Becker, Charles M; Mirkasimov, Bakhrom; Steiner, Susan
We study the impact of marriages resulting from bride kidnapping on infant birth weight. Bride kidnapping-a form of forced marriage-implies that women are abducted by men and have little choice other than to marry their kidnappers. Given this lack of choice over the spouse, we expect adverse consequences for women in such marriages. Remarkable survey data from the Central Asian nation of Kyrgyzstan enable exploration of differential birth outcomes for women in kidnap-based and other types of marriage using both OLS and IV estimation. We find that children born to mothers in kidnap-based marriages have lower birth weight compared with children born to other mothers. The largest difference is between kidnap-based and arranged marriages: the magnitude of the birth weight loss is in the range of 2 % to 6 % of average birth weight. Our finding is one of the first statistically sound estimates of the impact of forced marriage and implies not only adverse consequences for the women involved but potentially also for their children.
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certification as to marriage laws. 52.3 Section 52.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS MARRIAGES § 52.3 Certification as to marriage laws. Although a consular officer may have knowledge respecting the laws of marriage...
Cherlin, Andrew J; Ribar, David; Yasutake, Suzumi
Many aggregate-level studies suggest a relationship between economic inequality and socio-demographic outcomes such as family formation, health, and mortality; but individual-level evidence is lacking. Nor is there satisfactory evidence on the mechanisms by which inequality may have an effect. We study the determinants of transitions to a nonmarital first birth as a single parent or as a cohabiting parent compared to transitions to marriage prior to a first birth among unmarried, childless young adults in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 cohort, from 1997 to 2011. We include measures of county-group-level household income inequality and of the availability of jobs typically held by high-school graduates and which pay above-poverty wages. We find that greater income inequality is associated with a reduced likelihood of transitioning to marriage prior to a first birth for both women and men. The association between levels of inequality and transitions to marriage can be partially accounted for by the availability of jobs of the type we measured. Some models also suggest that greater income inequality is associated with a reduced likelihood of transitioning to a first birth while cohabiting.
Glick, Peter; Handy, Christopher; Sahn, David E
The low school attainment, early marriage, and low age at first birth of females are major policy concerns in less developed countries. This study jointly estimated the determinants of educational attainment, marriage age, and age at first birth among females aged 12-25 in Madagascar, explicitly accounting for the endogeneities that arose from modelling these related outcomes simultaneously. An additional year of schooling results in a delay to marriage of 1.5 years and marrying 1 year later delays age at first birth by 0.5 years. Parents' education and wealth also have important effects on schooling, marriage, and age at first birth, with a woman's first birth being delayed by 0.75 years if her mother had 4 additional years of schooling. Overall, our results provide rigorous evidence for the critical role of education-both individual women's own and that of their parents-in delaying the marriage and fertility of young women.
Blot, W.J.; Shimizu, Y.; Kato, H.; Miller, R.W.
Frequency of marriage and birth as of January 1973 was determined for persons exposed in utero to the atomic bombs in 1945 and for controls. The marriage rate was lower in persons heavily exposed in utero than in the non-exposed or lightly exposed. This difference is attributed partly to the lesser marriageability of persons with mental retardation who are significantly more numerous among the heavily exposed, and partly to unmeasured variables, possibly including social discrimination against survivors of the atomic bomb. No consistent relation was observed between radiation exposure and three reproductive indices: childless marriages, number of births, and interval between marriage and first birth
Maswikwa, Belinda; Richter, Linda; Kaufman, Jay; Nandi, Arijit
The relationship of national laws that prohibit child marriage with the prevalence of child marriage and adolescent birth is not well understood. Data from Demographic and Health Surveys and from the Child Marriage Database created by the MACHEquity program at McGill University were used to examine the relationship between laws that consistently set the age for marriage for girls at 18 or older and the prevalence of child marriage and teenage childbearing in 12 Sub-Saharan African countries. Countries were considered to have consistent laws against child marriage if they required females to be 18 or older to marry, to marry with parental consent and to consent to sex. Associations between consistent laws and the two outcomes were identified using multivariate regression models. Four of the 12 countries had laws that consistently set the minimum age for marriage at 18 or older. After adjustment for covariates, the prevalence of child marriage was 40% lower in countries with consistent laws against child marriage than in countries without consistent laws against the practice (prevalence ratio, 0.6). The prevalence of teenage childbearing was 25% lower in countries with consistent minimum marriage age laws than in countries without consistent laws (0.8). Our results support the hypothesis that consistent minimum marriage age laws protect against the exploitation of girls.
Uchida, E; Araki, S; Murata, K
The effects of low income, urbanisation and young age population on age-adjusted rates of first marriage, divorce and live birth among the Japanese population in 46 prefectures were analysed by stepwise regression for 1970 and for 1975. During this period, Japanese society experienced a drastic change from long-lasting economic growth to serious recession in 1973. In both 1970 and 1975, the first marriage rate for females was inversely related to low income and the divorce rates for both males and females were positively related to low income. The live birth rate was significantly related to low income, urbanisation and young age population only in 1975. The first marriage rate for females and the divorce rates for both sexes increased significantly but the first marriage rate for males and live birth rate significantly decreased between 1970 and 1975. These findings suggest that low income was the essential factor affecting first marriage for females and divorce for males and females.
Natasya Immanuela Sandjojo
Full Text Available Research due to the law on the abrogation of birth certificates against children aims to know the effect of law affecting the child, as well as review of the determination and judgment in court that play a role in the birth certificate abrogation. This research describes the importance of birth certificate because of the low public awareness to perform birth registration. The study uses normative juridical research, which faces legal issues with the process of discovering legal rules, principles, and legal doctrines, with deductive methods, starting from the general thing and then generating specific and legitimate answers. Based on the results of the study, that the abrogation of birth certificate brings great lawful consequences for the child, especially the status and position of the child, as well as the right of alimentation, which in this study included some examples of determination and court decision about the birth certificate abrogation.
Cohan, Catherine L; Cole, Steve W
Change in marriage, birth, and divorce rates following Hurricane Hugo in 1989 were examined prospectively from 1975 to 1997 for all counties in South Carolina. Stress research and research on economic circumstances suggested that marriages and births would decline and divorces would increase in affected counties after the hurricane. Attachment theory suggested that marriages and births would increase and divorces would decline after the hurricane. Time-series analysis indicated that the year following the hurricane, marriage, birth, and divorce rates increased in the 24 counties declared disaster areas compared with the 22 other counties in the state. Taken together, the results suggested that a life-threatening event motivated people to take significant action in their close relationships that altered their life course.
Wu, Lawrence L.; Shafer, Emily Fitzgibbons
We examine cohort trends in premarital first births for U.S. women born between 1920 and 1964. The rise in premarital first births is often argued to be a consequence of the retreat from marriage, with later ages at first marriage resulting in more years of exposure to the risk of a premarital first birth. However, cohort trends in premarital first births may also reflect trends in premarital sexual activity, premarital conceptions, and how premarital conceptions are resolved. We decompose observed cohort trends in premarital first births into components reflecting cohort trends in (1) the age-specific risk of a premarital conception taken to term; (2) the age-specific risk of first marriages not preceded by such a conception, which will influence women’s years of exposure to the risk of a premarital conception; and (3) whether a premarital conception is resolved by entering a first marriage before the resulting first birth (a “shotgun marriage”). For women born between 1920–1924 and 1945–1949, increases in premarital first births were primarily attributable to increases in premarital conceptions. For women born between 1945–1949 and 1960–1964, increases in premarital first births were primarily attributable to declines in responding to premarital conceptions by marrying before the birth. Trends in premarital first births were affected only modestly by the retreat from marriages not preceded by conceptions—a finding that holds for both whites and blacks. These results cast doubt on hypotheses concerning “marriageable” men and instead suggest that increases in premarital first births resulted initially from increases in premarital sex and then later from decreases in responding to a conception by marrying before a first birth. PMID:24072609
Chung, Woojin; Lee, Kyoungae; Lee, Sunmi
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of women's late age of marriage on the interval between marriage and their first birth. Data from Year 2000 Korea National Fertility Survey was collected through direct interview questionings, and the data was analyzed based on randomly selected sampling. In particular, the married women (N=5,648) were analyzed for the factors that determined the first-birth interval by performing Cox's proportional hazard model survival analysis. Unlike previous findings, the woman whose age of marriage was 30 or more was more likely to delay the birth of her first baby than were the other women who married earlier. Further, a woman's age at marriage, a woman's residence before marriage, her husband's religion, her husband's level of education and the difference in age between the woman and her husband significantly influenced the first-birth interval. In contrast, for a married woman, her age, level of education, current residence and religion were not significant predictors of her first birth interval. Our study showed that women who married at the age of 30 years or more tend to postpone their first birth in Korea. When facing the increasing number of women who marry at a late age, the Korean government should implement population and social policies to encourage married women have their first child as early as possible.
Kinlen, Leo J
The aim of this study was to examine available data on breast cancer and age at first marriage from a new perspective: that is, marriage involves the closest contact and contact effects are relevant to the question of infection, a possibility long considered in this disorder. The large Seven Country Study, carried out in 1964-1968, investigated age at first marriage; its reports were examined carefully for details of possible relevance. Intriguing gaps were noted in the grounds for the conclusion by this study that late age at first birth explained an earlier reported association with late age at marriage, with risks presented by age at first marriage for nulliparous, but not for parous, married women. Only in one centre, Glamorgan Wales, and only for two age groups could risks by combined ages at first marriage and first birth be derived. When both events occurred at age 30 or older, the risk estimate was 7.0 (95% confidence interval: 5.2, 9.1) relative to when both events occurred younger than age 20, whereas the corresponding risk was 1.4 (95% confidence interval: 1.1, 1.8) when age at first birth was 30 or older but marriage was younger than age 30. The above findings are consistent with an effect of age at first marriage, and a basis in contacts or infection is considered plausible. However, other explanations may exist, and this report primarily aims to encourage examination of the subject in other datasets, particularly where intersexual contrasts in infective exposures have probably existed.
Langlois Peter H
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the most recent revision (2003 of the U.S. standard certificate of live births, the National Center for Health Statistics recommended that all states collect maternal and paternal usual occupation. Because such information might be useful in the surveillance of job-related risk areas, we assessed the quality of parental work information on the U.S. birth certificate. Methods Occupational histories obtained from maternal interviews with Texas (USA participants in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study were linked to and compared with parental work information on birth certificates. With occupational information from interviews serving as the gold standard, we assessed the quality of occupational information on the birth certificate with measures of sensitivity, specificity, and the kappa statistic. Results Of the 649 births available for study, parental occupation agreed between the birth certificate and interview for 77% of mothers and 63% of fathers with similar agreement by case-control status. Among occupations and industries with 10 or more workers by interview, sensitivity of the birth certificate information ranged from 35% to 100% for occupational groups and 55% to 100% for industrial sectors. Specificities of occupations/industries studied ranged from 93 to 100%. Kappa statistics for maternal occupations (0.76 to 0.90 and industries (0.59 to 0.94 were higher than those for paternal occupations (0.48 to 0.92 and industries (0.47 to 0.89. Mothers were frequently misclassified as homemakers or otherwise unemployed while the paternal information was often missing altogether on the birth certificate. Women who worked as health diagnosing and treating practitioners were the least likely (0% and women in food preparation or serving occupations were the most likely (65% to be misclassified as not employed on the birth certificate. Among fathers, the proportion of missing occupations was the lowest for occupations in
Terry-Humen, Elizabeth; Manlove, Jennifer; Moore, Kristin A.
Research supports the anecdotal observation that unmarried mothers and their children face greater obstacles and suffer greater strains than married couples and their children. Less is known about the specific characteristics of the women who have births outside of marriage. This research brief paints a fuller picture of nonmarital childbearing.…
Duncan, Jeffrey Dean
Exchanging patient-specific information across heterogeneous information systems is a critical but increasingly complex and expensive challenge. Lacking a universal unique identifier for healthcare, patient records must be linked using combinations of identity attributes such as name, date of birth, and sex. A state's birth certificate registry…
Petersen, Inge; Martinussen, Torben; McGue, Matthew
compare rates of marriage and divorce in a sample of 35,975 twins and 81,803 singletons born 1940-1964. Cox-regressions are used in order to control for potential confounders. We find that compared with singletons twins have significantly lower marriage rates: (males: 15-19 years: Hazard Ratio (HR) = 0...... twins compared with singletons (HR=0.87, 95%CI: 0.83-0.90). These differences offset each other, thus 57% of both populations remain in their first marriage until censoring. The interpretation may be that since twins have a partner from birth, they do not have the same need for marriage as singletons...
Piper, J M; Mitchel, E F; Snowden, M; Hall, C; Adams, M; Taylor, P
In 1989, the state of Tennessee adopted a new birth certificate which incorporates changes recommended by the National Center for Health Statistics in the revised US Standard Certificate of Live Birth. The data now being collected are intended to provide improved information for understanding maternal and infant health issues. To assess data quality, the authors compared information reported on the 1989 Tennessee birth certificates with the same data obtained from an ongoing case-control study in which the delivery hospital medical records of mothers and infants were reviewed by trained nurse abstractors using a structured data collection instrument. Cases (n = 1,016) were all infants born in Tennessee in 1989 with birth weights less than 1,500 g or other infants who died during the first 28 days of life. The infants were identified from linked birth-death certificate files. Control infants (n = 634) were randomly selected from the noncase population. The most reliable information obtained from birth certificates was descriptive demographic data and birth weight. The quality of information obtained from the new birth certificate checkboxes varied. Routine medical procedures were better reported on the birth certificates than relatively uncommon conditions and occurrences, even serious ones. Caution is needed in using birth certificate data for assessment of maternal medical risk factors, complications of labor and delivery, abnormal conditions of the newborn, and congenital anomalies, since sensitivity is low.
Sethi Neeraj K
Full Text Available Fertility patterns of a community depend upon several factors. Strict enforcement of legislation is amongst its important determinants. The Government proposes to enact a deterrent law, which will replace the loophole â€" ridden Child Marriage Restraint Act of 1978. In India, there exists a long established custom to enter into effective marriage several years after marriage. This is called â€˜gaunaâ€. Studying the various marriage cohorts by decades, the present communication comments on the age at marriage, age at gauna and age at first childbirth amongst 843 rural women in Delhi. The study shows that over the last six decades, there has been a gradual rise of age at marriage from 10.5 years to 16.5 years. However, this slope is less steep with age at gauna and almost non- existent for age at first childbirth. This in turn has narrowed the gap between age at gauna and age at first childbirth. Age at first childbirth has remained more or less constant at 19-20 years. This fining, if corroborated elsewhere also, may be of great significance and raise questions on the validity of the current strategy of increasing marriage age to 18 years in order to reduce fertility.
Gr?nebaum, Amos; McCullough, Laurence B.; Arabin, Birgit; Brent, Robert L.; Levene, Malcolm I.; Chervenak, Frank A.
Introduction Over the last decade, planned home births in the United States (US) have increased, and have been associated with increased neonatal mortality and other morbidities. In a previous study we reported that neonatal mortality is increased in planned home births but we did not perform an analysis for the presence of professional certification status. Purpose The objective of this study therefore was to undertake an analysis to determine whether the professional certification status of...
Data on attendance at birth by midwives in the United States have been available on the national level since 1989, allowing for the documentation of long-term trends. New items on payer source and prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) from a 2003 revision of the birth certificate provide an opportunity to examine additional aspects of US midwifery practice. The data in this report are based on records on birth attendant gathered as part of the US National Standard Certificate of Live Birth from a public use Web site, Vital Stats (http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/VitalStats.htm), which allows users to create and download specialized tables. Analysis of new items on prepregnancy BMI and birth payer source are limited to the 38 states (86% of US births) that adopted the revised birth certificate by 2012. Between 1989 and 2012, the proportion of all births attended by certified nurse-midwives (CNMs) increased from 3.3% to 7.9%. The proportion of vaginal births attended by CNMs reached an all-time high of 11.9%. Births attended by "other midwives" (typically certified professional midwives) rose to a peak of 28,343, or 0.7% of all US births. The distribution of payer source for CNM-attended births (44% Medicaid; 44% private insurance; 6% self-pay) is very similar to the national distribution, whereas the majority (53%) of births attended by other midwives are self-pay. Women whose births are attended by other midwives are less likely (13%) to have a prepregnancy BMI in the obese range than women attended by CNMs (19%) or overall (24%). The total number of births attended by CNMs and other midwives has remained steady or grown at a time when total US births have declined, resulting in the largest proportions of midwife-attended births in the quarter century that such data have been collected. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
Full Text Available Over the last decade, planned home births in the United States (US have increased, and have been associated with increased neonatal mortality and other morbidities. In a previous study we reported that neonatal mortality is increased in planned home births but we did not perform an analysis for the presence of professional certification status.The objective of this study therefore was to undertake an analysis to determine whether the professional certification status of midwives or the home birth setting are more closely associated with the increased neonatal mortality of planned midwife-attended home births in the United States.This study is a secondary analysis of our prior study. The 2006-2009 period linked birth/infant deaths data set was analyzed to examine total neonatal deaths (deaths less than 28 days of life in term singleton births (37+ weeks and newborn weight ≥ 2,500 grams without documented congenital malformations by certification status of the midwife: certified nurse midwives (CNM, nurse midwives certified by the American Midwifery Certification Board, and "other" or uncertified midwives who are not certified by the American Midwifery Certification Board.Neonatal mortality rates in hospital births attended by certified midwives were significantly lower (3.2/10,000, RR 0.33 95% CI 0.21-0.53 than home births attended by certified midwives (NNM: 10.0/10,000; RR 1 and uncertified midwives (13.7/10,000; RR 1.41 [95% CI, 0.83-2.38]. The difference in neonatal mortality between certified and uncertified midwives at home births did not reach statistical levels (10.0/10,000 births versus 13.7/10,000 births p = 0.2.This study confirms that when compared to midwife-attended hospital births, neonatal mortality rates at home births are significantly increased. While NNM was increased in planned homebirths attended by uncertified midwives when compared to certified midwives, this difference was not statistically significant. Neonatal
Grünebaum, Amos; McCullough, Laurence B; Arabin, Birgit; Brent, Robert L; Levene, Malcolm I; Chervenak, Frank A
Over the last decade, planned home births in the United States (US) have increased, and have been associated with increased neonatal mortality and other morbidities. In a previous study we reported that neonatal mortality is increased in planned home births but we did not perform an analysis for the presence of professional certification status. The objective of this study therefore was to undertake an analysis to determine whether the professional certification status of midwives or the home birth setting are more closely associated with the increased neonatal mortality of planned midwife-attended home births in the United States. This study is a secondary analysis of our prior study. The 2006-2009 period linked birth/infant deaths data set was analyzed to examine total neonatal deaths (deaths less than 28 days of life) in term singleton births (37+ weeks and newborn weight ≥ 2,500 grams) without documented congenital malformations by certification status of the midwife: certified nurse midwives (CNM), nurse midwives certified by the American Midwifery Certification Board, and "other" or uncertified midwives who are not certified by the American Midwifery Certification Board. Neonatal mortality rates in hospital births attended by certified midwives were significantly lower (3.2/10,000, RR 0.33 95% CI 0.21-0.53) than home births attended by certified midwives (NNM: 10.0/10,000; RR 1) and uncertified midwives (13.7/10,000; RR 1.41 [95% CI, 0.83-2.38]). The difference in neonatal mortality between certified and uncertified midwives at home births did not reach statistical levels (10.0/10,000 births versus 13.7/10,000 births p = 0.2). This study confirms that when compared to midwife-attended hospital births, neonatal mortality rates at home births are significantly increased. While NNM was increased in planned homebirths attended by uncertified midwives when compared to certified midwives, this difference was not statistically significant. Neonatal mortality rates
Suanet, B.; Bras, H.
Research on the effects of sibling position on marriage timing has produced ambivalent findings, suggesting that birth order effects were contingent on social, local, and historical contexts. Based on a large database of marriage certificates from five Dutch provinces between 1840 and 1922, we
Lee, Erica J; Gurr, Danielle; Van Wye, Gretchen
In 1971, the New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene amended Section 207.05 of the NYC Health Code to allow individuals who had undergone "convertive surgery" (interpreted by the code to mean genital surgery) to amend the gender on their birth certificates. This surgery requirement was removed in 2015. In a survey evaluating the regulation change, we sought to characterize the transgender population newly eligible to obtain a gender-congruent NYC birth certificate by comparing respondents with and without genital surgery. We mailed a 42-question survey with each newly issued birth certificate. We compared respondents across current gender identity, race, Hispanic ethnicity, age, insurance status, income, current general health status, other transition-related care obtained, and healthcare access, stigma, and discrimination. Of 642 applicants, 219 responded and were thus enrolled in our 5-year study (34.1%). Most (n = 158 out of 203 who answered, 77.8%) had not received genital surgery. Compared to respondents with genital surgery, respondents without surgery were significantly more likely to be transgender men (50.0% vs. 20.0%); younger (median age 32 vs. 56.5); on Medicaid (31.6% vs. 11.1%); identify as Hispanic (28.5% vs. 8.9%); and live in households making gender-congruent birth certificate. Jurisdictions with such requirements should consider similar regulation changes to address the inequities that this requirement likely imposes in accessing birth certificates.
Cohen, Bruce; Bernson, Dana; Sappenfield, William; Kirby, Russell S; Kissin, Dmitry; Zhang, Yujia; Copeland, Glenn; Zhang, Zi; Macaluso, Maurizio
Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) includes fertility procedures where both egg and sperm are handled in the lab. ART use has increased considerably in recent years, accounting for 47,090 livebirths in the U.S. in 2010. ART increases the probability of multiple gestation births, which are at higher risks than singletons for adverse outcomes. Additionally, ART is associated with a greater risk of complications during pregnancy, labour, and delivery, and increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes in singleton births. We merged Florida and Massachusetts birth records from 2004-06 with the National ART Surveillance System (NASS) and using NASS as the gold standard, calculated sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) of ART reporting on the birth certificates by maternal, infant, and hospital characteristics. We fit random-effects logistic regression models to evaluate simultaneously the association of ART reporting with these predictors while accounting for correlation among births occurring in the same hospital. Sensitivity of ART reporting on the birth certificate was 28.9% in Florida and 41.4% in Massachusetts. Specificity was >99% in both states. PPV was 45.5% in Florida and 54.6% in Massachusetts. The odds of ART reporting varied by state and by several maternal and delivery characteristics including age, parity, history of fetal loss, plurality, race/Hispanic ethnicity, delivery payment source, pre-existing conditions, and complications during pregnancy or labour and delivery. There was significant under-reporting of ART procedures on the birth certificates. Using data on ART births identified only from birth certificates yields a biased sample of the population of ART births. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Li, Qing; Jenkins, Dorothea D; Kinsman, Stephen L
Objective Neonatal seizures in the first 28 days of life often reflect underlying brain injury or abnormalities, and measure the quality of perinatal care in out-of-hospital births. Using the 2003 revision of birth certificates only, three studies reported more neonatal seizures recorded among home births or planned out-of-hospital births compared to hospital births. However, the validity of recording neonatal seizures or serious neurologic dysfunction across birth settings in birth certificates has not been evaluated. We aimed to validate seizure recording in birth certificates across birth settings using multiple datasets. Methods We examined checkbox items "seizures" and "seizure or serious neurologic dysfunction" in the 1989 and 2003 revisions of birth certificates in South Carolina from 1996 to 2013. Gold standards were ICD-9-CM codes 779.0, 345.X, and 780.3 in either hospital discharge abstracts or Medicaid encounters jointly. Results Sensitivity, positive predictive value, false positive rate, and the kappa statistic of neonatal seizures recording were 7%, 66%, 34%, and 0.12 for the 2003 revision of birth certificates in 547,177 hospital births from 2004 to 2013 and 5%, 33%, 67%, and 0.09 for the 1998 revision in 396,776 hospital births from 1996 to 2003, and 0, 0, 100%, -0.002 among 660 intended home births from 2004 to 2013 and 920 home births from 1996 to 2003, respectively. Conclusions for Practice Despite slight improvement across revisions, South Carolina birth certificates under-reported or falsely reported seizures among hospital births and especially home births. Birth certificates alone should not be used to measure neonatal seizures or serious neurologic dysfunction.
Erika R. Cheng
Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of fathers in the development of obesity in their offspring remains poorly understood. We evaluated associations of missing paternal demographic information on birth certificates with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity. Methods Data were from the Linked CENTURY Study, a database linking birth certificate and well-child visit data for 200,258 Massachusetts children from 1980–2008. We categorized participants based on the availability of paternal age, education, or race/ethnicity and maternal marital status on the birth certificate: (1 pregnancies missing paternal data; (2 pregnancies involving unmarried women with paternal data; and (3 pregnancies involving married women with paternal data. Using linear and logistic regression, we compared differences in smoking during pregnancy, gestational diabetes, birthweight, breastfeeding initiation, and ever recording a weight for length (WFL ≥ the 95th percentile or crossing upwards ≥2 WFL percentiles between 0–24 months among the study groups. Results 11,989 (6.0 % birth certificates were missing paternal data; 31,323 (15.6 % mothers were unmarried. In adjusted analyses, missing paternal data was associated with lower birthweight (β -0.07 kg; 95 % CI: −0.08, −0.05, smoking during pregnancy (AOR 4.40; 95 % CI: 3.97, 4.87, non-initiation of breastfeeding (AOR 0.39; 95 % CI: 0.36, 0.42, and with ever having a WFL ≥ 95th percentile (AOR 1.10; 95 % CI: 1.01, 1.20. Similar associations were noted for pregnancies involving unmarried women with paternal data, but differences were less pronounced. Conclusions Missing paternal data on the birth certificate is associated with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity. Efforts to understand and reduce obesity risk factors in early life may need to consider paternal factors.
Ryan, Rebecca M.
Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study, the present study tested whether the benefits of a marital birth for early child development diminish as parents' risk of having a nonmarital birth increases (N = 2,285). It was hypothesized that a child's likelihood of being born to unmarried parents is partly a function of father…
Drawing on the life course paradigm, I assess how the effect of fatherhood on employment hours varies by age of becoming a parent and time elapsed since the birth. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth - 1979 Cohort from 1979 to 2002 (N = 28,514 observations), separate effects are estimated based on fathers' marital status and co-residence with own children. Only unmarried men who became fathers before 24 work longer hours immediately after a first birth, but in the long run, most early fathers work fewer hours as a result of parenthood. Over time, unmarried but coresident men who became fathers between 24 and 29 increase their hours, as do married, coresident men who delayed fatherhood until 30 or older. However, the latter increase is moderated by support for egalitarian gender roles. The findings shed light on the contemporary transition to adulthood and on men's work-family balance.
Hayford, Sarah R.; Guzzo, Karen Benjamin; Smock, Pamela J.
Family formation changed dramatically over the twentieth century in the United States. The impact of these changes on childbearing has primarily been studied in terms of nonmarital fertility. However, changes in family formation behavior also have implications for fertility within marriage. We use data from ten fertility surveys to describe changes in the timing of marital childbearing from the 1940s through the 21st century for non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black women. Based on harmonized data from the Integrated Fertility Survey Series, our results suggest increasing divergence in fertility timing for white women. A growing proportion of marriages begin with a premarital conception; at the same time, an increasing proportion of white women are postponing fertility within marriage. For black women, marital fertility is increasingly postponed beyond the early years of marriage. Evaluating the sequencing of marriage and parenthood over time is critical to understanding the changing meaning of marriage. PMID:24791019
Bhatia, Amiya; Ferreira, Leonardo Zanini; Barros, Alu?sio J. D.; Victora, Cesar Gomes
Background Birth registration, and the possession of a birth certificate as proof of registration, has long been recognized as a fundamental human right. Data from a functioning civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) system allows governments to benefit from accurate and universal data on birth and death rates. However, access to birth certificates remains challenging and unequal in many low and middle-income countries. This paper examines wealth, urban/rural and gender inequalities i...
Bhatia, Amiya; Ferreira, Leonardo Zanini; Barros, Aluísio J D; Victora, Cesar Gomes
Birth registration, and the possession of a birth certificate as proof of registration, has long been recognized as a fundamental human right. Data from a functioning civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) system allows governments to benefit from accurate and universal data on birth and death rates. However, access to birth certificates remains challenging and unequal in many low and middle-income countries. This paper examines wealth, urban/rural and gender inequalities in birth certificate coverage. We analyzed nationally representative household surveys from 94 countries between 2000 and 2014 using Demographic Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. Birth certificate coverage among children under five was examined at the national and regional level. Absolute measures of inequality were used to measure inequalities in birth certificate coverage by wealth quintile, urban/rural residence and sex of the child. Over four million children were included in the analysis. Birth certificate coverage was over 90% in 29 countries and below 50% in 36 countries, indicating that more than half the children under five surveyed in these countries did not have a birth certificate. Eastern & Southern Africa had the lowest average birth certificate coverage (26.9%) with important variability among countries. Significant wealth inequalities in birth certificate coverage were observed in 74 countries and in most UNICEF regions, and urban/rural inequalities were present in 60 countries. Differences in birth certificate coverage between girls and boys tended to be small. We show that wealth and urban/rural inequalities in birth certificate coverage persist in most low and middle income countries, including countries where national birth certificate coverage is between 60 and 80%. Weak CRVS systems, particularly in South Asia and Africa lead rural and poor children to be systematically excluded from the benefits tied to a birth certificate, and prevent these
Frimmel, Wolfgang; Halla, Martin; Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf
Policies to promote marriage are controversial, and it is unclear whether they are successful. To analyze such policies, one must distinguish between a marriage that is created by a marriage-promoting policy (marginal marriage) and a marriage that would have been formed even in the absence of a state intervention (average marriage). We exploit the suspension of a cash-on-hand marriage subsidy in Austria to examine the differential behavior of marginal and average marriages. The announcement of an impending suspension of this subsidy led to an enormous marriage boom among eligible couples that allows us to locate marginal marriages. Applying a difference-in-differences approach, we show that marginal marriages are surprisingly as stable as average marriages but produce fewer children, children later in marriage, and children who are less healthy at birth.
The arranged marriages of 210 young people in Yongle Town in Zunyi County of Guizhou Province were dissolved in 1995. The proportion of child betrothals, which generally happens among close relatives, is as high as 85% in the town. Some engagements, known as fetus betrothals or belt betrothals, are arranged before the children are born or while they are still infants strapped (belted) to their mothers. Dissemination of information from the Constitution, the Marriage Law, and the Regulations on the Registration of Marriage concerning marriage, healthier births, and good upbringing of children, and other information on reproductive health, has shown young people that they have the freedom to love and marry of their own free will, that their marriage is protected by law, and that consanguineous marriage is harmful to the health of future generations. Some convinced their parents that their arranged marriages should be annulled.
Gabriel, Guilherme Paiva; Chiquetto, Letícia; Morcillo, André Moreno; Ferreira, Maria do Carmo; Bazan, Ivan Gilberto M; Daolio, Luísa Dias; Lemos, Jéssica J Rocha; Carniel, Emília de Faria
To assess the completeness and reliability of the Information System on Live Births (Sinasc) data. A cross-sectional analysis of the reliability and completeness of Sinasc's data was performed using a sample of Live Birth Certificate (LBC) from 2009, related to births from Campinas, Southeast Brazil. For data analysis, hospitals were grouped according to category of service (Unified National Health System, private or both), 600 LBCs were randomly selected and the data were collected in LBC-copies through mothers and newborns' hospital records and by telephone interviews. The completeness of LBCs was evaluated, calculating the percentage of blank fields, and the LBCs agreement comparing the originals with the copies was evaluated by Kappa and intraclass correlation coefficients. The percentage of completeness of LBCs ranged from 99.8%-100%. For the most items, the agreement was excellent. However, the agreement was acceptable for marital status, maternal education and newborn infants' race/color, low for prenatal visits and presence of birth defects, and very low for the number of deceased children. The results showed that the municipality Sinasc is reliable for most of the studied variables. Investments in training of the professionals are suggested in an attempt to improve system capacity to support planning and implementation of health activities for the benefit of maternal and child population. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Amir Mohammad Sayem
Full Text Available Contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR is lower while the fertility is higher among rural married women aged 15-29 in Bangladesh. Thus, this comparative study attempted to identify the socio-economic and cultural determinants of contraceptive use in different rural settings. In this primary data based cross sectional study, a semi-structured questionnaire was applied to women aged 15-29 years in two rural areas who had at least one live birth on/before 20 December, 2006. The study areas were identified by multi-stage random sampling technique. Results showed that CPR was slightly higher in Dariadaulat (43.4% than that of Chardigoldi union (41.6% while the mean duration of use was slightly higher in Chardigoldi compared to Dariadaulat (5.04 v. 4.59 mo. Regression model for Dariadaulat (38.7% with P<0.001 better explained the use of contraception than that of Chardigoldi (30.0% with P<0.001. Among the determinants in Dariadaulat the most explanatory variable was mass media exposure (15.8% while it was desired number of children in Chardigoldi (12.6%. Among others, joint decision of using contraception, familiarity with contraceptives before marriage, desired number of children, electricity, family interference and family size were found to have significant impact in Dariadaulat. On the other hand, the other explanatory variables in Chardigoldi were joint decision of using contraception, family interference and familiarity with contraceptives before marriage and age at present. It may be concluded that the CPR is markedly low in rural communities. The lack of accessibility to mass media, lack of joint decision with husband, premarital unawareness regarding contraceptive use, lack of post-marital planning and family interference are major contributory factors for the low CPR in the study population. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2008; 2(2: 49-54
Gibson-Davis, Christina M; Ananat, Elizabeth O; Gassman-Pines, Anna
Conventional wisdom holds that births following the colloquially termed "shotgun marriage"-that is, births to parents who married between conception and the birth-are nearing obsolescence. To investigate trends in shotgun marriage, we matched North Carolina administrative data on nearly 800,000 first births among white and black mothers to marriage and divorce records. We found that among married births, midpregnancy-married births (our preferred term for shotgun-married births) have been relatively stable at about 10 % over the past quarter-century while increasing substantially for vulnerable population subgroups. In 2012, among black and white less-educated and younger women, midpregnancy-married births accounted for approximately 20 % to 25 % of married first births. The increasing representation of midpregnancy-married births among married births raises concerns about well-being among at-risk families because midpregnancy marriages may be quite fragile. Our analysis revealed, however, that midpregnancy marriages were more likely to dissolve only among more advantaged groups. Of those groups considered to be most at risk of divorce-namely, black women with lower levels of education and who were younger-midpregnancy marriages had the same or lower likelihood of divorce as preconception marriages. Our results suggest an overlooked resiliency in a type of marriage that has only increased in salience.
DePasquale, John M; Freeman, Karen; Amin, Minal M; Park, Sohyun; Rivers, Samantha; Hopkins, Richard; Cannon, Michael J; Dy, Bonifacio; Dollard, Sheila C
The objectives of this study are (1) to design an accurate method for linking newborn screening (NBS) and state birth certificate databases to create a de-identified study database; (2) To assess maternal cytomegalovirus (CMV) seroprevalence by measuring CMV IgG in newborn dried blood spots; (3) To assess congenital CMV infection among newborns and possible association with preterm birth. NBS and birth databases were linked and patient records were de-identified. A stratified random sample of records based on gestational age was selected and used to retrieve blood spots from the state NBS laboratory. Serum containing maternal antibodies was eluted from blood spots and tested for the presence of CMV IgG. DNA was extracted from blood spots and tested for the presence of CMV DNA. Analyses were performed with bivariable and multivariable logistic regression models. Linkage rates and specimen collection exceeded 98% of the total possible yielding a final database with 3,101 newborn blood spots. CMV seroprevalence was 91% among Black mothers, 83% among Hispanic mothers, 59% among White mothers, and decreased with increasing amounts of education. The prevalence of CMV infection in newborns was 0.45% and did not vary significantly by gestational age. Successful methods for database linkage, newborn blood spots collection, and de-identification of records can serve as a model for future congenital exposure surveillance projects. Maternal CMV seroprevalence was strongly associated with race/ethnicity and educational level. Congenital CMV infection rates were lower than those reported by other studies and lacked statistical power to examine associations with preterm birth.
The Concise Oxford English Dictionary defines 'dilemma' as "an argument forcing one to choose one of two alternatives both unfavourable to him (or her)". This is situation that frequently confronts the general practitioner. In this article a personal solution to the problem of 'certificates' is presented. Not every one will necessarily agree with the solutions presented and some may find them unacceptable, or have better solutions. The author warmly welcomes correspondence, either personal, or in the form of Letters to the Editor, as this is a subject in which consensus decisions are important.
In counseling groups, uncoupling partners learn to say their good-byes and accept the death of the marriage. They complete their unfinished business with each other. An organizational strategy is necessary. Skill in helping partners uncouple is a vital function of a marriage counselor, who must be proficient in group counseling. (Author)
Sierra Romero, María Del Carmen; Navarrete Hernández, Eduardo; Canún Serrano, Sonia; Reyes Pablo, Aldelmo E; Valdés Hernández, Javier
Down syndrome (DS) or trisomy 21 is the most common genetic cause of mental retardation with the clinical presentation of a series of well-defined characteristics. Advanced maternal age has been associated with DS. The databases of all the certificates of live births and fetal deaths in Mexico were combined. Codes based on the International Classification of Diseases 10 th Revision (ICD-10) in Chapter XVII "Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities" were selected. A database of 8,250,375 births during the period 2008-2011 was constructed: 99.2% were live births with 0.8% of fetal deaths and 3,076 cases diagnosed with DS. The importance of this report is to initiate an epidemiological surveillance of newborn cases of DS nationwide and by state using census information systems available in the country since 2008. An increased risk has been observed for having a child with DS since the mother is ≥ 35 years, as has been reported in other studies. Copyright © 2014 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Leon, D A
OBJECTIVE--To investigate the influence of birth weight on the pronounced social class differences in infant mortality in Britain. DESIGN--Analysis of routine data on births and infant deaths. SETTING--England and Wales. SUBJECTS--All live births and infant deaths, 1983-5. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Mortality in infants by social class, birth weight, and legitimacy according to birth and death certificates. RESULTS--Neonatal and postneonatal mortality (deaths/1000 births) increased with social class. Neonatal and postneonatal mortality was 4.2/1000 and 2.3/1000 respectively for social class I and 6.8/1000 and 5.6/1000 respectively for social class V. Mortality was lower among births registered within marriage (postneonatal 3.5/1000; neonatal 5.2/1000) than among those jointly registered outside marriage (5.1/1000; 6.4/1000); mortality was highest in those solely registered outside marriage (7.2/1000; 7.0/1000). For neonatal mortality the effect of social class varied with birth weight. Social class had little effect on neonatal mortality in low birthweight babies and increasing effect in heavier babies. For postneonatal mortality the effect of social class was similar for all birth weights and was almost as steep as for all birth weights combined. CONCLUSION--Birth weight mediates little of the effect of social class on postneonatal mortality. PMID:1954421
Full Text Available Abstract Background Young women in conflict-affected regions are at risk of a number of adverse outcomes as a result of violence, economic deterioration and the breakdown of community structures and services. This paper presents the findings of a systematic review of quantitative literature reporting how key sexual and reproductive health (SRH outcomes among young women under the age of 20 years are affected by exposure to armed conflict; namely, sexual debut, first marriage and first birth. Increases in these outcomes among young women are all associated with potential negative public health consequences. It also examines and documents possible causal pathways for any changes seen. Methods To fit with our inclusion criteria, all reviewed studies included outcomes for comparable populations not exposed to conflict either temporally or spatially. A total of 19 studies with results from 21 countries or territories met our inclusion criteria; seven presented findings on marriage, four on fertility and eight on both of these outcomes. Only one study reporting on sexual debut met our criteria. Results Findings show clear evidence of both declines and increases in marriage and childbirth among young women in a range of conflict-affected settings. Several studies that showed increases in marriage below the age of 20 years reported that such increases were concentrated in the younger teenagers. Trends in fertility were predominantly driven by marriage patterns. Suggested causal pathways for the changes observed could be grouped into three categories: involuntary, gender and psycho-social and economic and material factors. Conclusion The review reveals a paucity of literature on the impact of conflict on SRH outcomes of young women. Further quantitative and qualitative studies are needed to explore how conflict influences SRH events in young women over both the short- and longer-term.
Lundberg, Shelly; Pollak, Robert A.
Since 1950, marriage behavior in the United States has changed dramatically. Though most men and women still marry at some point in their lives, they now do so later and are more likely to divorce. Cohabitation has become commonplace as either a precursor or an alternative to marriage, and a growing fraction of births take place outside marriage.…
Kamal, S M Mostafa; Hassan, Che Hashim; Alam, Gazi Mahabubul; Ying, Yang
This study examines the trends and determinants of child marriage among women aged 20-49 in Bangladesh. Data were extracted from the last six nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys conducted during 1993-2011. Simple cross-tabulation and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were adopted. According to the survey conducted in 2011, more than 75% of marriages can be categorized as child marriages. This is a decline of 10 percentage points in the prevalence of child marriage compared with the survey conducted in 1993-1994. Despite some improvements in education and other socioeconomic indicators, Bangladeshi society still faces the relentless practice of early marriage. The mean age at first marriage has increased by only 1.4 years over the last one and half decades, from 14.3 years in 1993-1994 to 15.7 years in 2011. Although the situation on risk of child marriage has improved over time, the pace is sluggish. Both the year-of-birth and year-of-marriage cohorts of women suggest that the likelihood of marrying as a child has decreased significantly in recent years. The risk of child marriage was significantly higher when husbands had no formal education or little education, and when the wives were unemployed or unskilled workers. Muslim women living in rural areas have a greater risk of child marriage. Women's education level was the single most significant negative determinant of child marriage. Thus, the variables identified as important determinants of child marriage are: education of women and their husbands, and women's occupation, place of residence and religion. Programmes to help and motivate girls to stay in school will not only reduce early marriage but will also support overall societal development. The rigid enforcement of the legal minimum age at first marriage could be critical in decreasing child marriage.
Loughran, David S.; Zissimopoulos, Julie M.
We use data from the earlier and later cohorts of the NLSY to estimate the effect of marriage and childbearing on wages. Our estimates imply that marriage lowers female wages 2-4 percent in the year of marriage. Marriage also lowers the wage growth of men and women by about two and four percentage points, respectively. A first birth lowers female…
Andersen, Signe Hald; Andersen, Lars Højsgaard; Skov, Peer Ebbesen
The authors analyzed whether the effect of marriage on recidivism varied by spousal criminality. For this purpose, they used propensity score matching and full population data from Statistics Denmark on all unmarried and previously convicted men from birth cohorts 1965–1985 (N = 102,839). The res......The authors analyzed whether the effect of marriage on recidivism varied by spousal criminality. For this purpose, they used propensity score matching and full population data from Statistics Denmark on all unmarried and previously convicted men from birth cohorts 1965–1985 (N = 102......,839). The results showed that marriage reduced recidivism compared to nonmarriage only when the spouse had no criminal record. Similarly, marriage to a nonconvicted spouse reduced recidivism significantly more than marriage to a convicted spouse. These findings not only underline how important marriage...... is for social integration but also stress the heterogeneous nature of the protective effects of marriage....
... AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE... number, and date and place of birth of each party to the proposed marriage; (2) If either party was... relationship; and (5) The name and date of birth of any child of which both parties are parents, born before...
Yasin, B A
The author examines some of the changing characteristics of marriage in Syria, including the deferment of age at first marriage and abstinence from marriage. Data are from the 1970 census and other official sources. Factors affecting these trends are discussed
Effects of consanguineous marriages on couples' fertility and on offspring mortality were investigated in Beirut through a population-based health survey of 2,752 households. A multistage random sampling procedure was used, and information was obtained from all ever-married women in the household about their reproductive performance and genealogical relationship with spouse; demographic and socioeconomic information was also recorded. Twenty-five percent of all marriages were between relatives, and the spouses were first cousins in approximately 57% of all consanguineous marriages. Total pregnancies, live births, and living children were significantly higher among consanguineous couples than among nonconsanguineous ones, as was the proportion dead among children ever born. However, no difference remained in either fertility or mortality, when allowance was made for socioeconomic status, religious affiliation, and marriage duration. The issue of confounding is discussed, and the lack of significant pattern in the final analysis is interpreted as resulting from a long-term practice of consanguineous marriages.
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authentication of marriage and divorce....2 Authentication of marriage and divorce documents. (a) Whenver a consular officer is requested to... marriage, he shall include in the body of his certificate of authentication the qualifying statement, “For...
To test the existence of the "magic moment" for parental marriage immediately post-birth and to inform policies that preferentially encourage biological over step parent marriage, this study estimates the incidence and stability of maternal marriage for children born out of wedlock. Data came from the National Survey of Family Growth on 5,255 children born non maritally. By age 15, 29 % of children born non maritally experienced a biological-father marriage, and 36 % experienced a stepfather marriage. Stepfather marriages occurred much later in a child's life-one-half occurred after the child turned age 7-and had one-third higher odds of dissolution. Children born to black mothers had qualitatively different maternal marriage experiences than children born to white or Hispanic mothers, with less biological-parent marriage and higher incidences of divorce. Findings support the existence of the magic moment and demonstrate that biological marriages were more enduring than stepfather marriages. Yet relatively few children born out of wedlock experienced stable, biological-parent marriages as envisioned by marriage promotion programs.
Sawhill, Isabel V.
Over half of all births to young adults in the United States now occur outside of marriage, and many are unplanned. The result is increased poverty and inequality for children. The left argues for more social support for unmarried parents; the right argues for a return to traditional marriage. In "Generation Unbound," Isabel V. Sawhill…
Computer Security Team
Are you already ready to use “certificates” to log into CERN or to connect to the global “eduroam” wireless network? No, I am not talking about your birth certificate, medical certificates or academic certificates. I am referring to “certificates” used for authentication where you would usually use a password. These digital certificates are a valid alternative to cumbersome passwords. Like the aforementioned personal certificates, a digital certificate is an official document that proves who you are or your qualifications. Your personal digital CERN certificate is tied to your digital identity at CERN. In that respect, a digital certificate is like a password. It is a credential that you must not share with anybody else! With your digital certificate, I can impersonate you and take over your mailbox, your web sessions and more… Digital certificates bind your digital identity to a public/private-key infrastructu...
Dribe, Martin; Lundh, Christer
This article studies partner selection according to three dimensions: social origin, age, and place of birth. The authors use micro-level data from local population registers in five parishes in southern Sweden from 1815 to 1895. The results confirm that all three aspects were important but that socioeconomic status was the most important characteristic, structuring much of the selection process. The importance of social and age homogamy remained stable over the period, while geographic exogamy became more frequent, which could be interpreted in terms of an increasing openness of rural society. The authors also find some indications of exchange of characteristics in the partner selection process.
Full Text Available The Law Commission of England and Wales is considering what its 13th Programme of Law Reform should address. During the consultation process, a project on birth registration law has been mooted. This is a very welcome proposal given that civil birth registration in England and Wales is a compulsory procedure that not only finds its roots in the early Victorian era, but also remains very similar, at least in terms of form and the information that is recorded. I first use two recent legal challenges to illustrate why the current system is coming under increasing pressure. I further use these examples to caution against a law reform agenda that is narrowly focused on the precise information recorded, without a preliminary and wider examination of what the role and purpose of birth registration is, and should be, in society. I argue that this needs to be addressed before the state can justify the parameters of the information recorded. I then use an outline of historical reforms relating to the registration of births outside of marriage to highlight the normative two-parent family model that underpins the birth registration system. I argue that legal reform must be cognizant of the tenacity of this normative family model, particularly in relation to reform proposals surrounding donor conception and the annotation of birth certificates. Finally, I draw attention to wider developments in family law that cast birth registration as a social policy tool for the facilitation of parent–child relationships, particularly unmarried fathers.
BACKGROUND Marriage histories are a valuable data source for investigating nuptiality. While researchers typically acknowledge the problems associated with their use, it is unknown to what extent these problems occur and how marriage analyses are affected. OBJECTIVE This paper seeks to investigate the quality of marriage histories by measuring levels of misreporting, examining the characteristics associated with misreporting, and assessing whether misreporting biases marriage indicators. METHODS Using data from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH), I compare marriage histories reported by the same respondents at two different points in time. I investigate whether respondents consistently report their spouses (by name), status of marriage, and dates of marriage. I use multivariate regression models to investigate the characteristics associated with misreporting. Finally, I examine whether misreporting marriages and marriage dates affects marriage indicators. RESULTS Results indicate that 28.3% of men and 17.9% of women omitted at least one marriage in one of the survey waves. Multivariate regression models show that misreporting is not random: marriage, individual, interviewer, and survey characteristics are associated with marriage omission and marriage date inconsistencies. Misreporting also affects marriage indicators. CONCLUSIONS This is the first study of its kind to examine the reliability of marriage histories collected in the context of Sub-Saharan Africa. Although marriage histories are frequently used to study marriage dynamics, until now no knowledge has existed on the degree of misreporting. Misreporting in marriage histories is shown to be non-negligent and could potentially affect analyses. PMID:27152090
Marriage ceremony: The clash between traditional marriage rites and ... and a woman who has agreed to marry, be socially described as a married couple ... People agreed that traditional marriage rites should be compulsory but performance ...
Gautier, Pieter; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen
Do people move to cities because of marriage market considerations? In cities singles can meet more potential partners than in rural areas. Singles are therefore prepared to pay a premium in terms of higher housing prices. Once married, the marriage market benefits disappear while the housing...
China has been an agricultural society for over 2,000 years. Due to its traditionally rich natural resources, large size, and sparse population density, manpower has become a main source of wealth. Consequently, down through the ages, births have been encouraged and early marriages have become a tradition. After the Chinese communists' takeover of the Mainland, planned birth and population control measures were implemented. And in 1962, regulations were set for men to marry only after age 28 and for women after age 25. Furthermore, in rural areas, young men and women were impeded from early marriage through the marriage registration system. However, during the Cultural Revolution, youths of the Mainland were strongly against the excessive restrictions on early marriage. They pointed out that advocating late marriage was a counter-revolutionary move by the bourgeoisie. Under conditions of despair and uncertain future, many youths married early as an escape from reality, establishing small families. Thus, a trend of early marriages was set. This was called "evil wind of early marriage" and was vigorously attacked by Chinese authorities in official publications. To control this "evil wind," the Chinese communists also utilized Mao's thoughts in re-educating the educated youths. They pointed out that youths who married early and concentrated on building a family were selfish because by concentrating on personal matters they could not attend to state matters nor participate in class struggles. It is clear that in attacking early marriage and advocating late marriage, the Chinese communists had both planned birth and politics in mind.
B’tari Sekar Nastiti
Full Text Available In general, the marriage is lived by a spouse who lives together and cooperates with each other to shape the family. Recently, many couples do not live together, but in a distant city, and are called a long-distance marriage or a commuter marriage. From many reasons that create the long distance marriage, one of which is the job. The aim of this study is to find out the condition of the marriage life in commuter marriage and the dynamics on perceived marital satisfaction. This research method uses the qualitative method. Subjects in this study are 3 pairs of husband and wife practicing commuter marriage, which has a minimum marriage age of 5 years and has at least one child. The research result has shown that wives tend to experience dissatisfaction in the marriage, while the husbands feel quite happy in the marriage.
Weisfeld, Glenn E; Weisfeld, Carol C
Marriage is universal, and pair bonding is found in other species too with highly dependent young. So marriage functions as a reproductive social arrangement that traditionally involved the extended family. The sexes are not identical in their biological contributions to children's survival, so they seek somewhat different attributes in a mate. Men seek a young, attractive, sexually faithful bride. Women seek a man who is older, taller, and (as in many other species) socially dominant. Both sexes prefer a kind, healthy, attractive, similar mate who is emotionally attached to them. A spouse who fails to maintain sufficiently high mate value is vulnerable to divorce. Infertility and sexual dissatisfaction predict divorce, as does death of a child, but the more children, the stabler the marriage. Cross-cultural data suggest that cruel or subdominant men (e.g., poor providers) and unfaithful women are prone to divorce. Marriages in which the wife dominates the husband in economic contributions, nonverbal behavior, and decision making tend to be less satisfying. In societies in which wives are economically independent of husbands, divorce rates are high. As women's economic power has risen with industrialization, divorce rates have climbed. Economic and fitness considerations also help explain cultural differences in polygyny, age at marriage, arranged marriage, concern with the bride's sexual chastity, and marriage ceremonies. Other factors also affect marital dynamics, such as state subsidies to families, the sex ratio, and influence of the couple's parents.
Saify, Khyber; Saadat, Mostafa
The present cross-sectional study was done in order to illustrate the prevalence and types of consanguineous marriages among Afghanistan populations. Data on types of marriages were collected using a simple questionnaire. The total number of couples in the study was 7140 from the following provinces: Badakhshan, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamyan, Kabul, Kunduz, Samangan and Takhar. Consanguineous marriages were classified by the degree of relationship between couples: double first cousins, first cousins, first cousins once removed, second cousins and beyond second cousins. The coefficient of inbreeding (F) was calculated for each couple and the mean coefficient of inbreeding (α) estimated for each population. The proportion of consanguineous marriages in the country was 46.2%, ranging from 38.2% in Kabul province to 51.2% in Bamyan province. The equivalent mean inbreeding coefficient (α) was 0.0277, and ranged from 0.0221 to 0.0293 in these two regions. There were significant differences between provinces for frequencies of different types of marriages (pconsanguineous marriages, followed by double first cousin (6.9%), second cousin (5.8%), beyond second cousin (3.9%) and first cousin once removed (1.8%). There were significant differences between ethnic groups for the types of marriages (χ2=177.6, df=25, pconsanguinity.
Blow, Laura; Browning, Martin; Ejrnæs, Mette
We examine theoretically and empirically consumption over the early part of the life-cycle. The main focus is on the transition from being single to living with someone else. Our theoretical model allows for publicness in consumption; uncertainty concerning marriage; differences between lifetime...... incomes for prospective partners and a marriage premium. We develop a two period model to bring out the main features of the impact of marriage on consumption and saving. We then develop a multi-period model that can be taken to the data on expenditures by singles and couples aged between 18 and 30. Our...
Carlson, Jon; Dinkmeyer, Don, Sr.
Describes the assumptions, processes, and techniques used in Alderian marriage therapy. Describes purpose of therapy as assessing current beliefs and behaviors while educating the couple in new procedures that can help the couple establish new goals. (Author/ABL)
Westoff, C F
Most developed countries have reached zero population growth or less and, while population projections have often proved badly off-target, it seems that currently low fertility levels are the result of a long-term trend, which was interrupted in the last 100 years only by the still-unexplained postwar baby boom, and which will probably continue. The declining trend has accompanied economic development and modernization, which have transformed the economic value of children, making them a drain on resources rather than a source of income. The concomitant social changes seem largely irreversible: urban economy, the decline in traditional authority, universal, prolonged education, equality of women, low infant mortality, high consumer demands and sophisticated birth control technology are all here to stay. The theory that fertility exhibits a cyclical pattern based on people's perception of their degree of economic and social opportunity ignores the other elements affecting fertility behavior, especially the radical change in the status and expectations of women. Several trends in marriage and reproductive behavior in the U.S., Denmark and Sweden reinforce the presumption that fertility will remain low: declining number of marriages; postponement of marriage; increased tendency for unmarried couples to live together; instability of marriage shown by high divorce rates and declining remarriage rates; and increasing economic activity by women. The traditional institution of marriage is losing its economic, sexual, sociological and parenting rationales. Thus, declining fertility is both cause and consequence of changes in marriage. In Europe, where the decline is more advanced than in the U.S., governments are concerned that population growth will be too low and have instituted social welfare measures to induce and facilitate childbearing and childrearing. As women become more career-oriented, greater incentives will have to be provided. Manipulating immigration quotas
Mercan, Murat A.
This paper contributes to the literature in three ways. Our first contribution is calculating the marriage premium for Turkey. Our results suggest that married men earn 27 percent more than single men and married women earn 4 percent less than single women. Our second contribution is calculating the marriage premium for Turkey’s regions. For men, the wage difference is the smallest, 0.43, in Istanbul. The difference is highest in Akdeniz region. For women, the wage difference is smallest, -0....
Full Text Available Past work on the relationship between cohabitation and childbearing shows that cohabitation increases fertility compared to being single, and does so more for intended than unintended births. Most work in this area, however, does not address concerns that fertility and union formation are joint processes, and that failing to account for the joint nature of these decisions can bias estimates of cohabitation on childbearing. For example, cohabitors may be more likely to plan births because they see cohabitation as an acceptable context for childbearing; alternatively, they may be more likely to marry than their single counterparts. In this paper, I use a modeling approach that accounts for the stable, unobserved characteristics of women common to nonmarital fertility and union formation as a way of estimating the effect of cohabitation on nonmarital fertility net of cohabitors' potentially greater likelihood of marriage. I distinguish between intended and unintended fertility to better understand variation in the perceived acceptability of cohabitation as a setting for childbearing. I find that accounting for unmeasured heterogeneity reduces the estimated effect of cohabitation on intended childbearing outside of marriage by up to 50%, depending on race/ethnicity. These results speak to cohabitation's evolving place in the family system, suggesting that cohabitation may be a step on the way to marriage for some, but an end in itself for others.
David A. Gay
Full Text Available Attitudes toward same-sex marriage have changed dramatically over the last decade. U.S. adults are becoming more supportive of same-sex marriage, and there are a number of reasons for this change. Our research examines the relationship between cohort, religiosity, spirituality, and attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Using data from the 2012 and 2014 General Social Surveys, we examine the differential impact of religiosity and spirituality by cohort on attitudes toward same-sex marriage. We present models for four separate cohorts: The Millennials, Generation X, the Baby Boomers, and the Silent Generation. The Millennial cohort exhibits significant differences from the other birth cohorts. The results of our analyses locate various changes in these attitudes and provide directions for future research.
Rahim, Mohd Amirul Rafiq Abu; Shafie, Siti Aishah Mohd; Hadi, Az'lina Abdul; Razali, Nornadiah Mohd; Azid @ Maarof, Nur Niswah Naslina
Nowadays, the number of divorce cases among Muslim couples is very worrisome whereby the total cases reported in 2013 increased by half of the total cases reported in the previous year. The questions on the true key factors of dissolution of marriage continue to arise. Thus, the objective of this study is to reveal the factors that contribute to the dissolution of marriage. A total of 181 cases and ten potential determinants were included in this study. The potential determinants considered were age at marriage of husband and wife, educational level of husband and wife, employment status of husband and wife, income of husband and wife, the number of children and the presence at a counseling session. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the data. The findings revealed that four determinants, namely the income of husband and wife, number of children and the presence at a counselling session were significant in predicting the likelihood of divorce among Muslim couples.
Peisah, Carmelle; Brodaty, Henry; Bridger, Marie
(i) To raise awareness about the vulnerability of mentally ill older persons to abuse by others seeking to gain by marriage; (ii) to outline key legal cases from common law countries; and (iii) to provide guidelines for health care professionals who encounter this issue in practice. We present two cases: the first case involved an 87-year-old widower who married his carer--50 years his junior--in a religious ceremony while hypomanic. The second case involved an 82-year-old widow with moderate dementia who married her boarder, the marriage subsequently being found void in the Family Court of Australia on the basis that her consent was not real because she was incapable of understanding the nature and effect of the marriage ceremony. Abuse by marriage may be of a psychological, sexual, social or financial nature.Older people with impaired judgement and inability to appraise others due to mental illness may be persuaded to execute legal documents such as marriage certificates. Health care professionals may have a role in the identification and management of this kind of abuse. There are legal means to address this problem ranging from guardianship and financial management to family law court applications to seek a decree of nullity/invalidity of the marriage.
van Poppel, F.W.A.; Monden, C.; Mandemakers, K.
Strong relationships have been hypothesized between the timing of marriage and the familial environment of the couple. Sociologists have identified various mechanisms via which the age at marriage in the parental generation might be related to the age at marriage of the children. In our paper we
Reczek, Corinne; Elliott, Sinikka; Umberson, Debra
The majority of Americans will marry in their lifetimes, and for many, marriage symbolizes the transition into long-term commitment. However, many Americans cannot legally marry. This article analyzes in-depth interviews with gays and lesbians in long-term partnerships to examine union formation and commitment-making histories. Using a life course perspective that emphasizes historical and biographical contexts, the authors examine how couples conceptualize and form committed relationships despite being denied the right to marry. Although previous studies suggest that commitment ceremonies are a way to form same-sex unions, this study finds that because of their unique social, historical, and biographical relationship to marriage and ceremonies, long-term same-sex couples do not follow normative commitment-making trajectories. Instead, relationships can transition more ambiguously to committed formations without marriage, public ceremony, clear-cut act, or decision. Such an understanding of commitment making outside of marriage has implications for theorizing alternative forms of union making. PMID:21814298
Rao Sahib, P.; Gu, X.
This paper introduces imperfect information,learning,and risk aversion in a two sided matching model.The modelprovides a theoreticalframework for the com- monly occurring phenomenon of cohabitation followed by marriage,and is con- sistent with empirical findings on these institutions.The paper has
Jiang, Quanbao; Li, Xiaomin; Li, Shuzhuo; Feldman, Marcus W
Most recent studies of marriage patterns in China have emphasized the male-biased sex ratio but have largely neglected age structure as a factor in China's male marriage squeeze. In this paper we develop an index we call "spousal sex ratio" (SSR) to measure the marriage squeeze, and a method of decomposing the proportion of male surplus into age and sex structure effects within a small spousal age difference interval. We project that China's marriage market will be confronted with a relatively severe male squeeze. For the decomposition of the cohort aged 30, from 2010 to 2020 age structure will be dominant, while from 2020 through 2034 the contribution of age structure will gradually decrease and that of sex structure will increase. From then on, sex structure will be dominant. The index and decomposition, concentrated on a specific female birth cohort, can distinguish spousal competition for single cohorts which may be covered by a summary index for the whole marriage market; these can also be used for consecutive cohorts to reflect the situation of the whole marriage market.
Schoen, Robert; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir
Recent substantial declines in first marriage in Western countries have been accompanied by increases in the average age at first marriage. Since the period proportion ever marrying, PEM, is sensitive to cohort tempo changes, the recent fall in the PEM may simply reflect cohort delays in marriage....... The importance of timing factors is examined in the light of twentieth-century experience of first marriage in England and Wales and the USA. Using a variant of the Timing Index developed in research on fertility, we measure cohort timing effects for marriage and calculate an adjusted PEM. After examining...... twentieth-century trends in nuptiality for men and women, we find substantial tempo effects on the period PEM. Adjusted PEM values show a real decline in marriage for cohorts, but that decline is considerably smaller than the one shown by the unadjusted figures. This is especially true for England and Wales...
WaterSense recognizes certification programs for irrigation professionals that meet the specification criteria. Certification programs cover three areas: irrigation system design, installation and maintenance, and system auditing.
Jean Louis Rallu
Full Text Available Selective abortion of female embryos causes abnormal sex ratios at birth that will result in imbalances on the marriage market. However, it is well-known that varying cohort size in the frame of different mean ages at marriage for males and females also causes imbalances. In the case of Korea, both phenomenons are present: SRB of 115 in 1990-1995 and rapid fertility decline from the early 1960s, with TFR fluctuating below replacement level since 1983 and reaching 1.16 in 2004. This note assesses the relative roles of SRB and cohort size on the marriage market and the adjustments that can happen thru age gap between spouses.
... Instructions Definitions § 700.79 Marriage. Marriage is a legally recorded marriage or a traditional commitment between a man or woman recognized by the law of the Hopi Tribe or the Navajo Tribe. ...
... Vital Statistics Online National Death Index NCHS National Marriage and Divorce Rate Trends Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Provisional number of marriages and marriage rate: United States, 2000-2014 Year ...
Assaad, Ragui; Krafft, Caroline
Marriage is the single most important economic transaction and social transition in the lives of young people. Yet little is known about the economics of marriage in much of the developing world. This paper examines the economics of marriage in North Africa, where asymmetric rights in marriage create incentives for extensive up-front bargaining and detailed marriage contracts. As well as describing the limited literature on the economics of marriage in North Africa, this paper draws on econom...
Hiekel, Nicole; Liefbroer, Aart C; Poortman, Anne-Rigt
We propose a typology of different meanings of cohabitation that combines cohabiters' intentions to marry with a general attitude toward marriage, using competing risk analyses to examine whether some cohabiters are more prone than others to marry or to separate. Using data (N = 1,258) from four waves of the German Family Panel (PAIRFAM) and a supplementary study (DEMODIFF), we compared eastern and western German cohabiters of the birth cohorts 1971-73 and 1981-83. Western Germans more frequently view cohabitation as a step in the marriage process, whereas eastern Germans more often cohabit as an alternative to marriage. Taking into account marital attitudes reveals that cohabiters without marriage plans differ from those with plans in their relationship careers, and also shows that cohabiters who plan to marry despite holding a less favourable view of marriage are less likely to realize their plans than cohabiters whose intentions and attitudes are more congruent.
Marriage patterns in Japan are analyzed using data from secondary sources. The author notes that although legislation affecting marriage and the family is derived from European models, traditional Japanese attitudes concerning the subservient role of women have a significant impact. The problems faced by women experiencing divorce are noted. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)
Nicola J. Barker
Full Text Available This special issue of the Onati Socio-Legal Series offers inter-disciplinary, feminist perspectives that collectively ‘re-think’ the institution of marriage, not only in the field of legal discourse and institutions but also in the humanities and social sciences as well as through activisms. With a focus on jurisdictions in Europe, North America and Africa, the articles included in this issue challenge normative assumptions about marriage, reconsider forms of conjugality, re-write judicial interpretations and problematize legal and activist interventions and reasonings.Este número especial de la Oñati Socio-legal Series ofrece perspectivas interdisciplinarias y feministas que "re-piensan" colectivamente la institución del matrimonio, no sólo en el campo del discurso jurídico y las instituciones, sino también en las humanidades y ciencias sociales, así como en los activismos. Enfocándose en las jurisdicciones de Europa, América del Norte y África, los artículos incluidos en este número cuestionan las asunciones normativas sobre el matrimonio, reconsideran las formas de la conyugalidad, reescriben las interpretaciones judiciales y problematizan las intervenciones y razonamientos legales y activistas.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2890956
Sharma, Indira; Pandit, Balram; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Reet
For Hindus, marriage is a sacrosanct union. It is also an important social institution. Marriages in India are between two families, rather two individuals, arranged marriages and dowry are customary. The society as well as the Indian legislation attempt to protect marriage. Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. There are stringent gender roles, with women having a passive role and husband an active dominating role. Marriage and motherhood are the primary status roles for women. When afflicted mental illness married women are discriminated against married men. In the setting of mental illness many of the social values take their ugly forms in the form of domestic violence, dowry harassment, abuse of dowry law, dowry death, separation, and divorce. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legislative provisions in real life situations.
Kashyap, Ridhi; Esteve, Albert; García-Román, Joan
We explore the impact of socio-demographic change on marriage patterns in India by examining the hypothetical consequences of applying three sets of marriage pairing propensities – contemporary patterns by age, by age and education, and changing propensities that allow for greater educational homogamy and reduced educational asymmetries – to future population projections. Future population prospects for India indicate three trends that will impact marriage patterns: i) female-deficit in sex ratios at birth; ii) declining birth cohort size; iii) female educational expansion. Existing literature posits declining marriage rates for men arising from skewed sex ratios at birth (SRB) in India’s population. In addition to skewed SRBs, India’s population will experience female educational expansion in the coming decades. Female educational expansion and its impact on marriage patterns must be jointly considered with demographic changes, given educational differentials and asymmetries in union formation that exist in India, as across much of the world. We systematize contemporary pairing propensities using data from the 2005–2006 Indian National Family Health Survey and the 2004 Socio-Economic Survey and apply these and the third set of changing propensities to IIASA/VID multi-state population projections by educational attainment using an iterative longitudinal projection procedure. If today’s age patterns of marriage are viewed against age-sex population composition until 2050, men experience declining marriage prevalence. However, when education is included, women, particularly those with higher education experience a more salient rise in non-marriage. Significant changes in pairing patterns towards greater levels of educational homogamy and gender symmetry can counteract a marked rise in non-marriage. PMID:25604846
Carroll, Jason S; Nelson, David A; Yorgason, Jeremy B; Harper, James M; Ashton, Ruth Hagmann; Jensen, Alexander C
Drawing from developmental theories of relational aggression, this article reports on a study designed to identify if spouses use relationally aggressive tactics when dealing with conflict in their marriage and the association of these behaviors with marital outcomes. Using a sample of 336 married couples (672 spouses), results revealed that the majority of couples reported that relationally aggressive behaviors, such as social sabotage and love withdrawal, were a part of their marital dynamics, at least to some degree. Gender comparisons of partner reports of their spouse's behavior revealed that wives were significantly more likely to be relationally aggressive than husbands. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that relational aggression is associated with lower levels of marital quality and greater marital instability for both husbands and wives. Implications are drawn for the use of relational aggression theory in the future study of couple conflict and marital aggression. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
About the author: Chen Yiyun graduated from the Russian Language and Literature Departraent at Beijing University in 1964. She then enrolled at the Sociology Institute of the China Academy of Social Sciences in 1978. Upon graduation, she remained at the Institute as a research fellow. She later became editor-in-chief of the magazine Sociology Abroad. She translated and edited dozens of sociology books. In 1988, after she returned from the United States, she devoted herself to the research of sociology and marriage consultation. In 1993, Chen set up the Jinglun Family Science Center, a non-governmental organization which is a combination of scientific research and social practice. She organized scholars, social workers and volunteers from sectors of public health, education and legislation to conduct useful activities to promote democracy in the family, equality, health and civilization.
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marriage licenses. 11.601 Section 11.601 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Domestic Relations § 11.601 Marriage licenses. A marriage license shall be issued by the clerk of the court in the absence of any showing that the proposed marriage would be invalid under any...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marriage. 3.205 Section 3..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.205 Marriage. (a) Proof of marriage. Marriage is established by one of the following types of evidence: (1) Copy or abstract of the...
Manning, Wendy D.; Trella, Deanna; Lyons, Heidi; Du Toit, Nola Cora
Although disadvantaged women are the targets of marriage programs, little attention has been paid to women's marriage constraints and their views of marriage. Drawing on an exchange framework and using qualitative data collected from single women participating in a marriage initiative, we introduce the concept of marriageable women--the notion…
Declaração de nascido vivo: análise do seu preenchimento no Município de Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brasil Certificates of live birth: analysis of completion in the city of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil
Flávia Cristiane Mishima
Full Text Available O estudo tem como objetivos identificar o fluxo de preenchimento das Declarações de Nascidos Vivos (DNs e analisar a consistência das informações contidas nas mesmas. Para a coleta de dados utilizou-se uma DN-Controle, preenchida com base nas informações contidas nos prontuários do recém-nascido e da mãe, as quais foram comparadas com os dados contidos na DN-Oficial, disponível no Departamento de Informática da Secretaria Municipal da Saúde de Ribeirão Preto. A amostragem constitui-se de 911 DNs dos nascimentos ocorridos no mês de julho de 1996. Da análise dos dados verificou-se que o fluxo de preenchimento da DN é heterogêneo entre os hospitais, envolvendo desde o pediatra até a escriturária, e às vezes, funcionários administrativos. Em relação à consistência das informações, identificou-se uma concordância elevada, acima de 90% em 13 das 18 variáveis comparadas nas DNs e em metade dos hospitais investigados; a discordância ocorreu, principalmente, naquelas informações referentes ao número de filhos tidos, número de consultas pré-natal, grau de instrução da mãe e nome do pai.The study aims to identify the frequency with which certificates of live birth are filled out and to analyze the data they provide. To gather the data, the authors used a model birth certificate filled out by research assistants based on information obtained from the reports on mothers and newborns. This information was then compared to data contained in the official birth certificates available in the Information Technology Division of the Municipal Health Department. The sample consisted of 911 certificates of live birth from July 1996 in the ten maternity wards of the city of Ribeirão Preto. Data analysis showed that frequency of completion of birth certificates differs by hospital, involving both physicians and administrative personnel. The authors identified a high level of agreement in the data, i.e., over 90% in 13 of 18
Cremin, I; Mushati, P; Hallett, T; Mupambireyi, Z; Nyamukapa, C; Garnett, G P; Gregson, S
To identify reporting biases and to determine the influence of inconsistent reporting on observed trends in the timing of age at first sex and age at marriage. Longitudinal data from three rounds of a population-based cohort in eastern Zimbabwe were analysed. Reports of age at first sex and age at marriage from 6837 individuals attending multiple rounds were classified according to consistency. Survival analysis was used to identify trends in the timing of first sex and marriage. In this population, women initiate sex and enter marriage at younger ages than men but spend much less time between first sex and marriage. Among those surveyed between 1998 and 2005, median ages at first sex and first marriage were 18.5 years and 21.4 years for men and 18.2 years and 18.5 years, respectively, for women aged 15-54 years. High levels of reports of both age at first sex and age at marriage among those attending multiple surveys were found to be unreliable. Excluding reports identified as unreliable from these analyses did not alter the observed trends in either age at first sex or age at marriage. Tracing birth cohorts as they aged revealed reporting biases, particularly among the youngest cohorts. Comparisons by birth cohorts, which span a period of >40 years, indicate that median age at first sex has remained constant over time for women but has declined gradually for men. Although many reports of age at first sex and age at marriage were found to be unreliable, inclusion of such reports did not result in artificial generation or suppression of trends.
Same-sex marriage, civil marriage and cohabitation: the law, the rights and responsibilities. ... Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence ... This paper examined the law surrounding marriage rights and ...
Liu, Lige; Brown, Melissa J.; Feldman, Marcus W.
Since the 1990s, inter-provincial female migration for marriage has become important in central and eastern rural China. Using survey data from X County in rural Anhui Province, we explore the arrangement of inter-provincial marriages, as well as the characteristics of husbands and wives, marital satisfaction, and marital stability for these marriages. We find that inter-provincial marriage is an important option for local men to respond to the marriage squeeze and the increasing expense of marriage. It helps to relieve the shortage of marriageable women in the local marriage market. Because this kind of marriage is based on economic exchange, but not affection, it is often subject to a higher risk of marriage instability, and can lead to such illegal behaviors as marriage fraud and mercenary marriage. PMID:26594102
Liu, Lige; Jin, Xiaoyi; Brown, Melissa J; Feldman, Marcus W
Since the 1990s, inter-provincial female migration for marriage has become important in central and eastern rural China. Using survey data from X County in rural Anhui Province, we explore the arrangement of inter-provincial marriages, as well as the characteristics of husbands and wives, marital satisfaction, and marital stability for these marriages. We find that inter-provincial marriage is an important option for local men to respond to the marriage squeeze and the increasing expense of marriage. It helps to relieve the shortage of marriageable women in the local marriage market. Because this kind of marriage is based on economic exchange, but not affection, it is often subject to a higher risk of marriage instability, and can lead to such illegal behaviors as marriage fraud and mercenary marriage.
Our study focuses on the fertility of first-generation female and male Turkish migrants in Germany. To evaluate whether timing effects such as fertility disruption or an interrelation of marriage, migration and childbirth occur, we examine first and second births in the years before and after
... QUESTIONS LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE FAQ006 Cesarean Birth (C-section) • What is cesarean birth? • What are the reasons for cesarean birth? • Is a cesarean birth necessary if I have ...
Full Text Available Marriage is not just a bond between men and women, but the inner bond between a man and a woman based on the One and Only God. This research was a philosophical normative, thus the approaches used were philosophical, normative, and historical. Besides, a qualitative-descriptive strategy was used in finding a depth description of the law politics of interfaith marriage regulation in Indonesia based on the the 1974 Marriage Law. The results show that the interfaith marriage is not regulated in the 1974 Marriage Law, because: First, the rejection of the majority of Muslims and the faction in Parliament because the interfaith marriage is against the aqidah (matters of faith of Islam; Second, the interfaith marriage is contrary to the marriage culture in Indonesia, because marriage contains legal, sociology and religious aspects; Third, the interfaith marriage is contrary to the theological teachings of religions in Indonesia that do not want interfaith marriages, such as Islam, Christianity, Protestantism, Hinduism and Buddhism. Furthermore, the interfaith marriage is inconsistent with the philosophical purposes of marriage in Indonesia where the purpose of marriage forms a happy and eternal family based on the One Supreme God.
Majid Mehr Mohammadi
Full Text Available Background: Given the high prevalence of consanguineous marriages in rural and urban areas of Iran, the aim of this study was to identify its role in increasing fetal and infant deaths. Materials ans Methods : This was a cross-sectional study in which 494 mothers with more than one exceptional child (mentally retarded and physically-dynamically disabled or with normal children were selected based on multi-stage random sampling method. Data was gathered using the features of parents with more than one exceptional child questionnaire. The validity and reliability of this questionnaire was acceptable. Hierarchical log-linear method was used for statistical analysis. Results: Consanguineous marriage significantly increased the number of births of exceptional children. Moreover, there was a significant relation between the history of fetal/infant death and belonging to the group. There was a significant relation between consanguineous marriage and the history of fetal/infant death which means consanguineous marriage increased the prevalence of fetal/infant death in parents with exceptional children rather than in parents with normal children. Conclusions: The rate of fetal/infant death in exceptional births of consanguineous marriages was higher than that of non-consanguineous marriages.
Mohammadi, Majid Mehr; Hooman, Heidar Ali; Afrooz, Gholam Ali; Daramadi, Parviz Sharifi
Given the high prevalence of consanguineous marriages in rural and urban areas of Iran, the aim of this study was to identify its role in increasing fetal and infant deaths. This was a cross-sectional study in which 494 mothers with more than one exceptional child (mentally retarded and physically-dynamically disabled) or with normal children were selected based on multi-stage random sampling method. Data was gathered using the features of parents with more than one exceptional child questionnaire. The validity and reliability of this questionnaire was acceptable. Hierarchical log-linear method was used for statistical analysis. Consanguineous marriage significantly increased the number of births of exceptional children. Moreover, there was a significant relation between the history of fetal/infant death and belonging to the group. There was a significant relation between consanguineous marriage and the history of fetal/infant death which means consanguineous marriage increased the prevalence of fetal/infant death in parents with exceptional children rather than in parents with normal children. The rate of fetal/infant death in exceptional births of consanguineous marriages was higher than that of non-consanguineous marriages.
Bruze, Gustaf; Svarer, Michael; Weiss, Yoram
We formulate and estimate a dynamic model of marriage, divorce, and remarriage using 27 years of panel data for the entire Danish cohort born in 1960. The marital surplus is identified from the probability of divorce, and the surplus shares of husbands and wives from their willingness to enter...... marriage. Education and marriage order are complements in generating gains from marriage. Educated men and women receive a larger share of the marital gains but this effect is mitigated when their proportion rises. Education stabilizes marriage and second marriages are less stable. As the cohort ages...
Full Text Available In our study we investigate interdependencies between entry into a marital union, childbearing, and migration. We apply event-history techniques to retrospective data on women aged 18-29 from a survey conducted in northern Kyrgyzstan in 2005 to examine how these events can influence one another, with a special focus on the effects of duration of exposure. In addition we analyze the impact of some individual characteristics on the propensity to get married, to become a mother, and to migrate. In our analysis we account for several duration dependences ('clocks'. The results illustrate that months since marriage formation is the most important duration variable in the first-birth propensities model. Out-of-wedlock conception is associated with increased marriage risks. Migration is often a part of the family building process: high first-birth propensities of recent migrants as well as high migration risks among pregnant women are due to marriage-related migration.
Yu, Jia; Xie, Yu
Using population intercensus and national survey data, we examine marriage timing in urban China spanning the past six decades. Descriptive analysis from the intercensus shows that marriage patterns have changed in China. Marriage age is delayed for both men and women, and prevalence of nonmarriage became as high as one-quarter for men in recent birth cohorts with very low levels of education. Capitalizing on individual-level survey data, we further explore the effects of demographic and socioeconomic determinants of entry into marriage in urban China over time. Our study yields three significant findings. First, the influence of economic prospects on marriage entry has significantly increased during the economic reform era for men. Second, the positive effect of working in the state-owned sector has substantially weakened. Third, educational attainment now has a negative effect on marriage timing for women. Taken together, these results suggest that the traditional hypergamy norm has persisted in China as an additional factor in the influences of economic resources on marriage formation.
Godha, Deepali; Gage, Anastasia J; Hotchkiss, David R; Cappa, Claudia
In light of the global pervasiveness of child marriage and given that improving maternal health care use is an effective strategy in reducing maternal and child morbidity and mortality, the available empirical evidence on the association of child marriage with maternal health care utilization seems woefully inadequate. Furthermore, existing studies have not considered the interaction of type of place of residence and parity with child marriage, which can give added insight to program managers. Demographic Health Survey data for seven countries are used to estimate logistic regression models including interactions of age at marriage with area of residence and birth order. Adjusted predicted probabilities at representative values and marginal effects are computed for each outcome. The results show a negative association between child marriage and maternal health care use in most study countries, and this association is more negative in rural areas and with higher orders of parity. However, the association between age at marriage and maternal health care use is not straightforward but depends on parity and area of residence and varies across countries. The marginal effects in use of delivery care services between women married at age 14 years or younger and those married at age 18 years or older are more than 10% and highly significant in Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, and Nepal. The study's findings call for the formulation of country-and age at marriage-specific recommendations to improve maternal and child health outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... 1990–2013 [PDF – 423 KB] Primary Cesarean Delivery Rates, by State: Results From the Revised Birth Certificate, 2006–2012 [PDF – 274 KB] Related Links Vital Statistics downloadable public use data files American College of ...
Kashyap, Ridhi; Esteve, Albert; García-Román, Joan
We explore the impact of sociodemographic change on marriage patterns in India by examining the hypothetical consequences of applying three sets of marriage pairing propensities-contemporary patterns by age, contemporary patterns by age and education, and changing propensities that allow for greater educational homogamy and reduced educational asymmetries--to future population projections. Future population prospects for India indicate three trends that will impact marriage patterns: (1) female deficit in sex ratios at birth; (2) declining birth cohort size; (3) female educational expansion. Existing literature posits declining marriage rates for men arising from skewed sex ratios at birth (SRBs) in India's population. In addition to skewed SRBs, India's population will experience female educational expansion in the coming decades. Female educational expansion and its impact on marriage patterns must be jointly considered with demographic changes, given educational differences and asymmetries in union formation that exist in India, as across much of the world. We systematize contemporary pairing propensities using data from the 2005-2006 Indian National Family Health Survey and the 2004 Socio-Economic Survey and apply these and the third set of changing propensities to multistate population projections by educational attainment using an iterative longitudinal projection procedure. If today's age patterns of marriage are viewed against age/sex population composition until 2050, men experience declining marriage prevalence. However, when education is included, women--particularly those with higher education--experience a more salient rise in nonmarriage. Significant changes in pairing patterns toward greater levels of educational homogamy and gender symmetry can counteract a marked rise in nonmarriage.
Tezcan, Sabahat; Adali, Tuğba
Adolescent marriage is an important issue given its social and medical consequences. This study focuses on the recent trends in adolescent marriage and reproductive health in Turkey to provide insights for action. Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys of 1998 and 2008 were used. Adolescent marriage and reproductive health indicators were assessed for urban-rural residences, demographic regions and educational levels. Logistic regression was used to predict marriage and birth in adolescence. Despite the decrease in the proportion of married adolescents from 1998 to 2008, the findings suggest no improvement in some marriage characteristics. In both surveys, over 60% of ever-married adolescents had been pregnant at least once. There is an increase in contraceptive use and antenatal care. Our findings showed that in Turkey, women living in rural areas, from poor households, with more traditional parental families, with less education, and who are not working are more likely to get married in their adolescent ages.
Garaev, Z I
Families of 549 probands and families of 123 probands with cleft lip and/or palate were examined in order to evaluate the relationship between marriages between close relatives and the incidence and structure of maxillodental diseases. Clinical and genealogical analysis of families of probands with maxillodental abnormalities and cleft lip and/or palate showed a significantly higher incidence of marriages between close relatives and an inbreeding coefficient in these families. Analysis of the population and familial incidence of maxillodental abnormalities and the inbreeding coefficient will help the physicians consulting such families more accurately evaluate the risk and improve the efficacy of prevention of such conditions.
Gibson-Davis, Christina M.
Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Survey (N = 2,954), a birth cohort study, this work examines how gains in earnings and income are associated with marriage and subsequent childbearing for low-income couples. Using change models, results indicate that positive changes in earnings, controlling for baseline levels of earnings,…
Lau, Charles Q.
This study contributes to the emerging demographic literature on same-sex couples by comparing the level and correlates of union stability among 4 types of couples: (a) male same-sex cohabitation, (b) female same-sex cohabitation, (c) different-sex cohabitation, and (d) different-sex marriage. The author analyzed data from 2 British birth cohort…
Grossbard, Shoshana Amyra
This paper points to parallels between the economic approach to marriage and Jewish Law. The economic approach is applied to the sex ratio question, the price of Torah scholars, the need for marriage brokers, marriage contracts and polygamy, all topics also addressed by Jewish law.
Investigates the relationship between consanguineous marriage and marital adjustment in Turkey. The results of the study show that the consanguineous marriage group had significantly lower marital adjustment and had more conflict with extended family than the nonconsanguineous marriage group. The finding is discussed in the context of research and…
Ribar, David C.
Marriage between two parents, compared with other family living arrangements, appears, on average, to enhance children's wellbeing and development. Some of the positive association between marriage and children's wellbeing comes from positive associations between marriage and other things that also contribute to children's wellbeing. David Ribar…
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marriage. 551.111 Section 551.111... Pretrial Inmates § 551.111 Marriage. A pretrial inmate may request permission to marry in accordance with... marriage request of the pretrial inmate and to request their comments. ...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marriage dates. 3.54..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Relationship § 3.54 Marriage dates. A surviving spouse may qualify for pension, compensation, or dependency and indemnity compensation if the marriage to the...
Sánchez-Domínguez, M.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Reher, D.S.
This paper studies patterns of endogamous marriages of immigrants in Spain by using data from the National Immigrant Survey of Spain (2007). First of all, we examine patterns of endogamous marriage and links between migration and marriage. Second, we assess the factors influencing the likelihood of
Koç, İsmet; Eryurt, Mehmet Alİ
Turkey has high levels of infant mortality and consanguineous marriages. It has had a high level of infant mortality for its economic level for many years. Over recent decades, although adult mortality rates have not been very different from those of other countries with similar socioeconomic structures, its life expectancy at birth has remained low due to its high infant mortality rate. This has been called the Turkish Puzzle. According to the Turkey Family Structure and Population Issues Survey, 27% of women had a consanguineous marriage in 1968. Subsequent Turkish Demographic and Health Surveys (TDHSs) found the rate of consanguineous marriages to be stagnated at 22-24%, with a resistance to reduction. According to the TDHS-2008, 24% of women had a consanguineous marriage. Numerous studies in various countries of the world have indicated that consanguineous marriages, particularly of first-degree, have the effect of increasing infant mortality. The main aim of this study was to assess the causal impact of consanguineous, particularly first-degree consanguineous, marriages on infant mortality, controlling for individual, cultural, bio-demographic and environmental factors. Data were merged from four Turkish DHS data sets (1993, 1998, 2003 and 2008). Multivariate analysis revealed that first-degree consanguineous marriages have increased infant mortality by 45% in Turkey: 57% in urban areas and 39% in rural areas. The results indicate that there is a causal relationship between consanguineous marriages and infant mortality. This finding should be taken into account when planning policies to reduce infant mortality in Turkey, and in other countries with high rates of consanguineous marriage and infant mortality.
This paper explores the decline in child marriage and changes in its effect on reproductive outcomes of Bangladeshi women, using the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey data. Chi-square tests, negative binomial Poisson regression and binary logistic regression were performed in analyzing the data. Overall, 82% of women aged 20-49 years were married-off before 18 years of age, and 63% of the marriages took place before 16 years of age. The incidence of child marriage was significantly less among the young women aged 20-24 years compared to their older counterparts. Among others, women's education appeared as the most significant single determinant of child marriage as well as decline in child marriage. Findings revealed that, after being adjusted for sociodemographic factors, child marriage compared to adult marriage appeared to be significantly associated with lower age at first birth (OR=0.81, 95% CI=76-0.86), higher fertility (IRR=1.45, 95% WCI=1.35-1.55), increased risk of child mortality (IRR=1.64, 95% WCI=1.44-1.87), decreased risk of contraceptive-use before any childbirths (OR=0.56, 95% CI=0.50-0.63), higher risk of giving three or more childbirth (OR=3.94, 95% CI=3.38-4.58), elevated risk of unplanned pregnancies (OR=1.21, 95% CI=1.02-1.45), increased risk of pregnancy termination (OR=1.16, 95% CI=1.00-1.34), and higher risk of the use of any current contraceptive method (OR=1.20, 95% CI=1.06-1.35). Increased enforcement of existing policies is crucial for the prevention of child marriage. Special programmes should be undertaken to keep girls in school for longer period to raise the age of females at first marriage in Bangladesh and thereby reduce the adverse reproductive outcomes. PMID:23082634
Dinno, Alexis; Whitney, Chelsea
BACKGROUND: Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex mar...
R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
textabstractABSTRACT In present day Western society the institution of marriage appears to be of great significance for the well-being of the individual. Compared with married persons, the unmarried are generally less happy, less healthy, more disturbed and more prone to premature death. Among the
Rubio Covarrubias, Ariana Gabriela
In this dissertation I present three papers, each as an individual chapter. The first two papers are in the field of development economics, while the third paper is in the field of education economics. The first two chapters document and study the disappearance of arranged marriages in Asia, the Middle East and Sub-Saharan Africa. For this…
Leen Sterckx; Jaco Dagevos; Willem Huijnk; Jantine van Lisdonk
Original title: Huwelijksmigratie in Nederland When a man or woman living in the Netherlands embarks on a relationship with a partner from another country and the couple decide to build a married life together in the Netherlands, we call this marriage migration. The foreign partner who moves to
Birth control, also known as contraception, is designed to prevent pregnancy. Birth control methods may work in a number of different ... eggs that could be fertilized. Types include birth control pills, patches, shots, vaginal rings, and emergency contraceptive ...
Ahmed, A U
The author examines developments in marriage patterns in Bangladesh in light of social, cultural, and economic conditions. Previous literature on the subject is used to discuss Muslim marriage, Hindu marriage, child marriage, mate selection and social mobility, and the question of a marriage squeeze. "The analysis presents evidence that the society is experiencing a change in its family formation, mating process and family type. This transition is to some extent towards the characteristics of [the] Western World, but in a poor economy. Part of this transition is due to the effect of modernization and part due to increasing poverty." excerpt
Islam, M Mazharul; Ababneh, Faisal M; Khan, Md Hasinur Rahaman
This study examined the recent level, trends and determinants of consanguineous marriage in Jordan using time-series data from the Jordan Population and Family Health Surveys (JPFHSs). According to the 2012 JPFHS, 35% of all marriages were consanguineous in Jordan in 2012. There has been a declining trend in consanguinity in the country, with the rate decreasing from a level of 57% in 1990. Most consanguineous marriage in 2012 were first cousin marriages, constituting 23% of all marriages and 66% of all consanguineous marriages. The data show that women with a lower age at marriage, older marriage cohort, larger family size, less than secondary level of education, rural place of residence, no employment, no exposure to mass media, a monogamous marriage, a husband with less than higher level of education and lower economic status, and those from the Badia region, were more likely to have a consanguineous marriage. Increasing age at marriage, level of education, urbanization and knowledge about the health consequences of consanguinity, and the ongoing socioeconomic and demographic transition in the country, will be the driving forces for further decline in consanguinity in Jordan.
This article examines competing theoretical claims regarding how an individual's education will affect his or her likelihood of interracial marriage. I demonstrate that prior models of interracial marriage have failed to adequately distinguish the joint and marginal effects of education on interracial marriage and present a model capable of distinguishing these effects. I test this model on black-white interracial marriages using 1980, 1990, and 2000 U.S. census data. The results reveal partial support for status exchange theory within black male-white female unions and strong isolation of lower-class blacks from the interracial marriage market. Structural assimilation theory is not supported because the educational attainment of whites is not related in any consistent fashion to the likelihood of interracial marriage. The strong isolation of lower-class blacks from the interracial marriage market has gone unnoticed in prior research because of the failure of prior methods to distinguish joint and marginal effects.
Rafiee, Laleh; Saadat, Mostafa
Consanguineous marriage--marriage between relatives--has received a great deal of attention as a potential risk factor for many adverse health outcomes. The present cross-sectional study was done in order to illustrate the prevalence and types of consanguineous marriages among Iranian Georgians living in Frydoonshahr (Isfahan province, central Iran). Data on consanguineous marriages were collected using a simple questionnaire. The total number of couples in this study was 646. Consanguineous marriage was classified by the degree of relationship between couples. First cousin marriages (14.2%) were the most common type of consanguineous marriages, followed by second cousin (7.0%), beyond second cousin (1.5%) and first cousin once removed (0.6%). The mean inbreeding coefficient (α) was calculated as 0.0104 for the population. The present study shows that the study population, as other Iranian populations, has a high level of consanguinity.
Couser, S.; Moore, J.
A DOE Technical Safety Appraisal in October 1986 found that training at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant was fragmented and lacked uniformity. Training was localized in departments and was more often handled by line supervisors, etc. - with no certification. The Trainer Certification Program has provided the means for applying standard guidelines to ensure that training is designed, applied, and evaluated in a consistent, effective, and efficient manner. The program is in a state of substantial change and a target date for compliance is set for 1989. Trainer certification will provide both current and future resources to ensure consistent and effective training. 22 figures
Amato, Paul R.; Maynard, Rebecca A.
Since the 1970s, the share of U.S. children growing up in single-parent families has doubled, a trend that has disproportionately affected disadvantaged families. Paul Amato and Rebecca Maynard argue that reversing that trend would reduce poverty in the short term and, perhaps more important, improve children's growth and development over the long…
LI, Xiaomin; LI, Shuzhuo; FELDMAN, Marcus W.
Most recent studies of marriage patterns in China have emphasized the male-biased sex ratio but have largely neglected age structure as a factor in China’s male marriage squeeze. In this paper we develop an index we call “spousal sex ratio” (SSR) to measure the marriage squeeze, and a method of decomposing the proportion of male surplus into age and sex structure effects within a small spousal age difference interval. We project that China’s marriage market will be confronted with a relatively severe male squeeze. For the decomposition of the cohort aged 30, from 2010 to 2020 age structure will be dominant, while from 2020 through 2034 the contribution of age structure will gradually decrease and that of sex structure will increase. From then on, sex structure will be dominant. The index and decomposition, concentrated on a specific female birth cohort, can distinguish spousal competition for single cohorts which may be covered by a summary index for the whole marriage market; these can also be used for consecutive cohorts to reflect the situation of the whole marriage market. PMID:27242390
Reduced emissions of climate gases at the lowest cost require international cooperation in order to ensure that the most cost-efficient measures are taken. A market for emission rights is one way of achieving this. However, creating the right conditions for such a market to operate requires an unambiguous definition of the product to be traded. In this PM, the Swedish Power Association sketches out how such a product could be defined, and how a market for the resulting unambiguously defined product could be operated internationally, in parallel with other markets for energy products. Trade in climate certificates could become a joint EU approach to achieving common results within the field of climate policy. The main features of the proposal are as follows: Electricity producers would be allowed to issue climate certificates for electricity produced without climate-affecting emissions, e.g. in wind power plants. 1 kWh of electricity produced without emissions would entitle the utility to issue a climate certificate for 1 kWh. Electricity from power stations having low emissions, e.g. modern natural gas-fired plants, would entitle the utility to issue certificates in proportion to how much lower their emissions were in comparison with those from conventional coal-fired power stations. The number of certificates would be reduced by an individual coefficient, related directly to the quantity of climate-affecting emissions from the plant concerned. They would be traded and noted on markets in the various member countries. The certificates would not be nationally restricted, but could be traded across borders. Exchanges would be authorised by national authorities, in accordance with overall EU directives. These authorised exchanges would act as certification bodies, checking that certificates had been properly issued in accordance with a corresponding volume of electricity production. Electricity and certificates could be purchased from different suppliers. The
A birth defect is a problem that happens while a baby is developing in the mother's body. Most birth defects happen during the first 3 months of ... in the United States is born with a birth defect. A birth defect may affect how the ...
Bauso, Dario; Dia, Ben Mansour; Djehiche, Boualem; Tembine, Hamidou; Tempone, Raul
The myth of marriage has been and is still a fascinating historical societal phenomenon. Paradoxically, the empirical divorce rates are at an all-time high. This work describes a unique paradigm for preserving relationships and marital stability from mean-field game theory. We show that optimizing the long-term well-being via effort and society feeling state distribution will help in stabilizing relationships.
The myth of marriage has been and is still a fascinating historical societal phenomenon. Paradoxically, the empirical divorce rates are at an all-time high. This work describes a unique paradigm for preserving relationships and marital stability from mean-field game theory. We show that optimizing the long-term well-being via effort and society feeling state distribution will help in stabilizing relationships.
Nonaka, K.; Desjardins, Bertrand; Charbonneau, Hubert; Légaré, Jacques; Miura, Teiji
We investigated population-based vital records of the seventeenth and eighteenth century French Canadian population to assess the effects of marriage season on the outcome of the first births under natural fertility conditions (n=21,698 marriages). Promptness of the first successful conception after marriage differed according to marriage season; the proportion of marriages with a marriage-first birth interval of 8.0-10.0 months was lowest (34%) for marriages in August-October (P=0.001). Although the male/female sex ratio of the babies born with an interval of 8.0-10.0 months was generally higher (1.10) than those with an interval of 10.0-24.0 months (1.05), the marriages in August-October resulted in a significantly reduced sex ratio (0.96) among only the prompt conceptions (P=0.026). We discuss whether this seasonal reduction of the sex ratio could be partly explained by a clustered pregnancy loss of male zygotes in early pregnancy.
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marriage ceremony in the institution. 551... MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Marriages of Inmates § 551.16 Marriage ceremony in the institution. (a) The Warden may approve the use of institution facilities for an inmate's marriage ceremony. If a marriage...
Anderson, Sharon; Keating, Norah; Wilson, Donna
Most research on stroke's impact on couples has focused on the transition to caregiving/receiving. Despite considerable evidence that marriage is the primary source of support in the face of chronic conditions, little is known about what happens to marriage in the context of care after stroke. To address this gap, we undertook a qualitative grounded-theory study of 18 couples in which one partner had experienced a stroke. Findings revealed two interrelated themes of the couple processes: working out care, which involved discovering and addressing disruptions in day-to-day activities; and rethinking marriage, which involved determining the meaning of their relationship within the new context of care and disability. Three distinct types of marriages evolved from these processes: reconfirmed around their pre-stroke marriage; recalibrated around care; and a parallel relationship, "his" and "her" marriage. Our findings highlight the need to consider relationship dynamics in addition to knowledge about stroke and care.
Frischa Meivilona Yendi; Zadrian Ardi; Ifdil Ifdil
Marriage is a bond between the outer and inner man as a husband who has not aged 25 years and women 21 years old wife is not with the purpose of achieving happiness. Marriage and family counseling is a profession that will be developed in Indonesia. Counseling emphasizes on changes contained in the family system. Stages counseling, theory and dynamics as well as the use of counseling skills in marriage and family counseling has similarities with individual counseling and group counseling.
Wijk, Sofi Ohlsson; Brandén, Maria; Duvander, Ann-Zofie
Abstract: Marriage is commonly perceived as a more committed form of union than cohabitation. Individualization perspectives suggest that this makes couples refrain from marriage, while gender perspectives propose that gender equality within couples may increase the willingness to commit to a partner through marriage. We address these differing standpoints by studying the role of commitment and gender equality for marriage formation among cohabiting men and women born in Swe...
Dinno, Alexis; Whitney, Chelsea
Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex marriage rates by implementation of same sex marriages and other same sex unions. Marriage data were obtained for all fifty states plus the District of Columbia from 1989 through 2009. As these marriage rates are non-stationary, a generalized error correction model was used to estimate long run and short run effects of same sex marriages and strong and weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. We found that there were no significant long-run or short run effects of same sex marriages or of strong or weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. A deleterious effect on rates of opposite sex marriage has been argued to be a motivating factor for both the withholding and the elimination of existing rights of same sex couples to marry by policy makers-including presiding justices of current litigation over the rights of same sex couples to legally marry. Such claims do not appear credible in the face of the existing evidence, and we conclude that rates of opposite sex marriages are not affected by legalization of same sex civil unions or same sex marriages.
Dinno, Alexis; Whitney, Chelsea
Background Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex marriage rates by implementation of same sex marriages and other same sex unions. Methods and Findings Marriage data were obtained for all fifty states plus the District of Columbia from 1989 through 2009. As these marriage rates are non-stationary, a generalized error correction model was used to estimate long run and short run effects of same sex marriages and strong and weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. We found that there were no significant long-run or short run effects of same sex marriages or of strong or weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. Conclusion A deleterious effect on rates of opposite sex marriage has been argued to be a motivating factor for both the withholding and the elimination of existing rights of same sex couples to marry by policy makers–including presiding justices of current litigation over the rights of same sex couples to legally marry. Such claims do not appear credible in the face of the existing evidence, and we conclude that rates of opposite sex marriages are not affected by legalization of same sex civil unions or same sex marriages. PMID:23776536
Liangas, Georgios; Athanasou, James A
It has been proposed that legislation for same-sex marriage has a positive mental health benefit. The purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate the empirical and conceptual links between same-sex marriage and mental health. There are substantive methodological issues in the four surveys and comparisons undertaken. Difficulties with the validity of the evidence are discussed. Conceptual difficulties in the arguments relating to victimisation as well as the psychology of marriage are highlighted. It was concluded that it is premature to make claims of causality vis-a-vis same-sex marriage legislation and mental health. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.
Kealy-Bateman, Warren; Pryor, Lisa
We aim to review marriage equality in New Zealand and Australia and critically evaluate the health impact of such a legal change. We undertook a review of the literature using the search terms "marriage equality", "same sex marriage" and "gay marriage" in combination with "health", "wellbeing", "psych*", "mental illness" and "distress". This search included medical literature, legal literature and mass media. This review indicates that Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Intersex (LGBTI) people disproportionately face negative health stressors and negative health events compared with the general population and this is related to the stress of being a stigmatised minority group. The evidence strongly supports the proposition that marriage equality is related to improved health outcomes. A diverse range of professional health groups advocate for the legislative progression to marriage equality. The authors found no evidence that marriage equality harms opposite-sex marriage. Marriage equality is still lacking in Australia and as a positive correlate of health should be strongly supported. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Background: Some scholars claim that marriage is an outmoded institution, decoupled from the childbearing process in Sweden. However, it is likely that the presence of children is still linked to marriage, since most children born to cohabiting couples experience the marriage of their parents. The
2Department of Social Science ... child marriage is a formal marriage or informal ... early marriage among secondary school girls in Plateau State and its effect ... from the State ministry of education and the principals of the various schools.
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000623.htm Breech birth To use the sharing features on this page, ... safer for your baby to pass through the birth canal. In the last weeks of pregnancy, your ...
... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND... the consignee. Certificates must indicate the flock of birth for any breeding sheep born after January...
In the 1950s and 1960s there was an unprecedented marriage boom in the United States. This was followed in the 1970s by a marriage bust. Some argue that both phenomena are cohort effects, while others argue that they are period effects. The study reported here tested the major period and cohort theories of the marriage boom and bust, by estimating an age-period-cohort model of first marriage for the years 1925-79 using census microdata. The results of the analysis indicate that the marriage boom was mostly a period effect, although there were also cohort influences. More specifically, the hypothesis that the marriage boom was mostly a response to rising wages is shown to be consistent with the data. However, much of the marriage bust can be accounted for by unidentified cohort influences, at least until 1980.
Rolfe, David J.
This paper outlines a program designed for preparing groups of engaged couples for marriage in circumstances where program time is limited to two afternoon sessions. Six topic areas are covered: Adjustments and Priorities; Communication Skills; Parenthood; Money Management; Religious Dimensions in Marriage; and Sexuality. The method used is one of…
Lauer, Sean R.; Yodanis, Carrie
In individualized marriages, spouses maintain independence in their relationship. In individualized marriages, do married couples manage their money in pooled accounts or do they keep separate accounts? We answer this question with the 2002 International Social Survey Programme (N = 18,587;31 country contexts) and examine how variation in the…
Wiggins, James D.; Lederer, Doris A.
Investigated antecedents of marital infidelity for individuals (N=59) involved with coworkers or others. Data suggested that persons involved with coworkers had more satisfying marriages and scored higher on the Compatibility Index than those involved with others. The number of liaisons was not correlated with age or age at marriage. (JAC)
This paper discusses marriage counselling in Multicultural society: Nigerian experience. The researcher sees Multicultural Counselling as a helping relationship, which involves two or more persons with different culture, beliefs and environment. The paper discusses how multicultural counselling can be applied in marriage ...
Bruze, Gustaf; Svarer, Michael; Weiss, Yoram
We formulate and estimate a dynamic model of marriage, divorce, and remarriage using panel data on two cohorts of Danish men and women. The marital surplus is identified from the probability of divorce and the surplus shares of husbands and wives from their willingness to enter marriage. We find ...
Wolcott, Ilene; Glezer, Helen
A study was conducted of the effectiveness of marriage counseling with respect to marital status and the long-term stability of relationships. Data were gathered from clients of approved Australian marriage counseling agencies (n=540) who took a pre-counseling survey during a 4-week period in October-November 1987 and a post-counseling survey 8…
Givens, Benjamin P.; Hirschman, Charles
Used data on 4,667 women from the Iran Fertility Survey to examine trends and social correlates of consanguineous marriage. Found modest increase in proportion of marriages between cousins in Iran from 1940s to 1970s. Results suggest that modernization may be eroding social bases on consanguinity, whereas increased availability of cousins may lead…
Brien, Michael J.; Lillard, Lee A.
Among Malaysian females, changes in education and enrollment account for much of the trend toward later marriage. Increase in age at first conception across cohorts and ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese, Indian) is fully accounted for by cohort and ethnic differences in the age at marriage. (Author/SK)
Adeltoft, Teresa Ajslev; Ängquist, Lars Henrik; Silventoinen, Karri
Background: The genetic predisposition to obesity may have contributed to the obesity epidemic through assortative mating. We investigated whether spouses were positively assorted by body mass index (BMI; = kg/m(2)) in late childhood, and whether changes in assorted marriage by upper BMI-percenti......Background: The genetic predisposition to obesity may have contributed to the obesity epidemic through assortative mating. We investigated whether spouses were positively assorted by body mass index (BMI; = kg/m(2)) in late childhood, and whether changes in assorted marriage by upper BMI......-percentiles occurred during the obesity epidemic. Methods: In the Copenhagen School Health Records Register (CSHRR) boys and girls with measures of BMI at age 13 years later became 37,792 spousal-pairs who married between 1945 and 2010. Trends in the spousal BMI correlations using sex-, age-, and birth cohort......-specific BMI z-scores across time were investigated. Odds ratios (ORs) of marriage among spouses both with BMI z-scores >90th or >95th percentile compared with marriage among spouses ≤90th percentile were analyzed for marriages entered during the years prior to (1945-1970), and during the obesity epidemic...
Frisch, Morten; Hviid, Anders
Children who experience parental divorce are less likely to marry heterosexually than those growing up in intact families; however, little is known about other childhood factors affecting marital choices. We studied childhood correlates of first marriages (heterosexual since 1970, homosexual since 1989) in a national cohort of 2 million 18-49 year-old Danes. In multivariate analyses, persons born in the capital area were significantly less likely to marry heterosexually, but more likely to marry homosexually, than their rural-born peers. Heterosexual marriage was significantly linked to having young parents, small age differences between parents, stable parental relationships, large sibships, and late birth order. For men, homosexual marriage was associated with having older mothers, divorced parents, absent fathers, and being the youngest child. For women, maternal death during adolescence and being the only or youngest child or the only girl in the family increased the likelihood of homosexual marriage. Our study provides population-based, prospective evidence that childhood family experiences are important determinants of heterosexual and homosexual marriage decisions in adulthood.
Full Text Available The past four decades witnessed a tremendous and wide-ranging change in family patterns in Western societies. Amongst these changes are phenomena such as growing number of divorces, births out-of-wedlock, and the absence of fathers because of globalisation, same-sex marriages and cohabitation of people without a marriage contract. Western societies are typified as “highdivorce societies”. Furthermore, in the United States the number of couples cohabiting has increased eightfold since 1970 and it is fair to conclude that the situation is similar in other Western societies. The purpose of the article is to deal with these patterns from a Reformed perspective. The central theoretical argument is that these developments can be perceived as a crisis in view of the Biblical perspectives on marriage and family life. However, the Biblical perspectives not only offer a clear indication of healthy marriage and family life entail, but also indicate that a Christian attitude in marriage and family life can serve as a remedy for the damage caused by the new trends.
This article examines how imbalanced sex ratios influence marriage decisions and household bargaining. Using data from the 1982 Chinese census, the traditional "availability ratio" is modified to reflect the degree to which men tend to marry women from different cohorts. This ratio reflects the average tendency of men to prefer women who are close in age to women who are several years younger than them by weighting cohort sizes using the proportion of people in the population who marry someone born in a different cohort. Given that men generally marry younger women, this ratio varies independently of the size of one's own birth cohort. Yet, the ratio fluctuates considerably across individuals, as the sizes of birth cohorts in China vary across time and regions. This enables us to examine how variability in such ratios may influence marriage decisions and household bargaining. The findings suggest that women exercise greater bargaining power once married. Results indicate that as women become scarcer in the marriage market, they have healthier sons. Men also delay marriage, and consume less tobacco and alcohol. This paper also highlights how sensitive findings may be to using this modified weighted availability ratio rather than a traditional unweighted availability ratio.
... upgrading a pilot certificate (such as going from a student to a sport, recreational, or private pilot... interaction with the FAA (for example, change of name, citizenship, date of birth, or gender) would be a... final rule. Finally, a private, recreational, or sport pilot certificate holder would have 5 years after...
Moskowitz, David A.; Rieger, Gerulf; Roloff, Michael E.
Negative attitudes of heterosexual people toward same-sex marriage relate to the degree to which they are homophobic. However, it has been understudied whether there exists a gender difference in this association. Our results indicated that homophobia was the best predictor of attitudes toward gay male and lesbian marriage, and this was equally true for both heterosexual men and women. However, the attitudinal difference between gay male and lesbian marriage was related to homophobia in men but not in women. That is, for men only, being less homophobic towards lesbians than towards gay men was associated with favoring lesbian over gay men marriage. Considering these results, the role of gender in attitudes toward same-sex marriage seems to be as an important moderator of homophobia. PMID:20390996
Mahajan, Priyanka Thukral; Pimple, Priya; Palsetia, Delnaz; Dave, Nahid; De Sousa, Avinash
Indian religions and cultures are diverse and have always influenced the way people live in this part of the world. Religion has been a very dominant influence in marriage, choice of marital partner and cohabitation. The present paper looks at various religions in India and their influence on sexual attitudes and the institution of marriage. Sikhism, Jainism and the Parsi faith with its influence on sexuality and marriage are reviewed. Christian values and the role they play in shaping sexual notions as well Christian marriage traditions are explored. The paper also looks at the influences Islam has had on marriage and sexuality and ends with a feminist perspective on women and sexual attitudes towards women.
Moskowitz, David A; Rieger, Gerulf; Roloff, Michael E
Negative attitudes of heterosexual people toward same-sex marriage relate to the degree to which they are homophobic. However, it has been understudied whether there exists a gender difference in this association. Our results indicated that homophobia was the best predictor of attitudes toward gay male and lesbian marriage, and this was equally true for both heterosexual men and women. However, the attitudinal difference between gay male and lesbian marriage was related to homophobia in men but not in women. That is, for men only, being less homophobic toward lesbians than toward gay men was associated with favoring lesbian over gay men marriage. Considering these results, the role of gender in attitudes toward same-sex marriage seems to be as an important moderator of homophobia.
Vaterlaus, J Mitchell; Skogrand, Linda; Chaney, Cassandra; Gahagan, Kassandra
The current exploratory study utilized a family strengths framework to identify marital expectations in 39 strong African American heterosexual marriages. Couples reflected on their marital expectations over their 10 or more years of marriage. Three themes emerged through qualitative analysis and the participants' own words were used in the presentation of the themes. African Americans indicated that there was growth in marital expectations over time, with marital expectations often beginning with unrealistic expectations that grew into more realistic expectations as their marriages progressed. Participants also indicated that core expectations in strong African American marriages included open communication, congruent values, and positive treatment of spouse. Finally, participants explained there is an "I" in marriage as they discussed the importance of autonomy within their marital relationships. Results are discussed in association with existing research and theory. © 2016 Family Process Institute.
Chiu, Tuen Yi
This article addresses the intersectional nature of intimate partner violence (IPV) against female marriage migrants in Mainland China-Hong Kong cross-border marriages. The author analyzes data from 15 battered female marriage migrants who share the same ethnicity as their husbands to illustrate how the immigration of female marriage migrants intricately intersects with gender, class, and culture to form a multifaceted system that traps battered marriage migrants in abusive marriages. It is proposed that marriage migration, as a distinct form of migration, involves certain intrinsic risk factors that make marriage migrants particularly vulnerable to IPV. © The Author(s) 2016.
Ventura, Stephanie J.; Martin, Joyce A.; Curtin, Sally C.; Menacker, Fay; Hamilton, Brady E.
This report presents data on U.S. births using information from the birth certificates of the 3.96 million births in 1999. Data are presented for maternal demographics (age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, and educational attainment); maternal characteristics (medical risk factors, weight gain, tobacco use, and alcohol…
Nasrullah, Muazzam; Zakar, Rubeena; Zakar, Muhammad Zakria; Abbas, Safdar; Safdar, Rabia; Shaukat, Mahwish; Krämer, Alexander
Child marriage (women's knowledge and attitude towards child marriage practice who themselves were married as children. Women of reproductive age (15-49 years) who were married prior to 18 years, for at least 5 years and had at least one child birth were recruited from most populous slum areas of Lahore, Pakistan. Themes for the interview were developed using published literature and everyday observations of the researchers. Interviews were conducted by trained interviewers in Urdu language and were translated into English. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed, analyzed and categorized into themes. Nineteen of 20 participants who agreed to participate were married between 11-17 years. Most respondents were uneducated, poor and were working as housemaids. The majority participants were unaware of the negative health outcomes of child marriages. They appeared satisfied by the decision of their parents of marrying them before 18 years, and even condemned banning child marriages in Pakistan. Strong influence of culture and community perceptions, varying interpretation of religion, and protecting family honor are some of the reasons that were narrated by the participants, which seems playing a role in continuation of child marriage practice in Pakistan. Raising awareness of the negative health outcomes of child marriage, implementing and enforcing strict laws against child marriage practice, promoting civil, sexual and reproductive health rights for women, can help eliminate child marriages in Pakistan.
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Void or annulled marriage... Void or annulled marriage. Proof that a marriage was void or has been annulled should consist of: (a... marriage void, together with such other evidence as may be required for a determination. (b) Annulled. A...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Celebration of marriage. 52.1 Section 52.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS MARRIAGES § 52.1 Celebration of marriage. Foreign Service officers are forbidden to celebrate marriages. [31 FR 13546, Oct. 20, 1966] ...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence a marriage has ended. 404.728... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.728 Evidence a marriage has ended. (a) When evidence is needed that a marriage has ended. If you apply for benefits as the insured...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority to approve a marriage. 551.11... MISCELLANEOUS Marriages of Inmates § 551.11 Authority to approve a marriage. (a) The Warden may approve the marriage of a federal inmate confined in a federal institution. This authority may not be delegated below...
Full Text Available Adult mortality due to HIV/AIDS and other diseases is posited to affect children through a number of pathways. On top of health and education outcomes, adult mortality can have significant effects on children by influencing demographic outcomes including the timing of marriage. This paper examines marriage outcomes for a sample of children interviewed in Tanzania in the early 1990s and re-interviewed in 2004. We find that while girls who became paternal orphans married at significantly younger ages, orphanhood had little effect on boys. On the other hand, non-parental deaths in the household affect the timing of marriage for boys.
Frischa Meivilona Yendi
Full Text Available Marriage is a bond between the outer and inner man as a husband who has not aged 25 years and women 21 years old wife is not with the purpose of achieving happiness. Marriage and family counseling is a profession that will be developed in Indonesia. Counseling emphasizes on changes contained in the family system. Stages counseling, theory and dynamics as well as the use of counseling skills in marriage and family counseling has similarities with individual counseling and group counseling.
The paper discusses problems of model specification in birth interval analysis. Using Bongaarts’s conceptual framework on the proximate determinants on fertility, the paper tests the hypothesis that all important variation in fertility is captured by differences in marriage, breastfeeding, contraception and induced abortion. The paper applies a discrete time hazard model to study the second birth interval using data from the Egyptian Demographic and Health Survey 2000 (EDHS), and the month by...
A group of 1,030 children of foreign women living in or around Rome, Italy, are classified according to place of birth (public institution or private dwelling) and legitimacy and by parents' educational level, economic and professional status, citizenship, residence, and age at marriage.
... management options. Breastfeeding basics. Caring for baby at home. Birthing classes are not just for new parents, though. ... midwife. Postpartum care. Caring for your baby at home, including baby first aid. Lamaze One of the most popular birthing techniques in the U.S., Lamaze has been around ...
... even if you arenât going for birth control. What doesnât work to prevent pregnancy? top Itâs ... and taking care of a babyâs many needs. What if I need birth control in an emergency? top Emergency contraception (EC) is ...
Welffens, K; Kirkpatrick, C; Daelemans, C; Derisbourg, S
In Belgium, very few women give birth outside the delivery room. In the United Kingdom and in the Netherlands, they are more numerous. Several studies evaluated obstetric and neonatal outcomes of home births compared with hospital births. We selected seven recent and large studies (with cohorts of more than 5.000 women) using PubMed, Science Direct and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Several questions were examined. Is there any difference in maternal and neonatal outcomes depending on the intended place of birth? Does parity affect outcomes ? What are the characteristics of women who choose to deliver at home ? We conclude that giving birth at home improves obstetric outcomes but is riskier for the baby, especially for the first one. The women delivering at home are mainly white Europeans, between 25 and 35 years old, in a relationship, multiparous and wealthier. In order to avoid this increased risk for the baby while preserving the obstetric advantages, alongside birth centers offer an intermediate solution. They combine the reassuring home-like atmosphere with the safety of the hospital. In Belgium, the first alongside birth center " Le Cocon " (a low technicity unit distinct from the delivery room) offers now this type of alternative place of birth for women in Hôpital Erasme in Brussels.
Nobles, Jenna; Buttenheim, Alison
This study investigates the relationship between economic trends and entry into marriage in a rapidly developing setting. We examine Indonesian marriage in the 1990's, a decade of substantial economic growth followed by a sudden financial collapse in 1998. We use discrete-time hazard models to analyze information on 4,078 women and 4,496 men from the Indonesia Family Life Survey. While previous research has shown that marriages may be postponed after economic downturn, we find no evidence of such delays at the national level following the 1998 financial crisis. In contrast, we use regional wage rate data to show that entry into marriage is inversely related to economic growth throughout the decade for all women and for men from lower socioeconomic strata.
Widiss, Deborah; Tebbe, Nelson; Gilreath, Shannon
159 University of Pennsylvania Law Review PENNumbra 21 (2010) Professors Tebbe and Widiss revisit the arguments they made in "Equal Access and the Right to Marry" and emphasize their belief that distinguishing between different-sex marriage and same-sex marriage is inappropriate. They lament the sustained emphasis on the equal-protection and substantive-due-process challenges in the Perry litigation and suggest that an equal-access approach is more likely to be successful on appeal. Professor...
Effects of consanguineous marriages on couples' fertility and on offspring mortality were investigated in Beirut through a population-based health survey of 2,752 households. A multistage random sampling procedure was used, and information was obtained from all ever-married women in the household about their reproductive performance and genealogical relationship with spouse; demographic and socioeconomic information was also recorded. Twenty-five percent of all marriages were between relative...
Othman, Hasan; Saadat, Mostafa
Consanguineous marriage is the union of individuals having at least one common ancestor. The present cross-sectional study was done in order to illustrate the prevalence and types of consanguineous marriages in the Syrian Arab Republic. Data on consanguineous marriages were collected using a simple questionnaire. The total number of couples in this study was 67,958 (urban areas: 36,574 couples; rural areas: 31,384 couples) from the following provinces: Damascus, Hamah, Tartous, Latakia, Al Raqa, Homs, Edlep and Aleppo. In each province urban and rural areas were surveyed. Consanguineous marriage was classified by the degree of relationship between couples: double first cousins (F=1/8), first cousins (F=1/16), second cousins (F=1/64) and beyond second cousins (Fconsanguinity was 30.3% in urban and 39.8% in rural areas. Total rate of consanguinity was found to be 35.4%. The equivalent mean inbreeding coefficient (alpha) was 0.0203 and 0.0265 in urban and rural areas, respectively. The mean proportion of consanguineous marriages ranged from 67.5% in Al Raqa province to 22.1% in Latakia province. The alpha-value ranged from 0.0358 to 0.0127 in these two provinces, respectively. The western and north-western provinces (including Tartous, Lattakia and Edlep) recorded lower levels of inbreeding than the central, northern and southern provinces. The overall alpha-value was estimated to be about 0.0236 for the studied populations. First cousin marriages (with 20.9%) were the most common type of consanguineous marriages, followed by double first cousin (with 7.8%) and second cousin marriages (with 3.3%), and beyond second cousin was the least common type.
Nasrullah, Muazzam; Zakar, Rubeena; Zakar, Muhammad Zakria; Krämer, Alexander
To determine the relationship between child marriage (before age 18 years) and morbidity and mortality of children under 5 years of age in Pakistan beyond those attributed to social vulnerabilities. Nationally-representative cross-sectional observational survey data from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-2007 was limited to children from the past 5 years, reported by ever-married women aged 15-24 years (n = 2630 births of n = 2138 mothers) to identify differences in infectious diseases in past 2 weeks (diarrhea, acute respiratory infection [ARI], ARI with fever), under 5 years of age and infant mortality, and low birth weight by early (marriage. Associations between child marriage and mortality and morbidity of children under 5 years of age were assessed by calculating adjusted OR using logistic regression models after controlling for maternal and child demographics. Majority (74.5%) of births were from mothers aged Marriage before age 18 years increased the likelihood of recent diarrhea among children born to young mothers (adjusted OR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.18-2.14). Even though maternal child marriage was associated with infant mortality and mortality of children under 5 years of age in unadjusted models, association was lost in the adjusted models. We did not find a relation between girl-child marriage and low birth weight infants, and ARI. Girl-child marriage increases the likelihood of recent diarrhea among children born to young mothers. Further qualitative and prospective quantitative studies are needed to understand the factors that may drive child morbidity and mortality among those married as children vs adults in Pakistan. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The term of undocumented marriage is only known in Muslim community in Indonesia. Undocumented marriage is a legal type of marriage based on Islam as long as it is meets the marriage’s legal requirements; however, it is diverge from the state rules because it is not registered in the authorized institution for marriage. A woman who married with this type of marriage, based on law and administration, has no clear identity before the state. It will make her difficult to have her right as a wife. Undocumented marriage will give weak position for children by law. In addition, women’s position in this type of marriage is the disadvantage object. Although undocumented marriage has negative impact especially on women and children; in Warurejo, however, this marriage is widely dispersed among the community. Research is conducted in Warurejo village, East Java using qualitative, quantitative and semantic approaches. Research result shows that the women’s position in this undocumented marriage is having discrimination, subordination, no bargaining power in the family, and susceptible for cervix cancer. They do not have any option for the future because it is determined by family, norm and value system prevailed in the community. Istilah nikah siri hanya dikenal pada masyarakat muslim Indonesia. Nikah siri adalah bentuk pernikahan yang sah secara agama Islam sepanjang memenuhi syarat sahnya pernikahan tapi dianggap menyimpang dari peraturan negara karena tidak terdaftar pada lembaga yang berwenang mengurusi masalah perkawinan. Perempuan yang nikah siri, secara catatan hukum atau administrasi tidak memiliki identitas yang jelas di hadapan negara. Sulit untuk mendapatkan hak-haknya sebagai seorang istri. Pernikahan siri berdampak pula pada kelemahan posisi anak secara hukum. Selain itu, posisi perempuan dalam nikah siri juga lebih banyak menjadi objek yang dirugikan. Walaupun nikah siri mempunyai dampak negatif khususnya terhadap perempuan dan anak
Karkee, Rajendra; Lee, Andy H
Optimal birth spacing has health advantages for both mother and child. In developing countries, shorter birth intervals are common and associated with social, cultural, and economic factors, as well as a lack of family planning. This study investigated the first birth interval after marriage and preceding interbirth interval in Nepal. A community-based prospective cohort study was conducted in the Kaski district of Nepal. Information on birth spacing, demographic, and obstetric characteristics was obtained from 701 pregnant women using a structured questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were performed to ascertain factors associated with short birth spacing. About 39% of primiparous women gave their first child birth within 1 year of marriage and 23% of multiparous women had short preceding interbirth intervals (gender equality in society.
Zafman, Kelly B; Stone, Joanne L; Factor, Stephanie H
To characterize the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) contraindicated home births and the women who are receiving these births in hopes of identifying venues for intervention. The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) birth certificate records from 1990 to 2015 were used. "Planned home births" were defined as those births in which birthplace was coded as "residence" and birth attendant was coded as "certified nurse midwife (CNM)" or "other midwife". Contraindicated home births were defined as "planned home births" from 1990 to 2015 that had one or more of the ACOG risk factors for home births, which include vaginal birth after prior cesarean delivery (VBAC), breech presentation and multiple gestations. A review of trends in contraindicated home births from 1990 to 2015 suggests that they are increasing in number (481-1396) and as a percentage of total births (0.01%-0.04%, P95%), which is most frequently initiated in the first trimester. The majority of home births were paid out-of-pocket (65%-69%). The increasing number of contraindicated home births in the United States requires public health action. Home births are likely a matter of choice rather than a lack of resources. It is unclear if women choose home births while knowing the risk or due to a lack of information. Prenatal education about contraindicated home births is possible, as almost all women receive prenatal care.
Lu, Melody Chia-Wen
This thesis investigates the highly complex issue of cross-border marriages between Mainland China and Taiwan in the period from early 1990 to 2004. The objectives of this research is to investigate three aspects of cross-border marriage migration: 1) factors and motivations for cross-border
Shulman, Julie L.; Gotta, Gabrielle; Green, Robert-Jay
The current study used an online survey to explore the anticipated impact of legalized marriage on partners in same-sex couples living in California. These data were gathered prior to the California Supreme Court decision in May 2008 legalizing same-sex marriage, which held sway for 5 months before California Proposition 8 eliminating same-sex…
Gangoli, Geetanjali; McCarry, Melanie; Razak, Amina
This article addresses the links between child marriage and forced marriage in the UK, drawing from a research study on South Asian communities in North East England. It looks at definitional issues through an analysis of UK and South Asian policies. It also analyses how these concepts are understood by service providers, survivors of child…
Martin, Steven P.; Astone, Nan Marie; Peters, H. Elizabeth
Declining marriage rates suggest a growing fraction of millennials will remain unmarried through age 40. In this brief, we use data from the American Community Survey to estimate age-specific marriage rates and project the percentage of millennials who will marry by age 40 in different scenarios. We find that the percentage of millennials marrying…
... for Health Care Providers For Health Care Providers: Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems and Pregnancy CDC Activities Resources ... births and improving neonatal outcomes. View the archived presentation and publication Related Links Is It Worth It? ...
Higgins, Daryl J
In the current study, the attitudes, behaviors and experiences of 26 gay or bisexual men who were married to a woman are examined. Data are provided on childhood family background and experiences, sexual practices with men, reasons for entering marriage, and the "coming out" process. The frequency of childhood sexual experiences was associated with unsafe sexual practices with other men in adulthood. Attitudes toward lesbians and gay men were more negative now than at the time of marriage. The two most frequent reasons for marriage were that it seemed natural, and a desire for children and family life. The results support the hypothesis that internalised homophobia is a factor that leads men into mixed-orientation marriages. Cognitive consistency theory is used to explain the eventual marriage breakdown.
This article discusses changing marriage, divorce, and remarriage patterns in China. The State Statistical Bureau reports that changing life style patterns will impact on the education of children and difficulties of housing and employment of single women, with or without children. Economic development has resulted in the elimination of poverty among over 20 million persons. Early marriage among males aged 15-21 years and females aged 15-19 years declined during 1990-96. The average age at first marriage increased by 2.0 years for males and 0.7 years for females during 1990-96. Average age at first marriage varies with level of economic development and location. Chinese families for centuries maintained arranged marriages. Marriage patterns have been influenced by customs from outside China. Couples use divorce as a means of settling disputes and focus on the quality of married life. Western culture has contributed to more frequent extramarital love affairs and the disintegration of many families. The basic foundation of marriage has weakened. The divorce rate rose during 1990-96. The highest rate of divorce by age was among persons aged 30-39 years in 1996, and among persons aged 50-59 years in 1990. The highest divorce rates by educational status were among illiterates and semiliterates in 1990, and among high school educated in 1996. Urban population had a higher divorce rate than rural population. Remarriage is gaining in popularity. Remarriages rose from 500,000 to 862,000 during 1985-95. The percentage of remarriages rose, especially among persons aged over 50 years.
Martin, Joyce A; Hamilton, Brady E; Sutton, Paul D; Ventura, Stephanie J; Menacker, Fay; Kirmeyer, Sharon
This report presents 2004 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal demographic characteristics including age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, and educational attainment; maternal lifestyle and health characteristics (medical risk factors, weight gain, and tobacco use); medical care utilization by pregnant women (prenatal care, obstetric procedures, characteristics of labor and/or delivery, attendant at birth, and method of delivery); and infant characteristics (period of gestation, birthweight, Apgar score, congenital anomalies, and multiple births). Also presented are birth and fertility rates by age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, and marital status. Selected data by mother's state of residence are shown, as well as data on month and day of birth, sex ratio, and age of father. Trends in fertility patterns and maternal and infant characteristics are described and interpreted. Descriptive tabulations of data reported on the birth certificates of the 4.1 million births that occurred in 2004 are presented. Denominators for population-based rates are post-censal estimates derived from the U.S. 2000 census. In 2004, 4,112,052 births were registered in the United States, less than 1 percent more than the number in 2003. The crude birth rate declined slightly; the general fertility rate increased by less than 1 percent. Childbearing among teenagers and women aged 20-24 years declined to record lows. Rates for women aged 25-34 and 45-49 years were unchanged, whereas rates for women aged 35-44 years increased. All measures of unmarried childbearing rose in 2004. Smoking during pregnancy continued to decline. No improvement was seen in the timely initiation of prenatal care. The cesarean delivery rate jumped 6 percent to another all-time high, whereas the rate of vaginal birth after previous cesarean fell by 13 percent. Preterm and low birthweight rates continued their steady rise
Choi, Kate H.; Tienda, Marta
Owing to secular increases in divorce rates, remarriage has become a prevalent feature of American family life; yet, research about mate selection behavior in higher order marriages remains limited. Using log-linear methods to recent data from the 2008–2014 American Community Survey, we compare racial and ethnic sorting behavior in first and subsequent marriages. The two most frequently crossed boundaries – those involving White-Asian and White-Hispanic couples – are more permeable in remarriages than in first marriages. Boundaries that are crossed with less frequency – those between minority groups and the White-Black boundary-are less permeable in remarriages than in first marriages. Collectively, these findings suggest that racial and ethnic sorting processes in remarriage may reify existing social distances between pan-ethnic groups. Racial and ethnic variations in how the relative permeability of boundary changes between first and higher-order marriages underscore the importance of considering a broad array of interracial pairings when assessing the ways in which changes in family structure and marital sorting behavior promote integration. PMID:28126107
MSc. Sulejman Ahmedi
Full Text Available In the Canon law, dissolution of marriage is not allowed since it was considered sacred and as such cannot break until the two spouses are alive, except only if one of the spouses passes away. But throughout history we find cases when allowed dissolution of the marriage and causes specific conditions set by the church. Thus, according to the Old Testament, if, a man married to a woman, didn’t like something about his wife, should write a request for divorce and allow her to leave his home. Meanwhile according to the New Testament records, divorce is prohibited. Although most Protestants continue to espouse the view that marriage was sacred and as such should not be divorced, from those who had supported the idea of granting the divorce. One of them was Luther, who in his remarks before his preachers said: "In my opinion, the issue of divorce belongs to the law, are not they to whom called for regulation of parental relationships, why not have they the authority to regulate the relations between spouses". Protestant churches allow the dissolution of marriage: a Because of adultery by the wife; allowed by Jesus, b Unjustified abandonment of the marital community; c If there were other reasons: if one spouse refuses to have sexual marriage, if the husband abuses his wife repeatedly and without cause, severe illness of one spouse.
Nohara Atoh, M; Kojima, H
The Institute of Population Problems, Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare, conducted the Survey on the Attitudes toward Marriage among youth on June 1, 1982. The survey covered a nationally representative sample of 5807 unmarried Japanese men and women ages 18-34 living in 325 census tracts which were drawn by the systematic sampling procedure. The survey had a high response rate of 86%. Major findings cover such areas as marriage intentions, types of marriage, friends of the opposite sex, circumstances of the encounter, desired age at marriage and desired age gap between spouses, attitudes toward postmarital residence with parents and the muko-yoshi marriage. There are few single people who intend to remain unmarried all their lives (2% for males and 4% for females) but the % of women ages 30-34 is high (24%). Single women with college education and those with white collar jobs are less likely than other groups to plan permanent celibacy. More than 50% of the respondents under age 25 prefer to have a ren-ai marriage (a couple meeting without formal introduction), but the proportion decreases with age. The percentage of respondents who want to have a miai marriage (a couple meeting through formal introduction) is always low (3-4%). Those who have no preference for marriage types increase with age and have the majority falling in the age groups 25-34. Ren-ai marriage is less popular among unmarried youth with the following characteristics; junior high graduates, those graduates of sex-segregated high schools, the unemployed, blue collar workers, rural residents, and inhabitants of Chugoku-Shikoku and Tohoku Districts. The relative unpopularity of ren-ai marriage among these groups seems to reflect the lack of chance among them to meet people of the opposite sex. The actual behavior of recently married couples corresponds to the attitudes of single people: the higher the marriage age, the higher percentage of miai marriages. 40% of the men and 30% of the women do
Fernando Antônio Ramos Guerra
Full Text Available Avaliou-se a ocorrência de defeitos congênitos em nascidos vivos no Município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, com base no Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC, no período de 1º de janeiro de 2000 a 31 de dezembro de 2004. Através de um estudo seccional e descritivo, estudaram-se as variáveis relativas aos defeitos congênitos (presença e aparelho ou sistema acometido, aos serviços de saúde, às mães, às gestações, aos recém-natos e aos partos. Constatou-se uma prevalência de defeitos congênitos de 83/10 mil nascidos vivos. Os sistemas orgânicos mais afetados foram o osteomuscular, nervoso central, genital, as fendas lábio-palatinas e as anomalias cromossômicas. A maioria dos casos nasceu nas maternidades municipais e na rede privada, e maior prevalência de defeitos congênitos ocorreu no Instituto Fernandes Figueira da Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. Os defeitos congênitos foram mais prevalentes entre os filhos de mulheres mais velhas e menos instruídas. O percentual de casos ignorados foi alto, chegando a 21% em algumas maternidades. Uma maior divulgação das informações do SINASC sobre defeitos congênitos deveria ser estimulada. Estudos de confiabilidade são recomendados para melhor aproveitamento das informações.To evaluate the occurrence of birth defects in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using the Live Birth Information System (SINASC, we performed a cross-sectional study on all live newborns with birth defects from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2004. The variables referred to birth defects (presence and system affected, type of health service, mothers, gestations, live births, and deliveries. Prevalence of birth defects was 83/10,000 live births. The most frequent birth defects involved the musculoskeletal system, central nervous system, cleft lip and palate, and chromosomal anomalies. The majority of cases were born in public (municipal and private maternity hospitals, with the highest prevalence
This article examines mean-field games for marriage. The results support the argument that optimizing the long-term well-being through effort and social feeling state distribution (mean-field) will help to stabilize marriage. However, if the cost of effort is very high, the couple fluctuates in a bad feeling state or the marriage breaks down. We then examine the influence of society on a couple using mean-field sentimental games. We show that, in mean-field equilibrium, the optimal effort is always higher than the one-shot optimal effort. We illustrate numerically the influence of the couple\\'s network on their feeling states and their well-being. © 2014 Bauso et al.
Anderson, K H; Hill, M A
"Many Japanese firms have engaged in the practice of compulsory retirement upon a female employee's marriage. In 1966, this practice was ruled as being contrary to provisions in Japan's Civil Code. [The authors] have specified and estimated a model of the economic determinants of age at marriage in order to analyze the effect that this discrimination has had on nuptiality in Japan. [The] results indicate that on average, after accounting for an upward trend, women who married after the 1966 court decision married about one year younger than women who married before 1966." It is also found that age at marriage is influenced by several socioeconomic variables, including wife's wage and educational level, husband's income and educational level, and wife's family background. Data are from a 1975 survey of women aged 20-59 who were living in the Tokyo metropolitan area. excerpt
Bauso, Dario; Dia, Ben Mansour; Djehiche, Boualem; Tembine, Hamidou; Tempone, Raul
This article examines mean-field games for marriage. The results support the argument that optimizing the long-term well-being through effort and social feeling state distribution (mean-field) will help to stabilize marriage. However, if the cost of effort is very high, the couple fluctuates in a bad feeling state or the marriage breaks down. We then examine the influence of society on a couple using mean-field sentimental games. We show that, in mean-field equilibrium, the optimal effort is always higher than the one-shot optimal effort. We illustrate numerically the influence of the couple’s network on their feeling states and their well-being. PMID:24804835
Bauso, Dario; Dia, Ben Mansour; Djehiche, Boualem; Tembine, Hamidou; Tempone, Raul
This article examines mean-field games for marriage. The results support the argument that optimizing the long-term well-being through effort and social feeling state distribution (mean-field) will help to stabilize marriage. However, if the cost of effort is very high, the couple fluctuates in a bad feeling state or the marriage breaks down. We then examine the influence of society on a couple using mean-field sentimental games. We show that, in mean-field equilibrium, the optimal effort is always higher than the one-shot optimal effort. We illustrate numerically the influence of the couple's network on their feeling states and their well-being. © 2014 Bauso et al.
Full Text Available This article examines mean-field games for marriage. The results support the argument that optimizing the long-term well-being through effort and social feeling state distribution (mean-field will help to stabilize marriage. However, if the cost of effort is very high, the couple fluctuates in a bad feeling state or the marriage breaks down. We then examine the influence of society on a couple using mean-field sentimental games. We show that, in mean-field equilibrium, the optimal effort is always higher than the one-shot optimal effort. We illustrate numerically the influence of the couple's network on their feeling states and their well-being.
Full Text Available Audience: This scenario was developed to educate emergency medicine residents on the management of a precipitous birth in the emergency department (ED. The case is also appropriate for teaching of medical students and advanced practice providers, as well as reviewing the principles of crisis resource management, teamwork, and communication. Introduction: Patients with precipitous birth require providers to manage two patients simultaneously with limited time and resources. Crisis resource management skills will be tested once baby is delivered, and the neonate will require assessment for potential neonatal resuscitation. Objectives: At the conclusion of the simulation session, learners will be able to manage women who have precipitous deliveries, as well as perform neonatal assessment and management. Method: This session was conducted using high-fidelity simulation, followed by a debriefing session and lecture on precipitous birth management and neonatal evaluation.
Reddy, B M; Malhotra, K C
The relationship between birth order of spouses with different degrees of consanguinity is examined in a sample of 1826 couples belonging to the endogamous Vadde Fisherfolk of Kolleru Lake, Andhra Pradesh, India. We attempt to explain the wide variation in the frequency of different kinds of consanguineous marriages through the age-sex structure of the population in general and especially of the related families. This structure may also be manifested in the association between the birth orders of spouses. A highly significant and large correlation between the birth orders of spouses in uncle-niece marriages and a gradual decrease in the correlation with increase in remoteness of the relationship between the spouses were observed. Given the distribution of age differences between the spouses and assuming a standard age-sex structure, it seems possible to estimate the optimum frequency with which at least close consanguineous marriages occur in any particular population.
Manglos-Weber, Nicolette D; Weinreb, Alexander A
Goode's foundational work on the fertility transition identified own-choice marriage as a factor driving fertility decline, part of a widening repertoire of choice pertaining to marriage and childbearing. Yet research supporting this connection in today's transitional societies is scarce and somewhat contradictory, and it is unclear how other marital traditions, such as consanguineous marriage, shape this relationship. This study evaluates Goode's theorized connection using pooled Demographic and Health Survey data from Turkey, comparing children ever born, use of contraception, and parity progression across four types of marriage: own-choice and arranged marriage; and marriage to a cousin versus an unrelated spouse. Results are largely consistent with the idea that a move towards own-choice marriage reflects a widening repertoire of choice that also leads to fertility decline. However, they also show that hybrid models like own-choice marriage to a cousin tempers these effects.
Weinreb, Alexander A.
Goode’s foundational work on the fertility transition identified own-choice marriage as a factor driving fertility decline, part of a widening repertoire of choice pertaining to marriage and childbearing. Yet research supporting this connection in today’s transitional societies is scarce and somewhat contradictory, and it is unclear how other marital traditions, such as consanguineous marriage, shape this relationship. This study evaluates Goode’s theorized connection using pooled Demographic and Health Survey data from Turkey, comparing children ever born, use of contraception, and parity progression across four types of marriage: own-choice and arranged marriage; and marriage to a cousin versus an unrelated spouse. Results are largely consistent with the idea that a move towards own-choice marriage reflects a widening repertoire of choice that also leads to fertility decline. However, they also show that hybrid models like own-choice marriage to a cousin tempers these effects. PMID:28316343
Chapter 1 examines the relationship between marriage and the economy during the 1930s.The Great Depression provides an ideal setting to examine the impact of economic downturns and recoveries on marriage outcomes. Using microeconomic data, I find that during the Great Depression, a standard deviation decrease in retail sales per capita, my proxy for local GDP, lowered a woman's probability of marriage by 18 percent. During the first few years of the crisis, the effect of GDP on marriage rate...
Majeed-Saidan, Muhammad Ali; Ammari, Amer N; AlHashem, Amal M
BACKGROUND: The role of consanguinity in the etiology of structural birth defects outside of chromosomal and inherited disorders has always been debated. We studied the independent role of consanguinity on birth defects in Saudi women with a high prevalence of consanguineous marriages. METHODS: T...
In the recent Demography article titled "The Effect of Same-Sex Marriage Laws on Different-Sex Marriage: Evidence From the Netherlands," Trandafir attempted to answer the question, Are rates of opposite sex marriage affected by legal recognition of same-sex marriages? The results of his approach to statistical inference-looking for evidence of a difference in rates of opposite-sex marriage-provide an absence of evidence of such effects. However, the validity of his conclusion of no causal relationship between same-sex marriage laws and rates of opposite-sex marriage is threatened by the fact that Trandafir did not also look for equivalence in rates of opposite-sex marriage in order to provide evidence of an absence of such an effect. Equivalence tests in combination with difference tests are introduced and presented in this article as a more valid inferential approach to the substantive question Trandafir attempted to answer.
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deemed marriage relationship. 222.14 Section... FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222.14 Deemed marriage relationship... may still be found to have the relationship as spouse of an employee based upon a deemed marriage. A...
Silliman, Benjamin; Schumm, Walter R.
Adolescents in rural and small city high schools in the western United States (N = 159) reported their perceptions of marriage and marriage education. They considered preparation for marriage important, but expressed lower familiarity with and lower intentions to attend programs than college students assessed previously. Youth valued parents,…
In this article, Cris Mayo examines the relationship among anti-LGBTQ policies, gay marriage, and sexuality education. Her concern is that because gay marriage is insufficiently different from heterosexual marriage, adding it as an issue to curriculum or broader culture debate elides rather than addresses sexual difference. In other words,…
... Procedure Act This action is being taken as a final rule pursuant to the ``good cause'' provision of 5 U.S.C... Authentication of marriage, Marriage and divorce, Marriage laws. 0 Accordingly, under the authority of 22 U.S.C...
Hall, Scott S.
The purpose of the study is to examine the meaning that the institution of marriage can hold for young, unmarried adults, based on their systems (or collections) of beliefs about marriage. Based on symbolic interactionism, it is argued that marital meaning has implications for how people behave prior to and during marriage that may relate to…
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marriage after retirement. 19.10-3 Section 19... PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.10-3 Marriage after retirement. If an... marriage irrevocably elect to receive a reduced annuity and to provide, subject to any obligation to...
Wilcox, W. Bradford; Wolfinger, Nicholas H.; Stokes, Charles E.
Since the 1960s, the United States has witnessed a dramatic retreat from marriage, marked by divorce, cohabitation, single parenthood, and lower overall marriage rates. Marriage is now less likely to anchor adults' lives or provide a stable framework for childrearing, especially among poor and working-class Americans. Much research on the retreat…
Buckles, Kasey; Guldi, Melanie; Price, Joseph
We use state repeals of blood test requirements (BTRs) for a marriage license that occurred between 1980 and 2008 to examine the impact of changes in the price of marriage on the marriage decision. Using a within-group estimator that holds constant state and year effects and exploits variation in the repeal dates of BTRs across states, we find…
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marriage duration requirements. 831.642... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Survivor Annuities Eligibility § 831.642 Marriage duration requirements. (a... in paragraph (b) of this section; or (2) A child was born of the marriage, as explained in paragraph...
Baker, Elizabeth H.; Sanchez, Laura A.; Nock, Steven L.; Wright, James D.
This study contributes to research on the deinstitutionalization of marriage and changing gender ideologies by focusing on a unique group of marriage innovators. With quantitative and qualitative data from the Marriage Matters project (1997-2004), this study used a symbolic interactionist perspective to compare covenant- and standard-married…
Are cohabiters different than married couples who cohabited before marriage? This study used the 2002 wave of the National Survey of Families and Households to determine how work behavior might differ for 4 relationship types: (a) cohabiters with uncertain marriage plans, (b) cohabiters with definite marriage plans, (c) premarital cohabiters who…
DeMaris, Alfred; Sanchez, Laura A.; Krivickas, Kristi
This study investigated differences in the trajectory of marital satisfaction in the first 7 years between couples in covenant versus standard marriages. The authors analyzed data on 707 Louisiana marriages from the Marriage Matters Panel Survey of Newlywed Couples, 1998-2004, using multivariate longitudinal growth modeling. When the sample was…
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marriage duration requirements. 843.303... Former Spouse Benefits § 843.303 Marriage duration requirements. (a) The current spouse of a retiree, an... marriage, as explained in paragraph (c) of this section; or (3) The death of the retiree, employee, or...
Raj, Anita; Saggurti, Niranjan; Balaiah, Donta; Silverman, Jay G.
Objectives Child marriage in India is considered a major barrier to the nation's social and economic development, as well as a major women's health concern. The current study assesses prevalence of child marriage (i.e., marriage prior to the national legal age of 18 years) among young adult women in India, and associations between child marriage and women's fertility and fertility control behaviors. Study Design Cross-sectional analyses of a nationally representative household sample of Indian women ages 16-49 years (N=124,385) collected in 2005-2006 via the National Family Health Survey-3. Participants Analyses were restricted to women age 20-24 years (n=22,807) and the subsample of ever married women aged 20-24 years (n=14,628). Data Analysis Prevalence estimates of child marriage were produced for all women 20-24 years. Using the ever married subsample, simple regression models, models adjusted for demographics, and models adjusted for demographics and duration of marriage were constructed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between child marriage and both fertility and fertility control outcomes. Fertility and Fertility Control Outcomes No contraception prior to childbirth, childbirth within first year of marriage, high fertility (3 or more births), history of recent rapid repeat childbirth, unwanted pregnancy, and female sterilization. Results Child marriage was reported by 44.5% of Indian women ages 20-24 years; 22.6% reported marriage prior to age 16 years, and 2.6% were married prior to age 13 years. Child marriage was significantly associated with women's increased risk for no contraceptive use prior to first childbirth (AOR=1.37, 95% CI=1.22, 1.54), high fertility (AOR=7.40, 95% CI=6.45, 8.50), history of rapid repeat childbirth (AOR=3.00, 95% CI=2.74, 3.29), multiple unwanted pregnancies (AOR=2.36, 95% CI=1.90, 2.94), pregnancy termination (AOR=1.22; 95% CI=1.06, 1.41) and female sterilization (AOR=5
Background and purpose: The present study was performed to investigate the association between consanguineous marriages and divorce risk. Materials and methods: A total of 496 couples at divorce time and 800 couples from general population who have no plan for divorce (as control group) were included in the study.
Field work, observation and oral interview were the research instruments used to gather information from the tourist, host community, tourist product provider, and the government officials present at the 2012 festival. These are the people who will benefit greatly from the festival, if fully harnessed. The traditional marriage is a ...
Full Text Available In seeking to combat the growing phenomenon of child marriage among Syrian refugees, it is vital to engage the whole range of actors involved, and to recognise that girls and boys have the capacity to address this issue in their own communities.
Bringle, Robert G.; And Others
Questionnaires were completed by 131 married couples to determine the role of dispositional jealousy on marital success. The total jealousy in the marriage was found to be negatively related to several indices of marital success. Further analyses indicated that marital outcomes were negatively associated with the husband's perception of the wife's…
, and the extent to which men and women sort positively on several traits in marriage. Counterfactual analysis conducted with the model, suggests that US middle aged men and women are earning in the order of 30 percent of their return to schooling through improved marital outcomes....
Ababa University, School of Law) for his valuable comment and suggestions on the ... bigamous marriage is an affront to gender justice and equality hitherto remains .... with more than two spouses forming a single matrimonial entity.9 As such, in .... idea of the inferiority or superiority of either of the sexes or on stereotyped.
Sep 8, 2014 ... Received 5 July 2014; accepted 17 August 2014. Available online 8 .... study on a large sample size from the Born in Bradford cohort study. ... self evident that replication of present findings in other popu- lations is recommended. Disclosure statement ... Marriage · and personality: a genetic analysis. J Pers ...
Fieder, Martin; Huber, Susanne; Pichl, Elmar; Wallner, Bernard; Seidler, Horst
For modern Western societies with a regime of monogamy, it has recently been demonstrated that the socioeconomic status of men is positively associated with being or having been married. This study aims to compare marriage patterns (if a person has been married at least once) for cultures with a tradition of monogamy and polygyny. As no worldwide data on polygyny exist, religion was used as a proxy for monogamy (Christians) vs polygyny (Muslims). The analyses were based on 2000-2011 census data from 39 countries worldwide for 52,339,594 men and women, controlling for sex, sex ratio, age, education, migration within the last 5 years and employment. Overall, a higher proportion of Muslims were married compared with Christians, but the difference in the fraction of married men compared with married women at a certain age (the 'marriage gap') was much more pronounced in Muslims than in Christians, i.e. compared with Christians, a substantially higher proportion of Muslim women than men were married up to the age of approximately 31 years. As expected for a tradition of polygyny, the results indicate that the socioeconomic threshold for entering marriage is higher for Muslim than Christian men, and Muslim women in particular face a negative effect of socioeconomic status on the probability of ever being married. The large 'marriage gap' at a certain age in Muslim societies leads to high numbers of married women and unmarried young men, and may put such polygenic societies under pressure.
In the contemporary United States, marriage is closely related to money. Men and (perhaps to a lesser extent) women with more education, higher incomes, larger stocks of wealth, and more stable employment are more likely to marry than are people in more precarious economic positions. But is this relationship truly causal? That is, does economic…
In this paper the well-known Stable Marriage Problem is considered once again. The name of this programming problem comes from the terms in which it was first described : A certain community consists of n men and n women. Each person ranks those of the opposite sex in accordance with his or
TTI worked closely with the Landscape Architecture and Urban Planning Department : (LAUP) of Texas A&M University (TAMU) to develop a transit management certificate : focus for the current Graduate Certificate in Transportation Planning (CTP) housed ...
Treas, Judith; Lui, Jonathan; Gubernskaya, Zoya
BACKGROUND Consistent with the deinstitutionalization-of-marriage thesis, studies report a decline in support for marital conventions and increased approval of other relationship types. Generalizations are limited by the lack of cross-national research for a broad domain of attitudes on marriage and alternative arrangements, and by the lack of consensus on what counts as evidence. OBJECTIVE Acknowledging the conceptual distinction between expectations for behavior inside and outside marriage, we address the deinstitutionalization debate by testing whether support for marital conventions has declined for a range of attitudes across countries. METHODS Based on eleven International Social Survey Program items replicated between the late 1980s and the 2000s, OLS regressions evaluate attitude changes in up to 21 countries. RESULTS Consistent with the deinstitutionalization argument, disapproval declined for marital alternatives (cohabitation, unmarried parents, premarital and same-sex sex). For attitudes on the behavior of married people and the nature of marriage the results are mixed: despite a shift away from gender specialization, disapproval of extramarital sex increased over time. On most items, most countries changed as predicted by the deinstitutionalization thesis. CONCLUSIONS Attitude changes on ‘new relationships’ and marital alternatives are compatible with the deinstitutionalization of marriage. Beliefs arguably more central to the marital institution do not conform as neatly to this thesis. Because results are sensitive to the indicators used, the deinstitutionalization of marriage argument merits greater empirical and conceptual attention. PMID:26052248
In 2004, the Australian government legislated to prohibit 'gay marriage'; the religious right had lobbied vigorously for passage of this legislation. Drawing on Durkheim's theory of sacred and profane, this paper examines the argument proffered by right-wing Christians that allowing legalised unions between lesbians and between gay men would seriously undermine the institution of marriage and the family. Claims about the spectre of gays and lesbians marrying reveal a deeper unease about the status of heterosexual marriage and the nuclear family. These concerns, in turn, house a deeper unease about the nature and place of masculinity in contemporary Australian society. This disquiet about masculinity and masculine authority is isomorphic with concerns about challenges to the notion of an objective epistemological order. Marriage and nature are both sacred in Durkheimian terms because they must be radically separated from matters profane. By locating heterosexual marriage within the domain of nature, it is protected from contact with things that threaten its sacred status. However, Durkheim's theory of the sacred is simultaneously an account of the exercise of ideological power. Attempts to cast heterosexual marriage as sacred and, therefore, as inviolate are inextricably linked with attempts to protect an epistemological order linked to masculine authority.
Full Text Available Background: Consistent with the deinstitutionalization-of-marriage thesis, studies report a decline in support for marital conventions and increased approval of other relationship types. Generalizations are limited by the lack of cross-national research for a broad domain of attitudes on marriage and alternative arrangements, and by the lack of consensus on what counts as evidence. Objective: Acknowledging the conceptual distinction between expectations for behavior inside and outside marriage, we address the deinstitutionalization debate by testing whether support for marital conventions has declined for a range of attitudes across countries. Methods: Based on eleven International Social Survey Program items replicated between the late 1980s and the 2000s, OLS regressions evaluate attitude changes in up to 21 countries. Results: Consistent with the deinstitutionalization argument, disapproval declined for marital alternatives (cohabitation, unmarried parents, premarital and same-sex sex. For attitudes on the behavior of married people and the nature of marriage the results are mixed: despite a shift away from gender specialization, disapproval of extramarital sex increased over time. On most items, most countries changed as predicted by the deinstitutionalization thesis. Conclusions: Attitude changes on 'new relationships' and marital alternatives are compatible with the deinstitutionalization of marriage. Beliefs arguably more central to the marital institution do not conform as neatly to this thesis. Because results are sensitive to the indicators used, the deinstitutionalization of marriage argument merits greater empirical and conceptual attention.
and an increasing number of local love marriages have changed the overall picture. This article discusses how the new marriage preferences affect common notions of family relatedness, and suggest that young couples' decision to engage in a love marriage constitutes an act of symbolic mobility. Ultimately Danish...... Pakistanis are split between the marriage preferences set up by their families, the Danish nation-state and themselves. In this respect marriage is not only about entering adulthood and deciding one's future, but also constitutes a process where notions of identity and belonging are negotiated within local...
Full Text Available Background: Total fertility rate (TFR reflecting population growth is closely related to higher order parity progression. Many Indian states reached replacement level of TFR, but still states constituting nearly 40% population are with TFR ≥ 3. The predictors are the desire of son’s, poor contraceptives practices, younger age at marriage, child loss and shorter birth spacing. Objective: This analysis assessed the degree of relation of 3rd and higher order parity progression with the above mentioned predictors. Material and Methods: State/Union Territories wise proportions of women: progressing to ≥3 births, more sons desire, birth spacing <24 months, adopting modern contraception and median marriage age <18 years along with infant mortality rate (IMR were taken from NFHS-III report. Correlation matrix and stepwise forward multiple regression carried. Significance was seen at 5%. Results: Hindi speaking states constituting 38.92% nation population recorded TFR ≥3. Positive correlation of mothers progressing ≥ 3 births was highest (0.746 with those desiring more sons followed by IMR (0.445; while maximum negative correlation with those practicing modern contraceptives (-0.565 followed by median age at marriage (-0.391. Multiple regression analysis in order identified desire of more sons, practicing modern contraception and shorter birth spacing as the significant predictors and jointly explained 77.9% of the total variation with gain of 15.5% by adding modern contraceptive practice and 8.3% by adding shorter birth spacing. Conclusions: Desire of more sons appeared the most important predictor to progress ≥3 births that is governed by society culture and educational attainment, require attitudinal change. Further, mothers need motivation to practice both spacing and terminal methods once family is complete.
Baines, Lawrence A.
In this article, the author takes a close look at alternative certification programs and is convinced that, because they vary so extremely in their requirements, all of them cannot possibly be producing highly qualified teachers. Here, he talks about Non-University Certification Programs (NUCPs). These are alternative certification programs that…
..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.133 Certification for random source... of birth or, if unknown, then the approximate age; (iv) The color and any distinctive markings; and...
Svanemyr, Joar; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Raj, Anita; Travers, Ellen; Sundaram, Lakshmi
Over the past few years the issue of child marriage has received growing political and programmatic attention. In spite of some progress in a number of countries, global rates have not declined over the past decade. Knowledge gaps remain in understanding trends, drivers and approaches to ending child marriage, especially to understand what is needed to achieve results on a large scale. This commentary summarizes the outcomes of an Expert Group Meeting organized by World Health Organization to discuss research priorities on Ending Child Marriage and Supporting Married Girls. It presents research gaps and recommends priorities for research in five key areas; (i) prevalence and trends of child marriage; (ii) causes of child marriage (iii) consequences of child marriage; (iv) efforts to prevent child marriage; (v) efforts to support married girls.
It has long been argued that the legalization of same-sex marriage would have a negative impact on marriage. In this article, I examine how different-sex marriage in the Netherlands was affected by the enactment of two laws: a 1998 law that provided all couples with an institution almost identical to marriage (a “registered partnership”) and a 2001 law that legalized same-sex marriage for the first time in the world. I first construct a synthetic control for the Netherlands using OECD data fo...
/Fishing License Get a Birth Certificate, Marriage License, etc. Alaska Permanent Fund Dividend Statewide Library Alaska Historical Society Alaska State Museum Sheldon Jackson Museum Industry Facts Agriculture
It has long been argued that the legalization of same-sex marriage would have a negative impact on marriage. In this article, I examine how different-sex marriage in the Netherlands was affected by the enactment of two laws: a 1998 law that provided all couples with an institution almost identical...... to marriage (a “registered partnership”) and a 2001 law that legalized same-sex marriage for the first time in the world. I first construct a synthetic control for the Netherlands using OECD data for the period 1988–2005 and find that neither law had significant effects on either the overall or different......-sex marriage rate. I next construct a unique individual-level data set covering the period 1995–2005 by combining the Dutch Labor Force Survey and official municipal records. The estimates from a discrete-time hazard model with unobserved heterogeneity for the first-marriage decision confirm the findings...
Lee, B S; Mcelwain, A M
The Korean experience raises questions about the assumption that successful economic development and equitable income distribution are preconditions for rapid fertility declines. During the 1960-70 decade, the total fertility rate in Korea declined by 36% and the crude birth rate fell by 33%, in the absence of significant economic development. This paper uses data from the 1974 Korean Fertility Survey to explore the relationships between the factors responsible for this rapid fertility decline. A simultaneous equation model of fertility, age at marriage, extent of labor force participation during marriage, quality of children, and wages is developed and tested. Rather than to provide definitive measures of these interrelationships, the aim was to investigate the utility of treating several variables as being jointly determined. The results suggest that parental education affects fertility by influencing age at marriage, implying that adult education programs will have little effect on marital fertility. There was some evidence that working women whose jobs are compatible with child care have more children than nonworking women, a finding that should be considered in planning increased job opportunities for women. Urbanized women and those who work before marriage tend to marry later than their less urbanized counterparts or women who do not work prior to marriage. Finally, women who used modern methods of birth control had significantly lower fertility than nonusers of modern methods. There is concern that the Government has reduced budgetary appropriations to family planning since the goal of reducing the annual population growth rate from 3% in 1960 to 2% in 1970 was achieved. It is suggested that family planning expenditures should be deployed to areas such as urban slums that have not yet been reached by family planning programs.
al-Abdulkareem, A A; Ballal, S G
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the pattern and time trend of consanguineous marriage and its adverse health effects on the offspring in Dammam city, Eastern Province, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This city is known to attract Saudis from different parts of the country because it is in the heart of this industrial region. Five primary health care centers were randomly selected from different sectors of the city in addition to the city's only Maternity and Children's Hospital. For inclusion in the study a wife must have at least one pregnancy that terminated in either full term liveborn baby, still birth, or abortion. A total of 1307 ever-married Saudis completed a pre-structured questionnaire during an interview. The rate of consanguineous marriage was 52.0% with an average inbreeding coefficient of 0.0312. First-cousin marriages were the commonest (39.3%) of all matings. The consanguineous groups had a significantly higher number of pregnancies. The mean birth weight of the offspring of consanguineous couples was not statistically significant being less than that of the non-consanguineous. However, within the consanguineous groups the more closely related couples had smaller babies on average. No significant differences were noted for the rates of inherited diseases and reproductive wastage. The rate of consanguineous marriage in this city was high and so was the inbreeding coefficient. These figures place this nation among the countries with a high rate of consanguineous marriages. A nationwide study to determine accurately the relationship between consanguinity and inherited diseases has much to commend it.
Full Text Available This study was performed to determine ofcontraception knowledge levels and planning contraceptionmethods after marriage that couples have applied tofamily planning center in the Van city.Methods: Study has planned as descriptive manner. Thisstudy was performed on 255 couples who have appliedfor official wedding procedure to Van maternal and childhealth and family planning center between September2010 - January 2011. Participants were determined on avoluntary basis. Questionnaires were filled out by familymedicine face to face with couples.Results: Totally, 21.3% percent of women, 23.5% percentof men have primary school degree. 18% of women,93.4% of men have a profession. 12.1% percent of womenand 12.9% percent of men does not have any knowledgeabout contraceptive and 43% of couples do not consideruse any contraceptive method after marriage. The resultshas shown that when evaluate the couples, in terms ofthe distribution of contraception information, the coupleshave more information about condoms, pills, coil, injectionand withdraw methods then tube ligation, implants,spermicides, vasectomy and the calendar methodsConclusion: Van region has a low socio-economic status.The couples should be informed about family planningbefore marriage, to talk about advantages of collaborationbetween the couples about birth control methodchoice.Key words: Reproductive health, family planning, contraception
Brahmapurkar, Kishor Parashramji
Gender equality is fundamental to accelerate sustainable development. It is necessary to conduct gender analyses to identify sex and gender-based differences in health risks. This study aimed to find the gender equality in terms of illiteracy, child marriages and spousal violence among women based on data from National Family Health Survey 2015-16 (NFHS-4). This was a descriptive analysis of secondary data of ever-married women onto reproductive age from 15 states and 3 UTs in India of the first phase of NFHS-4. Gender gap related to literacy and child marriage among urban and rural area was compared. In rural area all states except Meghalaya and Sikkim had the significantly higher percentage of women's illiteracy as compared to male. Bihar and Madhya Pradesh had higher illiterate women, 53.7% and 48.6% as compared to male, 24.7% and 21.5% respectively (P gender gap between illiteracy with women more affected in rural areas with higher prevalence of child marriages and poor utilization of maternal health services. Also, violence against women is showing an upward trend with declining sex-ratio at birth.
R Zare Mehrjardi
Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of demographic, social, economic and cultural factors on delaying the Birth of the first child in Meybod town. Spacing between marriage and the birth of the first child is a crucial factor in demographic planning. Methods: The survey was research method and Information collected by the structured questionnaire. The study population was married women 15 to 49 years old in the city Meybod, and the sample population included 379 such women were selected with using of multi stage cluster random sampling. Results: The results of the study show that there are a meaningful relationship between the variables of women’s tendency to pregnancy, kind of family, women’s age and duration of marriage, Education of women and their husbands, geographic origin of women, occupational status of women, and their type of marriage with the dependent variable the length of period from marriage to first child birth. Also, Results of multivariate regression shows that the Use of contraceptive, women’s marriage age, women’s geographic origin, Duration of marriage, Gender Equality and kind of family, Respectively, Have a major role in determining this spacing, and able to predict 34% of the variance in the dependent variable. Conclusion: The results of this study and previous studies shows that in recent years, the space between marriage and birth of first child has increased and from the intensity of fertility is reduced. Overall, from the findings can be concluded that impact of demographic, social and cultural Condition on increase in delaying of the first child birth, and therefore the fertility decline of society is far more than economic conditions. So, to reduce the space between marriage and the birth of first child in the planning, should pay more attention to demographic and social-cultural Factors.
Full Text Available BackgroundOptimal birth spacing has health advantages for both mother and child. In developing countries, shorter birth intervals are common and associated with social, cultural and economic factors, as well as a lack of family planning. This study investigated the first birth interval after marriage and preceding interbirth interval in Nepal.MethodsA community-based prospective cohort study was conducted in the Kaski district of Nepal. Information on birth spacing, demographic and obstetric characteristics was obtained from 701 pregnant women using a structured questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were performed to ascertain factors associated with short birth spacing.ResultsAbout 39% of primiparous women gave their first child birth within one year of marriage and 23% of multiparous women had short preceding interbirth intervals (<24 months. The average birth spacing among the multiparous group was 44.9 (SD 21.8 months. Overall, short birth spacing appeared to be inversely associated with advancing maternal age.For the multiparous group, Janajati and lower caste women, and those whose newborn was female, were more likely to have short birth spacing.ConclusionsThe preceding interbirth interval was relatively long in the Kaski district of Nepal and tended to be associated with maternal age, caste, and sex of newborn infant. Optimal birth spacing programs should target Janajati and lower caste women, along with promotion of gender equality in society.
This study examines the effects of a Catholic background on age at first marriage, the odds of never marrying, and the odds of ever divorcing. Estimates using Catholic upbringing are compared with estimates using Catholic at the time of the survey. A case is made that if the latter measure of Catholicism is used, serious selection bias problems occur in some cases because this measure excludes defectors and includes converts. Further, it is shown that a Catholic upbringing generally has no effect on men's age at first marriage and has a positive effect on the age when women marry. It is also shown that older Baptist men are substantially more likely than Catholic men to experience a divorce. Older Catholic women are somewhat less likely to experience a divorce than non-Baptist Protestant women. There is no Catholic effect on the odds that younger men and women will divorce.
Mao, Angelina; Raguram, Ahalya
Increased usage of the Internet has given rise to a new challenge to marriages: That of online infidelity, which is perceived to be as traumatic as actual infidelity. This article highlights the negative impact of online infidelity on marital relationship and its detrimental effect on the mental health of the offended spouse using a case vignette. The article discusses the importance of marital therapy in dealing with the factors contributing to online infidelity and in rebuilding marital trust. PMID:20048458
McConnell (1930) first described and attempted to explain an “age spiral” in Australian Aboriginal systems of descent, marriage and kinship over eighty years ago. Since then, ethnographic and theoretical research concerning this matter has been sporadic and inconclusive, with societies that display this feature most often being treated as anomalous, transitional, hybrid or aberrant. Atkins (1981) attributed the failure to understand these societies to a lack of realism in the models; specific...
Sylvain E. Dessy; Stephane Pallage
We show that the recognition of basic women's rights in developing countries may have important positive spillovers on the whole sphere of labor market transactions, with more women seeking education and an overall lesser wage discrimination against women. A combination of basic women's rights such as marriage consent, access to credit and the right to do business is shown to have important effects on the wage women can earn for their labor. Access to credit/entrepreneurship, in particular, r...
Leroux, Marie-Louise; Pestieau, Pierre; Racionero, Maria
Existing political economy models of pensions focus on age and productivity. In this paper we incorporate two additional individual characteristics: sex and marital status. We ignore the role of age, by assuming that people vote at the start of their life, and characterize the preferred rate of taxation that finances a Beveridgean pension scheme when individuals differ in wage, sex and marital status. We allow for two types of couples: one-breadwinner and two-breadwinner couples. Marriage poo...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of a deemed valid marriage. 404.727... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.727 Evidence of a deemed valid marriage. (a) General. A deemed valid marriage is a ceremonial marriage we consider valid even...
Grünebaum, Amos; McCullough, Laurence B; Brent, Robert L; Arabin, Birgit; Levene, Malcolm I; Chervenak, Frank A
We analyzed the perinatal risks of midwife-attended planned home births in the United States from 2010 through 2012 and compared them with recommendations from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) for planned home births. Data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics birth certificate data files from 2010 through 2012 were utilized to analyze the frequency of certain perinatal risk factors that were associated with planned midwife-attended home births in the United States and compare them with deliveries performed in the hospital by certified nurse midwives. Home birth deliveries attended by others were excluded; only planned home births attended by midwives were included. Hospital deliveries attended by certified nurse midwives served as the reference. Perinatal risk factors were those established by ACOG and AAP. Midwife-attended planned home births in the United States had the following risk factors: breech presentation, 0.74% (odds ratio [OR], 3.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.87-3.56); prior cesarean delivery, 4.4% (OR, 2.08; 95% CI, 2.0-2.17); twins, 0.64% (OR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.84-2.31); and gestational age 41 weeks or longer, 28.19% (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.68-1.74). All 4 perinatal risk factors were significantly higher among midwife-attended planned home births when compared with certified nurse midwives-attended hospital births, and 3 of 4 perinatal risk factors were significantly higher in planned home births attended by non-American Midwifery Certification Board (AMCB)-certified midwives (other midwives) when compared with home births attended by certified nurse midwives. Among midwife-attended planned home births, 65.7% of midwives did not meet the ACOG and AAP recommendations for certification by the American Midwifery Certification Board. At least 30% of midwife-attended planned home births are not low risk and not within
Zhao, L; Zhu, C
The resurgence of child births in China in 1981 was marked by a decline in the multiparity birth rates and a drastic rise in the rate of unplanned 2nd births, resulting in unplanned 2nd births outnumbering multiparity births. The aim of this investigation was to find the objective and subjective causes for the unplanned 2nd births and explore ways to bring them under strict control. In the countryside there are loud voices that give insufficient labor as their reason for wanting 2nd births. An analysis of 923 cases of unplanned 2nd births in connection with the economic conditions of the families, the sex of the 1st births, intervals between the births, and the parents' cultural level shows that 61.87% of the total number of families suffered a decline in their income. The effect of the sex of the 1st birth over the 2nd birth varies with different localities. Among those having unplanned births, illiterates accounted for more than 35% in Nanzheng and Yanchuan counties and over 20% in Mianxian and Wubao counties. The current rise in 2nd births is due mainly not to economic reasons but to social and psychological reasons. To effectively hold down 2nd births under the current conditions, the following suggestions are offered: 1) step up propaganda and education work to gradually raise people's consciousness for practicing family planning, 2) family planning measures of economic restriction and reward must be implemented, 3) on the basis of enforcing the new marriage law, late marriage should be promoted, 4) a population tax should be imposed, and 5) social insurance for the elderly should be enlarged.
Nambi, Siva; Sarkar, Siddharth
Marriage is a social institution that formalizes and stabilizes the union between a man and wife. At times, either of the parties undergoing the contract of marriage may ask it be declared null and void. Psychiatrists and legal experts may be called in to provide opinion whether such a marriage should be annulled. Some laws in India do state unsoundness of mind as a valid reason for nullity of marriage. However, determining unsoundness of mind can be a difficult issue, especially when made in retrospect. This paper highlights some cases where nullity of marriage was contested in view of unsoundness of mind. Furthermore, some issues encountered by psychiatrists pertaining to nullity of marriage are discussed. Though psychiatrists and legal experts may have different ways of approaching the issue of nullity on the basis of psychiatric disorder, the overall aim of both remains the same of avoiding broken homes, upholding the dignity of the individual and legal framework.
Willoughby, Brian J; Hall, Scott S; Goff, Saige
Marriage, once a gateway to adulthood, is no longer as widely considered a requirement for achieving adult status. With declining marriage rates and delayed marital transitions, some have wondered whether current young adults have rejected the traditional notion of marriage. Utilizing a sample of 571 young adults, the present study explored how marital centrality (the expected importance to be placed on the marital role relative to other adult roles) functioned as a unique and previously unexplored marital belief among young adults. Results suggested that marriage remains an important role for many young adults. On average, young adults expected that marriage would be more important to their life than parenting, careers, or leisure activities. Marital centrality profiles were found to significantly differ based on both gender and religiosity. Marital centrality was also associated with various outcomes including binge-drinking and sexual activity. Specifically, the more central marriage was expected to be, the less young adults engaged in risk-taking or sexual behaviors.
The rapid growth of internet usage over the last two decades has been influencing many aspects of our life and most noticeably the ways in which people communicate with each other. Therefore, it is appropriate to ask whether the growth of internet usage influences individuals’ marital decisions in modern society. In my study, I concentrate on the effect of the growing internet usage on the gender and age-specific marriage hazard rate for the first time marriages in Europe. The panel data anal...
Na’amnih, Wasef; Romano-Zelekha, Orly; Kabaha, Ahmed; Rubin, Liza Pollack; Bilenko, Natalya; Jaber, Lutfi; Honovich, Mira; Shohat, Tamy
The Bedouin population in Israel is a semi-nomadic traditional patriarchal society. Consanguineous marriages are very common, contributing to high rates of congenital malformations and genetic diseases, resulting in high infant mortality. Data on consanguineous marriages among Bedouins in Israel are limited. This study examined the current prevalence of consanguineous marriages and their determinants among Israeli Bedouins. One thousand two hundred ninety Bedouin women who delivered in the ma...
The global movement to provide domestic relationship status and benefits to same-sex couples has resulted in five different kinds of legal responses: (1) redefining marriage to include same-sex couples; (2) creation of marriage-equivalent civil union domestic relationships, with most or all of the legal incidents of marriage; (3) creation of a carefully customized domestic partner relationship providing access to some particular relational benefits; (4) allowing the private creation ...
Martín-Lanas, R. (Raquel); Beunza-Nuin, M.I. (Mª Isabel); Cano-Prous, A. (Adrián); Tricas-Sauras, S. (Sandra); Manrique-Astiz, E. (Eduardo); Aubá-Guedea, E. (Enrique)
INTRODUCTION Infidelity has a significant psychological impact on marriages and families. Marriages with an infidelity experience show a great number of premarital communication problems such as low rates of positive interaction and high rates of invalidation and negative interaction (1). OBJECTIVES To analyse communicative resources of spouses belonging to marriages with at least one unfaithfulness episode. To compare marital communication depending on the sex of the unfaithfu...
Cherchye, Laurens; Rock, Bram; Walther, Selma; Vermeulen, Frederic
textabstractDo individuals divorce for economic reasons? Can we measure the attractiveness of new matches in the marriage market? We answer these questions using a structural model of the household and a rich panel dataset from Malawi. We propose a model of the household with consumption, production and revealed preference conditions for stability on the marriage market. We define marital instability in terms of the consumption gains to remarrying another individual in the same marriage marke...
Introduction Preterm birth occurs in about 5% to 10% of all births in resource-rich countries, but in recent years the incidence seems to have increased in some countries, particularly in the USA. We found little reliable evidence for incidence in resource-poor countries. The rate in northwestern Ethiopia has been reported to vary from 11% to 22%, depending on the age group of mothers studied, and is highest in teenage mothers. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of preventive interventions in women at high risk of preterm delivery? What are the effects of interventions to improve neonatal outcome after preterm rupture of membranes? What are the effects of treatments to stop contractions in preterm labour? What are the effects of elective compared with selective caesarean delivery for women in preterm labour? What are the effects of interventions to improve neonatal outcome in preterm delivery? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 58 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: amnioinfusion for preterm rupture of membranes; antenatal corticosteroids; antibiotic treatment; bed rest; beta mimetics; calcium-channel blockers; elective caesarean; enhanced antenatal care programmes; magnesium sulphate; oxytocin receptor antagonists (atosiban); progesterone
Full Text Available Certificate transparency (CT is an elegant mechanism designed to detect when a certificate authority (CA has issued a certificate incorrectly. Many CAs now support CT and it is being actively deployed in browsers. However, a number of privacy-related challenges remain. In this paper we propose practical solutions to two issues. First, we develop a mechanism that enables web browsers to audit a CT log without violating user privacy. Second, we extend CT to support non-public subdomains.
AJRH Managing Editor
Department of Sociology, Anthropology and Social Work, Seton Hall University, ... immigration of marriage age women from West (Africa) and around the world to Nigeria to seek husbands; and low ..... in maternity homes, and 1.02 for births in ...
Gustafsson, S.; Worku, S.
This paper focuses on postponement of couple formation and first birth. We analyze couples born 1930¿1979 who have experienced both events. First, we estimate a spouse choice equation based on individual human capital and family of origin characteristics as well as marriage market indicators, using
Certifications for technicians who maintain, service, repair, or dispose of equipment that could release ozone depleting refrigerants or, after January 1, 2018, substitute refrigerants into the atmosphere.
The French ministry of economy, finances and industry and the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) have organized on November 8, 2005, a colloquium for the presentation of the energy saving certificates, a new tool to oblige the energy suppliers to encourage their clients to make energy savings. This document gathers the transparencies presented at this colloquium about the following topics: state-of-the-art and presentation of the energy saving certificates system: presentation of the EEC system, presentation of the EEC standard operations; the energy saving certificates in Europe today: energy efficiency commitment in UK, Italian white certificate scheme, perspectives of the different European systems. (J.S.)
Department of Transportation — Provides automated risk-based decision making capability in support of medical certification and clearances processing associated fees and supporting surveillance of...
Ould, Patricia; Whitlow, C Julie
This study investigates whether married gays and lesbians in Massachusetts are using the kinship terms commonly associated with marriage in referring to and introducing their marriage partners and, if not, whether alternative terms are being used in a variety of social contexts. We demonstrate through survey and interview data that marriage-related terms are used discriminately, are consciously chosen, and are context specific. Choices are dependent on a variety of factors related to personal demographics, speech community associations, intimacy, identity, and safety. A significant difference in the use of terms after legal marriage has occurred suggesting a shift in attitude.
Jakobsson, Niklas; Kotsadam, Andreas; Jakobsson, Siri Støre
The purpose of this study was to examine the variables that explain attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Using recently collected Scandinavian data (from Norway and Sweden) with a high response rate, this study shows that gender, regular participation in religious activities, political ideology, education, whether the respondent lived in the capital city, and attitudes toward gender equality were important for attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Age and income were not important for attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Although both Norwegians and Swedes clearly favor same-sex marriage, Swedes are significantly more positive than Norwegians.
As interfaith marriage has become more common, religion is thought to be less important for sorting partners. However, prior studies on religious assortative mating use samples of prevailing marriages, which miss how local marriage markets shape both partner selection and marriage timing. Drawing on search theory and data from 8,699 young adults (ages 18–31) in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997, the author examined the association between the concentration of co-religionists in local marriage markets and marriage timing and partner selection using event history methods. Religious concentration is associated with higher odds of transitioning to marriage and religious homogamy (conditional on marriage) for women and men at older ages (24–31) but not at younger ages (18–23). The association was also stronger for non-Hispanic Whites compared to other race-ethnic groups. The findings indicate that religion remains relevant in sorting partners for many young adults in today’s marriage market. PMID:27818530
Nedoluzhko, Lesia; Agadjanian, Victor
The demographic literature on union formation in post-communist Europe typically documents retreat from marriage and increase in cohabitation. However, sociological and anthropological studies of post-Soviet Central Asia often point to a resurgence of various traditional norms and practices, including those surrounding marriage, that were suppressed under Soviet rule. We engage these two perspectives on union formation by analyzing transition to first marriage in Kyrgyzstan both before and after the collapse of the USSR. We use uniquely detailed marriage histories from a nationally representative survey conducted in the period 2011-2012 to examine the dynamics of traditional marital practices among that country's two main ethnic groups-Kyrgyz and Uzbeks-focusing on trends in arranged marriages and in marriages involving bride kidnapping. The analysis reveals instructive ethnic and period differences but also indicates an overall decline in the risks of both types of traditional marriage practices in the post-Soviet era. In fact, although the decline has characterized all marriage types, it was more substantial for traditional marriages. We interpret these trends as evidence of continuing modernization of nuptiality behavior in the region.
Jae Woo Lim
Full Text Available Although Korean population has been growing steadily during the past four decades, the nation is rapidly becoming an aging society because of its declining birth rate combined with an increasing life expectancy. In addition, Korea has one of the lowest fertility rates in the world due to fewer married couples, advanced maternal age, and falling birth rate. The prevalence of low birth weight infants and multiple births has been increased compared with the decrease in the birth rate. Moreover, the number of congenital anomalies is expected to increase due to the advanced maternal age. In addition, the number of interracial children is expected to increase due to the rise in the number of international marriages. However, the maternal education level is high, single-mother birth rate is low, and the gender imbalance has lessened. The number of overweight babies has been decreased, as more pregnant women are receiving adequate prenatal care. Compared to the Asian average birth weight, the average birth weight is the highest in Asia. Moreover, the rate of low birth weight infants is low, and infant mortality is similarly low across Asia. Using birth data from Statistics Korea and studies of birth outcomes in Korea and abroad, this study aimed to assess the changes in maternal and infant characteristics associated with birth outcomes during the past four decades and identify necessary information infrastructures to study countermeasures the decrease in birth rate and increase in low birth weight infants in Korea.
Lim, Jae Woo
Although Korean population has been growing steadily during the past four decades, the nation is rapidly becoming an aging society because of its declining birth rate combined with an increasing life expectancy. In addition, Korea has one of the lowest fertility rates in the world due to fewer married couples, advanced maternal age, and falling birth rate. The prevalence of low birth weight infants and multiple births has been increased compared with the decrease in the birth rate. Moreover, the number of congenital anomalies is expected to increase due to the advanced maternal age. In addition, the number of interracial children is expected to increase due to the rise in the number of international marriages. However, the maternal education level is high, single-mother birth rate is low, and the gender imbalance has lessened. The number of overweight babies has been decreased, as more pregnant women are receiving adequate prenatal care. Compared to the Asian average birth weight, the average birth weight is the highest in Asia. Moreover, the rate of low birth weight infants is low, and infant mortality is similarly low across Asia. Using birth data from Statistics Korea and studies of birth outcomes in Korea and abroad, this study aimed to assess the changes in maternal and infant characteristics associated with birth outcomes during the past four decades and identify necessary information infrastructures to study countermeasures the decrease in birth rate and increase in low birth weight infants in Korea.
The demographic adaptation of a family of Topside Caribs along the Barama River in Guyana was studied. The family history included two grandfather and granddaughter marriages. Jack Raymond's father, who was born in 1870, left Bottomside after the death of his wife in the 1920s and settled above the falls of the Barama River (Topside in Sawari) with the hope of subsistence living off the rain forest. Information on the grandfather generation was made difficult by name changes, general references to all men in the second generation as grandfathers, and the focus on father's and mother's generation. The typical pattern was for brothers to live close by, and intermarry with a family of sisters. Female children married mother's brothers' sons or father's sisters sons. Their children formed their own cluster settlements. The early history indicated economic hardship, loss of wives, and difficulties in remarrying. The Baird chronicles of the reintroduction of gold mining and the ethnography of Gillin indicated that malaria and round worm were diseases affecting the indigenous population during the 1920s and 1930s. The Topside population was supported by the local gold-mining economy, while the Bottomside population suffered economic hardship and high infant mortality. In the Jack Raymond family, remarriage resulted in children marrying cross cousins. The younger daughter married in the 1940s, when subsistence production of cassava and hunting and gold-mining income provided the family's livelihood. The daughter had 10 surviving children, compared to her adoptive mother's two. For the daughter's generation, the first pregnancy occurred between the ages of 18 and 22 years, and birth spacing was 20-30 months for 25 years. Neither polygyny nor monogamy affected the potential for 12 children. In this Baramita Air Strip population in 1971, there were 62 mothers; reproductive histories were available for 59. The changes in reproductive patterns after 1940 were apparent: for
... (Supporting Statement Regarding Marriage); Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration... eligibility for benefits based on a common law marriage. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the... use of other forms of information technology. Title: Supporting Statement Regarding Marriage, VA Form...
Roy, Tapan Kumar; Singh, Brijesh P
Unwanted birth is an important public health concern due to its negative association with adverse outcomes of mothers and children as well as socioeconomic development of a country. Although a number of studies have been investigated the determinants of unwanted births through logistic regression analysis, an extensive assessment using path model is lacking. In the current study, we applied path analysis to know the important covariates for unwanted births in Bangladesh. The study used data extracted from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2011. It considered sub-sample consisted of 7,972 women who had given most recent births five years preceding the date of interview or who were currently pregnant at survey time. Correlation analysis was used to find out the significant association with unwanted births. This study provided the factors affecting unwanted births in Bangladesh. The path model was used to determine the direct, indirect and total effects of socio-demographic factors on unwanted births. The result exhibited that more than one-tenth of the recent births were unwanted in Bangladesh. The differentials of unwanted births were women's age, education, age at marriage, religion, socioeconomic status, exposure of mass-media and use of family planning. In correlation analysis, it showed that unwanted births were positively correlated with women age and place of residence and these relationships were significant. On the contrary, unwanted births were inversely significantly correlated with education and social status. The total effects of endogenous variables such as women age, place of residence and use of family planning methods had favorable effect on unwanted births. Policymakers and program planners need to design programs and services carefully to reduce unwanted births in Bangladesh, especially, service should focus on helping those groups of women who were identified in the analysis as being at increased risks of unwanted births- older women
Tapan Kumar Roy
Full Text Available Unwanted birth is an important public health concern due to its negative association with adverse outcomes of mothers and children as well as socioeconomic development of a country. Although a number of studies have been investigated the determinants of unwanted births through logistic regression analysis, an extensive assessment using path model is lacking. In the current study, we applied path analysis to know the important covariates for unwanted births in Bangladesh.The study used data extracted from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS 2011. It considered sub-sample consisted of 7,972 women who had given most recent births five years preceding the date of interview or who were currently pregnant at survey time. Correlation analysis was used to find out the significant association with unwanted births. This study provided the factors affecting unwanted births in Bangladesh. The path model was used to determine the direct, indirect and total effects of socio-demographic factors on unwanted births.The result exhibited that more than one-tenth of the recent births were unwanted in Bangladesh. The differentials of unwanted births were women's age, education, age at marriage, religion, socioeconomic status, exposure of mass-media and use of family planning. In correlation analysis, it showed that unwanted births were positively correlated with women age and place of residence and these relationships were significant. On the contrary, unwanted births were inversely significantly correlated with education and social status. The total effects of endogenous variables such as women age, place of residence and use of family planning methods had favorable effect on unwanted births.Policymakers and program planners need to design programs and services carefully to reduce unwanted births in Bangladesh, especially, service should focus on helping those groups of women who were identified in the analysis as being at increased risks of unwanted
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Births (Natality) online databases in CDC WONDER report birth rates, fertility rates and counts of live births occurring within the United States to U.S....
... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Extremely Preterm Birth Home For Patients Search FAQs Extremely Preterm Birth ... Spanish FAQ173, June 2016 PDF Format Extremely Preterm Birth Pregnancy When is a baby considered “preterm” or “ ...
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... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000655.htm Birth control pills - combination To use the sharing features on ... both progestin and estrogen. What Are Combination Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you from ...
... Prosthetics Essure Permanent Birth Control Essure Permanent Birth Control Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Print Essure is a a permanently implanted birth control device for women (female sterilization). Implantation of Essure ...
Kefalas, Maria J.; Furstenberg, Frank F.; Carr, Patrick J.; Napolitano, Laura
Based on 424 qualitative interviews with a racially, ethnically, and socio-economically diverse population of young people ranging in age from 21 to 38, the authors ponder the paradox of the evolving role for contemporary marriage within the developmental perspective of the transition to adulthood. The authors identify two groups: marriage…
This paper examines the link between heterosexual marriage and women's vulnerability to HIV in Indonesia. In this country, gender relations are currently dominated by traditional beliefs and practices and by religious morality. Data for the current study were collected by means of documentary
Thompson, Mark F.
A study of healthy marriages was conducted and five keys were found to exist in all of them: spirituality, intimacy, conflict resolution, communication and financial management. The author examined secular and spiritual literature and found these keys were prevalent in both. Military couples experience many stressors that are not found in…
This article presents a statistical profile of marriage patterns and family size in Tibet Autonomous Region in China. Data were obtained from the 1990 China Census. At 30%, Tibet has a higher proportion of unmarried women, aged 15-69 years, than any other nationality or province in China, including Han women and all other ethnic women, at 24.3% and 23.5%, respectively. 53% of women aged 20-24 years, and 7-9% of women aged 30-49 years, were unmarried. High rates of unmarried women are attributed to an imbalanced sex ratio favoring women, the existence of polyandry, and strict rules among the dominant Gelug Sect of Tibetan Buddhism. The overall percentage of married women aged 15-69 years was 56.6%. In Lhasa City, 60.4% were married; in other towns, 55.4%; and in counties, 55.4%. In 1990, the mean age at first marriage was 23.1 years. The overall divorce rate of Tibetan women aged 15-69 years was 3.8%; 2.5% in Lhasa city, 2.4% in towns, and 3.9% in counties. Divorce declined with an increase in education. Divorce increased from younger to older ages. Divorce is attributed to maltreatment by drunk husbands, a lack of mutual understanding before marriage, disputes over household duties, and extramarital love affairs. The average family size was 5.20. Family size was lower in Lhasa city (3.67) and towns (3.68). 7.74% of Tibetan families were 1-child families. 20.37% had 8 or more family members. Discrepancies exist in family size between Tibetans and ethnic Han.
Wax, Joseph R; Pinette, Michael G; Cartin, Angelina; Blackstone, Jacquelyn
We sought to evaluate perinatal morbidity by delivery location (hospital, freestanding birth center, and home). Selected 2006 US birth certificate data were accessed online from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Low-risk maternal and newborn outcomes were tabulated and compared by birth facility. A total of 745,690 deliveries were included, of which 733,143 (97.0%) occurred in hospital, 4661 (0.6%) at birth centers, and 7427 (0.9%) at home. Compared with hospital deliveries, home and birthing center deliveries were associated with more frequent prolonged and precipitous labors. Home births experienced more frequent 5-minute Apgar scores home and birthing center deliveries were associated with less frequent chorioamnionitis, fetal intolerance of labor, meconium staining, assisted ventilation, neonatal intensive care unit admission, and birthweight Home births are associated with a number of less frequent adverse perinatal outcomes at the expense of more frequent abnormal labors and low 5-minute Apgar scores. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Federal Communications Commission — EAS (Equipment Authorization System). A Telecommunication Certification Body (TCB) is an accredited product certification body with the authority to issue Grants of...
Reed, W R; Harford, K
This paper proposes and tests an alternative explanation of the marriage premium that relies upon differences in workers' tastes and compensating wage differentials. A key assumption is that marital status proxies for the consumption of family goods, such as children, and that these are costly. Workers whose greater demands for family goods are taste- generated and shown to choose jobs that offer greater wage, and less non-pecuniary compensation. This creates an observed wage premium that has nothing to do with differences in workers' productivities. Supporting empirical evidence for this hypothesis is presented, including a reevaluation of previous studies.
Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer
This paper shows that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system. Specifically, we prove converse barrier certificate theorems for a class of structurally stable dynamical systems. Other authors have developed a related result by assuming that the dynamical system has neither...
El Banna, S; Van de Vyvere, A; Beauthier, J-P
Physicians are asked to complete certificates within their profession. These certificates relate to various aspects of an individual's life, from birth to the end of life. The nature of requests is striking by its diversity. As a first step, the authors recall the outline of a certificate and its structure, as well as traps, hazards and risks to avoid. In a second step they describe three specific situations for the certificate: in the context of work accidents, common law accidents and social matters. All materials can not be treated in this space, so they refer the reader to the main bibliographic sources useful in this matter.
Conclusions: The findings of this research confirm marriage interpersonal psychotherapy on the depression recovery and the increasing marriage satisfaction of women suffering from postpartum depression.
Noack, Turid; Wiik, Kenneth Aarskaug
This study examines women's choice of surname upon marriage, using a nationally representative Norwegian sample (N = 1,276). Regression analyses revealed that age at marriage, own and mother's education, urban residence, importance of paid labor, liberal family values, and egalitarian work-family roles positively influence marital name keeping.…
Cohen, Orna; Geron, Yael; Farchi, Alva
This article presents a typology of enduring marriages of Israeli couples married for at least 40 years. Based on the view that marital quality is a multidimensional phenomenon, the typology is derived from a cluster analysis of responses of husbands and wives in 51 couples to the ENRICH scale items. Three types of enduring marriages were found:…
This article explores the pattern of early marriage in Africa. It focuses on the sub-Saharan region as an area with the highest rates of early marriage in the world. The harmful effects of early marriage are explored in terms of impact on the health, education and economic well-being of young girls. The paper outlines a framework for analyzing global, regional and local initiatives to curb early marriage and examines the application of these interventions in sub-Saharan countries. Regional patterns are then examined and countries which have made progress in reducing age of marriage are compared to countries in which age of marriage amongst girls has reminded low. The paper concludes on the note that countries with the highest rates of early marriage are also the countries with the highest rates of poverty and highest population growth rates. The paper argues for a sub-regional strategy to address the problem of early marriage in the zone with the highest incidence.
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Common-law marriage relationship. 222.13 Section 222.13 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222.13 Common-law marriage...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of marriage relationship. 222... RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222.11 Determination of marriage relationship. A claimant will be considered to be the husband, wife, or widow(er) of an employee...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ceremonial marriage relationship. 222.12 Section 222.12 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222.12 Ceremonial marriage...
The seemingly buoyant economy of Nigeria notwithstanding, child labour, abuse, minor marriages, forced marriages and other social vices abound. While some researchers blame the situation on hardship engendered by corruption, greed and nepotism, others blame the situation on some cultures. Many more believe it is ...
Hoogeveen, H.; van der Klaauw, B.; van Lomwel, A.G.C.
In this paper we focus on the timing of marriages of women, whose marriages are associated with bride wealth payments, which are transfers from (the family of) the groom to the bride's family. Unmarried daughters could therefore be considered assets who, at times of need, can be cashed in. We
Na'amnih, Wasef; Romano-Zelekha, Orly; Kabaha, Ahmed; Rubin, Liza Pollack; Bilenko, Natalya; Jaber, Lutfi; Honovich, Mira; Shohat, Tamy
The Bedouin population in Israel is a semi-nomadic traditional patriarchal society. Consanguineous marriages are very common, contributing to high rates of congenital malformations and genetic diseases, resulting in high infant mortality. Data on consanguineous marriages among Bedouins in Israel are limited. This study examined the current prevalence of consanguineous marriages and their determinants among Israeli Bedouins. One thousand two hundred ninety Bedouin women who delivered in the maternity wards of the only hospital serving the Bedouin population were interviewed between November 2009 and January 2010. The prevalence of consanguineous marriages was 44.8 %. The most common type of spousal relationship was first cousins (65.7 % of all consanguineous marriages). The mean inbreeding coefficient was 0.0238. Factors significantly associated with consanguinity were less years of schooling (OR 0.94, 95 % CI (0.88-0.99), p = 0.02) and younger age at marriage of the wife (OR 0.90, 95 % CI (0.80-0.96), p = 0.0002). In conclusion, the rate of consanguineous marriages among Bedouins is very high, making this population at risk for congenital malformations and genetic diseases. Efforts should be directed at better education and provision of premarital and prenatal counseling on the health consequences of consanguineous marriages and the possibilities to lower those risks.
Hoogeveen, Hans; Klaauw, van der Bas; Lomwel, van Gijsbert
In this paper we focus on the timing of marriages of women, whose marriages are associated with bride wealth payments, which are transfers from (the family of) the groom to the bride's family. Unmarried daughters could therefore be considered assets who, at times of need, can be cashed in. We
This disorder is more common in developing countries and sometimes couples ... Methods: This study would report a case of unconsummated marriage ... The main problem of this couple was vaginismus and post-traumatic stress. ... Keywords: Unconsummated marriage, couple's therapy, vaginismus, behavioral therapy ...
Vogl, Tom S
Using data from South Asia, this article examines how arranged marriage cultivates rivalry among sisters. During marriage search, parents with multiple daughters reduce the reservation quality for an older daughter's groom, rushing her marriage to allow sufficient time to marry off her younger sisters. Relative to younger brothers, younger sisters increase a girl's marriage risk; relative to younger singleton sisters, younger twin sisters have the same effect. These effects intensify in marriage markets with lower sex ratios or greater parental involvement in marriage arrangements. In contrast, older sisters delay a girl's marriage. Because girls leave school when they marry and face limited earning opportunities when they reach adulthood, the number of sisters has well-being consequences over the life cycle. Younger sisters cause earlier school-leaving, lower literacy, a match to a husband with less education and a less skilled occupation, and (marginally) lower adult economic status. Data from a broader set of countries indicate that these cross-sister pressures on marriage age are common throughout the developing world, although the schooling costs vary by setting. JEL Codes: J1, I25, O15.
The high unemployment rate and increased cost of living in the city had tended to delay the timing of family formation in Addis Ababa. However, educated women, though delayingtheir marriage for the purposes of pursuing their education goal, had a better chance of getting married. Keywords: Age, first marriage, delayed ...
ers, religious leaders, market women and traditional health workers. They were selected across the selected villages) in the study area. The exercise covered areas like: issues of child marriage, factors influencing child marriage, girl child education, sexual rights and choices in the commu- nity, and common maternal health ...
Rambo, Brenda Clanton; And Others
The breakdown of marriage within American society is a serious problem as evidenced by high divorce rates and numerous separations and family problems. A Marriage Values Questionnaire, developed to determine reasons for marrying and staying married and the impact of religion on marital stability, was completed by 305 subjects, ranging in age from…
Vogl, Tom S.
Using data from South Asia, this article examines how arranged marriage cultivates rivalry among sisters. During marriage search, parents with multiple daughters reduce the reservation quality for an older daughter’s groom, rushing her marriage to allow sufficient time to marry off her younger sisters. Relative to younger brothers, younger sisters increase a girl’s marriage risk; relative to younger singleton sisters, younger twin sisters have the same effect. These effects intensify in marriage markets with lower sex ratios or greater parental involvement in marriage arrangements. In contrast, older sisters delay a girl’s marriage. Because girls leave school when they marry and face limited earning opportunities when they reach adulthood, the number of sisters has well-being consequences over the life cycle. Younger sisters cause earlier school-leaving, lower literacy, a match to a husband with less education and a less skilled occupation, and (marginally) lower adult economic status. Data from a broader set of countries indicate that these cross-sister pressures on marriage age are common throughout the developing world, although the schooling costs vary by setting. JEL Codes: J1, I25, O15. PMID:23966752
Baxter, Janeen; Haynes, Michele; Hewitt, Belinda
Does time spent in a cohabiting relationship prior to marriage lead to more egalitarian housework arrangements after marriage? Previous research has shown that housework patterns within cohabiting relationships are more egalitarian than in marital relationships. But do these patterns remain when couples marry? The findings from previous studies…
Watson, Tara; McLanahan, Sara
This paper investigates the effect of relative income on marriage. Accounting flexibly for absolute income, the ratio between a man's income and a local reference group median is a strong predictor of marital status, but only for low-income men. Relative income affects marriage even among those living with a partner. A 10 percent higher reference…
Choi, Susanne Yp; Luo, Ming
Using in-depth interview data on nominal marriages - legal marriages between a gay man and a lesbian to give the appearance of heterosexuality - this paper develops the concept of performative family to explain the processes through which parents and their adult children negotiate and resolve disagreements in relation to marriage decisions in post-socialist China. We identify three mechanisms - network pressure, a revised discourse of filial piety and resource leverage - through which parents influence their gay offspring's decision to turn to nominal marriage. We also delineate six strategies, namely minimizing network participation, changing expectations, making partial concessions, drawing the line, delaying decisions and ending the marriage, by which gay people in nominal marriages attempt to meet parental expectations while simultaneously retaining a degree of autonomy. Through these interactions, we argue that Chinese parents and their gay adult children implicitly and explicitly collaborate to perform family, emphasizing the importance of formally meeting society's expectations about marriage rather than substantively yielding to its demands. We also argue that the performative family is a pragmatic response to the tension between the persistent centrality of family and marriage and the rising tide of individualism in post-socialist China. We believe that our findings highlight the specific predicament of homosexual people. They also shed light on the more general dynamics of intergenerational negotiation because there is evidence that the mechanisms used by parents to exert influence may well be similar between gay and non-gay people. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.
McLanahan, Sara; Sawhill, Isabel
Marriage is on the decline. Men and women of the youngest generation are either marrying in their late twenties or not marrying at all. Childbearing has also been postponed, but not as much as marriage. The result is that a growing proportion of children are born to unmarried parents--roughly 40 percent in recent years, and over 50 percent for…
Assuming that the issue of same-sex marriage should be discussed in schools, how should the discussion be framed? Michael Hand first distinguishes this question from the related but distinct question of whether discussion on this topic should be steered. He then examines three possible frames for discussion of same-sex marriage: the perfectionist…
It has been argued that rising dowry payments are caused by population growth.According to that explanation, termed the `marriage squeeze', a population increase leads to an excess supply of brides since men marry younger women.As a result, dowry payments rise in order to clear the marriage
Raj, Anita; Saggurti, Niranjan; Balaiah, Donta; Silverman, Jay G
Child marriage is a substantial barrier to social and economic development in India, and a primary concern for women's health. We assessed the prevalence of child marriage-ie, before 18 years of age-in young adult women in India, and the associations between child marriage and women's fertility and fertility-control outcomes. Data from the National Family Health Survey-3 (2005-06) were limited to a sample of Indian women aged 20-24 years (n=22 807), of whom 14 813 had been or were presently married (ever-married). Prevalence of child marriage was estimated for the whole sample. We used regression models adjusted for demographics, and models adjusted for demographics and duration of marriage to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for the associations between child marriage and both fertility and fertility-control outcomes, in the ever-married subsample. 44.5% of women aged 20-24 years were married before age 18 years, 22.6% were married before age 16 years, and 2.6% were married before age 13 years. Child marriage was significantly associated with no contraceptive use before first childbirth (adjusted OR 1.37 [95% CI 1.22-1.54]), high fertility (three or more births) (7.40 [6.45-8.50]), a repeat childbirth in less than 24 months (3.00 [2.74-3.29]), multiple unwanted pregnancies (2.36 [1.90-2.94]), pregnancy termination (1.48 [1.34-1.63]), and female sterilisation (6.68 [5.78-7.60]). The association between child marriage and high fertility, a repeat childbirth in less than 24 months, multiple unwanted pregnancies, pregnancy termination, and sterilisation all remained significant after controlling for duration of marriage. Increased enforcement of existing policies is crucial for prevention of child marriage. Improved family-planning education, access, and support are urgently needed for women married as children, their husbands, and their families to reduce the high fertility and poor fertility-control outcomes of this practice. US National Institutes of Health and Indian
Doty, A A
"This paper is an extension of Gary Becker's economic theory on families and marriage with particular attention to same-gender marriage and family formation. Summary discussion of several concepts central to the economics of the family as they relate to same-gender family formation are considered.... First, this article will present a general discussion of marriage markets and decisions and rationales for cohabiting or marrying. Second, the economic gains to marriage for both homosexual and heterosexual couples will be examined. Third, fertility alternatives and demand for children by same-gender couples will be considered. The article concludes with a discussion of future outcomes and policy implications relating to gay and lesbian marriage and fertility." The geographical focus is on the United States. excerpt
Pronk, T.M.; Buyukcan-Tetik, A.; Iliás, M.; Finkenauer, C.
Do partners’ levels of self-control and forgiveness change over the course of marriage? Based on the idea that marriage may function as a training ground for these vital relationship abilities, we hypothesized that people increase their levels of self-control and forgiveness over time and that these
Vries, De Raymond
Women have long searched for a pleasing birth-a birth with a minimum of fear and pain, in the company of supportive family, friends, and caregivers, a birth that ends with a healthy mother and baby gazing into each other's eyes. For women in the Netherlands, such a birth is defined as one at home
Each year in the U.S., one in 33 babies is affected by a major birth defect. Women can greatly improve their chances of giving birth to a healthy baby by avoiding some of the risk factors for birth defects before and during pregnancy. In this podcast, Dr. Stuart Shapira discusses ways to improve the chances of giving birth to a healthy baby.
Delprato, Marcos; Akyeampong, Kwame
Age of marriage is a barrier to mother's health care around pregnancy and children health outcomes. We provide evidence on the health benefits of postponing early marriage among young wives (from age 10-14 to age 15-17) on women's health care and children's health for sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and Southwest Asia (SWA). We use data for 39 countries from the Demographic and Health Surveys to estimate the effects of postponing early marriage for women's health care and children's health outcomes and immunization using matching techniques. We also assess whether women's health empowerment and health constraints are additional barriers. We found that in SSA, delaying the age of marriage from age 10-14 to age 15-17 and from age 15-17 to age 18 or older leads to an increase in maternal neotetanus vaccinations of 2.4% and 3.2%, respectively; gains in the likelihood of postnatal checks are larger for delayed marriage among the youngest wives (aged 10-14). In SWA, the number of antenatal visits increases by 34% and the likelihood of having a skilled birth attendant goes up to 4.1% if young wives postpone marriage. In SSA, the probability of children receiving basic vaccinations is twice as large and their neonatal mortality reduction is nearly double if their mothers married between ages 15-17 instead of at ages 10-14. The extent of these benefits is also shaped by supply constraints and cultural factors. For instance, we found that weak bargaining power on health decisions for young wives leads to 11% fewer antenatal visits (SWA) and 13% less chance of attending postnatal checks (SSA). Delaying age of marriage among young wives can lead to considerable gains in health care utilization and children health in SSA and SWA if supported by policies that lessen supply constraints and raise women's health empowerment. Copyright © 2017 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Some conservative groups argue that allowing same-sex couples to marry reduces the value of marriage to opposite-sex couples. This article examines how changes in U.S. legal recognition laws occurring between 1995 and 2010 designed to include same-sex couples have altered marriage rates in the United States. Using a difference-in-differences strategy that compares how marriage rates change after legal recognition in U.S. states that alter legal recognition versus states that do not, I find no evidence that allowing same-sex couples to marry reduces the opposite-sex marriage rate. Although the opposite-sex marriage rate is unaffected by same-sex couples marrying, it decreases when domestic partnerships are available to opposite-sex couples.
As part of the ongoing drive to simplify and streamline administrative procedures and processes, the IT and HR Departments have made employment certificates available on a self-service basis on the HRT application, in the main menu under "My self services". All members of the personnel can thus obtain a certificate of employment or association, in French or in English, for the present or past contractual period. The HR Department’s Records Office remains responsible for issuing any special certificates that might be required. IT-AIS (Administrative Information Services) HR-SPS (Services, Procedures & Social) Records Office – Tel. 73700
Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer
This paper presents a converse barrier certificate theorem for a generic dynamical system.We show that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system defined on a compact manifold. Other authors have developed a related result, by assuming that the dynamical system has no singular...... points in the considered subset of the state space. In this paper, we redefine the standard notion of safety to comply with generic dynamical systems with multiple singularities. Afterwards, we prove the converse barrier certificate theorem and illustrate the differences between ours and previous work...
Sanajaoba Singh N,
Full Text Available The birth interval is a major determinant of levels of fertility in high fertility populations. A house-to-house survey of 1225 women in Manipur, a tiny state in North Eastern India was carried out to investigate birth interval patterns and its determinants. Using survival analysis, among the nine explanatory variables of interest, only three factors – infant mortality, Lactation and use of contraceptive devices have highly significant effect (P<0.01 on the duration of birth interval and only three factors – age at marriage of wife, parity and sex of child are found to be significant (P<0.05 on the duration variable.
Shrestha, G.; Biswas, S.
An attempt has been made in this paper to obtain probability model describing the distribution of the waiting time from marriage to first conception based on the data from marriage to first live birth. The speciality of this present approach lies in assuming the marital exposure to be finite which was assumed to be infinite by most of the earlier investigators for mathematical simplicity. Illustration of the applicability of the model on the data pertaining to first order of conception and monthly probability of conception for women married at different age groups have been illustrated in this paper. (author)
From early 2002, producers of green energy in selected countries have been able to benefit from generous financial support in the Netherlands. Thus, there has been increased sale of green certificates from Norway and Sweden. But the condition that physical energy delivery should accompany the certificates has caused a marked rise in the price of energy in transit through Germany to the Netherlands. This article discusses the green certificate concept and the experience gained from the Netherlands. One conclusion is that if large-scale trade with green certificates is introduced in Europe without the condition of accompanying energy delivery, then producers of hydro-electric power in Norway and Sweden may be the losers
At community level the problem of energy quality control in a building was introduced by EEC recommendation n. 93/76 in 1993. In this item are reported some notes on energetic certification in European countries [it
Hroch, A.; Osusky, V.
In this paper the process of certification of support services in the Slovenske elektrarne, a. s. is described. The nuclear power plants are also included into support services. Provisions and economic aspects of support services are discussed
Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs), are tradable, non-tangible energy commodities in the United States that represent proof that 1 megawatt-hour (MWh) of electricity was generated from an eligible renewable energy resource.
Breslau, J; Miller, E; Jin, R; Sampson, N A; Alonso, J; Andrade, L H; Bromet, E J; de Girolamo, G; Demyttenaere, K; Fayyad, J; Fukao, A; Gălăon, M; Gureje, O; He, Y; Hinkov, H R; Hu, C; Kovess-Masfety, V; Matschinger, H; Medina-Mora, M E; Ormel, J; Posada-Villa, J; Sagar, R; Scott, K M; Kessler, R C
Estimate predictive associations of mental disorders with marriage and divorce in a cross-national sample. Population surveys of mental disorders included assessment of age at first marriage in 19 countries (n = 46,128) and age at first divorce in a subset of 12 countries (n = 30,729). Associations between mental disorders and subsequent marriage and divorce were estimated in discrete time survival models. Fourteen of 18 premarital mental disorders are associated with lower likelihood of ever marrying (odds ratios ranging from 0.6 to 0.9), but these associations vary across ages of marriage. Associations between premarital mental disorders and marriage are generally null for early marriage (age 17 or younger), but negative associations come to predominate at later ages. All 18 mental disorders are positively associated with divorce (odds ratios ranging from 1.2 to 1.8). Three disorders, specific phobia, major depression, and alcohol abuse, are associated with the largest population attributable risk proportions for both marriage and divorce. This evidence adds to research demonstrating adverse effects of mental disorders on life course altering events across a diverse range of socioeconomic and cultural settings. These effects should be included in considerations of public health investments in preventing and treating mental disorders. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Full Text Available This study investigates whether parental marital status affects young adults’ attitudes toward marriage and divorce. There exists a vast amount of literature on the impact of divorce on young adults in Western cultures; however, no previous empirical studies have been conducted on the attitudes of young adults from intact and divorced families in the Gulf region or in Arab countries in the Middle East. The sample of the study consisted of 661 young adults from Kuwait University (from divorced and intact families. The findings reveal that adults whose parents divorced show fewer positive attitudes toward marriage than do those individuals from intact marriages. The study also suggests that adults whose parents were divorced carry more positive attitudes toward divorce compared with individuals from intact marriages. Furthermore, gender was found to be an important factor in shaping attitudes toward marriage and divorce. A longitudinal study is recommended to look at the changes in young adults’ attitudes toward marriage and divorce over time, which will help to identify the influence of other factors of attitudes toward marriage and divorce.
Сергей Николаевич Уваров
Full Text Available The article gives the results of the statistic analysis of interethnic marriages in the Udmurt ASSR in the 1930s. The author considers the marriages of the largest nations of the republic and the share of the interethnic marriages. There were analyzed marriages among Russians, Udmurts and Tatars living in the cities and rural areas of the Udmurt ASSR. As for Mari and Chuvash, the information is sketchy, so it is hard to make any conclusions on inter-ethnic marriages among them. The situation with interethnic marriages in the 1930s is compared with that in the previous decade. The conclusion is that while in the 1920s the process of assimilation in the republic was not very active, by the end of the 1930s the situation had changed, as evidenced by the frequent interethnic marriages. The variants of combinations of nationalities show that the most active assimilation processes followed the line of the «Udmurt man - Russian woman». The article is written on the basis of previously unpublished materials.
Lee PhD Canditate, Jess
The 2015 SCOTUS ruling legalizing same-sex marriage was hailed as a universal victory for the lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) community, but the pervasive support mobilized to achieve this goal may mask important dissension and inequality within the community. Specifically, how race may shape or perpetuate inequalities in the LGB community through same-sex marriage largely has been absent from the discussion. Focusing on the perceived impact of same-sex marriage in respondents' lives, I investigate the relationship between Black LGBs' perception of same-sex marriage legalization and their intersectional identities and community membership. Drawing from the 2010 Social Justice Sexuality Project survey, I explain the complexity of the attitudes of Black LGBs to the legalization of same-sex marriage and illustrate that (1) Black LGBs exhibit heterogeneous interpretation of the effects of same-sex marriage legalization on their lives based on their racial and sexual identities, and (2) same-sex marriage may provide Black LGBs the rationale to affirm their racial community membership as sexual minorities. This study pushes our understanding of the relationship between intersectional identities and individuals' perceptions of the self, identity-based community memberships, and social institutions.
Objective To investigate the links between wives' marital happiness and premarital sex and related consequences in Shanghai during 1980sMethods About 8 000 newly married couples were followed up at the 3rd and 15th month after their marriage.Results About 12% of them reported premarital intercourse. This proportion was higher among less educated couples with blue-collar jobs. About 63% of the sexually active caused pregnant before marriage. Most pregnancies were legitimised by marriage but 1/4 ended in induced abortion. Over 3/4 (78%) of wives reported that they were happy with the marriage in general, while 72% of wives were happy with the sexual aspects of their marriage. Results showed a strong relationship between marital happiness and the occurrence of a premarital abortion. Less educated and late-marring women were more likely to assess their marriage neutrally or negatively.Conclusion Unhappiness with marriage in general and with marital sexual life were significantly higher among women with premarital abortion, and among less educated and late-marrying women.
Breslau, J.; Miller, E.; Jin, R.; Sampson, N. A.; Alonso, J.; Andrade, L. H.; Bromet, E. J.; de Girolamo, G.; Demyttenaere, K.; Fayyad, J.; Fukao, A.; Gălăon, M.; Gureje, O.; He, Y.; Hinkov, H. R.; Hu, C.; Kovess-Masfety, V.; Matschinger, H.; Medina-Mora, M. E.; Ormel, J.; Posada-Villa, J.; Sagar, R.; Scott, K. M.; Kessler, R. C.
Objective Estimate predictive associations of mental disorders with marriage and divorce in a cross-national sample. Method Population surveys of mental disorders included assessment of age at first marriage in 19 countries (n = 46 128) and age at first divorce in a subset of 12 countries (n = 30 729). Associations between mental disorders and subsequent marriage and divorce were estimated in discrete time survival models. Results Fourteen of 18 premarital mental disorders are associated with lower likelihood of ever marrying (odds ratios ranging from 0.6 to 0.9), but these associations vary across ages of marriage. Associations between premarital mental disorders and marriage are generally null for early marriage (age 17 or younger), but negative associations come to predominate at later ages. All 18 mental disorders are positively associated with divorce (odds ratios ranging from 1.2 to 1.8). Three disorders, specific phobia, major depression, and alcohol abuse, are associated with the largest population attributable risk proportions for both marriage and divorce. Conclusion This evidence adds to research demonstrating adverse effects of mental disorders on life course altering events across a diverse range of socioeconomic and cultural settings. These effects should be included in considerations of public health investments in preventing and treating mental disorders. PMID:21534936
Crandall, AliceAnn; VanderEnde, Kristin; Cheong, Yuk Fai; Dodell, Sylvie; Yount, Kathryn M
Early - or child - marriage (before age 18) may diminish women's ability to exercise agency, or their capacity to act upon their goals. Using a propensity score adjustment approach, we analyzed data from 2394 married women ages 35-49 years who participated in the 2006 Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey (ELMPS). We examined whether women's first marriage at age 18 or older was associated with their post-marital agency, measured in terms of their influence in family decisions, freedom of movement in public spaces, and unfavorable views about intimate partner violence against wives. In bivariate analyses, women's age at first marriage was positively associated with their decision-making and more equitable gender attitudes. However, once we controlled for selection into age-at-first-marriage groups, there were no significant differences between the two age-at-first-marriage groups in any dimension of women's agency. We examined the sensitivity of the non-significant age-at-first-marriage effects to possible violations of the strong ignorability assumption and the results did not alter our conclusions. The assumption that women's age at first marriage is a proxy for their post-marital agency, as defined here, warrants further study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Anand, D; Pharoah, P
BACKGROUND—Birth weight mortality statistics are important for examining trends and monitoring the outcomes of neonatal care. AIM—To determine the effects of errors in the registered birth weight on birth weight specific mortality. METHODS—All twins born in England and Wales during 1993-95 comprise the denominator population. For those twins that died, the Office for National Statistics (ONS) provided copies of the death certificates. From the information on the death cer...
Cohen, B B; Friedman, D J; Mahan, C M; Lederman, R; Munoz, D
National data reveal that low birth weight and infant mortality rates among Hispanics are, in general, between the rates for whites and those for blacks. The question remains, do differences in low birth weight reflect distributions of known risk factors, or do ethnic differences persist after simultaneously adjusting for intervening variables? In this study, Massachusetts birth certificate data for 206,973 white non-Hispanic infants and 19,571 Hispanic infants are used to examine differences...
A. B. Sinelnikov
Full Text Available According to sociological surveys in Russia found that a pairs of cohabitants, consisting of “unregistered marriage”, occupy an intermediate position between legally married and unmarried males and females. The so-called “unregistered marriage” can not be considered equal to legitimate marriage. The average number of children ever born to unmarried couples by the end of the reproductive age of women (40–45 years old is much less than the average number of children among married women of the same age and considerably below the level of simple reproduction of generations. At all ages cohabitants are much more likely to feel lonely than legitimate spouses. The tendency to reduce the number of legitimate married couples and increasing numbers of unmarried couples is not a transition from traditional to modern form of family. It is a destruction of the family as a social institution.
Mohammad Ali Karimzadeh
Full Text Available Female fertility begins to decline many years prior to the onset of menopause despite continued regular ovulatory cycles. Age related infertility is due to oocyte abnormalities and decreased ovarian reserve. Treatment of infertility when the cause is limited to decreased ovarian reserve is empirical at present except for oocyte donation. This mini review of the literature covers all available English biomedical journals that have been published from 1995 to 2008. The search based on combination of the words age, fertility, infertility, and oocyte abnormalities. The important findings from this search strategy are summarized and presented in the sub headings including female age and fertility, miscarriage and in vitro fertilization. Regarding infertility prevention, this mini review suggested that early marriage is a primordial, effective, inexpensive and easy way to prevent infertility.
Full Text Available Unlike the countries of north-western Europe, marriage in Italy has maintained a crucial role in the process of family formation. This raise doubts about the possibility that the theory of "second demographic transition" could adequately account for the behaviour of the European population living south of the Alps. The aim of this paper is twofold: to provide some empirical evidence that cohabitation is now spreading in Italy; and to propose an explanation of the delay of its diffusion until the 1990s. The hypothesis proposed here explains the delay, not so much in terms of limited interest of the Italian youth towards this type of union, but with the convenience of the children in the Mediterranean area to avoid choices which are openly clashing with the values of parents.
Full Text Available The article analyses the influence of psychotherapeutic group work on matrimonial relations. Such questions are put up in the research as if participating of one of the married couples in a group psychotherapy could indirectly influence the other partner, and also if the type of matrimony could change under the influence of psychotherapy, for example from hierarchical to the partner’s. The article generalizes the classification of marriage types and pays special attention on the types that can be subject to the positive changes as a result of psychotherapeutic influence. Actuality and value of this research lay in estimation of the ability of psychotherapy to influence the matrimony on the whole in case when only one of the partners takes part in the therapy.
Uecker, Jeremy E.
Marriage is widely thought to confer mental health benefits, but little is known about how this relationship may vary across the life course. Early marriage—which is non-normative—could have no, or even negative, mental health consequences for young adults. Using survey data from Waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 11,743), I find that married young adults exhibit similar levels of psychological distress as young adults who are in any kind of romantic relationship. Married and engaged young adults report lower rates of drunkenness than others. Married young adults—especially those who first married at age 22–26—report higher life satisfaction than those in other types of relationships or no relationship at all, as well as those who married at younger ages. Explanations for these findings are examined, and their implications are discussed. PMID:22328171
... ill duty status from the incident. Duty related information: Duty station, employment and job related... verify relationship by providing a birth certificate, marriage license, death certificate, or court... according to DoD and Army security policies. [[Page 33730
Stanley, Scott M.; Rhoades, Galena K.; Amato, Paul R.; Markman, Howard J.; Johnson, Christine A.
Using a multistate sample of marriages that took place in the 1990s, this study examined associations between premarital cohabitation history and marital quality in first (N = 437) and second marriages (N = 200) and marital instability in first marriages (intact N = 521, divorced N = 124). For first marriages, cohabiting with the spouse without…
Howard, J. Paul R.
The Ontario and British Columbia courts of appeal have held that the restriction of marriage to heterosexuals is unconstitutional. Opposing views in same-sex marriage litigation arise from different definitions of "marriage." Proposed federal legislation would legalize same-sex marriage but not resolve the larger, underlying issue of how…
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of common-law marriage. 404.726... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.726 Evidence of common-law marriage. (a) General. A common-law marriage is one considered valid under certain State laws even though...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of a deemed valid marriage. 219.33... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Relationship § 219.33 Evidence of a deemed valid marriage. (a) Preferred evidence. Preferred evidence of a deemed valid marriage is— (1) Evidence of a ceremonial marriage...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage. 219... marriage. (a) Preferred evidence. Preferred evidence of a ceremonial marriage is— (1) A copy of the public record of the marriage, certified by the custodian of the record or by a Board employee; (2) A copy of a...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage. 404... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.725 Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage. (a) General. A valid ceremonial marriage is one that follows procedures set by law in...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When evidence that a marriage has ended is... a marriage has ended is required. Evidence of how a previous marriage ended may be required to determine whether a later marriage is valid. If a widow or widower remarried after the employee's death and...
Cherlin, Andrew J
During the past century the U.S. family system has seen vast changes--in marriage and divorce rates, cohabitation, childbearing, sexual behavior, and women's work outside the home. Andrew Cherlin reviews these historic changes, noting that marriage remains the most common living arrangement for raising children, but that children, especially poor and minority children, are increasingly likely to grow up in single-parent families and to experience family instability. Cherlin describes the economic and cultural forces that have transformed family life. Job market changes have drawn married women into the work force and deprived less-educated men of the blue-collar jobs by which they traditionally supported their families. And effective contraception and legalized abortion have eroded the norm of marriage before childbearing. Cherlin notes that sentiment in favor of marriage appears to be stronger in the United States than in other developed countries. The share of U.S. adults who are likely to marry is higher, but so is the share likely to divorce. U.S. children are also more likely to live in single-parent families at some time in their childhood. Although nearly all Americans, whether poor or well-to-do, hold to marriage as an ideal, today marriage is increasingly optional. To a greater extent than ever before, individuals can choose whether to form a family on their own, in a cohabiting relationship, or in a marriage. Given U.S. patterns of swift transitions into and out of marriage and high rates of single parenthood, American policymakers eager to promote marriage are unlikely to be able to raise U.S. family stability to levels typical of other developed countries. Consequently, a family policy that relies too heavily on marriage will not help the many children destined to live in single-parent and cohabiting families--many of them poor--during their formative years. Assistance must be directed to needy families, regardless of their household structure
Petroni, Suzanne; Steinhaus, Mara; Fenn, Natacha Stevanovic; Stoebenau, Kirsten; Gregowski, Amy
Despite increasing global attention and commitments by countries to end the harmful practice of child marriage, each year some 15 million girls marry before the age of 18. The preponderance of the evidence produced historically on child marriage comes from South Asia, where the vast majority of child brides live. Far less attention has been paid to child marriage in sub-Saharan Africa, where prevalence rates remain high. The International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) recently conducted research in Kenya, Senegal, Uganda, and Zambia to contribute to greater understanding of the drivers of child marriage in each of these contexts. Synthesizing findings from 4 diverse countries provides a useful opportunity to identify similarities and differences, as well as understandings that may be applicable to and helpful for preventing child marriage across these and other settings. Across the 4 countries, ICRW's research echoes the existing literature base in affirming that child marriage is rooted in inequitable gender norms that prioritize women's roles as wives, mothers, and household caretakers, resulting in inadequate investments by families in girls' education. These discriminatory norms interact closely with poverty and a lack of employment opportunities for girls and young women to perpetuate marriage as a seemingly viable alternative for girls. We found in the African study sites that sexual relations, unplanned pregnancy, and school dropout often precede child marriage, which differs from much of the existing evidence on child marriage from South Asia. Further, unlike in South Asia, where family members typically determine the spouse a girl will marry, most girls in the Africa study settings have greater autonomy in partner choice selection. In Senegal, increasing educational attainment and labor migration, particularly by young women, has contributed to reduced rates of child marriage for girls. Our findings suggest that improving gender equitable norms and
Elaine M. Maccio
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare attitudes of older versus younger lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT individuals regarding marriage equality. Data were collected via self-report questionnaires from 350 LGBT adults in a mid-size city in the southern United States. Older and younger LGBT cohorts did not differ significantly in voter registration, political party affiliation, awareness of LGBT political issues, or voting on social issues. Older LGBT adults were less likely to find same-sex marriage important. Yet, age cohorts did not differ significantly on legalizing same-sex marriage. Social work implications are discussed regarding this policy area.
Susan Archer Mann
Full Text Available This article first traces the history of unhappy marriages of disparate theoretical perspectives in US feminism. In recent decades, US third-wave authors have arranged their own unhappy marriage in that their major publications reflect an attempt to wed poststructuralism with intersectionality theory. Although the standpoint epistemology of intersectionality theory shares some common ground with the epistemology of poststructuralism, their epistemological assumptions conflict on a number of important dimensions. This contested terrain has generated serious debates within the third wave and between second- and thirdwave feminists. The form, content, and political implications of their "unhappy marriage" are the subject of this article.
Christiansen, Charlotte; Joensen, Juanne S.; Rangvid, Jesper
We investigate how changes in marital status affect financial investments and how these effects vary with background risk. We use detailed register-based panel data and difference-in-differences estimatiors to benchmark common unobserved influences on financial investments. Women increase...... the fraction of wealth invested in stocks after marriage and decrease it after divorce, whereas men show the opposite behavior. Households whose joint labor income risk is reduced more by marriage have a higher increase in their exposure to risky assets in marriage. Thus income risk sharing in the household...... is important for financial risk taking and investment responses to marital transitions...
Eeckhaut, Mieke C W; Lievens, John; Van de Putte, Bart; Lusyne, Patrick
This article compares divorce risks according to marriage type. The common dichotomy between ethnic homogamous and ethnic heterogamous marriages is further elaborated by differentiating a third marriage type; ethnic homogamous marriages between individuals from an ethnic minority group and a partner from the country of origin. Based on the analysis of data concerning the Turkish and Moroccan minorities in Belgium, it has been confirmed that the divorce risk associated with these marriages is higher than that of other ethnic homogamous marriages. However, specific divorce patterns according to marriage type also indicate the importance of differences between the minority groups.
It has long been argued that the legalization of same-sex marriage would have a negative impact on marriage. In this article, I examine how different-sex marriage in the Netherlands was affected by the enactment of two laws: a 1998 law that provided all couples with an institution almost identical to marriage (a "registered partnership") and a 2001 law that legalized same-sex marriage for the first time in the world. I first construct a synthetic control for the Netherlands using OECD data for the period 1988-2005 and find that neither law had significant effects on either the overall or different-sex marriage rate. I next construct a unique individual-level data set covering the period 1995-2005 by combining the Dutch Labor Force Survey and official municipal records. The estimates from a discrete-time hazard model with unobserved heterogeneity for the first-marriage decision confirm the findings in the aggregate analysis. The effects of the two laws are heterogeneous, with presumably more-liberal individuals (as defined by their residence or ethnicity) marrying less after passage of both laws and potentially more-conservative individuals marrying more after passage of each law.
Koops, Judith C.; Liefbroer, Aart C.; Gauthier, Anne H.
In the US, growing up with parents with a low socio-economic status (SES) has been shown to increase the chance of having a birth outside marriage. However, less is known about the influence of parental SES in other Western countries. The current paper examines the association between parental
Koops, Judith C.; Liefbroer, Aart C.; Gauthier, Anne H.
In the US, growing up with parents with a low socio-economic status (SES) has been shown to increase the chance of having a birth outside marriage. However, less is known about the influence of parental SES in other Western countries. The current paper examines the association between parental
MacDorman, Marian F; Declercq, Eugene; Mathews, T J
After a gradual decline from 1990 to 2004, the percentage of births occurring at home increased from 2004 to 2008 in the United States. The objective of this report was to examine the recent increase in home births and the factors associated with this increase from 2004 to 2008. United States birth certificate data on home births were analyzed by maternal demographic and medical characteristics. In 2008, there were 28,357 home births in the United States. From 2004 to 2008, the percentage of births occurring at home increased by 20 percent from 0.56 percent to 0.67 percent of United States births. This rise was largely driven by a 28 percent increase in the percentage of home births for non-Hispanic white women, for whom more than 1 percent of births occur at home. At the same time, the risk profile for home births has been lowered, with substantial drops in the percentage of home births of infants who are born preterm or at low birthweight, and declines in the percentage of home births that occur to teen and unmarried mothers. Twenty-seven states had statistically significant increases in the percentage of home births from 2004 to 2008; only four states had declines. The 20 percent increase in United States home births from 2004 to 2008 is a notable development that will be of interest to practitioners and policymakers. (BIRTH 38:3 September 2011). © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Rana, Md Juel; Goli, Srinivas
The prevalence of child undernutrition in South Asia is high, as is also the unmet need for family planning. In previous literature, the biodemographic relationship of family planning, particularly birth order and birth spacing, and nutritional status of children have been assessed separately. The aim of this study was to work on the hypothesis that the planning of births comprising timing, spacing, and number of births improves child undernutrition, especially in the areas with high prevalence of stunting and underweight. We used recent Demographic and Health Survey data from four selected South Asian countries. Binary logistic regression models were applied to estimate the adjusted percentage of stunting and underweight by identified independent factors. Findings suggested that after controlling for other socioeconomic factors, children in the first birth order with >24 mo of interval between marriage and first birth have a lower risk for stunting (20%; p planning of births. The probability of child undernutrition is lower among children born with >24 mo of birth spacing than its counterpart in all birth orders, but the significance of birth spacing reduces with increasing birth orders. Appropriate planning of births using family planning methods in countries with high birth rates has the potential to reduce childhood undernutrition. Thus, the planning of births emerges as an important biodemographic approach to eradicate childhood undernutrition especially in developing regions like South Asia and thereby to achieve sustainable development goals by 2030. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available ISO 14001 prescribes the requirements for a system, not environmental performance itself. Similarly, certification is of the management system itself, not environmental performance. An audit is not conducted to ascertain whether your flue gas emissions are less than X part per million nitrous oxide or that your wastewater effluent contains less that Y milligrams of bacteria per litre. Consequently, the procces of auditing the system for compliance to the standard entails checking to see that all of the necessary components of a functioning system are present and working properly. A company can have a complete and fully functional EMS as prescribed by ISO 14001 without being certified. As certification can add to the time and expense of EMS development, it is important for you to establish, in advance, whether certification is of net benefit to you. Although most companies that develop an EMS do in fact certify, there are cases where certification does not add immediate value. Certification is not always beneficial to small and medium sized companies. Certification is not always necessary for companies with one or two large clients with environmental demands who are satisfied that you have a functional EMS (second-party declaration. Whatever decision you make, it is important to remember that just as a driver′s licence does not automatically make you a good driver, ISO 14001 certification does not automatically make your company environmentally benign or ensure that you will continually improve environmental performance. The system is only as good as the people who operate it.
In all times marriage institution was, still is and will be one of the most important social and legal norms. Description of the marriage institution was changed in the course of history, depending on this time culture, relationship of the Church and the State and general outlook of the society. Marriage is very important part of family creation. It is a legal family base and condition for marriage legalization. For marriage legal registration, it must satisfy requirements, which are set ...
Olsen, O.; Clausen, J.A.
Observational studies of increasingly better quality and in different settings suggest that planned home birth in many places can be as safe as planned hospital birth and with less intervention and fewer complications. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1998....
Turp, Ahmet Berkiz; Guler, Ismail; Bozkurt, Nuray; Uysal, Aysel; Yilmaz, Bulent; Demir, Mustafa; Karabacak, Onur
Mankind has been expressing the breeding topic for thousands of years. Reproduction is the primary instinct of human beings and it is a social, cultural, medical issue. Demographic infertility is one of them, which is defined infertility as the inability to become pregnant with a live birth, within five years of regular sexual contact based upon a consistent union status in marriage maintaining a desire for a child with the lack of contraceptive use and non-lactating. A first mentions about infertility and surrogacy is discovered on a 4000-year-old clay tablet of marriage contract belonging to the Assyrian period exhibited at Istanbul Archeology Museum in Turkey. In conclusion, there are many different ways to solve infertility problems like surrogacy as mentioned even 4000 years ago in this Assyrian clay tablet of marriage contract as the first time in the literature. Medical treatments in relation to human infertility will continue to be the focus of social and cultural debates. Hence, more legislation and regulation will come in many countries to control the unauthorized exploitation of the patient.
Lema, Valentino M
Unconsummated marriage is a condition where newly married couples are unable to achieve penile-vaginal intercourse for variable periods despite desire and several attempts to do so. Its exact cause(s) is/are unknown, but performance anxiety resulting from or leading to other conditions is reportedly the major etiological factor. It is thought to be more prevalent in traditional and conservative religious communities where premarital sexual exposure is strictly prohibited. Most publications on unconsummated marriage have originated from North America, European and Middle Eastern countries. There have not been any such reports from sub-Saharan Africa, which is home to diverse cultures and traditions regarding premarital sex and marriage. This paper presents a sample of four cases with unconsummated marriage managed by the author in his private clinic based in the city of Nairobi Kenya, over the past five years. Possible etiological factors and management approaches are discussed, with a review of relevant literature.
A comparative study of child marriage and parenthood in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Zambia ... By taking an approach that emphasizes life course poverty and gender ... Goal #5, Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.
To further put the woman in position of gender inequality, the man weaves such superstitious .... She is childless. As a highly revered institution in traditional Africa, the purpose for marriage ... view of African female image in our literature.
Child marriage among girls is most common in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, ... Pervasive violence, extreme poverty and absence of basic services in urban ... Kidnapping, land grabbing, extortion, sexual harassment and assault, often ...
Shaw, Martha C; Forbush, Kelsie T; Schlinder, Jessica; Rosenman, Eugene; Black, Donald W
Pathological gambling (PG) is widely reported to have negative consequences on marriages, families, and children. Empirical evidence is only now accumulating but when put together with anecdotal information, the extent of these problems is clear. PG contributes to chaos and dysfunction within the family unit, disrupts marriages, leading to high rates of separation and divorce, and is associated with child abuse and neglect. Divorce rates are high, not surprising in light of reports that these marriages are often abusive. Research shows that the families of pathological gamblers are filled with members who gamble excessively, suffer from depressive or anxiety disorders, and misuse alcohol, drugs, or both. Families of persons with PG are also large, a variable independently related to family dysfunction. The authors review the evidence on the impact of PG on families, marriages, and offspring, and make recommendations for future research targeting these problems.
Mugweni, Esther; Pearson, Stephen; Omar, Mayeh
Little is known on how forced sex contributes to the sexual transmission of HIV in marriage. This paper describes traditional gender norms surrounding forced sex in Zimbabwean marriage. Data were collected from 4 focus group discussions and 36 in-depth interviews with married women and men in Harare. Results indicate that hegemonic masculinity characterised by a perceived entitlement to sex, male dominance and being a provider contributed to forced sex in marriage. A femininity characterised by a tolerance of marital rape, the desire to please the husband and submission contributed to women experiencing forced sex. An alternative femininity characterised by sexual pleasure-seeking contributed to women forcing their spouses to have sex. Future HIV interventions must go beyond narrowly advocating for safer sex within marriage and instead address practices that increase risk as well as promote positive marital relationship needs such as mutual respect, love and friendship.
Sopa Village in Chushur County of Lhasa Municipality is the only village in Tibet with a fishing business.The unique culture of this village includes ancient traditional customs.One in particular is a strange marriage custom.
Hill, Charles T.; And Others
Factors that predicted breakups before marriage, investigated as part of a two-year study of dating relationships among college students include unequal involvement in the relationship and discrepant age, educational aspirations, intelligence, and physical attractiveness. (Author/AM)
Full Text Available Using register-based data on Finnish first marriages that were intact at the end of 1990 (about 2.1 million marriage-years and followed up for divorce in 1991-1993 (n = 21,204, this research explored the possibility that the effect of spouses' socioeconomic position on divorce risk varies according to duration of marriage. The comparatively high divorce risks for spouses with little formal education and for spouses in manual worker occupations were found to be specific to marriages of relatively short duration. In contrast, such factors as unemployment, wife's high income, and living in a rented dwelling were found to increase divorce risk at all marital durations.
Full Text Available Notably, in 2013, Maryland, Rhode Island, Delaware, and Minnesota became the 10th, 11th, 12th, and 13th states, respectively, to legalize same-gender marriage. Without legal recognition or social support from the larger society, the majority of same-gender partnerships in the U.S. are denied privileges and rights that are considered basic for heterosexual marriages. This manuscript draws from a national cross section of published survey data from 1996 to 2013 reporting Americans’ attitudes regarding same-gender marriage and civil unions. Social work practitioners have broad opportunity to apply their skills to the critical needs facing same-gender partners. After an overview of the legal status of same-gender marriages and their accompanying social and policy issues, recommendations are provided that include identification of specific needs for premarital counseling of same-gender partners and ensuring sensitivity to the myriad challenges they face.
Using a regional measure of gender norms from the General Social Surveys together with marital histories from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, this study explored how gender norms were associated with women's marriage dynamics between 1968 and 2012. Results suggested that a higher prevalence of egalitarian gender norms predicted a decline in marriage formation. This decline was, however, only true for women without a college degree. For college-educated women, the association between gender norms and marriage formation became positive when gender egalitarianism prevailed. The findings also revealed an inverted U-shaped relationship between gender norms and divorce: an initial increase in divorce was observed when gender norms were predominantly traditional. The association, however, reversed as gender norms became egalitarian. No differences by education were found for divorce. The findings partially support the gender revolution framework but also highlight greater barriers to marriage for low-educated women as societies embrace gender equality.
Recent debates on same-sex marriage mark the institution, practice, and concept of marriage as a significant site of power and resistance within American culture. Adopting Michel Foucault's conception of "discipline," this essay examines how marriage discourse reinforces heteronormative power relations through its rhetorical constitution of gay male identity. Supplementing "ideographic" critique with Judith Butler's theory of performative speech acts enables us to better interrogate and resist these operations of power. This essay maps the contemporary scene of heteronormative power and resistance through two rhetorical performances of gay male identity. The marriage debates, in the first instance, demonstrate how a conventional desire for masculine agency influences the heteronormative production of gay male identity. In the second instance, gay male SM [sadomasochism] performs a concept of "relational agency," which potentially resists heteronormativity.
Detailed background data on marriage and family / religion and occupation / satisfaction with job / household and mutual friends / perceptions of partner / personal worries / relationships with mutual friends / self description / personal problems / opinions on financial matters / socio-cultural and
Mar 21, 2016 ... practices of the Tongu Mafi people of Ghana reveals that marriage rites and ... religious values and practices with the larger Ewe community. However, the ...... cooking responsibilities. ... of 'dirty money' and source of wealth.
Alessandra Alves Macedo
Full Text Available The choice of the partner in adult life is considered one of the only choices that is made with freedom, however, loaded with social, personal, family expectations and also motivated by subjective aspects (ANTON, 2002. This paper seeks to describe how in the process of choosing the spouse, family aspects are directly or indirectly involved. A semi-structured interview was conducted to seven women in their first year of marriage. Data were analyzed according to Content Analysis. Three categories were chosen: Family of Origin; Marriage; and Religion. The participants have a vision of how their choice was made, with free choice, yet they were influenced by the beliefs and values of the families of origin. In their first year of marriage, they demonstrate good experience in marriage, and have built a relationship based on dialogues, despite the "sayings and no sayings" of the family of origin and society.
Bloome, Deirdre; Muller, Christopher
The pervasiveness of tenancy in the postbellum South had countervailing effects on marriage between African Americans. Tenancy placed severe constraints on African American women's ability to find independent agricultural work. Freedwomen confronted not only planters' reluctance to contract directly with women but also whites' refusal to sell land to African Americans. Marriage consequently became one of African American women's few viable routes into the agricultural labor market. We find that the more counties relied on tenant farming, the more common was marriage among their youngest and oldest African American residents. However, many freedwomen resented their subordinate status within tenant marriages. Thus, we find that tenancy contributed to union dissolution as well as union formation among freedpeople. Microdata tracing individuals' marital transitions are consistent with these county-level results.
Gaspart, Frederic; Platteau, Jean-Philippe
This article proposes an original theory of marriage payments based on insights gained from firsthand information collected in the Senegal River valley. This theory postulates that decisions about the bride-price, which are made by the bride's father, take into account the likely effects of the amount set on the risk of ill-treatment of the wife and the risk of marriage failure. Based on a sequential game with three players (the bride's father, the husband, and the wife) and a matching process, it leads to a number of important predictions that are tested against Senegalese data relating to bride-prices and various characteristics of women. The empirical results confirm that parents behave strategically by keeping bride-prices down so as to reduce the risk of marriage failure for their daughters. Other interesting effects on marriage payments and the probability of separation are also highlighted, stressing the role of the bride's bargaining power in her own family.
dimensional approach and narrative exposure therapy used in this case. Methods: This study would report a case of unconsummated marriage between a couple after 6 years. The main problem of this couple was vaginismus ...
Norton, A J; Miller, L F
Recent trends in marriage, divorce and redivorce, and remarriage were gleaned from cohort data from the US Supplement to the Current Population Survey, 1990, on the frequency of women entering and exiting a verity of marital statuses. Marriage patterns are described also in terms of their interrelationship with educational attainment, fertility history, age, race and Hispanic origin, age at marital event, and duration in marital status. the effects of marriage patterns on children are also considered. Future trends are anticipated along with their impact on families. The trend has been toward a significant number of adults and children living in one-parent families. This situation is also usually one of poverty and social deprivation. The time spent by children in one-parent families is estimated at almost 50%. There are 14 detailed tables to supplement the text. The appended tables and discussion provide background information on the accuracy of estimates. The increasing trend of divorce has meant that between the 1960s and 1980 the divorce rate doubled and reached the point where 1 out of 2 marriages was expected to end in divorce. During the 1980s, the rate remained the same, and first marriage and remarriage declined. Declines may be due to delay in marriage or to more people never marrying. Between 1975 and 1990, the percent of women ever married declined for all age groups; for women 20-24 years old the decline was from 63 to 38%. Marriage patterns were different for Blacks and Whites, but both experienced declines in first marriage. Black women will marry later than White women and will include a greater proportion who will never marry. Hispanic patterns were similar those of Whites. The slight drop in the percent divorcing after a first marriage between 1985 and 1990 showed less divorce for the younger age groups and more for the older age groups. 4 of 10 marriages involve a second or higher order marriage for 1 or both partners. The percent remarrying
Alexander, G R; Tompkins, M E; Allen, M C; Hulsey, T C
In the past two decades, infant mortality rates in the United States declined in African-American and White populations. Despite this, racial disparities in infant mortality rates have increased and rates of low birth weight deliveries have shown little change. In this study, we examine temporal changes in birth weight distributions, birth weight specific neonatal mortality, and the birth weight threshold for an adverse risk of survival within both racial groups in order to explore the mechanisms for the disparities in infant mortality rates. Single live births born to South Carolina resident mothers between 1975 and 1994 and considered White or African-American based on the mother's report of maternal race on the birth certificate were selected for investigation. We define the birth weight threshold for adverse survival odds as the birth weight at which 50% or more of infants in the population died within the first month of life. Despite significant increases in very low birth weight percentages, neonatal mortality rates markedly declined. Birth weight specific neonatal mortality decreased for both races, although greater reductions accrued to White low birth weight infants. By the end of the study period, the birth weight at which over 50% of newborns died within the first month of life was 696 g for Whites and 673 g for African-Americans. The ongoing decline in neonatal mortality is mainly due to reductions in birth weight specific neonatal mortality, probably related to high-risk obstetric and neonatal care. Technological developments in these areas may have differentially benefited Whites, resulting in an increasing racial disparity in mortality rates. Moreover, the relatively greater and increasing mortality risk from postmaturity and macrosomia in infants of African-America mothers may further exacerbate the racial gap in infant mortality.
Yogita P Pandya
Full Text Available Context: India has the maximum number of child marriages (CMs; < 18 years because of the size of its population, and in 47% of all marriages the bride is a child. Children who are married at young age are exposed to multiple risks pertaining to their physical, mental, and social health. Aims: (i To estimate the prevalence of CM in rural population. (ii To study the determinants and health effects of CM. (iii To assess the awareness among the married women regarding the health implications of CM. Settings and Design: Community-based cross-sectional study conducted in Ardi village of Anand district. Materials and Methods: All the married women of the village were surveyed to find out the prevalence of CM. For collection of other relevant information, only those women having a married life of less than 10years were interviewed using semicoded and pretested questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 17.0 software. Statistical Analysis Used: Proportions, ratios, χ2 test, and Fisher′s exact test. Results: The prevalence of CM was found to be 71.5%. Caste and spouse′s education were revealed as important determinants for CM. CM was found to be significantly associated with mother′s age at birth of first child, delayed antenatal care (ANC, spontaneous abortion, preterm delivery, low birth weight (LBW, health problems in new born baby, faulty feeding practices, lack of knowledge regarding family welfare methods, and health implications of CM. Conclusion: Exceptionally high prevalence of CM in rural community and its serious health consequences warrant stricter enforcement of legislation, better educational opportunities for girls, and easy access to quality health services.
Nath, D C; Land, K C; Goswami, G
The status of women, which is relative and multidimensional, has an important bearing on any long-term reduction in fertility. In Indian society, where cohabitation and childbearing are socially sanctioned only after marriage, the length of the first-birth interval affects the completed family size by influencing the spacing and childbearing pattern of a family. This study examines the influence of certain aspects of the status of married women--education, employment, role in family decision making, and age at marriage--along with three socioeconomic variables--per capita income of the family, social position of the household, and the caste system--on the duration of the first-birth interval in an urban Hindu society of the north-east Indian state of Assam. The data were analysed by applying life table and hazard regression techniques. The results indicate that a female's age at marriage, education, current age, role in decision making, and the per capita income of the household are the main covariates that strongly influence the length of the first-birth interval of Hindu females of urban Assam. Of all the covariates studied, a female's education appears to be a key mediating factor, through its influence on her probability of employment outside the home and thereby an earned income and on her role in family decision making. Unlike other Indian communities, the effect of the caste system does not have a significant effect on first-birth timing in this urban Hindu society.
Full Text Available This paper describes contemporary changes in marriage, relationships and family in European populations, and then their evolution from the last decade of the twentieth century till present day, as well as various forms and types, in which plurality of contemporary partnership unions is revealed. The other goal of this supplement was to provide a wider theoretical-hypothetical, explanatory framework for understanding what is happening in population (on appearance level but now in the context of contemporary societies. Three variables are introduced: macro (paradigm of modernization, namely social, i.e. structural and cultural changes, micro (paradigm: resources-limitations-behavior and mezzo (differences in social and demographic development of countries of North, Western, South and Central and Eastern Europe (former socialistic countries in transition. Cautious predictions on what could be expected in future concerning: empirical documented differences of living arrangements of European populations of the West, but also of the East, as well as relative demographic consequences. On the macro level (paradigm structure/culture the responses depend on the rate the two main social processes will develop: 1 development of "European society", and 2 the birth of "world" (global society. Most of the authors conclude on the convergence of social and demographic development on the territory of Western, but not Eastern Europe (and especially the Balkans. This conclusion concerns even the countries of the South European region, considering that it is uncertain in which direction and speed will their integration into the European Union develop. With regards to the trend of decreasing fertility, a continuance of existing secular tendencies may be expected in future as well, even on the whole European territory, and that it will be supported by social changes of (post modernization, individualization and rational behavior, so that it will become a general model
Mohd Razif, Nurul Huda
This thesis illustrates how love, legality, money, sex(uality) and sin direct Malays’ marital strategies in the face of various social, moral, religious and structural pressures. Passionate love (cinta) is cherished and celebrated by Malays – that is, if it is indulged within marriage. Marriage serves as a license to engage in (otherwise illicit) sexual desires by rendering them “halal” or lawful in the eyes of Islam and Malay adat (traditions). A vigilant State-led Islamic Bureaucracy, which...
Meezan, William; Rauch, Jonathan
Same-sex marriage, barely on the political radar a decade ago, is a reality in America. How will it affect the well-being of children? Some observers worry that legalizing same-sex marriage would send the message that same-sex parenting and opposite-sex parenting are interchangeable, when in fact they may lead to different outcomes for children.…
Zeba A. Sathar; M. Framurz Kiani
Nuptiality changes have been at the core of demographic transitions in Europe and in several Asian societies [Caldwell (1993)]. Delayed marriages have been seen as precursors of fertility change in most societies. They underlie changes in family formation patterns and living arrangements, which ultimately are the bases of demographic transition. The concomitants of profound changes in marriage behaviour are worth studying because of their impact on demographic outcomes such as the population ...
This paper describes two parallel algorithms for the stable marriage problem implemented on a MIMD parallel computer. The algorithms are tested against sequential algorithms on randomly generated and worst-case instances. The results clearly show that the combination fo a very simple problem...... and a commercial MIMD system results in parallel algorithms which are not competitive with sequential algorithms wrt. practical performance. 1 Introduction In 1962 the Stable Marriage Problem was....
James P. Smith; Duncan Thomas
Migration choices of husbands and wives in a dynamic and developing country are studied in the context of an economic model of the household. Data are drawn from the second wave of the Malaysia Family Life Survey. Elxploiting the retrospective histories, we compare moves that take place before marriage with those made during the marriage; among the latter, moves that are made with the spouse are distinguished from those made alone. The evidence indicates that male mobility is primarily econom...
Finigan, Valerie; Chadderton, Diane
The birth of a baby is a family experience. However, in the United Kingdom birth often occurs outside the family environment, in hospital. Both home and hospital births have risks and benefits, but research shows that, for most women, it is as safe to give birth at home as it is in hospital. Women report home-birth to be satisfying with lowered risks of intervention and less likelihood of being separated from their family. It is also more cost effective for the National Health Service. Yet, whilst midwives are working hard to promote home birth as an option, it remains controversial. The aim of this paper is to raise awareness of the safety of home birth and the needs of women and midwives when a home birth is chosen. It provides an overview of care required and the role of the midwife in the ensuring care is woman-centred and personalised.
... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Preterm Labor and Birth In general, a normal human pregnancy lasts about ... is called preterm labor (or premature labor). A birth that occurs before 37 weeks is considered a ...
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Liang, Fu-Wen; Chou, Hung-Chieh; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chen, Li-Hua; Wu, Mei-Hwan; Lue, Hung-Chi; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh
A yearly increase in the proportion of very low birth weight (VLBW) live births has resulted in the slowdown of decreasing trends in crude infant mortality rates (IMRs). In this study, we examined the trends in birth weight-specific as well as birth weight-adjusted IMRs in Taiwan. We linked three nationwide datasets, namely the National Birth Reporting Database, National Birth Certification Registry, and National Death Certification Registry databases, to calculate the IMRs according to the birth weight category. Trend tests and mortality rate ratios in the periods 2010-2011 and 2004-2005 were used to examine the extent of reduction in birth weight-specific and birth weight-adjusted IMRs. The proportion of VLBW (births increased from 0.78% in 2004-2005 to 0.89% in 2010-2011, thus exhibiting a 15% increase. The extents of the decreases in birth weight-specific IMRs in the 500-999, 1000-1499, 1500-1999, 2000-2499, and 2500-2999 g birth weight categories were 15%, 33%, 43%, 30%, and 28%, respectively, from 2004-2005 to 2010-2011. The reduction in IMR in each birth weight category was larger than the reduction in the crude IMR (13%). By contrast, the IMR in the birth weight category exhibited a 56% increase during the study period. The IMRs were calculated by excluding all live births with a birth weight of birth weight-adjusted IMRs, which were calculated using a standard birth weight distribution structure for adjustment, exhibited similar extent reductions. In countries with an increasing proportion of VLBW live births, birth weight-specific or -adjusted IMRs are more appropriate than other indices for accurately assessing the real extent of reduction in IMRs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Saadat, Mostafa; Tajbakhsh, Khadijeh
The prevalence of consanguinity in eight provinces of Afghanistan has recently been reported by Saify & Saadat (2012). The present cross-sectional study was done in order to illustrate the prevalence and types of consanguineous marriages among other populations of Afghanistan. Data on types of marriages were collected using a simple questionnaire. The total number of couples in this study was 5200 from the following provinces: Farah, Ghazni, Herat, Hilmand, Kabul, Kandahar, Logar, Parwan and Wardak. Consanguineous marriages were classified by the degree of relationship between couples: double first cousins, first cousins, first cousins once removed, second cousins and beyond second cousins. The coefficient of inbreeding (F) was calculated for each couple and the mean coefficient of inbreeding (α) estimated for each population. The α in the country was 0.0226, ranging from 0.0203 in Farah province to 0.0246 in Herat province. There were significant differences between provinces for frequencies of different types of marriages (pconsanguineous marriages, followed by second cousins (16.0%), first cousins once removed (14.0%), beyond second cousins (6.9%) and double first cousins (1.6%). There was significant difference between ethnic groups for the types of marriages (pconsanguinity among ethnic groups in Afghanistan, respectively. The present study shows that the Afghani populations, the same as other Islamic populations, have high levels of consanguinity.
Full Text Available Background: Unconsummated marriage is considered to be one of the complicated sexual issues that lead to multiple complications and problems for couples as well as the society. It is thought that this disorder is more common in traditional cultures and some religions such as Islam, Hinduism, and Judaism. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between women's body image and unconsummated marriage. Materials and Methods: This was a case-control study which was conducted among 50 women who had an unconsummated marriage (case group and 100 women who had a consummated marriage (control group in Isfahan, Iran during 2015–2016. Data were collected using the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical tests. Results: The total score of body image and all its components had no significant difference between both the groups of the case and the control (P > 0.05. Conclusions: Considering that no relation was found between body image and unconsummated marriage and the religious culture of the Iranian society with conservative sexual norms, investigating unconsummated marriage with emphasis on cultural factors is recommended. Hence, such sexual disorders would be avoided and the number of affected people and challenges can be decreased.
Full Text Available Like many former colonies, South Africa has a plural system of family law which has historically recognized the polygynous marriages practiced by the indigenous African inhabitants of the country. However, recognition of these marriages by way of legal pluralism does not afford them equal status with the monogamous Judaeo-Christian marriage imported by European colonisers, nor does it ensure gender equality within families. Instead, the interaction between the colonial and apartheid socio-economic oppression of black people on the one hand, and legal pluralism on the other hand, produces a highly complex family law system, accurately described as ‘a patchwork of patriarchies.’ This paper argues that a far more radical transformation of family law, and one which is more likely to enhance gender equality, would be to move away from conjugality, or a sexual bond, as the basis of marriage and family law. The aim of this shift would be legal rules which recognize those relationships of kinship which have been central to African family practices and which have assisted many families to weather the multiple forms of colonial and white domination. A move away from conjugality as the primary basis of family law would also acknowledge the ever decreasing incidence of marriage and nuclear families, which characterizes contemporary South African society and would place the focus of legal regulation on the protection of socially valuable relationships, rather than the protection of marriage as an institution. Al igual que otras antiguas colonias, Sudáfrica tiene un sistema de derecho de familia plural, que ha reconocido históricamente los matrimonios en poliginia practicados por personas indígenas africanas. Sin embargo, el reconocimiento de estos matrimonios mediante pluralismo jurídico no les garantiza el mismo estatus que el matrimonio monogámico judeocristiano, ni garantiza la igualdad de género dentro de las familias. Al contrario, la
Poorolajal, Jalal; Ameri, Pegah; Soltanian, Alireza; Bahrami, Masoud
Consanguinity (when couples share at least one common ancestor) is a public health issue with a variety of distributions and incidence rates worldwide. Several epidemiological studies have explored the association between consanguinity and low birth weight (LBW). However, the results are inconsistent. This meta-analysis aimed to explore the overall association between consanguineous marriage and LBW. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and reference lists of articles up to May 2015. We included cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies addressing the association between consanguinity and LBW. We assessed heterogeneity using Q-test and I2 statistic. We explored publication bias using the Egger's and Begg's tests and the funnel plot. We meta-analyzed the data and reported the overall odds ratio (OR) and mean difference with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using the random-effects model. We included 24 out of 3941 retrieved studies, with 44,131 participants. We indicated that LBW was associated significantly with first-cousin marriages (OR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.69) and non-significantly with second-cousin marriages (OR = 1.20; 95% CI: 0.49, 1.91). Furthermore, first-cousin marriages can reduce the birth weight of siblings of consanguineous couples 144 g more compared to non-consanguineous marriages. This meta-analysis measured the association between consanguinity and LBW. Based on the current evidence, consanguineous marriage can increase the risk for LBW. However, further evidence based on large cohort studies conducted in different settings is required to make a robust conclusion regarding the effect of consanguinity on LBW.
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Defects KidsHealth / For Parents / Birth Defects What's in ... Prevented? Print en español Anomalías congénitas What Are Birth Defects? While still in the womb, some babies ...
Møller, Renate Skovgaard; Rhodes, Michael K.; Larsen, Tine Steen
for sustainable buildings. The literature describes several barriers of entry preventing actors in the industry from seeking sustainability certifications and prioritizing design methods, supporting sustainability in greater numbers. In the newly developed tool, “DGNB building certification companion: Sustainable......-language, easily digestible summaries of various topics regarding sustainability and the DGNB certification scheme. The identified barriers are described in the tool followed by a solution to overcome them. The tool, tested at multiple stages of development and moulded by many individuals both within and outside...... was that this is a desired product on the market. This new approach is expected to dramatically reduce misunderstandings, conflicts, and mistakes during a sustainable design process, helping the design team plan a project to possibly obtain the highest DGNB score if desired and properly documented....
Møller, Renate Skovgaard; Rhodes, Michael K.; Larsen, Tine Steen
for sustainable buildings. The literature describes several barriers of entry preventing actors in the industry from seeking sustainability certifications and prioritizing design methods, supporting sustainability in greater numbers. In the newly developed tool, “DGNB building certification companion: Sustainable......-language, easily digestible summaries of various topics regarding sustainability and the DGNB certification scheme. The identified barriers are described in the tool followed by a solution to overcome them. The tool, tested at multiple stages of development and moulded by many individuals both within and outside...... was that this is a desired product on the market. This new approach is expected to dramatically reduce misunderstandings, conflicts, and mistakes during a sustainable design process, helping the design team plan a project to possibly obtain the highest DGNB score if desired and properly documented....
Tomei, Julia; Semino, Stella Maris; Paul, Helena
With the rising emphasis on biofuels as a potential solution to climate change, this paper asks whether certification schemes, developed to promote sustainable feedstock production, are able to deliver genuine sustainability benefits. The Round Table on Responsible Soy (RTRS) is a certification...... the social and environmental impacts of soybean production can be mitigated by the RTRS. It concludes that at present certification schemes are unlikely to be able to address either the institutional challenges associated with their implementation or the detrimental impacts of the additional demand generated...... scheme that aims to promote responsible soy production through the development of principles and criteria. However, can and does this initiative address the negative impacts associated with the intensive production of soy? Taking the example of soy biodiesel produced in Argentina, this paper asks whether...
Full Text Available AIM: In the study, it is aimed to evaluate postpartum care services and the delivery characteristics of the women who gave birth in Burdur in 2009. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the study, the data is used about \\\\\\"Birth and Postpartum Care\\\\\\" of the research \\\\\\" Birth, Postpartum Care Services, and Nutritional Status of Children of the women who are giving birth in Burdur in 2009 \\\\\\". The population of the planned cross-sectional study are women who gave birth in Burdur in 2009. For the determination of the population, a list of women who gave birth in 2009 were used which was requested from family physicians. The reported number of women was 2318. The sample size representing the population to be reached was calculated as 1179. The data were collected using face-to-face interviews and were analyzed using SPSS package program. RESULTS: The mean age of the women was 27.1 (± 5.5 with an average size of households 4.3 (± 1.2. 22.1% of the women live with large families and 64.4% live in the village. 8.0% of the women were relatives with their husbands, 52.8% have arranged marriage and 1.3% have no official marriage. 1 in every 4 women is housewive, 1.8% have no formal education, 76.4% have no available social and 7.1% have no available health insurance. The average number of pregnancies of women is 2.1 (± 1.2 and number of children is 1.8 (± 0.8. Spontaneous abortion, induced abortion, stillbirth and death rate of children under 5 years of age are respectively 16.4%, 6.6%, 2.7%, 3.4%. 99.8% of the women have given birth in hospital, % 67.3 had medical supervision, 62.8% had cesarean birth. The average days of hospital stay after birth is 1.9 (± 3.1. 4.8% of the women after being discharged from the hospital have not received Postpartum Care (DSB. Of the women who have received DSB service, 2.2% had taken this service at home by family physician / family health stuff, 33.9% by obstetrician in practice. 92.2% of the women 1 time, 15
This essay examines how marriage relationships came to be constituted as therapeutic objects after WWII and the impact that this had on British postwar understandings of the meaning of marriage. In contrast to prevailing concerns during the interwar decades about sexual dissatisfaction as the chief impediment to marital stability, post-WWII marriage counselors and therapists framed marital harmony as dependent upon spouses' psychological maturity. An inability to sustain a stable marriage was interpreted as a sign of arrested development, most often stemming from a dysfunctional relationship with one or both parents in childhood. This essay reveals that the equal-but-different gender roles that were the cornerstone of the modern "companionate" marriage were crucial to marital counselors and therapists' psychological understanding of marriage as an interpersonal relationship during the decades following WWII. Practitioners gauged therapeutic success not only in accordance with whether or not couples stayed married, but also in terms of the extent to which spouses enthusiastically accepted the adult masculine and feminine spousal roles that the male-breadwinning nuclear family required. Moreover, therapists' valuing of the emotional dimensions of marriage made "natural" feminine attributes-such as a presumed ease in establishing loving relationships-a centrally valued aspect of therapeutic work and intimate life more broadly. Far from having a potentially disruptive impact on the presumed naturalness of gender difference (which had been a focus of criticism of psychoanalysis during the interwar decades), the psychoanalytic techniques that were developed to treat marriage problems after WWII were profoundly normalizing. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Ginther, Donna; Zavodny, Madeline
In standard cross-sectional wage regressions, married men appear to earn 10 to 20 percent more than comparable never-married men. One proposed explanation for this male marriage premium is that men may be selected into marriage on the basis of characteristics valued by employers as well as by spouses or because they earn high wages. This paper examines the selection hypothesis using a "natural experiment" that may make marital status uncorrelated with earnings ability for some men. We compare...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Preterm birth is a process that has social and economical consequences which increase morbidity and mortality of infant and newborn. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence of spontaneous preterm birth and related factors. METHODS: This descriptive study was conducted in Faruk Sükan maternity and child hospital in Konya province. The universe was composed of the women who apply to hospital for delivery. The three hundred women who had vaginal delivery between February 15 and March 31, 2007 were included in study as using non-randomly sampling method. A questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were collected by a researcher with face to face interview during postpartum 24 hours in hospital. Percentage and mean distribution and student t and chi-square test were used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: Of women, 79.3 % were illiterate and primary school graduated. The prevalence of preterm birth in study group was 17.3 %. In study group who experiencing preterm birth, 51.9 % of the women were reported that they had premature rupture of membranes and 48.1 % had early uterine contraction. It was determined a relationship between preterm birth and age, length of marriage, number of delivery, weight of the last child, history of preterm birth of women and her mother, history of bleeding during pregnancy, having problem with husband’s family, vaginal douching during pregnancy, smoking during pregnancy, multiple pregnancy, hypertension during preganacy. CONCLUSIONS: Preterm birth is an important health problem for mothers and newborns. It becomes important the frequency and quality of preterm follow-up in terms of early diagnosis and early intervention of preterm birth. It seems important that health professionals should be aware of symptoms of preterm birth, making the pregnant women be aware of this symtoms to solve the problem.
Heck, P.M.; Klabbers, M.D.; van Eekelen, Marko
Certification of software artifacts offers organizations more certainty and confidence about software. Certification of software helps software sales, acquisition, and can be used to certify legislative compliance or to achieve acceptable deliverables in outsourcing. In this article, we present a
Luzia Aurelia Castañeda
Full Text Available Analisaremos algumas estratégias eugênicas para melhoramento da raça baseadas no controle de matrimônios. Para tanto, vamos buscar no contexto da Inglaterra vitoriana a preocupação com o casamento; tanto na obra de Thomas Malthus, quando interessado no crescimento populacional, como na de Francis Galton, quando propõe a eugenia como uma ciência do melhoramento das qualidades inatas da raça. Discutiremos também como tal medida de controle de matrimônios se deu no movimento eugênico brasileiro e sua influência na elaboração do Código Civil.This analysis of some eugenic strategies for "improving the race" through the control of marriages explores Victorian England's concern with matrimony as expressed in the works of Thomas Malthus, who was interested in population growth, and of Francis Galton, who proposed that eugenics be used as a science to "improve" the innate qualities of the race. The article also discusses how this matrimonial means of control was expressed within the Brazilian eugenics movement and how it influenced the drafting of the Brazilian Civil Code.
Bajura, R.A.; Webb, H.A.
This paper reports on developing gas turbine systems that can use coal or a coal-based fuel ensures that the United States will have cost-effective environmentally sound options for supplying future power generation needs. Power generation systems that marry coal or a coal-based fuel to a gas turbine? Some matchmakers would consider this an unlikely marriage. Historically, most gas turbines have been operated only on premium fuels, primarily natural gas or distillate oil. The perceived problems from using coal or coal-based fuels in turbines are: Erosion and deposition: Coal ash particles in the hot combustion gases passing through the expander turbine could erode or deposit on the turbine blades. Corrosion: Coal combustion will release alkali compounds form the coal ash. Alkali in the hot gases passing through the expander turbine can cause corrosion of high-temperature metallic surfaces. Emissions: coal contains higher levels of ash, fuel-bound sulfur and nitrogen compounds, and trace contaminants than premium fuels. Meeting stringent environmental regulations for particulates, sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), and trace contaminants will be difficult. Economics: Coal-based systems are expensive to build. The difference in price between coal and premium fuels must be large enough to justify the higher capital cost
Mazharul Islam, M
Although consanguinity is widely practiced in Oman, the attitude of community towards consanguinity and the awareness of its health consequences to offspring remain largely unexplored. To analyse the levels and trends of consanguineous marriage and examine community awareness about congenital anomaly associated with consanguinity and attitude towards consanguinity in Oman. The data come from a nationally representative survey on Omani adults of age 18 years and above, irrespective of their marital status. Data were analysed using both descriptive and multivariate statistical techniques. The survey results indicate a very high rate (49%) of consanguineous marriage in Oman. There is a declining trend in consanguinity which may be attributed to decline in first cousin marriage. Omani adults have moderately high knowledge (69%) about health consequences of consanguineous marriage. There is a high positive attitude towards consanguineous marriage (75%) which appeared as a significant predictor of current practice of consanguineous marriage in Oman. The positive attitude of the Omani community towards consanguinity outweighs the negative health consequences of consanguinity, and the practice is likely to remain high in the near future. Strong educational and motivational programmes are needed to bring further changes in attitude towards consanguinity and, thus, reduce the burden of congenital anomalies associated with consanguinity in Oman.
Meezan, William; Rauch, Jonathan
Same-sex marriage, barely on the political radar a decade ago, is a reality in America. How will it affect the well-being of children? Some observers worry that legalizing same-sex marriage would send the message that same-sex parenting and opposite-sex parenting are interchangeable, when in fact they may lead to different outcomes for children. To evaluate that concern, William Meezan and Jonathan Rauch review the growing body of research on how same-sex parenting affects children. After considering the methodological problems inherent in studying small, hard-to-locate populations--problems that have bedeviled this literature-the authors find that the children who have been studied are doing about as well as children normally do. What the research does not yet show is whether the children studied are typical of the general population of children raised by gay and lesbian couples. A second important question is how same-sex marriage might affect children who are already being raised by same-sex couples. Meezan and Rauch observe that marriage confers on children three types of benefits that seem likely to carry over to children in same-sex families. First, marriage may increase children's material well-being through such benefits as family leave from work and spousal health insurance eligibility. It may also help ensure financial continuity, should a spouse die or be disabled. Second, same-sex marriage may benefit children by increasing the durability and stability of their parents' relationship. Finally, marriage may bring increased social acceptance of and support for same-sex families, although those benefits might not materialize in communities that meet same-sex marriage with rejection or hostility. The authors note that the best way to ascertain the costs and benefits of the effects of same-sex marriage on children is to compare it with the alternatives. Massachusetts is marrying same-sex couples, Vermont and Connecticut are offering civil unions, and several
Daysal, N. Meltem; Trandafir, Mircea; van Ewijk, Reyn
Many developed countries have recently experienced sharp increases in home birth rates. This paper investigates the impact of home births on the health of low-risk newborns using data from the Netherlands, the only developed country where home births are widespread. To account for endogeneity...... in location of birth, we exploit the exogenous variation in distance from a mother’s residence to the closest hospital. We find that giving birth in a hospital leads to substantial reductions in newborn mortality. We provide suggestive evidence that proximity to medical technologies may be an important...
Luna, R.E.; Jefferson, R.J.
One precept of the current radioactive material transportation regulations is that the package is the primary protection for the public. A packaging is chosen to provide containment, shielding, and criticality control suitable to the quantity and characteristics of the radionuclide being transported. Occasionally, radioactive materials requiring transport are not of a mass or size that would allow the materials to be shipped in an appropriate packaging. This is a particular problem for materials that should be shipped in a Type B package, but because such packages are designed and certified for specific contents, the package is usually fairly expensive, available in relatively small numbers, and often requires a fairly long period to achieve certification or amended certification for new contents. Where the shipment to be made is relatively infrequent, there may be economic and time penalties that may hamper shipment or force the shipper into uneconomic or high risk options. However, there is recognition of such situations in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations under the provisions for Special Arrangement
Jalal Abbasi-Shavazi, Mohammad; McDonald, Peter; Hosseini-Chavoshi, Meimanat
Consanguineous marriage has been the culturally preferred form of marriage in Iran. This paper examines the extent to which education, urbanization and changes in modes of economic production have affected the incidence of consanguineous marriage and attitudes towards consanguineous marriages. The 2002 Iran Fertility Transition Survey conducted in the four provinces of Gilan, Sistan and Baluchistan, Yazd and West Azarbaijan provides information on the degree of relationship of marriage partners from around 6550 ever-married women aged 15-49. Attitudinal data were also obtained. Overall, the level of marriage to biological relatives ranged from 23% in Gilan to 78% in Sistan and Baluchistan. The paper finds that the practice of marriage to biological relatives has remained surprisingly resilient in the face of modernizing influences and that ethnicity, province and area of residence remain important determinants. On the other hand, attitudes have shifted towards marriage with a non-relative. Anthropological research would illuminate the processes of consanguineous marriage in Iran.
Crowley, Susan L.; Lichtenberg, James W.; Pollard, Jeffrey W.
Although specialty board certification by the American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP) has been a valued standard for decades, the vast majority of counseling psychologists do not pursue board certification in the specialty. The present article provides a brief history of board certification in general and some historical information about…
Sahin, Orcun; Yildirim, Cengiz; Akgun, Rahmi C; Haberal, Bahtiyar; Yazici, Ayse C; Tuncay, Ismail C
The purpose of this study is to evaluate if there is any relationship between consanguineous marriages and idiopathic congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV). A case-control study on CTEV screening was conducted in a rural eastern city of Turkey between 2009 and 2011 and a total of 28 cases (infants with idiopathic CTEV) and 575 controls (healthy infants) were recruited. Sociodemographic status of the infants, including gestational age and birth weights, maternal characteristics and, if any, the degree of consanguinity, were recorded. As an inclusion criterion, only singleton, full-term, live births were accepted. A backward stepwise logistic regression model was used to evaluate the relationship between idiopathic CTEV and parental consanguinity. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Among maternal and infant characteristics, significant risk factors for idiopathic CTEV in the regression analysis were work status (employed), consanguineous marriage, sex (male), and gestational age (>42 wk). Babies born to first-cousin parents had >4 times the risk of idiopathic CTEV [OR, 4.138, (95% CI, 1.484, 11.538)] and the risk for those born to distant relatives was 2.9 times higher [OR, 2.941, (95% CI, 1.070, 8.087)] than for children of unrelated parents. Consanguineous marriage was significantly associated with an increased risk of idiopathic CTEV. This association remained significant even after adjusting for potential confounding variables. To obtain more accurate results, a population-based screening study with an increased number of cases and controls should be performed in future studies. Case-control study investigating the effect of a patient characteristic on the outcome of disease (level-III).
Full Text Available Background: Proper time intervals among pregnancies has a major role in family provision. Investigating the dynamism of the birth spacing, identify factors and their effects on the time interval among pregnancies and determination of optimal spacing is the utmost importance for health planners and families. The purpose was to study the abortion and stillbirth due to short inter-birth spacing, factors affecting inter-births and optimal birth spacing. Material and Methods: In 2005, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a population of 1064 women of childbearing age in Fars province by multistage random sampling. Information on reproductive history was collected by resident health workers. Variables affecting inter-births were checked by the frailty recurrent events model using S-plus 2000 and SPSS 13 software. Results: The rate of abortion or stillbirth was 1.7%, which fell with increasing interval between births and reached their lowest (1.9% at 36-48 months. Mother's level of education, duration of breastfeeding of previous infant, maternal age at birth and father's job showed positive correlation with inter-birth. Mother's age at marriage, having a job other than household, socioeconomic status was negatively correlated with the the time interval to the next delivery. With increasing birth order, inter-birth of each delivery with regard to previous delivery increased on average by one to two months. Conclusion: The risk of abortion and stillbirth were observed more in subsequent delivery with very low or very long gap interval.
Russell, V Michelle; Baker, Levi R; McNulty, James K
Attachment theory provides a useful framework for predicting marital infidelity. However, most research has examined the association between attachment and infidelity in unmarried individuals, and we are aware of no research that has examined the role of partner attachment in predicting infidelity. In contrast to research showing that attachment anxiety is unrelated to infidelity among dating couples, 2 longitudinal studies of 207 newlywed marriages demonstrated that own and partner attachment anxiety interacted to predict marital infidelity, such that spouses were more likely to perpetrate infidelity when either they or their partner was high (vs. low) in attachment anxiety. Further, and also in contrast to research on dating couples, own attachment avoidance was unrelated to infidelity, whereas partner attachment avoidance was negatively associated with infidelity, indicating that spouses were less likely to perpetrate infidelity when their partner was high (vs. low) in attachment avoidance. These effects emerged controlling for marital satisfaction, sexual frequency, and personality; did not differ across husbands and wives; and did not differ across the two studies, with the exception that the negative association between partner attachment avoidance and own infidelity only emerged in 1 of the 2 studies. These findings offer a more complete understanding of the implications of attachment insecurity for marital infidelity and suggest that studies of unmarried individuals may not provide complete insights into the implications of various psychological traits and processes for marriage. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Dockerty John D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Some studies have found that lower parity and higher or lower social class (depending on the study are associated with increased risks of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL. Such findings have led to suggestions that infection could play a role in the causation of this disease. An earlier New Zealand study found a protective effect of parental marriage on the risk of childhood ALL, and studies elsewhere have reported increased risks in relation to older parental ages. This study aimed to assess whether lower parity, lower social class, unmarried status and older parental ages increase the risk of childhood ALL (primarily. These variables were also assessed in relation to the risks of childhood acute non-lymphoblastic leukaemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and Hodgkin's disease. Methods A case control study was conducted. The cases were 585 children diagnosed with leukaemias or lymphomas throughout New Zealand over a 12 year period. The 585 age and sex matched controls were selected at random from birth records. Birth records from cases (via cancer registration record linkage and from controls provided accurate data on maternal parity, social class derived from paternal occupation, maternal marital status, ages of both parents, and urban status based on the address on the birth certificate. Analysis was by conditional logistic regression. Results There were no statistically significant associations overall between childhood ALL and parity of the mother, social class, unmarried maternal status, increasing parental ages (continuous analysis, or urban status. We also found no statistically significant associations between the risks of childhood acute non-lymphoblastic leukaemia, non-Hodgkin lymphomas, or Hodgkin's disease and the variables studied. Conclusion This study showed no positive results though of reasonable size, and its record linkage design minimised bias. Descriptive studies (eg of time trends of ALL show that
Woerdman, Edwin; Dulleman, Minne
This article presents a market-based idea to compensate for earthquake damage caused by the extraction of natural gas and applies it to the case of Groningen in the Netherlands. Earthquake certificates give homeowners a right to yearly compensation for both property damage and degradation of living
Omar Espinoza; Urs Buehlmann; Michael Dockry
Forest certification systems are voluntary, market-based initiatives to promote the sustainable use of forests. These standards assume that consumers prefer products made from materials grown in an environmentally sustainable fashion, and this in turn creates incentives for companies to adopt responsible environmental practices. One of the major reasons for the...
Schneider, Daniel; Hastings, Orestes P
The United States has become increasingly characterized by stark class divides in family structure. Poor women are less likely to marry than their more affluent counterparts but are far more likely to have a birth outside of marriage. Recent theoretical and qualitative work at the intersection of demography and cultural sociology suggests that these patterns are generated because poor women have high, nearly unattainable, economic standards for marriage but make a much weaker connection between economic standing and fertility decisions. We use the events of the Great Recession, leveraging variation in the severity of the crisis between years and across states, to examine how exposure to worse state-level economic conditions is related to poor women's likelihood of marriage and of having a nonmarital birth between 2008 and 2012. In accord with theory, we find that women of low socioeconomic status (SES) exposed to worse economic conditions are indeed somewhat less likely to marry. However, we also find that unmarried low-SES women exposed to worse economic conditions significantly reduce their fertility; economic standing is not disconnected from nonmarital fertility. Our results suggest that economic concerns were connected to fertility decisions for low-SES unmarried women during the Great Recession.
Parker, Jennifer D; Madans, Jennifer H
Race-specific health statistics are routinely reported in scientific publications; most describe health disparities across groups. Census 2000 showed that 2.4% of the US population identifies with more than 1 race group. We examined the hypothesis that multiple-race reporting is associated with interracial births by comparing parental race reported on birth certificates with reported race in a national health survey. US natality data from 1968 through 1998 and National Health Interview Survey data from 1990 through 1998 were compared, by year of birth. Overall multiple-race survey responses correspond to expectations from interracial births. However, there are discrepancies for specific multiple-race combinations. Projected estimates of the multiple-race population can be only partially informed by vital records.
Full Text Available Testing whether familial socioeconomic status (SES in childhood is a predictor of mortality has rarely been done on historical cohorts.The birth certificates of 4,805 individuals born 1914-1916 in 16 districts of the Paris region were retrieved. The handwritten information provided the occupation of parents, the legitimacy status, life events (e.g. marriage, divorce, and the precise date of death when after 1945 (i.e. age 31 years (y in the cohort. We used the median age at death (MAD as a global measure of mortality, then studied separately survival to and after 31 y. Multivariate Imputation by Chained Equations (MICE, Generalized Additive Models (GAMs and mixed effect Cox models were used.MAD showed large variations according to paternal occupation. The lowest MAD in both sexes was that of workers' children: it was 56.3 y (95% CI: [48.6-62.7] in men and 67.4 y (95% CI: [60.8-72.7] in women, respectively (95% CI: 13.4 y [5.7-21.3] and 12.3 y (95% CI: [4.0-19.2] below the highest MAD attained. MAD experienced by illegitimate children was 18.9 y (95% CI: [13.3-32.3] shorter than of legitimate children. The multivariate analysis revealed that in both sexes survival to age 31 y was predicted independently by legitimacy and paternal occupation. Paternal occupation was found significantly associated with mortality after age 31 y in females only: accordingly difference in life expectancy at age 31 y was 4.4 y (95% CI: [1.2-7.6] between upper class and workers' daughters.Paternal occupation and legitimacy status were strong predictors of offspring longevity in this one-century historical cohort born during World War One.
Todd, Nicolas; Le Fur, Sophie; Bougnères, Pierre; Valleron, Alain-Jacques
Testing whether familial socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood is a predictor of mortality has rarely been done on historical cohorts. The birth certificates of 4,805 individuals born 1914-1916 in 16 districts of the Paris region were retrieved. The handwritten information provided the occupation of parents, the legitimacy status, life events (e.g. marriage, divorce), and the precise date of death when after 1945 (i.e. age 31 years (y) in the cohort). We used the median age at death (MAD) as a global measure of mortality, then studied separately survival to and after 31 y. Multivariate Imputation by Chained Equations (MICE), Generalized Additive Models (GAMs) and mixed effect Cox models were used. MAD showed large variations according to paternal occupation. The lowest MAD in both sexes was that of workers' children: it was 56.3 y (95% CI: [48.6-62.7]) in men and 67.4 y (95% CI: [60.8-72.7]) in women, respectively (95% CI: 13.4 y [5.7-21.3]) and 12.3 y (95% CI: [4.0-19.2]) below the highest MAD attained. MAD experienced by illegitimate children was 18.9 y (95% CI: [13.3-32.3]) shorter than of legitimate children. The multivariate analysis revealed that in both sexes survival to age 31 y was predicted independently by legitimacy and paternal occupation. Paternal occupation was found significantly associated with mortality after age 31 y in females only: accordingly difference in life expectancy at age 31 y was 4.4 y (95% CI: [1.2-7.6]) between upper class and workers' daughters. Paternal occupation and legitimacy status were strong predictors of offspring longevity in this one-century historical cohort born during World War One.
Jena, Anupam B; Goldman, Dana P; Joyce, Geoffrey
Mothers of multiple births face higher rates of postpartum depression, yet evidence on the marital consequences of multiple births is limited. We examined the association between twin births and parental divorce. We used the 1980 U.S. Census to identify a large sample of mothers with and without twin births. The goal was to estimate multivariate logistic models of the association between birth of twins and divorce adjusting for race, age at marriage and first birth, and college education. We examined whether the association was affected by maternal education, age and sex composition of twins, and family size. Twins at first birth were associated with greater parental divorce compared with singletons (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.16; absolute risk 13.7% with twins compared with 12.7%; P=.02). The association was statistically greater among mothers not attending college (14.9% with twins compared with 13.3%; P=.01) compared with those with some college (10.4% with twins compared with 10.5%; P=.34); those with children older than 8 years (15.6% with twins compared with 13.5%; P<.01) compared with younger children (10.6% with twins compared with 10.8%; P=.42); and those with at least one twin girl (13.8% with twins compared with 12.6%; P=.03) compared with twin boys (12.1% with twins compared with 12.5%, P=.38). Mothers with four or more children had a larger association between birth of twins and divorce (15.4% for mothers with twins at fourth birth compared with 11.3% for all other mothers with four or more children; P<.01) compared with mothers with twins at first birth (13.7% for twins at first birth compared with 12.7%; P=.02). Health consequences of twin births for children and mothers are well known. Twin births may be associated with longer-term parental divorce. Specific groups, namely mothers not completing college and mothers who already have more children, may be at higher risk. II.
Zikri Fachrul Nurhadi
Full Text Available The background of this problem is the increasing number of Indonesian citizens who perform mixed marriages, especially women who are married to foreign nationals. This, resulted in the problem starts from differences of religion or belief, culture and lifestyle are different. The purpose of this study is to find and explain the motives, meaning and experience of Indonesian Muslim women as perpetrators of intermarriage. This research method using the phenomenological method that focuses on the study of meaning in everyday life from the perspective of those who experience it. Data collection techniques used participant observation, interview and documentation study. Subjects were Indonesian Muslim women aged 30-40 years, were married to foreign nationals by purposive sampling technique. The results showed that mixed marriages have a motive "because" that is the motive trauma and interest, while the motive "for" consists of the dream motive, worship and repair descent. Likewise intermarriage experience demonstrated mutual culturally adjust, adapt to a multicultural, open and romantic attitude. While the meaning of marriage is an interesting mix, happy, merging two cultures, respect for differences, mutual understanding, complex, beautiful. Construction of meaning formed that a mixed marriage is a marriage of attractive, beautiful, full of challenges in the face of differences in terms of culture, habits and mindset in running family life.
Full Text Available Marriage law, as part of general pattern of family, is a policy instrument that defines optimal behavioral standards for matrimonial relationship through ordaining sanctions. Imposing such standards regardless of their consequences may result in anxiety in the family institution and subsequently in the society itself and may raise the motivation of defensive behaviors among people and as a result will increase the cost of legislative and judicial system. Economic approach to the marriage law with analyzing aftermath of laws on couple's behavior is looking for minimizing marriage costs including couple, society and judiciary system costs, and maximizing the cost of its inefficient breach. Incentive role of family law and its supplements, such as labor laws, tax and employment affairs etc., on the rate of marriage and divorce, the amount of dowry and other couple's decisions is a topic that economics of family law is recently very focused on. This article, in the form of “contract” and “market” and by using of concepts including costs, benefits, efficiency, competition and monopolywill present the economic analysis of marriage and other related legal concepts and is to introduce a new approach to Iranian family legislators and judges.
Shamnaz Arifin Mim
Full Text Available Although Convention on the Rights of Child declared that any marriage of an under 18 child will be considered as “Child Marriage”, the age limit of girls’ marriage was proposed to change from 18 to 16 in the draft Child Marriage Restraint Act Bangladesh 2014. This paper aims to analyse the effects of child marriage on Bangladeshi village girls’ formal education and empowerment which hopefully will lead to bring awareness among the patriarchal societies. Rangpur region was purposively selected to design this study in a case study approach. The concept of empowerment was used with an interpretive methodological approach which allowed to consciously interpreting the data from secondary relevant sources. The findings of this review article revealed the ways in which child marriages hinder the opportunity of girls to be educated and push them back to not being empowered in the patriarchal society. The study’s implication for policy and practice rooted deeply on the collaboration of NGO programmes, government interventions and family support.
I V Trotsuk
Full Text Available The article emphasizes the continuing relevance of the sociological study of the relationship between concepts of family, marriage and love for the family is one of the oldest types of social interaction and the basic social institution in the foreseeable future. The authors reconstruct the key themes of the sociological discussion on the key trends in the transformation of family models and the main features of the Russian research tradition in the field. At first the authors summarize contexts and accents in the studies evaluating the role of the family in the contemporary society and the main factors determining the ‘normality’ of the ‘families’ that previously were considered unacceptable forms of relations. In the second part of the article, the authors discuss the results of the senior students’ survey conducted in the PFUR to characterize the youth perception of family, marriage and love. In particular, the article presents the dominant interpretations of love, marriage and family, the features of an ‘ideal partner’ and ways to find him/her, the basic components of an ‘ideal family/marriage’, the conditions for legal marriage, its negative aspects and reasons not to divorce. The sphere of family and marriage relations in Russia is full of gender stereotypes, thus we focused on the differences between boys and girls that revealed the youth continuing commitment to the traditional role models - a man as a ‘money-maker’ and a woman as a ‘homemaker’.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND A well-documented association exists between age at marriage and the risk of divorce. However, substantial gaps in our knowledge and understanding of ist origins, nature, and implications still exist. OBJECTIVE This article documents the relationship between women's ages at first marriage and marriage cohort divorce rates, assessing the importance of relative ages at marriage (based on rankings within marriage cohorts and of absolute, chronological ages at marriage, and evaluating the contribution of changes in the age at marriage distribution to observed divorce rates. METHODS Direct standardisation and logistic regression analyses are applied to published marriage and divorce data for the 1974-1994 marriage cohorts in England and Wales. RESULTS Changing ages at marriage appear to have constrained the rise in divorce across the cohorts examined. However, the results suggest that much of the impact of age at marriage is linked to relative ages, reducing the extent of this 'braking' effect. It also appears that a positive effect of relative age at marriage on the risk of divorce for later marriages is outweighed by the negative effect of absolute age at marriage at higher ages. CONCLUSIONS Both explanations relating to 'maturity' and explanations focusing on 'selection' or 'marriage markets' appear of relevance to the association between age at marriage and divorce. COMMENTS The data source provides over five million cases; however, it does not provide any scope to control for cohabitation, education, etc., and the analyses are restricted to divorces within about ten years of marriage. Further, related studies would be useful.
Ghanei, M; Adibi, P; Movahedi, M; Khami, M A; Ghasemi, R L; Azarm, T; Zolfaghari, B; Jamshidi, H R; Sadri, R
Iran like other middle east countries has a large number of major thalassaemics. Due to religious restrictions on abortion, the routine prevention of the birth of thalassaemic children by this means is not possible. The aim of this study is to describe an alternative means to prevent the birth of thalassaemic children. From January 1993 to January 1996, 10,000 people preparing for marriage were screened for the thalassaemia trait, using CBC and HbA2 level measurement. High risk couples were referred for further consultation regarding the disease and the means of its prevention. The proposed actions of the couples regarding thalassaemia prevention were evaluated immediately after consultation and then re-evaluated three months later. After the project had been running for three years the average of high risk couple initially deciding not to marry was 90% and no new cases of thalassemia were detected in the children of the screened population. Where both members of the couple were trait-positive their preferred choice was not to marry, rather than to marry and use other or no methods of preventing a thalassemia affected child being born to them. Cultural and religious ideas can affect such decisions and in some Islamic countries the establishment and use of a genetic counselling centre can help prevent most of new thalassaemia cases.
Persons with epilepsy need adequate advice and effective counselling about issues such as marriage, pregnancy, risks of inheriting epilepsy, driving, employment and antiepileptic drug withdrawal, because these persons are not receiving important information and education about their condition and possible adverse effects of treatment. Furthermore, women with epilepsy have increased rates of pregnancy complications and poor fetal outcomes including congenital malformations and developmental delay related to both their epilepsy and antiepileptic drugs. However, approximately 90% of all women with epilepsy undergo normal pregnancy and give birth to children free of birth defects. Pregnancy is generally safe in women with epilepsy. The study of long-term prognosis of childhood-onset epilepsy in Japan shows that the majority of these patients have lower levels of educational background as well as employment and marital status compared with the general population (Wakamoto H. et al). Of patients with epilepsy, 60% to 70% achieve control with antiepileptic medication. However, several antiepileptic drug withdrawal studies show variable rates of success, with relapse rates ranging from 12% to 63% (Britton J.W.). Driving is listed as major problem in persons with epilepsy. However, the patients with seizure-free more than two years have been able to get the driver's license since June, 2002. Social attitudes towards epilepsy cause more distress to the patient than the disease itself. We should realize that persons with epilepsy are normal or near-normal. To ameliorate the social stigma against epilepsy, continuous and repetitive educational efforts would be needed.
Overgaard, Charlotte; Coxon, Kirstie; Stewart, Mary
Title Planned place of birth: issues of choice, access and equity. Outline In Northern European countries, giving birth is generally safe for healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies, and their babies. However, place of birth can affect women’s outcomes and experiences of birth. Whilst tertiary...... countries, maternity care is provided free to women, through public financing of health care; universal access to care is therefore secured. Nevertheless, different models of care exist, and debates about the appropriateness of providing maternity care in different settings take place in both countries...... in Denmark Coxon K et al: Planned place of birth in England: perceptions of accessing obstetric units, midwife led units and home birth amongst women and their partners. How these papers interrelate These papers draw upon recent research in maternity care, undertaken in Denmark and in England. In both...
The concept of eugenics played a significant role in the pre-war birth control movement. Some favored birth control from the standpoint of an individual's right to happiness, while others were against it from the standpoint of preservation of good stock for the nation. Yamamoto, Nobuharu (1889-1929), who translated Margaret Sanger's speech and her book in 1922, advocated birth control purely from a biologist's point of view. Birth control is necessary for the survival of strong healthy human beings capable of overcoming all the difficulties in their lives. Birth control is a form of natural selection consciously done to avoid overburdening and wasting individual lives. Nagai, Sen (1876-1957) was opposed to birth control from eugenicc' point of view. He became the 1st president of Japan Racial Hygiene Society in 1930 and founded Eugenics/Marriage Counseling Clinic in 1933. In his book on eugenics published in 1936 he stressed the importance of continuation of race by protecting good stock and eliminating poor stock by sterilization. Birth control was opposed because it will shorten the life of an ethnic group or a race. Furuya, Yoshio (1890-1974), also a racial hygiene major, supported population policies based on eugenics. He studied a trend in childbirth among women of different professions and geographical areas. Educated and cultured urban upper-middle class women showed a sudden decline in childbirth in their later years of marriage, suggesting the prevalence of birth control among them, while less educated low-income women continued to reproduce. He opposed to birth control but was in favor of sterilization for eliminating poor stock.
Song, Ju-Eun; Ahn, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sun-Kyoung; Roh, Eun Ha
The purpose of this study was to explore the factors influencing low birth rate among married women using the National Survey data in Korea. We compared the different influences on women's first and subsequent childbirths. This study was a secondary analysis using the "National Survey on Fertility and Family Health and Welfare", which was a nationally representative survey conducted by the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs. We analyzed the data of 3,482 married women (aged between 19 and 39 years) using SPSS 20.0 program for descriptive statistics, t-test, one-way ANOVA, and binary and ordinal logistic regression models. The factors influencing women's first childbirth included perceptions about the value of marriage and children and their education level. The factors influencing their subsequent childbirths included multifaceted variables of maternal age during the first childbirth, residential area, religion, monthly household income, perceptions about the value of marriage and children, and social media. It is necessary to improve women's awareness and positive perceptions about marriage and children in order to increase the birth rate in Korea. Moreover, consistently providing financial and political support for maternal and childcare concerns and using social media to foster more positive attitudes toward having children may enhance birth rates in the future.
Full Text Available Marriage mentorship is one of the most effective methods through which a couple can enrich their marriage. A good mentorship relationship is based on feelings of warmth and affinity between mentors and mentees. When a relationship of trust is established, the mentees feel more freedom to express their deeper feelings and to explore new paths of mutual understanding. In what ways does the quality of interaction change when mentors and mentees interact via a technological medium such as online audio-conferencing? This paper compares three marriage mentoring experiences that employed online conferencing as the medium of interaction. Audio-conferencing methods provided a particularly warm, trusting interaction between participants, and an effective environment for learning and for practicing communication skills. The paper makes recommendations for efficient online mentoring practice, and builds on a previous discussion of online practice in the community advocacy context (Report #35 in this series.
Wynn, L L
In Egypt, women seek hymenoplasty to disguise evidence of premarital sexual intercourse. Physicians hide the fact that they perform the procedure, and laypeople condemn it as against religion and morality, a way of cheating men of knowledge of their wives' sexual history. Yet high-ranking religious leaders have condoned hymenoplasty. Based on ethnographic fieldwork, archival research, and formal interviews with laypeople and physicians, in this article, I investigate this discrepancy between religious and lay opinions. Many Egyptians believe women resort to hymenoplasty after contracting secret `urfi (customary) marriages, and I examine the relationship between hymenoplasty and extramarital and paramarital sexuality. Egyptian debates around hymenoplasty and marriage are concerned with the notion that women's sexual status must be socially visible, believing that doctors and kin have the ability and obligation to read women's sexual history through physiological markers and social rituals. Hymenoplasty and secret marriage render women's sexual histories illegible to observers.
Chamie, Joseph; Mirkin, Barry
Same-sex marriage (SSM) is a new social phenomenon. In modern times SSM did not exist until the 21st century when an increasing number of countries began permitting same-sex couples to marry legally. This study presents statistical and related evidence concerning SSM worldwide, with special attention to the United States, where SSM has evolved into a major political and legal issue. In addition to examining data on levels and trends, differentials between men and women are investigated. The study also considers common arguments for and against SSM and likely changes in laws and policies that may occur. Although same-sex marriage now exists in a small number of countries and US states, its consequences and implications are being felt far beyond the borders of those countries and areas. In coming years same-sex marriage will remain a controversial and salient part of the legal, political, and cultural landscape, locally, nationally, and internationally.
Yor Alexander Casas Villamizar
Full Text Available This article shows the way Law 54 of 1990 defined common-law marriage in Colombia. Legally, common-law marriage is a way to constitute a family through natural ties. This family is expressed in the Superior Statute, which establishes this union as the essential core of the society, acquiring integral quality within the social state of law and forcing the State and the society to protect it as a legal right by means of the Criminal Law. Incest –understood as carnal knowledge or other sexual act with a predecessor, descendant, adoptive parent, or sibling– destabilizes and imperils the family institution. Common-law marriages composed by incestuous relatives are a punishable behavior and not a marital estate.
Clara Fróes de Oliveira Sanfelice
Full Text Available The study aimed to describe the experiences of a group of nurse-midwives from the city of Campinas, SP, Brasil, regarding the transition process from attending institutionalized births to attending home births, in the period 2011 – 2013. The study is of the experience report type; the reflections, perceptions and challenges experienced in this process were collected using the technique of brainstorming. Content analysis, as proposed by Bardin, was used, which yielded four thematic categories: a the hospital experience; b living with obstetric violence; c returning home and d the challenges of home care. It is concluded that attending home births offers greater satisfaction to the nurses, even in the face of various obstacles, as it is possible to offer a care to the woman and new-born which covers both the concept of comprehensiveness and the current scientific recommendations.
Full Text Available Following upon the Supreme Court of Appeal's judgment in Butters v Mncora 2012 4 SA 1 (SCA, which broadened the criteria and consequences of universal partnerships in cohabitation relationships, this article investigates the potential of universal partnerships and putative marriages to allocate rights to share in partnership property in other intimate relationships. It traverses several instances in which marriages are not recognised - bigamous marriages, Muslim and Hindu religious marriages and invalid customary marriages – examining whether the wives in these marriages could use universal partnerships and putative marriages to claim a share in property. It then considers the use of universal partnerships to obtain a share of property in civil marriages out of community of property. It concludes by pointing out several issues which are in need of clarification and where the common law should be developed to give effect to fundamental constitutional rights.
Kooy, G.A.; Weeda, C.J.
Consensus of opinions and background matching of partners in marriages in the Netherlands. Background data on marriage and family / voting behaviour / religion / satisfaction in household and job / social contacts in relation with personal problems and worries / self-description / partner
... divorce or annulment; or (2) Evidence of the death (See § 219.23) of a party to the marriage. (b) Other..., the claimant must explain the reason therefor and submit other convincing evidence that the marriage...
In recent decades, arranged marriages have become less common in many parts of Asia. This paper explores people's schemas surrounding just such a marital change in one Indian village using semi-structured interviews ( N =30) and ethnographic fieldwork. Respondents categorize marriages into two main types: arranged marriages and elopements, also called love marriages. Arranged marriages were common in the past, while elopements are now dominant. Both types of marriages have characteristics that are perceived positively and the ideal marriage is a hybrid of the two. Respondents ascribe the rise of love marriages to educational expansion, technological change, and foreign influence. Many also see it as an inevitable part of a larger process of socio-economic change. These schemas are strongly shaped by global influences, but also reflect multiple layers of local beliefs and cultures.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Based on aggregate statistics, the population of Israel, as compared to all or most other developed societies, has very high levels of fertility and marriage (e.g. TFR of 2.96 in 2009 and only 9.7Š never married among women aged 40-44 in 2009. However, studying aggregate demographic measures is problematic, because Israel is an extremely heterogeneous society, with family formation patterns differing greatly across numerically important social groups. Until now, little has been documented about the basic fertility and marriage behavior of different population groups. OBJECTIVE We describe the fertility and marriage behavior of populations in Israel, broken down by nationality, religion, religiosity and nativity-status. Although our main focus is on a detailed presentation of fertility patterns, we also look at marriage behavior, as it is closely related to fertility in Israel. METHODS We analyze recently available annual data from the Israel Social Surveys for 2002-2009, which, for the first time in several decades,, provides detailed information on family and household demographic behavior and direct information on level of religiosity. We focus primarily on comparisons across cohorts born from the late 1940s to the late 1960s and between periods in the early and late 2000s. RESULTS We provide a detailed portrait of striking diversity in fertility and marriage behavior across population groups, along with important patterns of change and stability across cohorts and over time. We document findings and differential patterns, some unexpected, regarding comparisons across groups and across cohorts. CONCLUSIONS The descriptive findings form the basis for a clearer understanding of fertility and marriage patterns in different population subgroups in Israel. In addition, the reported results suggest many questions for future research, which are outlined in the paper.
Full Text Available Background: Early-age marriage is still common in Indonesia, especially in the rural areas. There are many negative effects of the marriage; the young brides may get lower education, lower social status, minimum reproduction control, higher maternal mortality, higher domestic violence rate and others. Thus, this study is conducted to identify the students’ perception on the ideal age of marriage and childbearing. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from June to September 2013 in Jatinangor using secondary data from Jatinangor Cohort Survey Team. The data comprised two hundred and twenty students from Jatinangor Senior High School and PGRI Vocational School. A hundred and ten males and a hundred and ten females were chosen by random sampling. Questionnaires were given after the written informed consent was obtained from the students. Results: The results showed 74.55% of the students chose 19¬–24 years old as the ideal age of marriage for a woman and 68.64% students chose 25–30 years old as the ideal age of marriage for a man. Moreover, for childbearing, 25–30 years old was chosen to be the ideal age for both man and woman. The percentage of students agreed to this was 74.55% and 54.09% respectively. Conclusions: Majority of the students agreed on 19–24 years old and 25–30 years old as the ideal age of marriage for woman and man respectively. For childbearing, 25–30 years old was concluded as the ideal age for both genders.
Industry compliance with minimum energy efficiency standards will be assured through a two-part program approach of certification and enforcement activities. The technical support document (TSD) presents the analyses upon which the proposed rule for assuring that consumer product comply with applicable energy efficiency standards is based. Much of the TSD is based upon support provided DOE by Vitro Laboratories. The OAO Corporation provided additional support in the development of the sampling plan incorporated in the proposed rule. Vitro's recommended approach to appliance certification and enforcement, developed after consideration of various program options, benefits, and impacts, establishes the C/E program framework, general criteria, and procedures for assuring a specified level of energy efficiency performance of covered consumer products. The results of the OAO analysis are given in Volume II of the TSD.
Peri Rotem, Nitzan; Scott, J
Non-marital childbearing, especially within cohabitation, has become increasingly common in Britain as in other Western countries. Nonetheless, births outside marriage occur more frequently among the relatively disadvantaged in terms of income potential. Building upon previous research in family formation patterns, we examine differences by education and employment status in the proportion of marital and non-marital first births among British women and couples over the past two decades. In pa...
Brewer, Paul R; Wilson, David C; Habegger, Michael
This study uses an experiment embedded in a large, nationally representative survey to test whether exposure to imagery of a gay or lesbian couple's wedding influences support for gay marriage. It also tests whether any such effects depend on the nature of the image (gay or lesbian couple, kissing or not) and viewer characteristics (sex, age, race, education, religion, and ideology). Results show that exposure to imagery of a gay couple kissing reduced support for gay marriage relative to the baseline. Other image treatments (gay couple not kissing, lesbian couple kissing, lesbian couple not kissing) did not significantly influence opinion.
Any analogy between race and homosexuality cannot erase the fact that skin color has marked and continues to mark bodies for special punishment and necessary protection. Yet, the analogy has also been forged in the struggles against sexual discrimination and in the courts to recognize same-sex marriage as a basic civil right. My purposes here are, first, to review the role the race-sexual orientation analogy has played in same-sex marriage debates, second to examine the analogy within the context of race and queer theories and, finally, to suggest a racial dimension to sexuality that marks the homosexual body.
Pini, Maria; Rossi, Francesca; Venable, Brent; Walsh, Toby
The stable marriage problem is a well-known problem of matching men to women so that no man and woman who are not married to each other both prefer each other. Such a problem has a wide variety of practical applications ranging from matching resident doctors to hospitals to matching students to schools. A well-known algorithm to solve this problem is the Gale-Shapley algorithm, which runs in polynomial time. It has been proven that stable marriage procedures can always be manipulated. Whilst ...
... sampling technician certification. 745.90 Section 745.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... technician certification. (a) Renovator certification and dust sampling technician certification. (1) To become a certified renovator or certified dust sampling technician, an individual must successfully...
...-0001] RIN 0584-AD60 Direct Certification and Certification of Homeless, Migrant and Runaway Children... interim rule entitled Direct Certification and Certification of Homeless, Migrant and Runaway Children for...
Shaw, Gary M; Yang, Wei; Roberts, Eric M; Kegley, Susan E; Stevenson, David K; Carmichael, Suzan L; English, Paul B
Pesticides exposures are aspects of the human exposome that have not been sufficiently studied for their contribution to risk for preterm birth. We investigated risks of spontaneous preterm birth from potential residential exposures to 543 individual chemicals and 69 physicochemical groupings that were applied in the San Joaquin Valley of California during the study period, 1998-2011. The study population was derived from birth certificate data linked with Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development maternal and infant hospital discharge data. After exclusions, the analytic study base included 197,461 term control births and 27,913 preterm case births. Preterm cases were more narrowly defined as 20-23 weeks (n = 515), 24-27 weeks (n = 1,792), 28-31 weeks (n = 3,098), or 32-36 weeks (n = 22,508). The frequency of any (versus none) pesticide exposure was uniformly lower in each preterm case group relative to the frequency in term controls, irrespective of gestational month of exposure. All odds ratios were below 1.0 for these any versus no exposure comparisons. The majority of odds ratios were below 1.0, many of them statistically precise, for preterm birth and exposures to specific chemical groups or chemicals. This study showed a general lack of increased risk of preterm birth associated with a range of agriculture pesticide exposures near women's residences.
Muhamad Isna Wahyudi
Full Text Available Ada beberapa ketentuan dalam Rancangan Undang-Undang Hukum Materiil Peradilan Agama bidang Perkawinan yang perlu dirumuskan sesuai dengan kondisi saat ini. Dengan cara tersebut, hukum perkawinan Islam di Indonesia akan progresif dan tidak diskriminatif terhadap kaum perempuan. Ketentuan-ketentuan tersebut mencakup rukun perkawinan, usia perkawinan, wali nikah, dan status anak. Makalah ini mencoba untuk melakukan kontekstualisasi ketentuan-ketentuan tersebut sesuai dengan kondisi saat ini dengan menggunakan pendekatan hermeneutik. Sebagai hasilnya, pencatatan perkawinan seharusnya menjadi salah satu rukun perkawinan, usia perkawinan harus dirumuskan dengan mempertimbangkan kesehatan reproduksi kaum perempuan, wali nikah bagi calon pengantin perempuan bukan rukun perkawinan, dan anak dari perempuan yang menikah pada saat hamil termasuk sebagai anak sah yang memiliki nasab kepada kedua orang tuanya. There are some provisions on the Bill of Religious Judicature Substantial Law on Marriage that need to be formulated in accordance with the present time. In this way, the Islamic Law of Marriage in Indonesia will be progressive and not discriminative against women. Those provisions include the pillar of marriage, the age of marriage, the guardian of marriage, and the status of child. This article tries to contextualize those provisions in accordance with the present time using hermeneutical approach. As the result, the registration of marriage should be one of the pillars of marriage, the age of marriage should be formulated by considering women’s reproduction health, the guardian of marriage for the bride is not pillar of marriage, and the child of pregnant woman marriage is counted as legal child whose lineage to both parents
Brotherson, Sean E.; Duncan, William C.
Governmental efforts to strengthen marriage through a variety of approaches have become increasingly common in the last decade. Societal trends related to family formation, marriage, and divorce have shaped interest in marriage and its stability as a social institution. The public sector has targeted efforts at key stages in the life history of…
Helms, Heather M.; Crouter, Ann C.; McHale, Susan M.
Explores how husbands' and wives' marriage work with close friends and one another was linked to their perceptions of marital quality. Results showed that husbands engaged in more marriage work with their wives than with close friends, whereas wives engaged in similar levels of marriage work with their close friends and husbands. (Contains 58…
Previous research has suggested that a new marriage gradient has emerged in the United States, with marriage becoming increasingly the privilege of the better-educated. This article examines whether this is true for Europe and explores differences in the marriage gradient among 25 European
Rao Sahib, P.; Koning, Ruud H.; Witteloostuijn, A. van
In this paper, we investigate the factors associated with success in a special marriage market. This marriage market is generated by a marriage agency that arranges meetings between women from the former Soviet Union and men from the United States, Canada and Western Europe. It is the modern version
McVeigh, Rory; Diaz, Maria-Elena D.
From 2000 through 2008, initiatives proposing to ban same-sex marriage were on the ballot in 28 states. Although same-sex marriage opponents scored lopsided victories in most cases, voting outcomes varied substantially at the county level. This article examines sources of that variation and argues that opposition to same-sex marriage should be…
Murstein, Bernard I.
A theory of the role of exchange in interpersonal relationships such as marriage and friendship was proposed. Perceived exchange equity is almost impossible to attain in marriage because of greater sensitivity to self than to others. It was hypothesized that exchange-orientation is inimical to marriage adjustment, with exchange-exchange couples…
Janssen, Jacobus Petrus Gerardus
The level of mixed marriage in a society indicates the openness of that society, since it shows the degree to which people from different social groups intermingle. In the Netherlands, mixed marriage once more attracts national attention because of the marriage between the Dutch Reformed Prince
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When evidence of marriage is required. 404... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.723 When evidence of marriage is required. If you apply for benefits as the insured person's husband or wife, widow or widower...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When we consider your marriage ended. 416.1832 Section 416.1832 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME... consider your marriage ended. We consider your marriage ended when— (a) Your spouse dies; (b) Your divorce...
... Marriage Broker Regulation Act ACTION: Notice of posting of pamphlet provided for in section 833(a) of the International Marriage Broker Regulation Act, Title D of Public Law 109-162. SUMMARY: Section 833(a) of the International Marriage Broker Regulation Act, Title D of Public Law 109-162, provided that the Secretary of...
..., relationship and marriage. 6.4 Section 6.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS....4 Proof of age, relationship and marriage. Whenever it is necessary for a claimant to prove age, relationship or marriage, the provisions of 38 U.S.C. 103(c) and Part 3 this chapter will be followed. [26 FR...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of a common-law marriage. 219.32... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Relationship § 219.32 Evidence of a common-law marriage. (a) Preferred evidence. Evidence of a common-law marriage must give the reasons why the informant believes that...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When evidence of marriage is required. 219.30... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Relationship § 219.30 When evidence of marriage is required. (a) When an application is filed for benefits. Documentary evidence of marriage is required when an...
McFarlane, Judith; Nava, Angeles; Gilroy, Heidi; Maddoux, John
Forced marriage is a violation of human rights and thwarts personal safety and well-being. Child brides are at higher risk of intimate partner violence (IPV) and often are unable to effectively negotiate safe sex, leaving them vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus, and early pregnancy. The prevalence of forced marriage and child marriage in the United States is unknown. The intersection of forced marriage and child marriage and IPV is equally unknown. When 277 mothers who reported IPV to shelter or justice services were asked about a forced marriage attempt, frequency and severity of IPV, mental health status, and behavioral functioning of their child, 47 (17%) reported a forced marriage attempt with 45% of the women younger than 18 years of age at the time of the attempt. Among the 47 women, 11 (23%) reported death threats, 20 (43%) reported marriage to the person, and 28 (60%) reported a pregnancy. Women younger than 18 years reported more threats of isolation and economic deprivation associated with the attempt as well as pressure from parents to marry. Regardless of age, women experiencing a forced marriage attempt reported more intimate partner sexual abuse, somatization, and behavior problems for their children. Forced marriage attempts occurred to one in six women (17%) reporting IPV and are associated with worse functioning for mother and child. The frequent occurrence and associated effect of forced marriage attempts to maternal child functioning indicates routine assessment for a forced marriage attempt as part of comprehensive care for women reporting IPV.
Isen, Adam; Stevenson, Betsey
This paper examines how marital and fertility patterns have changed along racial and educational lines for men and women. Historically, women with more education have been the least likely to marry and have children, but this marriage gap has eroded as the returns to marriage have changed. Marriage and remarriage rates have risen for women with a…
..., relationship and marriage. 8.20 Section 8.20 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS..., relationship and marriage. Whenever it is necessary for a claimant to prove death, age, relationship or marriage, the provisions found in Part 3 of this chapter will be followed. [26 FR 1856, Mar. 3, 1961...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Your relationship by marriage to the insured...; Period of Disability Benefits for Spouses and Divorced Spouses § 404.344 Your relationship by marriage to..., widow, or widower is based upon a deemed valid marriage as described in § 404.346. ...
Boro, Jessica; Boro, Samuel
In this article, Jessica and Samuel Boro share the story of the birth of their daughter, Elizabeth Belle. With the physical and emotional support of her husband and her doula, this mother was able to cope with a long labor and have the natural birth she wanted. Her husband describes how important the doula was for him.
... Danbury, CT 06810 203-748-6000 Accredited Since March 1998 Corvallis Birth & Women's Health Center Accredited 2314 NW Kings Blvd, Suite ... Washington, DC 20002 202-398-5520 Accredited Since March 2001 Flagstaff Birth and Women's Center Accredited 401 West Aspen Avenue Flagstaff, AZ ...
Sullivan, Gregory F.; Masson, Gerald M.
Certification trails are a recently introduced and promising approach to fault detection and fault tolerance. The applicability of the certification trail technique is significantly generalized. Previously, certification trails had to be customized to each algorithm application; trails appropriate to wide classes of algorithms were developed. These certification trails are based on common data-structure operations such as those carried out using these sets of operations such as those carried out using balanced binary trees and heaps. Any algorithms using these sets of operations can therefore employ the certification trail method to achieve software fault tolerance. To exemplify the scope of the generalization of the certification trail technique provided, constructions of trails for abstract data types such as priority queues and union-find structures are given. These trails are applicable to any data-structure implementation of the abstract data type. It is also shown that these ideals lead naturally to monitors for data-structure operations.
Eyring, W E; Sobelman, S
The purpose of this investigation was to clarify the relationship between birth-order position and the development of narcissism, while refining research and theory. The relationship between birth-order status and narcissism was examined with a sample of 79 undergraduate students (55 women and 24 men). These subjects were placed in one of the four following birth-order categories of firstborn, second-born, last-born, and only children. These categories were chosen given their significance in Adlerian theory. Each subject completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and a demographic inventory. Based on psychodynamic theory, it was hypothesized that firstborn children were expected to score highest, but statistical significance was not found for an association between narcissism and birth order. Further research is urged to investigate personality theory as it relates to parenting style and birth order.
Bernhard, Casey; Zielinski, Ruth; Ackerson, Kelly; English, Jessica
The number of US women choosing home birth is increasing. Little is known about women who choose home birth after having experienced hospital birth; therefore, the purpose of this research was to explore reasons why these women choose home birth and their perceptions regarding their birth experiences. Qualitative description was the research design, whereby focus groups were conducted with women who had hospital births and subsequently chose home birth. Five focus groups were conducted (N = 20), recorded, and transcribed verbatim. Qualitative content analysis was undertaken allowing themes to emerge. Five themes emerged from the women's narratives: 1) choices and empowerment: with home birth, women felt they were given real choices rather than perceived choices, giving them feelings of empowerment; 2) interventions and interruptions: women believed things were done that were not helpful to the birth process, and there were interruptions associated with their hospital births; 3) disrespect and dismissal: participants believed that during hospital birth, providers were more focused on the laboring woman's uterus, with some experiencing dismissal from their hospital provider when choosing to birth at home; 4) birth space: giving birth in their own home, surrounded by people they chose, created a peaceful and calm environment; and 5) connection: women felt connected to their providers, families, newborns, and bodies during their home birth. For most participants, dissatisfaction with hospital birth influenced their subsequent decision to choose home birth. Despite experiencing challenges associated with this decision, women expressed satisfaction with their home birth. © 2014 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
The purpose of this paper was to seek ways of reinforcing the marriage institution by identifying the potential sources of divorce or threats through counselling. In this endeavour, the paper discussed the meaning and nature of divorce and some likely sources of marital crisis which could lead to divorce. The paper argued ...
a Christian should amounts to a life-style of love, stewardship, self-denial and obedience to. God (see ... biblical data regarding marriage reveals that the creational order should remain the .... Each of these usages influences the other deeply. On the .... personality, entails a psychological spiritual and biological dimension,.
Bozett, Frederick W.
Focuses on the spousal relationship of gay men who had been married. Describes the man's disclosure of his homosexuality, the wife's response, and the interactional effects on the marriage relationship. Suggests the wife appeared to be an enabler of his transition to a homosexual life-style. (Author/JAC)
Nederveen Meerkerk, van E.J.V.
This chapter explores the complicated marriage between economic history and history of women and gender – disciplines that have not optimally reaped the benefi ts of each other's results. This overview of developments in women's and gender history over the past century analyses the relationship and
Early Marriage and Motherhood in Sub-Saharan Africa. Thérèse Locoh. Abstract. (African Environment: 3-4 (39-40): 31-42). Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...