studies have sought to characterize the mechanical environment imposed on MSCs, however, a particular challenge is that marrow displays the characteristics of a fluid, while surrounded by bone that is subject to deformation, and previous experimental and computational studies have been unable to fully capture the resulting complex mechanical environment. The objective of this study was to develop a fluid structure interaction (FSI) model of trabecular bone and marrow to predict the mechanical environment of MSCs in vivo and to examine how this environment changes during osteoporosis. An idealized repeating unit was used to compare FSI techniques to a computational fluid dynamics only approach. These techniques were used to determine the effect of lower bone mass and different marrow viscosities, representative of osteoporosis, on the shear stress generated within bone marrow. Results report that shear stresses generated within bone marrow under physiological loading conditions are within the range known to stimulate a mechanobiological response in MSCs in vitro. Additionally, lower bone mass leads to an increase in the shear stress generated within the marrow, while a decrease in bone marrow viscosity reduces this generated shear stress.

  7. Interplay of thymus and bone marrow regeneration in x-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiesche, K.-D.

    1975-01-01

    aim of the prepresent investigation was to study the modifying effects of bone marrow cells on regeneration, after X-irradiation, of thymus and bone marrow cell populations. Data are presented which indicate that the cellular composition of the thymus and, in particular, the frequency of the stem cells in the organ at the time of radiation exposure determines thymic regeneration for about two weeks after irradiation. After this period, regeneration depends on new precursors from the bone marrow which have previously seeded the thymus. In contrast to the thymus, cellular restoration of the bone marrow is already initially dependent on the number of protected or transplanted marrow cells. Two phases in the recovery of thymic PHA-reactivity after irradiation were observed: one initial phase which is independent on the number of the available bone marrow cells, and a subsequent phase during which PHA-reactivity is slightly increased in mice irradiated with partly protected bone marrow in comparison to in total body irradiated animals. During the entire observation period, PHA-reactivity remains at a low level not exeeding 50 % of that in untreated mice. In contrast the thymus is fully repopulated with regard to the number of nonreactive cells. Alternative pathways of thymocyte development within the thymus are discussed. Bone marrow X cells were shown to be as sensitive to in vitro treatment with a specific H-2 antiserum as were lymphocytes from normal bone marrow. This finding was teken to indicate that the X cells represent a particular lymphoid cell type. A xenogeneic rabbit-anti-mouse embryo antiserum was more toxic to pre-irradiated bone marrow, with high proportion of X cells, than to bone marrow from untreated mice, using in vitro cytotoxicity test. A possible embryonic character of the X cells is discussed. (author)

  8. Interplay of thymus and bone marrow regeneration in x-irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiesche, K D

    1975-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the modifying effects of bone marrow cells on regeneration, after X-irradiation, of thymus and bone marrow cell populations. Data are presented which indicate that the cellular composition of the thymus and, in particular, the frequency of the stem cells in the organ at the time of radiation exposure determines thymic regeneration for about two weeks after irradiation. After this period, regeneration depends on new precursors from the bone marrow which have previously seeded the thymus. In contrast to the thymus, cellular restoration of the bone marrow is already initially dependent on the number of protected or transplanted marrow cells. Two phases in the recovery of thymic PHA-reactivity after irradiation were observed: one initial phase which is independent on the number of the available bone marrow cells, and a subsequent phase during which PHA-reactivity is slightly increased in mice irradiated with partly protected bone marrow in comparison to in total body irradiated animals. During the entire observation period, PHA-reactivity remains at a low level not exeeding 50 % of that in untreated mice. In contrast the thymus is fully repopulated with regard to the number of nonreactive cells. Alternative pathways of thymocyte development within the thymus are discussed. Bone marrow X cells were shown to be as sensitive to in vitro treatment with a specific H-2 antiserum as were lymphocytes from normal bone marrow. This finding was teken to indicate that the X cells represent a particular lymphoid cell type. A xenogeneic rabbit-anti-mouse embryo antiserum was more toxic to pre-irradiated bone marrow, with high proportion of X cells, than to bone marrow from untreated mice, using in vitro cytotoxicity test. A possible embryonic character of the X cells is discussed.

  9. System for estimation of mean active bone marrow dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.E.; Healy, M.J.R.; Shleien, B.; Tucker, T.

    1975-09-01

    The exposure measurements, model and computer program for estimation of mean active bone marrow doses formerly employed in the 1962 British Survey of x-ray doses and proposed for application to x-ray exposure information obtained in the U.S. Public Health Service's X-Ray Exposure Studies (1966 and 1973) are described and evaluated. The method described is feasible for use to determine the mean active bone marrow doses to adults for examinations having a skin to source distance of 80 cm or less. For a greater SSD, as for example in chest x rays, a small correction in the calculation dose can be made

  10. MR appearances of bone marrow in children following bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothroyd, A.E.; Sebag, G.; Brunelle, F.

    1991-01-01

    Two cases are presented of children who demonstrated complete absence of bone marrow signal on MR imaging of the spine following bone marrow transplantation. The possible causes for these appearances are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Experimental hypoplastic marrow failure in the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, K.; Mizoguchi, H.; Miura, Y.; Kano, S.; Takaku, F.

    1978-01-01

    In order to study the pathogenesis of aplastic anemia in man, hemopoietic stem cells were investigated in 'aplastic mice' the aplasia being induced by the immunological method. C3H/He(H-2sup(k), Mlssup(c)) received 600 rad whole body x-irradiation followed by the transplantation of 10 7 lymph node cells prepared from B10.BR mice (H-2sup(k), Mlssup(b)). The C3H/He mice developed pancytopenia and marrow hypoplasia 21 days after these treatments. The total number of nucleated cells, CFU-S and CFU-C in the marrow and the wet weight and CFU-C of the spleen were markedly reduced. These findings are consistent with those of aplastic anemia in man and the model may provide a useful tool for the investigation of the pathogenesis of this anemia. Control mice that received irradiation only recovered from the damage 21 days later, while control mice that received lymph node cells only showed no hematological changes. (author)

  12. Patterns of bone-marrow scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touya, J.J.; Lee, G.S.; Narvaez, M.; Marciano, D.

    1977-01-01

    111 In-transferrin, radiocolloid and bone scans were performed within one week on 105 from more than 250 scanned patients with different haematological disorders. All patients had complete haematological workups and confirmed final diagnoses. From the comparison of the 111 In-transferrin marrow scan with the radiocolloid marrow scan and bone scan, eight basic patterns of localized or generalized disorders in the bone marrow cell production were delineated. The first pattern was called a cold area and two sub-patterns were distinguished in it. A cold area in the erythropoietic and reticuloendothelial scans associated with cold or normal areas in the bone scan corresponded to radiation damage of the marrow or multiple myeloma; a cold area in both marrow scans with a hot area in the bone scan to tumour, infarct and bone trauma. The second pattern was called a hot area. A hot area in the two marrow scans with a normal bone scan was observed in islands of active bone-marrow. Hot areas in both 111 In-transferrin and bone scan associated with a cold area in the radiocolloid scan were observed in tumours growing in bones with or without little active bone marrow. Hot areas on the three scans were observed in osteomyelitis of bones of the extremities. The third pattern was bone-marrow expansion, which was observed in hereditary haemolytic anaemias, in myeloproliferative disorders and in patients with bone-marrow damage following irradiation. The fourth pattern was saturation of the serum iron-binding capacity and it was manifested by increased activity in the kidneys in the 111 In-transferrin scan. The fifth pattern was bone-marrow failure which consists of decreased accumulation in the marrow and increased accumulation in the liver of marrow-seeking agents associated with normal bone scan. The sixth pattern, pure red cell aplasia, was characterized by less accumulation of 111 In-transferrin than radiocolloid in the bone marrow. The seventh pattern, bone-marrow siderosis

  13. [Acute unclassified leukemia with bone marrow necrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uoshima, N; Yamazaki, N; Iinuma, S; Kimura, S; Wada, K; Kobayashi, Y; Ozawa, M; Horiuchi, H; Maruo, N; Kondo, M

    1991-01-01

    Massive bone marrow necrosis was seen in a 42-year-old male with acute leukemia. In December, 1988, on admission, laboratory data revealed pancytopenia and a high level of serum LDH and ALKP. Bone marrow aspiration resulted in dry-tap and showed bone marrow necrosis in the bone marrow biopsy specimen. A bone marrow scintigraphy with 111In faintly visualized the bone marrow but visualized area was expanded in the extremities compared with normal subjects. The second bone marrow biopsy showed proliferation of blasts. In the middle of March, blasts began to appear in peripheral blood. The blasts were cytochemically negative for POX, Es, PAS, AcP, TdT and had surface markers CD3-, CD19-, CD33-, CD13-, LCA-, HLA-DR-. Even by investigation on rearrangement of the immunoglobulin heavy chain region, an origin of the blasts could not be determined. In April, the number of blasts in peripheral blood increased and hepatosplenomegaly developed rapidly. Therefore, he was put on the chemotherapy with vincristine and prednisolone, but he died of cerebral hemorrhage. The autopsy revealed widespread bone marrow necrosis. It has rarely been reported that massive bone marrow necrosis is found prior to the occurrence of acute unclassified leukemia.

  14. Homing of bone marrow lymphoid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Y.; Osmond, D.G.

    1978-01-01

    DNA labeling, bone marrow fractionation, and radioautography were used to follow the fate of transfused, newly formed marrow lymphocytes in irradiated hosts. After infusing donor Hartley guinea pigs with 3 H-thymidine for 3 to 5 days, high concentrations of labeled small lymphocytes and large lymphoid cells were separated from marrow by sedimentation in sucrose-serum gradients and injected into lethally x-irradiated syngeneic recipients. Most labeled small lymphocytes and large lymphoid cells rapidly left the circulation. They appeared to be mainly in the marrow and spleen, increasing in incidence from 1 to 3 days, but declining in mean grain count. Labeled cells were scattered throughout the recipient marrow; in the spleen they localized initially in the red pulp, and subsequently in peripheral areas of white pulp, often in clusters. Labeled small lymphocytes showed a delayed migration into the mesenteric lymph node, mainly in the superficial cortex and medulla; they also appeared in small numbers in Peyer's patches, but rarely in the thymus or thoracic duct lymph. It is concluded that a rapid selective homing of newly formed marrow lymphoid cells occurs in both the marrow and certain areas of the spleen of irradiated hosts, followed by a continuing proliferation of large lymphoid cells and production of small lymphocytes. The results are discussed with respect to the life history of marrow lymphocytes and the use of adoptive immune assays of marrow cells to characterize B lymphocyte maturation

  15. The role of bone marrow-derived cells during the bone healing process in the GFP mouse bone marrow transplantation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujigiwa, Hidetsugu; Hirata, Yasuhisa; Katase, Naoki; Buery, Rosario Rivera; Tamamura, Ryo; Ito, Satoshi; Takagi, Shin; Iida, Seiji; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi

    2013-03-01

    Bone healing is a complex and multistep process in which the origin of the cells participating in bone repair is still unknown. The involvement of bone marrow-derived cells in tissue repair has been the subject of recent studies. In the present study, bone marrow-derived cells in bone healing were traced using the GFP bone marrow transplantation model. Bone marrow cells from C57BL/6-Tg (CAG-EGFP) were transplanted into C57BL/6 J wild mice. After transplantation, bone injury was created using a 1.0-mm drill. Bone healing was histologically assessed at 3, 7, 14, and 28 postoperative days. Immunohistochemistry for GFP; double-fluorescent immunohistochemistry for GFP-F4/80, GFP-CD34, and GFP-osteocalcin; and double-staining for GFP and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase were performed. Bone marrow transplantation successfully replaced the hematopoietic cells into GFP-positive donor cells. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that osteoblasts or osteocytes in the repair stage were GFP-negative, whereas osteoclasts in the repair and remodeling stages and hematopoietic cells were GFP-positive. The results indicated that bone marrow-derived cells might not differentiate into osteoblasts. The role of bone marrow-derived cells might be limited to adjustment of the microenvironment by differentiating into inflammatory cells, osteoclasts, or endothelial cells in immature blood vessels.

  16. Biocompatibility of various hydoxyapatite scaffolds evaluated by proliferation of rat’s bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad F. Kamal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scaffold (biomaterial biocompatibility test should be performed in vitro prior to in vivo stem cell application in animal or clinical trial. These test consists of direct and indirect toxicity test (MTT assay [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide]. Those tests were used to identify cell morphological changes, cell-substrate adhesion impairment, and reduction in cell proliferation activity.Methods: The tested scaffolds were hydroxyapatite-calcium sulphate (HA-CaSO4 (scaffold I, nano-particular HA paste (scaffold II, synthetic HA granule (scaffold III, bovine HA granule (scaffold IV, and morsellized bovine xenograft (scaffold V. Direct contact toxicity test and MTT assay [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] were performed on those groups. In direct contact toxicity test, we put granules of various scaffolds within plates and incubated together with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. In MTT assay we included phenol 20 mg/mL and 100 mg/mL group as positive control. Morphology, cell adhesion impairment, and cell growth were monitored daily until day-7. Cells counting in the direct contact toxicity test was conducted on day-7.Results: There were no changes on 24 hours observation after direct contact. On day-7, an impairment of cell adhesion to plastic substrates, changes in cell morphology, and cell death were observed, especially in scaffold I, scaffold II, and scaffold V. In MTT assay, only scaffold I, phenol 20 mg/mL, and phenol 100 mg/mL showed more than 50% inhibition at 24-hour and 7-day-observation. Extracts from scaffold II, III, IV, and V did not affect the viability and proliferation of bone marrow MSCs (inhibition value < 50%. Scaffold II, III, IV and V were proven non-cytotoxic and have good biocompatibility in vitro,  no statistical significant differences were observed among the scaffold groups (p > 0.05.Conclusion: We understand which scaffold was nontoxic or the least toxic to

  17. Effect of peripheral lymphoid cells on the incidence of lethal graft versus host disease following allogeneic mouse bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almaraz, R.; Ballinger, W.; Sachs, D.H.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    Experiments were performed to study the role of circulating lymphoid cells in the incidence of lethal graft versus host disease (GVHD) in radiation-induced fully allogeneic mouse chimeras. The incidence of GVHD was reduced significantly in BALB/c leads to C57BL/6 radiation chimeras if bone marrow donors were exsanguinated immediately prior to marrow harvest. Chimeras resulting from the injection of bone marrow from bled donors exhibited only donor cells in spleen, bone marrow and peripheral blood and normal levels of Thy 1+ and Ia+ cells were found in each of these lymphoid compartments. The addition of as few as 3 X 10(4) peripheral mononuclear cells to the marrow from exsanguinated donors uniformly led to lethal GVHD. 51 Cr-labeled cell traffic studies revealed that prior exsanguination of marrow donors led to about a 70% reduction in the number of circulating mononuclear cells contaminating the bone marrow at the time of marrow harvest. This decrease in contaminating peripheral cells was calculated to be in the appropriate range to account for the decreased GVHD seen when marrow from exsanguinated donors was used. It thus appears that peripheral cells contaminating marrow can be an important factor in causing lethal GVHD in allogeneic radiation chimeras

  18. MRI of bone marrow: opposed-phase gradient-echo sequences with long repetition time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiderer, M.; Staebler, A.; Wagner, H.

    1999-01-01

    Signal intensity for opposed-phase gradient-echo (GE) sequences of tissues composed of fat- and water-equivalent cells such as red bone marrow is extremely sensitive to variation of the ratio of both cell populations (fat-to-water ratio Q F/W ). Because most bone marrow pathology results in variation of Q F/W , GE sequences are characterized by high-contrast imaging of pathology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of TR, TE, FA, Q F/W and histology on signal intensity. Signal intensity of opposed-phase GE sequences as a function of TR, TE, FA, and Q F/W was measured for a fat-water phantom and cadaver specimens of normal bone marrow (red and yellow) and pathological bone marrow (tumors). All specimens were correlated to histology. Opposed-phase GE imaging of red bone marrow pathology results in low-signal-intensity imaging of intact red bone marrow and high-signal-intensity positive contrast imaging of pathology associated with a change in Q F/W . In first-order approximation the signal intensity of pathology is linearly correlated to the change in Q F/W . Opposed-phase GE imaging is a sensitive imaging technique for red bone marrow pathology. Relative contrast of red bone marrow pathology is similar to fat-suppressed imaging techniques. Acquisition time is identical to T1-weighted SE sequences. (orig.)

  19. MR imaging of diffuse bone marrow replacement in pediatric patients with solid malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzal-Shapiro, C.; Berdon, W.E.; Cohen, M.D.; Abramson, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that the MR imaging finding of dark T1/bright T2, associated with diffuse bone marrow tumor infiltration in leukemia, also occurs in solid tumors. The clinical course and results on plain radiographs, bone scans, and marrow aspiration were reviewed in two patients with solid tumors and two with leukemia whose MR studies showed a pattern of diffuse bone marrow T2 hypointensity and T2 hyperintensity. One case was followed serially through treatment. There were two cases of ALL, one neuroblastoma, and one rhabdomyosarcoma. Plain radiographs and bone scans showed metaphyseal changes with normal epiphyses and diaphyses. On MR images, flip-flop or reversal of the expected signal characteristics of fatty marrow was seen diffusely in the metaphyses, epiphyses, and diaphyses. All patients had positive bone marrow aspirates

  20. Pain During Bone Marrow Aspiration: Prevalence and Prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhelleputte, P.; Nijs, K.A.N.D.; Delforge, M.; Evers, G.; Vanderschueren, S.

    2003-01-01

    The Prevalence, intensity, determinants and prevention of pain during bone marrow aspiration (BMA) in adults are not well defined. In the first part of this prospective study (observational phase), 132 adult hematological patients undergoing BMA after local anesthesia scored the procedural pain by

  1. Diagnosis and management of acquired aplastic anemia in childhood. Guidelines from the Marrow Failure Study Group of the Pediatric Haemato-Oncology Italian Association (AIEOP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Angelica; Lucarelli, Annunziata; Onofrillo, Daniela; Verzegnassi, Federico; Bonanomi, Sonia; Cesaro, Simone; Fioredda, Francesca; Iori, Anna Paola; Ladogana, Saverio; Locasciulli, Anna; Longoni, Daniela; Lanciotti, Marina; Macaluso, Alessandra; Mandaglio, Rosalba; Marra, Nicoletta; Martire, Baldo; Maruzzi, Matteo; Menna, Giuseppe; Notarangelo, Lucia Dora; Palazzi, Giovanni; Pillon, Marta; Ramenghi, Ugo; Russo, Giovanna; Svahn, Johanna; Timeus, Fabio; Tucci, Fabio; Cugno, Chiara; Zecca, Marco; Farruggia, Piero; Dufour, Carlo; Saracco, Paola

    2015-06-01

    Acquired aplastic anemia (AA) is a rare heterogeneous disease characterized by pancytopenia and hypoplastic bone marrow. The incidence is 2-3/million inhabitants/year, in Europe, but higher in East Asia. Survival in severe aplastic anemia (SAA) has markedly improved in the past 2 decades because of advances in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, immunosuppressive and biologic drugs, and supportive care. In SAA hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) from a matched sibling donor (MSD) is the treatment of choice. If a MSD is not available, the options include immunosuppressive therapy (IST) or unrelated donor HSCT. The objective of this guideline is to provide healthcare professionals with clear guidance on the diagnosis and management of pediatric patients with AA. A preliminary, evidence-based document issued by a group of pediatric hematologists was discussed, modified and approved during a series of "Consensus Conferences" according to procedures previously validated by the AIEOP Board. The guidelines highlight the importance of referring pediatric patients with AA to pediatric centers with long experience in diagnosis, differential diagnosis, management, supportive care and follow-up of AA. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Differences in tibial subchondral bone structure evaluated using plain radiographs between knees with and without cartilage damage or bone marrow lesions. The Oulu knee osteoarthritis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirvasniemi, Jukka; Thevenot, Jerome; Podlipska, Jana; Guermazi, Ali; Roemer, Frank W.; Nieminen, Miika T.; Saarakkala, Simo

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether subchondral bone structure from plain radiographs is different between subjects with and without articular cartilage damage or bone marrow lesions (BMLs). Radiography-based bone structure was assessed from 80 subjects with different stages of knee osteoarthritis using entropy of Laplacian-based image (E Lap ) and local binary patterns (E LBP ), homogeneity index of local angles (HI Angles,mean ), and horizontal (FD Hor ) and vertical fractal dimensions (FD Ver ). Medial tibial articular cartilage damage and BMLs were scored using the magnetic resonance imaging osteoarthritis knee score. Level of statistical significance was set to p < 0.05. Subjects with medial tibial cartilage damage had significantly higher FD Ver and E LBP as well as lower E Lap and HI Angles,mean in the medial tibial subchondral bone region than subjects without damage. FD Hor , FD Ver , and E LBP were significantly higher, whereas E Lap and HI Angles,mean were lower in the medial trabecular bone region. Subjects with medial tibial BMLs had significantly higher FD Ver and E LBP as well as lower E Lap and HI Angles,mean in medial tibial subchondral bone. FD Hor , FD Ver , and E LBP were higher, whereas E Lap and HI Angles,mean were lower in medial trabecular bone. Our results support the use of bone structural analysis from radiographs when examining subjects with osteoarthritis or at risk of having it. (orig.)

  3. Clinical study of four patients with hematological malignancy treated with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation after conditioning including hyperfractionated total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Kazuaki; Naito, Kazuyuki; Akao, Yukihiro; Hiraiwa, Akikazu; Naoe, Tomoki; Yamada, Kazumasa; Matsunaga, Kayoko; Kobayashi, Hidetoshi; Matsuzaki, Michio.

    1987-01-01

    Based on the cytoreductive regimen reported by O'Reilly et al, we transplanted to four patients with hematological malignancy the bone marrow cells harvested from their HLA identical siblings. In our method, they were pretreated with hyperfractionated total body irradiation (120R x 11 times) and high dose of cyclophosphamide prior to transplantation. Case 1: 19 year-old, female, ALL. She had a temporal GVHD (Grade I) on day 23, and suffered from interstitial pneumonia (IP) on day 72 that responded well to the steroid therapy. She is now healthy (day 717). Case 2: 15 year-old, female, ALL. She had a mild GVHD on day 20 and IP on day 175 that recovered shortly after treated with steroid. She had an acute nephritis temporarily on day 410, as well. She is now healthy (day 668). Case 3: 39 year-old, female, AML. She suffered from a GVHD (Grade IV) with severe skin eruption, diarrhea and jaundice, which started on day 15. She died of hepatic failure on day 74, for which GVHD was responsible. Case 4: 25 year-old, male, Burkitt Lymphoma. He had a mild GVHD on day 33, which recovered soon with the steroid therapy. On day 150, he suffered from IP to which the steroid therapy was effective. However, IP was recurrent as well as his pneumothorax that happened subsequently. He is now healthy (day 458). (author)

  4. The Chondrogenic Induction Potential for Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells between Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma and Common Chondrogenic Induction Agents: A Preliminary Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-zheng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The interests in platelet-rich plasma (PRP and their application in stem cell therapy have contributed to a better understanding of the basic biology of the prochondrogenesis effect on bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs. We aimed at comparing the effect of autologous PRP with common chondrogenic induction agents (CCIAs on the chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Rabbit BMSCs were isolated and characterized by flow cytometry and differentiated towards adipocytes and osteoblasts. The chondrogenic response of BMSCs to autologous PRP and CCIAs which included transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, dexamethasone (DEX, and vitamin C (Vc was examined by cell pellet culture. The isolated BMSCs after two passages highly expressed CD29 and CD44 but minimally expressed CD45. The osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potentials of the isolated BMSCs were also confirmed. Compared with common CCIAs, autologous PRP significantly upregulated the chondrogenic related gene expression, including Col-2, AGC, and Sox-9. Osteogenic related gene expression, including Col-1 and OCN, was not of statistical significance between these two groups. Thus, our data shows that, compared with common chondrogenic induction agents, autologous PRP can be more effective in promoting the chondrogenesis of BMSCs.

  5. Bone Marrow Transplantation: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... marrow transplant - discharge (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Bone Marrow Transplantation ... transplant - slideshow Graft-versus-host disease Related Health Topics Bone Marrow Diseases Stem Cells National Institutes of ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a severe disorder that usually begins ...

  7. Antibody formation in mouse bone marrow. IV. The influence of splenectomy on the bone marrow plaque-forming cell response to sheep red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benner, R.; Oudenaren, A. van

    1975-01-01

    Mouse bone marrow is barely capable of plaque-forming cell (PFC) activity during the primary response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC). However, during the secondary response, it becomes the major center of activity containing IgM-, IgG- and IgA-PFC. In the present paper the influence of splenectomy was studied on primary and secondary PFC activity in the bone marrow. Differences in primary and secondary bone marrow PFC responses are probably related to the presence of B and T memory cells in situ. Therefore the effect of splenectomy on the appearance of B and T memory cells in the bone marrow was also investigated. iv.plenectomy before intravenous (iv) immunization with 4 x 10 8 SRBC prevented any primary PFC activity in the bone marrow. The influence of splenectomy before priming on secondary PFC activity in the bone marrow depended on the priming dose of SRBC. Splenectomy before priming with 10 7 SRBC iv completely prevented IgM-, IgG-, and IgA-PFC activity in the bone marrow upon subsequent boosting with 4 x 10 8 SRBC iv. By means of cell transfer experiments it was shown that after splenectomy no B or T memory cells appeared in the bone marrow after priming with 10 7 SRBC iv. Cell transfer experiments showed that splenectomy before priming with 10 7 SRBC iv not only interfered with the appearance of B and T memory cells in the bone marrow, but also with the appearance of B memory cells in peripheral lymph nodes, mesenteric lymph node, Peyer's patches, thymus, and blood. Immunization of spenectomized mice with 4 x 10 8 SRBC iv induced the appearance of B memory cells in peripheral lymph nodes, mesenteric lymph node, Peyer's patches, thymus, and blood

  8. Value of Bone marrow Examination in Pyrexia of unknown origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Jha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pyrexia of unknown origin is a common diagnostic dilemma. Series of diagnostic modalities are required to arrive at diagnosis. Bone marrow examination is one of the common tests implicated in the diagnosis in combination with other diagnostic modalities. Present study has attempted to explore the causes of pyrexia of unknown origin based on bone marrow morphological study. Materials and Methods: In a one year prospective study conducted at Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal; bone marrow aspiration and biopsy was performed and evaluated morphologically, in 57 patients fulfilling the criteria of classic pyrexia of unknown origin. Results: In 42% cases; specific diagnosis could be made and hematological neoplasm was the most common finding followed by megaloblastic anemia, hypoplastic anemia and one case each of hemophagocytosis, malaria and tuberculosis. Acute leukemia was the most frequently encountered hematological malignancy followed by multiple myeloma, chronic myeloid leukemia, essential thrombocythemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. Conclusion: Morphological examination of bone marrow has important role in diagnosis of pyrexia of unknown origin. However, yield of diagnosis can be increased if it is combined with other diagnostic modalities including radiological, microbiological and serological tests. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v3i6.8991 Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2013 Vol. 3, 447-451

  9. Genetic resistance to marrow transplantation as a leukemia defense mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, M.T.; Lotzova, E.; Trentin, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    The normal role of genetic resistance to bone marrow transplantation was investigated. It is demonstrated, using three different systems e.g. colony studies in the spleen, spleen weight studies and mortality studies, that irradiated or unirradiated mice which show genetic resistance are able to recognize and reject intravenously transplanted parental lymphoma cells, while they accept normal parental bone marrow cells. Either the lymphoma cells have a new antigen which is recognized and reacted to by the cells responsible for genetic resistance and, or, bone marrow cells have a low level of Hh antigen which is increased greatly by the lymphoma transformation process, thereby resulting in the rejection of the lymphoma cells by the cells responsible for genetic resistance. Lymphoma resistance as well as genetic resistance can be overridden by increasing the number of cells injected. Genetic resistance seems to be restricted to the spleen and bone marrow. There is evidence that the normal biological role for genetic resistance may be lymphoma-leukemia surveillance

  10. Normal age-related conversion of bone marrow in the skull base. Assessment with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Koki; Tomura, Noriaki; Takahashi, Satoshi; Izumi, Junichi; Kurosawa, Ryo; Sashi, Ryuji; Watarai, Jiro

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the normal age-related sequence of conversion from hematopoietic to fatty marrow in the skull base by means of MR imaging. We retrospectively reviewed T1-weighted MR images of the skull base for the distribution of hematopoietic and fatty marrow. The subjects consisted of 169 MR examinations that were performed with the spin-echo technique. The age of the subjects ranged from 0 months to 20 years old. Patients with known marrow abnormalities were excluded from this study. Marrow conversion was assessed in the presphenoid, postsphenoid, basiocciput, petrous apex, clivus, zygomatic bone, and condyle of the mandible. The signal intensity was visually graded, and the signal intensity ratio was determined on the basis of the intensities of the subcutaneous fat and air. The signal intensity of all observed regions was as low as that of muscles until 3 months of age. Conversion of hematopoietic to fatty marrow first occurred in the zygomatic bone until 6 months of age. The presphenoid increased in signal intensity from 5 months to 2 years of age, and the sphenoid sinus began to be pneumatic at this age. Marrow conversion of the postsphenoid and basiocciput was later than that of the presphenoid. Most of the bone marrow of the skull base appeared as fatty conversion until 3 years of age, although some mandibular condyles appeared hematopoietic at 3 years of age. The normal age-related conversion from hematopoietic to fatty marrow in the skull base followed a well-defined sequence. Knowledge of the normal bone marrow conversion by MR imaging is essential for the recognition of pathologic marrow processes. (author)

  11. Bone marrow scintigraphy with antigranulocyte antibody in multiple myeloma: comparison with simple radiography and bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Hwan; Lee, Jae Tae; Baek, Jin Ho

    1998-01-01

    Simple X-ray study and bone scan have limitations for early diagnosis of bone or bone marrow lesions in multiple myeloma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of bone marrow immunoscintigraphy using anti-granulocyte monoclonal antibody for the evaluation of bone involvement in multiple myeloma. In 22 patients (Male: 15, Female: 7) with multiple myeloma, we performed whole-body immunoscintigraphy using 99m Tc-labelled antigranulocyte antibody (BW 250/183, Scintimum Granulozyt R CIS, France) and compared the findings with those of simple bone radiography and 99m Tc-MDP bone scan. Abnormal findings in bone marrow scintigraphy were considered to be present in case of expansion of peripheral bone marrow or focal photon defect in axial bones. Marrow expansion was noted in 15 of 22 patients (68%). Focal photon defects were found in 18 patients (82%). While one (33%) of 3 patients with Stage II disease showed focal defects in bone marrow scan, abnormal focal defects were observed in 17 of 19 (90%) patients with Stage III. Among 124 focal abnormal sites which were observed in bone marrow scan, bone scan or simple bone radiography, bone marrow scan detected 92 sites (74%), whereas 82 sites (66%) were observed in simple bone radiogrpahy (58 sites, 47%) or bone scan (40 sites, 32%). Fifty-one(41%) out of 124 bone lesions were detected by bone marrow scan only, and located mostly in thoracolumbar spine. Bone marrow scan using 99m Tc-labelled antigranulocyte antibody seems to be a more sensitive procedure for the detection of pathologic bone lesions than simple bone X-ray or bone scan in patients with multiple myeloma

  12. Comparing the effects of tofacitinib, methotrexate and the combination, on bone marrow oedema, synovitis and bone erosion in methotrexate-naive, early active rheumatoid arthritis: results of an exploratory randomised MRI study incorporating semiquantitative and quantitative techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conaghan, Philip G.; Ostergaard, Mikkel; Bowes, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore the effects of tofacitinib-an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-with or without methotrexate (MTX), on MRI endpoints in MTX-naive adult patients with early active RA and synovitis in an index wrist or hand. METHODS: In this exploratory......, phase 2, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study, patients received tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily + MTX, tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily + placebo (tofacitinib monotherapy), or MTX + placebo (MTX monotherapy), for 1 year. MRI endpoints (Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials RA MRI score...... differences in RAMRIS bone marrow oedema (BME) at month 6 were -1.55 (90% CI -2.52 to -0.58) for tofacitinib + MTX and -1.74 (-2.72 to -0.76) for tofacitinib monotherapy (both ptofacitinib + MTX...

  13. BONE MARROW BIOPSY IN EVALUATION OF HAEMATOLOGICAL DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Rani Sahoo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Bone Marrow Trephine Biopsy (BMTB and aspiration is critical for diagnosis, prognostic evaluation and monitoring therapeutic response. BMTB is of greater value in assessing cellularity, degree of fibrosis, marrow architecture and especially when aspiration is dry tap. At the same time, it provides sample for immunohistochemistry. MATERIALSAND METHODS It is a single centre observational study conducted from July 2014 to July 2016 in Department of Pathology, S.C.B. Medical College, Cuttack, which included both cell block and touch imprint along with trephine biopsy. Cases selected where lymphoma studied for pattern and extent of infiltration. Aspiration with dry tap and selected cases of myeloproliferative disorders, myelodysplastic syndrome, leukaemia (both acute and chronic, anaemia, multiple myeloma were studied. Jamshidi needle was used for biopsy. Samples obtained were formalin preserved, kept in decalcification solution (Hammersmith protocol and H and E slides prepared. Special stain-like reticulin and Masson’s trichrome were used for grading of fibrosis. Immunohistochemistry was done on selected cases of lymphoma. RESULTS Out of total 100 cases studied, 60 were of haematopoietic and lymphoid neoplasms, 12 anaemia, 20 secondary metastasis, 8 miscellaneous (1 haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytic disease, 1 storage disease, 1 granulomatous and 5 ITP. CONCLUSION The study was conducted to establish the advantage of bone marrow biopsy in inadequate and failed aspiration, but both are complementary to each other and together provide a comprehensive evaluation of the bone marrow. Bone marrow fibrosis are well accessed and increased detection of tumour cells in suspected secondary metastasis. Special stains, IHC, cytogenetic study can be done over biopsy block.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of the bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur-Melnyk, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The first book devoted to MRI of the bone marrow. Describes the MRI appearances of normal bone marrows and the full range of bone marrow disorders. Discusses the role of advanced MRI techniques and contrast enhancement. On account of its unrivalled imaging capabilities and sensitivity, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the modality of choice for the investigation of physiologic and pathologic processes affecting the bone marrow. This book describes the MRI appearances of both the normal bone marrow, including variants, and the full range of bone marrow disorders. Detailed discussion is devoted to malignancies, including multiple myeloma, lymphoma, chronic myeloproliferative disorders, leukemia, and bone metastases. Among the other conditions covered are benign and malignant compression fractures, osteonecrosis, hemolytic anemia, Gaucher's disease, bone marrow edema syndrome, trauma, and infective and non-infective inflammatory disease. Further chapters address the role of MRI in assessing treatment response, the use of contrast media, and advanced MRI techniques. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Bone Marrow represents an ideal reference for both novice and experienced practitioners.

  15. How to exhaust your bone marrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomo, Louise; Salomo, Morten; Andersen, Steven A W

    2013-01-01

    at work and in his spare time, and kept a very thorough training and weight diary. Owing to a high intake of energy and protein drinks he tried to optimise his physical performance and kept a normal body mass index  at 23.7. A bone marrow biopsy showed gelatinous bone marrow transformation, normally seen...

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of the bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur-Melnyk, Andrea (ed.) [Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2013-08-01

    The first book devoted to MRI of the bone marrow. Describes the MRI appearances of normal bone marrows and the full range of bone marrow disorders. Discusses the role of advanced MRI techniques and contrast enhancement. On account of its unrivalled imaging capabilities and sensitivity, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the modality of choice for the investigation of physiologic and pathologic processes affecting the bone marrow. This book describes the MRI appearances of both the normal bone marrow, including variants, and the full range of bone marrow disorders. Detailed discussion is devoted to malignancies, including multiple myeloma, lymphoma, chronic myeloproliferative disorders, leukemia, and bone metastases. Among the other conditions covered are benign and malignant compression fractures, osteonecrosis, hemolytic anemia, Gaucher's disease, bone marrow edema syndrome, trauma, and infective and non-infective inflammatory disease. Further chapters address the role of MRI in assessing treatment response, the use of contrast media, and advanced MRI techniques. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Bone Marrow represents an ideal reference for both novice and experienced practitioners.

  17. Clinical aspects of bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shmitts, N.; Gassmann, V.; Leffler, G.

    1986-01-01

    Experience of bone marrow transplantation into patients with myeloproliferative syndromes, myelodysplasias and highly malignant lymphomas is presented. Side early and late effects of transplantation are described. The frequency and severity of complications of bone marrow transplantation depend sufficiently on the disease as well as on patient's age and general condition

  18. [Endogenous pyrogen formation by bone marrow cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, O M; Sorokin, A V; El'kina, O A

    1978-01-01

    The cells of the rabbit bone marrow produced endogenous pyrogen in response to stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Incubation of the cells in medium No 199 containing a 15% homologous serum is optimal for the release of pyrogen. It is supposed that the cells of the bone marrow take part in the formation of endgenous pyrogen and in the mechanism of pyrexia in the organism.

  19. Impact of intracoronary injection of mononuclear bone marrow cells in acute myocardial infarction on left ventricular perfusion and function: a 6-month follow-up gated 99mTc-MIBI single-photon emission computed tomography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipiec, Piotr; Krzeminska-Pakula, Maria; Plewka, Michal; Kasprzak, Jaroslaw D.; Kusmierek, Jacek; Plachcinska, Anna; Szuminski, Remigiusz; Robak, Tadeusz; Korycka, Anna

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the impact of intracoronary injection of autologous mononuclear bone marrow cells (BMC) in patients with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) on left ventricular volumes, global and regional systolic function and myocardial perfusion. The study included 39 patients with first anterior STEMI treated successfully with primary percutaneous coronary intervention. They were randomly assigned to the treatment group or the control group in a 2:1 ratio. The patients underwent baseline gated single-photon emission computed tomography (G-SPECT) 3-10 days after STEMI with quantitative and qualitative analysis of left ventricular perfusion and systolic function. On the following day, patients from the BMC treatment group were subjected to bone marrow aspiration, mononuclear BMC isolation and intracoronary injection. No placebo procedure was performed in the control group. G-SPECT was repeated 6 months after STEMI. Baseline and follow-up G-SPECT studies were available for 36 patients. At 6 months in the BMC group we observed a significantly enhanced improvement in the mean extent of the perfusion defect, the left ventricular perfusion score index, the infarct area perfusion score and the infarct area wall motion score index compared to the control group (p=0.01-0.04). However, the changes in left ventricular volume, ejection fraction and the left ventricular wall motion score index as well as the relative changes in the infarct area wall motion score index did not differ significantly between the groups. Intracoronary injection of autologous mononuclear BMC in patients with STEMI improves myocardial perfusion at 6 months. The benefit in infarct area systolic function is less pronounced and there is no apparent improvement of global left ventricular systolic function. (orig.)

  20. The Clinical usefulness of {sup 99mT}c HMPAO Leukocyte/{sup 99mT}c phytate bone marrow scintigraphy for diagnosis of prosthetic knee infection: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kyung Pyo; Park, Ji Sun; Lee, Ah Young; Choi, Su Jung; Lee, Seok Mo; Bae, Sang Kyun [Inje Univ., Pusan Paik Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    The preferred radionuclide imaging procedure for diagnosing prosthetic joint infection is combined radiolabeled leukocyte/{sup 99mT}c sulfur colloid bone marrow scintigraphy, which has an accuracy of over 90%. Unfortunately, sulfur colloid is no longer available in South Korea. in this study, we evaluated the usefulness of {sup 99mT}c phytate, a substitute for {sup 99mT}c sulfur colloid, when combined with radiolabeled leukocyte scintigraphy in suspected prosthetic knee infections. Eleven patients (nine women, two men; mean age 72{+-}6 years) with painful knee prostheses and a suspicion of infection underwent both {sup 99mT}c phytate bone marrow scintigraphy (BMS). The combined images were interpreted as positive for infection when radioactivity in the LS at the sits of clinical interest clearly exceeded that of the BMS (discordant); they were interpreted as negative when the increased activity in the LS was consistent with an increased activity in the BMS(concordant). The final diagnosis was made with microbiological or intraoperative findings and a clinical follow up of at least 12 months. Five of eleven patients were diagnosed as having an infected prosthesis. The overall sensitivity, specificity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy of the combined LS/BMS were 100%, 83%, 83%, 100% and 91%, respectively. We find that combined {sup 99mT}c HMPAO LS/{sup 99mT}c phytate BMS shows comparable diagnostic performance to other studies utilizing sulfur colloid. Combined {sup 99mT}c HMPAO LS/{sup 99mT}c phytate BMS is therefore expected to be an acceptable alternative to combined radiolabeled LS/{sup 99ms}ulfur colloid BMS for diagnosing prosthetic knee infections.

  1. Bone-Marrow Storage and Transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costachel, O.; Corneci, I.; Andrian, T.; Kitzulescu, I.; Popescu, N.; Pascu, D.; Buzi, E.; Voiculetz, N. [Oncological Institute, Bucharest (Romania)

    1969-07-15

    The authors present some results from their experiments on bone-marrow storage and transplantation. The main problems with preservation of stored bone marrow are the duration, temperature, adjuvant substances and the significance of viability tests during the conservation processes. The results showed that: Bullet Storage of bone marrow at +4eC produces a progressive decrease in its restoring capacity versus storage time. Bullet While bone marrow stored for 24 h is able to restore 100% of dogs lethally irradiated with 600 rad, after 10 days of storage only 20% of the animals can be restored. Bullet No correlation exists between the actual survival of dogs and that calculated by dye exclusion tests, which indicate a rather high (70%) viability, even after 10 days bone-marrow storage at +4 Degree-Sign C. Bullet DNA degradation (depolymerization) measurements of the bone marrow may be used as a supplementary test for checking the viability or restoration potency of bone-marrow cells after storage. Bullet In the freezing process, the optimum contact time between glycerol and the bone-marrow cells is 15 min. Results of experiments regarding certain bone-marrow transplantation problems showed that: Bullet The best time to administer bone marrow is between 24 and 48 h after irradiation. Bullet No survivors were obtained with dogs lethally irradiated with 600 rad by administering autogenic or allogenic DNA extracted from bone marrow, spleen or liver. Bullet Histocompatibility related to sex may play an important role in the bone-marrow graft. The lowest survival of C57BL mice was obtained when the donors were males and the recipients females. Bullet In radioprotection with foetal haemocytopoietic tissues, the donor's age represents one of the main factors. The best results were obtained in experiments on rats, with 19- to 20-day foetal liver (period of complete and maximum haemocytopoietic activity). The tissues mentioned below may be connected with the appearance of

  2. Bone-Marrow Storage and Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costăchel, O.; Corneci, I.; Andrian, T.; Kitzulescu, I.; Popescu, N.; Pascu, D.; Buzi, E.; Voiculetz, N.

    1969-01-01

    The authors present some results from their experiments on bone-marrow storage and transplantation. The main problems with preservation of stored bone marrow are the duration, temperature, adjuvant substances and the significance of viability tests during the conservation processes. The results showed that: • Storage of bone marrow at +4eC produces a progressive decrease in its restoring capacity versus storage time. • While bone marrow stored for 24 h is able to restore 100% of dogs lethally irradiated with 600 rad, after 10 days of storage only 20% of the animals can be restored. • No correlation exists between the actual survival of dogs and that calculated by dye exclusion tests, which indicate a rather high (70%) viability, even after 10 days bone-marrow storage at +4°C. • DNA degradation (depolymerization) measurements of the bone marrow may be used as a supplementary test for checking the viability or restoration potency of bone-marrow cells after storage. • In the freezing process, the optimum contact time between glycerol and the bone-marrow cells is 15 min. Results of experiments regarding certain bone-marrow transplantation problems showed that: • The best time to administer bone marrow is between 24 and 48 h after irradiation. • No survivors were obtained with dogs lethally irradiated with 600 rad by administering autogenic or allogenic DNA extracted from bone marrow, spleen or liver. • Histocompatibility related to sex may play an important role in the bone-marrow graft. The lowest survival of C57BL mice was obtained when the donors were males and the recipients females. • In radioprotection with foetal haemocytopoietic tissues, the donor's age represents one of the main factors. The best results were obtained in experiments on rats, with 19- to 20-day foetal liver (period of complete and maximum haemocytopoietic activity). The tissues mentioned below may be connected with the appearance of certain typical signs of secondary syndrome

  3. MR imaging of bone marrow disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, H.; Mano, I.; Yashiro, N.; Asai, S.; Lio, M.

    1986-01-01

    The author performed MR imaging in 89 patients with bone marrow disorders (29 with aplastic anemia, 20 with leukemia, 9 with postirradiation changes, 8 with hemosiderosis, 6 with primary bone tumors and metastases, and 17 with bone marrow disorders of other etiologies). They selected the thoracic and lumbar vertebral marrow as a target and used both T1-weighted spin-echo images and calculated T1 images. T1 was prolonged in bone marrow hyperplasia but shortened in hypoplasia. Bone marrow T1 values proved to depend on the number of fat cells (pathologic correlation). In aplastic anemia scattered islands of low signal intensity were seen within a background of high signal intensity in some typical cases. MR imaging patterns were used for staging aplastic anemia. T1 was prolonged in leukemia cells

  4. Effect of Rosiglitazone on Radiation Damage in Bone Marrow Hemopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benko', Klara; Pintye, Eva; Szabo, Boglarka; Geresi, Krisztina; Megyeri, Attila; Benko, Ilona

    2008-01-01

    To study radiobiological effects and drugs, which can modify radiation injury, has an importance if we would like to avoid harmful effects of radiation due to emergency situations or treat patients with malignant diseases by radiotherapy. During the long treatment schedules patients may be treated by not only anticancer but many other drugs because of accompanying diseases. These drugs may also modify radiobiological effects. Rosiglitazone pre-treatment proved to be myeloprotective and accelerated recovery of 5-fluorouracil-damaged bone marrow in our previous experiments. Our new studies are designed to evaluate whether rosiglitazone has similar beneficial effects in radiation-damaged hemopoiesis. Bone marrow damage was precipitated by total body irradiation (TBI) using single increasing doses (2-10 Gy) of γ--irradiation in groups of mice. Lethality was well correlated with damage in hemopoiesis measured by cellularity of bone marrow (LD 50 values were 4.8 and 5.3 gray respectively). Rosiglitazone, an insulin-sensitizing drug, had no significant effect on bone marrow cellularity. Insulin resistance associated with obesity or diabetes mellitus type 2 is intensively growing among cancer patients requiring some kind of radiotherapy. Therefore it is important to know whether drugs used for their therapy can modify radiation effects.

  5. Effect of Rosiglitazone on Radiation Damage in Bone Marrow Hemopoiesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkő, Klára; Pintye, Éva; Szabó, Boglárka; Géresi, Krisztina; Megyeri, Attila; Benkő, Ilona

    2008-12-01

    To study radiobiological effects and drugs, which can modify radiation injury, has an importance if we would like to avoid harmful effects of radiation due to emergency situations or treat patients with malignant diseases by radiotherapy. During the long treatment schedules patients may be treated by not only anticancer but many other drugs because of accompanying diseases. These drugs may also modify radiobiological effects. Rosiglitazone pre-treatment proved to be myeloprotective and accelerated recovery of 5-fluorouracil-damaged bone marrow in our previous experiments. Our new studies are designed to evaluate whether rosiglitazone has similar beneficial effects in radiation-damaged hemopoiesis. Bone marrow damage was precipitated by total body irradiation (TBI) using single increasing doses (2-10 Gy) of γ—irradiation in groups of mice. Lethality was well correlated with damage in hemopoiesis measured by cellularity of bone marrow (LD50 values were 4.8 and 5.3 gray respectively). Rosiglitazone, an insulin-sensitizing drug, had no significant effect on bone marrow cellularity. Insulin resistance associated with obesity or diabetes mellitus type 2 is intensively growing among cancer patients requiring some kind of radiotherapy. Therefore it is important to know whether drugs used for their therapy can modify radiation effects.

  6. Bone Marrow Pathology Predicts Mortality in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hao Weng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A bone marrow biopsy is a useful procedure for the diagnosis and staging of various hematologic and systemic diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the findings of bone marrow studies can predict mortality in chronic hemodialysis patients. Methods. Seventy-eight end-stage renal disease patients on maintenance hemodialysis underwent bone marrow biopsies between 2000 and 2011, with the most common indication being unexplained anemia followed by unexplained leukocytosis and leukopenia. Results. The survivors had a higher incidence of abnormal megakaryocyte distribution P=0.001, band and segmented cells P=0.021, and lymphoid cells P=0.029 than the nonsurvivors. The overall mortality rate was 38.5% (30/78, and the most common cause of mortality was sepsis (83.3% followed by respiratory failure (10%. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, both decreased (OR 3.714, 95% CI 1.671–8.253, P=0.001 and absent (OR 9.751, 95% CI 2.030–45.115, P=0.004 megakaryocyte distribution (normal megakaryocyte distribution as the reference group, as well as myeloid/erythroid ratio (OR 1.054, CI 1.012–1.098, P=0.011, were predictive of mortality. Conclusion. The results of a bone marrow biopsy can be used to assess the pathology, and, in addition, myeloid/erythroid ratio and abnormal megakaryocyte distribution can predict mortality in chronic hemodialysis patients.

  7. Significance of bone marrow edema in pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona; Kontny, Ewa; Maśliński, Włodzimierz; Prochorec-Sobieszek, Monika; Warczyńska, Agnieszka; Kwiatkowska, Brygida

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the pathology of the synovium, its thickening and increased vascularity through ultrasound and magnetic resonance examinations (more often an ultrasound study alone) is still considered a sensitive parameter in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis and in monitoring of treatment efficacy. Magnetic resonance studies showed that, aside from the joint pannus, the subchondral bone tissue constitutes an essential element in the development of rheumatoid arthritis. Bone marrow edema correlates with inflammation severity, joint destruction, clinical signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, and thus is considered a predictor of rapid radiological progression of the disease. The newest studies reveal that bone marrow edema may be a more sensitive indicator of the response to therapy than appearance of the synovium. Bone marrow edema presents with increased signal in T2-weighted images, being most visible in fat saturation or IR sequences (STIR, TIRM). On the other hand, it is hypointense and less evident in T1-weighted images. It becomes enhanced (hyperintense) after contrast administration. Histopathological studies confirmed that it is a result of bone inflammation (osteitis/osteomyelitis), i.e. replacememt of bone marrow fat by inflammatory infiltrates containing macrophages, T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, plasma cells and osteoclasts. Bone marrow edema appears after a few weeks from occurrence of symptoms and therefore is considered an early marker of inflammation. It correlates with clinical assessment of disease activity and elevated markers of acute inflammatory phase, i.e. ESR and CRP. It is a reversible phenomenon and may become attenuated due to biological treatment. It is considered a “herald” of erosions, as the risk of their formation is 6-fold higher in sites where BME was previously noted

  8. Differences in tibial subchondral bone structure evaluated using plain radiographs between knees with and without cartilage damage or bone marrow lesions. The Oulu knee osteoarthritis study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirvasniemi, Jukka [University of Oulu, Research Unit of Medical Imaging, Physics and Technology, Faculty of Medicine, Oulu (Finland); Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Thevenot, Jerome; Podlipska, Jana [University of Oulu, Research Unit of Medical Imaging, Physics and Technology, Faculty of Medicine, Oulu (Finland); University of Oulu, Infotech Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Guermazi, Ali [Boston University School of Medicine, Quantitative Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Roemer, Frank W. [Boston University School of Medicine, Quantitative Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Nieminen, Miika T.; Saarakkala, Simo [University of Oulu, Research Unit of Medical Imaging, Physics and Technology, Faculty of Medicine, Oulu (Finland); Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu (Finland); University of Oulu, Infotech Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Oulu University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oulu (Finland)

    2017-11-15

    To investigate whether subchondral bone structure from plain radiographs is different between subjects with and without articular cartilage damage or bone marrow lesions (BMLs). Radiography-based bone structure was assessed from 80 subjects with different stages of knee osteoarthritis using entropy of Laplacian-based image (E{sub Lap}) and local binary patterns (E{sub LBP}), homogeneity index of local angles (HI{sub Angles,mean}), and horizontal (FD{sub Hor}) and vertical fractal dimensions (FD{sub Ver}). Medial tibial articular cartilage damage and BMLs were scored using the magnetic resonance imaging osteoarthritis knee score. Level of statistical significance was set to p < 0.05. Subjects with medial tibial cartilage damage had significantly higher FD{sub Ver} and E{sub LBP} as well as lower E{sub Lap} and HI{sub Angles,mean} in the medial tibial subchondral bone region than subjects without damage. FD{sub Hor}, FD{sub Ver}, and E{sub LBP} were significantly higher, whereas E{sub Lap} and HI{sub Angles,mean} were lower in the medial trabecular bone region. Subjects with medial tibial BMLs had significantly higher FD{sub Ver} and E{sub LBP} as well as lower E{sub Lap} and HI{sub Angles,mean} in medial tibial subchondral bone. FD{sub Hor}, FD{sub Ver}, and E{sub LBP} were higher, whereas E{sub Lap} and HI{sub Angles,mean} were lower in medial trabecular bone. Our results support the use of bone structural analysis from radiographs when examining subjects with osteoarthritis or at risk of having it. (orig.)

  9. HO-1 gene overexpression enhances the beneficial effects of superparamagnetic iron oxide labeled bone marrow stromal cells transplantation in swine hearts underwent ischemia/reperfusion: an MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yibo; Chen, Lijuan; Tang, Yaoliang; Ma, Genshan; Shen, Chengxing; Qi, Chunmei; Zhu, Qi; Yao, Yuyu; Liu, Naifeng

    2010-05-01

    To determine the effect of intracoronary transfer of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) labeled heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) overexpressed bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in a porcine myocardial ischemia/reperfusion model. Cell apoptosis was assayed and supernatant cytokine concentrations were measured in BMSCs that underwent hypoxia/reoxygen in vitro. Female mini-swines that underwent 1 h LAD occlusion followed by 1 h reperfusion were randomly allocated to receive intracoronary saline (control), 1 x 10(7) SPIO-labeled BMSCs transfected with pcDNA3.1-Lacz plasmid (Lacz-BMSCs), pcDNA3.1-human HO-1 (HO-1-BMSCs), pcDNA3.1-hHO-1 pretreated with a HO inhibitor, tin protoporphyrin (SnPP, n = 10 each). MRI and postmortem histological analysis were made at 1 week or 3 months thereafter. Post hypoxia/reoxygen in vitro, apoptosis was significantly reduced, supernatant VEGF significantly increased while TNF-alpha and IL-6 significantly reduced in HO-1-BMSCs group compared with Lacz-BMSCs group (all p < 0.05). Myocardial expression of VEGF was significantly higher in HO-1-BMSCs than in Lacz-BMSCs group at 1 week post transplantation (all p < 0.05). Signal voids induced by the SPIO were detected in the peri-infarction region in all BMSC groups at 1 week but not at 3 months post transplantation and the extent of the hypointense signal was the highest in HO-1-BMSCs group, and histological analysis showed that signal voids represented cardiac macrophages that engulfed the SPIO-labeled BMSCs. Pretreatment with SnPP significantly attenuated the beneficial effects of HO-1-BMSCs. Transplantation of HO-1-overexpressed BMSCs significantly enhanced the beneficial effects of BMSCs on improving cardiac function in this model.

  10. Red-yellow marrow conversion: Its effect on the location of some solitary bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kricun, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    The location of red marrow related bone lesions is dependent upon the distribution of red marrow. It is altered by the normal conversion of red marrow to yellow (fat) marrow and by the reconversion of yellow marrow to red marrow caused by marrow infiltrating disorders or marrow stress disorders. (orig.)

  11. Prediction of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation Mortality 100 Days After Transplantation Using a Machine Learning Algorithm: A European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Acute Leukemia Working Party Retrospective Data Mining Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shouval, Roni; Labopin, Myriam; Bondi, Ori; Mishan-Shamay, Hila; Shimoni, Avichai; Ciceri, Fabio; Esteve, Jordi; Giebel, Sebastian; Gorin, Norbert C; Schmid, Christoph; Polge, Emmanuelle; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Kroger, Nicolaus; Craddock, Charles; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Cornelissen, Jan J; Baron, Frederic; Unger, Ron; Nagler, Arnon; Mohty, Mohamad

    2015-10-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) is potentially curative for acute leukemia (AL), but carries considerable risk. Machine learning algorithms, which are part of the data mining (DM) approach, may serve for transplantation-related mortality risk prediction. This work is a retrospective DM study on a cohort of 28,236 adult HSCT recipients from the AL registry of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. The primary objective was prediction of overall mortality (OM) at 100 days after HSCT. Secondary objectives were estimation of nonrelapse mortality, leukemia-free survival, and overall survival at 2 years. Donor, recipient, and procedural characteristics were analyzed. The alternating decision tree machine learning algorithm was applied for model development on 70% of the data set and validated on the remaining data. OM prevalence at day 100 was 13.9% (n=3,936). Of the 20 variables considered, 10 were selected by the model for OM prediction, and several interactions were discovered. By using a logistic transformation function, the crude score was transformed into individual probabilities for 100-day OM (range, 3% to 68%). The model's discrimination for the primary objective performed better than the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation score (area under the receiver operating characteristics curve, 0.701 v 0.646; Prisk evaluation of patients with AL before HSCT, and is available online (http://bioinfo.lnx.biu.ac.il/∼bondi/web1.html). It is presented as a continuous probabilistic score for the prediction of day 100 OM, extending prediction to 2 years. The DM method has proved useful for clinical prediction in HSCT. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  12. Exercise Regulation of Marrow Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel M Pagnotti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite association with low bone density and skeletal fractures, marrow adipose tissue (MAT remains poorly understood. The marrow adipocyte originates from the mesenchymal stem cell pool (MSC that gives rise also to osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and myocytes among other cell types. To date, the presence of MAT has been attributed to preferential biasing of MSC into the adipocyte rather than osteoblast lineage, thus negatively impacting bone formation. Here we focus on understanding the physiology of MAT in the setting of exercise, dietary interventions and pharmacologic agents that alter fat metabolism. The beneficial effect of exercise on musculoskeletal strength is known: exercise induces bone formation, encourages growth of skeletally-supportive tissues, inhibits bone resorption and alters skeletal architecture through direct and indirect effects on a multiplicity of cells involved in skeletal adaptation. MAT is less well studied due to the lack of reproducible quantification techniques. In recent work, osmium-based 3D quantification shows a robust response of MAT to both dietary and exercise intervention in that MAT is elevated in response to high fat diet and can be suppressed following daily exercise. Exercise-induced bone formation correlates with suppression of MAT, such that exercise effects might be due to either calorie expenditure from this depot, or from mechanical biasing of MSC lineage away from fat and toward bone, or a combination thereof. Following treatment with the anti-diabetes drug rosiglitazone - a PPARγ-agonist known to increase MAT and fracture risk - mice demonstrate a 5-fold higher femur MAT volume compared to the controls. In addition to preventing MAT accumulation in control mice, exercise intervention significantly lowers MAT accumulation in rosiglitazone-treated mice. Importantly, exercise induction of trabecular bone volume is unhindered by rosiglitazone. Thus, despite rosiglitazone augmentation of MAT, exercise

  13. Bone marrow scintigraphy with 111In-chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujishima, Mamoru; Hiraki, Yoshio; Takeda, Yoshihiro; Kohno, Yoshihiro; Niiya, Harutaka; Aono, Kaname; Yorimitsu, Seiichi; Takahashi, Isao

    1988-01-01

    Bone marrow scintigraphy with indium chloride ( 111 In) was performed in fifty-one patients with the hematological diseases. The results of the investigation were that 1) in all patients, as well as in patients with aplastic anemia, no correlation was there between the degree of the indium chloride accumulation and peripheral blood counts, 2) in patients with aplastic anemia and pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) a tendency to reduction in uptake of indium chloride in bone marrow, 3) in patients with these two good correlation between the degree of indium chloride accumulation and histology of the erythroid bone marrow, but in patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) and atypical leukemia no correlation between the two, so it seemed unlikely that indium chloride should reflect the effective production of erythrocytes, 4) four patients with leukemia were studied with indium chloride bone marrow imaging two times to evaluate their responses to chemotherapy, and peripheral expansion was no change or reduced in two patients with acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) and one patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) who obtained complete remission, but on the other hand, it enlarged in one patient with acute myelocytic leukemia who obtained partial remission, and 5) in two patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia it enlarged up to the ankle joints, which was considerably specific. (author)

  14. Marrow stem cell release in the autorepopulation assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloney, M A; Patt, H M [California Univ., San Francisco (USA). Lab. of Radiobiology

    1978-01-01

    The early migration of stem cells from shielded marrow to an irradiated spleen has been re-evaluated, and the findings have been compared with the results of earlier studies. The composite data reveal a constant rate during the first 24 h after irradiation, with a slope of 1.6 cells per h and an intercept of 2.4. The positive intercept is interpreted to signify an immediate brief perturbation of CFU/sub s/ release. The low concentration of CFU/sub s/ in the bloodstream, despite their continuous migration from the shielded marrow, is indicative of a rapid, and probably greatly increased, blood turnover. Despite the constancy of stem cell seeding, it is not yet possible to determine whether the rate of stem cell release is different in shielded marrow than in normal marrow. The resolution of this question requires more precise information about spleen seeding efficiency in the autorepopulation assay and about the normal turnover rate of stem cells in the bloodstream.

  15. Bone Marrow Adipocyte Developmental Origin and Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowska, Joanna; Frazier, Trivia; Smith, Stanley; Brown, Theodore; Bender, Robert; McCarthy, Michelle; Wu, Xiying; Bunnell, Bruce A; Gimble, Jeffrey M

    2018-06-01

    This review explores how the relationships between bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) adipogenesis with advancing age, obesity, and/or bone diseases (osteopenia or osteoporosis) contribute to mechanisms underlying musculoskeletal pathophysiology. Recent studies have re-defined adipose tissue as a dynamic, vital organ with functions extending beyond its historic identity restricted solely to that of an energy reservoir or sink. "State of the art" methodologies provide novel insights into the developmental origin, physiology, and function of different adipose tissue depots. These include genetic tracking of adipose progenitors, viral vectors application, and sophisticated non-invasive imaging modalities. While constricted within the rigid bone cavity, BMAT vigorously contributes to local and systemic metabolic processes including hematopoiesis, osteogenesis, and energy metabolism and undergoes dynamic changes as a function of age, diet, bone topography, or sex. These insights will impact future research and therapies relating to osteoporosis.

  16. Reversible suppression of bone marrow response to erythropoietin in Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtzhals, J A; Rodrigues, O; Addae, M

    1997-01-01

    To study the importance of bone marrow inhibition in the pathogenesis of malarial anaemia, haematological and parasitological parameters were followed in patients with acute malaria. Three patient categories were studied, severe malarial anaemia (SA), cerebral malaria (CM) and uncomplicated malar...

  17. Bone marrow transplantation after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M.; Blaha, M.; Merka, V.

    1990-01-01

    Bone marrow transplantation after irradiation is successful in only a part of the affected patients. The Chernobyl accident added to our knowledge: BMT can save life after whole-body irradiation with a dose exceeding 7-8 Gy. A timely decision on transplantation after a nuclear accident is difficult to make (rapid determination of homogeneity and type of radiation and the total dose. HL-A typing in lymphopenia, precise identification of radiation damage to other target organs, etc.). Further attention is to be paid to the treatment. Transplantations in case of malignities (especially hematologic ones) and other diseases will add to our knowledge and will lead to more simple procedures. (author). 3 figs., 1 tab., 12 refs

  18. Busulfan and total body irradiation as antihematopoietic stem cell agents in the preparation of patients with congenital bone marrow disorders for allogenic bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkman, R.; Rappeport, J.M.; Hellman, S.; Lipton, J.; Smith, B.; Geha, R.; Nathan, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    The capacity of busulfan and total body irradiation to ablate hematopoietic stem cells as preparation for the allogeneic bone marrow transplantation of patients with congenital bone marrow disorders was studied. Fourteen patients received 18 transplants; busulfan was used in the preparatory regimen of eight transplants and total body irradiation in the regimens of six transplants. Sustained hematopoietic ablation was achieved in six of eight patients prepared with busulfan and in all six patients prepared with total body irradiation. Three patients prepared with total body irradiation died with idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis, whereas no patients receiving busulfan developed interstitial pneumonitis. The optimal antihematopoietic stem cell agent to be used for the preparation of patients with congenital bone marrow disorder for bone marrow transplantation is not certain

  19. Transplantation of cryopreserved allogeneic bone marrow after its long-term storage to lethally irradiated dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikova, N.N.; Fedotenkov, A.G.; Sukyasyan, G.V.; Timakova, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    The study of the dog bone marrow preserved at -196 deg C during 6-12 years has shown that in the body of lethally irradiated animals (8Gy), due to the antigenic difference in the tissues of the donor and the irradiated recipients, the cells of cryopreserved allogeneic bone marrow were differentiated by the lymphoid type similar to that observed in transplantation of freshly prepared myelocaryocytes. However, their proliferative activity in the period of active lymphocyte transformation was quantitatively less manifest than in freshly transplanted cells. The results of the study evidence that the bone marrow cells cryopreserved during 6-12 years retain their functional activity

  20. Upregulation of Syndecan-1 in the bone marrow microenvironment in multiple myeloma is associated with angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels F; Kristensen, Ida B; Preiss, Birgitte S

    2014-01-01

    : In this study, we examined the association between bone marrow angiogenesis estimated as micro-vessel density (MVD) and gene expression of SDC1, HGF, VEGF and IL6 in whole bone marrow biopsies from healthy volunteers (n = 10), patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) (n = 35...... plasma cell percentage and SDC1 gene expression was detected in patients with MM (P angiogenesis and gene...... expression of HGF, VEGF and IL6 was seen. CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that SDC1 expressed by the bone marrow microenvironment is involved in angiogenesis in MM....

  1. Colonic complications following human bone marrow transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulino Martínez Hernández-Magro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human bone marrow transplantation (BMT becomes an accepted treatment of leukemia, aplastic anemia, immunodeficiency syndromes, and hematologic malignancies. Colorectal surgeons must know how to determine and manage the main colonic complications. Objective: To review the clinical features, clinical and pathological staging of graft vs host disease (GVHD, and treatment of patients suffering with colonic complications of human bone marrow transplantation. Patients and methods: We have reviewed the records of all patients that received an allogeneic bone marrow transplant and were evaluated at our Colon and Rectal Surgery department due to gastrointestinal symptoms, between January 2007 and January 2012. The study was carried out in patients who developed colonic complications, all of them with clinical, histopathological or laboratory diagnosis. Results: The study group was constituted by 77 patients, 43 male and 34 female patients. We identified colonic complications in 30 patients (38.9%; five patients developed intestinal toxicity due to pretransplant chemotherapy (6.4%; graft vs. host disease was present in 16 patients (20%; 13 patients (16.8% developed acute colonic GVHD, and 3 (3.8% chronic GVHD. Infection was identified in 9 patients (11.6%. Conclusions: The three principal colonic complications are the chemotherapy toxicity, GVHD, and superinfection; the onset of symptoms could help to suspect the type of complication (0–20 day chemotherapy toxicity, 20 and more GVHD, and infection could appear in any time of transplantation. Resumo: Experiência: O transplante de medula óssea humana (MOH passou a ser um tratamento adotado para leucemia, anemia aplástica, síndromes de imunodeficiência e neoplasias hematológicas. Cirurgiões colorretais devem saber como determinar e tratar as principais complicações do cólon. Objetivo: Revisar as características clínicas, estadiamentos clínico e patológico da doença do enxerto

  2. Increased FDG bone marrow uptake after intracoronary progenitor cell therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebert, N.; Menzel, C.; Diehl, M.; Hamscho, N.; Zaplatnikov, K.; Gruenwald, F. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Frankfurt (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    Patients with coronary artery disease who undergo FDG PET for therapy monitoring after intracoronary progenitor cell infusion (PCT) show an increased bone marrow uptake in some cases. Aim of the study was to evaluate the systemic bone marrow glucose metabolism in this patient group after PCT. Patients, methods: FDG bone marrow uptake (BMU), measured as standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in the thoracic spine, was retrospectively evaluated in 23 control patients who did not receive PCT and in 75 patients who received PCT 3{+-}2.2 days before PET scanning. Five out of them were pretreated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) 5 days prior to PCT and 10{+-}1.2 days before PET scanning. In 39 patients who received only PCT without G-CSF and underwent PET therapy monitoring 4 months later, baseline and follow up bone marrow uptake were measured. Leucocytes, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and the influence of nicotine consumption were compared with the BMU. Results: In patients (n=70) who received PCT without G-CSF, BMU media (1.3) was slightly, but significantly higher than in the controls (1.0) (p=0.02) regardless nicotine consumption. BMU did not change significantly 4 months later (1.2) (p=0.41, n.s.). After G-CSF pretreatment, patients showed a significantly higher bone marrow uptake (3.7) compared to patients only treated with PCT (1.3) (p=0.023). Leucocyte blood levels were significantly higher in patients with a BMU {>=}2.5 compared to patients with a bone marrow SUVmax<2.5 (p<0.001). CRP values did not correlate with the BMU (rho -0.02, p=0.38). Conclusion: Monitoring PCT patients, a slightly increased FDG BMU may be observed which remains unchanged for several months. Unspecific bone marrow reactions after PCT may be associated with increased leucocyte blood levels and play a role in the changed systemic glucose BMU. In addition, pretreatment with G-CSF shows an intense amplitifcation of BMU. (orig.)

  3. Significance of bone marrow histology in the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younis, U.; Saba, K.; Aijaz, J.; Bukhari, M.H.; Naeem, S.

    2011-01-01

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease. The precise diagnosis requires a careful morphological examination of a well pre-pared bone marrow aspirate along with flow cytometry and genetic analysis wherever required. Traditionally, bone marrow biopsy has not been considered an essential diagnostic modality for AML. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic as well as prognostic significance of bone marrow histology in patient with acute myeloid leukemia. Forty (40) patients of AML underwent a bone marrow examination including an aspirate and a trephine biopsy. Air dried films of peripheral blood and aspirates were fixed in methanol and stained with Giemsa. The following cytochemical stains were also applied: PAS, Myeloperoxidase, Non specific esterase, Chloracetate Esterase and Acid Phosphatase, and SBB. Bone marrow biopsy specimens were obtained from post superior iliac crest with a manual trephine and were processed in plastic after decalcification. Results: In all the cases there were better diagnostic clues through histological examination of bone marrow particularly in assessing the cellularity, degree of fibrosis, extent of blast infiltration, percentage of inflammatory cells, dysplastic changes and residual haematopoiesis. All these features were better noted in histological examination of core biopsy. The histological examination provided information additional to that provided by aspirate smears about the bone marrow changes in AML and suggested that some of the features may also have pro-gnostic significance in addition to diagnostic importance. (author)

  4. Reduced immune responses in chimeric mice engrafted with bone marrow cells from mice with airways inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Naomi M; Ng, Royce L X; McGonigle, Terence A; Gorman, Shelley; Hart, Prue H

    2015-11-01

    During respiratory inflammation, it is generally assumed that dendritic cells differentiating from the bone marrow are immunogenic rather than immunoregulatory. Using chimeric mice, the outcomes of airways inflammation on bone marrow progenitor cells were studied. Immune responses were analyzed in chimeric mice engrafted for >16 weeks with bone marrow cells from mice with experimental allergic airways disease (EAAD). Responses to sensitization and challenge with the allergen causing inflammation in the bone marrow-donor mice were significantly reduced in the chimeric mice engrafted with bone marrow cells from mice with EAAD (EAAD-chimeric). Responses to intranasal LPS and topical fluorescein isothiocyanate (non-specific challenges) were significantly attenuated. Fewer activated dendritic cells from the airways and skin of the EAAD-chimeric mice could be tracked to the draining lymph nodes, and may contribute to the significantly reduced antigen/chemical-induced hypertrophy in the draining nodes, and the reduced immune responses to sensitizing allergens. Dendritic cells differentiating in vitro from the bone marrow of >16 weeks reconstituted EAAD-chimeric mice retained an ability to poorly prime immune responses when transferred into naïve mice. Dendritic cells developing from bone marrow progenitors during airways inflammation are altered such that daughter cells have reduced antigen priming capabilities.

  5. Bone-marrow imaging with indium-111 chloride in aplastic anemia and myelofibrosis: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayle, B.A.; Helmer, R.E.; Birdsong, B.A.; Balachandran, S.; Gardner, F.H.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients with aplastic anemia and 11 patients with myelofibrosis were evaluated with indium-111 chloride bone-marrow imaging, ferrokinetics, and bone-marrow core biopsies. There was good correlation between the erythrocyte cellularity of the marrow and the In-111 bone-marrow scan grades in most patients. In some, the overall scan grade tended to underestimate the erythroid elements because the core biopsy had been taken from the area of the greatest radionuclide concentration on the scan. In patients with aplastic anemia, there was good correlation between the plasma iron clearance t1/2 and the scan grade. Less agreement was found in the comparison between the Fe-59 sacral and organ counts and the red-cell iron utilization. In patients with myelofibrosis, there was poor correlation between the surface counts over the sacrum and the red-cell iron utilization. Plasma iron clearances were abnormally short and were unrelated to the transferrin saturation levels. Eighteen patients were studied several times to evaluate their responses to steroid therapy. In all, there was good correlation between the bone-marrow imaging, the erythrocyte cellularity, ferrokinetics, and the patient's response to therapy. Indium-111 bone-marrow imaging is useful both in evaluating marrow erythroid activity and in following the response to therapy in patients with these diseases

  6. Role of T cells in sex differences in syngeneic bone marrow transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raveche, E.S.; Santoro, T.; Brecher, G.; Tjio, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Transferred marrow cells will proliferate in normal mice not exposed to irradiation or any other type of stem cell depletion when five consecutive transfers of 40 million cells are given. Approximately 25% of the mitotic cells are of male donor origin observed cytogenetically in all of the female recipient spleens and marrow analyzed from two weeks to one and one-half years after transfusions. Male donor stem cells are accepted and form a stable component of the self-renewing stem cell pool. In contrast, only 5% female cells are found in male recipients. This sex difference in engraftment is not hormonal since castration of recipients does not alter the percentage of donor cells. Rigorous T depletion of female donor bone marrow, however, increases the percentage of donor engraftment to the level observed when male marrow, either whole or T depleted, is transferred to female recipients. The success of T-depleted female stem cells to seed male recipients is observed in both C57BL/6 and CBA/J. In addition, recipient nude BALB/c males, which lack a thymus, fail to accept whole bone marrow from BALB/c females. However, male bone marrow cells seed BALB/c nude females. These studies demonstrate that the poor engraftment of female cells in transfused male recipients is abrogated by the removal of T cells from the donor female marrow

  7. Histopathological perspective on bone marrow oedema, reactive bone change and haemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiryayi, W.A.; Thiryayi, S.A.; Freemont, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a systematic review of the current biomedical literature surrounding the aetiopathogenesis and histopathological features of bone marrow oedema, reactive bone change and haemorrhage. Bone marrow oedema is generally demonstrated as a non-specific finding on magnetic resonance imaging in association with infections, tumours and avascular necrosis. When it occurs in isolation as a primary event not triggered by any obvious bony pathology in the clinical setting of debilitating joint pain, it constitutes the 'bone marrow oedema syndrome'. Although the latter diagnosis is based on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, showing the lesion as areas of signal hyperintensity within the marrow, recent radiology-histology correlational studies have shown variably interstitial marrow oedema, necrosis, fibrosis and trabecular bone abnormalities. In light of these facts, the use of the term bone marrow oedema syndrome in a radiological context might be considered questionable, but histopathological techniques are not sensitive in detecting increased extracellular fluid. Reactive bone changes may be focal or diffuse and usually amount to increased bone formation. Bone marrow haemorrhage, due to trauma, results in bone bruising, a condition in which the size of the bruise and associated osteochondral injury determines the outcome, although the natural history of these lesions is still being researched

  8. Histopathological perspective on bone marrow oedema, reactive bone change and haemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiryayi, W.A.; Thiryayi, S.A. [Department of Histopathology, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9WL (United Kingdom); Freemont, A.J. [Division of Regenerative Medicine, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: tony.freemont@manchester.ac.uk

    2008-07-15

    This article presents a systematic review of the current biomedical literature surrounding the aetiopathogenesis and histopathological features of bone marrow oedema, reactive bone change and haemorrhage. Bone marrow oedema is generally demonstrated as a non-specific finding on magnetic resonance imaging in association with infections, tumours and avascular necrosis. When it occurs in isolation as a primary event not triggered by any obvious bony pathology in the clinical setting of debilitating joint pain, it constitutes the 'bone marrow oedema syndrome'. Although the latter diagnosis is based on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, showing the lesion as areas of signal hyperintensity within the marrow, recent radiology-histology correlational studies have shown variably interstitial marrow oedema, necrosis, fibrosis and trabecular bone abnormalities. In light of these facts, the use of the term bone marrow oedema syndrome in a radiological context might be considered questionable, but histopathological techniques are not sensitive in detecting increased extracellular fluid. Reactive bone changes may be focal or diffuse and usually amount to increased bone formation. Bone marrow haemorrhage, due to trauma, results in bone bruising, a condition in which the size of the bruise and associated osteochondral injury determines the outcome, although the natural history of these lesions is still being researched.

  9. Hemopoietic stem cell dynamics in 89Sr marrow-ablated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, S.S.; Trobaugh, F.E. Jr.; Knospe, W.H.

    1977-01-01

    89 Sr was used to ablate the marrows of 12- to 16-week-old CAF 1 mice. The CFU-S of their blood, marrows, and spleens were assayed at intervals from days 10 through 56. The effects of splenectomy performed on day 14 or 42 on the numbers of CFU-S in the blood and marrow were also studied. On day 10 after treatment with 89 Sr both the cellularity and CFU-S of the marrow were markedly decreased. Later, especially during the third week after treatment, marrow cellularity increased and by day 56 had returned to 74 percent of normal; the concentration of marrow CFU-S also increased but by day 56 had attained a level of only one-third normal. Thus, replenishment of the marrow's CFU-S lagged behind the repletion of its cellularity. Spleen and blood CFU-S were elevated throughout the 56 days. The number of splenic CFU-S was highest at day 10, decreased somewhat by day 21, and remained remarkably stable thereafter. After splenectomy there was a significant decline in the content of both blood and marrow CFU-S, whereas the reverse occurred in the ''cold'' 88 Sr-treated control group. The results of these studies suggest that in the 89 Sr-irradiated animal the spleen is transformed from a trapper to the prime supplier of CFU-S and that in normal mice the spleen may suppress marrow CFU-S proliferation. An inverse relationship between the size of the pool of mature granulocytes and the number of CFU-S was found, suggesting that the granulocyte compartment may, at least in part, play a role in the regulation of CFU-S proliferation

  10. Analyzing the cellular contribution of bone marrow to fracture healing using bone marrow transplantation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colnot, C.; Huang, S.; Helms, J.

    2006-01-01

    The bone marrow is believed to play important roles during fracture healing such as providing progenitor cells for inflammation, matrix remodeling, and cartilage and bone formation. Given the complex nature of bone repair, it remains difficult to distinguish the contributions of various cell types. Here we describe a mouse model based on bone marrow transplantation and genetic labeling to track cells originating from bone marrow during fracture healing. Following lethal irradiation and engraftment of bone marrow expressing the LacZ transgene constitutively, wild type mice underwent tibial fracture. Donor bone marrow-derived cells, which originated from the hematopoietic compartment, did not participate in the chondrogenic and osteogenic lineages during fracture healing. Instead, the donor bone marrow contributed to inflammatory and bone resorbing cells. This model can be exploited in the future to investigate the role of inflammation and matrix remodeling during bone repair, independent from osteogenesis and chondrogenesis

  11. Peculiarities of morphofunctional state of adenohypophysis in lethally irradiated recipients after bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsaeva, A.A.; Glushko, T.A.; Shatilova, L.E.; Tupchienko, G.S.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of lethal irradiation and transplantation of syngenic bone marrow on the morphofunctional state of hypophysis at various stages of the posttransplantation period has been studied for 3 months using 100 linear male mice of 1 F 1 (CBAXC 57 B) line. The experiments conducted have shown that bone marrow transplantation reduces the intensity of the negative effect of irradiation on hypophysis and facililitates normalization of its histological structure. There was a correlation between changes in the number of secretory cells in the anterior lobe of the hypophysis and the level of corticosterone in irradiated and bone-marrow-protected animals

  12. Additive Effects of Mechanical Marrow Ablation and PTH Treatment on de Novo Bone Formation in Mature Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi A. Carlson Scholz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical ablation of bone marrow in young rats induces rapid but transient bone growth, which can be enhanced and maintained for three weeks by the administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH. Additionally, marrow ablation, followed by PTH treatment for three months leads to increased cortical thickness. In this study, we sought to determine whether PTH enhances bone formation after marrow ablation in aged rats. Aged rats underwent unilateral femoral marrow ablation and treatment with PTH or vehicle for four weeks. Both femurs from each rat were analyzed by X-ray and pQCT, then analyzed either by microCT, histology or biomechanical testing. Marrow ablation alone induced transient bone formation of low abundance that persisted over four weeks, while marrow ablation followed by PTH induced bone formation of high abundance that also persisted over four weeks. Our data confirms that the osteo-inducive effect of marrow ablation and the additive effect of marrow ablation, followed by PTH, occurs in aged rats. Our observations open new avenues of investigations in the field of tissue regeneration. Local marrow ablation, in conjunction with an anabolic agent, might provide a new platform for rapid site-directed bone growth in areas of high bone loss, such as in the hip and wrist, which are subject to fracture.

  13. Intraoperative bone and bone marrow sampling: a simple method for accurate measurement of uptake of radiopharmaceuticals in bone and bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyen, W.J.G.; Buijs, W.C.A.M.; Kampen, A. van; Koenders, E.B.; Claessens, R.A.M.J.; Corstens, F.H.M.

    1993-01-01

    Accurate estimation of bone marrow uptake of radiopharmaceuticals is of crucial importance for accurate whole body dosimetry. In this study, a method for obtaining normal bone marrow and bone during routine surgery without inconvenience to volunteers is suggested and compared to an indirect method. In five volunteers (group 1), 4 MBq 111 In-labelled human polyclonal IgG ( 111 In-IgG) was administered 48h before placement of a total hip prosthesis. After resection of the femoral head and neck, bone marrow was aspirated from the medullary space with a biopsy needle. In five patients, suspected of having infectious disease (group 2), bone marrow uptake was calculated according to a well-accepted method using regions of interest over the lumbar spine, 48h after injection of 75 MBq 111 In-IgG. Bone marrow uptake in group 1 (4.5 ±1.3%D kg -1 ) was significantly lower than that in group 2 (8.5 ± 2.1%D kg -1 ) (P<0.01). Blood and plasma activity did not differ significantly for both groups. This method provides a system for directly and accurately measuring uptake and retention in normal bone marrow and bone of all radiopharmaceuticals at various time points. It is a safe and simple procedure without any discomfort to the patient. Since small amounts of activity are sufficient, the radiation dose to the patient is low. (author)

  14. Role of marrow architecture and stromal cells in the recovery process of aplastic marrow of lethally irradiated rats parabiosed with healthy litter mates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, K.; Kagawa, K.; Awai, M.; Irino, S.

    1986-01-01

    Bone marrow aplasia was induced in rats by whole body lethal irradiation (1,000 rads by x-ray), and rats died of irradiation injury within 7 days. Correlative studies at light (LM), transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated swelling of endothelial and reticular cells and hemorrhage due to detachment of sinus endothelial cells on days 1 and 2. With time, structural recovery occurred without hemopoietic recovery. Reticular cells developed small intracytoplasmic lipid droplets on days 3 and 4. This resulted in fatty aplastic marrow within 7 days. On the other hand, in the marrow of irradiated rats parabiosed with healthy mates by aortic anastomosis, hemopoiesis was initiated by adhesion of nucleated blood cells to fine cytoplasmic pseudopods of fat-stored cells on days 1 and 2 after parabiosis. On days 3 to 5, reticular cells with large lipid droplets and fine pseudopods increased, then hemopoietic foci became clear and extensive. On day 8 after parabiosis, the aplastic bone marrow recovered completely both its structure and hemopoietic activity. Thus, hemopoietic recovery in lethally irradiated marrow begins with recovery of vascular endothelial cells, re-establishment of sinusoidal structure, and morphological and functional recoveries of reticular cells from fat-storage cells by releasing intracytoplasmic lipid droplets. Marrow stromal cells, namely reticular, fat-storage and fibroblastoid cells, share a common cellular origin, and regain their structure and function when fat-storage cells and fibroid cells are placed in contact with hemopoietic precursor cells

  15. Bone marrow MR imaging as predictors of outcome in hemopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Jun; Cheng, Li-Na; Duan, Xiao-Hui; Liang, Bi-Ling [Sun Yat-sen University, Department of Radiology, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Second Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Griffith, James F. [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR (China); Xu, Hong-Gui [Sun Yat-sen University, Department of Pediatrics, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Second Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of femoral marrow MR imaging as predictor of outcome for hemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in beta-thalassemia major. MR imaging of the proximal femur, including T1- and T2-weighted spin echo and short-tau inversion recovery and in-phase and out-of-phase fast field echo images, was prospectively performed in 27 thalassemia major patients being prepared for HSCT. The area of red marrow and its percentage of the proximal femur were measured, and the presence of marrow hemosiderosis was assessed. Age-adjusted multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between red marrow area percentage and marrow hemosiderosis and HSCT outcome. Red area percentage were less in patients with successful (90.25{+-}4.14%) compared to unsuccessful transplants (94.54% {+-}2.93%; p=0.01). Red marrow area percentage correlated positively with duration of symptoms(r=0.428, p=0.026) and serum ferritin (r=0.511, p=0.006). In multivariate-adjusted logistic regression analyses, red marrow area percentage was significantly inversely associated with successful HSCT (OR=1.383, 95% CI: 1.059-1.805, p=0.005). Marrow hemosidersosis and duration of sympotms and serum ferritin were not associated with HSCT outcome(p=0.174, 0.974, 0.762, respectively). Red marrow area percentage of proximal femur on MR imaging is a useful predictor of HSCT outcome. (orig.)

  16. T-cell acute leukaemia exhibits dynamic interactions with bone marrow microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Edwin D; Duarte, Delfim; Akinduro, Olufolake; Khorshed, Reema A; Passaro, Diana; Nowicka, Malgorzata; Straszkowski, Lenny; Scott, Mark K; Rothery, Steve; Ruivo, Nicola; Foster, Katie; Waibel, Michaela; Johnstone, Ricky W; Harrison, Simon J; Westerman, David A; Quach, Hang; Gribben, John; Robinson, Mark D; Purton, Louise E; Bonnet, Dominique; Lo Celso, Cristina

    2016-10-27

    It is widely accepted that complex interactions between cancer cells and their surrounding microenvironment contribute to disease development, chemo-resistance and disease relapse. In light of this observed interdependency, novel therapeutic interventions that target specific cancer stroma cell lineages and their interactions are being sought. Here we studied a mouse model of human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) and used intravital microscopy to monitor the progression of disease within the bone marrow at both the tissue-wide and single-cell level over time, from bone marrow seeding to development/selection of chemo-resistance. We observed highly dynamic cellular interactions and promiscuous distribution of leukaemia cells that migrated across the bone marrow, without showing any preferential association with bone marrow sub-compartments. Unexpectedly, this behaviour was maintained throughout disease development, from the earliest bone marrow seeding to response and resistance to chemotherapy. Our results reveal that T-ALL cells do not depend on specific bone marrow microenvironments for propagation of disease, nor for the selection of chemo-resistant clones, suggesting that a stochastic mechanism underlies these processes. Yet, although T-ALL infiltration and progression are independent of the stroma, accumulated disease burden leads to rapid, selective remodelling of the endosteal space, resulting in a complete loss of mature osteoblastic cells while perivascular cells are maintained. This outcome leads to a shift in the balance of endogenous bone marrow stroma, towards a composition associated with less efficient haematopoietic stem cell function. This novel, dynamic analysis of T-ALL interactions with the bone marrow microenvironment in vivo, supported by evidence from human T-ALL samples, highlights that future therapeutic interventions should target the migration and promiscuous interactions of cancer cells with the surrounding microenvironment

  17. Bone marrow MR imaging as predictors of outcome in hemopoietic stem cell transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Jun; Cheng, Li-Na; Duan, Xiao-Hui; Liang, Bi-Ling; Griffith, James F.; Xu, Hong-Gui

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of femoral marrow MR imaging as predictor of outcome for hemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in beta-thalassemia major. MR imaging of the proximal femur, including T1- and T2-weighted spin echo and short-tau inversion recovery and in-phase and out-of-phase fast field echo images, was prospectively performed in 27 thalassemia major patients being prepared for HSCT. The area of red marrow and its percentage of the proximal femur were measured, and the presence of marrow hemosiderosis was assessed. Age-adjusted multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between red marrow area percentage and marrow hemosiderosis and HSCT outcome. Red area percentage were less in patients with successful (90.25±4.14%) compared to unsuccessful transplants (94.54% ±2.93%; p=0.01). Red marrow area percentage correlated positively with duration of symptoms(r=0.428, p=0.026) and serum ferritin (r=0.511, p=0.006). In multivariate-adjusted logistic regression analyses, red marrow area percentage was significantly inversely associated with successful HSCT (OR=1.383, 95% CI: 1.059-1.805, p=0.005). Marrow hemosidersosis and duration of sympotms and serum ferritin were not associated with HSCT outcome(p=0.174, 0.974, 0.762, respectively). Red marrow area percentage of proximal femur on MR imaging is a useful predictor of HSCT outcome. (orig.)

  18. What Is a Bone Marrow Transplant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... however you can Daughter's dying wish became mother's motivation Be The Match Blog Stories Anna, transplant recipient ... Copyright © 1996-2018 National Marrow Donor Program. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Cytogenetic adaptive response induced by pre-exposure in human lymphocytes and marrow cells of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lianzhen; Deng Zhicheng

    1993-01-01

    The cytogenetic adaptive response induced by pre-exposure in human lymphocytes and marrow cells of mice were studied. The results of this study showed that human lymphocytes in vitro and mouse marrow cells in vivo can become adapted to low-level irradiation from 3 H-TdR or exposure to a low dose of X-or γ-irradiation, so that they become less sensitive to the chromosomal damage effects of subsequent exposures. (4 tabs.)

  20. Bone marrow lesions: A systematic diagnostic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grande, Filippo Del; Farahani, Sahar J; Carrino, John A; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow lesions on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are common and may be seen with various pathologies. The authors outline a systematic diagnostic approach with proposed categorization of various etiologies of bone marrow lesions. Utilization of typical imaging features on conventional MR imaging techniques and other problem-solving techniques, such as chemical shift imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), to achieve accurate final diagnosis has been highlighted

  1. Thalassemia paravertebral tumors and bone marrow scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huglo, D.; Rose, C.; Deveaux, M.; Bauters, F.; Marchandise, X.

    1995-01-01

    Two first cousins with thalassemia and with a paravertebral mass had had an indium 111 chloride bone marrow scan. Result of scan influenced therapy: medical treatment in one case where an extramedullary erythropoiesis was confirmed, surgical treatment in the other case. The use of dual-isotope SPECT (indium 111 chloride, HDP -99 Tc) constitutes a contribution to the establishment of diagnosis of extramedullary erythropoiesis, giving to bone marrow scintigraphy a merited importance, avoiding the biopsy. (authors). 15 refs., 5 figs

  2. Bone marrow lesions: A systematic diagnostic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Del Grande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow lesions on magnetic resonance (MR imaging are common and may be seen with various pathologies. The authors outline a systematic diagnostic approach with proposed categorization of various etiologies of bone marrow lesions. Utilization of typical imaging features on conventional MR imaging techniques and other problem-solving techniques, such as chemical shift imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI, to achieve accurate final diagnosis has been highlighted.

  3. Establishment of donor Chimerism Using Allogeneic Bone Marrow with AMP Cell Co-infusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0234 TITLE: Establishment of donor Chimerism Using Allogeneic Bone Marrow with AMP Cell Co-infusion PRINCIPAL...14/2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Establishment of donor Chimerism Using Allogeneic Bone Marrow with AMP Cell Co-infusion 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...tolerance induction of all types of allografts. In this study, we investigate whether co-infusion of amnion- derived multipotent progenitor (AMP) cells

  4. Development of Medical Technology for Contingency Response to Marrow Toxic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-28

    Program HHQ Health History Questionnaire National Marrow Donor Program® N00014-16-1-2020 Development of Medical Technology for Contingency Response to...Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) DEC 2015 -November 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Development of Medical Technology for Contingency Response to Marrow...immunobiologic and clinical research activities promote studies to advance the science and technology of HCT to improve outcomes and quality of life for

  5. Concise review: Bone marrow for the treatment of spinal cord injury: mechanisms and clinical applications.

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, KT; El Masri, W; Osman, A; Chowdhury, J; Johnson, WEB

    2011-01-01

    Transplantation of bone marrow stem cells into spinal cord lesions enhances axonal regeneration and promotes functional recovery in animal studies. There are two types of adult bone marrow stem cell; hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The mechanisms by which HSCs and MSCs might promote spinal cord repair following transplantation have been extensively investigated. The objective of this review is to discuss these mechanisms; we briefly consider the controversi...

  6. Bone marrow cytology in Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors 5 years following exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesterle, S.N.; Finch, S.C.

    1978-11-01

    Bone marrow aspiration smears obtained from 35 individuals, 5 years following exposure to the Hiroshima atomic bomb, were intensively evaluated for radiation related cytologic abnormalities. No definite radiation related changes were observed, but some findings were very suggestive. The most interesting of these was the occurrence of internuclear bridges joining erythroid precursors in the marrow smears of seven (20%) of the heavily exposed survivors. Although not specific it is likely that this lesion is indicative of residual stem cell damage and some degree of ineffectual erythropoiesis. The bone marrow morphologic lesions may be good markers of residual radiation damage but they are too infrequent in their occurrence to be of value as a biologic dosimeter. The findings in this study also suggest that a gradual disappearance of radiation induced late bone marrow changes continues for periods of 3 to 5 years or more following high dose acute radiation exposure. (author)

  7. Prolonged bone marrow and skin allograft survival after pretransplant conditioning with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kersey, J.H.; Kruger, J.; Song, C.; Kloster, B.

    1980-01-01

    Current studies were designed to provide long-term survival of allogeneic skin and bone marrow in mice preconditioned with various combinations of cyclophosphamide (CY) and/or total lymphoid irradiation (TLI). Long-term skin graft and bone marrow survival was obtained across the major histocompatibility barrier (BALB/c into C57BL/6) using pregrafting conditioning with either fractionated TLI or the combination of CY with a single dose of TLI. CY alone and a single dose of TLI alone were relatively ineffective as regrafting immunosuppressive combinations. Allogeneic bone marrow was required for long-term skin graft survival with either conditioning regimen. Allogeneic marrow transplantation resulted in somewhat more deaths than syngeneic transplantation with both CY + TLI and fractionated TLI

  8. Demonstration of clonable alloreactive host T cells in a primate model for bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisner, Y.; Ben-Bassat, I.; Douer, D.; Kaploon, A.; Schwartz, E.; Ramot, B.

    1986-01-01

    The phenomenon of marrow rejection following supralethal radiochemotherapy was explained in the past mainly by non-T-cell mechanisms known to be resistant to high-dose irradiation. In the present study a low but significant number of radiochemoresistant-clonable T cells was found in the peripheral blood and spleen of Rhesus monkeys following the cytoreductive protocol used for treatment of leukemia patients prior to bone marrow transplantation. More than 95% of the clonable cells are concentrated in the spleen 5 days after transplant. The cells possess immune memory as demonstrated by the generation of alloreactive-specific cytotoxicity. The present findings suggest that host-versus-graft activity may be mediated by alloreactive T cells. It is hoped that elimination of such cells prior to bone marrow transplantation will increase the engraftment rate of HLA-nonidentical marrow in leukemia patients

  9. Dose rate and fractionation: Relative importance in radiation for bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarbell, N.J.; Rosenblatt, M.; Mauch, P.; Hellman, S.

    1987-01-01

    The optimal dose rate and fractionation schedules for total body irradiation (TBI) in bone marrow transplantation (BMT) are presently unknown. This study compares several fractionation and dose rate schedules that are currently in clinical use. C/sub 3/H/HeJ were given TBI and the bone marrow survival fraction was calculated using the CFU's assay. Irradiation was given as low dose rate (LDR) at 5 cGy/min or high dose rate (HDR) at 80 cGy/min, in single fraction (SF) and fractionated (FX) regimens. These results indicate no increase in survival for the normal bone marrow stem cells with fractionation either at high or low dose-rates. In fact, fractionation seemed to decrease the bone marrow survival over single fraction radiation

  10. Organotypic culture of human bone marrow adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchihashi, Kazuyoshi; Aoki, Shigehisa; Shigematsu, Masamori; Kamochi, Noriyuki; Sonoda, Emiko; Soejima, Hidenobu; Fukudome, Kenji; Sugihara, Hajime; Hotokebuchi, Takao; Toda, Shuji

    2010-04-01

    The precise role of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) in the marrow remains unknown. The purpose of the present study was therefore to describe a novel method for studying BMAT using 3-D collagen gel culture of BMAT fragments, immunohistochemistry, ELISA and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Mature adipocytes and CD45+ leukocytes were retained for >3 weeks. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) including a small number of lipid-laden preadipocytes and CD44+/CD105+ mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like cells, developed from BMAT. Dexamethasone (10 micromol/L), but not insulin (20 mU/mL), significantly increased the number of preadipocytes. Dexamethasone and insulin also promoted leptin production and gene expression in BMAT. Adiponectin production by BMAT was BMAT, in which adiponectin protein secretion is normally very low, and that BMAT may exhibit a different phenotype from that of the visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues. BMAT-osteoblast interactions were also examined, and it was found that osteoblasts inhibited the development of BMSC and reduced leptin production, while BMAT inhibited the growth and differentiation of osteoblasts. The present novel method proved to be useful for the study of BMAT biology.

  11. Quantitative MR imaging of normal and leukemic bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinks, R.S.; Dunlap, H.J.; Poon, P.Y.; Curtis, J.; Henkelman, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have developed and tested a protocol that allows extraction of reliable T1 and T2 relaxation times from imaging data. They have used these methods to study in vivo the bone marrow of healthy volunteers and patients with acute leukemia. Examinations were performed at 6.25 MHz using an interleaved ISE/SE sequence to calculate T1 and an eight echo (TE = 25) sequence to calculate T2. The results are summarized as follows: In leukemic patients, T1 = 476 +- 115 msec; in leukemic patients in remission, T1 = 290 +- 31 msec; in healthy volunteers, T1 = 329 +- 32 msec. The T2 values were not significantly different for the three groups (105 +- 10 msec). Work is underway to evaluate whether T1 values of bone marrow may be used to monitor patients in remission and to detect the onset of relapse

  12. Bone marrow blood vessels: normal and neoplastic niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Shahrabi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Blood vessels are among the most important factors in the transport of materials such as nutrients and oxygen. This study will review the role of blood vessels in normal bone marrow hematopoiesis as well as pathological conditions like leukemia and metastasis. Relevant literature was identified by a Pubmed search (1992-2016 of English-language papers using the terms bone marrow, leukemia, metastasis, and vessel. Given that blood vessels are conduits for the transfer of nutrients, they create a favorable situation for cancer cells and cause their growth and development. On the other hand, blood vessels protect leukemia cells against chemotherapy drugs. Finally, it may be concluded that the vessels are an important factor in the development of malignant diseases.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of bone marrow disease in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.D.; Klatte, E.C.; Baehner, R.

    1984-01-01

    Seven children underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the bone marrow: results showed that it is technically feasible to obtain good MR images of marrow in children. MR has detected abnormality in the bone marrow of a child who had metastatic neuroblastoma. The extent of abnormality in the femur correlated well with findings of a bone marrow isotope scan. In one child who had idiopathic aplastic anemia, diseased marrow could not be distinguished from normal marrow on MR images. MRI identified abnormality of the marrow in osteogenic sarcoma, and demonstrated change in response to chemotherapy. It displayed marrow spread of tumors as well as CT. MRI showed marrow abnormality in four children who had leukemia

  14. Cell Cycle Related Differentiation of Bone Marrow Cells into Lung Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooner, Mark; Aliotta, Jason M.; Pimental, Jeffrey; Dooner, Gerri J.; Abedi, Mehrdad; Colvin, Gerald; Liu, Qin; Weier, Heinz-Ulli; Dooner, Mark S.; Quesenberry, Peter J.

    2007-12-31

    Green-fluorescent protein (GFP) labeled marrow cells transplanted into lethally irradiated mice can be detected in the lungs of transplanted mice and have been shown to express lung specific proteins while lacking the expression of hematopoietic markers. We have studied marrow cells induced to transit cell cycle by exposure to IL-3, IL-6, IL-11 and steel factor at different times of culture corresponding to different phases of cell cycle. We have found that marrow cells at the G1/S interface have a 3-fold increase in cells which assume a lung phenotype and that this increase is no longer seen in late S/G2. These cells have been characterized as GFP{sup +} CD45{sup -} and GFP{sup +} cytokeratin{sup +}. Thus marrow cells with the capacity to convert into cells with a lung phenotype after transplantation show a reversible increase with cytokine induced cell cycle transit. Previous studies have shown the phenotype of bone marrow stem cells fluctuates reversibly as these cells traverse cell cycle, leading to a continuum model of stem cell regulation. The present studies indicate that marrow stem cell production of nonhematopoietic cells also fluctuates on a continuum.

  15. Improved dopamine transporter binding activity after bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in a rat model of Parkinson's disease: small animal positron emission tomography study with F-18 FP-CIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Bok-Nam; Lee, Kwanjae; An, Young-Sil [School of Medicine, Ajou University, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Woncheon-dong, Yeongtong-gu, Gyeonggi-do, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jang-Hee; Park, So Hyun [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated the effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in a model of Parkinson's disease (PD) using serial F-18 fluoropropylcarbomethoxyiodophenylnortropane (FP-CIT) PET. Hemiparkinsonian rats were treated with intravenously injected BMSCs, and animals without stem cell therapy were used as the controls. Serial FP-CIT PET was performed after therapy. The ratio of FP-CIT uptake in the lesion side to uptake in the normal side was measured. The changes in FP-CIT uptake were also analyzed using SPM. Behavioural and histological changes were observed using the rotational test and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-reactive cells. FP-CIT uptake ratio was significantly different in the BMSCs treated group (n = 28) at each time point. In contrast, there was no difference in the ratio in control rats (n = 25) at any time point. SPM analysis also revealed that dopamine transporter binding activity was enhanced in the right basal ganglia area in only the BMSC therapy group. In addition, rats that received BMSC therapy also exhibited significantly improved rotational behaviour and preservation of TH-positive neurons compared to controls. The therapeutic effect of intravenously injected BMSCs in a rat model of PD was confirmed by dopamine transporter PET imaging, rotational functional studies, and histopathological evaluation. (orig.)

  16. Differential Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Expression in Disseminated Tumor Cells and Micrometastasis in Bone Marrow of Patients with Nonmetastatic and Metastatic Prostate Cancer: Theoretical Considerations and Clinical Implications—An Immunocytochemical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel P. Murray

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 is important in the dissemination and invasion of tumor cells and activates angiogenesis. We present an immunocytochemical study of MMP-2 expression in circulating prostate cells (CPCs, disseminated tumor cells (DTCs, and micrometastasis (mM in bone marrow of men with prostate cancer. Methods and Patients. Tumor cells were identified with anti-PSA immunocytochemistry. Positive samples underwent processing with anti-MMP-2, its expression was compared with Gleason score, concordance of expression, and metastatic and nonmetastatic disease. Results. 215 men participated, CPCs were detected in 62.7%, DTCs in 62.2%, and mM in 71.4% in nonmetastatic cancer; in metastatic cancer all had CPCs, DTCs, and mM detected. All CPCs and DTCs expressed MMP-2; in mM MMP-2 expression was positively associated with increasing Gleason score. MMP-2 expression in CPCs and DTCs showed concordance. In low grade tumors, mM and surrounding stromal cells were MMP-2 negative, with variable expression in high grade tumors; in metastatic disease, both mM and stromal cells were MMP-2 positive. Conclusions. CPCs and DTCs are different from mM, with inhibition of MMP-2 expression in mM of low grade tumors. With disease progression, MMP-2 expression increases in both mM and surrounding stromal cells, with implications for the use of bisphosphonates or MMP-2 inhibitors.

  17. Improved dopamine transporter binding activity after bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in a rat model of Parkinson's disease: small animal positron emission tomography study with F-18 FP-CIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Bok-Nam; Lee, Kwanjae; An, Young-Sil; Kim, Jang-Hee; Park, So Hyun

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in a model of Parkinson's disease (PD) using serial F-18 fluoropropylcarbomethoxyiodophenylnortropane (FP-CIT) PET. Hemiparkinsonian rats were treated with intravenously injected BMSCs, and animals without stem cell therapy were used as the controls. Serial FP-CIT PET was performed after therapy. The ratio of FP-CIT uptake in the lesion side to uptake in the normal side was measured. The changes in FP-CIT uptake were also analyzed using SPM. Behavioural and histological changes were observed using the rotational test and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-reactive cells. FP-CIT uptake ratio was significantly different in the BMSCs treated group (n = 28) at each time point. In contrast, there was no difference in the ratio in control rats (n = 25) at any time point. SPM analysis also revealed that dopamine transporter binding activity was enhanced in the right basal ganglia area in only the BMSC therapy group. In addition, rats that received BMSC therapy also exhibited significantly improved rotational behaviour and preservation of TH-positive neurons compared to controls. The therapeutic effect of intravenously injected BMSCs in a rat model of PD was confirmed by dopamine transporter PET imaging, rotational functional studies, and histopathological evaluation. (orig.)

  18. Bone marrow stromal elements in murine leukemia; Decreased CSF-producing fibroblasts and normal IL-1 expression by macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Ishay, Z [Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School (Israel); Barak, V [Laboratory of Immunology, Department of Oncology, Hadassah University Hospital (Israel); Shoshan, S [Faculty of Dental Medicine, Connective Tissue Research Laboratory, Hebrew University, Jerusalem (Israel); Prindull, G [Department of Pediatrics, University of Gottingen, Gottingen (Germany, F.R.)

    1990-01-01

    A study of bone marrow stromal elements in murine acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was carried out. Our previous studies had indicated marrow stromal deficiency in murine AML. In the current investigation, separate stromal cells were cultured and the results obtained have shown that, while marrow stromal macrophages are normal in leukemia and express adequate amounts of IL-1, the fibroblasts are markedly reduced. However, if sufficient fibroblasts are pooled in vitro, they produce adequate amounts of CSF. Test of TNF{alpha} in leukemic cells CM, as possible cause of marrow stromal inhibition in leukemia, had not disclosed this cytokine. Further, it was observed that total body lethal irradiation of leukemic mice aggravates the stromal deficiency, confirming results of our previous investigations. It is concluded that bone marrow stromal deficiency in murine AML is due to decreased fibroblasts and, implicity, reduced CSF production. (author).

  19. Impact of starting material (fresh versus cryopreserved marrow) on mesenchymal stem cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Alesia; Sackett, Katie; Sumstad, Darin; Kadidlo, Dianne; McKenna, David H

    2017-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) continue to be investigated in multiple clinical trials as potential therapy for different disorders. There is ongoing controversy surrounding the clinical use of cryopreserved versus fresh MSCs. However, little is known about how cryopreservation affects marrow as starting material. The growth kinetics of MSC cultures derived from fresh versus cryopreserved marrow were compared. Data were reviewed on the growth kinetics of MSCs derived from fresh versus cryopreserved marrow of nine donors. Marrow harvested from each donor was separated into four aliquots (one fresh and three cryopreserved for culture). Data on the date of mononuclear cell cryopreservation/thaw, MSC counts at Passages 1 and 2, MSC doubling, MSC fold expansion, viability (of mononuclear cells and final MSCs), and on flow cytometry markers of mononuclear cells and final MSCs were analyzed for the fresh and cryopreserved marrow groups. In total, 21 MSC lots (seven fresh and 14 cryopreserved) were obtained. The average age of cryopreserved mononuclear cell product was 295 days (range, 18-1241 days). There were no significant differences between MSC numbers at Passage 1 (p = 0.1), final MSC numbers (p = 0.5), MSC doubling (p = 0.7), or MSC fold expansion (p = 0.7). A significant difference was observed in viability by flow cytometry for both mononuclear cells (p = 0.002) and final MSCs (p = 0.009), with higher viability in the fresh marrow group. This study demonstrates that MSCs derived from cryopreserved marrow have the same growth characteristics as fresh marrow-derived MSCs. Further studies are needed to explore potential differences in clinical efficacy. © 2017 AABB.

  20. Age-related distribution of vertebral bone-marrow diffusivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Jochen, E-mail: j.herrmann@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Department of Pediatric Radiology, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Krstin, Nina, E-mail: ninakrstin@web.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Schoennagel, Bjoern P., E-mail: b.schoennagel@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Sornsakrin, Marjike, E-mail: m.sornsakrin@uke.de [Department of Pediatrics, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Derlin, Thorsten, E-mail: t.derlin@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Busch, Jasmin D., E-mail: jd.busch@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Petersen, Kay Uwe, E-mail: Kay.Petersen@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Psychiatry, University Clinic Tübingen, Calwerstraße 14 Tübingen 72076 (Germany); Graessner, Joachim, E-mail: joachim.graessner@siemens.com [Siemens AG Healthcare, Lindenplatz 2, 20099 Hamburg (Germany); Adam, Gerhard, E-mail: g.adam@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Habermann, Christian R., E-mail: c.habermann@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To determine age-related diffusivity changes of the lumbar bone marrow by measurement of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. Materials and methods: The local ethics committee approved this study and written informed consent was obtained. The study group comprised 88 individuals including 75 healthy volunteers and 13 patients (48 female, 40 male; mean age 36 years, range 0–84 years). The pediatric cases were recruited from patients. Echo-planar diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) was performed with b-values of 50, 400 and 800 s/mm{sup 2}. ADC-values were calculated and measured in the 1st and 2nd vertebral body of the lumbar spine. Correlation between age and ADC-values was analyzed with Spearman's rho test. Results: The ADC values of the vertebral bone marrow of the lumbar spine showed a significant negative correlation with age (rho = −0.398, p = 0.001). The mean ADC values (×10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s) in the age groups 0–29 years (mean age 18.0 years, n = 42) and 30–88 years (mean age 51.6 years, n = 46) were 0.54 ± 0.07 and 0.47 ± 0.08, respectively (p < 0.001, T-test). No significant differences were found between children and young adults. Conclusion: Bone marrow ADC values of the lumbar spine show a linear decrease with growing age and thereby reflect the gradual changes of cell composition occurring during marrow conversion.

  1. A methodology for incorporating functional bone marrow sparing in IMRT planning for pelvic radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, Sarah M.; Menda, Yusuf; Boles Ponto, Laura L.; Gross, Brandie; Juweid, Malik; Bayouth, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this study was to design a radiation therapy treatment planning approach that would spare hematopoietically active bone marrow using [ 18 F]FLT PET imaging. Materials and methods: We have developed an IMRT planning methodology to incorporate functional PET imaging using [ 18 F]FLT scans. Plans were generated for two simulated cervical cancer patients, where pelvic active bone marrow regions were incorporated as avoidance regions based on the ranges: SUV4 ≥ 4; 4 > SUV3 ≥ 3; and 3 > SUV2 ≥ 2. Dose objectives were set to reduce bone marrow volume that received 10 (V 10 ) and 20 (V 20 ) Gy. Results: Active bone marrow regions identified by [ 18 F]FLT with an SUV ≥ 2, SUV ≥ 3, and SUV ≥ 4 represented an average of 43.0%, 15.3%, and 5.8%, respectively of the total osseous pelvis for the two cases studied. Improved dose-volume histograms for all identified bone marrow SUV volumes and decreases in V 10 , and V 20 were achieved without clinically significant changes to PTV or OAR doses. Conclusions: Incorporation of [ 18 F]FLT PET in IMRT planning provides a methodology to reduce radiation dose to active bone marrow without compromising PTV or OAR dose objectives in pelvic malignancies.

  2. The usefulness of bone marrow scintigraphy in the detection of bone metastasis from prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Nobuaki; Fukunaga, Masao; Morita, Rikushi

    1985-01-01

    A combination study of bone and bone marrow scintigraphy was performed on 25 pts with prostatic cancer, and, in order to study the usefulness in the diagnosis of bone metastasis, the findings of 2 scintigraphies were compared with those of skeletal roentgenography. Out of the 18 cases with the hot spots of sup(99m)Tc-MDP in the lower lumbar spine or/and the pelvic bone, 8 showed normal bone marrow scintigrams which were eventually proved to have degenerative changes of the spine accompanied by aging. On the other hand, nine cases of the ten, who had accumulation defects on the bone marrow scintigrams were finally proved having bone metastasis. All six cases with extensive bone metastases shown by bone scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-MDP, demonstrated multiple accumulation defects on bone marrow scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid. In conclusion, bone marrow scintigraphy was thought to be helpful in distinguishing the metastatic lesions from the benign spinal degenerative changes in the cases with suspicions bone involvement and in evaluating equivocal lesions in the pelvis. Therefore, it was shown that, in the detection and diagnosis of bone metastasis from prostatic cancer, bone scintigraphy alone was insufficient, and that combination with bone marrow scintigraphy was found to be useful. (author)

  3. Bone marrow scintigraphy in hemopoietic depletion states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortynova, J.; Bakos, K.; Pradacova, J.

    1981-01-01

    Bone marrow scintigraphy was performed in 29 patients with hemopoietic depletion states of various etiology. Two tracers were used for visualization, viz., sup(99m)Tc-sulfur-colloid and 111 InCl 3 ;some patients were examined using both indicators. 111 InCl 3 is bound to transferrin and is adsorbed on the surface of reticulocytes and erythroblasts. A scintillation camera PHO GAMMA SEARLE IV fitted with a moving table and computer CLINCOM were used to obtain whole-body images. The comparison of all scans and marrow puncture smears was done. In patients with aplastic anemia with both hyperplastic or hypoplastic marrow good correlation of bone marrow scans and sternal puncture smears was found. In several cases the scintigraphic examination helped to establish the diagnosis of marrow depletion. A peculiar disadvantage of the imaging method with either sup(99m)Tc-sulfur-colloid or 111 InCl 3 is that it shows the disorders in erythropoietic and reticuloendothelial cells whereas the defects in myelopoietic cell series and platelet precursors are not provable. According to literature data, great attention is paid to the prognostic value of scintigraphic examination in aplastic anemia. (author)

  4. Bone marrow scintigraphy in hemopoietic depletion states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortynova, J. (Ustav Hematologie a Krevni Transfuze, Prague (Czechoslovakia)); Bakos, K.; Pradacova, J. (Karlova Univ., Prague (Czechoslovakia). Biofyzikalni Ustav)

    1981-01-01

    Bone marrow scintigraphy was performed in 29 patients with hemopoietic depletion states of various etiology. Two tracers were used for visualization, viz., sup(99m)Tc-sulfur-colloid and /sup 111/InCl/sub 3/; some patients were examined using both indicators. /sup 111/InCl/sub 3/ is bound to transferrin and is adsorbed on the surface of reticulocytes and erythroblasts. A scintillation camera PHO GAMMA SEARLE IV fitted with a moving table and computer CLINCOM were used to obtain whole-body images. The comparison of all scans and marrow puncture smears was done. In patients with aplastic anemia with both hyperplastic or hypoplastic marrow good correlation of bone marrow scans and sternal puncture smears was found. In several cases the scintigraphic examination helped to establish the diagnosis of marrow depletion. A peculiar disadvantage of the imaging method with either sup(99m)Tc-sulfur-colloid or /sup 111/InCl/sub 3/ is that it shows the disorders in erythropoietic and reticuloendothelial cells whereas the defects in myelopoietic cell series and platelet precursors are not provable. According to literature data, great attention is paid to the prognostic value of scintigraphic examination in aplastic anemia.

  5. Effects of radiations on bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.; Frindel, E.; Croizat, H.; Parmentier, C.

    1979-01-01

    After total body irradiation for kidney transplant, the initial decrease of circulating blood cells is more rapid, the nadir is reached sooner and the regeneration occurs earlier when the doses are higher than a few hundred rads. The LD 50 in man seems to be higher than 450 rads. The in vivo and in vitro assays of hemopoietic stem cells have greatly increasedd the understanding of acute and late effects. Multipotential stem cells are very radiosensitive, furthermore the differentiation of the surviving stem cells is accelerated after irradiation. This results in a severe depletion of the stem cell compartment. When this stem cell number falls below a critical value, the stem cell no longer differentiates till the completion of the regeneration of the stem cell compartment. Stem cell proliferation is regulated by inhibitors and stimulators. Release of stimulators by irradiated bone marrow has been demonstrated. Severe sequellae are observed after irradiation of animal and human bone marrow. They seem to be due either to the damage of the stromal cell or to the stem cell population. In patients, four compensating mechanisms are observed after a regional bone marrow irradiation: stimulation of non irradiated bone marrow, extension of hemopoietic areas, regeneration of irradiated bone marrow when the irradiated volume is large and increase in the amplification factor resulting in an increase in the output of mature cells for one stem cell input. Assay of progenitor cells provides useful information and a reduction in their number is still observed many years after a large regional irradiation

  6. Marrow donor registry and cord blood bank in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tsung Dao

    2002-08-01

    Unrelated Bone marrow transplant was initiated thirty years ago. Though there are over millions of donors registered with the bone marrow registries worldwide, Asian patients rarely find a match with all these donors. Tzu Chi Marrow Donor Registry was established to meet this need. It has become the largest Asian marrow donor registry in the world. With the introduction of high technology to test the HLA of the donors and recipients, the success rate of bone marrow transplant is greatly improved among Asian countries. 50% of blood disease Asian patients who cannot find a bone marrow matched donor will be complemented by the establishment of cord blood banks in Taiwan.

  7. Myelosuppressive conditioning using busulfan enables bone marrow cell accumulation in the spinal cord of a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

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    Coral-Ann B Lewis

    Full Text Available Myeloablative preconditioning using irradiation is the most commonly used technique to generate rodents having chimeric bone marrow, employed for the study of bone marrow-derived cell accumulation in the healthy and diseased central nervous system. However, irradiation has been shown to alter the blood-brain barrier, potentially creating confounding artefacts. To better study the potential of bone marrow-derived cells to function as treatment vehicles for neurodegenerative diseases alternative preconditioning regimens must be developed. We treated transgenic mice that over-express human mutant superoxide dismutase 1, a model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, with busulfan to determine whether this commonly used chemotherapeutic leads to stable chimerism and promotes the entry of bone marrow-derived cells into spinal cord. Intraperitoneal treatment with busulfan at 60 mg/kg or 80 mg/kg followed by intravenous injection of green fluorescent protein-expressing bone marrow resulted in sustained levels of chimerism (~80%. Bone marrow-derived cells accumulated in the lumbar spinal cord of diseased mice at advanced stages of pathology at both doses, with limited numbers of bone marrow derived cells observed in the spinal cords of similarly treated, age-matched controls; the majority of bone marrow-derived cells in spinal cord immunolabelled for macrophage antigens. Comparatively, significantly greater numbers of bone marrow-derived cells were observed in lumbar spinal cord following irradiative myeloablation. These results demonstrate bone marrow-derived cell accumulation in diseased spinal cord is possible without irradiative preconditioning.

  8. Proteinase activated receptor 1 mediated fibrosis in a mouse model of liver injury: a role for bone marrow derived macrophages.

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    Yiannis N Kallis

    Full Text Available Liver fibrosis results from the co-ordinated actions of myofibroblasts and macrophages, a proportion of which are of bone marrow origin. The functional effect of such bone marrow-derived cells on liver fibrosis is unclear. We examine whether changing bone marrow genotype can down-regulate the liver's fibrotic response to injury and investigate mechanisms involved. Proteinase activated receptor 1 (PAR1 is up-regulated in fibrotic liver disease in humans, and deficiency of PAR1 is associated with reduced liver fibrosis in rodent models. In this study, recipient mice received bone marrow transplantation from PAR1-deficient or wild-type donors prior to carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis. Bone marrow transplantation alone from PAR1-deficient mice was able to confer significant reductions in hepatic collagen content and activated myofibroblast expansion on wild-type recipients. This effect was associated with a decrease in hepatic scar-associated macrophages and a reduction in macrophage recruitment from the bone marrow. In vitro, PAR1 signalling on bone marrow-derived macrophages directly induced their chemotaxis but did not stimulate proliferation. These data suggest that the bone marrow can modulate the fibrotic response of the liver to recurrent injury. PAR1 signalling can contribute to this response by mechanisms that include the regulation of macrophage recruitment.

  9. Comparison among T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, modified dixon method, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy in measuring bone marrow fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Gong, Xiuqun; Weiss, Jessica; Jin, Ye

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies are utilizing different magnetic resonance (MR) methods to quantify bone marrow fat due to its potential role in osteoporosis. Our aim is to compare the measurements of bone marrow fat among T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), modified Dixon method (also called fat fraction MRI (FFMRI)), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Contiguous MRI scans were acquired in 27 Caucasian postmenopausal women with a modified Dixon method (i.e., FFMRI). Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) of T1-weighted MRI and bone marrow fat fraction of the L3 vertebra and femoral necks were quantified using SliceOmatic and Matlab. MRS was also acquired at the L3 vertebra. Correlation among the three MR methods measured bone marrow fat fraction and BMAT ranges from 0.78 to 0.88 (P BMAT measured by T1-weighted MRI and bone marrow fat fraction measured by modified FFMRI is 0.86 (P < 0.001) in femoral necks. There are good correlations among T1-weighted MRI, FFMRI, and MRS for bone marrow fat quantification. The inhomogeneous distribution of bone marrow fat, the threshold segmentation of the T1-weighted MRI, and the ambiguity of the FFMRI may partially explain the difference among the three methods.

  10. Comparison among T1-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Modified Dixon Method, and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Measuring Bone Marrow Fat

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    Wei Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An increasing number of studies are utilizing different magnetic resonance (MR methods to quantify bone marrow fat due to its potential role in osteoporosis. Our aim is to compare the measurements of bone marrow fat among T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, modified Dixon method (also called fat fraction MRI (FFMRI, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. Methods. Contiguous MRI scans were acquired in 27 Caucasian postmenopausal women with a modified Dixon method (i.e., FFMRI. Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT of T1-weighted MRI and bone marrow fat fraction of the L3 vertebra and femoral necks were quantified using SliceOmatic and Matlab. MRS was also acquired at the L3 vertebra. Results. Correlation among the three MR methods measured bone marrow fat fraction and BMAT ranges from 0.78 to 0.88 in the L3 vertebra. Correlation between BMAT measured by T1-weighted MRI and bone marrow fat fraction measured by modified FFMRI is 0.86 in femoral necks. Conclusion. There are good correlations among T1-weighted MRI, FFMRI, and MRS for bone marrow fat quantification. The inhomogeneous distribution of bone marrow fat, the threshold segmentation of the T1-weighted MRI, and the ambiguity of the FFMRI may partially explain the difference among the three methods.

  11. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells repair spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury by promoting axonal growth and anti-autophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fei; Meng, Chunyang; Lu, Rifeng; Li, Lei; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Hao; Qin, Yonggang; Guo, Li

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into neurons and astrocytes after transplantation in the spinal cord of rats with ischemia/reperfusion injury. Although bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells are known to protect against spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury through anti-apoptotic effects, the precise mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were cultured and proliferated, then transplanted into rats with ischemia/reperfusion injury via retro-orbital injection. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence with subsequent quantification revealed that the expression of the axonal regeneration marker, growth associated protein-43, and the neuronal marker, microtubule-associated protein 2, significantly increased in rats with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation compared with those in rats with spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury. Furthermore, the expression of the autophagy marker, microtubule-associated protein light chain 3B, and Beclin 1, was significantly reduced in rats with the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation compared with those in rats with spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury. Western blot analysis showed that the expression of growth associated protein-43 and neurofilament-H increased but light chain 3B and Beclin 1 decreased in rats with the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation. Our results therefore suggest that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation promotes neurite growth and regeneration and prevents autophagy. These responses may likely be mechanisms underlying the protective effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells against spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:25374587

  12. Antibody formation in mouse bone marrow. II. Evidence for a memory-dependent phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benner, R.; Meima, F.; Meulen, G.M. van der

    1974-01-01

    Mouse bone marrow is barely capable of plaque-forming cell (PFC) activity in a primary response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC), while PFC activity in the secondary response to SRBC can be clearly demonstrated. This phenomenon was studied by means of cell transfer experiments. T cells, which are involved in an anti-SRBC PFC response, were shown to be very scarce in normal mouse bone marrow. This is considered to be the cause of the low PFC activity in the marrow during the primary response to SRBC. In normal mouse bone marrow precursors of IgM-PFC but not of IgG- and IgA-PFC could be found. Priming with SRBC induced the appearance of IgM-, IgG-, IgA- and T-memory cells in the marrow. These B- and T-memory cells were shown to be specific for the antigen which induced their appearance. It is thought that after a second injection of SRBC the IgM-, IgG- and IgA-memory cells can differentiate with the help of the T-memory cells within the bone marrow into IgM-, IgG- and IgA-PFC respectively. The sequence of appearance of the B-memory cells in the bone marrow was shown to be IgM--IgG--IgA. Six months after the intravenous injection of SRBC, the presence of B-memory cells could be demonstrated not only in spleen and bone marrow, but also in peripheral lymph nodes, mesenteric lymph node, Peyer's patches, thymus and blood. The increase in amount of B-memory cells was most prominent in the spleen

  13. Bone and bone marrow function of reconstructed chest wall after surgical correction of pectus excavatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoh; Magara, Tatsuo; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Ichihashi, Takumi; Hikishima, Hiroshi

    1984-01-01

    Bone and Bone marrow functions of the reconstructed chest wall after surgical correction of the funnel chest deformities were evaluated by scanning method. In our series, three kinds of operative procedures were employed; strut method for adult cases, sternal turnover method with and without muscle pedicle for infant cases. Bone function was scanned by sup(99m)Tc-methylene-diphosphonate and bone marrow function was evaluated by sup(99m)Tc-sulfur-colloid. For the cases undergone each surgical procedure, bone and bone marrow scan were done at short term after surgery (within 30 days), at intermediate stage (one month to 12 months), and at long term stage (beyond one year). The results were as follows: By the evaluation at the long term stage of the cases undergoing strut method, bone as well as bone marrow scan visualized normal view of the reconstructed sternum. Regarding the cases undergone sternal turnover method without muscle pedicle, or free graft implantation of the plastron, the bone scan at the long term follow-up stage showed abnormal finding, i.e. hypo-, or defect-visualization of the inverted sternum, in 11.5% of the cases. Furthermore, bone marrow scan showed abnormality in 33.3% of the cases. On the other hand, the cases undergone sternal turnover method with muscle pedicle, in which blood supply to the plastron were preserved by the connection from superior epigastric artery to internal mammary artery, showed no abnormality as far as at the long term follow-up study neither in bone scan nor bone marrow scan. However, in the evaluation at short term after surgery, 50% of the cases undergoing bone scan showed abnormality. In addition, in this stage 85.7% of the bone marrow scan showed abnormal finding. These abnormality, however, normalized within 6 months for bone scan and 12 months for bone marrow scan, in contrast to the results of the cases undergone sternal turnover without pedicle. (J.P.N.)

  14. Sesamol attenuates cytogenetic damages in bone marrow cells of whole body gamma irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Arun; Tamizh Selvan, G.; Adhikari, Jawahar S.; Chaudhury, N.K.

    2014-01-01

    Whole body radiation exposure cause damages to all vital organs and bone marrow is the most sensitive. Pre-treatment with antioxidant as single prophylactic dose is expected to lower induction of damages in bone marrow. In the present study we have focused on sesamol, a dietary antioxidant mediated radioprotection in bone marrow cells of gamma irradiated mice and compared with melatonin. Male C57BL/6 mice were intraperitoneally administered with sesamol (10 and 20 mg/kg body) and after 30 minutes exposed to whole body gamma radiation using 60 Co Teletherapy unit. Mice were injected with 0.2 ml of a metaphase arresting agent (0.05% colchicine) intra-peritoneally 3 hours prior to sacrifice (24 hrs. post-irradiation). Bone marrow cells were flushed out from femurs of each animal and processed for chromosomal aberration assay. Another set of experiment without colchicine injection was performed to access the DNA damage in bone marrow using alkaline comet assay. At least 100 metaphases per animal were scored under light microscope to record various aberrations and total chromosomal aberrations (TCA) was calculated. Similar measurements were performed with melatonin for comparing the efficacy of sesamol. Gamma irradiation has increased the chromatid type aberrations (break formation, fragment) and chromosomal type aberrations (ring formation, acentric) in bone marrow cells. The results have shown significant (p< 0.001) increase in TCA of irradiated mice than control. While pre-treatment of sesamol and melatonin 10 mg/kg significantly (p<0.05) reduced the TCA. The extend of protection has increased at 20 mg/kg significantly (p<0.001) as evident from the reduced TCA compared to irradiated group. Interestingly, sesamol and melatonin have shown similar extent of reduction of TCA. Thus sesamol has demonstrated strong ability to protect bone marrow at low dosage. These investigations on sesamol mediated protection in bone marrow are likely to benefit development of

  15. Evaluation of lumbar vertebral bone marrow changes with MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakitsubata, Yousuke; Nabeshima, Kazuki; Kakitsubata, Sachiko; Watanabe, Katsushi (Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan))

    1993-11-01

    Seven hundred nine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies of the lumbar spine were reviewed to assess the signal intensity (SI) changes in vertebral bone marrow. Marrow changes were classified into four types according to their SI changes on T1-weighted images (T1-WI) and T2-WI. Type 1 changes (decreased SI on T1-WI and increased SI on T2-WI) were identified in 28 patients (3.9%), type 2 changes (increased SI on T1-WI and isointense or slightly increased SI on T2-WI) in 184 (26%), type 3 changes (decreased SI on both T1-WI and T2-WI) in 71 (10%), and type 4 changes (linearly increased SI on T1-WI in the center of the vertebral body) in 142 (20%). Plain radiographs showed sclerotic changes in patients with type 3. In patients with type 1 or 4 changes, no focal abnormalities were observed. Histological evaluation of type 1 change revealed fibrous tissue including cartilaginous formation. Focal replacement by fatty tissue was observed in type 2 and type 4 changes. Bone sclerosis was observed in type 4 change. Type 1, type 2 and type 3 changes, which occurred commonly in the old and in the lower lumbar level, appear to reflect a spectrum of degenerative changes of the bone marrow including both pathological and physiological ones. (author).

  16. Transplantation? Peripheral Stem Cell/Bone Marrow/Cord Blood

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    Itır Sirinoglu Demiriz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of peripheral stem cell (PSC and cord blood (CB as an alternative to bone marrow (BM recently has caused important changes on hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT practice. According to the CIBMTR data, there has been a significant decrease in the use of bone marrow and increase in the use of PSC and CB as the stem cell source for HSCT performed during 1997–2006 period for patients under the age of 20. On the other hand, the stem cell source in 70% of the HSCT procedures performed for patients over the age of 20 was PSC and the second most preferred stem cell source was bone marrow. CB usage is very limited for the adult population. Primary disease, stage, age, time and urgency of transplantation, HLA match between the patient and the donor, stem cell quantity, and the experience of the transplantation center are some of the associated factors for the selection of the appropriate stem cell source. Unfortunately, there is no prospective randomized study aimed to facilitate the selection of the correct source between CB, PSC, and BM. In this paper, we would like to emphasize the data on stem cell selection in light of the current knowledge for patient populations according to their age and primary disease.

  17. Effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide on bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundt, W.; Helmberger, T.; Reiser, M.; Petsch, R.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the effects of SPIO particles on the signal intensity of the bone marrow of the vertebra spine in patients with and without liver cirrhosis. Forty-eight patients with normal liver tissue and 56 patients with liver cirrhosis were examined before and after intravenous SPIO administration, using a 1.5-T system (Magnetom Vision, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) with a semiflexible cp-array coil. Three different pulse sequences were applied: a T1-weighted gradient-echo sequence, a T2-weighted fast spin-echo sequence with spectral fat suppression and a T2 * -weighted gradient-echo sequence. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the liver, vertebra bone and paraspinal muscle were obtained. The SNR value change in each patient group and the SNR value difference between the two groups were evaluated. For assessment of statistical significance, Student's t-test with a level of p * -weighted gradient-echo sequence, the signal intensity decrease of the normal liver tissue was approximately -65.6 % (p = 0.00), in cirrhotic liver tissue the decrease was -29.9 % (p = 0.02). The SNR values of the bone marrow showed a decrease of -27.8 % (p = 0.04) in the noncirrhotic liver group, whereas in the cirrhotic liver group it was only -11.3 % and statistically not significant. The effect of SPIO particles on the liver and bone marrow is significantly less in patients with liver cirrhosis. (orig.)

  18. Parental bone marrow growth in young hybrid mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chervenak, R.P.

    1979-01-01

    When bone marrow is transplated from certain inbred mouse strains to F 1 hybrids of that strain, the graft often fails to proliferate. It has been reported that this phenomenon, known as Poor Growth, is not demonstrable in recipients less than three weeks of age. The purpose of the present study was to investigate some of the parameters involved in this phenomenon and its sudden appearance at three weeks of age. By employing 125 IUdR uptake and hemopoietic colony assays following transplantation of marrow to mice of various ages and treatment groups, the following conclusions were drawn. (1) Parental marrow grew equally well in both parental strain and F 1 hybrid recipients less than three weeks old; (2) The observed growth of hemopoietic tissue was not due to endogeneous stem cell proliferation; (3) Changes in radiation sensitivity did not account for the fluctuations of hemopoiesis seen in mice from one to five weeks of age; (4) Neither stimulator cells in mice less than three weeks of age nor graft destroying cells in older mice could be demonstrated. Two mechanistic models of Poor Growth are presented and discussed and a new model is proposed

  19. [Effect of intravenous treatment with OK-432 on the bone marrow in patients with lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, M; Ishikawa, M; Toki, H

    1984-03-01

    We studied effects of OK-432 on the bone marrow and peripheral blood cells of lung cancer patients. The nuclear cell count of bone marrow increased in 5 to 7 patients upon intravenous treatment with OK-432 compared with 3 of 6 patients who were intramuscularly treated with OK-432. Serial neutrophil counts of bone marrow increased in all 7 patients treated intravenously compared with 3 of 6 patients treated intramuscularly. The mean nuclear cell count or the serial neutrophil count of bone marrow in intravenously treated patients was significantly higher than the pretreatment values (p less than 0.001). In the peripheral blood picture, the difference in white blood cells or neutrophils before and after intravenous treatment was also statistically significant (p less than 0.01). There was no change in the erythrocytic series count of bone marrow and the hemoglobin count. Our results support the superiority of intravenous OK-432 treatment over intramuscular treatment in the growth-accelerating effect on bone marrow cells, especially regarding the neutrophil series.

  20. Comparison of methodologies in determining bone marrow fat percentage under different environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murden, David; Hunnam, Jaimie; De Groef, Bert; Rawlin, Grant; McCowan, Christina

    2017-01-01

    The use of bone marrow fat percentage has been recommended in assessing body condition at the time of death in wild and domestic ruminants, but few studies have looked at the effects of time and exposure on animal bone marrow. We investigated the utility of bone marrow fat extraction as a tool for establishing antemortem body condition in postmortem specimens from sheep and cattle, particularly after exposure to high heat, and compared different techniques of fat extraction for this purpose. Femora were collected from healthy and "skinny" sheep and cattle. The bones were either frozen or subjected to 40°C heat; heated bones were either wrapped in plastic to minimize desiccation or were left unwrapped. Marrow fat percentage was determined at different time intervals by oven-drying, or by solvent extraction using hexane in manual equipment or a Soxhlet apparatus. Extraction was performed, where possible, on both wet and dried tissue. Multiple samples were tested from each bone. Bone marrow fat analysis using a manual, hexane-based extraction technique was found to be a moderately sensitive method of assessing antemortem body condition of cattle up to 6 d after death. Multiple replicates should be analyzed where possible. Samples from "skinny" sheep showed a different response to heat from those of "healthy" sheep; "skinny" samples were so reduced in quantity by day 6 (the first sampling day) that no individual testing could be performed. Further work is required to understand the response of sheep marrow.

  1. Survival of Free and Encapsulated Human and Rat Islet Xenografts Transplanted into the Mouse Bone Marrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Raphael P. H.; Seebach, Jörg D.; Morel, Philippe; Mahou, Redouan; Borot, Sophie; Giovannoni, Laurianne; Parnaud, Geraldine; Montanari, Elisa; Bosco, Domenico; Wandrey, Christine; Berney, Thierry; Bühler, Leo H.; Muller, Yannick D.

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow was recently proposed as an alternative and potentially immune-privileged site for pancreatic islet transplantation. The aim of the present study was to assess the survival and rejection mechanisms of free and encapsulated xenogeneic islets transplanted into the medullary cavity of the femur, or under the kidney capsule of streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice. The median survival of free rat islets transplanted into the bone marrow or under the kidney capsule was 9 and 14 days, respectively, whereas that of free human islets was shorter, 7 days (bone marrow) and 10 days (kidney capsule). Infiltrating CD8+ T cells and redistributed CD4+ T cells, and macrophages were detected around the transplanted islets in bone sections. Recipient mouse splenocytes proliferated in response to donor rat stimulator cells. One month after transplantation under both kidney capsule or into bone marrow, encapsulated rat islets had induced a similar degree of fibrotic reaction and still contained insulin positive cells. In conclusion, we successfully established a small animal model for xenogeneic islet transplantation into the bone marrow. The rejection of xenogeneic islets was associated with local and systemic T cell responses and macrophage recruitment. Although there was no evidence for immune-privilege, the bone marrow may represent a feasible site for encapsulated xenogeneic islet transplantation. PMID:24625569

  2. Pedicle marrow signal intensity changes in the lumbar spine: a manifestation of facet degenerative joint disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, J.L.; Kaplan, P.A.; Dussault, R.G.; Anderson, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. Signal intensity changes in lumbar pedicles, similar to those described in vertebral body endplates adjacent to degenerated discs, have been described as an ancillary sign of spondylolysis on MRI. The purpose of this study was to determine whether pedicle marrow signal intensity changes also occur in association with facet degenerative joint disease.Design. Eighty-nine lumbar spine MRI examinations without spondylolysis were reviewed for marrow signal intensity changes in pedicles and vertebral bodies as well as for facet degenerative joint disease.Results. Five percent (46/890) of lumbar pedicles in 23 patients had marrow signal intensity changes. Ninety-one percent (42/46) of the abnormal pedicles had adjacent degenerative joint disease of the facets, while only 21% (189/890) of normal pedicles had adjacent facet degenerative joint disease (p<0.001). Eighty-nine percent (41/46) of the pedicles with marrow signal intensity changes had adjacent degenerative disc disease.Conclusions. Pedicle marrow signal intensity changes are not a specific sign of spondylolysis; they are commonly seen with adjacent facet degenerative joint disease in the absence of spondylolysis. Pedicle marrow signal intensity changes are probably a response to abnormal stresses related to abnormal motion or loading caused by the degenerative changes in the spinal segment. (orig.)

  3. Pedicle marrow signal intensity changes in the lumbar spine: a manifestation of facet degenerative joint disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, J.L.; Kaplan, P.A.; Dussault, R.G.; Anderson, M.W. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2000-12-01

    Objective. Signal intensity changes in lumbar pedicles, similar to those described in vertebral body endplates adjacent to degenerated discs, have been described as an ancillary sign of spondylolysis on MRI. The purpose of this study was to determine whether pedicle marrow signal intensity changes also occur in association with facet degenerative joint disease.Design. Eighty-nine lumbar spine MRI examinations without spondylolysis were reviewed for marrow signal intensity changes in pedicles and vertebral bodies as well as for facet degenerative joint disease.Results. Five percent (46/890) of lumbar pedicles in 23 patients had marrow signal intensity changes. Ninety-one percent (42/46) of the abnormal pedicles had adjacent degenerative joint disease of the facets, while only 21% (189/890) of normal pedicles had adjacent facet degenerative joint disease (p<0.001). Eighty-nine percent (41/46) of the pedicles with marrow signal intensity changes had adjacent degenerative disc disease.Conclusions. Pedicle marrow signal intensity changes are not a specific sign of spondylolysis; they are commonly seen with adjacent facet degenerative joint disease in the absence of spondylolysis. Pedicle marrow signal intensity changes are probably a response to abnormal stresses related to abnormal motion or loading caused by the degenerative changes in the spinal segment. (orig.)

  4. Regulation of heme metabolism in normal and sideroblastic bone marrow cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibraham, N.G.; Lutton, J.D.; Hoffman, R.; Levere, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Heme metabolism was examined in developing in vitro erythroid colonies (CFUE) and in bone marrow samples taken directly from four normal donors and four patients with sideroblastic anemia. Maximum activities of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase (ALAS), ALA dehydratase (ALAD), and 14 C-ALA incorporation into heme were achieved in normal marrow CFUE after 8 days of culture, whereas heme oxygenase progressively decreased to low levels of activity during the same period. Assays on nucleated bone marrow cells taken directly from patients revealed that ALAS activity was considerably reduced in idiopathic sideroblastic anemia (IASA) and X-linked sideroblastic anemia (X-SA) bone marrow specimens, whereas the activity increased more than twofold (normal levels) when cells were assayed from 8-day CFUE. In all cases, ALAD activity appeared to be within normal levels. Measurement of heme synthesis revealed that normal levels of 14 C-ALA incorporation into heme were achieved in IASA cells but were reduced in X-SA cells. In marked contrast to levels in normal cells, heme oxygenase was found to be significantly elevated (two- to fourfold) in bone marrow cells taken directly from patients with IASA and X-SA. Results from this study demonstrate that IASA and X-SA bone marrow cells have disturbances in ALAS and heme metabolism, and that erythropoiesis (CFUE) can be restored to normal levels when cells are cultured in methylcellulose

  5. Survival of free and encapsulated human and rat islet xenografts transplanted into the mouse bone marrow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael P H Meier

    Full Text Available Bone marrow was recently proposed as an alternative and potentially immune-privileged site for pancreatic islet transplantation. The aim of the present study was to assess the survival and rejection mechanisms of free and encapsulated xenogeneic islets transplanted into the medullary cavity of the femur, or under the kidney capsule of streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice. The median survival of free rat islets transplanted into the bone marrow or under the kidney capsule was 9 and 14 days, respectively, whereas that of free human islets was shorter, 7 days (bone marrow and 10 days (kidney capsule. Infiltrating CD8+ T cells and redistributed CD4+ T cells, and macrophages were detected around the transplanted islets in bone sections. Recipient mouse splenocytes proliferated in response to donor rat stimulator cells. One month after transplantation under both kidney capsule or into bone marrow, encapsulated rat islets had induced a similar degree of fibrotic reaction and still contained insulin positive cells. In conclusion, we successfully established a small animal model for xenogeneic islet transplantation into the bone marrow. The rejection of xenogeneic islets was associated with local and systemic T cell responses and macrophage recruitment. Although there was no evidence for immune-privilege, the bone marrow may represent a feasible site for encapsulated xenogeneic islet transplantation.

  6. Pediatric spinal bone marrow: assessment of normal age-related changes in the MRI appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebag, G.H.; Dubois, J.; Tabet, M.; Bonato, A.; Lallemand, D.

    1993-01-01

    A retrospective study of 100 children (0-15 years) without known bone marrow abnormality, was performed to elucidate the spectrum of the MRI appearance of spinal bone marrow with age on T1-weighted images at 0.5 T. Fatty marrow distribution and vertebral signal intensity (SI) relative to disk SI were noted in each subject, and allowed the identification of distinctive patterns. The spinal marrow patterns and their relative frequency for different age groupps were consistent with the known physiologic conversion from cellular to fatty marrow with age. Between the ages of 0 and 1 year, SI of corporeal ossification centers was similar or lower than SI of adjacent cartilage and disk in 87% of cases. Between the ages of 5 and 15 years, vertebral SI was higher than SI of adjacent disks in 90% of cases. A central or basivertebral zone of high SI consistent with focal fatty marrow was found in 16% and 31% of cases respectively. In conclusion, knowledge of these conversion patterns should serve as a practical aid in the interpretation of MRI examinations of the spine in children. (orig.)

  7. Symmetric visualization of the femoral heads in reticuloendothelial bone marrow scanning in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munz, D L; Hoer, G

    1983-03-01

    Two hundred and twenty seven consecutive patients of either sex aged 15-84 suffering from various benign and malignant disorders were studied by sup(99m)Tc-HSA-MM reticuloendothelial bone marrow scintigraphy. In all patients, symmetric findings concerning visualization or nonvisualization of the femoral heads could be seen. Femoral heads were clearly visualized in 48%, nonvisualized in 43%, and equivocally visualized in 9%. In patients with clearly visualized femoral heads, the bone marrow showed peripheral extension in 81%, whereas in patients with nonvisualized femoral heads, bone marrow extension was observed in only 42%. There was a correlation between the degree of bone marrow extension and the ability to visualize femoral heads. There was no obvious difference between males and females, nor patients with various diseases or treatments, amongst nor between different age groups. Two hypotheses are suggested to explain the correspondence between presence of bone marrow tissue in the femoral heads and peripheral extension of the bone marrow organ. Nonvisualization of the femoral heads alone is insufficient to establish the diagnosis of avascular necrosis.

  8. Different radiosensitivities of mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow and skin of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Sonoda, T.; Mori, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    Although tissue mast cells are derived from the bone marrow, some descendants of bone marrow-derived precursors retain the ability to proliferate and differentiate into mast cells even after localization in the skin. The purpose of the present study was to determine the D 0 values for mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow and those localized in the skin. Bone marrow cells were removed from (WB X C57BL/6)F 1 +/+ mice after various doses of irradiation and injected into the skin of the congenic W/W/sup v/ mice which were genetically without mast cells. Radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow was evaluated by determining the proportion of the injection sites at which mast cells did not appear. For the assay of the radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors localized in the skin, pieces of skin were removed from beige C57BL/6 (bg/sup J//bg/sup J/, Chediak-Higashi syndrome) mice after various doses of irradiation and grafted onto the backs of the normal C57BL/6 mice. Radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors in the skin was evaluated by determining the decrease of beige-type mast cells which possessed giant granules. Mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow were much more radiosenitive than those localized in the skin. D 0 value was about 100 rad for the former and about 800 rad for the latter

  9. Different radiosensitivities of mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow and skin of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Sonoda, T.; Mori, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    Although tissue mast cells are derived from the bone marrow, some descendants of bone marrow-derived precursors retain the ability to proliferate and differentiate into mast cells even after localization in the skin. The purpose of the present study was to determine the D0 values for mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow and those localized in the skin. Bone marrow cells were removed from (WB X C57BL/6)F1-+/+ mice after various doses of irradiation and injected into the skin of the congenic W/Wv mice which were genetically without mast cells. Radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow was evaluated by determining the proportion of the injection sites at which mast cells did not appear. For the assay of the radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors localized in the skin, pieces of skin were removed from beige C57BL/6 (bgJ/bgJ. Chediak-Higashi syndrome) mice after various doses of irradiation and grafted onto the back of the normal C57BL/6 mice. Radiosensitivity of mast-cell precursors in the skin was evaluated by determining the decrease of beige-type mast cells which possessed giant granules. Mast-cell precursors in the bone marrow were much more radiosensitive than those localized in the skin. D0 value was about 100 rad for the former and about 800 rad for the latter

  10. Total body irradiation in bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluckman, E.; Devergie, A.; Boiron, M.; Bernard, Jean; Dutreix, A.; Dutreix, J.

    1979-01-01

    Total body irradiation was used in 22 patients as part of their conditioning regimen for bone marrow transplantation. Nine patients with acute leukemia received 1000 cGy TBI in addition with chemotherapy. None of them survived and the main cause of death was interstitial pneumonitis (50%). 4 patients received 1000 cGy with a lung shielding of 500 cGy. Two patients with acute leukemia died of leukemia and sepsis, two patients had aplastic anemia, one is surviving, the other died of severe GVHD and infectious complications. Nine patients with severe aplastic anemia strongly immunized by previous blood transfusions received 800 cGy TBI with a lung shielding of 400 cGy. No rejection was observed and 7 patients (63%) are currently alive. One patient died of interstitial pneumonitis probably related to CMV infection, one of subacute necrotizing hepatitis, two of severe acute GVHD. It is concluded from this study that TBI remains the best immunosuppressive conditioning regimen even in strongly immunized patients. It may be a contributing factor of the incidence and severity of interstitial pneumonitis. A reduction of the dose of the lung to 400-500 cGy seems to decrease the severity of this complication

  11. Effects of smoke and tea on radiation-induced bone marrow cell mutation and marrow inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yong; Zhang Weiguang

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To provide scientific information for the prevention and treatment of the radiation damage by analyzing the effects of smoke and tea on radiation-induced bone marrow cell mutation and marrow inhibition. Methods: 7 group mice were exposed to smoke and/or tea and/or radiation respectively. There were also b blank control group and a cyclophosphamide positive control group. The frequencies of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MPCE), the ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) to mature erythrocytes (RBC) in marrow, and the count of peripheral blood hemoleukocyte were observed. Results: The frequencies of MPCE in the groups irradiated with γ-rays were significantly higher than that in the blank control group (P<0.05 or 0.01). The smoke + radiation group's frequency was significantly higher than single radiation group (P<0.05). The ratios of PCE to RBC in the groups irradiated were significantly lower than that in the blank control group (P<0.01). The counts of peripheral blood hemoleukocyte in the groups irradiated were significantly lower than the blank control group (P<0.01). Conclusion: Radiation were able to cause marrow cell mutation and induce marrow inhibition. Smoke increases the effect of radiation-induced marrow cell mutation. Tea and smoke could not affect radiation-induced bone marrow inhibition

  12. Exosomes as potential alternatives to stem cell therapy for intervertebral disc degeneration: in-vitro study on exosomes in interaction of nucleus pulposus cells and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kang; Li, Hai-Yin; Yang, Kuang; Wu, Jun-Long; Cai, Xiao-Wei; Zhou, Yue; Li, Chang-Qing

    2017-05-10

    The stem cell-based therapies for intervertebral disc degeneration have been widely studied. However, the mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cells interacting with intervertebral disc cells, such as nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs), remain unknown. Exosomes as a vital paracrine mechanism in cell-cell communication have been highly focused on. The purpose of this study was to detect the role of exosomes derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and NPCs in their interaction with corresponding cells. The exosomes secreted by BM-MSCs and NPCs were purified by differential centrifugation and identified by transmission electron microscope and immunoblot analysis of exosomal marker proteins. Fluorescence confocal microscopy was used to examine the uptake of exosomes by recipient cells. The effects of NPC exosomes on the migration and differentiation of BM-MSCs were determined by transwell migration assays and quantitative RT-PCR analysis of NPC phenotypic genes. Western blot analysis was performed to examine proteins such as aggrecan, sox-9, collagen II and hif-1α in the induced BM-MSCs. Proliferation and the gene expression profile of NPCs induced by BM-MSC exosomes were measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 and qRT-PCR analysis, respectively. Both the NPCs and BM-MSCs secreted exosomes, and these exosomes underwent uptake by the corresponding cells. NPC-derived exosomes promoted BM-MSC migration and induced BM-MSC differentiation to a nucleus pulposus-like phenotype. BM-MSC-derived exosomes promoted NPC proliferation and healthier extracellular matrix production in the degenerate NPCs. Our study indicates that the exosomes act as an important vehicle in information exchange between BM-MSCs and NPCs. Given a variety of functions and multiple advantages, exosomes alone or loaded with specific genes and drugs would be an appropriate option in a cell-free therapy strategy for intervertebral disc degeneration.

  13. Absence of accelerated atherosclerotic disease progression after intracoronary infusion of bone marrow derived mononuclear cells in patients with acute myocardial infarction--angiographic and intravascular ultrasound--results from the TErapia Celular Aplicada al Miocardio Pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Roman; Villa, Adolfo; Gutiérrez, Hipólito; Sánchez, Pedro L; Gimeno, Federico; Fernández, Maria E; Gutiérrez, Oliver; Mota, Pedro; Sánchez, Ana; García-Frade, Javier; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco; San Román, Jose A

    2010-06-01

    We tried to evaluate a putative negative effect on coronary atherosclerosis in patients receiving intracoronary infusion of unfractionated bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) following an acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells or enriched CD133(+) BMMC have been associated with accelerated atherosclerosis of the distal segment of the infarct related artery (IRA). Thirty-seven patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction from the TECAM pilot study underwent intracoronary infusion of autologous BMMC 9 +/- 3.1 days after onset of symptoms. We compared angiographic changes from baseline to 9 months of follow-up in the distal non-stented segment of the IRA, as well as in the contralateral coronary artery, with a matched control group. A subgroup of 15 treated patients underwent additional IVUS within the distal segment of the IRA. No difference between stem cell and control group were found regarding changes in minimum lumen diameter (0.006 +/- 0.42 vs 0.06 +/- 0.41 mm, P = ns) and the percentage of stenosis (-2.68 +/- 12.33% vs -1.78 +/- 8.75%, P = ns) at follow-up. Likewise, no differences were seen regarding changes in the contralateral artery (minimum lumen diameter -0.004 +/- 0.54 mm vs -0.06 +/- 0.35 mm, P = ns). In the intravascular ultrasound substudy, no changes were demonstrated comparing baseline versus follow-up in maximum area stenosis and plaque volume. In this pilot study, analysis of a subgroup of patients found that intracoronary injection of unfractionated BMMC in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction was not associated with accelerated atherosclerosis progression at mid term. Prospective, randomised studies in large cohorts with long-term angiographic and intravascular ultrasound follow-up are necessary to determine the safety of this therapy. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Usefulness of bone marrow magnetic resonance imaging and indium-111-chloride bone marrow scintigraphy in patients with various hematological diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Yutaka; Umekawa, Tsunekazu; Chikayama, Satoshi [Osaka General Hospital of West Japan Railway Compapy (Japan)] [and others

    1995-03-01

    This study investigated the ability of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and indium-111 chloride (In-111) scintigraphy to assess bone marrow in various hematological lesions. The subjects were 7 with aplastic anemia (AA), 4 with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), 3 with polycythemia (PC), 3 with essential thrombocythemia (ET), 2 with multiple myeloma (MM), 2 with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), 3 with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), one with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and one with secondary anemia due to chronic inflammation (SA). Bone marrow cellularity was assessed on MR images and both uptake and tissue distribution were assessed on In-111 scintigraphy. Hypo-cellularity was seen in all AA patients, but not seen in any other patient in each group. On the other hand, hyper-cellularity was seen in 3 MDS, one PC, all 3 ET, one ALL, and one SA patients. In the group of MM, the vertebral body was seen as heterogenous signal intensity on MR images. Bone marrow was seen as iso-intensity in one MDS, 2 PC, all 2 MGUS, and all 3 ITP patients. In-111 scintigraphy showed decrease or disappearance of tracer uptake and decreased tissue distribution in all 7 AA, one MDS, one PC, and one ALL patients. Increased tracer uptake and enlarged tissue distribution were seen in one MDS, one PC, and one SA patients. One MDS, one ET, all 2 MM, all 2 MGUS, all 3 ITP patients had tracer uptake and tissue distribution that were equal to those in the normal tissues. Since MR imaging and In-111 scintigraphy provided qualitatively different information, the combination of both modalities would contribute to the understanding of bone marrow condition in hematopoietic diseases. (N.K.).

  15. Prognosis and bone marrow recovery indicators in bone marrow transplantation after total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubner, Diana; Perez, Maria del R.; Gisone, Pablo; Barboza, Marcos; Sorrentino, Miguel; Robinson, Anibal

    2002-01-01

    Oxidative stress and reticulocyte maturity index (RMI) were studied in 27 patients who underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Plasmatic lipo peroxide levels of those patients with unfavorable evolution were significantly increases on days 12-14 post-transplant (median 1,83 μM, range 0.78-5.82) compared with preconditioning levels (median 1.05 μM, range 0.36-1.84) (p<0.05). Patients with favorable evolution revealed significantly higher lipo peroxide levels during conditioning regime (median 1.42 μM, range 0.31-4.50) (p<0.05). Starting from the 3rd. post-transplant week a significant and continuous decrease was observed, with a median of 0.77 μM (range 0.21-1.48) (p<0.05) for the 3rd, and a median of 0.60 μM (range 0.11-1.48) for the 4th. week (p<0.01). A significant increase in total antioxidant activity was observed in the three patients who died up to the 35 days post-transplant. Recovery of bone marrow function was detected by RMI after a median time of 17 days (range 11-24) post-allogeneic transplantation. The threshold established for absolute neutrophil count was achieved after a median of 21 days (range 14-28) (p<0.001). An increase of plasma lipo peroxides on days 12-14 post transplant may be a predictive value of unfavourable evolution. RMI was the earlier indicator of engraftment in allogeneic BMT. (author)

  16. Effect of repeated intracoronary injection of bone marrow cells in patients with ischaemic heart failure the Danish stem cell study--congestive heart failure trial (DanCell-CHF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt; Møller, Jacob E; Thayssen, Per

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that myocardial regeneration may be achieved by a single intracoronary bone marrow derived stem cell infusion in selected patients with ischaemic heart disease. The effect is uncertain in patients with chronic ischaemic heart failure and it is not known whether r...

  17. The Bone Marrow-Derived Stromal Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tencerova, Michaela; Kassem, Moustapha

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow (BM) microenvironment represents an important compartment of bone that regulates bone homeostasis and the balance between bone formation and bone resorption depending on the physiological needs of the organism. Abnormalities of BM microenvironmental dynamics can lead to metabolic bone...... diseases. BM stromal cells (also known as skeletal or mesenchymal stem cells) [bone marrow stromal stem cell (BMSC)] are multipotent stem cells located within BM stroma and give rise to osteoblasts and adipocytes. However, cellular and molecular mechanisms of BMSC lineage commitment to adipocytic lineage...

  18. Enhanced proliferation of transfused marrow and reversal of normal growth inhibition of female marrow in male hosts 2 months after sublethal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brecher, G.; Mulcahy, K.; Tjio, J.H.; Raveche, E.

    1985-01-01

    It is well established that 0.5 to 1 million marrow cells suffice to rescue (though not necessarily fully restore) lethally irradiated mice, while even 40 million cells result only in minimal seeding in isogeneic, nonirradiated mice. It was originally suggested that the results imply the existence of special proliferative sites which are filled in the nonirradiated animal, but are emptied by high doses of irradiation. In 1982 the authors demonstrated the feasibility of establishing substantial numbers of donor cells in normal, non-irradiated hosts. After four daily transfusions of 50 million marrow cells, 20-40% of the host's marrow consisted of cells of donor origin. The present paper reports the marked enhancement of the proliferation of transfused marrow cells in mice exposed to sublethal doses of irradiation of 300-900 R. Two months later, when the peripheral blood counts of the irradiated animals had returned to normal, transfusion of 100 million cells resulted in donor cell percentages of 55-100% in the peripheral blood and marrow. The authors previously found that male donor cells proliferated as readily in female as in male hosts, while female donor cells proliferated to a comparable degree only in female hosts. In the present study, male animals that had been exposed to 600-900 R 2 months earlier sustained proliferation of male and female donor cells equally well

  19. Normal human bone marrow and its variations in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahlensieck, M.; Schmidt, H.M.

    2000-01-01

    Physiology and age dependant changes of human bone marrow are described. The resulting normal distribution patterns of active and inactive bone marrow including the various contrasts on different MR-sequences are discussed. (orig.) [de

  20. Biological conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix to treat long-segment sciatic nerve defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transplantation of polylactic glycolic acid conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix gel for the repair of sciatic nerve injury is effective in some respects, but few data comparing the biomechanical factors related to the sciatic nerve are available. In the present study, rabbit models of 10-mm sciatic nerve defects were prepared. The rabbit models were repaired with autologous nerve, a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, or a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel. After 24 weeks, mechanical testing was performed to determine the stress relaxation and creep parameters. Following sciatic nerve injury, the magnitudes of the stress decrease and strain increase at 7,200 seconds were largest in the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel group, followed by the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group, and then the autologous nerve group. Hematoxylin-eosin staining demonstrated that compared with the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group and the autologous nerve group, a more complete sciatic nerve regeneration was found, including good myelination, regularly arranged nerve fibers, and a completely degraded and resorbed conduit, in the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel group. These results indicate that bridging 10-mm sciatic nerve defects with a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel construct increases the stress relaxation under a constant strain, reducing anastomotic tension. Large elongations under a constant physiological load can limit the anastomotic opening and shift, which is beneficial for the regeneration and functional reconstruction of sciatic nerve. Better

  1. Association of murine lupus and thymic full-length endogenous retroviral expression maps to a bone marrow stem cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, A.M.; Gourley, M.F.; Steinberg, A.D.

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies of thymic gene expression in murine lupus have demonstrated 8.4-kb (full-length size) modified polytropic (Mpmv) endogenous retroviral RNA. In contrast, normal control mouse strains do not produce detectable amounts of such RNA in their thymuses. Prior studies have attributed a defect in experimental tolerance in murine lupus to a bone marrow stem cell rather than to the thymic epithelium; in contrast, infectious retroviral expression has been associated with the thymic epithelium, rather than with the bone marrow stem cell. The present study was designed to determine whether the abnormal Mpmv expression associated with murine lupus mapped to thymic epithelium or to a marrow precursor. Lethally irradiated control and lupus-prone mice were reconstituted with T cell depleted bone marrow; one month later their thymuses were studied for endogenous retroviral RNA and protein expression. Recipients of bone marrow from nonautoimmune donors expressed neither 8.4-kb Mpmv RNA nor surface MCF gp70 in their thymuses. In contrast, recipients of bone marrow from autoimmune NZB or BXSB donors expressed thymic 8.4-kb Mpmv RNA and mink cell focus-forming gp70. These studies demonstrate that lupus-associated 8.4-kb Mpmv endogenous retroviral expression is determined by bone marrow stem cells

  2. Cost comparative study of autologous peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) and bone marrow (ABM) transplantations for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woronoff-Lemsi, M C; Arveux, P; Limat, S; Deconinck, E; Morel, P; Cahn, J Y

    1997-12-01

    Intensive high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell support has become a common treatment strategy for non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. A cost-identification analysis was conducted comparing 10 patients autografted with PBSC to 10 others autografted with BM. The analysis included harvest and graft until graft day +100 and was carried out from the point of view of the hospital setting. Resources used, logistic and direct medical costs per patient were identified, and sensitivity analyses performed. The cost distribution was different. Stem cell harvest was more expensive for PBPC ($9030) and BM ($4745); on the other hand, hospitalization from graft to discharge from hospital cost savings with PBSC were about $10666. After discharge from hospital, costs were similar and cheaper in both groups. For the overall study the PBPC procedure was less expensive than ABMT, $35381 and $41759 respectively, with cost savings of $6378. The number of days spent in hospital and blood bank costs were the major cost factors. This study was based on a single pathology, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and the actual hospital records for each patient situation as opposed to a clinical trial, and our results were consistent with different previous studies carried out in different health care systems.

  3. Influence of bone metastases in the red marrow 131INa internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llina Fuentes, C.S.; Cabrejas, M.I.; Cabrejas, R.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This research analyses the evaluation of the absorbed dose in the bone marrow for developing a calculation formalism, based on MIRD methodology, to take into account the influence of bone metastases in patients treated with 131 INa due to thyroid differentiated cancer (DTC). A methodology of image processing is stated for later quantification purposes. The dose contribution, mainly electronic, from trabecular bone and cortical bone to red marrow is considered and a general equation is developed to add that contribution. The biodistribution of active bone marrow in adults bone regions is considered from different studies (Cristy (1981), ICRP 70 (1995), Bouchet et al. (2000), ICRP 89 (2004)). It is assumed that the 60% of red marrow is in the axial skeleton, 25% in ribs, femoral head, proximal portion of chimney and breast bone, and 10% in skull and scapula. Accordingly to this distribution, the bone regions with more percentage are included to calculate the influence in the red marrow absorbed dose. The absorbed dose in bone marrow is calculated considering 4 sources: bone marrow, bone tissue with metastases, rest of the bone tissue without metastases and rest of soft tissue. Conversion factors for fifteen regions of the skeleton, obtained from Eckerman Monte Carlo simulations, were used to calculate absorbed dose in each region of bone. The absorbed dose from this formalism is based on specific biokinetic data from patients and dosimetric models. It was considered of interest to compare the results with the biological dosimetry in parallel. From this biological method, the accumulated absorbed dose from previous therapies and also the bone marrow absorbed dose due to the last radioiodine treatment can be obtained in order to compare dose assessment results between the developed formalism and biological dosimetry. The results obtained with the proposed formalism, show that lesions in some bones regions contribute more to the absorbed dose than lesions in

  4. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation benefits for patients ≥ 60 years with acute myeloid leukemia and FLT3 internal tandem duplication: a study from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiré, Xavier; Labopin, Myriam; Polge, Emmanuelle; Passweg, Jakob; Craddock, Charles; Blaise, Didier; Cornelissen, Jan J; Volin, Liisa; Russell, Nigel H; Socié, Gérard; Michallet, Mauricette; Fegueux, Nathalie; Chevallier, Patrice; Brecht, Arne; Hunault-Berger, Mathilde; Mohty, Mohamad; Esteve, Jordi; Nagler, Arnon

    2018-02-01

    Intermediate-risk cytogenetic acute myeloid leukemia with an internal tandem duplication of FLT3 ( FLT3 -ITD) is associated with a high risk of relapse, and is now a standard indication for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Nevertheless, most studies supporting this strategy have been performed in young patients. To address the benefit of allogeneic transplantation in the elderly, we made a selection from the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry of de novo intermediate-risk cytogenetic acute myeloid leukemia harboring FLT3 -ITD in patients aged 60 or over and transplanted from a related or unrelated donor between January 2000 and December 2015. Two hundred and ninety-one patients were identified. Most patients received a reduced-intensity conditioning (82%), while donors consisted of an unrelated donor in 161 (55%) patients. Two hundred and twelve patients received their transplantation in first remission, 37 in second remission and 42 in a more advanced stage of the disease. The 2-year leukemia-free survival rate was 56% in patients in first remission, 22% in those in second remission and 10% in patients with active disease, respectively ( P <0.005). Non-relapse mortality for the entire cohort was 20%. In multivariate analysis, disease status at transplantation was the most powerful predictor of worse leukemia-free survival, graft- versus -host disease and relapse-free survival, and overall survival. In this elderly population, age was not associated with outcome. Based on the current results, allogeneic transplantation translates into a favorable outcome in fit patients ≥ 60 with FLT3 -ITD acute myeloid leukemia in first remission, similarly to current treatment recommendations for younger patients. Copyright© 2018 Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  5. Biochemical markers predictive for bone marrow involvement in systemic mastocytosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, Marjolein L.; van Doormaal, Jasper J.; van Doormaal, Frederiek F.; Kluin, Philip M.; van der Veer, Eveline; de Monchy, Jan G. R.; Kema, Ido P.; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.

    Systemic mastocytosis is characterized by bone marrow involvement, which requires a bone marrow biopsy for diagnostic work-up. We questioned whether bone marrow involvement could be predicted using biochemical markers. We selected patients with various symptoms suggestive of indolent systemic

  6. Bilateral Transplantation of Allogenic Adult Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells into the Subventricular Zone of Parkinson’s Disease: A Pilot Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Venkataramana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The progress of PD and its related disorders cannot be prevented with the medications available. In this study, we recruited 8 PD and 4 PD plus patients between 5 to 15 years after diagnosis. All patients received BM-MSCs bilaterally into the SVZ and were followed up for 12 months. PD patients after therapy reported a mean improvement of 17.92% during “on” and 31.21% during “off” period on the UPDRS scoring system. None of the patients increased their medication during the follow-up period. Subjectively, the patients reported clarity in speech, reduction in tremors, rigidity, and freezing attacks. The results correlated with the duration of the disease. Those patients transplanted in the early stages of the disease (less than 5 years showed more improvement and no further disease progression than the later stages (11–15 years. However, the PD plus patients did not show any change in their clinical status after stem cell transplantation. This study demonstrates the safety of adult allogenic human BM-MSCs transplanted into the SVZ of the brain and its efficacy in early-stage PD patients.

  7. Intractable Diseases Treated with Intra-Bone Marrow-Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming eLi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow transplantation (BMT is used to treat hematological disorders, autoimmune diseases and lymphoid cancers. Intra bone marrow-BMT (IBM-BMT has been proven to be a powerful strategy for allogeneic BMT due to the rapid hematopoietic recovery and the complete restoration of T cell functions. IBM-BMT not only replaces hematopoietic stem cells but also mesenchymal stem cells (MSMCs. MSMCs are multi-potent stem cells that can be isolated from bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, and adipose tissue. MSMCs play an important role in the support of hematopoiesis, and modify and influence the innate and adaptive immune systems. MSMCs also differentiate into mesodermal, endodermal and ectodermal lineage cells to repair tissues. This review aims to summarize the functions of bone marrow-derived- MSMCs, and the treatment of intractable diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and malignant tumors with IBM-BMT.

  8. PET in Benign Bone Marrow Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Bruggen, Wouter; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Vellenga, Edo; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.

    This review aims to describe the current status of benign bone marrow (BM) imaging using PET. BM imaging is important as the BM is not only involved in poiesis of different vital cell lines and. can be affected by primary BM disorders, but it is also frequently affected by several extramedullary

  9. Diabetes Mellitus Induces Bone Marrow Microangiopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikawa, Atsuhiko; Siragusa, Mauro; Quaini, Federico; Mangialardi, Giuseppe; Katare, Rajesh G.; Caporali, Andrea; van Buul, Jaap D.; van Alphen, Floris P. J.; Graiani, Gallia; Spinetti, Gaia; Kraenkel, Nicolle; Prezioso, Lucia; Emanueli, Costanza; Madeddu, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Objective-The impact of diabetes on the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment was not adequately explored. We investigated whether diabetes induces microvascular remodeling with negative consequence for BM homeostasis. Methods and Results-We found profound structural alterations in BM from mice with

  10. Allogeneic and Autologous Bone-Marrow Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Deeg, H. Joachim

    1988-01-01

    The author of this paper presents an overview of the current status of bone marrow transplantation, including indications, pre-transplant considerations, the transplant procedure, acute and delayed transplant-related problems, results currently attainable, and a short discussion of possible future developments.

  11. Periapical multilocular osteoporotic bone marrow defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho, Bong Hae; Nah, Kyung Soo

    2005-01-01

    A case of osteoporotic bone marrow defect, which appeared as a well-defined multilocular radiolucency overlapping the roots of mandibular right second molar, was reported. On periapical radiograph, a daughter cyst-like radiolucency was seen at the anterior margin of the lesion making it difficult to rule out odontogenic keratocyst.

  12. Periapical multilocular osteoporotic bone marrow defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho, Bong Hae; Nah, Kyung Soo [Pusan National University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-12-15

    A case of osteoporotic bone marrow defect, which appeared as a well-defined multilocular radiolucency overlapping the roots of mandibular right second molar, was reported. On periapical radiograph, a daughter cyst-like radiolucency was seen at the anterior margin of the lesion making it difficult to rule out odontogenic keratocyst.

  13. A proteome study of secreted prostatic factors affecting osteoblastic activity: galectin-1 is involved in differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H; Jensen, Ole N; Moiseeva, Elena P

    2003-01-01

    Prostate cancer cells metastasize to bone causing a predominantly osteosclerotic response. It has been shown that cells from the human prostate cancer cell line PC3 secrete factors that influence the behavior of osteoblast-like cells. Some of these factors with mitogenic activity have been found...... to be proteins with molecular weights between 20 and 30 kDa, but the identity of the osteoblastic mitogenic factor or factors produced by prostate cancer cells is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize the protein profile of conditioned medium (CM) from PC3 cells in the molecular......BMS) cells. Furthermore, we tested whether adhesion of PC3 cells to plastic, laminin, fibronectin, and collagen type I was influenced by lactose, which inhibits galectin-1. Galectin-1 (1000 ng/ml) inhibited the proliferation of hBMS cells up to 70 +/- 12% (treated/control) of control in contrast to PC3 CM...

  14. The influence of TSA and VPA on the in vitro differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into neuronal lineage cells: Gene expression studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fila-Danilow, Anna; Borkowska, Paulina; Paul-Samojedny, Monika; Kowalczyk, Malgorzata; Kowalski, Jan

    2017-03-27

    Epigenetic mechanisms regulate the transcription of genes, which can affect the differentiation of MSCs. The aim of the current work is to determine how the histone deacetylase inhibitors TSA and VPA affect the expression of neuronal lineage genes in a culture of rat MSCs (rMSCs). We analyzed the expression of early neuron marker gene (Tubb3), mature neuron markers genes (Vacht, Th, Htr2a) and the oligodendrocyte progenitor marker gene (GalC). Moreover, changes in the gene expression after three different periods of exposure to TSA and VPA were investigated for the first time. After six days of exposition to TSA and VPA, the expression of Tubb3 and GalC decreased, while the expression of Th increased. The highest increase of VAChT expression was observed after three days of TSA and VPA treatment. A decrease in Htr2a gene expression was observed after TSA treatment and an increase was observed after VPA treatment. We also observed that TSA and VPA inhibited cell proliferation and the formation of neurospheres in the rMSCs culture. The central findings of our study are that TSA and VPA affect the expression of neuronal lineage genes in an rMSCs culture. After exposure to TSA or VPA, the expression of early neuronal gene decreases but equally the expression of mature neuron genes increases. After TSA and VPA treatment ER of the oligodendrocyte progenitor marker decreased. TSA and VPA inhibit cell proliferation and the formation of neurospheres in rMSCs culture.

  15. Evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of bone marrow trephine biopsy tests in an Indian teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Chauhan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bone marrow aspiration (BMA and bone marrow biopsy (BMB is an indispensable diagnostic tool for evaluating haematological and non-haematological disorders and patient follow-up in present era. We have compared the advantages of trephine biopsy over bone marrow aspiration in these patients. Aim and objective: To evaluate sensitivity and specificity of trephine biopsy test for haematological and non haematological disorder patients in comparison to bone marrow aspiration test. Materials and method: In this 1 year prospective study (June 2014–May 2015, we evaluated the haematological and non-haematological disorder patients by BMA and BMB (aided with I.H.C. when ever needed. The sensitivity and specificity of the tests were calculated. Results: Among, final 504 hemotological/non haematological disorder patients, 416 cases were diagnosed (+ve in BMA test, where as it was 494 in BMB test and with chi2 test it was highly significant as p = 0.0001. It was concluded that True positive cases were 416, True negative were 9 cases, false negative 78 cases and false positive was in one case only. The sensitivity and specificity of bone marrow trephine biopsy test was 84% and 90% respectively. Conclusion: BMB (aided with I.H.C is a gold standard test for detecting different haematological and non hamatological disorders. In our study the sensitivity and specificity of BMB test was 84% and 90% respectively. When performed in association with BMA in the same sitting, significantly augments the chances of reaching a correct diagnosis. Keywords: Bone marrow trephine biopsy, Bone marrow aspiration, Sensitivity, Specificity

  16. Mechanism of stimulation of antibody-forming ability of bone marrow cells of mice immunized with staphylococci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyashchenko, K.P.; Golovanova, T.A.; Bobrovnik, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the formation of the ability of the bone marrow cells of mice immunized with staphylococci to create antibodies to this antigen. The research includes a study of the effect of the irradiation in vitro of the bone marrow cells on their stimulating activity and the role played by the thymus and spleen in the formation of this activity. Experiments were carried out on CBA and BALB/c mice as well as on mice with congenital absence of the thymus. The bone marrow cell donors were immunized intravenously with staphylococcal corpuscular antigen. Receptor mice were irradiated with cobalt 60 gamma radiation and injected intravenously with bone marrow cell extract from the immunized donors and were immunized with the antigen. Spleen cells were labelled with chromium 51 and injected intravenously into intact syngeneic recipients together with as well as without the antigen. Three days later the level of radioactivity in the spleen and femora of the animals was determined by scintillation counting. Total radioactivity of the bone marrow was calculated. Irradiation of the bone marrow cells of immunized animals was shown to abolish their stimulating effect on the humoral immune response of intact syngeneic recipients to the staphylococcal corpuscular antigen. Consequently, the immunostimulating effect of bone marrow cells is realized through the proliferating and radiosensitive lymphoid cells rather than through the macrophages

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of the bone marrow in hematological malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, B.C. vande; Lecouvet, F.E.; Maldague, B.; Malghem, J.; Michaux, L.; Ferrant, A.

    1998-01-01

    Despite its lack of specificity, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the bone marrow has the potential to play a role in the management of patients with primary neoplastic disorders of the hematopoietic system, including lymphomas, leukemias and multiple myeloma. In addition to its use in the assessment of suspected spinal cord compression, bone marrow MRI could be used as a prognostic method or as a technique to assess the response to treatment. The current review addresses the common patterns of bone marrow involvement observed in primary neoplasms of the bone marrow, basic technical principles of bone marrow MRI, and several applications of MRI in selected clinical situations. (orig.) (orig.)

  18. SU-E-J-250: A Methodology for Active Bone Marrow Protection for Cervical Cancer Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Using 18F-FLT PET/CT Image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, C; Yin, Y

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare a radiation therapy treatment planning that would spare active bone marrow and whole pelvic bone marrow using 18F FLT PET/CT image. Methods: We have developed an IMRT planning methodology to incorporate functional PET imaging using 18F FLT/CT scans. Plans were generated for two cervical cancer patients, where pelvicactive bone marrow region was incorporated as avoidance regions based on the range: SUV>2., another region was whole pelvic bone marrow. Dose objectives were set to reduce the volume of active bone marrow and whole bone marraw. The volumes of received 10 (V10) and 20 (V20) Gy for active bone marrow were evaluated. Results: Active bone marrow regions identified by 18F FLT with an SUV>2 represented an average of 48.0% of the total osseous pelvis for the two cases studied. Improved dose volume histograms for identified bone marrow SUV volumes and decreases in V10(average 18%), and V20(average 14%) were achieved without clinically significant changes to PTV or OAR doses. Conclusion: Incorporation of 18F FLT/CT PET in IMRT planning provides a methodology to reduce radiation dose to active bone marrow without compromising PTV or OAR dose objectives in cervical cancer

  19. LONG-LIVED BONE MARROW PLASMA CELLS DURING IMMUNE RESPONSE TO ALPHA (1→3 DEXTRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Chernyshova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Production kinetics and some functional properties of long-lived marrow plasma cells were studied in mice immunized with T-independent type 2 antigens. Alpha (1→3 dextran was used as an antigen for immunization. The mice were immunized by dextran, and the numbers of IgM antibody producing cells were determined by ELISPOT method. The cell phenotype was determined by cytofluorimetric technique. In the area of normal bone marrow lymphocytes ~4% of T and ~85% of B cells were detected. About 35% of the cells expressed a plasmocyte marker (CD138; 3% were CD138+IgM+, and about 6% of the lymphocytes were double-positive for CD138+IgA+. Among spleen lymphocytes, 50% of T and 47% of B cells were detected. About 1.5% lymphocytes were CD138+, and 0.5% were positive for CD138 and IgM. Time kinetics of antibody-producing cells in bone marrow and spleen was different. In spleen populations, the peak amounts of antibody-secreting cells have been shown on the day 4; the process abated by the day 28. Vice versa, the numbers of the antibody-producing cells in bone marrow started to increase on the day 4. The process reached its maximum on day 14, and after 28th day became stationary. The in vitro experiments have shown that supplementation of bone marrow cells from immune mice with dextran did not influence their functional activity. It was previously shown for cells responding to T-dependent antigens only. A specific marker for the long-lived plasma cells is still unknown. However, these cells possess a common CD138 marker specific for all plasma cells. A method for isolation of bone marrow CD138+ cells was developed. The CD138+ cells were of 87-97% purity, being enriched in long-lived bone marrow cells, and produced monospecific antibodies.

  20. Factors affecting directional migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to the injured spinal cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Peng; Pan, Su; Cheng, Jieping; Yang, Maoguang; Qi, Zhiping; Hou, Tingting; Yang, Xiaoyu

    2014-01-01

    Microtubule-associated protein 1B plays an important role in axon guidance and neuronal migration. In the present study, we sought to discover the mechanisms underlying microtubule-associated protein 1B mediation of axon guidance and neuronal migration. We exposed bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to okadaic acid or N-acetyl-D-erythro-sphingosine (an inhibitor and stimulator, respectively, of protein phosphatase 2A) for 24 hours. The expression of the phosphorylated form of type I microtubule-associated protein 1B in the cells was greater after exposure to okadaic acid and lower after N-acetyl-D-erythro-sphingosine. We then injected the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells through the ear vein into rabbit models of spinal cord contusion. The migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells towards the injured spinal cord was poorer in cells exposed to okadaic acid- and N-acetyl-D-erythro-sphingosine than in non-treated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Finally, we blocked phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathways in rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells using the inhibitors LY294002 and U0126, respectively. LY294002 resulted in an elevated expression of phosphorylated type I microtubule-associated protein 1B, whereas U0126 caused a reduction in expression. The present data indicate that PI3K and ERK1/2 in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells modulate the phosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein 1B via a cross-signaling network, and affect the migratory efficiency of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells towards injured spinal cord. PMID:25374590

  1. Impaired endothelial progenitor cell mobilization and dysfunctional bone marrow stroma in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerweel, Peter E; Teraa, Martin; Rafii, Shahin; Jaspers, Janneke E; White, Ian A; Hooper, Andrea T; Doevendans, Pieter A; Verhaar, Marianne C

    2013-01-01

    Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cell (EPC) levels are reduced in diabetes mellitus. This may be a consequence of impaired mobilization of EPC from the bone marrow. We hypothesized that under diabetic conditions, mobilization of EPC from the bone marrow to the circulation is impaired -at least partly- due to dysfunction of the bone marrow stromal compartment. Diabetes was induced in mice by streptozotocin injection. Circulating Sca-1(+)Flk-1(+) EPC were characterized and quantified by flow cytometry at baseline and after mobilization with G-CSF/SCF injections. In vivo hemangiogenic recovery was tested by 5-FU challenge. Interaction within the bone marrow environment between CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) and supporting stroma was assessed by co-cultures. To study progenitor cell-endothelial cell interaction under normoglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions, a co-culture model using E4Orf1-transfected human endothelial cells was employed. In diabetic mice, bone marrow EPC levels were unaffected. However, circulating EPC levels in blood were lower at baseline and mobilization was attenuated. Diabetic mice failed to recover and repopulate from 5-FU injection. In vitro, primary cultured bone marrow stroma from diabetic mice was impaired in its capacity to support human CFU-forming HPC. Finally, hyperglycemia hampered the HPC supportive function of endothelial cells in vitro. EPC mobilization is impaired under experimental diabetic conditions and our data suggest that diabetes induces alterations in the progenitor cell supportive capacity of the bone marrow stroma, which could be partially responsible for the attenuated EPC mobilization and reduced EPC levels observed in diabetic patients.

  2. Impaired endothelial progenitor cell mobilization and dysfunctional bone marrow stroma in diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter E Westerweel

    Full Text Available Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cell (EPC levels are reduced in diabetes mellitus. This may be a consequence of impaired mobilization of EPC from the bone marrow. We hypothesized that under diabetic conditions, mobilization of EPC from the bone marrow to the circulation is impaired -at least partly- due to dysfunction of the bone marrow stromal compartment.Diabetes was induced in mice by streptozotocin injection. Circulating Sca-1(+Flk-1(+ EPC were characterized and quantified by flow cytometry at baseline and after mobilization with G-CSF/SCF injections. In vivo hemangiogenic recovery was tested by 5-FU challenge. Interaction within the bone marrow environment between CD34(+ hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC and supporting stroma was assessed by co-cultures. To study progenitor cell-endothelial cell interaction under normoglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions, a co-culture model using E4Orf1-transfected human endothelial cells was employed.In diabetic mice, bone marrow EPC levels were unaffected. However, circulating EPC levels in blood were lower at baseline and mobilization was attenuated. Diabetic mice failed to recover and repopulate from 5-FU injection. In vitro, primary cultured bone marrow stroma from diabetic mice was impaired in its capacity to support human CFU-forming HPC. Finally, hyperglycemia hampered the HPC supportive function of endothelial cells in vitro.EPC mobilization is impaired under experimental diabetic conditions and our data suggest that diabetes induces alterations in the progenitor cell supportive capacity of the bone marrow stroma, which could be partially responsible for the attenuated EPC mobilization and reduced EPC levels observed in diabetic patients.

  3. Analysis of bone marrow plasma cells in patients with solitary bone plasmacytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Archana; Gupta, Ritu; Sharma, Atul; Kumar, Lalit; Jain, Paresh

    Local radiotherapy is the treatment of choice for solitary bone plasmacytoma (SBP) and the role of adjuvant systemic chemotherapy in preventing progression to multiple myeloma (MM) is controversial. The purpose of this study was to examine the presence of systemic disease in the form of neoplastic plasma cells (PC) in bone marrow of patients with SBP. Flow cytometric immunophenotyping of PC was carried out on bone marrow aspirate of 7 patients using monoclonal antibodies: CD19 FITC, CD45 FITC, CD20 FITC, CD52 PE, CD117 PE, CD56 PE, CD38 PerCP-Cy5.5, CD138 APC, anti-kappa (κ) FITC and anti-lambda (λ) PE. The neoplastic as well as normal PC were identified in bone marrow aspirate of all the patients at the time of diagnosis; the neoplastic PC ranged from 0.1%to 0.7% of all BM cells and 33.5% to 89.7% of total BMPC. The κ:λ ratio was normal in all the samples ranging from 0.5% to 1.6%. The present work shows the presence of systemic disease in the form of neoplastic PC in bone marrow of patients with SBP. Prospective studies would be required to study if the levels of neoplastic PC in the bone marrow may help us identify patients who are likely to progress to overt MM and benefit from systemic chemotherapy.

  4. Study on proliferative responses to host Ia antigens in allogeneic bone marrow chimera in mice: sequential analysis of the reactivity and characterization of the cells involved in the responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwabuchi, K.; Ogasawara, K.; Ogasawara, M.; Yasumizu, R.; Noguchi, M.; Geng, L.; Fujita, M.; Good, R.A.; Onoe, K.

    1987-01-01

    Irradiation bone marrow chimeras were established by reconstitution of lethally irradiated AKR mice with C57BL/10 marrow cells to permit serial analysis of the developing reactivities of lymphocytes from such chimeras, [B10----AKR], against donor, host, or third party antigens. We found that substantial proliferative responses to Ia antigens of the recipient strain and also to third party antigens were generated by the thymocytes obtained from the irradiation chimeras at an early stage after bone marrow reconstitution. The majority of the responding thymocytes had surfaces lacking demonstrable peanut agglutinin receptors and were donor type Thy-1+, Ly-2-, and L3T4+ in both anti-recipient and anti-third party MLR. In anti-host responses, however, Ly-2+ thymocytes seemed to be at least partially involved. This capacity of thymus cells to mount a response to antigens of the recipient strain declined shortly thereafter, whereas the capacity to mount MLR against third party antigens persisted. The spleen cells of [B10----AKR] chimeras at the same time developed a more durable capability to exhibit anti-host reactivities and a permanent capability of reacting to third party allo-antigens. The stimulator antigens were Ia molecules on the stimulator cells in both anti-recipient and anti-third party MLR. The responding splenocytes were of donor origin and most of them had Thy-1+, Ly-1+2-, and L3T4+ phenotype

  5. Bone marrow involvement in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: correlation between FDG-PET uptake and type of cellular infiltrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paone, Gaetano; Itti, Emmanuel; Lin, Chieh; Meignan, Michel; Haioun, Corinne; Dupuis, Jehan; Gaulard, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    To assess, in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), whether the low sensitivity of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for bone marrow assessment may be explained by histological characteristics of the cellular infiltrate. From a prospective cohort of 110 patients with newly diagnosed aggressive lymphoma, 21 patients with DLBCL had bone marrow involvement. Pretherapeutic FDG-PET images were interpreted visually and semiquantitatively, then correlated with the type of cellular infiltrate and known prognostic factors. Of these 21 patients, 7 (33%) had lymphoid infiltrates with a prominent component of large transformed lymphoid cells (concordant bone marrow involvement, CBMI) and 14 (67%) had lymphoid infiltrates composed of small cells (discordant bone marrow involvement, DBMI). Only 10 patients (48%) had abnormal bone marrow FDG uptake, 6 of the 7 with CBMI and 4 of the 14 with DBMI. Therefore, FDG-PET positivity in the bone marrow was significantly associated with CBMI, while FDG-PET negativity was associated with DBMI (Fisher's exact test, p=0.024). There were no significant differences in gender, age and overall survival between patients with CBMI and DBMI, while the international prognostic index was significantly higher in patients with CBMI. Our study suggests that in patients with DLBCL with bone marrow involvement bone marrow FDG uptake depends on two types of infiltrate, comprising small (DBMI) or large (CBMI) cells. This may explain the apparent low sensitivity of FDG-PET previously reported for detecting bone marrow involvement. (orig.)

  6. Clinical Utility of Dual-Energy CT Analysis of Bone Marrow Edema in Acute Wrist Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ismail T; Wong, William D; Liang, Teresa; Khosa, Faisal; Mian, Memoona; Jalal, Sabeena; Nicolaou, Savvas

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the utility of dual-energy CT (DECT) for assessing carpal fractures and to obtain an attenuation value cutoff (in Hounsfield units) to identify bone marrow edema due to an acute carpal fracture. In this retrospective study, 24 patients who presented with wrist fractures from September 3, 2014, through March 9, 2015, underwent imaging with DECT (80 and 140 kVp). Using the three-material decomposition algorithm specific for virtual noncalcium to construct images, two radiologists identified carpal fractures and associated bone marrow edema. Readers noted the attenuation at areas with and without bone marrow edema. The cutoff value was obtained by ROC analysis and was internally validated on 13 separate patients with suspected wrist fractures. A p edema than in areas without it (p edema associated with acute wrist fractures with 100% sensitivity and 99.5% specificity, compared with visual DECT interpretation. In the 13 validation cases, the cutoff of 5.90 HU identified bone marrow edema with 100% accuracy, compared with visual interpretation. Kappa values were 0.83 between the two readings by reader 1, and 0.73 and 0.96 comparing the two readings of reader 1 with the reading by reader 2. DECT is a useful tool for identifying bone marrow edema in the setting of acute wrist fractures, providing an alternative to MRI. A cutoff value of 5.90 HU can be used for accurate diagnosis and exclusion of carpal fractures.

  7. Association of bone marrow edema with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis and internal derangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahaj, Aiyesha; Hafeez, Kashif; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail

    2017-01-01

    This study reviewed the dental literature in order to determine the association of bone marrow edema with osteoarthritis and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) internal derangement disorders. A literature search was performed using electronic databases PubMed/Medline (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland) and Cochrane for articles published during the last 15 years (January 2000-December 2014). A predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria were used for filtering the scientific papers. Research articles fulfilling the basic inclusion criteria were included in the review. The reviewed studies showed that bone marrow edema is found in painful joints with osteoarthritis in a majority of cases. A few cases with no pain or significant degenerative changes are reported to have a bone marrow edema pattern as well. Bone marrow edema, increased fluid level, and pain are associated with osteoarthritis in the majority of patients reporting TMJ arthritis. Degenerative and disc displacement conditions are multifactorial and require further investigations. Magnetic resonance imaging can be employed to detect bone marrow edema even in the absence of pain and clinical symptoms in the patients of internal derangements.

  8. Increased bone marrow uptake of gallium-67 in patients with fever of unknown origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, L.G.; Jinnouchi, S.; Nagamachi, S.; Ohnishi, T.; Futami, S.; Watanabe, K.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose of the study: we studied the relationships of clinical diagnosis, the effect of blood chemistry and the clinical implication of increased gallium-67 in the bone marrow of patients presenting signs and symptoms of FUO. Materials and Methods: Based on intensity of gallium-67 uptake in bone marrow, patients were classified as follows: Type 1 when there is no evidence or very faint bone marrow uptake in vertebrae, Type 2 when mild to moderate, Type 3 when uptake is severe. The relationships of white blood cell count (WBC), hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit count, serum iron and unsaturated iron biding capacity (UIBC) with the occurrence of increased bone marrow uptake in the different groups were noted. Analysis of variance with Fishers Protected Least Significant Difference was used. A.p. value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The results showed significant differences between Types 1 and 2 and between Type 1 and 3 for WBC counts, serum hemoglobin and serum hematocrit level. Serum iron concentration and UIBC however, did not show any significant differences. Conclusion: Significant changes in WBC count, Hb concentration and Hct count in FUO patients were accompanied by varying intensity of gallium-67 uptake in the bone marrow. (author)

  9. The usefulness of bone-marrow scintigraphy in the detection of bone metastasis from prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Nobuaki; Fukunaga, Masao; Sone, Teruki; Yoneda, Masaya; Tomomitsu, Tatsushi; Yanagimoto, Shinichi; Muranaka, Akira; Morita, Rikushi; Saito, Noriaki; Tanaka, Hiroyoshi

    1985-01-01

    We used a combination of bone and bone-marrow scintigraphy to study 25 patients with prostatic cancer. Of the 18 cases whose sup(99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scans s