WorldWideScience

Sample records for markets industry structure

  1. Dynamic analysis on market structure of China's coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Qing; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Xin

    2017-01-01

    According to industrial organization theory, market structure is a crucial factor to market performance. Based on the VAR model and the data from 1994 to 2014, we revealed the dynamic response route of the market structure to these factors and the change process of contribution rate of these factors to the market structure. It shows that market structure is inertial adjustment; technology advance and industry policy have continuous effects on improvement of market concentration ratio; market size and production scale have sustained negative effects on market concentration ratio; fixed capital has barrier effect, which is mainly the entry barrier effect at the beginning, and then the exit barrier effect continues to play a leading role. Therefore, the government has no need to introduce special policies to encourage merger or expansion on the capacity as enterprises would do it spontaneously; it is necessary to make market access system stricter, to improve exit compensation mechanism and to promote technological innovation; all these policies need dynamic adjustment based on the stages of economic cycle. - Highlights: • The adjustment mechanism of China's coal market structure is revealed. • Technology and industry policy are significant factors to optimize the market structure. • The government need not introduce special policy to encourage merger. • The market access system should be stricter. • Policies strength should be dynamically adjusted based on the economic cycle.

  2. Determinants of Market Structure and the Airline Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raduchel, W.

    1972-01-01

    The general economic determinants of market structure are outlined with special reference to the airline industry. Included are the following facets: absolute size of firms; distributions of firms by size; concentration; entry barriers; product and service differentiation; diversification; degrees of competition; vertical integration; market boundaries; and economies of scale. Also examined are the static and dynamic properties of market structure in terms of mergers, government policies, and economic growth conditions.

  3. Market size and vertical structure in the rail way industry

    OpenAIRE

    Matsushima, Noriaki; Mizutani, Fumitoshi

    2011-01-01

    We provide a theoretical framework to discuss the relation between market size and vertical structure in the railway industry. The framework is based on a simple downstream monopoly model with two input suppliers, labor forces and the rail infrastructure firm. The operation of the downstream firm (i.e., the train operating firm) generates costs on the rail infrastructure firm. We show that the downstream firm with a larger market size is more likely to integrate with the rail infrastructure f...

  4. Market Structure, Financial Dependence and Industrial Growth: Evidence from the Banking Industry in Emerging Asian Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Habib Hussain; Ahmad, Rubi Binit; Gee, Chan Sok

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examine the role of market structure for growth in financially dependent industries from 10 emerging Asian economies over the period of 1995–2011. Our approach departs from existing studies in that we apply four alternative measures of market structure based on structural and non-structural approaches and compare their outcomes. Results indicate that higher bank concentration may slow down the growth of financially dependent industries. Bank competition on the other hand, allows financially dependent industries to grow faster. These findings are consistent across a number of sensitivity checks such as alternative measures of financial dependence, institutional factors (including property rights, quality of accounting standards and bank ownership), and endogeneity consideration. In sum, our study suggests that financially dependent industries grow more in more competitive/less concentrated banking systems. Therefore, regulatory authorities need to be careful while pursuing a consolidation policy for banking sector in emerging Asian economies. PMID:27490847

  5. Market Structure, Financial Dependence and Industrial Growth: Evidence from the Banking Industry in Emerging Asian Economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Habib Hussain; Ahmad, Rubi Binit; Gee, Chan Sok

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examine the role of market structure for growth in financially dependent industries from 10 emerging Asian economies over the period of 1995-2011. Our approach departs from existing studies in that we apply four alternative measures of market structure based on structural and non-structural approaches and compare their outcomes. Results indicate that higher bank concentration may slow down the growth of financially dependent industries. Bank competition on the other hand, allows financially dependent industries to grow faster. These findings are consistent across a number of sensitivity checks such as alternative measures of financial dependence, institutional factors (including property rights, quality of accounting standards and bank ownership), and endogeneity consideration. In sum, our study suggests that financially dependent industries grow more in more competitive/less concentrated banking systems. Therefore, regulatory authorities need to be careful while pursuing a consolidation policy for banking sector in emerging Asian economies.

  6. Market Structure, Financial Dependence and Industrial Growth: Evidence from the Banking Industry in Emerging Asian Economies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Hussain Khan

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine the role of market structure for growth in financially dependent industries from 10 emerging Asian economies over the period of 1995-2011. Our approach departs from existing studies in that we apply four alternative measures of market structure based on structural and non-structural approaches and compare their outcomes. Results indicate that higher bank concentration may slow down the growth of financially dependent industries. Bank competition on the other hand, allows financially dependent industries to grow faster. These findings are consistent across a number of sensitivity checks such as alternative measures of financial dependence, institutional factors (including property rights, quality of accounting standards and bank ownership, and endogeneity consideration. In sum, our study suggests that financially dependent industries grow more in more competitive/less concentrated banking systems. Therefore, regulatory authorities need to be careful while pursuing a consolidation policy for banking sector in emerging Asian economies.

  7. Industry structures in private dental markets in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widström, E; Mikkola, H

    2012-12-01

    To use industrial organisation and organisational ecology research methods to survey industry structures and performance in the markets for private dental services and the effect of competition. Data on practice characteristics, performance, and perceived competition were collected from full-time private dentists (n = 1,121) using a questionnaire. The response rate was 59.6%. Cluster analysis was used to identify practice type based on service differentiation and process integration variables formulated from the questionnaire. Four strategic groups were identified in the Finnish markets: Solo practices formed one distinct group and group practices were classified into three clusters Integrated practices, Small practices, and Loosely integrated practices. Statistically significant differences were found in performance and perceived competitiveness between the groups. Integrated practices with the highest level of process integration and service differentiation performed better than solo and small practices. Moreover, loosely integrated and small practices outperformed solo practises. Competitive intensity was highest among small practices which had a low level of service differentiation and was above average among solo practises. Private dental care providers that had differentiated their services from public services and that had a high number of integrated service production processes enjoyed higher performance and less competitive pressures than those who had not.

  8. Investigating Food and Beverage Industry Market Structure and Market Power Based on Leo and Bresnahan’s Approach

    OpenAIRE

    M. Nabishahikitash; E. Gholipoorbolasi; A. Mohammadzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Food processing industries are one of the major industrial groups in developing countries which play an important role in the economic development of these countries. With the Developed and Developing Food Industry on the other hand, food security and providing food are very important in each country. In an overview, markets are divided into two groups: The first group is a market with perfect competition. And second group is markets with monopoly structure.One of the importa...

  9. Market Structure and Distribution of Benefits from Agricultural Exports: the Case of the Philippine Mango Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Briones, Roehlano M.

    2013-01-01

    To illuminate the role of agro-export industry in inclusive growth, this case study on Philippine mango focuses on the role of market structure in the distribution of export benefits. It is based on review of industry trends and related studies, open-ended interviews of key informants, and structured interviews of respondents situated along the value chain. The distribution of trade benefits is hypothesized to depend on both vertical and horizontal market structure. The former implies that a ...

  10. PATENTS, R&D, AND MARKET STRUCTURE IN THE U.S. FOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Gopinath, Munisamy; Vasavada, Utpal

    1999-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of market structure and research and development (R&D) on the innovation activities of firms. Fixed and random effects count data models are estimated with firm-level data for the U.S. food processing industry. Results show a positive association between patents and R&D, and patents and market structure, suggesting that firms which exhibit noncompetitive behavior are likely to develop new products and processes. Significant intra-industry spillovers of know...

  11. Intensity of Competition and Market Structure in the Italian Banking Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giannetti, C.

    2008-01-01

    This work tests the predictions of Sutton’s model of independent submarkets for the Italian retail banking industry. In the first part of this paper, I develop a model of endogenous mergers to evidence the relationship between firms’ conduct, market entry and market structure. In the second part, I

  12. Market structure and the incentives to innovate in the Norwegian music industry

    OpenAIRE

    Engstrand, Andreas Prestegaard

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, I study market structure and incentives to innovate in the Norwegian music industry. The industry has gone through significant changes since the year 2000. Every part of the value chain has been disrupted by technology, and the barriers to entry have decreased. However, major labels seem to have kept their market share. I define product and process innovation as respectively the release of a new artist and the release of a subsequent album. A product innovation ...

  13. Market structure in the US electricity industry: a long-term perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamerschen, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    We estimate changes in market structure in the US electric power industry during the last three decades using two independent approaches. First, we estimate an industry-wide conjectural-variations parameter. We find that industry concentration was generally rising during the 1970s but has been gradually and consistently falling since the early 1980s. To check the robustness of these results, we then use a translog production function to estimate the Lerner Index. The results confirm that the industry was becoming less concentrated during the 1980s, though the Lerner Index tended to fluctuate during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Our results suggest that the current state of the electricity industry may have more to do with long-term changes in market structure than recent attempts to establish competitive wholesale electricity markets. (author)

  14. Market structure, industrial organisation and technological development: the case of the Japanese electronics-based nc-machine tool industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, S

    1983-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on the impact of market structure and business organization on technological change in the automatic control machine tool industry in Japan - based on a 1982 sample survey of 40 industrial enterprises, discusses research and development trends, demand, production, subcontracting, competition, etc.; investigates the impact of electronics Innovation on small scale industry, the international division of labour and on developing countries. Bibliography and graphs.

  15. Investigating Food and Beverage Industry Market Structure and Market Power Based on Leo and Bresnahan’s Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nabishahikitash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Food processing industries are one of the major industrial groups in developing countries which play an important role in the economic development of these countries. With the Developed and Developing Food Industry on the other hand, food security and providing food are very important in each country. In an overview, markets are divided into two groups: The first group is a market with perfect competition. And second group is markets with monopoly structure.One of the important features of markets that determine its type is the ability of the firms in the pricing and determiningof the amount of production. If the firms do not have any effect on these two factors, themarket has perfect competition.If the firms have the ability to influence price of productions, this market is non-competitive and a concept called market power emerges.In general, not only market power is the ability of firm in determination of price above the competitive situation, but also it does not let its share of sale to decrease. The existence of collusion in markets can makethem distantfrom perfect competition and make them incomplete. In economics and particularly in industrial organization, market power is the ability of a firm to profitably raise the market price of a good or service over marginal cost. In perfect competitive markets, market participants have no market power. A firm with total market power can raise prices without losing any customers to competitors. Firms that have power to set price are referred to as "price makers" or "price setters", while those without itare sometimes called "price-takers". Significant market power occurs when prices exceed marginal cost and the long run average cost, so the firm makes economic profits. A firm with market power has the ability to individually affect either the total quantity or the prevailing price in the market. Price makers face a downward slopingdemand curve, such that increases in price leads to a

  16. Market integration and market structure in the European soft drinks industry: always Coca-Cola?

    OpenAIRE

    Matraves, Catherine

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the question of European integration, considering whether the geographic level at which competition takes place differs across the two major segments of the soft drinks industry: carbonated soft drinks and mineral water. Our evidence shows firms are competing at the European level in both segments. Interestingly, the European market is being integrated through corporate strategy, defined as increased multinationality, rather than increased trade flows. To interpret these...

  17. The telecommunications industry and economic growth: how the market structure matters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jerbashian, Vahagn

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 42 (2011), s. 1-68 ISSN N R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Grant - others:UK(CZ) GAUK 79310 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : telecommunication industry * market structure * economic growth Subject RIV: AH - Economic s

  18. The telecommunications industry and economic growth: how the market structure matters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jerbashian, Vahagn

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 51, December (2015), s. 515-523 ISSN 0264-9993 Grant - others:UK(CZ) GAUK 79310 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : telecommunications industry * market structure * economic growth Subject RIV: AH - Economic s Impact factor: 0.997, year: 2015

  19. Agglomeration externalities, market structure and employment growth in high-tech industries: Revisiting the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieślik Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we revisit the existing empirical evidence on the effects of various agglomeration externalities and the market structure on employment growth in the high-tech industries of the European Economic Area (EEA. Our study is based on the dynamic panel dataset of two-digit NACE rev 1.1. industries in 285 regions of the European Economic Area for the period 1995-2007. We find that employment growth is negatively related to competition, while localization and urbanization externalities do not seem to affect growth.

  20. Optimizing the structure of financial resources of industrial enterprises in the market economy mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vlasov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the optimization of the structure of financial resources of industrial enterprises in the market economy mechanism. The slowdown of the Russian economy force companies to promote more accurate system financial planning its activities. In modern economic conditions the company's performance is largely dependent on the ability of management to more accurately predict financial flows, as well as more accurately predict the financial and human resources to ensure solvency of the enterprise, thus more competent to form the strategy of development of the organization.Goal / task. The aim of the article the search for the optimal structure of financial resources of industrial enterprises in the market economy mechanism and to develop proposals for the sustainable development of the enterprise. The task of this article is to investigate the structure of financial resources of the enterprise, in a deteriorating economic situation that must be considered in the sustainable development of industrial enterprises.Methodology. In conducting this study the main sources of the original data were the materials of the state statistics, the works of famous economists. The basis of the methodological developments based on comparative methods of analysis.Results. Given the concept of optimizing the structure of financial resources of the industrial enterprises. It shows the influence of external and internal factors affecting the stability of the industrial enterprises. Highlighted the impact of the economic situation on the role of these factors.Conclusions / significance. In the current economic conditions of the state and the new economic realities, it is necessary to focus to industrial enterprises to conduct an effective economic policy, thereby improving the financial stability of the enterprise.

  1. Market structure and competition in the healthcare industry : Results from a transition economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lábaj, Martin; Silanič, Peter; Weiss, Christoph; Yontcheva, Biliana

    2018-02-14

    The present paper provides first empirical evidence on the relationship between market size and the number of firms in the healthcare industry for a transition economy. We estimate market-size thresholds required to support different numbers of suppliers (firms) for three occupations in the healthcare industry in a large number of distinct geographic markets in Slovakia, taking into account the spatial interaction between local markets. The empirical analysis is carried out for three time periods (1995, 2001 and 2010) which characterise different stages of the transition process. Our results suggest that the relationship between market size and the number of firms differs both across industries and across periods. In particular, we find that pharmacies, as the only completely liberalised market in our dataset, experience the largest change in competitive behaviour during the transition process. Furthermore, we find evidence for correlation in entry decisions across administrative borders, suggesting that future market analysis should aim to capture these regional effects.

  2. Market structure, price rigidity, and performance in the Indonesian food and beverages industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Keywords: industrial concentration, price rigidity, technical efficiency, price-cost margin, Structure-Conduct-Performance (SCP), new empirical industrial organization (NEIO), Indonesian food and beverages industry, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), system of equations

  3. The Evolving Market Structure of the U.S. Residential Solar PV Installation Industry, 2000-2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-22

    Market structure refers to the number of firms and the distribution of market shares among firms within an industry. In The Evolving Market Structure of the U.S. Residential Solar PV Installation Industry, 2000-2016, we examine market structure in the context of residential solar PV. We find that over 8,000 companies have installed at least one residential PV system, with about 2,900 companies active in 2016. The majority of residential PV installers are relatively small companies, with about half of installers installing fewer than five systems. At the same time, a subset of high-volume installers accumulated market share, especially beginning around 2010 with the emergence of alternative customer financing options.

  4. Advertising and the Evolution of Market Structure in the US Car Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Geroski, Paul A; Mazzucato, Mariana

    2001-01-01

    This paper focuses on a single simple stylized fact which stands out from the post-war history of the US car industry, namely that industry concentration fell just at the same time as industry advertising expenditures rose sharply. Since both events were almost certainly caused by the entry and market penetration of (largely) foreign owned car producers, this stylized fact raises interesting questions about whether – and if so, how – advertising affects entry. We use a model of consumer switc...

  5. Market structure and the role of consumer information in the physician services industry: an empirical test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, H S

    1996-04-01

    This paper applies Panzar and Rosse's (1987) econometric test of market structure to examine two long-debated issues: What is the market structure for physician services? Do more physicians in a market area raise the search cost of obtaining consumer information and increase prices (Satterthwaite, 1979, 1985)? For primary care and general and family practice physicians, the monopolistically competitive model prevailed over the competing hypotheses--monopoly, perfect competition, and monopolistic competition characterized by consumer informational confusion. Although less conclisive, there is some evidence to support the monopolistically competitive model for surgeons and the consumer informational confusion model for internal medicine physicians.

  6. The Evolving Market Structure of the U.S. Residential Solar PV Installation Industry, 2000-2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-16

    This study uses data on over 900,000 solar PV installations to summarize the evolving market structure of the U.S. residential solar PV installation industry. Over 8,000 companies have installed residential PV systems in the United States. The vast majority of these installers are small local companies. At the same time, a subset of national-scale high-volume PV installation companies hold high market shares. This study examines the factors behind these trends in market concentration, including the role of customer financing options.

  7. The structure of Canada's uranium industry and its future market prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Production of uranium in Canada began in the 1940s to supply the needs of US weapons development. After 1966 a growing demand for uranium for nuclear power production stimulated exploration, and since then the health of the Canadian uranium industry has been tied to the state of the nuclear power industry. Uranium exploration in Canada is carried out mainly by private enterprise, although the federal and two provincial governments compete through crown corporations. Seven companies produce ore, and six have processing plants. Expansion is underway at several existing operations, and some new projects are underway. The industry is strongly dependent on export markets; only about 15 percent of Canadian production is used in the country. There is one uranium refinery which produces UO 2 powder for CANDU reactor fuel and UF 6 for export. The uranium hexafluoride facility is being expanded. Federal government policy affects the uranium industry in the fields of regulation, ownership, safeguards, protection of the domestic industry, and international marketing. The short-term outlook for the industry is deteriorating, with declining uranium prices, but prospects seem considerably brighter in the longer term. Canada has about 12 percent of the world's uranium reserves, and is the second-largest producer. Discovery potential is believed to be excellent

  8. The Competitive Market Structure of the U.S. Lodging Industry and its Impact on the Financial Performance of Hotel Brands

    OpenAIRE

    Matovic, Dragan

    2002-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to explore the relationship among various market structure constructs (consisting of barriers to entry, competition, growth, and market share) and their potential impact on financial performance. By applying theoretical underpinnings from the disciplines of marketing, strategy and industrial organization economics, and adapting them to the unique characteristics of the U.S. lodging industry, the above constructs were linked to produce the Lodging Market...

  9. Research Investments and Market Structure in the Food Processing, Agricultural Input, and Biofuel Industries Worldwide

    OpenAIRE

    Fuglie, Keith O.; Heisey, Paul W.; King, John L.; Day-Rubenstein, Kelly A.; Schimmelpfennig, David E.; Wang, Sun Ling

    2011-01-01

    Meeting growing global demand for food, fiber, and biofuel requires robust investment in agricultural research and development (R&D) from both public and private sectors. This study examines global R&D spending by private industry in seven agricultural input sectors, food manufacturing, and biofuel and describes the changing structure of these industries. In 2007 (the latest year for which comprehensive estimates are available), the private sector spent $19.7 billion on food and agricultural ...

  10. Evolution of correlation structure of industrial indices of U.S. equity markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccheri, Giuseppe; Marmi, Stefano; Mantegna, Rosario N

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the dynamics of correlations present between pairs of industry indices of U.S. stocks traded in U.S. markets by studying correlation-based networks and spectral properties of the correlation matrix. The study is performed by using 49 industry index time series computed by K. French and E. Fama during the time period from July 1969 to December 2011, which spans more than 40 years. We show that the correlation between industry indices presents both a fast and a slow dynamics. The slow dynamics has a time scale longer than 5 years, showing that a different degree of diversification of the investment is possible in different periods of time. Moreover, we also detect a fast dynamics associated with exogenous or endogenous events. The fast time scale we use is a monthly time scale and the evaluation time period is a 3-month time period. By investigating the correlation dynamics monthly, we are able to detect two examples of fast variations in the first and second eigenvalue of the correlation matrix. The first occurs during the dot-com bubble (from March 1999 to April 2001) and the second occurs during the period of highest impact of the subprime crisis (from August 2008 to August 2009).

  11. Deregulation, market structure and gas prices in the Canadian Natural Gas Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhler, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    During the course of the development of the natural gas industry in Canada, gas purchase and sales markets have evolved from being relatively free of regulation to being highly regulated and back again. Though pipeline transport charges were regulated, the pipeline companies, or their subsidiaries, owned the gas that they transported and price and other provisions of purchase and sales contracts were freely negotiated with the producers at one end and distributing utilities or industrial users at the other end. The Western Accord of 1985 set the process of deregulation of the Canadian natural gas industry in motion. On November 1, 1986, natural gas prices in interprovincial trade were deregulated in that domestic natural gas prices were to be freely negotiated. Although not stated explicitly, government policy is to permit export prices to be freely negotiated so long as they do not fall below domestic prices. The deregulation process has dramatically changed the relationship between buyers and sellers. Of particular importance is that deregulation has permitted companies to negotiate gas purchase contracts directly with producers with the pipeline company acting solely as a gas transporter. The purpose of this paper is to examine the forces that have led to shorter term contracts and to examine the likely effect of these contract terms on reservoir development investment incentives. 5 refs., 3 figs

  12. Economic governance in the Chinese PV industry: Structural and individual factors influencing market development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruss, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the new millennium, the global production of photovoltaic (PV modules has been experiencing a rapid growth. In 2008, China already had 50 times more producers than in 2001 and three Chinese companies ranked amongst the top 10 PV producers worldwide. However, overcapacities and international trade disputes have challenged the success story of the Chinese PV industry. In order to try to tackle the mechanisms which have fostered the overall development of the Chinese PV industry since the 2000s, I have conducted a qualitative case study on Chinese PV modules producers. Following the logic of a qualitative research design, theories on cluster development have been used as an analytical device for structuring the causal narrative. In a circular research process design, structural factors, such as local growth fetishism and rebalancing, as well as individual factors, such as herd behaviour and wishful thinking, have been identified as drivers along the line of the life cycle of clusters. In this respect, this paper contests the still popular idea of the Chinese central government as the omnipotent and rational director of the Chinese economy and takes the consequences of past decentralization policies as well as bounded rationality into consideration. Since the political emphasis of regional development for global competitiveness had similar policy effects in different countries, the findings call for a context sensitive comparison between industries and countries.

  13. Facebook Marketing for Fashion Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Han

    2011-01-01

    Social media platforms like Facebook, YouTube and Twitter, etc… are fundamentally changing the way business and consumers behave. It has created chances and challenges for the marketers. The main objective of the study is to figure out whether Facebook can be used to create brand awareness in the fashion industry. It also finds out methods and tactics of Facebook marketing. Moreover, it aims to explore the benefits and pitfalls of using Facebook marketing compared to traditional marketing. A ...

  14. Market structure, market strategy and customer satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Kristensen, Kai; Steensen, Elmer Fly

    2007-01-01

    The popularity of customer satisfaction measurements has grown considerably over the last few years but we know very little about how the structure of the individual markets with respect to the transparency of products and services as well as how consumer preferences affect customer satisfaction....... Here a total of 14540 customers have evaluated their preferred supplier with respect to banking, property insurance, supermarkets and mobile telecom. The analysis shows that market structure has a profound effect on customer satisfaction measurements and that this effect differs from industry...... to industry. The paper concludes with an evaluation of the implications of the findings in relation to the use of results from customer satisfaction studies....

  15. The downstream industry compared to market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, B.

    2010-01-01

    J.L. Schilansky introduces here the difficult question of the downstream industry compared to market in recalling the recent structural changes (behaviour of customers, behaviour of the USA- and China-governments), the increase of the European and French regulations, the climatic change and the conjectural impact of the crisis on the refining industry. (O.M.)

  16. Hospital prices and market structure in the hospital and insurance industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Asako S; Vogt, William B; Gaynor, Martin

    2010-10-01

    There has been substantial consolidation among health insurers and hospitals, recently, raising questions about the effects of this consolidation on the exercise of market power. We analyze the relationship between insurer and hospital market concentration and the prices of hospital services. We use a national US dataset containing transaction prices for health care services for over 11 million privately insured Americans. Using three years of panel data, we estimate how insurer and hospital market concentration are related to hospital prices, while controlling for unobserved market effects. We find that increases in insurance market concentration are significantly associated with decreases in hospital prices, whereas increases in hospital concentration are non-significantly associated with increases in prices. A hypothetical merger between two of five equally sized insurers is estimated to decrease hospital prices by 6.7%.

  17. INDUSTRIAL DESIGN ELEMENTS IN MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TOCARIU Liliana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Industrial design represents an important 20th century phenomenon, which contributed to the spectacular development of human society. There are a lot of domains in which the insertion of the industrial design methods and theories is extremely necessary, becoming common practice. Marketing uses industrial design elements in order to draw up advertisements for products, to develop logos or packaging with all its attached factors, to organise promotional sales with the view of penetrating a certain market or of appealing to a large number of consumers.

  18. Do company strategies and structures converge in global markets? Evidence from the computer industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duysters, G.M.; Hagedoorn, J.

    2001-01-01

    This note examines isomorphism and diversity in a global industry. We study how the ongoing internationalisation process has affected companies from various regions of the world. Empirical research is focussed on the international computer industry. We find that companies in this sector have become

  19. MARKETING PLANNING IN HEALTHCARE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobeica Ana Amaria

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop a perspective on what is important or critical to the discipline of healthcare marketing by analyzing the marketing plan from the institutional (or organizational perspective. This “salience issue” is complicated by the structural problems in healthcare such as new advertising programs, advances in medical technology, and the escalating costs of care in the recent economic situation of world economic crisis. Reviewing a case study, the paper examines how marketing managers face increasingly difficult management and it emphasizes one more time the importance of marketing in the internal organizational structure. Also it shows the direct connection between the marketing strategy, the Quality of Healthcare and marketing planning in the internal organization of Private Healthcare Practice in Romania. Also it concludes that marketing planning in healthcare has to be very precised in order to achieve some major objectives: customer care, financial stability, equilibrium between stakeholders and shareholders and future improvement in communication to customers. The marketing strategies and programs discussed in this paper follow the analysis of the 4Ps of Healthcare Marketing Services and propose call to action plans and possibilities that might result in a more particular case study analysis of the Romanian Healthcare Market.

  20. Marketing Strategies in the Luxury Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lee-Palis, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to determine the marketing strategies used in the luxury industry differentiate luxury from premium and research the motivations values and beliefs of luxury consumers. Research was done on five main luxury activities: fashion and leather goods jewelry and watches and perfumes and cosmetics spirits and automobiles. The literature part has been structured in a way to present the evolution of the luxury industry and its development over the course of years. The section...

  1. Integration of the market of the European Community and the change of the industrial structure; EC shijo togo to sangyo kozo no henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, T; Uno, K; Tanimoto, T; Yamashita, T [Osaka Sangyo University, Osaka (Japan). Institute for Industrial Research

    1994-11-22

    This paper describes progress of the cooperation as to the integration of EC market and the change of industrial structure. For the structural change in the industry and economy accompanied by the integration of EC, effects of the Maastricht Treaty on the economic structure of EC are described. It is considered that the EC countries are affected by the political and economical restrictions due to the agreement of this treaty. For the change in the distribution structure accompanied by the integration of EC, obstruction factors of the deregulation of EC transportation market are especially investigated. Differences in the distribution capacity, various regulations and standards, and labor condition among individual countries are pointed out as the obstruction factors. For the unity of Germany and its economical and administrative influence, various problems are pointed out as to the economical confusion, progress in the de-nationalization of enterprises, management of real estate and land, etc. For the structural change in the road freight market in the member nations of EC, the structure of road freight market is made clear for the previous West Germany before the integration of European market. It is confirmed that the internationalization of the German domestic market is being promoted.

  2. Marketing and Globalization of the Brewing Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Wu, Yanqing

    2016-01-01

    The globalization of the brewing industry after the turn of the century through a large wave of mergers and acquisitions has changed the structure of the world beer markets. The chapter tracks the development in industry concentrations from 2002 to 2012 and points to high transportation costs...... for beers and economies of scale at the firm level in advertising and sales efforts as the main factors behind the wave of cross-country mergers and acquisitions. Using firm-level data from the largest breweries, the estimations verify significant economies of scale at the firm level in marketing...... significant economies of scale benefits at the firm level to be shared between the merging partners as marketing and distribution costs are very high in this industry....

  3. Integration of the market of the European community and the change of the industrial structure. EC shijo togo to sangyo kozo no henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanimoto, T; Uno, K; Nakamura, T; Yamashita, S [Osaka Sangyo University, Osaka (Japan). Institute for Industrial Research

    1992-11-20

    This paper considers problems in the change of the industrial structure as a result of the EC market integration, and the change of the physical distribution structure, mainly in cargo transportation. The market integration is being moved forward mainly on liberalization of flows in people, materials, and currencies, but the material flow liberalization has not progressed noticeably because of difficulty in deregulations. Changes in the transportation structure on the whole in the EC countries would not see a complete removal of barriers supported by the transportation licensing system because of issues in protecting domestic transportation markets and sharing the road expenses, even if the tariff barrier has been removed as a result of the market integration. Amid the predictions on deregulated legislations and intensified competition associated with the integration, the French trucking industry is indicated of its direction toward a two-layer structure comprising large-scale enterprises and medium-to-small companies. The German unification created problems in transferring from the socialistic command economy to the capitalistic market economy. The paper gives considerations on the real state of affairs in the privatization policy of the people-owned enterprises in the former East Germany, and its economic and managerial problems that should be solved amid the large-area EC market integration based on the mutualism over and above the economic system transition.

  4. Business, industrial marketing and uncertainty [Editorial

    OpenAIRE

    Merigó Lindahl, José M.; Gil Lafuente, Anna Maria; Gil Lafuente, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, entitled "Business, Industrial Marketing and Uncertainty", presents selected extended studies that were presented at the European Academy of Management and Business Economics Conference (AEDEM 2012).

  5. Industrial process heat market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresnick, S.

    1981-12-01

    This report is designed to be a reference resource, giving a broad perspective of the potential HTGR market for industrial process heat. It is intended to serve as a briefing document for those wishing to obtain background information and also to serve as a starting point from which more detailed and refined studies may be undertaken. In doing so, the report presents a qualitative and quantitative description of the industrial process heat market in the US, provides a summary discussion of cogeneration experience to date, and outlines the existing institutional and financial framework for cogeneration. The intent is to give the reader an understanding of the current situation and experience in this area. The cogeneration area in particular is an evolving one because of regulations and tax laws, which are still in the process of being developed and interpreted. The report presents the latest developments in regulatory and legislative activities which are associated with that technology. Finally, the report presents a brief description of the three HTGR systems under study during the current fiscal year and describes the specific market characteristics which each application is designed to serve

  6. Industrial process heat market assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresnick, S.

    1981-12-01

    This report is designed to be a reference resource, giving a broad perspective of the potential HTGR market for industrial process heat. It is intended to serve as a briefing document for those wishing to obtain background information and also to serve as a starting point from which more detailed and refined studies may be undertaken. In doing so, the report presents a qualitative and quantitative description of the industrial process heat market in the US, provides a summary discussion of cogeneration experience to date, and outlines the existing institutional and financial framework for cogeneration. The intent is to give the reader an understanding of the current situation and experience in this area. The cogeneration area in particular is an evolving one because of regulations and tax laws, which are still in the process of being developed and interpreted. The report presents the latest developments in regulatory and legislative activities which are associated with that technology. Finally, the report presents a brief description of the three HTGR systems under study during the current fiscal year and describes the specific market characteristics which each application is designed to serve.

  7. Marketing potential of industrial companies of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Oliynyk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article determines the essence of the marketing potential of the company as a part of improving the efficiency of the company’s activity forming a united mechanism along with industrial and financial subsystems. The components of the total potential of the company, the factors forming structure of the marketing potential of the company and the approaches to the evaluation of such a potential of the company are considered. It is determined that the marketing potential of the company integrates all the marketing resources, reserves and the possibility of their use, and the functioning as well as development of the system are subjected to the achievement of the main company’s goals. The differences in the interpretation of economic, market and marketing potential of the company are identified, although they are related to the subject of entrepreneurship, but they differ in their essence. The substantiation of the essence of marketing potential of the company, the development of an effective mechanism of its management with the possibility of evaluation will contribute to the maximum satisfaction of interests of information consumers’ groups, the formation of strategic directions of the activity, making management decisions at the micro level, the effective functioning in the internal and external markets.

  8. Marketing communication in Finnish industrial companies

    OpenAIRE

    Vuorio, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Marketing communication has a significant role for profitable businesses in industrial markets, and its role is only expected to rise in the future. Especially, integrated marketing communication (IMC) and customer-oriented approach are universally regarded fundamental developments in the field of marketing. Secondly, Finnish companies’ marketing competences are commonly considered insufficient in general. The purpose of this study was to describe how Finnish industrial companies execute t...

  9. Market Analysis, Opportunity Recognition and Strategy Diagnosis in Toy Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khajeheian, Datis

    2018-01-01

    According to many market researches and industrial reports Iran is one of the biggest toy markets in the Middle East and North Africa region. The Iranian toy market has been identified as a niche market with lots of unexploited opportunities. Nonetheless, the Iranian toy industry has shown...... for this misdirection were that the Iranian toy industry lacked a traditional structure, a strategic perspective and also absence of international cooperation. This research suggests that the Iranian toy industries need to move its focus from manufacturing, where the country has no competitive advantage, toward toy...

  10. The worldwide nuclear industry and its markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mons, L.

    2000-06-01

    The world nuclear industry has entered a phase of low activity since the beginning of the 90's. The opening of electricity markets to competition, the reserve of part of the public opinion with respect to nuclear energy and the competition of other power production sources explain the lack of dynamism of nuclear markets. In this context of uncertainties, the nuclear sector has started a re-structuration in depth with new strategic trends which will be decisive for the perenniality of the nuclear industry. The front-end of the fuel cycle is disturbed by production over-capacities which lead to strong tensions on prices. The veering of the German and Belgian policies has had strong impacts on the spent fuels reprocessing activity and the reactor construction activity is in decline in Europe and in the US. On the other hand, services are developing with the extension of the service life of nuclear plants and the waste management and dismantling markets are emerging. The main stakes that the occidental nuclear actors have to face today are: improving the competitiveness of nuclear industry, mastering the management of long-living radioactive wastes, proving the safeness of nuclear power, countering the arrival of Asian competitors. In front of these stakes, the nuclear actors have to take initiatives such as: concentration, vertical integration, technological innovation, communication, diversification etc.. This study examines the overall segments of the world nuclear industry. It comprises also a behaviour and strategy analysis of 13 major actors of this sector. (J.S.)

  11. The Global Petrochemical Industry: the market. Market Analysis - 2017-2023 Trends - Corporate Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-02-01

    This study presents: The medium-term and mega trends of the industry market developments and geographical segments; The competitive landscape and the main corporate rankings; The main conclusions of the report, summarised in 10 analytical slides. Content: 1. Market Fundamentals: Overview, The Industry; 2. Market Environment and Prospects: Market Environment, Demand, Supply, Trade; 3. Corporate Strategies and Competition: Competitive Environment, Structure of Competition, Business Strategies; 4. Case Studies; 5. Statistical Appendix; 6. Sources; 7. Annexes

  12. The European Power and Gas Industry: the Market. Market Analysis - 2017-2020 Trends - Corporate Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    This study presents: The medium-term and mega trends of the industry market developments and geographical segments; The competitive landscape and the main corporate rankings; The main conclusions of the report, summarised in 10 analytical slides. Content: 1. Market Fundamentals: Overview, The Industry; 2. Market Environment and Prospects: Market Environment, Demand and Supply, Prices, Trade; 3. Corporate Strategies and Competition: Competitive Environment, Structure of Competition, Business Strategies; 4. Case Studies; 5. Statistical Appendix; 6. Sources; 7. Annexes

  13. The Global Renewable Energy Equipment Industry: the Market. Market Analysis - 2017-2035 Trends - Corporate Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-08-01

    This study presents: The medium-term and mega trends of the industry market developments and geographical segments; The competitive landscape and the main corporate rankings; The main conclusions of the report, summarised in 10 analytical slides. Content: 1. Market Fundamentals: Overview, The Industry; 2. Market Environment and Prospects: Market Overview, Demand, Supply; 3. Corporate Strategies and Competition: Competitive Forces, Structure of Competition, Corporate Strategies; 4. Case Studies; 5. Statistical Appendix; 6. Sources; 7. Annexes

  14. Consumer Marketing and the Airline Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    The fundamentals of consumer marketing as applied to the airline industry are considered. An attempt is made to boil down the mystique and jargon which frequently surround the subject of marketing. Topics covered include: (1) The marketing concept; (2) consumer expectations from airlines; (3) planning of marketing strategy; and (4) the roles of advertising, sales, and middlemen.

  15. Fashion marketing in textile and clothing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alica Grilec Kaurić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Fashion marketing explores connection between fashion design and marketing including development, promotion, sales and price aspects of fashion industry. Successful fashion marketing managers are aware that the most important fashion marketing elements are customer trend identification, building strong brands and creating positive image of the producers. This paper presents the findings of a research conducted for the purpose of identifying trends in marketing sector in textile and clothing industry in Croatia. The research was conducted through personal interviews with marketing and company managers in Croatia. The research identified that marketing is insufficiently implemented in Croatian textile and clothing industry, despite growing brand management importance. However, because of lack in marketing knowledge and bad brand management, development of fashion brand is the most critical factor in successful business activity in textile and clothing industry.

  16. Market integration and market concentration in horizontally differentiated industries

    OpenAIRE

    Eckel, Carsten

    2001-01-01

    This paper derives the impact of market integration on equilibrium firm size and market concentration in horizontally differentiated industries. We show that market concentration (measured by the number of firms) can rise as a consequence of market integration if firms engage in R&D competition. We also demonstrate that whether concentration occurs or not depends on the R&D production function and on consumer preferences. This result implies that the welfare effects of market integration are ...

  17. Market structures in international telecommunications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders

    1998-01-01

    Paper dealing with the internationalisation of telecommunications and the developing market structures.......Paper dealing with the internationalisation of telecommunications and the developing market structures....

  18. Fashion marketing in textile and clothing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Alica Grilec Kaurić

    2009-01-01

    Fashion marketing explores connection between fashion design and marketing including development, promotion, sales and price aspects of fashion industry. Successful fashion marketing managers are aware that the most important fashion marketing elements are customer trend identification, building strong brands and creating positive image of the producers. This paper presents the findings of a research conducted for the purpose of identifying trends in marketing sector in textile and clothing i...

  19. Commercial-industrial marketing professionals for gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavrik, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    Today's changing business world exposes two sales/marketing systems. One is indirectly removed from contact with the customers, but still meets their needs. Whereas the sales/marketing system that exercises the skills of Commercial/Industrial Marketing Professionals has direct customer contact that not only meets the customer's needs, but also satisfies them

  20. Market Structure and Market Access

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Francois; Ian Wooton

    2008-01-01

    The authors examine an issue at the nexus of domestic competition policy and international trade, the interaction between goods trade and market power in domestic trade and distribution sectors. Theory suggests a set of linkages between service-sector competition and goods trade supported by econometrics involving imports of 22 OECD countries compared with 69 exporters. Competition in serv...

  1. The Design of E-Commerce System in the Shrimp Paste Industry using the Method of Structured Analysis and Design Technique (SADT to Increase Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdiansyah Yanuar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The E-Commerce system in the shrimp paste industry is designed to increase the marketing and branding of Payangan shrimp paste. The shrimp paste produced by KUB (Kelompok Usaha Bersama—Business Group and Poklahsar (Kelompok Pengolah Pemasaran—Marketing Processing Group consisting of a number of joint household industries is yet to meet the sales number set. Shrimp paste has several variants, such as the processed one, the raw one and one in the form of powder which constitute the result of the development of maritime research group of Universitas Jember. The target market of the product is both national and international, especially for the powder shrimp paste which is the recent innovation of the maritime research group. It is considered to be a possibility to increase the sales figures and to decrease the marketing costs by optimizing the use of the internet. In order to do so, a system should be design using Structured Analysis and Design Technique (SADT to build an e-commerce application. It is expected that the E-Commerce application can increase the sales of the shrimp paste and reach a wider number of consumers.

  2. The Marketing Channels of China Auto Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    our reporter

    2001-01-01

    <正> After the 1990’s, the multi-channel structure of sales has still existed although the market mechanism is playing a main role in Chinese auto marketing circulation. Now, the channels of automobile marketing in China are as follows: 1. Manufacturer-established marketing channels

  3. Strategy-Based Segmentation of Industrial Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhallen, Theo M.M.; Frambach, Ruud T.; Prabhu, Jaideep

    Segmentation of industrial markets is typically based on observable characteristics of firms such as their location and size. However, such variables have been found to be poor predictors of industrial buying behavior. To improve the effectiveness and power of existing approaches to industrial

  4. Marketing Communication Strategies of the Industrial Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Wodyński

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Industrial market, created by companies, which buy and sell goods which are not directly for consumption, but are used in production process, communicates with the environment in a specific way. Many industrial companies supply only the customers of non consumption goods market and hence they do not enter into direct contact with a final consumer. In such cases recognizing the customers needs is even more difficult. Such environment requires efficiently functioning and planned communication of the company with the market. This study presents methods and strategies of marketing communication really used in industrial companies. While analysing marketing strategies of industrial companies, the author draws the attention to the fact that even though there was system transformation, the state still has significant impact on functioning and development of industry and that in a way directs and created barriers in companies functioning. Such conditions force even more active marketing communication as well as searching new solutions. As there are more and more sophisticated marketing techniques related to digital media, there is also a growing demand for strategic solutions in marketing communication. Digital media, first of all the Internet, provide so far unavailable possibilities of researching consumers behaviours and ways of using media. They also give a chance to follow the behaviour of smaller, unique and often social groups of consumers.

  5. Ranking French nuclear industry on international market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labbe, B.

    1987-01-01

    Based on the success of its own ambitious nuclear power station program, France has been able to export its technology to many parts of the world, providing everything from individual components to complete power stations on a turnkey basis. Industrial partners who regurarly work together have set up the necessary structures to ensure the dovetailing of their activities during joint operations on the foreign market. These structures are matched to the needs of individual clients, and can be dispensed with completely in cases where a sole supplier is involved. Not one single unit under construction has been halted and no contract cancelled after the Chernobyl accident. France, like Japan and the USSR, is pressing on with its nuclear power program. China has ordered two PWR units for Daya Bay, while Britain has decided to construct its first PWR at Sizewell. Although a number of countries have deferred decisions in this field, this has been mainly on financial grounds. The French nuclear power industry has demonstrated its mastery of the technology, which can now be placed at the disposal of countries wishing to build nuclear power units, to improve their existing nuclear capacity, to develop parts of this future-oriented industry, or to supply their power stations with advanced nuclear fuel

  6. Marketing orientation in pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prošić Danica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical companies are major stakeholders in the global health agenda Virtually all drugs used by patients in Europe reach markets through the promotion tactics of a small number of corporations with a tremendous impact on global health. The sector is both fast growing and highly profitable. Effective marketing strategies are a crucial ingredient in making sure pharmaceutical products and profits flow in a virtuous cycle. At first glance, the relationship between doctors and drug companies, as well as advertising practices for over-the-counter medication, appears tightly regulated. According to many consumer organizations, drug promotion in Europe today can be characterized as nice and friendly marketing. This refers to the creation of a false sense of trust that consumers associate with branded pharmaceutical products, as a result of pharmaceutical marketing efforts disguised as genuine corporate responsibility.

  7. Marketing: Events as marketing tools in Thai Hospitality Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Wenzhuo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Thailand is a developing country in Southeast Asia. It is one of the top tourist destinations in the world. The tourism industry has a big impact on this country’s economy, largely from foreign tourism. Tourism Authority Thailand as a marketing tool promotes Tai tourism industry and as a new concept to develop policy and marketing plan in tourism market in Thailand. However, the most of previous studies just have focused on foreigner travel in Thailand but only a few studies ment...

  8. Market competition in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, M.

    2008-01-01

    The nuclear industry provides a wide variety of specialized equipment and services to support the construction and operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs). This includes the supply of NPPs themselves, the range of materials and services required in the nuclear fuel cycle, and the services and equipment needed for maintenance and upgrading. The markets to provide these have changed substantially as they have evolved from the government-led early stages of the nuclear industry to predominantly competitive, commercial markets today. (author)

  9. Marketing Strategy of Cosmetics Industry in China

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shu

    2012-01-01

    Today, in the context of globalization and Chinese "open door" policy, many different international cosmetics companies are going to the Chinese market and existing companies are trying to enlarge their appearance to earn more profit margins.The main aim for writing this thesis on this topic was to analyze Chinese cosmetics industry environment via PEST analysis and the development of the industry. It's important to select a marketing strategy when doing business in China because of the huge ...

  10. Climate - These carbon markets which seduce industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandes, C.

    2011-01-01

    As many countries try to give a price to their carbon emissions, beyond the constraint carbon emissions represent, European industries consider these future carbon markets as financial opportunities. Some countries are inspired by the European trading system, and European industries think they will value their experience with this system on these new markets, notably by selling their consultancy expertise, and also because the factories they possess in these countries, China for example, already comply with European standards

  11. Theoretical-methodical Fundamentals of industrial marketing research

    OpenAIRE

    Butenko, N.

    2009-01-01

    The article proves the necessity to research theoretical and methodical fundamentals of industrial marketing and defines main key aspects of relationship management with the customers on industrial market.

  12. Marketing Strategies in Fashion Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Čmielová, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to define the fashion industry and identify the key developments that the segment has undertaken over the last two to three decades including the drivers behind these changes. Specifically, the thesis will provide insights into the financial indicators of the industry and review some of the most recent trends such as globalisation of supply chains and internationalisation of fashion retailers. The second section of the theoretical part will try to identify what are ...

  13. Promotion mix and industrial marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Dragoljub

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Promotion activities are very important and irreplaceable marketing instrument in placement of production goods. In contrast to final consumption goods, where advertising has an absolute priority compared to another promotion activities, personal sale and development of sale dominate during placement of production goods.

  14. Promotion mix and industrial marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Jovičić Dragoljub

    2007-01-01

    Promotion activities are very important and irreplaceable marketing instrument in placement of production goods. In contrast to final consumption goods, where advertising has an absolute priority compared to another promotion activities, personal sale and development of sale dominate during placement of production goods.

  15. Marketing Strategies in the Clothing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷丽娜

    2011-01-01

    Chinese clothing industry has stepped into a new era when the fierce competition,the internationalization and the pluralism coexist.If the clothing enterprises want to catch the market opportunities,and stand out in the clothing industry,they should chang

  16. Marketing for the photonics industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Humières, Benoît

    2018-04-01

    You create a start-up, diversify the business of your SME, expand your product range; every new activity, every new business, starts with a concept. You, your partners, your team, have an idea for a product. Your dream product will be better and cheaper or it might not even exist yet, but it will meet market requirements. You are going to make this concept a reality.

  17. Industrious peasants in east and west: markets, technology, and family structure in Japanese and Western European agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Jan de Vries engages with Osamu Saito's discussion of Tokugawa Japan, in particular, his exploration of de Vries's concept of an industrious revolution for East Asia, which was published in this journal in 2010. The discussion bears on the ongoing debate over the timing and character of the Great Divergence, when advanced parts of Europe pulled ahead of Asia. de Vries argues that the constraint on the Japanese rural household to acquire and shed labour delayed the shift from supply-side industriousness to demand-motivated industriousness, which in turn meant that the Great Divergence was already in place before 1800.

  18. Importance of marketing management in the world pfarmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Kesič

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The world pharmaceutical industry has changed tremendously in the last decade. Globalization processes reinforce a consolidation of the world pharmaceutical industry. Mergers and acquisitions prevail more and more as a strategic orientation of numerous world pharmaceutical companies. In our research we found out that marketing management has been playing an increasingly important or even a crucial role in day-today activities and strategic business operations of the world pharmaceutical companies. We may point out that a rapid consolidation of the world pharmaceutical industry is definitely a market-driven process, one conditioned by typical strategic marketing management issues, such as a lack of brand new products, intense competitiveness, globalization processes, increased global marketing and sales activities, changing structure of global competitors as well as a furious fight for global market shares and customers’ loyalty. We estimate that marketing management is to play an even more important and, especially, the top priority strategic role in the future globalization and concentration processes of the world pharmaceutical industry. Some experiences and lessons from the global perspective of the world pharmaceutical industry could also be useful to the management of pharmaceutical companies in the transition countries of the Central and Eastern European region. Taking into consideration the current market position of these companies, some marketing management guidelines for their marketing management policies and strategies could be suggested. We conclude that underestimating, or even complete neglect of the importance of marketing management issues may pose the greatest threat to the future strategic orientation and performance of the world pharmaceutical industry.

  19. Marketing of the gambling industry

    OpenAIRE

    Rožek, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is studying the current global as well as Czech gambling industry with the focus on internet gambling activities. The work begins with the description of various gambling activities. The focus is taken on the internet gambling activities with description of the specifics and the current European as well as US legal frame. Next part is dedicated to the psychology of gambling together with the pathological gambling addiction. In next part the thesis studies the current situation on ...

  20. Industrialized timber structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    It was recently learned that a number of innovations in structural timber components are available to the construction industry, but that they were largely unknown to bridge designers. The purpose of this study was to develop for the Department a fea...

  1. Assessing market competition in the Philippine cigarette industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meg Reganon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The recent passage of the Philippine Competition Act has caused many to rethink the market structure of Philippine industries. Foremost is the cigarette industry, whose structure bear important implications on the health of Filipinos. A competitive cigarette industry may mean price wars and intensified advertising, disproportionately harming the young and the poor. On the other hand, a concentrated industry may mean a dominant player with ability to engage in predatory pricing. The latter will also likely possess power to lobby against tobacco control policies. In this study, we assess the market competition in the Philippine cigarette industry, and its correlation with cigarette affordability in recent years. Methods Using retail volume data from Euromonitor International and financial reports from the Securities and Exchange Commission, we calculate for various measures of market concentration such as the Top 4 Concentration Ratio (C4, the Herfindahl-Hirschmann Index (HHI, and the Dominance Index (DI over the period 2007 to 2016. We then compare these measures against cigarette affordability trends. Results Across all measures, we find a highly concentrated cigarette industry. C4 ratios ranged from 97%-99%, HHI from 4754-8848, and DI from 7479-9973. In 2010 when Philip Morris acquired Fortune Tobacco, industry concentration peaked (HHI rose by 72% and DI by 33%. In 2012 when the Sin Tax Law was passed, competition slightly intensified with Mighty Corporation taking advantage of the transitionary dual tax structure. Most significantly, fluctuations in market concentration did not affect cigarette affordability. A pack of cigarettes costed 7.4%-8.4% of the daily minimum wage between 2006-2012. Conclusions Assessing the market structure of the cigarette industry better informs the formulation of effective tobacco control regulations. For a concentrated cigarette industry such as in the Philippines, an effective tax policy must temper

  2. Photovoltaic power. Industries and market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Photovoltaic conversion should become competitive with respect to other power generation sources before the second half of the 21. century. This article treats first of the different solar cell technologies (monocrystalline and polycrystalline silicon, thin film silicon, cadmium telluride-based materials, copper-indium selenide-based materials, multi-spectral cells, organic cells) with respect to their conversion efficiency, production and energy cost, and environmental impact. A second part describes the solar cells market, its growth with respect to the different applications (isolated sites, decentralized generation, power plants). A third part deals with the perspectives of photovoltaic conversion with respect to the advance in the development of new cell materials. (J.S.)

  3. Aspects of Market Differentiation in the Building Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Lin Teo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with different aspects of differentiation as a strategy to maintain growth and profitability in a rapidly changing environment. The specific aim of the study was to establish constraints in the use of product differentiation as a survivor technique in the building industry. The study shows that firms in the building industry perceive the structure and operation of different markets in the building industry as substantially different. If firms are to improve their market positions by differentiating their output, they need therefore to adjust the way they operate, their resources and their skills base.The survey result also showed that a substantial proportion of all firms are not prepared to be involved in diversification but elect to operate in one market only, despite the obvious advantages of diversification. It would therefore seem likely that the changes in the way a firm operates and the resources it employs when it moves into new markets are substantial.

  4. Strategic marketing in the UK tobacco industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Susan; Hastings, Gerard; MacFadyen, Lynn

    2002-08-01

    Tobacco-industry marketing has played a central part in the global spread of tobacco use and addiction. Although the absolute size of the tobacco market has dwindled, the industry is still immensely successful, largely due to sophisticated and manipulative marketing strategies. The UK tobacco industry identifies target groups and builds enduring relationships based on careful brand management. Potential customers are exposed to brands which are likely to appeal to them most. Tobacco companies tailor their products to target markets by altering the content of tar and nicotine, and by adding flavourings to produce a distinctive taste. Marketing strategies ensure that the products are promoted heavily at the point of sale, and directed advertising and sponsorship agreements are used to increase the visibility of the brand and strengthen its image. Tobacco companies also target non-consumer organisations such as retailers and policy makers with the aim of creating the best possible business environment for tobacco sales. We review published evidence, internal-advertising-agency documents, and observational data about tobacco promotion, and discuss the use of targeted marketing strategies in the UK.

  5. Industrial structure and privatisation of the Slovenian electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrovatin, N.

    1999-01-01

    The paper first analyses the existing structure of the Slovenian electricity industry and gives recommendations for its restructuring so as to conform to efficiency criteria and to comply with European Union provisions on the internal European electricity market. Then the paper outlines the necessity for privatisation and draws some conclusions on it such as determination of market values companies, the proportion for sale, privatisation methods and the general public's participation [it

  6. New market strategies in the automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokić Miljko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The world automotive industry has about 30% of excessive capacity. Regardless of that, the new plants are being constantly built. The countries of the East Europe, China and India are selected as suitable areas by almost all world leading car manufactures to build their additional plants in order to make profits. An open world market is subject to an uncompromising striving for each customer. Our manufacturers have to meet the same requirements if want to offer their products in the world market. Finding out of foreign strategic partners is the fastest way to recover a domestic automotive industry and to increase an employment rate.

  7. Market trends in the projection display industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Sweta

    2000-04-01

    The projection display industry represents a multibillion- dollar market that includes four distinct technologies. High-volume consumer products and high-value business products drive the market, with different technologies being used in different application markets. The consumer market is dominated by rear CRT technology, especially in the projection television segment. But rear LCD (liquid crystal display) and rear reflective (DLP, or Digital Light ProcessingTM) televisions are slowly emerging as future competitors to rear CRT projectors. Front CRT projectors are still popular in the high-end home theater market. Front LCD technology and front DLP technology dominate the business market. Traditional light valve technology was the only solution for applications requiring high light outputs, but new three-chip DLP projectors meet the higher light output requirements at a lower price. In the last few years the strongest growth has been in the business market for multimedia presentation applications. This growth was due to the continued increase in display pixel formats, the continued reduction in projector weight, and the improved price/performance ratio. The projection display market will grow at a significant rate during the next five years, driven by the growth in ultraportable (market to digital and HDTV products.

  8. MARKETING EXPENDITURES IN THE INDONESIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Mochtar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1960s, a “new” marketing concept known as "four Ps marketing mix" appeared and shifted the focus from the product to the customer. The objective of the new concept was not only profit, and the means of achieving the objective expanded to include the entire “marketing mix”: product, price, promotion, and place (channels and distribution. Expenditures of marketing in a company should be explored from these mixes, because each mix would have an impact on the total marketing expenditures. These four mixes are the main aspects of marketing and thus, should represent almost all expenditures in marketing in a company. From this research it is discovered that the responding contractors have only average efforts to improve or innovate their service, mostly using the latest construction methods and management approach. Correlated to their policy in the fourth mix (Place, they are still national oriented and not international oriented in marketing their services, this may lead to the big question of their survival; their motivation to innovate is only average while their target market is only national market. Their attitude to use more intensive “fees” policy rather than both product innovation and promotion is also interesting. Big percentage of the responding contractors assumes these “fees” are regular marketing practices. This attitude may better be stopped to make the construction industry practices healthier. Attitude to use more product innovation and true promotion approach in marketing in construction must be encouraged systematically in the future, to improve competitiveness in the long term.

  9. Equilibrium with arbitrary market structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Birgit; Vind, Karl

    2005-01-01

    . The complete market predicted by this theory is clearly unrealistic, and Radner [10] formulated and proved existence of equilibrium in a multiperiod model with incomplete markets. In this paper the Radner result is extended. Radner assumed a specific structure of markets, independence of preferences...

  10. Provincial labour market study : mould remediation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    Indoor exposure to mold can be problematic to human health, and some molds are considered to be toxigenic. The emergent mold remediation industry in Ontario is fragmented, with various different standards, training and certification processes. This report investigated the labour market for mold remediation workers, with particular reference to training needs and priorities. Research was derived from a literature review in order to analyze the economic, legal, technical and social context of the mold remediation industry. Data on the organized work force were obtained from records of the International Union of Painters and Allied Trades, the Labour Force Historical Review 2002, and various publications. Population data from the Ontario government and Statistics Canada were also used. Surveys of workers and employers were conducted with questionnaires. Results of the surveys indicated that mold remediation projects currently constitute a minority share of most companies' business. However, the importance of mold remediation projects is expected to increase, and industry self-regulation is the most likely scenario for the development of standards and related training programs. It was suggested that the creation of an industry body representing key stakeholder constituencies or the legitimization of an existing industry organization will reduce fragmentation and facilitate research, standard setting and certification, as well as improve marketing and education. If the demand for mold remediation services increases as anticipated, the industry will face the challenge of remaining competitive in the province's projected labour market due to shortages in personnel. There was a strong consensus between employers and workers in the mold remediation industry regarding the need for skills upgrading and compulsory certification. It was concluded that leadership is needed in the development and delivery of training programs, standard setting, recruitment and retention and

  11. CONSIDERATIONS ON MEASURING PERFORMANCE AND MARKET STRUCTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Spiridon Cosmin Alexandru

    2011-01-01

    According to neoclassical theory, the relationship between the price, respectively of marginal cost and market structures, the methods for determining the performance of a firm or of an industry, deviate from the model of perfect competition. Assessing performance involves performing comparisons, reporting that their reference level can be a standard value, or a statistical value which can be a national-regional average, a homogeneous group, or an average value at a market level. Modern theor...

  12. Market Concentration Rate and Market Performance of China’s Swine Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia ZHANG; Yucheng HE

    2016-01-01

    Empirical study on market concentration rate and market performance of China’s Swine Industry indicates that higher market concentration rate brings higher overall performance of swine industry. There exists no obvious causal relation between market concentration rate and market performance,but market performance is highly correlated with market concentration rate. The improvement in performance of swine industry is dependent on further optimization of market concentration rate and other factors.

  13. Natural gas industry in European Community and european single market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadoret, I.

    1992-01-01

    Common Market of natural gas is dominated by some companies. In several Member Countries, one company only manages the whole industry. European Economic Community thinks this type of structure induce hindrances to free circulation of natural gas in Europe. 10 refs

  14. Renewing Marketing Strategy in Kenyan Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kalliokuusi, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    This thesis studies how to renew existing marketing strategies for case company; in so doing, the thesis fulfills its main objective. Company X, a market leader in the Kenyan automobile sector and has various well-known brands under their corporate umbrella. The automobile industry in Kenya has faced some hardship with steady decline in sales in the last couple of years and Mercedes-Benz as a brand suffered under the circumstances. One major cause of the drop in sales is due to the influx of ...

  15. Space and industrial markets for photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huggins, C.R.; Hardingham, C.M.

    2000-07-01

    This report presents a review of applications, technologies and markets for photovoltaic power (PV) supplies. A brief history of PV and PV principles is presented, and an overview of the satellite industry is given. Space arrays, space PV, terrestrial PV, and thermo photovoltaics are examined. Targets and constraints in space and terrestrial solar cells are compared, and details of commercial market sizes for given technologies in space and terrestrial PV in 1999, and technical barriers to be overcome towards development of existing products are tabulated. The scope for cross-culture interaction in all aspects of manufacturing, testing and evaluation in the PV devices are considered. (UK)

  16. Space and industrial markets for photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huggins, C.R.; Hardingham, C.M.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents a review of applications, technologies and markets for photovoltaic power (PV) supplies. A brief history of PV and PV principles is presented, and an overview of the satellite industry is given. Space arrays, space PV, terrestrial PV, and thermo photovoltaics are examined. Targets and constraints in space and terrestrial solar cells are compared, and details of commercial market sizes for given technologies in space and terrestrial PV in 1999, and technical barriers to be overcome towards development of existing products are tabulated. The scope for cross-culture interaction in all aspects of manufacturing, testing and evaluation in the PV devices are considered. (UK)

  17. Marketing norm perception among medical representatives in Indian pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashekhara, Molugulu; Agil, Syed Omar Syed; Ramasamy, Ravindran

    2012-03-01

    Study of marketing norm perception among medical representatives is an under-portrayed component that deserves further perusal in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study is to find out the perception of marketing norms among medical representatives. The research design is quantitative and cross sectional study with medical representatives as unit of analysis. Data is collected from medical representatives (n=300) using a simple random and cluster sampling using a structured questionnaire. Results indicate that there is no difference in the perception of marketing norms among male and female medical representatives. But there is a difference in opinion among domestic and multinational company's medical representatives. Educational back ground of medical representatives also shows the difference in opinion among medical representatives. Degree holders and multinational company medical representatives have high perception of marketing norms compare to their counterparts. The researchers strongly believe that mandatory training on marketing norms is beneficial in decision making process during the dilemmas in the sales field.

  18. Citation Classics from Industrial Marketing Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Adam; Di Benedetto, C. Anthony

    2017-01-01

    , system sellers and systems integrator, third-party logistics providers, and value). Finally, each of the 30 citation classics is introduced, and the classics' theoretical implications to business-to-business marketing management and fields related to (e.g., supply chain management, strategic management......This article proposes a categorization of what constitutes a citation classic. General observations reveal, with regard to the top 30 citation classics from Industrial Marketing Management, the number of authors per article, country of origin of the lead author, and type of article (literature...... review, qualitative methodology, or quantitative methodology). In addition, these citation classics can be classified by topic (firm performance, goods-dominant and service-dominant logics, Internet and high-technology markets, product innovation, relationships and business networks, supply chains...

  19. The nuclear industry and its European markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This study gives an overview of the worldwide nuclear energy demand and reviews the different markets which are classified as 'mature' (uranium extraction, enrichment, conversion and reactors building), 'developing' (reprocessing, MOX fuel fabrication, maintenance and services) and 'emerging' (waste treatment and dismantling). Then, the study analyzes the evolution of demand and the answers of companies and presents the strategies and performances of nuclear industry leaders. (J.S.)

  20. Market Motivations for Voluntary Carbon Disclosure in Real Estate Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufere, Kalu Joseph; Alias, Buang; Godwin Uche, Aliagha

    2016-07-01

    Climate change mitigation in developing economies is a balancing act, between economic development and environmental sustainability. The need for market friendly determinants for low carbon economy, without compromising economic development is of essence. The aim of the study is to determine market friendly factors, which motivates voluntary carbon information disclosure, in the real estate industry. The study modeled economic factor with three variables and financial market factor with three variables against voluntary carbon information disclosure in the real estate industry. Structural equation modeling was used for the modeling and content analysis was used to collect data on the level of voluntary carbon information disclosure, from 2013 annual reports of 126 real estate sector companies listed in the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange (KLSE). The model achieved a good fit, and was acceptable prediction. The results show that financial market factor has a significant predictive influence on voluntary carbon disclosure. The application of the result is that financial market factor is has a significantly positive influence on companies’ willingness to make voluntary carbon disclosure in the real estate industry. The result may be limited to the real estate industry that is highly leveraged on syndicated fund.

  1. AN ANALYSIS OF MANUFACTURING MARKET STRUCTURE IN NORTH SUMATRA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asaad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze market structure and manufacturing industry performance on the economy of North Sumatra. The analysis uses two approaches, namely SCP analysis and econometric model. The data used is the Survey of Large Medium 2005-2009. The result shows that the structure of the industry is more dominant, including tight oligopoly, only small parts which belong to loose oligopoly and oligopoly markets. Some industries which have important roles for the economy are the palm oil industry, food and beverage industry, rubber industry and rubber products, and iron and steel basic industries, and basic non-ferrous metals.Keywords: market structure, industry performance, manufacturing industry, local economyJEL classification numbers: L10, L20, L60

  2. Marketing Cooperatives and Financial Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrikse, G.W.J.; Veerman, C.P.

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between the financial structure of marketing cooperatives and the requirement of the domination of control by the members of the cooperative is analysed with an emphasis on incomplete contracts and system complementarities. It is argued that the disappearance of shortage markets in

  3. The Internet Marketing Solution Toward Creative Industries in Bandung

    OpenAIRE

    Aditya M Salya

    2010-01-01

    This paper discribe a role of internet marketing toward creative industries in Bandung. How Internet Marketing can help the creative industries to access the market through internet. Bandung, as emerging city for creative industries in Indonesia has shown the great developent of small medium entreprise, that create the potential market. We highlight what is the tools of internet marketing as promotion that make customer interest to buy the product and at the end the impact of internet marketi...

  4. Bulgarian electricity market and the large-scale industrial customers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, P.; Kanev, K.; Dyankov, M.; Minkov, N.

    2003-01-01

    The paper focuses on a brief overview of the Bulgarian Electricity Market Design and steps toward its development, as well as on preliminary analyses for market opening and influence of large industrial customers to system and market operation. (author)

  5. Is a National Pork Marketing Cooperative Viable? A Case Study of Pork America within the Context of Structural Change in the US Pork Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Gehrke, Brad C.; Matson, James

    2000-01-01

    After World War II, livestock slaughter decentralized and livestock producers increased direct sales to packers. As a result, livestock producers have been less likely than other agricultural producers to use cooperatives to market their farm production. Between 1994 and 1998, less than 15 percent of livestock and wool production was marketed through cooperatives compared with 80 percent of milk production and 40 to 50 percent of grains and oilseeds. Recent structural change in the livestock ...

  6. An Analysis Of Manufacturing Market Structure In North Sumatra Province

    OpenAIRE

    Rasidin Karo-Karo Sitepu; Muhammad Asaad

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to analyze market structure and manufacturing industry performance on the economy of North Sumatra. The analysis uses two approaches, namely SCP analysis and econometric model. The data used is the Survey of Large Medium 2005-2009. The result shows that the structure of the industry is more dominant, including tight oligopoly, only small parts which belong to loose oligopoly and oligopoly markets. Some industries which have important roles for the economy are the palm oil indu...

  7. Impacts of market liberalisation on the EU gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oostvoorn, F.; Boots, M.G.

    1999-10-01

    The paper presents an analysis of tbc effects of tbc European Union (EU) Gas Directive on the EU natural gas industry in the next ten years. First, it briefly reviews the current driving factors for increasing competition in the EU gas markets. Second, the different directions of implementation of EU Gas Directive are discussed. Finally we give an assessment of impacts of the different directions of implementation of the Gas Directive, thereby focusing on structural changes of the gas industry and the scope for reduction of consumer gas prices. Note that our assessment of the impacts is partly based on an analysis of recent trends in the EU gas market and partly on calculations with a recently developed model of the EU gas market on company level. The paper summarises the main observations of a study conducted by the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) last year in the framework of a larger scenario study for the European Committee, Directorate-General 17, in the Shared Analysis Project, 'Economic Foundations for Energy Policy in Europe to 2020' managed by FhG-ISI. For the complete results of the ECN study, see report 'Impacts of Market Liberalisation on the EU Gas Industry', September 1999, forthcoming. Note that the analysis is limited to the gas market and does not include other impacts, i.c. on energy conservation, emissions, etc. 21 refs

  8. Eco-marketing in industrial enterprise activities

    OpenAIRE

    N.M. Chupryna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article. The aim of the article is determination of the areas of industrial enterprise’s development and detection of the specificity of their activity in terms of environmental priorities. The results of the analysis. The analysis of the research and publications of the leading scholars on the eco-marketing’s problem was conducted. The main factors of eco-marketing’s mechanism use were considered. Eco-marketing was determined as an important tool of the enterprises’ modern ...

  9. US coal industry seeks export markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    Problems encountered in the expansion of the USA export market for coal are discussed, including: lack of port facilities to handle bulk coal shipments; inadequate rail facilities and the already high costs; and delays caused by complex legislation. Solutions to the problem of ports are suggested, and also the advantages of coal export expansion with respect to industry as a whole and unemployment. Details of projects on the Canton Railroad and the terminal in Baltimore are given. Views of the American Association of Port Authorities on navigation are expressed.

  10. Promotion on the industrial products market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca-Dania TODOR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The literature abounds with articles and books on marketing and especially promoting consumer products. As consumers for these goods we are exposed each day to promotional messages of major product brands in order to attract or retain us when we are already buyers. Fewer things have been written about how to do promotion of industrial goods, which are a special category of goods, but have a very high quota in trade of goods, both nationally and internationally. This article will analy

  11. Relationship Marketing Stage of Development in Romanian Banking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Filip

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper emphasizes the relationship marketing stage of development within the banking industry in Romania, by identifying the extent to which business objectives and marketing strategies of companies are customer oriented. In order to achieve this aim a qualitative marketing research was conducted, by applying in-depth semi-structured interviews. The target group of the research consisted of nine banking companies, selected according to the market share, while the research participants were employees responsible for marketing, sales and customer relationship management activities. Due to respondents’ expertise, during the interviews could be applied mixed research methods in the process of data collection and subsequently, in data analysis. According to research objectives and results, although there is an increase in the importance of customer orientation within banking policies, the integration of relationship marketing optics at the institutional management level is facing a number of deficiencies, especially with regard to the concerns about employees’ satisfaction and loyalty or to the development of relationships with other stakeholders. The degree of satisfaction with the adoption of customer relationship management technology is relatively high among banks, being appreciated mainly those banking performance achieved in terms of retention rate, cross-selling and customer satisfaction. Most banks use the gross customer retention index as the main indicator of customer portfolio stability, although retention objectives tend to be set differently depending on customer value. Internal marketing strategies are developed around staff training processes, while performance evaluation criteria are rather specific to a transactional marketing approach. Results of the research provide clues on the relationship marketing processes and activities that need to be improved, in order to strengthen the current customer base and the competitive

  12. Positioning marketing in the hospital's power structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckham, D

    1984-08-01

    Although hospitals are increasingly recognizing the importance of marketing, many have difficulty assimilating what has been primarily an industrial concern into a health care environment. The author explains the function of marketing in health care, the outlook and expectations of a good marketing executive, and why hospital management and the medical staff may have difficulty accepting marketing and the expectations of the marketing executive.

  13. The role of digital channels in industrial marketing communications

    OpenAIRE

    Karjaluoto, Heikki; Mustonen, Nora; Ulkuniemi, Pauliina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this research is to investigate industrial marketing communications tools and the role of digital channels. The research draws from the literature on industrial marketing communications to examine its goals and intended utilization in industrial firms. Design/methodology/approach – An empirical multiple case study conducted among six industrial firms examines the current state of digital marketing communications (DMC). Findings – The study gleans thre...

  14. Strategic Marketing Problems in the Uganda Maize Seed Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Donald W.; Mbowa, Swaibu

    2004-01-01

    Strategic marketing issues and challenges face maize seed marketing firms as farmers increasingly adopt hybrid varieties in a modernizing third world country such as Uganda. The maize seed industry of Uganda has changed dramatically from a government owned, controlled, and operated industry to a competitive market oriented industry with substantial private firm investment and participation. The new maize seed industry is young, dynamic, growing and very competitive. The small maize seed marke...

  15. Innovative Marketing Strategies for National Industrial Flagships: Brand Repositioning for Accessing Upscale Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todiras, A.; Nijkamp, P.; Rafijeras, S.

    2011-01-01

    Product and process innovations are generally regarded as strategic competitive vehicles in industry. Identifying and conquering new market niches through focused marketing approaches - by emphasising new product qualities in mature markets - has become a very appropriate innovation strategy. This

  16. The essence and peculiarities of the development of industrial marketing in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Shkvyrya, Natalya

    2013-01-01

    In article the nature and meaning of industrial marketing in market conditions are determined. The main differences between consumer marketing of industrial marketing are systematized. Prerequisite for the development of industrial marketing in Ukraine are identified.

  17. Marketing opportunities and challenges for Canada's oil sands industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report demonstrated that effective marketing of Canadian oil sands products has been vital to the success of the industry in the past. Future success was expected to depend on having efficient transportation systems for the industry's products, unrestricted access to markets, and a range of products can competitively meet the needs of specific markets and customs. 9 ills

  18. Research on market power and market structure: A direct measure of market power of internet platform enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baowen Sun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This paper aims to clear whether the monopoly structure of the internet industry has produced market power and discussed the welfare change of the internet industry monopoly. Design/methodology/approach – By using new empirical industrial organization methods and taking the e-commerce market as an example, the authors measured market power and economies of scale of the internet platform companies. Findings – Internet platform enterprises have formed scale economy, but it has not had market power, and the industry still maintains high levels of competition; also, the emergence of large enterprises may increase the welfare of consumers. Originality/value – The conclusion of this paper clarified actual competition status of internet industry and provided a new foothold for regulation and ideas for the traditional industry to crack the Marshall Conflict.

  19. SWEETS FOR LIFE - RELATIONSHIP MARKETING TO CHILDRENIN THE SWEETS INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Löpmann, Sandra; Mühlenkamp, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Relationship marketing is widely discussed in the fields of industry goods and services. Also, the theme of marketing to children owns an important part within the existing literature in the marketing field. Nevertheless, there is a lack of literature for relationship marketing in consumer markets towards children. But especially in consumer markets there are certain products, which accompany consumer during their whole life. Brand preferences and loyalty towards certain products are not unus...

  20. PARTICULARITIES OF THE MARKETING ACTIVITY IN THE INSURANCE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Nicolae Al.

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the insurance industry there is a new way of thinking which determined the passage from transactional marketing to a holistic marketing concept. In this paper five key elements of holistic marketing are presented: relationship marketing, integrated mar

  1. Durability of capital goods: taxes and market structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raviv, A [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh; Zemel, E

    1977-04-01

    This paper examines the durability of capital goods produced under different market structures when tax considerations are included. Since investment tax credit and depreciation allowances are realized by the owner of the durable good, the durability of products produced by an industry which sells its output differs from that of an industry which rents. For each of these two commercial forms, both monopolistic and competitive market structure are considered. Potential gains from different forms of regulation are discussed.

  2. Market capitalization of the trucking industry sector, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    This report focuses on the market valuation of the overall trucking industry sector and each segment within it. In the past, while the focus has been on stock price appreciation or depreciation, this report emphasizes market capitalization returns. S...

  3. Strategic marketing planning and the Nigerian banking industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strategic marketing planning and the Nigerian banking industry. ... However, banks often have problem of formulating good marketing strategy plan that will enhance the bank general performance. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  4. Market surveillance for the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen

    1993-01-01

    , intraorganizational decision processes, and organizational resources. 8. For end users, cognitive structures can be measured by the instrument food-related life style, intraorganizational decision processes refer to family decision-making, and organizational resources to households' equipment with time and money. 9....... For distributors, decision-makers' cognitive structures may be measured by an instrument termed retail supplier evaluation style, intraorganizational decision processes refer to retail purchasing routines, and organizational resources to distributors overall sales, profit, number of outlets etc. 10....... For competitors, decision-makers' cognitive structures refer to their subjective key success factors, intraorganizational decision processes to managerial decision-making, and organizational resources to companies' scores on the market's key success factors....

  5. Projection display industry market and technology trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Joseph A.; Mentley, David E.

    1995-04-01

    The projection display industry is diverse, embracing a variety of technologies and applications. In recent years, there has been a high level of interest in projection displays, particularly those using LCD panels or light valves because of the difficulty in making large screen, direct view displays. Many developers feel that projection displays will be the wave of the future for large screen HDTV (high-definition television), penetrating the huge existing market for direct view CRT-based televisions. Projection displays can have the images projected onto a screen either from the rear or the front; the main characteristic is their ability to be viewed by more than one person. In addition to large screen home television receivers, there are numerous other uses for projection displays including conference room presentations, video conferences, closed circuit programming, computer-aided design, and military command/control. For any given application, the user can usually choose from several alternative technologies. These include CRT front or rear projectors, LCD front or rear projectors, LCD overhead projector plate monitors, various liquid or solid-state light valve projectors, or laser-addressed systems. The overall worldwide market for projection information displays of all types and for all applications, including home television, will top DOL4.6 billion in 1995 and DOL6.45 billion in 2001.

  6. The competitive environment of the North American energy marketing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonkin, S.L.

    1999-01-01

    Various issues regarding U.S. wholesale energy marketing were discussed with particular emphasis on how energy marketing is changing industries in North America. In 1998, the energy industry reported a growth in revenue of 26 per cent despite declining natural gas prices. It was emphasized that several major competitive issues need to be addressed by industry competitors in order to operate in this unpredictable market. These issues include profitability, market volatility and mergers and acquisitions. This paper presented a list of the top 10 North American Energy marketers in 1998. Although the number of marketers in the energy sector continues to grow, it is expected that the numbers will decline significantly within three years. This will be due mostly to the continuation of major mergers and acquisitions. It was concluded that in general, energy marketing may become an even more attractive industry because of increasing operating margins. 5 tabs., 2 figs

  7. Export marketing strategies for the Northern Ireland seed potato industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lamont, Jeffrey

    1989-01-01

    This thesis is concerned primarily with the export marketing performance of the Northern Ireland seed potato industry. The Industry has shown a dramatic decline in exports over the past twenty years, and this thesis proposes strategies aimed at regaining, and maintaining, a competitive advantage for the industry in world markets. A comparative analysis is conducted of the strategic and organisational export capabilities of the Northern Ireland industry and its main compet...

  8. Energy Flexibility Potential of Industrial Processes in the Regulating Power Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Aabjerg Friis, Henrik Tønder; Gravers Mostrup, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    , and electric heating in replacement of conventional technologies. To enable the use of demand response, the consumers must have economical and practical incentives without loss of convenience. This study aims to investigate the demand-response market potential of a flexible industrial process in the current...... electricity market structure. The Danish West regulating power market is selected in this study with an ideal process simulation of an industrial roller press. By analysing market data, the value of flexible electricity consumption by the roller press in the regulating power market is demonstrated by an ideal...

  9. The uranium producing industry - its capital structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, I.J.

    1989-01-01

    The uranium mining industry has undergone a substantial change over the past decade. A few rather informal statistics relevant to this change have been gathered together, with particular emphasis on the corporate and capital structures which existed in the industry in the 1970s and 1980s. These data offer interesting insights on the availability of capital for new uranium mining ventures, and lead to a sketch of the finances of a hypothetical new venture. The results of this work suggest that there may be few producers likely to start work on a greenfield site in the next few years, even if the market recovers from its present doldrums. (author)

  10. The Vegetable industry in China; Developments in policies, production, marketing and international trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.M.; Jinsong, C.; Zhang XiaoYong, Xiaoyong; Kamphuis, B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Development of Chinese vegetable industry over the past three decades. The changes of governmental vegetable policy and the major institutions involved. The major production regions in China, their leading vegetable varieties and cultivation technology. The reform of vegetable marketing structure

  11. Methods for Estimation of Market Power in Electric Power Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcik, M.; Oleinikova, I.; Junghans, G.; Kolcun, M.

    2012-01-01

    The article is related to a topical issue of the newly-arisen market power phenomenon in the electric power industry. The authors point out to the importance of effective instruments and methods for credible estimation of the market power on liberalized electricity market as well as the forms and consequences of market power abuse. The fundamental principles and methods of the market power estimation are given along with the most common relevant indicators. Furthermore, in the work a proposal for determination of the relevant market place taking into account the specific features of power system and a theoretical example of estimating the residual supply index (RSI) in the electricity market are given.

  12. Market-oriented search in differentiated industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe; Stieglitz, Nils

    2009-01-01

      How is the success of a firm's market-oriented activities influenced by the marketing mix? This paper contributes to existing marketing research by advancing our understanding of the process by which market orientation transforms into superior performance. This process is investigated...... on the basis of appropriate organizational search models drawn from the behavioral theory of the firm. Specifically, we draw on the NK model to develop testable propositions that substantiate and extend prior theoretical market orientation research. Our results provide new insight into organizational...... characteristics and consequences of responsive and proactive marketing behaviors, as well as the allocation of attention towards customers and competitors....

  13. Structure of the poultry meat market in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Salkova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to carry out a marketing research of the state and structure of the poultry meat market in Ukraine; to identify the factors that hold back and stimulate the development of the poultry market and potential opportunities for growth. The competitive advantages of producers are determined and the main trends in the poultry meat market are characterized. The balance of supply and demand for meat and meat products in Ukraine has been studied. The Herfindahl-Hirschman index was used to determine the level of competition in the chicken meat market, which showed the disadvantages of competition in the market. The market is monopolistic, which poses a threat to the development of competition. The constraining factors of poultry meat market development are determined. Based on the conducted research, potential opportunities for the development of the industry and the competitiveness of the Ukrainian poultry meat producer in the external and internal market are identified.

  14. An assessment of the industrial markets for softwood clearwood lumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan L. Eastin; Christine L. Lane; Roger D. Fight; Jamie Barbour

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to assess market opportunities for second growth clearwood lumber by identifying industry segments that currently utilize clearwood lumber and determining whether alternative markets will continue to exist for clearwood lumber produced from intensively managed forests in the Pacific Northwest. A survey of industrial lumber...

  15. Housing and the wood industry, trends & market conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Matt Bumgardner; Al Schuler; K. Koenig

    2011-01-01

    Housing markets continue to have major impacts on the secondary wood industry. So, what are the steps being taken by wood products manufacturers in order to stay viable? As a follow-up to last year's article, "Housing Market's Impact on the Secondary Woodworking Industry" (Wood & Wood Products, July 2010), the focus of this year's study was...

  16. Market orientation at industry and value chain levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Jeppesen, Lisbeth Fruensgaard; Jespersen, Kristina Risom

    2002-01-01

    The term market orientation, defined as sets of activities dealing with the generation and dissemination of, and response to, market intelligence , is extended from the organisational level to the industry and value chain levels. By drawing on theories from industrial economics, neo......-institutional theory, transaction cost economics, network theory and the political-economic approach to the analysis of marketing channels, we try to find potential determinants of market orientation at the industry and value chain levels. We summarise these determinants and their possible interaction in two...... conceptual models, which may serve as guiding principles for empirical research....

  17. Market Report for the Industrial Sector, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastri, Bhima [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Brueske, Sabine [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); de los Reyes, Pamela [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Jamison, Keith [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Justiniano, Mauricio [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Margolis, Nancy [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Monfort, Joe [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Raghunathan, Anand [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Sabouni, Ridah [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This report provides an overview of trends in industrial-sector energy use. It focuses on some of the largest and most energy-intensive industrial subsectors and several emerging technologies that could transform key segments of industry.

  18. Marketing Industrial Project-Related Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cova, Bernard; Skaates, Maria Anne

    2002-01-01

    Services are a growing part of projects in the context of the international trend toward solution buying and selling on B2B markets. Services are also often a key source of competitive advantage in project business. Therefore the aim of this paper is to critically scrutinise the intuitive...... hypothesis that the marketing of project-related services lies somewhere at the crossroads between services marketing and project marketing....

  19. Telecommunication industry in Thailand as potential market for Abloy Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffrén, Jenna

    2015-01-01

    The commission company made a decision to proceed with a market research about telecommunication industry in Thailand as a potential market. The telecommunication industry is fast growing and demanding market around the world. In several Asian countries, such as in Malaysia and Singapore, government has regulated that data protection on private and public data must be secured by telecommunication providers. There are many reasons which can cost major issues and damage for connections and for ...

  20. The Global Oil and Gas Industry: the Market. Market Analysis - 2017-2020 Trends - Corporate Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    This study presents: The medium-term and mega trends of the industry market developments and geographical segments; The competitive landscape and the main corporate rankings; The main conclusions of the report, summarised in 10 analytical slides. Content: 1. Market Fundamentals: Overview The Industry; 2. Market Environment and Prospects: Market Overview, Supply, Demand, Prices, Trade; 3. Corporate Strategies and Competition: Competitive Environment, Leaders' Recent Performances, Corporate Strategies; 4. Case Studies; 5. Statistical Appendix; 6. Sources; 7. Annexes

  1. MARKETING EXPENDITURES IN THE INDONESIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna Mochtar

    2004-01-01

    In the 1960s, a ânewâ marketing concept known as "four Ps marketing mix" appeared and shifted the focus from the product to the customer. The objective of the new concept was not only profit, and the means of achieving the objective expanded to include the entire âmarketing mixâ: product, price, promotion, and place (channels and distribution). Expenditures of marketing in a company should be explored from these mixes, because each mix would have an impact on the total marketing expenditures....

  2. The pallet industry: a changing hardwood market

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.P. Dempsey; D.G. Martens

    1991-01-01

    From its inception during World War II, the wooden pallet industry has grown to become the Nation's largest industrial consumer of hardwood lumber products. Since most of the raw material in wooden pallets is lower grade lumber, the pallet industry's growth, efficiency, and changing raw material inputs must be of concern to the grade hardwood lumber industry...

  3. 投票市场发展、资本要素积累与产业结构升级——基于中国A股市场的实证研究%Stock Market Development, Capital Elements Accumulation and Industrial Structure Upgrading --An Empirical Study Based on China' s A-Share Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈峥嵘; 朱蕾

    2012-01-01

    首先从要素流动角度就股票市场对产业结构优化升级的推动作用提出相关假设,并从中观和微观上实证检验中国A股市场是否存在推动产业结构优化升级的作用机制。实证结果表明,股票市场规模的扩大有效推动了三次产业和工业产业的结构优化升级,市场流动性的高低对产业结构优化升级存在负向效应,而城市化进程的加快及垂直专业化程度的提高可以降低该种负向效应;战略性新兴产业上市公司经营绩效显著,并在创业板市场上最具成长性,而且行业内资本集中度越低、市场风险越高,越能激励行业内企业上市。据此,在扩大股票市场规模、增强市场流动性、上市资源选择、创业板市场建设等方面提出了相应的政策建议。%In this paper we first make a theoretical assumption that capital markets promote the upgrading of industrial structure via mobility of capital. And we investigate the assumption on the case of China's A-share market over the period 1991 - 2010. The result shows that the expansion of market scale effectively promotes the structure upgrading while market liquidity makes negative effects, w of three main industries and industrial internal sector hich can be reduced by the raise of urbanization and vertical specialization. We also find that the strategy emerging industries show significant performance on Ashare market and show more significant growth on GEM (Growth Enterprise Market) than on other markets. Industries with lower capital concentration and higher market risk encourage more companies to be listed. According to this, we proposed suggestions on expanding market scale, enhancing market liquidity, selection of market resource, and construction of the GEM.

  4. International Good Market Segmentation and Financial Market Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Basak, Suleyman; Croitoru, Benjamin

    2003-01-01

    While financial markets have recently become more complete and international capital flows well liberalized, markets for goods remain segmented. To investigate how more complete security markets may relieve the effects of this segmentation, we examine a series of two-country economies with internationally segmented good markets, distinguished by the available financial securities. We show that, under heterogeneity within countries, the financial structure matters: even with internationally co...

  5. Three Studies in Industrial Economics: Competition and Industry Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Jan

    Chapter 1 reviews alternative theories of competition - the standard Neoclassical view, the contribution of the Chicago School as well as the two dynamic lines of thought which are part of Austrian economics and Classical Political Economy. The latter is presented as a consistent alternative to the other existing theories. Of special interest is the question if and how industry structure matters in these approaches, how profitability differentials are explained and what role market share concentration and mobility barriers play. Their predictions and implications for empirical research are compared. Ways to test and evaluate these different approaches are described. Chapter 2 investigates econometrically how industry and micro level variables determine persistent differentials in the rate of return on assets in the U.S. The analysis is the first to use business segment data to explain long term profitability differentials. It presents new market concentration indicators that are superior to concentration ratios and allow to analyze an unpreceded amount of concentration and other data back to 1977. Critical concentration levels, non-linearities, interaction effects and previously ignored important control variables like industrial unionization are being considered. Concentration is found to have significant negative effects on profitability differentials. Barrier indicators are insignificant while market shares are positively correlated with long-run profitability. Concentration thus increases, not diminishes the degree of industrial competition. This is interpreted as evidence in support of Classical Political Economic competition theory. Chapter 3 presents a costs of production based industry analytical study that aims at consistency with Classical Political Economic thought. It investigates how growth of renewable electricity in Germany forces conventional power plants to shift towards more flexible operating regimes. The simulation of individual power plant load

  6. 2008 Industrial Technologies Market Report, May 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energetics; DOE

    2009-07-01

    The industrial sector is a critical component of the U.S. economy, providing an array of consumer, transportation, and national defense-related goods we rely on every day. Unlike many other economic sectors, however, the industrial sector must compete globally for raw materials, production, and sales. Though our homes, stores, hospitals, and vehicles are located within our borders, elements of our goods-producing industries could potentially be moved offshore. Keeping U.S. industry competitive is essential to maintaining and growing the U.S. economy. This report begins with an overview of trends in industrial sector energy use. The next section of the report focuses on some of the largest and most energy-intensive industrial subsectors. The report also highlights several emerging technologies that could transform key segments of industry. Finally, the report presents policies, incentives, and drivers that can influence the competitiveness of U.S. industrial firms.

  7. Connectedness between US industry level credit markets and determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Syed Jawad Hussain; Kayani, Ghulam Mujtaba; Raza, Syed Ali; Shah, Nida; Al-Yahyaee, Khamis H.

    2018-02-01

    We examine the connectedness between US industry-level credit markets, using both Credit Default Spread (CDS) changes and volatilities, over the period from December 17, 2007, to November 13, 2015. The total, net directional and pairwise spillovers are estimated based on the generalized VAR framework developed by Diebold and Yilmaz (2012). The empirical analysis shows strong interactions for CDS spread change and volatility among all ten industries. Consumer Services and Basic Materials are the significant risk transmitters. Economic policy uncertainty and different market volatilities significantly determine credit market risk spillovers which also increase during market turbulence situations indicating a possible contagion effect. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  8. Institutional contexts of market power in the electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foer, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    Market power is widely recognized as one of the principal issues that must be dealt with if the electricity industry is to make the transition from regulation to competition. In this article, the author provides a legal and economic introduction to what the antitrust community means by market power and offers a primer on why market power is so central an issue in the electricity industry. Finally and most importantly, he offers comments on the institutional contexts of market power, exploring a process which he calls Shermanization that helps explain the institutional aspect of moving from regulation to competition and holds implications for where oversight should reside during this complex transition

  9. The Role of Labor Markets in Structural Change.

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Ricaurte

    2010-01-01

    Why did services become the dominant sector in industrialized economies? While abundant literature exists on the transition from agriculture to industry (i.e., the industrial revolution), there is no consensual explanation for the second wave of structural change. I argue that sectoral differences in regulation affecting the degree of competition in labor and goods markets explain: (a) the rise in the services sector share of output and employment, (b) international differences in cross-secto...

  10. Structural Change in Southern Softwood Stumpage Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas R. Carter

    1998-01-01

    The potential for structural change in southern stumpage market models has impacts on not only our basic understanding of those markets, but also on harvest, inventory and price projections, and related policy. In this paper, we test for structural change in both sawtimber and pulpwood softwood stumpage markets in the U.S. South over the period 1950-1994. Test...

  11. Market structure and price adjustment in the U.S. wholesale gasoline markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oladunjoye, Olusegun

    2008-01-01

    The issue of sticky prices in U.S. wholesale gasoline market is re-examined allowing for the effect of market structure due to increased market concentration caused by mergers, acquisitions and joint ventures which started in the late 1990s in the U.S. oil industry. I investigate the effects of market structure on the pattern of price adjustment based on the notion that increased market concentration leads to downward price stickiness and asymmetric short run price adjustment in the transmission of crude price changes to wholesale gasoline price. I find that market concentration has an insignificant asymmetric effect on the speed of price adjustment but a significant asymmetric effect on short run price adjustments in the response of wholesale gasoline prices to crude price shocks in three U.S. wholesale markets. Furthermore, the signs on the coefficients of market concentration effects on price dynamics in the models support the assertion that increased market concentration leads to downward price stickiness in only one of the three markets examined. Overall, the results indicate that market structure does not have a strong effect on the dynamics of price adjustment. (author)

  12. To Market, To Market--Careers in the Online Industry. . .Fifth in a Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremin, Michael C.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews demand for marketing personnel in online industry and provides brief descriptions of generic positions which include information on background and experience needed: vice president of marketing, sales manager, sales representative, advertising manager, product manager, marketing research manager, distribution manager, service manager,…

  13. Unfolding Implementation in Industrial Market Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøjgaard, John; Ellegaard, Chris

    2011-01-01

    to pave the way towards closing this gap. The extent of implementation coverage is assessed and various notions of implementation are identified. Implementation as the task of converting segmentation plans into action (referred to as execution) is identified as a particularly beneficial focus area...... for marketing management. Three key elements and challenges connected to execution of market segmentation are identified — organization, motivation, and adaptation....

  14. Identifying Lead Markets in the European Automotive Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Thomas; Grimpe, Christoph; Rammer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    for automobiles and national markets differ considerably in their lead market potential. The German market is found to be most promising to serve as a lead market, while other European countries with a strong automotive tradition like France, Italy, the UK, and Sweden score lower. Our findings suggest that firms......This paper presents an indicator-based methodology to identify lead markets in the European automotive industry. The lead market approach tries to explain why certain countries are better positioned than others for developing and launching new products. While much research stresses the role...... of excellence in technology and interaction among users and producers, the lead market approach focuses on the role of demand characteristics. Based on the concept of innovation design, a lead market is defined as a country where customers prefer that design which subsequently becomes the globally dominant...

  15. The Common Market Film Industry: Beyond Law or Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Duc, Don R.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews the legal and economic factors surrounding the film industries in the European Common Market member nations. Relates these factors to the inherent difficulties in fostering cooperation among members. (JMF)

  16. Industries, artists, friends and fans: Marketing young adult fictions online

    OpenAIRE

    Rutherford, Leonie Margaret

    2009-01-01

    The Internet has facilitated the coming together of formerly more separated youth taste cultures, such that literary, screen and graphic fandoms now more readily overlap. Media industries have invested in online strategies which create an ongoing relationship between producers and consumers of entertainment media texts. Using the Internet marketing campaign for Stephenie Meyer’s Twilight saga as a case study, the paper examines the role of the publishing industry in marketing popular teen li...

  17. Critical success factors in industrial marketing supply chain management

    OpenAIRE

    Naser Azad; Seyed Mohsen; Seyed Aliakbar; Ali Nayeri

    2012-01-01

    Implementation of better marketing strategies in industry plays an important role in increasing sales and profitability of industrial part suppliers. Understanding the weakness in each part of supply chain helps reduce different cost component and increases profitability. In this paper, we present an empirical study to find important factors influencing marketing strategies based on factor analysis. The study designs and distributes a questionnaire consists of 64 questions. The proposed study...

  18. Canada's nuclear industry - a leader in the global market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Pierre, G.

    1994-01-01

    The successes of the Canadian nuclear industry at home and abroad are recounted and extolled in this address. It is argued that the industry must become more global in order to compete more effectively in the export market. This means not only setting up operating bases (rather than mere marketing offices) abroad, but also employing nationals of prospective overseas purchasing countries in the headquarters of Canadian companies. Partnership with one or more Asian country may be the key to success

  19. The Evolution of the Direct Marketing Industry in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    M.C. OSTILLIO; G. TROILO

    1996-01-01

    The paper reports the evolution of the direct marketing (DM) industry and activties in Italy, by comparing Italian data with data from other large international markets. The comparison regards motivations behind investments in DM, the type of investment, the services offered by DM agencies.

  20. Cornering the Market: Lessons from Industry about Shaping Public Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-24

    100 By 1984, Coke had barely a three percent market share advantage over Pepsi , even while outspending them in advertising by $100 million and having...increase market share over Pepsi . There was much more that went wrong, however. Most significant was that the company didn’t grasp the factors involved...position of the Department of the Army, Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government. CORNERING THE MARKET : LESSONS FROM INDUSTRY ABOUT SHAPING PUBLIC

  1. DLC as a Marketing Tool in the Video Game Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Brádlerová, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This thesis deals with the phenomenon of DLC in the context of marketing communication. DLC or downloadable content expanding the basic game, is a relatively new concept in the video game industry and its role is increasingly important in marketing communication in video games. The main focus of this thesis is to map DLC and analyze its importance in marketing communication and public relations of video game titles of various genres. Theoretical part of the thesis is focused on explaining the...

  2. Reforming European electricity industries: to each, his own ''single market''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glachant, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    National transpositions of the European directive on domestic electricity markets have maintained a degree of diversity; and this also characterizes the other conditions for accessing national electricity markets (physical, commercial, industrial and capital access). As a look at the prices of electricity shows, these national markets do not operate in a single way Europe-wide. Furthermore, electricity companies - key actors in this competition - differ widely from each other in size, electrical potential, investment portfolios and strategies for growth. (authors)

  3. Intransparent Markets and Intra-Industry Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Christian Gormsen

    Buyers are typically unaware of the full set of offers when making a purchase. This paper examines how international trade interacts with this problem of market intransparency. Sellers must communicate their offers through costly advertising, but cannot reach all buyers. Consequently, no market...... in the model are identical, but appear heterogeneous due to their price randomization. In larger and more open economies, prices and markups will be lower, and exports are primarily realized by sellers who charge low prices. These predictions are similar to those of trade models where firm heterogeneity...

  4. National customer satisfaction indices: The impact of market structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Kristensen, Kai

    The popularity of customer satisfaction measurements has grown considerably over the last few years but we know very little about how the structure of the individual markets with respect to the transparency of products and services as well as consumer preferences affects customer satisfaction. Here...... a total of 14540 customers have evaluated their preferred supplier with respect to banking, property insurance, supermarkets and mobile telecom. The analysis shows that market structure has a profound effect on customer satisfaction measurements and that this effect differs from industry to industry....... The paper concludes with an evaluation of the implications of the findings in relation to the use of results from customer satisfaction studies....

  5. The natural gas industry getting prepared for the competitive market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbenn, F.; Schenk, S.

    1999-01-01

    The European Internal Market for natural gas is drawing near, and although the European Directive passed on 11 May 1998 provides for step-wise deregulation, it is expected that in Germany the phase of transition for the gas industry will be as comparatively short as it was for the electric power industry. The contribution here is intended to outline the expected consequences for the gas industry in EC member states and particularly in Germany, and to indicate strategies for managing upcoming risks. The instruments discussed in the article will gain in importance with increasing liberalisation of the markets. (orig./CB) [de

  6. The continuous market cycle of the shortterm insurance industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Essel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The short-term insurance industry is a cyclical type of business due to the impact of the continuous market cycle. This cycle has a growth phase, soft market phase, hard market phase and a break-even phase. The objective of the research paper focuses on the improvement of financial decision-making when executives of the short-term insurance industry are managing their business during the various phases of the continuous market cycle. Both a literature study and an empirical survey were necessary to achieve the research objective. The empirical survey included the contributions of the top nine commercial and corporate short-term insurers in South Africa. They represented more than 77% of the total gross written premiums in 2009 and can thus be considered as the leaders of the short-term insurance industry in this country. The conclusions of the study should be valuable to other developing countries with emerging market economies as South Africa is also classified as such. The study focused on the various factors which may cause the continuous market cycle, the problem areas which the executives experience concerning the continuous market cycle, and how often various factors are adjusted by the short-term insurers to account for changes in the continuous market cycle

  7. Tobacco industry direct marketing after the Master Settlement Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M Jane; Yulis, Spiro G; Delnevo, Cristine; Hrywna, Mary

    2004-07-01

    Although Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) provisions have led to significant changes in tobacco marketing, expenditures and emphasis on marketing strategies and populations not bound by the MSA have increased significantly. This article discusses tobacco industry direct marketing practices, including direct mail, coupons, sweepstakes, brand loyalty programs, event sponsorship, and tobacco industry magazines, and the implications of such strategies. An analysis of a survey of New Jersey adult smokers provides context and documents notable rates of participation. In addition to bypassing marketing restrictions, many of these strategies operate out of sight of the public health community and most of the public and so go unchecked by either tobacco control advocates or public opinion. This article suggests that a first step in countering these practices is to increase awareness and understanding of them, followed by development of strategies to address them and to limit or eliminate their use in tobacco marketing.

  8. Market niche analysis in the casino gaming industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandurand, L

    1990-03-01

    This article discusses the nature of market niche analysis in the casino gaming industry. It presents four approaches for conducting market niche analysis. An an example of one approach, the Las Vegas Visitor Profile Study is used to identify a premium niche in the Las Vegas Slot Target Market. A detailed examination of the premium niche profile provides a description of the typical premium slot player. The description of the typical premium player leads to hypotheses regarding needs (the unique preference set) of the premium player. An analysis of the unique preference set suggests an appropriate enhanced marketing program.

  9. Intransparent Markets and Intra-Industry Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Christian Gormsen

    Buyers are typically unaware of the full set of offers when making a purchase. This paper examines how international trade interacts with this problem of market intransparency. Sellers must communicate their offers through costly advertising, but cannot reach all buyers. Consequently, no market...... clearing price exists, and sellers randomize over an equilibrium price distribution. Letting sellers advertise their offers abroad leads to international trade, which would not take place under complete information. Buyers then receive more offers, leading to lower prices and welfare gains. Sellers...... in the model are identical, but appear heterogeneous due to their price randomization. In larger and more open economies, prices and markups will be lower, and exports are primarily realized by sellers who charge low prices. These predictions are similar to those of trade models where firm heterogeneity...

  10. Globalization, industrialization, and labor markets in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørlund, Irene; Tran, *Angie Ngoc

    2015-01-01

    exports in 2013. Evidence shows that the ‘high road’ to industrialization model – with domestic linkages and skills upgrading – does not accompany growth in exports, as low-skilled assembly, mostly young female workers join the labor force with non-liveable wages and substandard working conditions...

  11. Liberalising Gambling Markets : Lessons from Network Industries?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Damme, E.E.C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper, based on my concluding remarks at the “Colloquium on the Economic Aspects of Gambling Regulation: EU and US Perspectives” held at Tilburg in November 2006, discusses the question why, in Europe, some service sectors (such as network industries) are liberalised, while others (like the

  12. The struggle for market power: industrial relations in the British coal industry, 1800-1840

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Alan Jaffe

    2003-07-01

    During the Industrial Revolution, class relations were defined largely through the struggle to control the terms of exchange in the market. Integrating aspects of economic and social history as well as industrial sociology, this book examines the sources of the perception of the market on the part of both capital and labour and the elaboration of their alternative market ideologies. Of particular import is the argument that working-class culture expressed a fundamental acceptance of the utility of the market, a point that is supported by a detailed analysis of the labour process, workplace bargaining, and early-nineteenth-century trade unionism. Nonetheless, the working class's definition of 'proper' market relations differed substantially from that of capitalists. Contents: Introduction; 1. Capital and credit; 2. The perception of the market and industrial policy; 3. Managerial capitalism; 4. Family, community, and the labor market; 5. Work and the ideology of the market; 6. Religion, ideology, and trade unions; 7. The transformation of market relations: Tommy Hepburn's union, 1831; 8. Epilogue: class struggle and market power; Conclusion: the labor process and the market; Appendix; Select bibliography; Index.

  13. Modern structure of marketing communications complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrebenyukova Elena

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the desk research, in which the current structure of the marketing communications complex was analyzed. According to the results of the content analysis of scientific and educational literature in marketing it was proved that there is a certain structural asymmetry in today's complex of marketing communication: the rejection of impersonal tools and actualization of those which make possible personalized communication with the consumer.

  14. INVESTIGATION OF MARKETING TECHNOLOGIES IN THE INNOVATION PROCESS OF ROCKET AND SPACE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Dobrova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we have studied the use of marketing technologies in the innovation process of enterprises of rocket and space industry. The present study specifies the relevance of chosen research topic, as well as the essence of marketing innovations at the enterprises of rocket and space industry, the structuring of marketing and management processes in the innovation process. There are provided the most common analytical instruments in the marketing and there is marked the importance of use of a global strategy for the enterprises of rocket and space industry. The article also specifies a clear example of application of marketing technologies in the innovation process of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise "State Space Research and Production Center named after Khrunichev M.V'.'. At the beginning the role and place of innovation management and innovation process in the strategic management of the FSUE "SSRPC named after Khrunichev M.V." are shown. Then there are described the basic marketing methods of program-oriented management of the innovation process in the FSUE "SSRPC named after Khrunichev M.V"" and there is highlighted the innovation marketing strategy of the FSUE "SSRPC named after Khrunichev M.V.". There are presented the distinctive features of the competitive strategy of the company of the rocket and space industry and the features of formation (development of the innovative enterprise development strategy based on marketing innovation in the FSUE "SSRPC named after Khrunichev M.V.". The conclusion includes the main findings of the study conducted.

  15. 75 FR 28667 - Market Structure Roundtable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-62115; File No. 4-602] Market Structure... views of investors, issuers, exchanges, alternative trading systems, financial services firms, high frequency traders, and the academic community regarding the current securities market structure. The...

  16. Endogenous sunk costs and the geographic differences in the market structures of CPG Categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronnenberg, B.J.; Dhar, S.; Dube, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the industrial market structure of CPG categories. The analysis uses a unique database spanning 31 consumer package goods (CPG) categories, 39 months, and the 50 largest US metropolitan markets. We organize our description of market structure around the notion that firms can improve

  17. The Influence of Emerging Markets on the Pharmaceutical Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannoury, Maya; Attieh, Zouhair

    2017-01-01

    Emerging markets represent an exceptional opportunity for the pharmaceutical industry. Although a precise definition is not yet available, economists define emerging markets as developing prosperous countries in which investment is expected to result in higher income despite high risks. Qualifying a market as emerging is not merely based on the economic status of the country, but also on several criteria that render the definition applicable to each country. Jim O'Neil, retired chairman of asset management at Goldman Sachs, identified leading economies of emerging markets: Brazil, Russia, India, and China (BRIC) and later Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS) and then Mexico, Indonesia, South Korea, and Turkey (MIST), which followed years later as the second tier of nations. Sales of the pharmaceutical markets in BRICS and MIST countries doubled in 5 years, reaching a market share of approximately 20%. The shift toward these new markets has been attributed to the large populations, growing prosperity, and increasing life expectancy in BRICS and MIST countries. In addition, companies are experiencing flattened growth of developed markets, expiration of patents leading to the up-selling of less expensive generic drugs, and tight regulations enforced in mature markets. Particular attention must therefore be given to these emerging markets. The strategies adopted by pharmaceutical companies that want to expand in these markets must be tailored to the pace of development of each country. These countries need drugs against infectious diseases and communicable diseases such as sexually transmitted diseases. They are readily exploitable territories for the innovative products of pharmaceuticals. Nevertheless, with the increase in wealth and longevity, a change of lifestyle is occurring. These changes accompany a shift in disease patterns. A disproportionally fast rise in the incidence of noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular illnesses, diabetes

  18. Management and Marketing Elements in Maritime Cruises Industry. European Cruise Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Boşneagu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available European cruises market has a major impact on all aspects of maritime industry: boarding ports, ports of call, shipbuilding, ship maintenance, supplies, sales and marketing, ship crews and administrative facilities. While in 2013, fiscal and economic conditions in Europe have continued to have a constraint to increasing demand for cruises, the number of passengers, Europeans or visitors of European ports, has grown moderately. For the next years, a higher growth of Europena market cruises is expected.

  19. ANALYSIS AND UNDERSTANDING OF KEY MARKETING CONCEPTS MARKETING ACTIVITIES ORGANIZED WITHIN THE FOOTWEAR INDUSTRY COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Adina Pastiu

    2011-01-01

    Marketing in its hypostasis: optical and economic design, practice science andart, it appears and develops in the context of a competitive economy, as a necessity ofbusiness success. These considerations and not only determined us researching its directsteps: business to business, and to identify characteristics of marketing activities undertakenby companies in competitive markets. In this paper we follow, based on research carried outon a sample of 160 statistical units (footwear industry co...

  20. Liberalization and enlargement: effects of the industrial organisation of natural gas markets in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirovska, M.

    2005-01-01

    After half a century of political division within the European continent, and of State control over national energy industries, a new industrial and political organisation model aiming at creating a single natural gas market tends to emerge currently within the enlarged European Union. Yet new member countries are former centrally planned, socialist economies, with very different industrial structures for natural gas. However, those countries should adjust to the institutional framework applicable in the European Union, including bringing their gas industries into compliance with the liberalization process that old member countries initiated years ago. In that unprecedented context, one basic issue is whether the gas industry liberalization, in the framework of the enlargement, will have expected results in terms of competition, efficiency and profits for Eastern countries, whether new members or candidates for membership. The objective of the research work behind this article was to analyse the effects of that complex trend on the industrial organisation of gas markets in eastern Europe. (author)

  1. Analysis of Market Opportunities for Chinese Private Express Delivery Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Changbing; Bai, Lijun; Tong, Xiaoqing

    China's express delivery market has become the arena in which each express enterprise struggles to chase due to the huge potential demand and high profitable prospects. So certain qualitative and quantitative forecast for the future changes of China's express delivery market will help enterprises understand various types of market conditions and social changes in demand and adjust business activities to enhance their competitiveness timely. The development of China's express delivery industry is first introduced in this chapter. Then the theoretical basis of the regression model is overviewed. We also predict the demand trends of China's express delivery market by using Pearson correlation analysis and regression analysis from qualitative and quantitative aspects, respectively. Finally, we draw some conclusions and recommendations for China's express delivery industry.

  2. Market Structure and Competitive Strategy in Market Square

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Juanjuan

    2007-01-01

    Market Square shopping center contains several restaurants and cafés providing a diverse range of Asian foods and delicacies and this area is known by locals and Griffith University students as a great location for 'eating out'. Then, what is the market structure in this shopping mall and what kind of competitive strategies should be used to maximize profits according to the characteristics in this shopping center?

  3. Institutionalization of Markets and Issues of the Growth of Industrial Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamazii Oksana V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article developes and proves a scientific hypothesis that strengthening the integration processes in the market space causes its institutionalization, and thus leads to the issues of proliferation of the free market players as a result of a division of spheres of influence between the major financial-industrial groups and corporations. It has been proved that a clear hierarchical structure, along with rigid subordination of free economic agents to the chief processor of resources within the growing corporations are those preconditions, which gradually form characteristics of an organization or an institution in terms of markets. An author's own definition of the notion of «institutional market» has been proposed, which is different from the classic formulation. It is emphasized that institutionalization of market space turns the latter into an another economic system, the main characteristics of which are: limited number of buyers and sellers; presence of conglomerates with rigid hierarchical relationships between buyers and sellers; etc. Enlargement and diversification of business as well as growth of its influence not only within its own industry sector, but also in the related sectors, leads to the fact that corporations are trying to control markets (supply and demand which meantime are turning into rigid management structures, acquiring characteristics of institutions (organizations. This hinders the market entry of new market players, increases risks of business and requires on the part of enterprises new marketing techniques for positioning the own ability to create customer value.

  4. Analysis of Alcohol Industry Submissions against Marketing Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Florentine Petronella; Miller, Peter Graeme; Coomber, Kerri; Hancock, Linda; Kypri, Kypros

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of literature points to the role of vested interests as a barrier to the implementation of effective public health policies. Corporate political activity by the alcohol industry is commonly used to influence policy and regulation. It is important for policy makers to be able to critique alcohol industry claims opposed to improved alcohol marketing regulation. The Australian National Preventive Health Agency reviewed alcohol marketing regulations in 2012 and stakeholders were invited to comment on them. In this study we used thematic analysis to examine submissions from the Australian alcohol industry, based on a system previously developed in relation to tobacco industry corporate political activity. The results show that submissions were a direct lobbying tactic, making claims to government that were contrary to the evidence-base. Five main frames were identified, in which the alcohol industry claimed that increased regulation: (1) is unnecessary; (2) is not backed up by sufficient evidence; (3) will lead to unintended negative consequences; and (4) faces legal barriers to implementation; underpinned by the view (5) that the industry consists of socially responsible companies working toward reducing harmful drinking. In contrast with tobacco industry submissions on public policy, which often focused on legal and economic barriers, the Australian alcohol industry placed a heavier emphasis on notions of regulatory redundancy and insufficient evidence. This may reflect differences in where these industries sit on the ‘regulatory pyramid’, alcohol being less regulated than tobacco. PMID:28118411

  5. Analysis of Alcohol Industry Submissions against Marketing Regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentine Petronella Martino

    Full Text Available A growing body of literature points to the role of vested interests as a barrier to the implementation of effective public health policies. Corporate political activity by the alcohol industry is commonly used to influence policy and regulation. It is important for policy makers to be able to critique alcohol industry claims opposed to improved alcohol marketing regulation. The Australian National Preventive Health Agency reviewed alcohol marketing regulations in 2012 and stakeholders were invited to comment on them. In this study we used thematic analysis to examine submissions from the Australian alcohol industry, based on a system previously developed in relation to tobacco industry corporate political activity. The results show that submissions were a direct lobbying tactic, making claims to government that were contrary to the evidence-base. Five main frames were identified, in which the alcohol industry claimed that increased regulation: (1 is unnecessary; (2 is not backed up by sufficient evidence; (3 will lead to unintended negative consequences; and (4 faces legal barriers to implementation; underpinned by the view (5 that the industry consists of socially responsible companies working toward reducing harmful drinking. In contrast with tobacco industry submissions on public policy, which often focused on legal and economic barriers, the Australian alcohol industry placed a heavier emphasis on notions of regulatory redundancy and insufficient evidence. This may reflect differences in where these industries sit on the 'regulatory pyramid', alcohol being less regulated than tobacco.

  6. Analysis of Alcohol Industry Submissions against Marketing Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Florentine Petronella; Miller, Peter Graeme; Coomber, Kerri; Hancock, Linda; Kypri, Kypros

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of literature points to the role of vested interests as a barrier to the implementation of effective public health policies. Corporate political activity by the alcohol industry is commonly used to influence policy and regulation. It is important for policy makers to be able to critique alcohol industry claims opposed to improved alcohol marketing regulation. The Australian National Preventive Health Agency reviewed alcohol marketing regulations in 2012 and stakeholders were invited to comment on them. In this study we used thematic analysis to examine submissions from the Australian alcohol industry, based on a system previously developed in relation to tobacco industry corporate political activity. The results show that submissions were a direct lobbying tactic, making claims to government that were contrary to the evidence-base. Five main frames were identified, in which the alcohol industry claimed that increased regulation: (1) is unnecessary; (2) is not backed up by sufficient evidence; (3) will lead to unintended negative consequences; and (4) faces legal barriers to implementation; underpinned by the view (5) that the industry consists of socially responsible companies working toward reducing harmful drinking. In contrast with tobacco industry submissions on public policy, which often focused on legal and economic barriers, the Australian alcohol industry placed a heavier emphasis on notions of regulatory redundancy and insufficient evidence. This may reflect differences in where these industries sit on the 'regulatory pyramid', alcohol being less regulated than tobacco.

  7. Spanish generation market: structure, design and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agosti, L.; Padilla, A. J.; Requejo, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the structure, design and outcome of the Spanish generation market from 1998, when the market was liberalised, to date. More precisely, this paper reviews the history of the liberalisation process; describes the structure of the generation market and its evolution over time; analyses the existence of market power; and evaluates the outcome of the liberalisation process from the viewpoint of its impact on al locative efficiency, productive efficiency and dynamic efficiency. The paper concludes with a brief summary of recent regulatory reforms. (Author)

  8. Critical success factors in industrial marketing supply chain management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of better marketing strategies in industry plays an important role in increasing sales and profitability of industrial part suppliers. Understanding the weakness in each part of supply chain helps reduce different cost component and increases profitability. In this paper, we present an empirical study to find important factors influencing marketing strategies based on factor analysis. The study designs and distributes a questionnaire consists of 64 questions. The proposed study uses Skewness analysis to reduce the factors into 44 items and reports 8 important factors including business environment, communication chain technology, good organizational relationship, leadership cost strategy, performance risk, ecommerce strategy, encouraging strategy and consistency in organizational performance.

  9. Market basket analysis in insurance industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Vahidi Roodpishi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, many organizations focus on discovering their customers’ hidden patterns to maintain their competitive position through customer analysis. In fact, more and more organizations are realizing that customers are their most valuable resources. This paper performs a research using data associated with 300 clients of an insurance company in city of Anzali, Iran and they are analyzed using K-Means clustering method. Using demographic variables including gender, age, occupation, education level, marital status, place of residence and clients’ incomes, the study determines the optimal numbers of clusters in order to achieve necessary data for grouping customers. Next, the study uses the method of association rules to find hidden patterns for the insurance industry.

  10. Airline network structure in competitive market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Danica D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Airline's network is the key element of its business strategy and selected network structure will not have influence only on the airline's costs but could gain some advantage in revenues, too. Network designing implies that an airline has to make decisions about markets that it will serve and how to serve those markets. Network choice raises the following questions for an airline: a what markets to serve, b how to serve selected markets, c what level of service to offer, d what are the benefits/cost of the that decisions and e what is the influence of the competition. We analyzed the existing airline business models and corresponding network structure. The paper highlights the relationship between the network structures and the airline business strategies. Using a simple model we examine the relationship between the network structure and service quality in deregulated market.

  11. An empirical investigation of governance structures in the hotel industry

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlstrom, Robert; Haugland, Sven Arne; Nygaard, Arne; Rokkan, Aksel Ivar

    2002-01-01

    The study investigates alternative governance forms in the hotel industry. We analyze the choice among independently owned firms, voluntary chains, franchising, and vertically integrated chains. Based on agency theory, we argue that the need for control over service quality, financial risk, and the market environment affect the choice of governance form. Prior agency research emphasizes alternative governance structures employed by principals given local market conditions, agent incentives, a...

  12. Selling green power in California: Product, industry, and market trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.H.; Pickle, S.J.

    1998-05-01

    As one of the first US stages to open its doors to retail electric competition, California offers an important opportunity to assess the effectiveness of green power marketing as a mechanism for supporting renewable energy. This report is an interim assessment of key green power product, industry, and market trends in California. The report identifies and analyzes: the potential size of the green power market in California; the companies participating in the green power market; the green power products being offered and their prices; the impact of the green market on renewable generators and the environment; and the influence of several public policies and non-governmental programs on the market for green power. Data used in this paper have been collected, in large part, from surveys and interviews with green power marketers that took place between December 1997 and April 1998. There remain legitimate concerns over the viability of green power marketing to support significant quantities of renewable energy and provide large environmental gains, and it is far too early to assess the overall strength of customer demand for renewable energy. A critical finding of this report is that, because of the high cost of acquiring and servicing residential customers and the low utility default service price, green power marketing affords new energy service providers one of the only viable entrees to California`s residential marketplace.

  13. Selling green power in California: Product, industry, and market trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiser, R.H.; Pickle, S.J.

    1998-05-01

    As one of the first US stages to open its doors to retail electric competition, California offers an important opportunity to assess the effectiveness of green power marketing as a mechanism for supporting renewable energy. This report is an interim assessment of key green power product, industry, and market trends in California. The report identifies and analyzes: the potential size of the green power market in California; the companies participating in the green power market; the green power products being offered and their prices; the impact of the green market on renewable generators and the environment; and the influence of several public policies and non-governmental programs on the market for green power. Data used in this paper have been collected, in large part, from surveys and interviews with green power marketers that took place between December 1997 and April 1998. There remain legitimate concerns over the viability of green power marketing to support significant quantities of renewable energy and provide large environmental gains, and it is far too early to assess the overall strength of customer demand for renewable energy. A critical finding of this report is that, because of the high cost of acquiring and servicing residential customers and the low utility default service price, green power marketing affords new energy service providers one of the only viable entrees to California's residential marketplace

  14. Importance of marketing management in the world pfarmaceutical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Dragan Kesič; Andrej Bertoncelj

    2008-01-01

    The world pharmaceutical industry has changed tremendously in the last decade. Globalization processes reinforce a consolidation of the world pharmaceutical industry. Mergers and acquisitions prevail more and more as a strategic orientation of numerous world pharmaceutical companies. In our research we found out that marketing management has been playing an increasingly important or even a crucial role in day-today activities and strategic business operations of the world pharmaceutical compa...

  15. Reaching consumers: How the tobacco industry uses email marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Betsy; Carlson, Samantha C; Moilanen, Molly; Schillo, Barbara A

    2016-12-01

    Tobacco companies are restricted from engaging in many traditional forms of marketing. Direct marketing is one way tobacco companies can reach consumers while complying with regulation and avoiding negative public perception. There is little research on this type of opt-in marketing, which includes mail marketing, email marketing, web marketing, and mobile marketing, and its impact is not well understood. This study examined 6990 tobacco company emails received by individuals living in the state of Minnesota, US between January 2010 and May 2015 to determine email frequency by brand. These emails were gathered as part of ongoing surveillance of tobacco industry direct marketing. A subset of these emails received between October 2014 and May 2015 (n = 1646) were content analyzed to identify the purpose of the email communication along with type of product promoted. Tobacco companies use email to communicate with consumers on a regular basis. This communication was observed to be as frequent as nine times per month. Emails are most commonly used to promote contests (54.1%), content on tobacco company websites (39.1%), and tobacco coupons (15.7%). Email promotion of menthol-flavored tobacco products was common and was associated with promotion of coupons. Emails promoting menthol had a 1.9 times higher prevalence of also promoting coupons (95% CI: 1.52-2.37). Little is known about tobacco company email marketing and this study fills an identified research gap. A deeper understanding of this type of marketing is needed in order to counter tobacco industry messaging and advance tobacco control.

  16. Reaching consumers: How the tobacco industry uses email marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Brock

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco companies are restricted from engaging in many traditional forms of marketing. Direct marketing is one way tobacco companies can reach consumers while complying with regulation and avoiding negative public perception. There is little research on this type of opt-in marketing, which includes mail marketing, email marketing, web marketing, and mobile marketing, and its impact is not well understood. This study examined 6990 tobacco company emails received by individuals living in the state of Minnesota, US between January 2010 and May 2015 to determine email frequency by brand. These emails were gathered as part of ongoing surveillance of tobacco industry direct marketing. A subset of these emails received between October 2014 and May 2015 (n = 1646 were content analyzed to identify the purpose of the email communication along with type of product promoted. Tobacco companies use email to communicate with consumers on a regular basis. This communication was observed to be as frequent as nine times per month. Emails are most commonly used to promote contests (54.1%, content on tobacco company websites (39.1%, and tobacco coupons (15.7%. Email promotion of menthol-flavored tobacco products was common and was associated with promotion of coupons. Emails promoting menthol had a 1.9 times higher prevalence of also promoting coupons (95% CI: 1.52–2.37. Little is known about tobacco company email marketing and this study fills an identified research gap. A deeper understanding of this type of marketing is needed in order to counter tobacco industry messaging and advance tobacco control.

  17. Capacity mechanisms and effects on market structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elberg, Christina; Kranz, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Liberalized electricity markets are characterized by fluctuating priceinelastic demand of non-storable electricity, often defined by a substantial market share held by one or few incumbent firms. These characteristics have led to a controversial discussion concerning the need for and the design of capacity mechanisms, which combine some form of capacity payments with price caps in the spot market. The purpose of this study is to understand the effects of capacity mechanisms on the market structure. We consider a model with dominant firms and a competitive fringe and investigate the impact of price caps and capacity payments on investment incentives and market concentration. While lower price caps reduce the potential for the exercise of market power in static models, we find that in the dynamic model with endogenous investments, lower price caps result in an increase in market concentration, the frequency of capacity withholding and the profits of the dominant firms.

  18. Estimating WACC for Regulated Industries on Developing Financial Markets and in Times of Market Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Stubelj

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the estimation of weighted average cost of capital (WACC for regulated industries in developing financial markets from the perspective of the current financial-economic crisis. In current financial market situation some evident changes have occurred: risk-free rates in solid and developed financial markets (e. g. USA, Germany have fallen, but due to increased market volatility, the risk premiums have increased. The latter is especially evident in transition economies where the amplitude of market volatility is extremely high. In such circumstances, there is a question of how to calculate WACC properly. WACC is an important measure in financial management decisions and in our case, business regulation. We argue in the paper that the most accurate method for calculating WACC is the estimation of the long-term WACC, which takes into consideration a long-term stable yield of capital and not the current market conditions. Following this, we propose some solutions that could be used for calculating WACC for regulated industries on the developing financial markets in times of market uncertainty. As an example, we present an estimation of the capital cost for a selected Slovenian company, which operates in the regulated industry of electric distribution.

  19. Digital wine marketing: Social media marketing for the wine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viana Natália Andrade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The wine industry recognizes the increasingly relevant role of digital marketing as a valuable and appropriate tool to reach (adult consumers. This paper intends to trace a brief analysis about Digital Wine Marketing and Social Media Marketing contribution for the Wine Industry to increase brand awareness and sales and develop a short guidance to digital marketing as well. When consumers search for wine and wineries on internet they are bombarded with an massive volume of brand messages, meaning that delivering creative, polished content is key if a brand wants to capture people's attention. So, make a good wine is a important part of the work, but after this is necessary to give it the presentation it deserves, communicating accurately to consumers and have in mind that digital marketing activities are in a state of evolutionary development, where new trends are likely to occur rapidly and wineries have to adapt.

  20. Impact of electric industry deregulation on gas markets: a power marketer's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahns, F.H.

    1996-01-01

    The impact of electric industry deregulation on gas markets was examined. The presentation included industry comparisons of 1994 gas total revenues versus electricity total revenues for residential, commercial, and industrial use. A chart forecasting the outlook for gas-fired generation of electric power indicated that the use of natural gas as feedstock for power generation will increase from 12% to 37% during the period 1994 to 2003. 16 figs

  1. Market structure and market definition: the case of small market banks and thrifts

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Cohen

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a simple method to test between two general approaches to defining bank and thrift product markets. I estimate two models that endogenize market structure using data on banks and thrifts from 1,884 rural markets for the year 2000. The first model assumes that banks and thrifts are in "independent product markets," i.e., that bank profitability depends only on competition from other banks and that thrift profitability depends only on competition from other thrifts. An alt...

  2. Canadian retail petroleum markets study : a review of competitiveness in the Canadian refined petroleum marketing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ervin, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    A retail petroleum market study was conducted to provide a comprehensive overview of the competitiveness of the downstream petroleum industry in Canada, as well as to provide a foundation for effective policy development. A model which illustrates the interrelationships between the many stakeholders who receive revenue from the sale of gasoline was presented. It was shown that although there has been an upward trend in world crude prices since 1991, both refiners and marketers have experienced a decline in margins due to price competition at the rack and at the retail pump. Government intervention into petroleum marketing was considered to be of questionable value and a poor alternative to market-based regulation. In this study, 19 markets representing a broad range of conditions, were chosen for a detailed review of outlet economics. Market-by-market and regional comparisons of key competitiveness indicators were reviewed and discussed. Improving public understanding and awareness of competition in the petroleum marketing sector and developing cooperative industry research into marketing sector competitive issues were recommended. 7 refs., 15 tabs., 37 figs

  3. Industrial robots in Europe - market, applications and developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraft, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    Different companies involving a wide range of products and manufacturing processes were studied to define the requirements for industrial robots. A survey of all such automatic units offered on the world market was made to establish a data base. Principal applications include coating, spot welding, and loading and unloading operations.

  4. Labour Market Segmentation: An Investigation into the Dutch Hospitality Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Bispo

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAlmost 42,000 establishments, over 310,000 employees and approximately 13 billion Euro annual turnover (including VAT). This, in a nutshell, captures the Dutch hospitality industry in 2005. The aim of this study is to examine the functioning of the labour market in the Dutch hospitality

  5. Cubis AG - for the mining industry and for new markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, E.

    1994-01-01

    In Germany the research funds for the mining industry will again be cut drastically in future. Cubis must plan and use the remaining research funds in an optimum manner in conjunction with the mining industry itself and also the mining supply industry. Close cooperation and continuous coordination between the research institutes and industrial partners will continue to be necessary for this purpose. Transfer of technology between research and industrial application must take place more smoothly. It is not a question of marketing the implementation of results of individual research and development projects; on the contrary system solutions from one source are required and offered. Long-term business relationships with industrial partners, within the framework of which contract research, advice, engineering, training, etc. can be realised, are desirable. Cubis has undertaken the responsibility to make available services to the mining industry and involve itself in new markets with the released capacities. The success so far achieved by the new company shows that competence and potential to face up to the large tasks exist. Cubis is equipped to tackle the continuous challenge of technology and safety at work, but also the tasks in the raw material and environment sectors in the nineties and is the suitable partner for solution of problems. (orig.)

  6. Physicians under the influence: social psychology and industry marketing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Sunita; Fugh-Berman, Adriane

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical and medical device companies apply social psychology to influence physicians' prescribing behavior and decision making. Physicians fail to recognize their vulnerability to commercial influences due to self-serving bias, rationalization, and cognitive dissonance. Professionalism offers little protection; even the most conscious and genuine commitment to ethical behavior cannot eliminate unintentional, subconscious bias. Six principles of influence - reciprocation, commitment, social proof, liking, authority, and scarcity - are key to the industry's routine marketing strategies, which rely on the illusion that the industry is a generous avuncular partner to physicians. In order to resist industry influence, physicians must accept that they are vulnerable to subconscious bias and have both the motivation and means to resist industry influence. A culture in which accepting industry gifts engenders shame rather than gratitude will reduce conflicts of interest. If greater academic prestige accrues to distant rather than close relationships with industry, then a new social norm may emerge that promotes patient care and scientific integrity. In addition to educating faculty and students about the social psychology underlying sophisticated but potentially manipulative marketing and about how to resist it, academic medical institutions should develop strong organizational policies to counteract the medical profession's improper dependence on industry. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  7. Market development directory for solar industrial process heat systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this directory is to provide a basis for market development activities through a location listing of key trade associations, trade periodicals, and key firms for three target groups. Potential industrial users and potential IPH system designers were identified as the prime targets for market development activities. The bulk of the directory is a listing of these two groups. The third group, solar IPH equipment manufacturers, was included to provide an information source for potential industrial users and potential IPH system designers. Trade associates and their publications are listed for selected four-digit Standard Industrial Code (SIC) industries. Since industries requiring relatively lower temperature process heat probably will comprise most of the near-term market for solar IPH systems, the 80 SIC's included in this chapter have process temperature requirements less than 350/sup 0/F. Some key statistics and a location list of the largest plants (according to number of employees) in each state are included for 15 of the 80 SIC's. Architectural/engineering and consulting firms are listed which are known to have solar experience. Professional associated and periodicals to which information on solar IPH sytstems may be directed also are included. Solar equipment manufacturers and their associations are listed. The listing is based on the SERI Solar Energy Information Data Base (SEIDB).

  8. The changing structure of the electric power industry: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The U. S. electric power industry today is on the road to restructuring a road heretofore uncharted. While parallels can be drawn from similar journeys taken by the airline industry, the telecommunications industry, and, most recently, the natural gas industry, the electric power industry has its own unique set of critical issues that must be resolved along the way. The transition will be from a structure based on a vertically integrated and regulated monopoly to one equipped to function successfully in a competitive market. The long-standing traditional structure of the electric power industry is the result of a complex web of events that have been unfolding for over 100 years. Some of these events had far-reaching and widely publicized effects. Other major events took the form of legislation. Still other events had effects that are less obvious in comparison (e.g., the appearance of technologies such as transformers and steam and gas turbines, the invention of home appliances, the man-made fission of uranium), and it is likely that their significance in the history of the industry has been obscured by the passage of time. Nevertheless, they, too, hold a place in the underpinnings of today`s electric industry structure. The purpose of this report, which is intended for both lay and technical readers, is twofold. First, it is a basic reference document that provides a comprehensive delineation of the electric power industry and its traditional structure, which has been based upon its monopoly status. Second, it describes the industry`s transition to a competitive environment by providing a descriptive analysis of the factors that have contributed to the interest in a competitive market, proposed legislative and regulatory actions, and the steps being taken by the various components of the industry to meet the challenges of adapting to and prevailing in a competitive environment.

  9. Network structure detection and analysis of Shanghai stock market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Wu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In order to investigate community structure of the component stocks of SSE (Shanghai Stock Exchange 180-index, a stock correlation network is built to find the intra-community and inter-community relationship. Design/methodology/approach: The stock correlation network is built taking the vertices as stocks and edges as correlation coefficients of logarithm returns of stock price. It is built as undirected weighted at first. GN algorithm is selected to detect community structure after transferring the network into un-weighted with different thresholds. Findings: The result of the network community structure analysis shows that the stock market has obvious industrial characteristics. Most of the stocks in the same industry or in the same supply chain are assigned to the same community. The correlation of the internal stock prices’ fluctuation is closer than in different communities. The result of community structure detection also reflects correlations among different industries. Originality/value: Based on the analysis of the community structure in Shanghai stock market, the result reflects some industrial characteristics, which has reference value to relationship among industries or sub-sectors of listed companies.

  10. Transport Market and its Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Perić

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Market is the integrity of relations between supply and demandof traffic or some other service (goods which at a ce11ainplace and location, at a certain time affect the supply and purchaseof certain products, including services, stocks, money,and the set of all institutions, areas, devices and instrumentsthat act on the sale and other transactions realised at that point.It is the main resource allocator (~resource allocation in thesystems of free private ownership economic and transport systems.

  11. Chameleons in Marketspace: Industry Transformation in the New Electronic Marketing Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattinson, Hugh; Brown, Linden

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the new information infrastructure and its possible influences on marketing. Highlights include an alternative perspective of industrial economic history based on infrastructure development; the Internet and its positioning within the new information infrastructure; future possibilities and impacts on organizational structure; and…

  12. Liberalization and enlargement: impacts on the industrial organisation of natural gas markets in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirovska, M.

    2004-01-01

    In 2004, the EU has opened its commercial natural gas industry to competition, while eight former socialist countries have become member states. This ongoing institutional evolution is expected to have a great impact on the industrial organisation of the East European natural gas markets. Specificities and rigidities of the transport networks, as well as strong import dependency may in fact weaken the security of supply and confirm that natural gas is strongly affected by geopolitical constraints. By levering on an analysis of structure and strategies across natural gas markets in Eastern Europe, this dissertation explores the stakes of integration and liberalization on the industrial organisation of European natural gas and reveals the risk of an emerging oligopoly, and the cooperation between dominant players. Our main contention is that this evolution could possibly hinder network interconnection thereby thwarting the achievement of an integrated and single competitive natural gas market in the Union. (author)

  13. The state of the Canadian geothermal heat pump industry 2010 : industry survey and market analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    This report provided an overview of the state of the Canadian geothermal heat pump industry for 2010. In 2003, the Canadian GeoExchange Coalition (CGC) embarked on a market transformation initiative that continues to shape Canada's geothermal heat pump markets. The market for ground source heat pumps has grown by more than 60 percent annually in 2006, 2007, and 2008. The large increases in oil prices has created a price effect strong enough to trigger fuel switching for many consumers. Growth in the industry has also coincided with grant and financial assistance programs deployed by provincial governments, utilities, and the federal government. The ecoENERGY retrofitting program initiated in 2007 encouraged the use of geothermal heat pumps in the residential retrofit market. Tax rebate and load programs, as well as direct grants from provincial governments have increased demand in the new-built market. Canada's geothermal heat pump markets are growing much faster than United States geothermal markets. Closed horizontal loop systems accounted for 49.4 percent of residential installations. The CGC has trained over 2968 installers as well as many designers and inspectors for geothermal heat pumps. Colleges and public institutions are now creating training programs related to geothermal energy use. The total economic activity of the geoexchange industry in 2009 was estimated at in excess of $500 million. 29 tabs., 63 figs.

  14. Pharmaceutical industry marketing: understanding its impact on women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufrin, Carolyn B; Ross, Joseph S

    2008-09-01

    The delivery of modern health care entails significant involvement from the pharmaceutical industry, including developing and manufacturing drugs. However, the industry also has tremendous influence on the practice of medicine through its considerable marketing efforts, both to patients through direct to consumer advertising, and to physicians through detailing, providing samples, continuing medical education, and other efforts. This article will review the role that pharmaceutical marketing plays in health care, and the substantial evidence surrounding its influence on patient and physician behaviors, with additional discussion of the medical device industry, all with particular attention to women's health. Understanding the effects of pharmaceutical marketing on women's health, through discussion of relevant examples-including oral contraceptive pills, drugs for premenstrual dysphoric disorder, Pap smear cytology techniques, and neonatal herpes prophylaxis-will help ensure that women receive unbiased, evidenced-based care. We will conclude with a discussion of guidelines that have been proposed by professional organizations, policy makers, and universities, to assist physicians in managing exposure to pharmaceutical marketing.

  15. Retail Market Structure Development in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Machek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is analyzing the trends and development in the retailing sector in Central Europe, namely in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. These markets serve about 63 million inhabitants. The retail industry in Central Europe has changed dramatically in the last two decades, and has become a model for successful transformation of emerging markets. The retail market is highly concentrated and dominated by Western European retail chains. International retail chains are using all formats of modern distribution. This article is focusing on the development of hypermarkets, supermarkets and discount stores. Due to the international retail chains, Central European countries benefit from a dense network of modern shopping places; the intense competition of highly productive retailers contributes to the lower level of inflation rate because of the so-called Wal-Mart Effect. The constant pressure on prices influences the marketing strategies of both retailers and suppliers.

  16. Marketing aspects in tourism development : The marketing analysis of Vietnam tourism industry for long term development

    OpenAIRE

    Thai, Thuy Nga

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to identify the shortcomings that have been hindering the development of Vietnam tourism and seeking for the solution for these shortcomings in the aspects of marketing. Vietnam is a country lying in the peninsula of South Asia and holds great potentials of nature, culture and human power for tourism growth. Despite much effort on marketing campaigns, Vietnam tourism is still lagging behind other giant tourism industries in Asia region. The thesis applied ...

  17. The changing structure of the electric power industry: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    The U. S. electric power industry today is on the road to restructuring a road heretofore uncharted. While parallels can be drawn from similar journeys taken by the airline industry, the telecommunications industry, and, most recently, the natural gas industry, the electric power industry has its own unique set of critical issues that must be resolved along the way. The transition will be from a structure based on a vertically integrated and regulated monopoly to one equipped to function successfully in a competitive market. The long-standing traditional structure of the electric power industry is the result of a complex web of events that have been unfolding for over 100 years. Some of these events had far-reaching and widely publicized effects. Other major events took the form of legislation. Still other events had effects that are less obvious in comparison (e.g., the appearance of technologies such as transformers and steam and gas turbines, the invention of home appliances, the man-made fission of uranium), and it is likely that their significance in the history of the industry has been obscured by the passage of time. Nevertheless, they, too, hold a place in the underpinnings of today's electric industry structure. The purpose of this report, which is intended for both lay and technical readers, is twofold. First, it is a basic reference document that provides a comprehensive delineation of the electric power industry and its traditional structure, which has been based upon its monopoly status. Second, it describes the industry's transition to a competitive environment by providing a descriptive analysis of the factors that have contributed to the interest in a competitive market, proposed legislative and regulatory actions, and the steps being taken by the various components of the industry to meet the challenges of adapting to and prevailing in a competitive environment

  18. Evaluating Industry Self-Regulation of Food Marketing to Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Dale L; Castonguay, Jessica S; Filer, Christine R

    2015-08-01

    Concern has grown about the role of televised food advertising as a contributor to childhood obesity. In response, the food industry adopted a program of self-regulation, with participating companies pledging to limit child-targeted advertising to healthier products. The implicit promise of the industry initiative is a significant improvement in the overall nutritional quality of foods marketed to children, thereby negating the need for governmental regulation to accomplish that objective. This study assesses the efficacy of industry self-regulation by comparing advertising content on children's TV programs before and after self-regulation was implemented. A systematic content analysis of food advertisements (n=625 in 2007, n=354 in 2013) appearing in children's TV programs on the most popular cable and broadcast channels was conducted. All analyses were conducted in 2014. Findings indicated that no significant improvement in the overall nutritional quality of foods marketed to children has been achieved since industry self-regulation was adopted. In 2013, 80.5% of all foods advertised to children on TV were for products in the poorest nutritional category, and thus pose high risk for contributing to obesity. The lack of significant improvement in the nutritional quality of food marketed to children is likely a result of the weak nutritional standards for defining healthy foods employed by industry, and because a substantial proportion of child-oriented food marketers do not participate in self-regulation. The lack of success achieved by self-regulation indicates that other policy actions are needed to effectively reduce children's exposure to obesogenic food advertising. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Theories of Industrial Organization as Explanations of Experimental Market Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Plott, Charles R.

    1981-01-01

    The current professional interest in experimental economics seems to stem in part from a recently acquired ability of economists to explore subtle implications of institutional details for market performance. Advances in understanding the role of information in market models suggest the possibility that the contribution of institutions in affecting information patterns and resource allocation can be identified and assessed. Game theory has increasingly focused upon the structure of strategy s...

  20. Marketing strategies of the power industry. Marketingstrategien in der Elektrizitaetswirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, L.

    1975-01-01

    Electricity-supply companies have been making efforts for a long time, using price policy, to stimulate the consumption during low operation periods and to extend the sale altogether. In the budgetary field, these efforts were successful due to the technical development of electrical storage heating. Today already 6% of all households use electrical storage heating in their rooms. If the public utilities want to hold their own on the heating market on which competition is stiff due to competing energy sources, they must pay more attention to all instruments of sales policy than they have until now. Farsighted utilities have already adjusted their policy to marketing-political aims. Regarding the increasing importance of marketing strategies for sales development of the electricity industry a survey about the marketing activities by the utilities might be of interest. The essay is based upon an interview with 32 public utilities and analyses some marketing strategies already in use thus trying to show the possibilities and limits of sales promotion. As marketing-strategic possibilities, price policy, sales methods, product policy, and communication policy are discussed in detail.

  1. HANJUNG`s overseas marketing for power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, B.K. [Korea Heavy Industries and Construction Co., Ltd., Hanjung (Korea, Democratic People`s Republic of)

    1994-12-31

    The Korean government has a strong policy for developing local industries for producing power plant facilities. Korea Heavy Industries and Construction Co. Ltd. (HANJUNG) is a prime contractor for the design, construction, and installation of power plant facilities. The following topics are discussed: history of the electric power in Korea, the fabrication and supply of power plants in Korea, changing factors of the power plant business around the world, HANJUNG`s overseas marketing strategy, and Korea-US cooperation in third world countries.

  2. Multifractal structures for the Russian stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Taro

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we apply the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) to the Russian stock price returns. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first to reveal the multifractal structures for the Russian stock market by financial crises. The contributions of the paper are twofold. (i) Finding the multifractal structures for the Russian stock market. The generalized Hurst exponents estimated become highly-nonlinear to the order of the fluctuation functions. (ii) Computing the multifractality degree according to Zunino et al. (2008). We find that the multifractality degree of the Russian stock market can be categorized within emerging markets, however, the Russian 1998 crisis and the global financial crisis dampen the degree when we consider the order of the polynomial trends in the MFDFA.

  3. Embedded generation for industrial demand response in renewable energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leanez, Frank J.; Drayton, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Uncertainty in the electrical energy market is expected to increase with growth in the percentage of generation using renewable resources. Demand response can play a key role in giving stability to system operation. This paper discusses the embedded generation for industrial demand response in renewable energy markets. The methodology of the demand response is explained. It consists of long-term optimization and stochastic optimization. Wind energy, among all the renewable resources, is becoming increasingly popular. Volatility in the wind energy sector is high and this is explained using examples. Uncertainty in the wind market is shown using stochastic optimization. Alternative techniques for generation of wind energy were seen to be needed. Embedded generation techniques include co-generation (CHP) and pump storage among others. These techniques are analyzed and the results are presented. From these results, it is seen that investment in renewables is immediately required and that innovative generation technologies are also required over the long-term.

  4. Energy and environmental market in industrial enterprises in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    This paper discusses markets related with energy conservation and environment preservation in industrial enterprises in Thailand. The present Thailand is not in a situation that investments are made into environmental businesses or energy saving businesses. However, the attitude of the government toward environment is that emphasis is placed on solving the environmental pollution problems. Laws and regulations are defined for assistance in environment preservation to corporations making efforts to increase export, resource protection and energy conservation. These measures lead to expectation on bright future in developing technologies and markets related to environment preservation and energy conservation. Control of wastes by using clean technologies and enhancement in productivity are very important issues for the export of Thailand partly because European countries and America set these requirements as a condition for transaction. The markets related to energy conservation and environment preservation are anticipated of participation from such businesses as consultants, device manufacturers, and inspection and analysis of environmental effects. (NEDO)

  5. Social Media Marketing Strategies for Customer Retention in Fitness Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ilina, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the most effective ways of social media marketing that can be applied for customers’ loyalty management in fitness industry, as well as particular features, benefits, and methods of these strategies. The main idea is to create appropriate guidelines for the case companies to build social bonds with customer that will positively impact on maintaining communication and retention. The data for this study were collected from several sources, such as ...

  6. Research of factors of marketing pricing at domestic industrial enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    V.V. Bozhkova; I.M. Ryabchenko

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the article. The purpose of the article is research and systematization of factors of marketing pricing, which affect on realization of products of industrial enterprises.Works of domestic and foreign scientists on this issue were analysed. Traditionally pricing factors are classified into two groups: internal (controlled) and external (uncontrolled). Such division of factors is the first stage of pricing system analysis. On the second stage of analysis each of these groups is divi...

  7. Internet Marketing in Cultural Industries: from movie to arts

    OpenAIRE

    Besana, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Marketing skills have been developed by firms of several cultural industries for more than three decades. From movie companies to performing arts, from museums to art fairs, every stakeholder has adopted and is going to implement innovative communication strategies. Digital advertising and e-fundraising might represent the boundaries of the present and the future of cultural promotion. First of all we will explore the impact of Information and Communication Technologies in the Cultural (cr...

  8. Value in business and industrial marketing: past, present, and future

    OpenAIRE

    Lindgreen, Adam; Hingley, Martin K.; Grant, David B.; Morgan, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    This article offers an overview of research on the ‘value’ that businesses and industrial marketers analyze, create, and deliver. First, value literature (up to and around 2005 and post 2005) is discussed. This review highlights the changes in our notions of value and helps to identify seven areas for consideration that should drive future research: value proposition, relationship form, capabilities management, value metrics, temporal horizon, innovation imperative, and tactical focus. Follow...

  9. A General Theory of Endogenous Market Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Federico Etro; Paolo Bertoletti

    2014-01-01

    We provide a unified approach to imperfect (monopolistic, Bertrand and Cournot) competition equilibria with demand functions derived from symmetric preferences over a large but finite number of goods. The equilibrium markups depend on the Morishima Elasticity of Substitution/Complementarity between goods, and can be derived directly from the utility functions and ranked unambiguously. We characterize the endogenous market structures, their dependence on market size, income and firms’ producti...

  10. The Impact of Relationship Marketing Strategy in Indonesia Retail Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Pandapotan Simbolon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to examine the impact of relationship marketing strategy on customer loyalty in Indonesia’s retail industries. A questionnaire derived from previous studies and the relevant literature was completed by 182 retail customers in Jakarta. Multiple regression analysis assessed the impact on customer loyalty of four key constructs of relationship marketing (trust, commitment, communication, and conflict handling. The two variables (trust and commitment had a significant effect and predicted a good proportion of the variance in customer loyalty. Moreover, they were significantly related to one another. The relationships investigated in this study deserved further research. Since the data analyzed were collected from one sector of the service industry in one region, more studies were required before general conclusions can be drawn. It is reasonable to conclude, on this evidence, that customer loyalty can be created, reinforced, and retained by marketing plans aimed at building trust, demonstrating a commitment to service, communicating with customers in a timely, reliable and proactive fashion, and handling conflict efficiently, reinforces and refines the body of knowledge relating to customer loyalty in service industries.

  11. Product Differentiation and Industrial Structure.

    OpenAIRE

    Shaked, Avner; Sutton, John

    1987-01-01

    Some recent literature on "vertical product differentiation" has d eveloped the idea that if the nature of technology and tastes in some industry take a certain form, then the industry must necessarily be "concentrated" and must remain so, no matter how large the economy becomes. The present paper develops this idea further and looks at so me of its implications. This approach offers a simple unified framewo rk within which to reexplore many issues that arise in considering th e relationship ...

  12. The internationalisation of the Spanish food industry: the home market effect and European market integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, R.; García-Casarejos, N.; Gil-Pareja, S.; Llorca-Vivero, R.; Pinilla, V.

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse, from a long-term perspective, the factors determining the process of the internationalisation of the Spanish agrifood industry. The paper concentrates on the empirical verification of the existence of a home market effect in the food and drink industries in Spain and on the effects on trade flows of integration into the European Union. With this aim in mind, we took into account the latest contributions to the estimation of the gravity equation for a sample of export flows from 13 agrifood subsectors between 1970 and 2012, with a destination of 175 markets. From the results of the study the existence of the “home market effect” stands out as the determining factor of the increasing process of internationalisation in the majority of the subsectors of the food industry. On this point, the presence of this effect is remarkable in the most dynamic industries, where the process of restructuring caused by the development of the internal market was more intense. Furthermore, the influence of the process of European integration has been shown by the literature to be a very important factor. Our results qualify in part the results of previous studies, since the positive effect appeared later than expected. The positive effects did not appear until the completion of the process of transition by the dismantling of the barriers established in the treaty of accession to the European Union. (Author)

  13. The Emerging Global Education Industry: Analysing Market-Making in Education through Market Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Antoni; Steiner-Khamsi, Gita; Lubienski, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the rise and consequences of an emerging global education industry (GEI), which represents new forms of private, for profit involvement in education across the globe. The paper explores the emergence within the GEI of new and varied, largely transnational, markets in education by focusing on three examples of the GEI at work.…

  14. An exploration study to detect important factors influencing internet marketing: A case study of food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadan Vahabzadeh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Internet marketing plays an important role on profitability of organizations, it can build a bridge between customers and business owners and anyone could purchase products and services through internet. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect important factors influencing internet marketing on Iranian food industry, named Shahrvand. The proposed study selects 280 out of 1040 managers who were involved in this industry during the year of 2012. Structural equation modeling has been performed to detect important factors including internal/external factors, ease of use and electronic marketing. Cronbach alphas have been calculated for these four items were mostly above 0.80, which validated the overall questionnaire of the survey. The results indicate that among internal factors, knowledge management, organizational culture and resources influence on acceptance of internet marketing, while these factors do not show any meaningful impact on ease of use. In addition, external factors including trend on market growth, competition and infrastructure influence on ease of use and acceptance of internet marketing but infrastructure and competition do not impact on ease of internet marketing.

  15. Organizational Structure and Product Market Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Jung Hur; Yohanes E. Riyanto

    2007-01-01

    We analyze an interaction between a firm’s choice of organizational structure and competition in the product-market. Two organizational structures are considered, namely a centralized-organization, whereby formal authority is retained by a principal, and a decentralized-organization, whereby formal authority is delegated to an agent. We show that the choice of organizational structure hinges on a trade-off between operating-profit and managerial effort. The principal may prefer to choose an o...

  16. MARKETING CHANNELS AND DISTRIBUTION DECISIONS IN THE SPORT BUSINESS INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The sport business must determine how to get its products from the manufacturer or producer to the consumer. Additionally, in this industry, there are products produced at a point where the consumer must be present at its production to consume the product. These products are sports events, such as a professional basketball game, a football match, or a super cross race. In these types of products, the event - the product - is staged at a facility where fans will gather to watch. The sport business will have made decisions regarding the facility in relation to location and other factors that will make the facility attractive to the consumer as a place in which to consume these types of products. This paper presents a brief overview about distribution in the sport business industry, the role of distribution in marketing strategy, the selection of a distribution network, and the types of distribution intermediaries available for moving and / or offering sport business industry products.

  17. IMPROVING MARKETING LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT OF ENTERPRISES OF AGRO-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa Bilovol

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Purpose of the paper is to prove the need of improving marketing logistics management at enterprises of agro-industrial complex with the use of balanced scorecard method that will allow objectively evaluate its effectiveness. Methodology. The survey is based on the use of general scientific research methods, methods of analysis and synthesis, method of abstraction. Results. Research of state sales of agricultural products in agrarian enterprises helped us to identify and organize the following disadvantages: intermediary structures that are engaged in marketing of agricultural products significantly increase their costs that excess in 2-4 times the original price of agricultural products; inadequacy of agricultural market infrastructure and lack of wholesale and retail markets for agricultural products; low level of development of information electronic communications; backwardness of transport infrastructure and poor quality of roads, particularly in rural areas; high level of physical and moral deterioration of transport; low level of development of industrial and technological base of agricultural enterprises warehousing. Practical implications. We systemized and proposed indicators of evaluation of marketing logistics at enterprises of the agro-industrial complex based on the Balanced Scorecard in key areas: financial and cost-effectiveness indicators; indicators of internal logistics business processes; quality and development staff; indicators in the direction of working with clients. To the financial indicators and indicators of economic efficiency we included such as sales per 1 employer at marketing department (Qs/employer, proportion of logistics cost of marketing in the total cost of the enterprise (%, coefficient of the implementation of marketing plan (Cm, ROI in logistics marketing (%, profitability of marketing channels (%. Internal logistics business processes in enterprises of the agro-industrial complex represented by such

  18. MARKET STRUCTURE AND PERFORMANCE OF TUNISIAN BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Ayadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to examine the relationship between market structure and the performance of the Tunisian banking system over the period 1990-2009. The Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA method was used to assess the scores of x-efficiency and scale efficiency, the hypotheses of the market power theory and those of the efficient structure theory were tested. Our Results have shown that x-efficiency has had a positive and significant effect on the performance of the Tunisian commercial banks as well as the hypothesis of x-efficiency.

  19. The emerging "fans economy" marketing mode in digital consuming products industry in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chao

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to identify the new marketing mode in the consuming products industry and to discuss its feasibility to apply the emerging marketing mode into other industries or countries. The new marketing mode is called the “Fans economy” marketing mode. The objectives of the thesis are comparing the new marketing mode with the traditional one rather than challenging it, so that the thesis can make the analysis about the advantages and the disadvantages of the new marketing ...

  20. Market forces in municipal and industrial waste-to-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makansi, J.

    1991-01-01

    The market for municipal and industrial waste-to-energy can be characterized simply as currently soft with continued excellent long-term prospects. But as in all markets large and small, niche opportunities exist now which can be profitable with proper definition and strategy. Economics of several projects have proven marginal, cost overruns are common, and revenue projections are sometimes overstates. Also contributing to poorer economics of late are lower prices for the electric power produced from these plants. New environmental restrictions are adding 10-15% to the capital costs of a given project. On the industrial front, the strength of waste-fuel firing continues to be evident for independent power production. Important fuel-niche markets have sprung up over the last decade including petroleum coke, coal-mining wastes, hospital or redbag wastes, biomass, used tires, and so on. Another fuel niche is hazardous waste incineration. In the municipal arena, realism has not yet hit the recycling and source reduction enthusiasts. Only 25-35% recycling is considered practical by experts. There are also limits to how often material can be recycled. Finally, in spite of the best efforts of the population to control the amount of refuse generated and to recycle that which is, population and economic growth may overtake any new sense of environmental responsibility. And, yes, the additional refuse still has to go somewhere exclamation point The best somewhere option continues to be a waste-to-energy plant. Current market opportunities and two other market forces (international activities and the role of US utilities) are discussed

  1. Waterpipe industry products and marketing strategies: analysis of an industry trade exhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; Nakkash, Rima T; Hawkins, Ben; Akl, Elie A

    2015-12-01

    Understanding product development and marketing strategies of transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) has been of vital importance in developing an effective tobacco control policy. However, comparatively little is known of the waterpipe tobacco industry, which TTCs have recently entered. This study aimed to gain an understanding of waterpipe tobacco products and marketing strategies by visiting a waterpipe trade exhibition. In April 2014, the first author attended an international waterpipe trade exhibition, recording descriptions of products and collecting all available marketing items. We described the purpose and function of all products, and performed a thematic analysis of messages in marketing material. We classified waterpipe products into four categories and noted product variation within categories. Electronic waterpipe products (which mimic electronic cigarettes) rarely appeared on waterpipe tobacco marketing material, but were displayed just as widely. Claims of reduced harm, safety and quality were paramount on marketing materials, regardless of whether they were promoting consumption products (tobacco, tobacco substitutes), electronic waterpipes or accessories. Waterpipe products are diverse in nature and are marketed as healthy and safe products. Furthermore, the development of electronic waterpipe products appears to be closely connected with the electronic cigarette industry, rather than the waterpipe tobacco manufacturers. Tobacco control policy must evolve to take account of the vast and expanding array of waterpipe products, and potentially also charcoal products developed for waterpipe smokers. We recommend that tobacco substitutes be classified as tobacco products. Continued surveillance of the waterpipe industry is warranted. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. On industrial application of structural reliability theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoft-Christensen, P

    1998-06-01

    In this paper it is shown that modern structural reliability theory is being successfully applied to a number of different industries. This review of papers is in no way complete. In the literature there is a large number of similar applications and also application not touched on in this presentation. There has been some concern among scientists from this area that structural reliability theory is not being used by industry. It is probably correct that structural reliability theory is not being used by industry as much as it should be used. However, the work by the ESReDA Working Group clearly shows the vary wide application of structural reliability theory by many different industries. One must also have in mind that industry often is reluctant to publish data related to safety and reliability. (au) 32 refs.

  3. On industrial application of structural reliability theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoft-Christensen, P.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper it is shown that modern structural reliability theory is being successfully applied to a number of different industries. This review of papers is in no way complete. In the literature there is a large number of similar applications and also application not touched on in this presentation. There has been some concern among scientists from this area that structural reliability theory is not being used by industry. It is probably correct that structural reliability theory is not being used by industry as much as it should be used. However, the work by the ESReDA Working Group clearly shows the vary wide application of structural reliability theory by many different industries. One must also have in mind that industry often is reluctant to publish data related to safety and reliability. (au)

  4. The downstream industry compared to market; L'aval face au marche. Quelques elements de contexte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevallier, B.

    2010-02-15

    J.L. Schilansky introduces here the difficult question of the downstream industry compared to market in recalling the recent structural changes (behaviour of customers, behaviour of the USA- and China-governments), the increase of the European and French regulations, the climatic change and the conjectural impact of the crisis on the refining industry. (O.M.)

  5. Illinois Walls in alternative market structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, M.P.; Tuinstra, J.

    2005-01-01

    This note extends on our paper Illinois Walls: How Barring Indirect Purchaser Suits Facilitates Collusion (Schinkel, Tuinstra and Rüggeberg, 2005, henceforth STR). It presents analyses of two alternative, more competitive, market structures to conclude that when the conditions for existence of

  6. Structural change in Europe's gas markets: three scenarios for the development of the European gas market to 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, A.; Bowitz, E.; Roland, K.

    2000-01-01

    Against the background of the European Union's Gas Directive, and the emergence of new players and markets in Europe's gas sector, this paper explores how company actions could shape the future for the gas industry. Starting with an examination of company strategies this paper develops three scenarios for the future: a 'Gradual Transformation' scenario where a single European gas market develops that is essentially oligopolistic in nature; a 'Vertical Integration' scenario, where upstream and downstream gas companies merge to form a vertically integrated gas supplier; and a 'Pull the Plug' scenario, where the current market structure decomposes into a competitive market. These scenarios are examined in terms of their impact on gas prices, demand and the distribution of gas rent along the supply chain. The paper highlights the fact that the EU's gas Directive is not sufficient for the introduction of competition into Europe's gas markets, but that company actions will be the key determinant, and they may favour alternative market structures. (Author)

  7. Evaluating viral marketing: isolating the key criteria in insurance industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gooyandeh Hagh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine the key criteria that viral marketing practitioners believe should be implemented to measure about the success of viral marketing campaigns in insurance industry. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale where the effects of four independent variables, personal, message, media and tools characteristics are measured on an Iranian insurance firm’s reputation as well as service expansion. Cronbach alphas were measured for all components of the survey and they were all well above the minimum acceptable level. Using regression analysis, the study has determined positive and meaningful relationships between insurance firm’s reputation as well as service expansion and four independent variables.

  8. Structural Change Accounting with Labor Market Distortions

    OpenAIRE

    Wenbiao Cai

    2014-01-01

    This paper quantifies the relative importance of sectoral productivity and labor market distortions for structural change. I use a model in which labor productivity is the product of TFP and human capital in each sector, but distortions generate wedges in wage per efficiency worker across sectors. I calculate human capital by sector using micro census data, and use the model to infer TFP and distortions such that it replicates structural change in the US, India, Mexico and Brazil between 1960...

  9. Endoscopy Practice Management, Fee Structures, and Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divers, Stephen J

    2015-09-01

    Although our knowledge and appreciation of endoscopic procedures in exotic pets is extensive, associated management practices, including equipment preferences and fee structures, have rarely been discussed. This short article highlights the results of a small survey of 35 experienced exotic animal endoscopists and details their equipment ownership/preferences and fee structures. The importance of marketing is also emphasized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Structural reasons for vertical integration in the international oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luciani, G.

    1991-01-01

    Once upon a time, the international oil industry was vertically integrated. A small group of companies controlled a very substantial share of international oil flows, extending their operations from the oil well to the gas pump, and relying on intracorporate transfers for most in-between transactions. The historical reasons for vertical disintegration, the market role, and structural reasons for vertical reintegration are examined. (author)

  11. Bond-market skepticism and stock-market exuberance in the hospital industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James C

    2002-01-01

    The hospital industry needs funds to refurbish physical facilities, upgrade clinical and information technologies, and rebuild financial positions weakened by past external challenges and unwise organizational strategies. The financial markets offer a marked contrast in capital access, as bond creditors remain skeptical while stock investors plunge back into the once-shunned industry. Ironically, high stock prices may drive the for-profit chains to repeat past cycles of overexpansion, while weak bond ratings may save non-profit systems from a comparable loss of focus on the core business of operating and improving inpatient facilities. This turbulence has implications for public payment, antitrust, and financial disclosure policies.

  12. Analysis of Website and Marketing Promotion To Facilitate Online Marketing in Printing Retail Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Patankar, Ashutosh

    2011-01-01

    In today’s era of internet with evolution of Web 2.0, all the organisations dealing in retail are going online. In fact online presence has been mandatory requirement today and does no longer hold any competitive advantage by far. In country like India, printing retail industry has been found to be in a state of growth. There is wide array of literature available that analyzes critical success factors for online marketing in general as well as precisely for retail industry. This management pr...

  13. Industrial diversification and performance in an emerging market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yücel Emel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the relationship between industrial diversification and firm performance using a market-based performance measure and an accounting measure. We used the data of the firms listed on Borsa Istanbul during the period between 2006 and 2012. The results of the panel data indicate that there is a significant positive relationship between diversification and performance. We found that diversified firms outperformed the single firms. As is compatible with a resource-based approach, it was found that diversified firms tended to use their resources more efficiently compared to single firms.

  14. 75 FR 3593 - Concept Release on Equity Market Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... Structure 2. Other Measures B. High Frequency Trading 1. Strategies a. Passive Market Making b. Arbitrage c... trend from a market structure with primarily manual trading to a market structure with primarily... Part III Securities and Exchange Commission 17 CFR Part 242 Concept Release on Equity Market...

  15. World nuclear power generation market and prospects of industry reorganization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Tomoko

    2007-01-01

    In late years there are many trends placing nuclear energy with important energy in various countries in the world due to a remarkable rise to an energy price, importance of energy security and a surge of recognition to a global environment problem. Overseas nuclear industry's acquisition by a Japanese nuclear power plant maker and its capital or business tie-up with an overseas company, were announced in succession in 2006. A nuclear power plant maker has played an extremely important role supporting wide technology in all stages of a design, construction, operation and maintenance in a nuclear power generation business. After having surveyed the recent trend of world nuclear power generation situation, a background and the summary of these acquisition/tie-ups made were investigated and analyzed to consider the influence that movement of such an industry gives a world nuclear power generation market. (T. Tanaka)

  16. Electric utility strategies and the emerging industry structure - Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motupalli, S.

    1991-01-01

    The electric utility industry is our most capital intensive industry by far. Over the past few decades, socioeconomic and technological forces have been quietly revolutionizing the way the industry conducts itself. During the 1980s, these changes have been particularly intense, often catching both regulators and regulated ill-prepared to develop effective and profitable strategies to deal with such change. Much has already been written about these changes: independent power producers, competitive procurement of resources, incentive-based regulation, the benefits of affiliated company structures, mergers and consolidation, customer energy conservation, and marketing strategy development are all currently highly popular article and seminar topics. The author's object in this two-part series is to facilitate development of a decision framework to put these various changes in perspective, to help develop effective strategies through better focused and equipped planning methodologies. Gaining an understanding of the role, strengths and weaknesses of the various players in an industry and the structural constraints in which they operate is a necessary precursor to developing effective operating strategies to deal with change or to manipulate industry forces in your favor. Michael Port's popular five forces model provides a convenient way to develop such an understanding. It provides a way to map the industry forces driving profitability, through a review of the strengths, weaknesses and leverage of: current industry players, suppliers to the industry, customers for the industry's product, new entrants into the market, and substitute products providing equal or better value. Part 1 of this series reviews each of these five forces along some key dimensions to determine their direction of change or influence, and whether this change impacts a utility's competitive position favorably or unfavorably

  17. Industrial safety: its structuring and content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, A.; Rodriguez, J.; Martinez-Val, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Industrial development has led to an on-going increase in productivity, but the concept of safety has also become highly relevant. In this article, the authors address the structuring and content of industrial safety which involves laying down essential safety requirements, both in manufacturing and processes and in products. (Author)

  18. PV solar electricity industry: Market growth and perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Winfried [RWE SCHOTT Solar GmbH, Carl-Zeiss-Str. 4, 63755 Alzenau (Germany)

    2006-11-23

    The photovoltaic (PV) solar electricity market has shown an impressive 33% growth per year since 1997 until today with market support programs as the main driving force. The rationales for this development and the future projections towards a 100 billion | industry in the 2020s, by then only driven by serving cost-competitively customer needs are described. The PV market, likely to have reached about 600MW in the year 2003, is discussed according to its four major segments: consumer applications, remote industrial electrification, developing countries, and grid-connected systems. While in the past, consumer products and remote industrial applications used to be the main cause for turnover in PV, in recent years the driving forces are more pronounced in the grid-connected systems and by installations in developing countries. Examples illustrating the clear advantage of systems using PV over conventional systems based, e.g., on diesel generators in the rural and remote electrification sector are discussed. For the promotion of rural electrification combined with the creation of local business and employment, suitable measures are proposed in the context of the PV product value chain. The competitiveness of grid-connected systems is addressed, where electricity generating costs for PV are projected to start to compete with conventional utility peak power quite early between 2010 and 2020 if time-dependent electricity tariffs different for bulk and peak power are assumed. The most effective current-pulling force for grid-connected systems is found to be the German Renewable Energy (EEG) Feed-in Law where the customers are focusing on yield, performance, and long-life availability. The future growth in the above-defined four market segments are discussed and the importance of industry political actions in order to stimulate the markets either in grid-connected systems by feed-in tariff programs as well as for off-grid rural developing country applications by long

  19. PV solar electricity industry: Market growth and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Winfried

    2006-01-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) solar electricity market has shown an impressive 33% growth per year since 1997 until today with market support programs as the main driving force. The rationales for this development and the future projections towards a 100 billion | industry in the 2020s, by then only driven by serving cost-competitively customer needs are described. The PV market, likely to have reached about 600MW in the year 2003, is discussed according to its four major segments: consumer applications, remote industrial electrification, developing countries, and grid-connected systems. While in the past, consumer products and remote industrial applications used to be the main cause for turnover in PV, in recent years the driving forces are more pronounced in the grid-connected systems and by installations in developing countries. Examples illustrating the clear advantage of systems using PV over conventional systems based, e.g., on diesel generators in the rural and remote electrification sector are discussed. For the promotion of rural electrification combined with the creation of local business and employment, suitable measures are proposed in the context of the PV product value chain. The competitiveness of grid-connected systems is addressed, where electricity generating costs for PV are projected to start to compete with conventional utility peak power quite early between 2010 and 2020 if time-dependent electricity tariffs different for bulk and peak power are assumed. The most effective current-pulling force for grid-connected systems is found to be the German Renewable Energy (EEG) Feed-in Law where the customers are focusing on yield, performance, and long-life availability. The future growth in the above-defined four market segments are discussed and the importance of industry political actions in order to stimulate the markets either in grid-connected systems by feed-in tariff programs as well as for off-grid rural developing country applications by long

  20. The effect of market orientation on performance efficiency of the hotel industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bahram Kheiri; Shirin Khosrozadeh; Shima Pezeshki

    2014-01-01

    This research assesses how the value of the customer perspective, market orientation and competitive advantages will affect organizational efficiency in hotel industry. All the two to five stars hotel of Tehran, Hamedan, Mashhad and Mazandaran province were selected as the population of this research via census method, which is a total of 206 hotels. Structural equation modeling was used to test eleven hypotheses. Research findings show that if hoteliers to understand the value of their custo...

  1. Bankruptcy and Product-Market Competition: Evidence from the Airline Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ciliberto, Federico; Schenone, Carola

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the effects of Chapter 11 bankruptcy filings on product market competition using data from the US airline industry. We find that bankrupt airlines permanently downsize their national route structure, their airport-specific networks, and their route-specific flight frequency and capacity. We also find that bankrupt airlines lower their route-specific prices while under bankruptcy protection, and increase them after emerging. We do not find robust evidence of significant changes ...

  2. Market Structure and Innovation Policies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer, Aske

    2017-01-01

    The Danish media system is a hybrid one where strong public service broadcasters and private print and broadcast media co-exist. This chapter, first, analyzes the market structure, measuring the degree of market concentration in newspapers, television, and radio and mapping state intervention....... The analysis shows that all these media markets are highly concentrated: the four dominant television and radio broadcasters account for 80–90 % of total viewing/listening, the four dominant newspaper publishers for around 75 % of total circulation. The extent of state intervention also is high in Denmark...... for digital publishers and an earmarked pool to stimulate media innovation. However, the fact that not the entire innovation pool has actually been allotted to media innovation questions how appropriate the criteria for eligibility are. Third, the chapter makes recommendations for future revision of the media...

  3. The international uranium market - structure and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noreng, Oe.

    1978-01-01

    It is pointed out that the international uranium market is immature and is subject to factors of a political, rather than economic nature. This is due largely to potential military exploitation, which has led USA, Canada and Australia to adopt a restrictive export policy. South Africa and France, on the other hand have a more liberal attitude. The history of the market, and the development of U308 prices are then discussed and related to the phases in the commercial exploitation of nuclear power. The present market structure is described, both international and within Canada, USA, Australia, South Africa and France. The future demand is then discussed, assuming three levels of demand and various price categories. It is shown that the demand will be only slightly influenced by moderate to large increases in price, assuming price rises for coal and oil. It is concluded that the price can rise to $400-500/pound U308. (JIW)

  4. Structure, conduct and performance of Plantain Marketing in Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Structure, conduct and performance of Plantain Marketing in Edo State, Nigeria. ... marketing system, assess its performance and estimate the cost and returns in plantain marketing. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  5. Information transfer across intra/inter-structure of CDS and stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyuseong; Kim, Sehyun; Kim, Soo Yong

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the information flow between industrial sectors in credit default swap and stock markets in the United States based on transfer entropy. Both markets have been studied with respect to dynamics and relations. Our approach considers the intra-structure of each financial market as well as the inter-structure between two markets through a moving window in order to scan a period from 2005 to 2012. We examine the information transfer with different k, especially k = 3, k = 5 and k = 7. Analysis indicates that the cases with k = 3 and k = 7 show the opposite trends but similar characteristics. Change in transfer entropy for intra-structure of CDS market precedes that of stock market in view of the entire time windows. Abrupt rise and fall in inter-structural information transfer between two markets are detected at the periods related to the financial crises, which can be considered as early warnings.

  6. Electricity prices in a competitive market: a preliminary analysis of the deregulated Thai electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipattanasomporn, M.; Ongsakul, W.; Pacudan, R.; Lefevre, T.

    2000-01-01

    The electricity industry throughout the world is currently undergoing a significant transition towards restructuring and deregulation. Following this new legislation, Thailand has initiated an institutional and structural reform with a belief that this could be the best way forward for the Thai electricity supply industry (ESI) to improve efficiency, lower electricity prices, and tackle financial debts. This paper presents an analysis of the extent to which prices for generation services in a competitive market may differ from regulated electricity prices, if competitive prices are based on marginal costs and regulated prices are based on average costs, by using Thailand as a case study. (Author)

  7. An exploratory study of services marketing in global markets: major areas of inquiry for the health care services industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, S; Erdem, S A

    1996-01-01

    It has been stated that one of the major challenges for the international marketer is the design of an efficient strategy for marketing services to international markets. This paper reviews some of the issues associated with services marketing in global markets along with the basic variables of service industries. An exploratory assessment of the health care services industry results in a list composed of several inquiry areas which should be examined by multinational companies. It is hoped that the review of the issues raised in this paper provides a basis for decision making and further research.

  8. Market Structure and Price Transmission of Eggs Commodity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Aziz Ahmad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purposes of this research are to determine some characteristics of distribution channel, market structure, and price maker transmission in purebred chicken egg commodity in Banyumas District, Central Java Province. Primary data applied on this research is from all channel distribution levels; from producers to final consumers. Meanwhile secondary data is collected from government official sources, such as BPS-Statistic of Banyumas Disrict, Banyumas Department of Industry, Trading and Cooperation, and previous researches which has been made by researcher team. Sample determining is directed by proportional random sampling methods. Some measurements are applied to this research, including to; Herfindahl Index (HI, Concentration Ratio (CF, and Minimum Efficiency Scale (MES to investigate market structure; and Asymmetric Price Transmission (APT to determine price transmission mechanism model. This research finds that (1 the distribution channel of egg commodity is spitted to different channel, the first channel: egg producer – retail traders – final consumers, and second channel: egg producers – whole seller – retail traders – final consumers; (2 market structure which is created to this farming specific commodity is perfect market; (3 price transmission mechanism analysis statistically shows that there is almost no existence of dominant power in price formation.

  9. Market study on the oil and petroleum industry in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The historical background of the Mexican petroleum industry is outlined and an overview is presented of the state of the Mexican economic environment. The Mexican market for oil and gas field equipment is estimated, with a focus on the oil monopoly PEMEX. The total imports of oil and gas field equipment are estimated to increase to US$280.4 million in 1992, and the most important foreign suppliers are led by the USA, which has a 72% share. Canadian exports of oil and gas field equipment have remained fairly stable during the last few years at $2.4-2.7 million. In general, prospects for Canadian suppliers to the Mexican market are best in the area of technologically sophisticated equipment. An end-user profile of PEMEX is presented, noting that it is the largest enterprise in Latin America and had $14.2 billion in sales in 1989. Equipment imported by PEMEX includes seamless steel pipe, drilling tools, gate and control valves, electric motors, processing and control equipment, steam and gas turbines, and telecommunications equipment. PEMEX activities in 1989 are reviewed, including those in the petrochemical sector, and projected activities are described. Major efforts planned by PEMEX include expansion of petrochemical production. Access to the Mexican market is discussed in terms of PEMEX purchasing policy, payment system, import requirements, the need for using a supplier agent, and use of the metric system and other standards. 6 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Developing organizational structures for international marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan Cucu

    2002-01-01

    International marketing represents marketing activities performed across national boundaries. The level of involvement in international marketing can range from casual exporting to globalization of markets. Although most firms adjust their marketing mixes for differences in target markets, some firms are able to standardize their marketing efforts worldwide

  11. Technology for Price Management in Industrial Differential Product Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Orlova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies price behavior of oligopolies in industrial market where price competition is replaced by non-price competition. There is a developed technology for pricing management of the products of industrial enterprises, which, unlike the existing ones, takes into account the dynamics of changes in consumer preferences and changes in the pricing policy of the enterprise competitor and is based on usage of system dynamics models to simulate the financial and economic performance of enterprises and the fuzzy model for situational analysis and decisionmaking on changes in prices for the products. A pricing simulation model is offered. It is based on system-dynamic modeling method, which takes into account the complex cause-to-effect concatenation of factors on price such as product quality, cost, price competition, price elasticity of economic demand, competitors’ quantity of output and estimates the impact of changing factors of internal and external enterprise environment on the effectiveness of its activities.The simulation model allows us to conduct diverse experiments and analyze the impact of management decisions on the efficiency of the enterprise. Based on the fuzzy approach a price decision-making model is developed. It operates not only precise (numeric values, but also qualitative assessments of variables and provides an adequate use of logical relationships and the laws of the mutual influence of market and production and economic factors. Qualitative dependences, which establish the influence of external and internal factors on the price change, are identified as a result of the study of economic laws and legal conformity that are in the context of rapid economic change and market turbulence may not be strictly formalized and take the form of linguistic statements, which express the conditional relationship between the qualitative assessments of initial factors and changes in the relative price.

  12. Internal marketing and organisational performance of SMEs in the EDV industrial sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa João Pedro

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the industrial sector, this research aims to identify conditions for the implementation of internal marketing concepts among employees and its impact on the organisational performance. Only one study was found simultaneously integrating the two constructs. It concerned the cork processing industry alone, yet considered expanding the efforts – namely, using qualitative exploratory research in the form of 10 in-depth interviews based on a script of generally open questions – to the entire industry in the Portuguese region between rivers Douro and Vouga. The unit of analysis was constructed considering distinct features as well as activity criteria and the geographic location, thus ensuring the necessary heterogeneity. The results inform about the awareness of the internal marketing conceptualisation. The research found that all analysed enterprises had more or less structured model frames and worked with the conceptualisation of the guidance for the internal market, a strategic concern, and in some instances, this concept was an organisational desideratum in the sector. In addition to the lapse of the research according to a qualitative paradigm of exploratory nature, the main limitation is the need for objective sustainably of the results obtained through future quantitative studies to promote an integrated triangulation of their outcomes. The research allowed identifying the companies that use organisational models conducive to the individual well-being of employees and facilitating the desired orientation to the market.

  13. The Formation of Structure of Marketing Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Dubickis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the changing high-level complex environment, it is moreand more important for the companies to focus on the marketand costumer. Or, in other words, the companies supposed toturn their attention to the marketing. Despite the fact that themajor subject of an economy is a company, the analysis of themarket-ing issues on the company level is limited. Meanwhile,both practical and scientific problems are significant. One ofthe most important issues is forming the structure of marketingdepartment. Its functions and the content of implementingmeasures determine that its structure supposed to consist ofthe market research and segmentation, development of businessstrategy, strategic planning as well as advertising and realizationof production.

  14. Industry perspectives on market access of innovative drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim ePauwels

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents industry perspectives on the challenges related to market access of innovative drugs in general and oncology drugs in specific. Fifteen interviews were conducted with representatives of pharmaceutical companies and industry associations. Interviewees call for a broader recognition of value within the assessment and appraisal of drugs. According to interviewees, focus on value is jeopardized by the lack of a common value definition across Europe, poor availability and validity of value measures and cost-saving measures such as external reference price setting and cost-effectiveness analysis at the side of the payers. Centralized assessment of relative-effectiveness at European level would provide a common value estimate across member states, independent of financial drivers. Empirical evidence on patient reported outcomes and societal preferences is however essential in the development of a value definition. Furthermore, value-based pricing would imply a dynamic approach where the price is differentiated across indications and across the lifecycle of the drug, especially in fields such as oncology. Financial drivers however also threat the application of value-based pricing at the side of the industry, making value-based profitability a more appropriate term.

  15. THE ROLE OF PROMOTION ON MARKETING IN TURKISH DRUG INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah Bilgener

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract\tMarketing has an important role in modern life. Marketing provides economical and social bene-fits with correleating between producers and consumers.\tPromotional activities are necessary for better marketing strategies. Therefore, firms have to give more importance to promotional activities. Promotional activities are marketing instruments that an-nounced all the knowledges about the products and services to their consumers, for surviving and de-veloping the firms.\tNowadays drug producers are marketing their products all arround the world. But, drugs are not ordinary products, for this reason more importance must be given to drug marketing andpromotion.\tThe purpose of this study is to determine the role of promotion within the marketing in Turkish Drug Industry. The material of this study is an uniform questionnaire with 41 questions applied to about 190-200 medical representatives who work in Çorum, Yozgat, Amasya and Tokat cities for 37 firms which are the members of Federation of Employer’s Organization in Pharmaceutical Industry and 14 firms which are profited by the services of this federation.\tIn this study, SPSS program (ver7.5 has been used for evaluation of the data. According to the re-sults, medical represantatives think that the drug sales will increase and wait the data of IMS (Inform Medicines Statistics will rise about 60-80%. 90% of the medical represantatives believe that the pa-ramedical activities are effective and 73% of them carry out paramedical studies.\tÖzet\tPazarlama modern yasantida önemli bir role sahiptir. Pazarlama üreticiler ve tüketiciler arasinda bir iliski kurarak, ekonomik ve sosyal faydalar saglar. Tanitim faaliyetleri daha iyi bir pazarlama stratejisi için gereklidir. Bu nedenle sirketler daha iyi bir pazarlama stratejisi için tanitim faaliyetlerine önem vermelidir. Tanitim faaliyetleri, isletmenin ürettigi mal ve hizmetleri tüketicilere duyuran, isletmenin gelisimini ve yasamasini

  16. Nuclear power development in Russia. Russia's energy industry preparing for the free market economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The energy industry in Eastern Europe is preparing for the free market economy. The ambitions goal is to get fit and prepared for joining the free market economy as a competitor, and within the shortest possible time at that, struggling against the sharp wind of change that will blow, and trying to make the best of actually very unfavourable economic and political conditions. Priority has been given to privatisation of power plants and electricity networks, and to a speedy connection to the Western grids. However, all parties concerned are well aware that this task cannot be accomplished out of Russia's own resources alone. Whether the economy in Russia can be put on a stable footing and develop stable structures will depend on the development and efficient use of nuclear power, as the most important resources of Russia's energy industry are concentrated in the eastern part of the country, while 70% of electricity generation and demand is concentrated in the European part. (orig.) [de

  17. Ownership structure and market power in the nordic power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amundsen, E.S.; Bergman, L.

    1999-01-01

    The opening of Nord Pool in 1996 seriously constrained the power companies' ability to exercise market power within their national borders. Currently there is an integration process going on among the power companies in the Nord Pool area. It manifest itself in terms of take-over and reciprocal acquisition of shares in the power companies - nationally and abroad. This process may undo what the introduction of the common power market achieved in curtailing market power. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effects on market power of increased cross- ownership in the Nordic power market. (au)

  18. Is performance related to marketing research in the health care industry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, G M; Kleimenhagen, A; Pillari, G D

    1994-01-01

    Marketing research has grown to become indispensable for superior performance in packaged goods industries. While health care institutions are spending large amounts on marketing research, few studies focus upon the relationship of marketing research to health care organizational performance. Utilizing a national sample of U.S. hospitals, this article points out that marketing research and superior performance are positively associated.

  19. Model Keterkaitan Market Orientation, Leadership, Organizational Innovation dan Organizational Performance pada Industri Kerajinan di Sumatera Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATNI PRIMA LITA

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of market orientation, leadership, organizational innovation and organizational performance in handycraft industry in Bukittinggi City, Pariaman City, Padang Pariaman Regency, and Pesisir Selatan Regency. This research uses quantitative methods, while the sampling technique using Purposive sampling with sample size of 86 craft companies. The criteria assigned to the respondent is the handycraft business that produce and market their own product. In this study, data were collected through the questionnaire of the owner of the handycraft industry. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM method with SmartPLS software. This research uses multidimensional constructions first order reflective and second order formative. Based on the data analyzed it can be concluded that leadership has a significant positive effect on business performance. This is evidenced by the two dimensions of leadership (Transactional leadership and transformational leadership is able to explain the performance of the organization well. In addition, market orientation  have 3 dimensional (Customer orientation, resource orientation, and competitor orientation is also able to give influence to organizational performance and organizational innovation. However, organizational innovation is not able to give a significant influence for the performance improvement of handycraft industry. It can be concluded that organizational performance in handycraft industry is influenced by market orientation conducted on consumers and competitors. And also the most important factor is how the attitude of leadership owned by the owner of handicraft industry in managing and running the business, in order to craft products in accordance with customer tastes.

  20. Essays on industrial structure and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordaas, Hildegunn Kyvik

    1997-01-01

    The book is a thesis submitted for the degree of dr. polit. at the University of Bergen. It has chapters on economic development and industrial structure, trade and growth with static and dynamic economies of scale, terms of trade and economic growth in a world of constrained capital mobility, how liberalization of trade in services may conserve natural reserves, some reasons why capital does not flow from rich to poor counties and finally on South African manufacturing industries - catching up or falling behind

  1. Russian nuclear industry and the perspectives on the world market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nefedov, G. F.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the NPP capacities in Russia is presented. Federal Target Program 'Development of the Nuclear Power Industry of Russia in 2007-2010 and till 2015' (Government Decree of October 06 2006) is adopted. The scope of financing under the Program till 2015 is €41bill., of which budget financing is €19 bln. The goals are: to launch 10 new NPP units and to start 10 more projects by 2015; to actively promote the Russian nuclear fuel cycle organizations production on the world markets; to expand NPP construction and and operation outside Russia. The institutional reform to meet the goals is presented. NPP with russian VVER projects worldwide are presented

  2. Marketing Strategy Implementation Process in the Creative Industry of Video Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryangela Drumond de Abreu Negrão

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to the understanding of marketing strategy process when it presents the organizational and human factors that support the processes of implementation, identified in a qualitative study conducted in the creative industry of video game development. The research, a case study applied to four video and computer game companies was based on the Sashittal and Jassawalla (2001 marketing strategic model, and on the concepts of the creative behavior and innovation in organizations proposed by Amabile (1997. The analysis suggests that the marketing strategy implementation is anchored in innovative administrative process, creative skills and the adoption of modern control technologies. It was observed that a vision that associates production, process, the market orientation and the delivery of value-adding is essential for the implementation of strategies in creative and innovative organizational structures. The research contributes to the marketing strategy implementation studies in creative and innovative environments under the approach of smaller organizations. It also contributes with the marketing strategy theory when it suggests that the analysis of the process, the control and the management skills be included as categories into the theoretical model in future investigations.

  3. Integration of multi-level marketing management systems geographically industry development

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandr Lavrov; Lada Polikarpova; Alla Handramai

    2015-01-01

    In the article the authors attempt to develop a multi-level management system territorially industry development in market conditions, built in the widespread use of various types of marketing and their horizontal and vertical integration.

  4. IDENTIFYING MARKETING EFFECTIVENESS METRICS (Case study: East Azerbaijan`s industrial units)

    OpenAIRE

    Faridyahyaie, Reza; Faryabi, Mohammad; Bodaghi Khajeh Noubar, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    The Paper attempts to identify marketing eff ectiveness metrics in industrial units. The metrics investigated in this study are completely applicable and comprehensive, and consequently they can evaluate marketing eff ectiveness in various industries. The metrics studied include: Market Share, Profitability, Sales Growth, Customer Numbers, Customer Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty. The findings indicate that these six metrics are impressive when measuring marketing effectiveness. Data was ge...

  5. A STUDY ON IMPACT OF ICT ON THE MARKETING STRATEGY OF INDIAN TOURISM INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Kashif Ansari; Garima Jain; Jasleen Kaur

    2017-01-01

    Deployment of ICT has been changing the way companies in every industry conduct their business. The most impacted is the marketing department. Marketers need to constantly study the market and the rapid changes in technology to continue satisfying the new-age customers. These customers have access to multiple sources of information due to increased usage of ICT. The present study analyses the evolution of Indian tourism industry, focusing on its marketing strategies over the years. The author...

  6. An Empirical Study on Marketing Effectiveness Evaluation of Green Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Yazhou Xiong; Qianxia Lu; Rui Wang

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the marketing effectiveness of green food industry in Hubei Province via fuzzy comprehensive evaluation. Based on the cost basis of analysis of present situation, an evaluation system of marketing effectiveness evaluation on green food industry is established from three aspects, including the industry factor, policy factor and marketing performance factor. And fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is used to make the quantitative research, analyze the major obstacl...

  7. Economic development and industrial structure - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordaas, Hildegunn Kyvik

    1997-09-01

    The essay offers a selective review of central issues related to economic growth. The interrelationship between technological progress, capital accumulation, specialisation and industrial structure is emphasised. It is concluded that, first, there is little evidence that industrial structure plays an independent role in growth. Second, economists have been more successful in explaining the consequence of technological progress than the determinants of technological progress. However, even the consequences are not well understood and there is still a long way to go before general and well-documented policy implications can be drawn. (Author)

  8. Market opportunities in the oil and gas industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, T.

    2004-01-01

    China is an emerging marketplace, with a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) ranked fourth, after the United States, the European Union and Japan. Imports to China have risen from 21 per cent in 2002 to 40 per cent in 2003, with over 54 billion dollars in direct foreign investment in 2003 alone. Private car ownership is also increasing. This paper provides a market overview of China, with specific reference to increases in energy demand fuelled by the rise of energy intensive industries such as steel, aluminum, chemicals and construction. It was noted that resource-based inputs are in need, as well as high tech goods and services. Canada has committed to doubling its trade with China by 2010. Current Canadian exports to China were overviewed. The current situation in the oil and gas sector in China were outlined, as well as a forecast of expected trends. It was suggested that a rise in domestic energy demand and instability in the Middle East was causing China to seek alternative, more secure sources of oil. Major players in the oil and gas industry in China were profiled, with an overview of domestic business, as well as potential future competitors in the sector. It was concluded that opportunities for onshore and offshore exploration and pre-drilling services were a viable option for Canadian investors. Technology and consulting services were also considered to be possible areas for trade development. A list of future projects in the Chinese oil and gas sector was provided, as well as details of necessary steps for entry into the industry and advice concerning intellectual property and legal protection. tabs., figs

  9. A Study Effects Architectural Marketing Capabilities on Performance Marketing unit Based on: Morgan et al case: Past Industry in Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Dalvi; Robabe Seifi

    2014-01-01

    Over a period of time architectural marketing capabilities combination of knowledge and skills develop in to capabilities. These architectural marketing capabilities have been identified as one of the important ways firms can achieve a competitive advantage The following research tests effects architectural marketing capabilities on performance marketing unit Based on a survey .a structural equation model was developed to test our hypotheses. the study develops a structural model linking arch...

  10. Strategic Marketing for Indonesian Plywood Industry: An Analyse by using Porter Five Forces Model and Generic Strategy Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Makkarennu; Nakayasu, A.; Osozawa, K.; Ichikawa, M.

    2014-01-01

    The target for a marketing strategy is to find a way of achieving a sustainable competitive advantage over the other competing products and firms in a market.Good strategy serves as a road map for effective action. Porter???s five forces model and three generic strategies were used to evaluate the structure and the strategy for positioning of plywood industry in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Qualitative research was carried out by using in-depth interview method. Having expressed either agree...

  11. An Industry Analysis of the MBA Market and the Competitive Positioning of the GSBPP

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hager, Garrett W; King, Thomas T

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this Master of Eusiness Administration (MBA) project is to perform an industry analysis of the MBA market utilizing the principles of industry analysis noted in Michael Porter's "Five Forces Analysis" model...

  12. Regional Institutional Structure in the Context of Innovative Industry Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Y. Nikitaeva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper proves that successful innovation-oriented development of the industrial complex of the region can be ensured through the creation of adequate institutional structure. As a theoretical and conceptual platform for this task the use of regional institutionalism is suggested. It is reasoned that integration component plays an important role in providing of the innovative development of the industry in modern economic realities and the potential effects of integration on meso- and micro-levels of economy are provided. Integration of industrial structures potential at the same time assumes expansion of a partner segment of the entities relations in the market environment on the basis of network, cluster, and integration approaches convergence to management in the industrial development. On the basis of the international experience analysis it is illustrated that forming of multichannel partnership of actors in the industrial sphere with a vector on an innovatization requires creation of the corresponding institutional conditions. It is established that the main objectives of the relevant institutes consist in legitimization of various forms and technologies of partnership and stimulation of economic entities interactions. The first problem is solved by means of legal support of integration and partners’ interactions, the second one - with the use of a program and project approach. The basic structural elements and functional areas of regional institutional structure in the context of innovative industry development are determined. It is shown that the institutions of the partnership and monitoring of the obligations implementation by integration formations participants can have formal and informal nature, at the same time the trust institution is especially important. In work significant influence of regional specifics on institutional structure and integration of economic entities is proved.

  13. Managing the endogeneity problem of the market structure: a study on banking competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Mulyaningsih

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent literature suggests that the market structure is an endogenous variable that is determined by a firm’s behaviour and the competitive environment of the industry. This study examines the relation between the market structure and the banks’ behaviour in Indonesian banking by considering the endogeneity problem of them as variables. The estimations using the Vector-Error-Correction approach suggest that the structural approach provides a valid prediction of the relationship between market structure and bank behaviour by recognizing the endogeneity issue between those two variables. The banking industry would be more competitive if the market was less concentrated.

  14. THE ATTITUDES TOWARD APPLICATION OF VIRAL MARKETING IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY IN SERBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Sudarević, Tomislav; Vlahović, Branislav; Šurjanović, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the attitudes toward application of viral marketing in the food industry in Serbia. The research consisted of both an extensive theory review and empirical research, including case studies, surveys and in-depth interviews. Viral marketing has been defined as any marketing program (online or offline) that is designed to achieve an exponential growth by spreading marketing effects from customer to customer. The paper s hypothesis, stating that marketing managers in Serbia ha...

  15. On Industrial Application of Structural Reliability Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    For the last two decades we have seen an increasing interest in applying structural reliability theory to many different industries. However, the number of real applications is much smaller than what one would expect. At the beginning most applications were in the design/analyses area especially...

  16. High performance structural ceramics for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujari, Vimal K.; Faker, Paul

    2006-01-01

    A family of Saint-Gobain structural ceramic materials and products produced by its High performance Refractory Division is described. Over the last fifty years or so, Saint-Gobain has been a leader in developing non oxide ceramic based novel materials, processes and products for application in Nuclear, Chemical, Automotive, Defense and Mining industries

  17. Speed of adjustment and market structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza, A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between changes in costs and prices in the gasoline market in the Federal Republic of Germany for the period 1980-90. We shall use an econometric model, and distinguish two stages in the transmission of cost changes to prices. The first is the adjustment of gasoline prices ex-refinery to changes in the price of crude oil, and the second is the adjustment of gasoline price (net of taxes) at the pump to ex-refinery prices. The study of price adjustments to cost changes involves the analysis of two inter-related but different phenomena. The first is the speed of adjustment, defined here as the mean of the length of the time periods required for the transmission of the full effect of an exogenous shock from the independent to the dependent variable of the econometric model used in the analysis. The second relates to possible asymmetries in the response of prices to increases and decreases in costs. Both phenomena are closely related to the structure of the market. The common assumption is that the first is negatively correlated to the degree of competition, and that the second is an indication of the prevailing market structure. The main findings of this paper are as follows: (a) at the refinery level there is only weak evidence of asymmetrical reaction; the average lag in case of crude price increases or decreases is about three months; (b) at the consumers' level, the speed of adjustment was lower when the ex-refinery price was declining than when it was rising; the adjustment lag was about 6.07 months when ex-refinery prices were declining and 5.37 months when they were rising. (author)

  18. Market in Germany. Renewable energy and energy conservation in the German construction industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-02-01

    This market survey for Germany is on the subject of renewable energy and energy efficient constructing and housing improvement. In order to meet sectoral or thematic information needs of Dutch exporting industries and investing companies, the EVD facilitates the realisation of up-to-date market surveys on promising markets in selected countries. The requested study is very relevant for the Dutch exporting industry, as the German building and construction market is of increasing importance to the Dutch building, installation and equipment building sector. Moreover the German market is a European innovator on renewable energy (RE) and energy efficient (EE) homes or even so-called 'passive' houses. The developments in the German market can guide the Dutch industry in the development of their export strategies. The main target groups for the market surveys are small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Netherlands. Interesting groups among these SMEs are those enterprises that start their business on a foreign market [nl

  19. Mass market development strategies of software industries: Case study based research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Gupta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The success in competitive mass market software development depends on the quality of software development and market segments targeted. Market segments are categorized by uncertainties contributed by “Newness” and “turbulences”, making the software success stochastic in nature. Selecting good market segments, delivering high quality software versions in the lowest time than competitors, result in increasing demand in markets and ultimately revenues. Enhanced customer base is beneficial for current product as well as for future products of industry in the form of increased reputation and increased involvement of customers in future development. The case study was conducted with 13 representatives drawing experiences of 14 mass market projects. Results indicate that software solutions are delivered to few investors or in highly competitive markets, as per the survey's findings of the marketing departments. The software organizations are reluctant to deliver relatively complex solutions in new markets unless and until strongly convinced with the probable success. The method for selection of market segments belonging to new and existing markets for undertaking the software delivery is also proposed in this paper. The model will help software industry decide the market segments and high abstract level features that could increase probability of software success. Poor selection of markets or targeting markets of “improper” size affects the market share of the industry to a great extend.

  20. An Analysis of Malaysia’s Regulatory Framework and Challenges in the Structured Product Market

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Eu Meng

    2008-01-01

    Structured products are becoming increasingly popular and important to the development of Malaysia’s capital market and had experience impressive growth over the last few years after it was first introduced to the Malaysian market in 2004. Like any industry in its early stage, issues and challenges are expected but for structured products, such challenges require more attention due to the complexity inherent in these instruments. This study uses a qualitative research approach in an attempt t...

  1. The gas industry in Britain: future structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinnon, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is intended to provide a summary of the kind of structural changes to British Gas that can be considered in order to enable effective competition to develop in the gas market. It draws on an extensive analysis undertaken by the Office of Gas Supply (OFGAS) of recent developments in the gas market, the need to ensure the safety, efficiency and security of gas supplies under different structures and how regulation may change with different structures. Many of these issues covered are complex, and can each be discussed at length, but the intention of this paper is to provide an overview of the key options for a restructured gas market. OFGAS has also examined the regulatory environment within which competitors to British Gas who have emerged or who are likely to emerge in the future may be expected to operate. This paper describes the range of structural options we see. At one end of the spectrum there is the option of continuing with a vertically integrated but more heavily regulated monopoly; at the other end is a fully competitive structure with no or much reduced regulation. In between, there are various combinations between the degree of regulation and the extent of competition that can be considered. In analysing future structural options, we believe it necessary to consider the complete gas supply chain. The analysis therefore considers the offshore production or importation of gas, its purchase at the beach, its reception and processing at terminals, its transportation from terminal meters to customers' meters, its storage and sale to final customers. (author)

  2. The electricity supply industry in Germany: market power or power of the market?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunekreeft, G.; Keller, K.

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyses the electricity supply industry in Germany, which was liberalized in April 1998. Noticeable aspects are the eligibility of all end-users, the lack of constraints on the vertical industry structure and the option for negotiated third party access. There is no sector-specific regulation. This paper argues that the vertically integrated firms concentrate on excessive network access charges, whereas the stages generation and retail appear to be relatively competitive. Empirical evidence suggests that in Germany network access charges make up a significantly higher share of end-user prices than in the UK, which is used as regulation-benchmark. (author)

  3. Labor Market Institutions and the Industry Wage Distribution: Evidence from Austria, Norway, and the U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Barth, Erling; Zweimuller, Josef

    1992-01-01

    The paper compares the industry wage structures of Austria, Norway, the union sector of the U.S. as well as the non-union sector of the U.S. We make comparable regressions for each country, and are thus able to compare the sectoral earnings patterns controlling for the usual individual characteristics. Our results confirm the hypothesis that the patterns of the inter-industry pay structure is largely independent of labor market institutions: High paying industries in a non-union environment t...

  4. Structure of Maiduguri cattle market, Borno State, Nigeria | Bila ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Market structure is an important factor that influences the performance and efficiency of a market. The study aimed at determining the structure of Maiduguri cattle market. Primary data were collected, from questionnaires randomly administered to the respondents. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse product ...

  5. New Product Development in the Pharmaceutical Industry: Evidence from a generic market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Nazila; Mehralian, Gholamhossein; Rasekh, Hamid Reza; Yousefi, Mina

    2017-01-01

    In today's competitive world, there are several strategies to deal with the fast changing environment, among which New product development (NPD) is a common strategy. However, almost half of the resources that companies devote to NPD are spent on products that may fail. This issue is particularly highlighted in the pharmaceutical industry mainly because of a long development-time, low success rate, high capital requirement, and market uncertainty. This study identifies critical success factors of NPD based on the relevant literatures and expert opinions in Iranian pharmaceutical industry, then prioritizes them using the methodology of multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) through analyzing 50 filled questionnaires structured based on the AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) approach. Although the NPD success factors seem the same in both generic and bio-generic pharmaceutical industries, the underlying factors and related sub-factors show the different importance in these two industries. However, this study reveal that, the company capabilities is the most important factor affecting new product development success in both pharmaceutical generic and bio-generic industry. The results of this study contribute to create baseline information for pharmaceutical industry especially Iranian pharmaceutical companies to be more effective in budget allocation on improving NPD success factors so that they can boost the success rate of NPD more effectively.

  6. Assessing market structures in resource markets. An empirical analysis of the market for metallurgical coal using various equilibrium models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenczik, Stefan; Panke, Timo

    2015-01-01

    The prevalent market structures found in many resource markets consist of a high concentration on the supply side and a low demand elasticity. Market results are therefore frequently assumed to be an outcome of strategic interaction between producers. Common models to investigate the market outcomes and underlying market structures are games representing competitive markets, strategic Cournot competition and Stackelberg structures taking into account a dominant player acting first followed by one or more followers. Besides analysing a previously neglected scenario of the latter kind, we add to the literature by expanding the application of mathematical models by applying an Equilibrium Problem with Equilibrium Constraints (EPEC), which is used to model multi-leader-follower games, to a spatial market. We apply our model by investigating the prevalent market setting in the international market for metallurgical coal between 2008 and 2010, whose market structure provides arguments for a wide variety of market structures. Using different statistical measures and comparing model with actual market outcomes, we find that two previously neglected settings perform best: First, a setting in which the four largest metallurgical coal exporting firms compete against each other as Stackelberg leaders, while the remainders act as Cournot followers. Second, a setting with BHPB acting as sole Stackelberg leader.

  7. Assessing market structures in resource markets. An empirical analysis of the market for metallurgical coal using various equilibrium models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenczik, Stefan; Panke, Timo [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Energy Economics

    2015-05-15

    The prevalent market structures found in many resource markets consist of a high concentration on the supply side and a low demand elasticity. Market results are therefore frequently assumed to be an outcome of strategic interaction between producers. Common models to investigate the market outcomes and underlying market structures are games representing competitive markets, strategic Cournot competition and Stackelberg structures taking into account a dominant player acting first followed by one or more followers. Besides analysing a previously neglected scenario of the latter kind, we add to the literature by expanding the application of mathematical models by applying an Equilibrium Problem with Equilibrium Constraints (EPEC), which is used to model multi-leader-follower games, to a spatial market. We apply our model by investigating the prevalent market setting in the international market for metallurgical coal between 2008 and 2010, whose market structure provides arguments for a wide variety of market structures. Using different statistical measures and comparing model with actual market outcomes, we find that two previously neglected settings perform best: First, a setting in which the four largest metallurgical coal exporting firms compete against each other as Stackelberg leaders, while the remainders act as Cournot followers. Second, a setting with BHPB acting as sole Stackelberg leader.

  8. A Time Series Analysis to Asymmetric Marketing Competition Within a Market Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco F. R. Ramos

    1996-01-01

    As a complementary to the existing studies of competitive market structure analysis, the present paper proposed a time series methodology to provide a more detailed picture of marketing competition in relation to competitive market structure. Two major hypotheses were tested as part of this project. First, it was found that some significant cross- lead and lag effects of marketing variables on sales between brands existed even between differents submarkets. second, it was found that high qual...

  9. 77 FR 6549 - Acquisition of Items for Which Federal Prison Industries Has a Significant Market Share

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... Federal Prison Industries Has a Significant Market Share AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: DoD is issuing this notification to set forth an up-to-date list of product categories for which the Federal Prison Industries' share of the DoD market is greater than five percent. DATES...

  10. 77 FR 8843 - Acquisition of Items for Which Federal Prison Industries Has a Significant Market Share

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System Acquisition of Items for Which Federal Prison Industries Has a Significant Market Share AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION... product categories for which the Federal Prison Industries' share of the DoD market is greater than five...

  11. Monitoring of industrial products, in the key market of security in modern times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Val, J. M.; Valcarcel, M.; Rodriguez Herrerias, J.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the European Union methodology for keeping a high level of safety standards of industrial products in the general market, while fostering the dynamics of such market. It includes the explanation of how this methodology is applied in Spain particularly through the campaigns of the Ministry of Industry with the assistance of Foundation F2I2. (Author)

  12. Market segmentation and industry overcapacity considering input resources and environmental costs through the lens of governmental intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhou; Jin, Peizhen; Mishra, Nishikant; Song, Malin

    2017-09-01

    The problems with China's regional industrial overcapacity are often influenced by local governments. This study constructs a framework that includes the resource and environmental costs to analyze overcapacity using the non-radial direction distance function and the price method to measure industrial capacity utilization and market segmentation in 29 provinces in China from 2002 to 2014. The empirical analysis of the spatial panel econometric model shows that (1) the industrial capacity utilization in China's provinces has a ladder-type distribution with a gradual decrease from east to west and there is a severe overcapacity in the traditional heavy industry areas; (2) local government intervention has serious negative effects on regional industry utilization and factor market segmentation more significantly inhibits the utilization rate of regional industry than commodity market segmentation; (3) economic openness improves the utilization rate of industrial capacity while the internet penetration rate and regional environmental management investment have no significant impact; and(4) a higher degree of openness and active private economic development have a positive spatial spillover effect, while there is a significant negative spatial spillover effect from local government intervention and industrial structure sophistication. This paper includes the impact of resources and the environment in overcapacity evaluations, which should guide sustainable development in emerging economies.

  13. Resource Communication Technology and Marketing of Textile Products: A U.S. Textile Industry Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baah, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the qualitative positivistic case study was to explore whether resource communication technology has helped or would help the marketing of textile products in the U.S. textile industry. The contributions of human capital in the marketing department, the marketing-demand information system function, and the product supply chain…

  14. Prospect for the development of salted egg agro industry: an analysis on marketing distribution aspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumekar, W.; Al-Baarri, A. N.; Kurnianto, E.

    2018-01-01

    Marketing distribution is an important of the strategy in business development in agroindustries. The aim of the research was to introduce marketing (distribution pattern, margin and marketing efficiency) at the salted egg agro industries in Brebes Regency. Survey method had been conducted on 52 salted egg agro industries which had active PIRT certificate. The data collection was conducted by means of interview and observation. Descriptive analysis was used to determine the marketing distribution of salted eggs. Marketing efficiency was obtained by calculating marketing margin and farmer share. The results show that the salted egg agro industries implemented two marketing distribution patterns; direct marketing pattern (consumer→producers) and indirect marketing pattern (producer→retailer→consumer). The number of the salted egg agro industries which apply indirect marketing pattern is 57.69%. The implementation of direct and indirect marketing patterns was classified as efficient according to the farmer’s share values of 87.13% and 78.21%. It can be recommended the direct marketing.

  15. The long-term memory analysis of industrial indices of the Chinese stock market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, L

    2008-01-01

    The main work of this paper is to apply the fractional market theory and time series analysis for analyzing various industrial indices of the Chinese stock market by rescaling range analysis. Hurst index and the long-term memory of price change in Chinese stock market are studied

  16. Past, Present, and Future Business-to-Business and Industrial Marketing Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Adam; Di Benedetto, C. Anthony; Geersbro, Jens

    2018-01-01

    This editorial summarizes both the development and impact of Peter LaPlaca, in terms of his work with and for the industrial and marketing purchasing research community, using several different perspectives. It also offers an overview of what (former) editors of other business-to-business marketing...... management journals think of Peter LaPlaca. Following that, this editorial briefly reviews dominant topics in Industrial Marketing Management....

  17. Performance Marketing Model through Acculturation Innovation and Market Orientation in the Bakery Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutarlan SULISTIYANI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs have their own superiority in which they pervade not only in terms of human resources, but also in their role in national economic development. The aim of this study is to develop acculturation innovation and competing superiority for increasing the marketing development of the bakery business actors in Central Java. This study’s sample consists of 161 respondents who are bakery business owners from Central Java. By using the purposive sampling technique, several criteria were considered for the SMEs representatives from the bakery industry sample, such as the SMEs must be certified at Disperindag, have at least one employee, and invest at least IDR 1.000.000,- . The analyzing method that is used in this study is SEM. The result of the study shows the market orientation with specific dimensions, such as gaining information about the customers’ needs, competitors’ powers, and functions’ coordination affected competitors’ superiority, and acculturation innovation. While it comes to some dimensions such as changes in culture-based products, culture-based price’ changing, culture-based packaging, and production processes, competing superiority is affected.

  18. Marketing to the marginalised: tobacco industry targeting of the homeless and mentally ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollonio, D E; Malone, R E

    2005-12-01

    To describe the tobacco industry's relationships with and influence on homeless and mentally ill smokers and organisations providing services to them. Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents and journal articles. The tobacco industry has marketed cigarettes to the homeless and seriously mentally ill, part of its "downscale" market, and has developed relationships with homeless shelters and advocacy groups, gaining positive media coverage and political support. Tobacco control advocates and public health organisations should consider how to target programmes to homeless and seriously mentally ill individuals. Education of service providers about tobacco industry efforts to cultivate this market may help in reducing smoking in these populations.

  19. Energy saving industrial products in Italy (marketing research, conservation program planning)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, M.; Clo' , A.; Goldoni, G. (Bologna Univ. (Italy))

    1989-09-01

    This article gathers the essential results of research, carried out by Nomisma for ENEA (Italian Commission for Nuclear and Alternative Energy Sources) about the market and industry structure of 7 different products for energy saving, i.e. high performance boilers, cogeneration plants, thermal insulation, organic residual combustors, heat pumps, heat recovery equipment and measuring and control instruments. The singling out of the operating firms and the collection of numerous, even if incomplete, economic and technical data, permit a first evaluation of the trend of the Italian energy saving market during the period 1983-87. This will be a useful tool in order to appraise the efficiency of past policies and direct future ones.

  20. Aggregate industrial energy consumer response to wholesale prices in the restructured Texas electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarnikau, Jay; Hallett, Ian

    2008-01-01

    The aggregate response of consumers to wholesale price signals is very limited in the restructured Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) market. An overall average own-price elasticity of demand of - 0.000008 for industrial energy consumers served at transmission voltage is estimated using a Symmetric Generalized McFadden cost function model. To date, ERCOT has sought to promote demand response to price signals without reliance on 'stand alone' demand response programs, but with a market structure that is designed to facilitate economic demand response. This very limited responsiveness to wholesale price signals may prove problematic in light of policy decisions to pursue an 'energy only' resource adequacy mechanism for ERCOT. (author)

  1. Marketing alcohol to young people: implications for industry regulation and research policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M C; Hastings, G; Wheeler, C; Eadie, D; Mackintosh, A M

    2000-12-01

    This paper focuses on the marketing of alcohol to young people in the United Kingdom, but the lessons that emerge have international significance. Alcohol is a global enterprise and recent consolidation means that it is controlled by a decreasing number of expanding multi-nationals. Alcohol companies are able to allocate significant resources to researching consumer preferences, developing new products and promoting them on an international level. Recent years have seen a growth in the value that youth culture attaches to brand labels and symbols and a move away from the healthy-living ethos. The alcohol industry's response to these trends has been to design alcoholic beverages that appeal to young people, using well-informed and precisely targeted marketing strategies. This has led to growing concerns about the implications for public health and a demand for tighter controls to regulate alcohol marketing practices. In the United Kingdom, controls on alcohol are piecemeal and reactive and the current system of voluntary regulation appears ineffective. This paper argues for more research to establish current industry practice and inform the development of a comprehensive regulatory structure and system of monitoring.

  2. The effect of marketing knowledge management on sustainable competitive advantage: Evidence from banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rezaee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the importance of achieving sustainable organization with competitive advantage in complex environments has many researchers’ interest. So, in this study, we evaluate different views of MKM and its role to reach SCA within banking industry. This research is relatively the scarce empirical study and adds to its originality. The findings offer valuable insights on the generalizability of MKM in a research setting. In fact, the purpose of this study is to empirically test the effect of the marketing knowledge management (MKM on sustainable competitive advantage (SCA within banking industry of Iran. A valid research instrument was utilized to conduct a survey of 150 top- and middle-level managers from Mellat bank of Iran (MBI. With a response rate of 81.3 percent, 122 questionnaires were returned; the number of valid and usable questionnaires was 101. Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, MKM were classified into organizational strategies, culture and performance of senior manager, information technology (IT, research and development (R & D, internal customer (personnel, and external customer (client. Moreover, MBI’ SCA was classified into three dimensions: market, customer, finance. Structural equation modelling was utilized to test the stated hypotheses and model. Statistical support was found for the hypothesized relationships. Moreover it has been shown that MKM maintained the greatest effect on the market centered SCA, while it had the least influence on the customer centered.

  3. The complexity of electricity markets: the limits of the liberalisation of electric industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, Dominique

    2015-12-01

    As electric industries have been liberalised or privatised later than other public utilities, notably in developed countries, this article first recalls that this activity has been during a long time a monopoly hold by a public service, and precisely planned with tariffs regulated by public authorities. Then, the author explains how deregulation is performed for such an industry to allow competition to be introduced at all levels of the electric sector. He describes the operation mode of the wholesale market which is structured in an hourly market due to the non-storable characteristic of electricity, describes retail price formation by pilling up the wholesale price, regulated tariffs of transport and distribution, and a tax aimed at paying the cost of public policies. This price can be compared with the regulated tariff which previously encompassed everything without any dissociation. Finally, he highlights the main defects and drawbacks of this market which do not allow long term investments in base equipment, back up equipment and on low carbon equipment (renewable, nuclear, and others)

  4. A Comparative Quantitative Analysis of Contemporary Big Data Clustering Algorithms for Market Segmentation in Hospitality Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bose, Avishek; Munir, Arslan; Shabani, Neda

    2017-01-01

    The hospitality industry is one of the data-rich industries that receives huge Volumes of data streaming at high Velocity with considerably Variety, Veracity, and Variability. These properties make the data analysis in the hospitality industry a big data problem. Meeting the customers' expectations is a key factor in the hospitality industry to grasp the customers' loyalty. To achieve this goal, marketing professionals in this industry actively look for ways to utilize their data in the best ...

  5. Formulation of marketing information and communication strategies in Taiwan tourism industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Tzong-Ru; Kuo, Yu-Hsuan; Hilletofth, Per

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to formulate marketing information and communication (ICT) strategies for Taiwan tourism industry. Design/methodology/approach: This research uses a literature review to identify problems and solutions of Taiwan’s tourism industry. One of the identified problems is used as an example to formulate marketing ICT strategies. Findings: This research has identified twenty-five main problems and forty-eight solutions of Taiwan’s tourism industry and formulat...

  6. Impact of Online/Internet Marketing in Enhancing Consumer Experience on Computer Industry (Case of Malaysia)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramin Azadavar, Solmohammad Bastam ,Hassan Dehghan Dehnavi, Hamed Armesh , Mojgan Sharifi Rayeni

    2011-01-01

    As far as businesses are concerned, the internet has been subject to a variety of experimentations that seek to determine the viability of using the internet to improve business practices in various industries especially in computer industry in Malaysia. One particular aspect of business is that the internet marketing has a great impact on computer industry in Malaysia. This research paper is concerned with making a critical examination of the impact of internet/online marketing on computer i...

  7. Music goes social! : music startups' viewpoints on marketing communications, social media and music industry

    OpenAIRE

    Vermasheinä, Kaisa

    2011-01-01

    This thesis studies Finnish music industry startups’ viewpoints on marketing communica-tions and social media, as well as their views on the future of the music business. Four Finland based music industry startups were interviewed for the study. Separate chapters deal with the framework of the study: marketing communications, social media and music industry. During the past few years a number of startup companies have been established in Finland with the aim of providing online and digit...

  8. High Frequency Traders and Market Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menkveld, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    The arrival of high-frequency traders (HFTs) coincided with the entry of new markets and, subsequently, strong fragmentation of the order flow. These trends might be related as new markets serve HFTs who seek low fees and high speed. New markets only thrive on competitive price quotes that

  9. Market development for active solar thermal systems (ASTS) in the institutional, commercial and industrial (ICI) sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The market potential for active solar thermal systems in the institutional, commercial and industrial sectors of the Canadian economy was investigated, the objective being to identify markets and to prepare action plans as the foundation for developing these markets by Natural Resources Canada and the industry. In the process of researching the market, barriers to market development in these sectors of the economy were also identified as well as actions to overcome these barriers. Nine potential applications were modelled to determine their energy, economic and environmental performance. Of these four attractive applications have been selected for more detailed treatment. Separate action plans have been developed for Natural Resources Canada, the Canadian Solar Industries Association and the active solar thermal industry. The close cooperation of all three partners is considered essential for a successful marketing effort. A marketing plan which gives due consideration to the product, planning, packaging, price and promotion, is also considered to be a vital ingredient, as is a meticulous follow-up on 'leads' created by exposure to the target market. Solarwall'TM' for preheating of ventilation air to new school buildings and solar domestic hot water heating for camp grounds have been identified as the most attractive candidates for marketing at this time. Highlights of marketing plans for these two options are included for purposes of illustrating the essential ingredients of marketing plans. 1 fig

  10. The structure of the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaist, G.T.; Morisette, E.F.

    1981-01-01

    Since 1952, when Canadians began to study the application of reactors to power generation, the CANDU reactor design and the manufacturing and and engineering capability supporting it have evolved into a world-class technology. At present, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. works directly with provincial electrical utilities in developing their power reactor requirements. It assumes responsibility for the detailed design of the nuclear steam supply system of stations, undertakes some procurement activities, and may represent the utilities in licensing applications. The detailed design and supply of components for the remainder of the nuclear steam plant, as well as for the secondary plant, are provided in Ontario by Ontario Hydro together with manufacturers, and in Quebec and New Brunswick by private firms. Canadian utilities have always assumed the project managment function themselves, but with export sales AECL has taken turnkey responsiblity for either the nuclear steam plant or the complete power station. AECL owns design specifications and other documentation, the use of which it can license, but manufacturing technology resides with Canadian industry. Canadian manufacturers have supported AECL design licensing initiatives overseas. The Canadian nuclear industry's major problem is the current lack of a vigorous domestic market combined with an uncertain international one

  11. THE IMPLEMENTATION OF E-MARKETING IN THE HOTEL INDUSTRY: THE CASE OF ISTRIA COUNTY

    OpenAIRE

    Lončarić, Dina; Radetić, Nensi

    2015-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) has penetrated many spheres of life and work. Recognizing the potential of this new technology, marketers have readily accepted ICT and turned the marketing concept into e-marketing. The purpose of this paper is to examine the level of implementation of e-marketing practice in the hotel industry. The paper is based on empirical research conducted in Istria County, the most developed tourist county in Croatia. The research was conducte...

  12. Product-Market Competition in the Water Industry: Voluntarily Nondiscriminatory Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Föllmi, Reto; Meister, Urs

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an attempt to create competition in the water market by means of direct competition. We argue that the usual liberalisation device, competition for the market by franchise bidding, is problematic due to the particular features of the water industry. Our approach proposes the implementation of product market competition, i.e. competition in the market. In such a situation several water utilities using a single set of pipes compete for customers in the same area. Since the w...

  13. Audit market structure, fees and choice in a period of structural change: evidence from the UK – 1998–2003

    OpenAIRE

    Abidin, S.; Beattie, V.; Goodacre, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents evidence on audit market concentration and auditor fee levels in the UK market in the crucial period of structural change following the PricewaterhouseCoopers’ (PwC) merger and encompassing Andersen’s demise (1998–2003). Given the current interest in auditor choice, analysis is also undertaken at the individual audit firm level and by industry sector. There is evidence of significant upward pressure on audit fees since 2001 but only for smaller auditees. Audit fee income f...

  14. Restructuring in the Electricity Markets and Structural Transformation in Turkish Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan ÇETİNTAŞ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Electricity markets are changed over from monopolistic to competitive structure. In many countries liberalization process in electricity markets began after 1980. In this study models for restructuring the electricity markets are explained with the natural monopoly and its regulation which is discussed in economic theory over many years. Then structural transformation in Turkish Electricity Market is explained within the legal arrangament framework and in liberalization process of electricity markets current state of Turkey is evaluated. In Turkey, the reform process in electricity market began with the liberalization of production and ıt is contiuned to change the design of the wholesale market. There has been significant progress for energy exchange by the establishment of EPİAŞ with the Electricity Market Law Numbered 6446 in 2013.

  15. Strategic marketing types: Evidence from the European meat processing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandskov, Jesper; Hundahl, Lone; Laursen, Christina

    performance might differ between firms pursuing any strategy type has a strong academic and practical business interest. There is still a need to explore the basic question of whether generic types of mark strategies exist. Also there is a lack of empirical evidence which examines a wide range of strategic...... marketing strategies, (2) places these clusters in a strategic typology in order to better understand their position in the marketplace, and (3) analyses these strategic marketing types in terms of performance outcomes and differences in corporate attitudes and goals. 3. The meat processing sector in Europe....... Integrating previous definitions and findings on key strategy dimensions, three main marketing strategy components are used in the analysis: Strategic focus/objective marketing targeting and marketing positioning. The variables are split up in the following main groups: Marketing strategy variables, Corporate...

  16. Advertising Systems in Japan Marketing Behavior, Advertising Industry, Advertising Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    KISHIYA, Kazuhiro

    2005-01-01

    This paper clarifies advertising systems unique to Japan. As typical of Japanese advertising systems, advertising expression tend to adopt soft sell and transformational type. The advertising expression is explained not only by the cultural value but also marketing behavior of advertisers and the characteristics of Advertising transactions. As to marketing behavior channel-oriented marketing behavior has an impact on advertising expressions. As to characteristics of Advertising transactions, ...

  17. Market orientation and business performance: Evidence from franchising industry

    OpenAIRE

    Leea, Yong-Ki; Kim, S. H.; Seo, M. K.; Hight, S. K

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the relationships between top management factors, franchisor market orientation, competitive strategy, and business performance within the context of Korean franchisor companies. 156 food-service franchise firms provide the basis for this empirical investigation. Findings show that top management factors such as management emphasis and risk aversion can lead to market orientation. Franchisor market orientation was found to lead differentiation and cost strategies, which, i...

  18. Developing Strategic Marketing Plan for International Tourism Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Mingmo

    2013-01-01

    International travel agency is the case company where I did my practical training. This thesis focuses on analyzing the case company’s current situation, market environment and competition situation in the tourism market. The main objective is to analyze the complex situation of the case company to develop a strategic marketing plan for the case company to gain competitive advantage. In order to reach the objective, the thesis finds answers to the questions of what the current strategic marke...

  19. Profit Tax Evasion Under Oligopoly With Endogenous Market Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Goerke, Laszlo; Runkel, Marco

    2006-01-01

    This note investigates the impact of profit tax evasion on firms' output decisions in a Cournot oligopoly setting in which the market structure is determined endogenously. It is shown that tax evasion intensifies market entry and raises aggregate output, while production of each incumbent firm decreases. Therefore, tax evasion choices affect activity decisions and an evadable profit tax distorts the market outcome.

  20. Prospects for the U.S. energy and refining industries: Markets, profitability and key drivers for change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, B.F.

    1996-01-01

    The US refining industry has experienced an extended period of change covering the past 20 years. Growing regulatory requirements, combined with shifting market characteristics, have resulted in massive investments and significant and ongoing structural change. Despite excellent capacity utilization, recent profitability has been poor. Industry psychology can be described as depressed, with honest concern about the long-term attractiveness of domestic refining as an area for continued participation and investment. This paper provides an overview of how the industry arrived at these levels of poor profitability, examines the current situation and future drivers, and presents Chem Systems' views on the outlook for domestic refining

  1. Nash equilibrium strategy in the deregulated power industry and comparing its lost welfare with Iran wholesale electricity market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyed Hosein; Nazemi, Ali; Hafezalkotob, Ashkan

    2016-09-01

    With the increasing use of different types of auctions in market designing, modeling of participants' behaviors to evaluate the market structure is one of the main discussions in the studies related to the deregulated power industries. In this article, we apply an approach of the optimal bidding behavior to the Iran wholesale electricity market as a restructured electric power industry and model how the participants of the market bid in the spot electricity market. The problem is formulated analytically using the Nash equilibrium concept composed of large numbers of players having discrete and very large strategy spaces. Then, we compute and draw supply curve of the competitive market in which all generators' proposed prices are equal to their marginal costs and supply curve of the real market in which the pricing mechanism is pay-as-bid. We finally calculate the lost welfare or inefficiency of the Nash equilibrium and the real market by comparing their supply curves with the competitive curve. We examine 3 cases on November 24 (2 cases) and July 24 (1 case), 2012. It is observed that in the Nash equilibrium on November 24 and demand of 23,487 MW, there are 212 allowed plants for the first case (plants are allowed to choose any quantity of generation except one of them that should be equal to maximum Power) and the economic efficiency or social welfare of Nash equilibrium is 2.77 times as much as the real market. In addition, there are 184 allowed plants for the second case (plants should offer their maximum power with different prices) and the efficiency or social welfare of Nash equilibrium is 3.6 times as much as the real market. On July 24 and demand of 42,421 MW, all 370 plants should generate maximum energy due to the high electricity demand that the economic efficiency or social welfare of the Nash equilibrium is about 2 times as much as the real market.

  2. Potential industrial market for process heat from nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, R.W.

    1976-07-01

    A specific segment of industrial process heat use has been examined in detail to identify individual plant locations throughout the United states where nuclear generated steam may be a viable alternative. Five major industries have been studied: paper, chemicals, petroleum, rubber, and primary metals. For these industries, representing 75 percent of the total industrial steam consumption, the individual plant locations within the U.S. using steam in large quantities have been located and characterized as to fuel requirements

  3. Furniture Industry Assessment: Trade Policy and Market Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Lord, Montague J.

    1999-01-01

    The report analyzes the international competitiveness of furniture industry based on calculations of effective rates of protection and trade indicators. Furniture manufacturing remains one of the most highly protected industries in Egypt. Although the nominal rate of protection (NRP) for that industry was lowered from 50 percent in 1997 to 40 percent, its rate remains the fourth highest of all manufacturing categories. The effective rate of protection (ERP) for the wood furniture industry is ...

  4. Labor-Intensive Industry Company Transition and Export Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Meng

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focused on how to develop export during the development process from labor-intensive industry to technology-intensive industry. The situation of wage, labor-intensive industry and technology-intensive industry development are backgrounds. The objective of this thesis was to analyze the problems of the case company and to provide the case company with strategies. The approach used in this thesis is case study. The data acquisition includes interviews, online chatting and telep...

  5. 'Heat Market Campaign' of the German coal mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dach, G.

    1983-12-22

    The ''Heat Market Campaign'', presented in June '83 by experts of all fields of coal mining, investigates the possibilities of coal sales promotion. The article reviews the main data of the heat market and discusses the ''Heat Market Campaign'' under the aspects of coal policy and energy policy. The campaign was started with the objectives of energy supply assurance in the Federal Republic of Germany, energy cost reduction on the consumer side, and stabilisation and development of coal markets not affected by the steel crisis. Sales goald on the household, trade and industrial sector are quantified, and obstacles preventing further expansion of the heat market are discussed. Apart from the mining industry's marketing concept for the heat market, there is also the possibility of receiving financial aid by the Federal government.

  6. The Emergence of Industrial Marketing Management as the Leading Academic Journal in Business-to-Business Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Benedetto, C. Anthony; Lindgreen, Adam

    2018-01-01

    During 1994–2016, Peter LaPlaca served as editor-in-chief of Industrial Marketing Management, an era in which the research discipline surrounding business-to-business marketing showed remarkable growth and attracted the attention of scholars worldwide. This article traces the evolving maturity...... of the discipline during these years by analyzing not just statistics but also the content of the premier journal in this area, Industrial Marketing Management. The number of papers submitted and articles published per year, the growth in the journal's impact factor, the increased presence of international authors...... and editorial board members, and the arrival of meta-analyses and special issues on emerging research topics all indicate the level of maturity and scope of the business-to-business marketing research discipline attained during this period— thanks to the expert guidance and tireless efforts of Professor La...

  7. Essential dimensions of a marketing strategy in the hospital industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlwain, T F; McCracken, M J

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews existing literature and defines essential dimensions of a hospital's marketing strategy for each of two business strategies; using the results of a national survey, this study confirms that hospitals make different marketing decisions based on the type of business strategy adopted by the hospital.

  8. OOA composite structures applicable in railway industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusnáková Soňa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite sandwich structures offers several advantages over conventional structural materials such as lightweight, high bending and torsional stiffness, superior thermal insulation and excellent acoustic damping. In the aerospace industry, sandwich composites are commonly manufactured using the autoclave process which is associated with high operating cost. Out-of-autoclave (OOA manufacturing has been shown to be capable of producing low cost and high performance composites. In this paper we present results of experimental testing of various sandwich materials according various standards and actual requirements in transport industry. We compared the different types of surface and paint systems, because these layers are the most important in contact with the surrounding environment and load conditions. In the experimental measurements were used various materials. For the core of the sandwich structure were selected aluminium honeycomb, aramid honeycomb and PET (Polyethylene terephthalate foam core. Support layers were chosen two kinds of predimpregnated materials. The conditions of measurements were requirements for strength and rigidity, safety - flame resistance and reflectivity resistance. The samples were tested at the 3 - point bending test according to standard EN ISO 178, by modified test to determine the force required to rapture threaded insert, by test of reflectivity according to UIC CODE 844-4 R and according to standard EN 45545-2 fire protection of railway vehicles.

  9. Market orientation of the Hungarian SMEs working in the meat processing and dairy industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polereczki Zs.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We are looking for the answer as to what tendencies were indicative of the future development of required marketing activity of the SMEs in the article dealing with the marketing activity of the SMEs working in the food industry. The article is based on a nationwide survey among 200 SMEs working in the food processing industry. In this article, we focus on the SMEs working in the dairy and meat processing industries. The results of the nationwide research and some domestic references refer to that there is a latent demand of effective marketing activity among small and medium-sized enterprises. It manifests itself in specifying marketing-related fields to be improved in the future. The marketing itself is believed not to be an important field at the same time. This apparent opposition is the small enterprise marketing paradox in the background of which is the lack of knowledge about the marketing instruments. It can be stated that these small businesses collect mainly general market information and have no information about particular products. Therefore, the presence of marketing planning is really rare and where there is some kind of planning it is not connected to available funds and follow-up control. The marketing strategy can be characterized by products processed mainly at low or medium level. Therefore, market position is deffned by “lower price-good quality”. They mainly use the traditional distribution channels and their communication is accidental and has a low level.

  10. How does the alcohol industry attempt to influence marketing regulations? A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aim To systematically review, using a qualitative, narrative synthesis approach, papers examining alcohol industry efforts to influence alcohol marketing policy, and compare with those used by the tobacco industry. Methods Literature searches were conducted between April and July 2011, and updated in March 2013. Papers were included if they: made reference to alcohol industry efforts to influence (a) policy debates concerning marketing regulations, (b) new specific marketing policies or (c) broad alcohol policy which included marketing regulations; were written in English; and concerned the period 1990–2013. Alcohol industry political activity was categorized into strategies/tactics and frames/arguments. Data extraction was undertaken by the lead author and 100% of the papers were fully second‐reviewed. Seventeen papers met the review criteria. Results Five main political strategies and five main frames were identified. The alcohol industry argues against marketing regulation by emphasizing industry responsibility and the effectiveness of self‐regulation, questioning the effectiveness of statutory regulation and by focusing on individual responsibility. Arguments relating to industry responsibility are often reinforced through corporate social responsibility activities. The industry primarily conveys its arguments through manipulating the evidence base and by promoting ineffective voluntary codes and non‐regulatory initiatives. Conclusions The alcohol industry's political activity is more varied than existing models of corporate political activity suggest. The industry's opposition to marketing regulation centres on claims that the industry is responsible and that self regulation is effective. There are considerable commonalities between tobacco and alcohol industry political activity, with differences due potentially to differences in policy contexts and perceived industry legitimacy. PMID:26173765

  11. How does the alcohol industry attempt to influence marketing regulations? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savell, Emily; Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B

    2016-01-01

    To systematically review, using a qualitative, narrative synthesis approach, papers examining alcohol industry efforts to influence alcohol marketing policy, and compare with those used by the tobacco industry. Literature searches were conducted between April and July 2011, and updated in March 2013. Papers were included if they: made reference to alcohol industry efforts to influence (a) policy debates concerning marketing regulations, (b) new specific marketing policies or (c) broad alcohol policy which included marketing regulations; were written in English; and concerned the period 1990-2013. Alcohol industry political activity was categorized into strategies/tactics and frames/arguments. Data extraction was undertaken by the lead author and 100% of the papers were fully second-reviewed. Seventeen papers met the review criteria. Five main political strategies and five main frames were identified. The alcohol industry argues against marketing regulation by emphasizing industry responsibility and the effectiveness of self-regulation, questioning the effectiveness of statutory regulation and by focusing on individual responsibility. Arguments relating to industry responsibility are often reinforced through corporate social responsibility activities. The industry primarily conveys its arguments through manipulating the evidence base and by promoting ineffective voluntary codes and non-regulatory initiatives. The alcohol industry's political activity is more varied than existing models of corporate political activity suggest. The industry's opposition to marketing regulation centres on claims that the industry is responsible and that self regulation is effective. There are considerable commonalities between tobacco and alcohol industry political activity, with differences due potentially to differences in policy contexts and perceived industry legitimacy. © 2015 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of

  12. International expansion, market maintenance strategy used by French Winemaking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana BĂRBULESCU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the theoretical concepts that define the maintenance strategies for the international market, this paper presents the results of a quantitative research survey conducted among Romanian consumers of wine. What is aimed at is to know their attitudes and opinions referring to wine imports in order to identify a strategy for the entrance on the Romanian market of the French wine producer Louis Latour, which is imposed by the need to maintain sales in the context of demand shrinking on the home market. The conclusion of the quantitative research conducted on a sample of 402 people from all country regions reveals the opportunity of entering the Romanian market by using indirect export as a way of entering the market.

  13. Structural model for fluctuations in financial markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Kartik; Khedair, Jonathan; Kühn, Reimer

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we provide a comprehensive analysis of a structural model for the dynamics of prices of assets traded in a market which takes the form of an interacting generalization of the geometric Brownian motion model. It is formally equivalent to a model describing the stochastic dynamics of a system of analog neurons, which is expected to exhibit glassy properties and thus many metastable states in a large portion of its parameter space. We perform a generating functional analysis, introducing a slow driving of the dynamics to mimic the effect of slowly varying macroeconomic conditions. Distributions of asset returns over various time separations are evaluated analytically and are found to be fat-tailed in a manner broadly in line with empirical observations. Our model also allows us to identify collective, interaction-mediated properties of pricing distributions and it predicts pricing distributions which are significantly broader than their noninteracting counterparts, if interactions between prices in the model contain a ferromagnetic bias. Using simulations, we are able to substantiate one of the main hypotheses underlying the original modeling, viz., that the phenomenon of volatility clustering can be rationalized in terms of an interplay between the dynamics within metastable states and the dynamics of occasional transitions between them.

  14. Energy intensive industry for Alaska. Volume I: Alaskan cost factors; market factors; survey of energy-intensive industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, W.H.; Clement, M.; Baker, E.G.; Elliot, D.C.; Jacobsen, J.J.; Powers, T.B.; Rohrmann, C.A.; Schiefelbein, G.L.

    1978-09-01

    The Alaskan and product market factors influencing industry locations in the state are discussed and a survey of the most energy intensive industries was made. Factors external to Alaska that would influence development and the cost of energy and labor in Alaska are analyzed. Industries that are likely to be drawn to Alaska because of its energy resources are analyzed in terms of: the cost of using Alaska energy resources in Alaska as opposed to the Lower 48; skill-adjusted wage and salary differentials between relevant Alaskan areas and the Lower 48; and basic plant and equipment and other operating cost differentials between relevant Alaskan areas and the Lower 48. Screening and evaluation of the aluminum metal industry, cement industry, chlor-alkali industry, lime industry, production of methanol from coal, petroleum refining, and production of petrochemicals and agrichemicals from North Slope natural gas for development are made.

  15. Structure And Efficiency Of Timber Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian C. Murray; Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2003-01-01

    Perfect competition has long been the standard by which economists have judged the market's ability to achieve an efficient social outcome. The competitive process, unfettered by the imperfections discussed below, forges an outcome in which goods and services are produced at their lowest possible cost, and market equilibrium is achieved at the point at which the...

  16. Marketing in the HMO industry: an analysis of spending patterns and enrollment growth results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menges, J J

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the level of marketing spending in the HMO industry and the enrollment growth HMOs have achieved in return for their marketing dollars. This study identifies industry norms that are designed to assist HMOs in the evaluation of their marketing performance. The study is based on data from 1985 to 1986 covering approximately half the HMOs in the country and comprising a substantial proportion of industry-wide enrollment (Table 1). The analyses are designed to allow operational HMOs to compare their marketing efforts, enrollment growth, and marketing costs per new member with industry norms within similar age, model type, enrollment level, and geographic categories. The marketing expenses provided by each HMO are an aggregate figure including sales staff salaries, benefits and commissions, advertising, costs for the production and printing of marketing materials, and all other expenses directly related to the marketing effort. Components of the aggregate marketing expenses, such as the amount spent on advertising versus sales staff compensation, were not available.

  17. Effects of online marketing on Iranian ecotourism industry: Economic, sociological, and cultural aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Riasi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to evaluate the impacts of implementing online marketing strategies on Iranian ecotourism industry. The study had eight hypotheses which were designed based on economic, sociological, and cultural aspects of Iranian ecotourism industry. The results indicate that the expansion of online marketing increased the number of foreign tourists who visited Iran’s natural tourist attractions, while it had no significant impact on the number of domestic tourists who visited these tourist attractions. The results also indicated that online marketing did not increase the amount of investment in Iranian ecotourism industry. Additionally, online ecotourism marketing did not have a significant influence on the total number of travels to Iran’s historical tourist attractions. Respondents believe implementing online marketing strategies in Iranian ecotourism industry helps Iran expand its cultural tourism in rural areas and it expands its hospitality industry; they also believe that online marketing helps to create more jobs in Iranian ecotourism industry and to improve working conditions in this industry.

  18. Creating New Structures for Marketing Firms: An Experimental Conjoint Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalogeras, N.; Lans, van der I.A.C.M.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Dijk, van G.

    2004-01-01

    ABSTRACT As market conditions change rapidly in the 21st century, questions are arising concerning the suitable organizational structures and processes to meet the challenges that these conditions pose. This paper introduces a new model to structure marketing co-operatives (MCs), which is based on

  19. Legal considerations for social media marketing by pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y Tony; Chen, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Social media marketing is the next frontier for direct-to-consumer advertising of pharmaceutical products, but represents an unchartered territory for regulatory action. With explosive growth in the use of social media, along with pharmaceutical companies' increasing adeptness at taking advantage of opportunities for social media marketing, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) faces an urgent need to develop its own capacities to monitor and engage with social media marketing. In response to potential FDA action, pharmaceutical companies' marketing, regulatory compliance and legal staffs must work closely to design initiatives that are sensitive to FDA concerns. This article will address the current status of FDA regulations on social media advertising, their historical origins, challenges to implementation, and their likely future direction.

  20. Network externalities in telecommunication industry: An analysis of Serbian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifunović Dejan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with network competition and provides empirical analysis of market concentration, network and call externalities, access pricing, price discrimination and switching costs in Serbian mobile phone telecommunications market. It is shown that network externalities governed the expansion of this market until 2008. Upon entry of VIP incumbents didn't engage in predatory behaviour towards entrant aiming to benefit from locked- in users. The policy of mobile phone number portability reduced on-net prices and substantially increased consumer's surplus. In contrast to some previous research, this policy was pro-competitive in Serbia. We have also determined that users of the network with the largest market share benefit the most from call externalities. Finally, one network does not price discriminate between outgoing and incoming roaming calls, which implies that users of this network have higher level pecuniary externalities in roaming compared to users of price discriminating networks.

  1. Market research of window units and doors industry in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Grishankova, Elena

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze macro-environmental and competitive forces in the Russian market and to determine possible entry modes for a new company. Some practical information on legal issues and regulatory organizations is also included in the paper in order to create a comprehensive overview of any potentially influential factors. The conceptual framework is based on the macro-environmental market research approach, Michael Porter’s five forces framework and internationa...

  2. Electricity market deregulation and its impact on the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Y.E.; Alfors, G.

    2000-01-01

    Electricity has traditionally been supplied in OECD countries by state-owned facilities, or state-protected monopolies with regulated pricing. More recently, however, several countries have deregulated their electricity markets, thus opening the door to competitive supply and pricing. Deregulation of electricity markets is a trend that is expected to be followed by many countries, and can have a significant impact on the future of nuclear power programmes. (authors)

  3. A study of hierarchical structure on South China industrial electricity-consumption correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Can-Zhong; Lin, Ji-Nan; Liu, Xiao-Feng

    2016-02-01

    Based on industrial electricity-consumption data of five southern provinces of China from 2005 to 2013, we study the industrial correlation mechanism with MST (minimal spanning tree) and HT (hierarchical tree) models. First, we comparatively analyze the industrial electricity-consumption correlation structure in pre-crisis and after-crisis period using MST model and Bootstrap technique of statistical reliability test of links. Results exhibit that all industrial electricity-consumption trees of five southern provinces of China in pre-crisis and after-crisis time are in formation of chain, and the "center-periphery structure" of those chain-like trees is consistent with industrial specialization in classical industrial chain theory. Additionally, the industrial structure of some provinces is reorganized and transferred in pre-crisis and after-crisis time. Further, the comparative analysis with hierarchical tree and Bootstrap technique demonstrates that as for both observations of GD and overall NF, the industrial electricity-consumption correlation is non-significant clustered in pre-crisis period, whereas it turns significant clustered in after-crisis time. Therefore we propose that in perspective of electricity-consumption, their industrial structures are directed to optimized organization and global correlation. Finally, the analysis of distance of HTs verifies that industrial reorganization and development may strengthen market integration, coordination and correlation of industrial production. Except GZ, other four provinces have a shorter distance of industrial electricity-consumption correlation in after-crisis period, revealing a better performance of regional specialization and integration.

  4. A resource-based theory of market structure and organizational form

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Witteloostuijn, A.; Boone, C.A.J.J.

    We argue that combining the insights from both the industrial organization and organizational ecology perspectives is likely to produce value added. We develop a resource-based theory of market structure, where resources pertain to the environmental assets (together forming the resource space)

  5. Dual market structures and the likelihood of repeated ties - evidence from pharmaceutical biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roijakkers, A.H.W.M.; Hagedoorn, J.; Kranenburg, van H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of repeated ties in the high-tech pharmaceutical biotechnology industry, a sector that is characterized by a strong dual market structure. Our most important finding is that previous ties in pairs of large pharmaceutical companies and small biotechnology firms have a

  6. The Korean Pharmaceutical Industry and the Expansion of the General Pharmaceuticals Market in the 1950-1960s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Hwan SIHN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available After the Liberation, the Korean economy was dependent on relief supplies and aid after the ruin of the colonial regime and war. The pharmaceutical business also searched for their share in the delivery of military supplies and the distribution of relief supplies. The supply-side pharmaceutical policy made the pharmaceutical market a wholesale business. The gravity of the situation led to an increased importation of medical supplies, and wholesalers took the lead in establishing the distribution structure, whereas consumers and pharmaceutical business were relatively intimidated. The aid provided by the International Cooperation Administration (ICA marked a turning point in the Korean pharmaceutical industry after the middle of the 1950s. ICA supplied raw materials and equipment funds, while the pharmaceutical business imported advanced technology and capital. The government invited the local production of medical substances, whereas pharmaceutical businesses replaced imported medical substances with locally produced antibiotics. After the 1960s, the production of antibiotics reached saturation. Pharmaceutical businesses needed new markets to break through the stalemate, so they turned their attention to vitamins and health tonics as general pharmaceuticals, as these were suitable for mass production and mass consumption. The modernized patent medicine market after the Opening of Korea was transformed into the contemporized general pharmaceuticals market equipped with the up-to-date facilities and technology in 1960s. Pharmaceutical businesses had to advertise these new products extensively and reform the distribution structure to achieve high profits. With the introduction of TV broadcasting, these businesses invested in TV advertising and generated sizable sales figures. They also established retail pharmacy and chain stores to reform the distribution structure. The end result was a dramatic expansion of the general pharmaceuticals market. The

  7. [The Korean Pharmaceutical Industry and the Expansion of the General Pharmaceuticals Market in the 1950-1960s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihn, Kyu-Hwan

    2015-12-01

    After the Liberation, the Korean economy was dependent on relief supplies and aid after the ruin of the colonial regime and war. The pharmaceutical business also searched for their share in the delivery of military supplies and the distribution of relief supplies. The supply-side pharmaceutical policy made the pharmaceutical market a wholesale business. The gravity of the situation led to an increased importation of medical supplies, and wholesalers took the lead in establishing the distribution structure, whereas consumers and pharmaceutical business were relatively intimidated. The aid provided by the International Cooperation Administration (ICA) marked a turning point in the Korean pharmaceutical industry after the middle of the 1950s. ICA supplied raw materials and equipment funds, while the pharmaceutical business imported advanced technology and capital. The government invited the local production of medical substances, whereas pharmaceutical businesses replaced imported medical substances with locally produced antibiotics. After the 1960s, the production of antibiotics reached saturation. Pharmaceutical businesses needed new markets to break through the stalemate, so they turned their attention to vitamins and health tonics as general pharmaceuticals, as these were suitable for mass production and mass consumption. The modernized patent medicine market after the Opening of Korea was transformed into the contemporized general pharmaceuticals market equipped with the up-to-date facilities and technology in 1960s. Pharmaceutical businesses had to advertise these new products extensively and reform the distribution structure to achieve high profits. With the introduction of TV broadcasting, these businesses invested in TV advertising and generated sizable sales figures. They also established retail pharmacy and chain stores to reform the distribution structure. The end result was a dramatic expansion of the general pharmaceuticals market. The market for

  8. The Spanish retail petroleum market: New patterns of competition since the liberalization of the industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bello, Alejandro; Cavero, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the recent development of the Spanish automotive fuels market, in the context of a long process of liberalization and competition. Our aims are twofold. First, to overview the market's current patterns of competition, while taking into account the political, structural and strategic aspects that have marked the industry's recent evolution. Second, to study in depth one competitive strategy that nowadays significantly influences competition and final prices, the vertical relationships between operators and service stations. Our analysis draws attention to several indicators that may demonstrate the success of the opening and liberalization process. Increased levels of competition have stimulated the sector's growth, development and modernization, and given national firms an excellent platform for competing with newcomers. Furthermore, studying the vertical agreements has produced interesting results. We have found that relative price differences among brands increase in line with perceived quality differences, and that the vertical separation of refineries and retailers eases price competition in the final market. The empirical evidence was backed up with a database of 4164 Spanish service stations. (author)

  9. The Chinese Service Industry as a Challenge for European SME: A Systematic Approach for Market Entry

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, R.; Schumacher, S.; Scharrenberg, C.

    2009-01-01

    Organised by: Cranfield University Compared to industrial firms, the market share of foreign companies in the Chinese service industry is rather low. Especially western small and medium-sized service providing enterprises face different problems when they try to establish a business in China. Therefore an approach has been developed within a research project, which aims to support these companies in planning and successfully realising a service market entry in China. Methods ar...

  10. MARKETING RESPONSES TO CHANGING CONSUMER PREFERENCES IN THE FRESH BEEF INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Procopio, Mary Elizabeth

    1990-01-01

    The fresh meat industry is changing the way it markets its products. The decline in red meat consumption that has resulted from greater consumer concerns about the "healthfulness" of red meat, coupled with changes in consumer lifestyles emphasizing a need for convenience is contributing to the diminishment of "commodity selling" in favor of a true "marketing" approach (Pierson and Allen, 1986). In a traditional industry such as meats, the shift from a commodity-selling perspective (i.e., sell...

  11. Updated Estimates of the Remaining Market Potential of the U.S. ESCO Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Peter H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Carvallo Bodelon, Juan Pablo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Murphy, Sean [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Stuart, Elizabeth [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.

    2017-04-01

    The energy service company (ESCO) industry has a well-established track record of delivering energy and economic savings in the public and institutional buildings sector, primarily through the use of performance-based contracts. The ESCO industry often provides (or helps arrange) private sector financing to complete public infrastructure projects with little or no up-front cost to taxpayers. In 2014, total U.S. ESCO industry revenue was estimated at $5.3 billion. ESCOs expect total industry revenue to grow to $7.6 billion in 2017—a 13% annual growth rate from 2015-2017. Researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) were asked by the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to update and expand our estimates of the remaining market potential of the U.S. ESCO industry. We define remaining market potential as the aggregate amount of project investment by ESCOs that is technically possible based on the types of projects that ESCOS have historically implemented in the institutional, commercial, and industrial sectors using ESCO estimates of current market penetration in those sectors. In this analysis, we report U.S. ESCO industry remaining market potential under two scenarios: (1) a base case and (2) a case “unfettered” by market, bureaucratic, and regulatory barriers. We find that there is significant remaining market potential for the U.S. ESCO industry under both the base and unfettered cases. For the base case, we estimate a remaining market potential of $92-$201 billion ($2016). We estimate a remaining market potential of $190-$333 billion for the unfettered case. It is important to note, however, that there is considerable uncertainty surrounding the estimates for both the base and unfettered cases.

  12. Impact of construction and remodeling markets on the U.S. secondary hardwood products industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Bumgardner; Urs Buehlmann; Al Schuler; Karen. Koenig

    2011-01-01

    The housing correction that started in 2007 continues to run its course. Excessive inventory levels, limited credit availability, and record foreclosure rates continue to have an impact on U.S. housing markets. With inventories high and demand for new construction low, the U.S. hardwood industry's largest markets for appearance-grade products remain under pressure...

  13. Digital Dividend Aware Business Models for the Creative Industries: Challenges and Opportunities in EU Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossiavelou, Vassiliki

    EU counties have a historically unique opportunity to enable their creative industries to promote the knowledge societies, applying new business models to their media content and networks markets, that are digital dividend (DD) aware. This new extra-media gatekeeping factor could shape new alliances and co operations among the member states and the global media markets, as well.

  14. Marketing Analysis and Strategy for a Small Business in the Beekeeping Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-18

    segment has opportunities associated with it that may be profitably 2Philip Kotler , " Marketing Management: Analysis, Planning, and Control," Prentice...I I I162 I I BIBLIOGRAPHY IB Abel, Derek and John Hammond. Strategic Market Planning. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice- Hall, Inc., 1979. Kotler ...11I’ISTATIOY I I I I MARKETING ANALYSIS AND STRATEGY FOR A SMALL IBUSINESS IN THE BEEKEEPING INDUSTRY I III APPROVED: Acoession For DDC TABUn mounced or

  15. Marketable Incentive Contracts and Capital Structure Relevance.

    OpenAIRE

    Garvey, Gerald T

    1997-01-01

    This article investigates the claim that debt finance can increase firm value by curtailing managers' access to 'free cash flow.' The author first shows that incentive contracts that tie the managers' pay to stockholder wealth are often a superior solution to the free cash flow problem. He then considers the possibility that the manager can trade on secondary capital markets. Liquid secondary markets are shown to undermine management incentive schemes and, in many cases, to restore the value ...

  16. Agricultural Market Structure, Generic Advertising, and Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Cardon, James H.; Pope, Rulon D.

    2003-01-01

    This analysis begins with a definition and discussion of productive advertising. Then, following Dixit and Norman, persuasive advertising is used to study the welfare effects of generic advertising by marketing orders. The study first examines horizontal competition when the competing advertiser is a monopoly, and results show that the socially optimal level of advertising for a competitive marketing order is positive only if advertising raises monopoly output. Next, advertising choices of a ...

  17. Industrial structure at research reactor suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roegler, H.-J.; Bogusch, E.; Friebe, T.

    2001-01-01

    Due to the recent joining of the forces of Framatome S. A. from France and the Nuclear Division of Siemens AG Power Generation (KWU) from Germany to a Joint Venture named Framatome Advanced Nuclear Power S.A.S., the issue of the necessary and of the optimal industrial structure for nuclear projects as a research reactor is, was discussed internally often and intensively. That discussion took place also in the other technical fields such as Services for NPPs but also in the field of interest here, i. e. Research Reactors. In summarizing the statements of this presentation one can about state that: Research Reactors are easier to build than NPPs, but not standardised; Research Reactors need a wide spectrum of skills and experiences; to design and build Research Reactors needs an experienced team especially in terms of management and interfaces; Research Reactors need background from built reference plants more than from operating plants; Research Reactors need knowledge of suitable experienced subsuppliers. Two more essential conclusions as industry involved in constructing and upgrading research reactors are: Research Reactors by far are more than a suitable core that generates a high neutron flux; every institution that designs and builds a Research Reactor lacks quality or causes safety problems, damages the reputation of the entire community

  18. Industrial entrepreneurial network: Structural and functional analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedeva, M. A.; Davletbaev, R. H.; Berg, D. B.; Nazarova, J. J.; Parusheva, S. S.

    2016-12-01

    Structure and functioning of two model industrial entrepreneurial networks are investigated in the present paper. One of these networks is forming when implementing an integrated project and consists of eight agents, which interact with each other and external environment. The other one is obtained from the municipal economy and is based on the set of the 12 real business entities. Analysis of the networks is carried out on the basis of the matrix of mutual payments aggregated over the certain time period. The matrix is created by the methods of experimental economics. Social Network Analysis (SNA) methods and instruments were used in the present research. The set of basic structural characteristics was investigated: set of quantitative parameters such as density, diameter, clustering coefficient, different kinds of centrality, and etc. They were compared with the random Bernoulli graphs of the corresponding size and density. Discovered variations of random and entrepreneurial networks structure are explained by the peculiarities of agents functioning in production network. Separately, were identified the closed exchange circuits (cyclically closed contours of graph) forming an autopoietic (self-replicating) network pattern. The purpose of the functional analysis was to identify the contribution of the autopoietic network pattern in its gross product. It was found that the magnitude of this contribution is more than 20%. Such value allows using of the complementary currency in order to stimulate economic activity of network agents.

  19. Using and misusing marketing research in the healthcare industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keckley, P H

    1985-12-01

    As competition grows in health care, marketing research, especially consumer attitude research, is becoming increasingly important to the hospital's success and even survival. However, in the research process, mistakes are often made that invalidate the usefulness of the research. Those involved in marketing research, therefore, must be aware of the possible techniques to be used, potential audiences to be surveyed, the limitations of computer analysis, and the difference between consumer attitudes and intentions, if the information to be collected is to be reliable and useful to the organization.

  20. Wine industry market strategies. Case study: Lacerta Winery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEACSU Nicoleta Andreea

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine market in Romania is in constant development. More and more manufacturers appear on the market, and the competition is increasingly fierce. Although it has an area of the largest planted with vines, Romania is not distinguished among major exporters. Using EU funds made available, new manufacturers appear who developed the premium wine sector. Among the investments carried out in recent years in this sector is Lacerta Winery, an Austrian investment, which sold the first wine under the brand Lacerta in 2011.

  1. Understanding Market Concentration: Internet-Based Applications from the Banking Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Fred H.; Ward, Sidne Gail

    2011-01-01

    Market structure is an essential topic in economics and finance courses, including bank management as well as many other business school courses, for example marketing, human resources and strategic management. Instructors explain the virtues of perfect competition and the evils of monopoly along with alternative market models. Often conversations…

  2. Study on the Chinese Goods Market Structure and Related Integrated Marketing Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Qishen Zhou; Mingxing Yang

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the Chinese goods market structure and related integrated marketing strategy. In recent years, it is becoming more and more popular for Chinese consumers to go on luxury consuming in a variety of large cities in China, showing the increasing demand of luxury for Chinese people possessed relatively high fortune. Further, dozens of international famous luxury brands are pouring into the Chinese market such as LVMH and Gucci, recognizing the huge consumption demand...

  3. Standardized Cost Structure for the Environmental Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skokan, B.; Melamed, D.; Guevara, K.; Mallick, P.; Bierman, G.; Marshall, H.E.

    2006-01-01

    The underlying key to developing successful estimates, tracking project costs, and utilizing historical project cost information is the development of standardized and well-defined hierarchical listing of cost categories. Committees within the U.S. Federal agencies have pioneered efforts toward developing the Environmental Cost Element Structure (ECES), which is key in achieving these goals. The ECES was developed using an iterative process with input from federal agencies and industry. Experts from several disciplines participated including engineers, cost estimators, project/program managers, and contract personnel. The ECES benefits from an intense analytical effort, the knowledge gained from the maturation of the environmental industry, and incorporation of past user's experiences. Building upon this foundation, the E06 committee of the ASTM International has now fully developed and published a standard (ASTM 2150-04) that provides standardized cost categories with complete cost category definitions. This standard affords environmental and nuclear D and D project managers the opportunity to have a well defined hierarchical listing of their estimates and actual costs, readily adapted to performing summations and roll-ups, supported by a multi-level dictionary specifically defining the content of the cost elements as well as the summations. Owing to the dynamic nature of the environmental technologies, efforts need to be made to continue to update this standard by adding new technologies and methods as they are developed and employed in the field. Lastly, the Environmental Cost Element Structure that is embodied in this standard also presents opportunities to develop historical cost databases and comprehensive life cycle cost estimates and standardized cost estimating tools. (authors)

  4. Transition of Russian energy industry to a market economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarov, A.

    1992-01-01

    The Russian energy industry by totality of politic, social and economic circumstances has entered into the sharpest crisis. Development of energy industry has practically ceased, it has appeared a decline in electricity , oil and coal production. However it has been accumulated a vast intact potential for energy conservation and the change of energy consuming equipment in USSR by the best models of the world could reduce the present annual consumption by about 500 millions.tonnes of coal equivalent

  5. Economic and managerial basis of marketing in the gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulhavy, E [Hochschule fuer Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Linz (Austria)

    1976-11-01

    All levels of management have to put into effect the functions of marketing. In order to do this, the staff has to be appropriately selected and motivated, the capital must be sufficienty large, consequent management planning is required, the undertaking itself must be optimally organized, and a communication system must be created in which all levels of management have sufficient contact.

  6. Regulation and market power in the Spanish liquefied petroleum gas industry: Progress or failure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bello, Alejandro; Huerta, Emilio

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed study of the structure, market power and competition in the distribution sector for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), within Spain. It is a segment of energy consumption and supply that is not often given serious attention, despite the fact that LPG is a crucial source of energy to many households, in many countries in Europe and in the rest of the world. Despite formally being an open and liberalized sector, the Spanish LPG market is characterized by high concentration within the industry; Repsol Butano, the dominant operator, practically controls the entire value chain. These structural characteristics probably justify state intervention in the form of price fixing, in order to guarantee accessible prices for final consumers. Nevertheless, applying this tool has had negative effects on the opening and liberalization process. On the one hand, it fails to encourage entry or an increase in the participation of new operators; on the other, it has considerably deteriorated the economic and financial performance of the distribution agents that are subjected to two strong forces. First, the dominant operator looks after its own interests and its income; and second, the Government tries to defend the interests of final consumers by fixing prices that inadequately remunerate the activity. This shows the contradictory regulatory actions that try to promote competition, and then establish mechanisms to regulate activity by fixing prices that act as price limits. These government set prices discourage new competitors from entering. (author)

  7. Regulation and market power in the Spanish liquefied petroleum gas industry: Progress or failure?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bello, Alejandro; Huerta, Emilio [Departamento de Gestion de Empresas, Universidad Publica de Navarra, Campus de Arrosadia, 31006 Pamplona, Navarra (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    This paper presents a detailed study of the structure, market power and competition in the distribution sector for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), within Spain. It is a segment of energy consumption and supply that is not often given serious attention, despite the fact that LPG is a crucial source of energy to many households, in many countries in Europe and in the rest of the world. Despite formally being an open and liberalized sector, the Spanish LPG market is characterized by high concentration within the industry; Repsol Butano, the dominant operator, practically controls the entire value chain. These structural characteristics probably justify state intervention in the form of price fixing, in order to guarantee accessible prices for final consumers. Nevertheless, applying this tool has had negative effects on the opening and liberalization process. On the one hand, it fails to encourage entry or an increase in the participation of new operators; on the other, it has considerably deteriorated the economic and financial performance of the distribution agents that are subjected to two strong forces. First, the dominant operator looks after its own interests and its income; and second, the Government tries to defend the interests of final consumers by fixing prices that inadequately remunerate the activity. This shows the contradictory regulatory actions that try to promote competition, and then establish mechanisms to regulate activity by fixing prices that act as price limits. These government set prices discourage new competitors from entering. (author)

  8. 78 FR 16479 - Acquisition of Items for Which Federal Prison Industries Has a Significant Market Share

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... Federal Prison Industries Has a Significant Market Share AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: DoD is publishing the annual list of product categories for which the Federal Prison... requirements for purchases from Federal Prison Industries, Inc. (FPI) by requiring DoD to publish an annual...

  9. Design of Concept of Sustainable Marketing Communication Strategy for a Ideal Industrial Enterprise and Practical Applications of this Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šujaková, Monika; Golejová, Simona; Sakál, Peter

    2017-09-01

    In the contribution the authors deal with the design and use of a sustainable marketing communication strategy of an ideal industrial enterprise in the Slovak Republic. The concept of an ideal enterprise is designed to increase the enterprise's sustainable competitiveness through the formation of a corporate image. In the framework of the research, the practical application of the draft concept was realized through a semi-structured interview in the form of propositional logic.

  10. The Use of Market Feasibility Studies in the Restaurant Industry for Small and Medium-sized Restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    Kolster, Maria

    2017-01-01

    The goals of this thesis are to provide the reader with new information about market feasibility studies in the restaurant industry and to design a market feasibility template for the international restaurant industry which can be used for small and medium-sized restaurants before entering the market. The objectives are to define the ideal factors of a market feasibility study for the international restaurant industry, to learn and become an expert in feasibility studies for the restaurant i...

  11. EC interior energy market - legal bases and implications for the Austrian electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fremuth, W.

    1989-01-01

    The author begins by outlining what 'internal energy market' means and Austria's relationship to it and to the EC and describes the present state of cooperation in electricity supply between European countries. He discusses amongst other things: distortions to competition, cost structures, responsibility for a Europe-wide network, the effects of setting up a central European load distributor on Austria's electricity industry, the economic consequences of the common-carrier in Austria, monopolies and exclusive rights, cross-border exchanges, reliability and quality of supply, and savings in costs. He hopes that efforts towards further integration in Europe do not upset the already close cooperation between supply networks by introducing unreal, counter-productive objectives. (T.J.R.A.)

  12. Market-based implementation of Kyoto commitments: how the financial/insurance sector can support industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoepfel, Ivo

    1999-01-01

    The implementation of the Kyoto Protocol in the context of the Framework Convention on Climate Change will probably lead to economic winners and losers in various sectors of the economy. Especially carbon intensive industries will need to develop hedging strategies to prevent potential negative effects and to optimise market opportunities. Such strategies can be based on technological innovation, market and product diversification, and on financial/legal offsets. The Kyoto Protocol has introduced new market-based instruments, which can, in a near future provide such hedging opportunities. These include joint implementation, the so-called clean development mechanism, and international emissions trading. The financial services and insurance sector are the natural partners of industry in designing tailored hedging strategies. It is recommended that industry, financial services and insurance companies take a more proactive role in further developing the market-based instruments established by the Kyoto Protocol. (Author)

  13. Enacting representations of markets in exchange practies in the Danish potato industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    : The paper uses the extended case study method to integrate existing concepts and theories using empirical data from the Danish potato industry. Twenty semistructured, narrative interviews were conducted with different actors in the industry. Research findings: Analysis suggests that the representations...... various actors have constructed of the Danish market for potatoes and the different market actors share many common features, but also that there are important differences in representations between members along the marketing channel that explain why actors in the Danish potato industry have difficulties......Purpose of the paper and literature addressed: The paper explores the potential of John Shotter’s (2008) relationally-responsive version of social constructionism for studying and analysing representations of markets and how these are enacted in actual exchanges practices. Research method...

  14. Hierarchical structure of stock price fluctuations in financial markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Ya-Chun; Cai, Shi-Min; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2012-01-01

    The financial market and turbulence have been broadly compared on account of the same quantitative methods and several common stylized facts they share. In this paper, the She–Leveque (SL) hierarchy, proposed to explain the anomalous scaling exponents deviating from Kolmogorov monofractal scaling of the velocity fluctuation in fluid turbulence, is applied to study and quantify the hierarchical structure of stock price fluctuations in financial markets. We therefore observed certain interesting results: (i) the hierarchical structure related to multifractal scaling generally presents in all the stock price fluctuations we investigated. (ii) The quantitatively statistical parameters that describe SL hierarchy are different between developed financial markets and emerging ones, distinctively. (iii) For the high-frequency stock price fluctuation, the hierarchical structure varies with different time periods. All these results provide a novel analogy in turbulence and financial market dynamics and an insight to deeply understand multifractality in financial markets. (paper)

  15. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    scholar, Walt W. Rostow presented and supported this line of thought in his analysis of ... A Brief Historical Background of Industrialization in Africa ... indicative) The western model allowed for the political economy to be shaped by market.

  16. Marketing of menthol cigarettes and consumer perceptions: a review of tobacco industry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey J

    2011-05-01

    To examine tobacco industry marketing of menthol cigarettes and to determine what the tobacco industry knew about consumer perceptions of menthol. A snowball sampling design was used to systematically search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (LTDL) (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between 28 February and 27 April 2010. Of the approximately 11 million documents available in the LTDL, the iterative searches returned tens of thousands of results from the major US tobacco companies and affiliated organisations. A collection of 953 documents from the 1930s to the first decade of the 21st century relevant to 1 or more of the research questions were qualitatively analysed, as follows: (1) are/were menthol cigarettes marketed with health reassurance messages? (2) What other messages come from menthol cigarette advertising? (3) How do smokers view menthol cigarettes? (4) Were menthol cigarettes marketed to specific populations? Menthol cigarettes were marketed as, and are perceived by consumers to be, healthier than non-menthol cigarettes. Menthol cigarettes are also marketed to specific social and demographic groups, including African-Americans, young people and women, and are perceived by consumers to signal social group belonging. The tobacco industry knew consumers perceived menthol as healthier than non-menthol cigarettes, and this was the intent behind marketing. Marketing emphasising menthol attracts consumers who may not otherwise progress to regular smoking, including young, inexperienced users and those who find 'regular' cigarettes undesirable. Such marketing may also appeal to health-concerned smokers who might otherwise quit.

  17. Competitive Patterns in the Danish Organic Industry & its Usefulness in Predicting Development in other EU Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jens; Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt

    2003-01-01

    The organic market in Denmark is not a niche market any longer as it was in the late 1980s. The development has followed the typical pattern for diffusion of innovations and by 2002 the market supply seemed to have surpassed the equilibrium supply by around 30% and a potential adjustment is ahead...... the industry. In general, Denmark can be regarded as a frontrunner in organic development. Therefore, important clues concerning the development in other EU countries can be found, and the following points are analysed to evaluate if similar developments can be expected. Can the Danish diffusion path...... for organic development be expected in other countries? Will the supply in other EU markets also surpass market equilibrium? Are the Danish experiences with respect to policy choices and power-play of dominant players in processing and distribution industry of general relevance? Are the maturity gains...

  18. Market dynamics, innovation, and transition in China's solar photovoltaic (PV) industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Hongyang; Du, Huibin; Ren, Jingzheng

    2017-01-01

    development from the perspective of technological innovation. By incorporating a Technological Innovation System (TIS) approach, the analysis performed here complements the previous literature, which has not provided agrounded itself in a theoretical framework for associated analyses. In addition......China’s photovoltaic (PV) industry has undergone dramatic development in recent years and is now the global market leader in terms of newly added capacity. However, market diffusion and adoption in China is not ideal. This paper examines the blocking and inducement mechanisms of China’s PV industry......, to determine the current market dynamics, we closely examine the market concentration trends as well as the vertical and horizontal integration of upstream and downstream actors and calculate the market concentration of the upstream and downstream integration (74.8% and 36.3%). The results of applying the TIS...

  19. A Re-examination of Online Marketing Strategies for Graduate Recruitment in the Insurance Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Rana, Zain

    2010-01-01

    "Cynics sometimes refer to the insurance industry as boring, old-fashioned and bureaucratic. What can Zurich do to challenge such misconceptions and better market themselves to potential graduate applicants?” In recent times, there has been a noticeable shortfall in graduate level applications to insurance firms. The industry is now facing problems of an ageing workforce and are undergoing difficulty attracting graduates, as compared to other industry sectors such as a banking, fi...

  20. How does the tobacco industry attempt to influence marketing regulations? A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Savell

    Full Text Available The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control makes a number of recommendations aimed at restricting the marketing of tobacco products. Tobacco industry political activity has been identified as an obstacle to Parties' development and implementation of these provisions. This study systematically reviews the existing literature on tobacco industry efforts to influence marketing regulations and develops taxonomies of 1 industry strategies and tactics and 2 industry frames and arguments.Searches were conducted between April-July 2011, and updated in March 2013. Articles were included if they made reference to tobacco industry efforts to influence marketing regulations; supported claims with verifiable evidence; were written in English; and concerned the period 1990-2013. 48 articles met the review criteria. Narrative synthesis was used to combine the evidence.56% of articles focused on activity in North America, Europe or Australasia, the rest focusing on Asia (17%, South America, Africa or transnational activity. Six main political strategies and four main frames were identified. The tobacco industry frequently claims that the proposed policy will have negative unintended consequences, that there are legal barriers to regulation, and that the regulation is unnecessary because, for example, industry does not market to youth or adheres to a voluntary code. The industry primarily conveys these arguments through direct and indirect lobbying, the promotion of voluntary codes and alternative policies, and the formation of alliances with other industrial sectors. The majority of tactics and arguments were used in multiple jurisdictions.Tobacco industry political activity is far more diverse than suggested by existing taxonomies of corporate political activity. Tactics and arguments are repeated across jurisdictions, suggesting that the taxonomies of industry tactics and arguments developed in this paper are generalisable to multiple jurisdictions and can

  1. THE ROLE OF MARKETING IN THE EVOLUTION OF THE MUSIC INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Miroslav Skoro

    2013-01-01

    This work will consider the development and parameters of the music industry, and present the creative connections between marketing and the music industry in light of world technological advancements. Special emphasis will be placed on defining the music industry of the Republic of Croatia, with respect to the National Classification System in contrast to relative world solutions, especially in light of the imminent entry of the Republic of Croatia to the European Union, as well as, consumer...

  2. STATUS OF LEAN MANUFACTURING IMPLEMENTATION ON SECONDARY WOOD INDUSTRIES INCLUDING RESIDENTIAL, CABINET, MILLWORK, AND PANEL MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Pirraglia; Daniel Saloni; Herman van Dyk

    2009-01-01

    Lean Manufacturing has helped several industries to achieve operational and manufacturing excellence by increasing productivity and enhancing quality, while reducing waste and costs. However, the wood industry has been historically slow in adopting this philosophy and its many tools. In times when overseas competition has taken big portions of the traditional market share for U.S based wood industries, it has become important that companies start to take actions in order to regain competitive...

  3. Market orientation at industry and value chain levels: Concepts, determinants and consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Jeppesen, Lisbeth Fruensgaard; Jespersen, Kristina Risom

    -institutional theory, transaction cost economics, network theory and the political-economic approach to the analysis of marketing channels, potential determinants of market orientation at value chain levels are identified. These determinants and their possible interaction may serve as guiding principles for empirical......The term market orientation, defined as sets of activities dealing with the generation and dissemination of market intelligence as well as with responding to it, is extended from the organisation level to the value chain level. By drawing on theories from industrial economics, neo...

  4. Structure of an urban Christmas tree market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas H. Pendleton; Lawrence D. Garrett; Lawrence D. Garrett

    1973-01-01

    The retail Christmas tree market in Winston-Salem, N.C., was studied 3 years. Types of retailers and their sales are described. Best sales were made by dealers who had lots on heavily traveled streets in business districts, had ample parking facilities, advertised, and displayed their trees well.

  5. Structural Estimation of Stock Market Participation Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorunzhina, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    education programs can affect consumers' investment decisions. Using household data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, I estimate the magnitude of the participation cost, allowing for individual heterogeneity in it. The results show the average stock market participation cost is about 4–6% of labor...

  6. Youth Advocates’ Perceptions of Tobacco Industry Marketing Influences on Adolescent Smoking: Can They See the Signs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinda Douglas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Point-of-sale (POS advertising at retail stores is one of the key marketing avenues used by the tobacco industry. The United States Surgeon General urges actions to eliminate POS tobacco advertisements because of their influence on youth smoking. Many youth empowerment programs are implemented to address tobacco industry marketing influences, including POS tobacco advertisements. While youth are asked to take on such collective action, little is known regarding their perceptions and understanding of tobacco industry marketing influences and related advocacy activities. This mixed methods study examined Oklahoma’s tobacco control youth empowerment program members’ perceptions of tobacco industry marketing influences. Four focus groups were held with active program members from rural and urban areas. Overall, the focus group participants viewed the program as purposeful, as an avenue to help others, and as a way to make a difference. Specifically, the older participants (median age = 18 years identified tobacco industry marketing influences such as POS, movies, and magazine advertisements and reported participating in activities that counter POS tobacco advertisements at retail stores. Likewise younger participants (median age = 16 years, identified similar tobacco industry marketing influences, but also included tobacco use by friends and family as tobacco industry marketing influences. Moreover, the younger participants did not report engaging in activities that addressed POS tobacco advertisements. The study results suggest that the empowerment program should tailor its programming, training, materials, and activities with input from youth of various ages. Thoughtfully developed messages and specific activities can truly empower youth and maximize their contribution as change agents who address POS or other initiatives at the retail environments to prevent chronic diseases.

  7. Youth Advocates' Perceptions of Tobacco Industry Marketing Influences on Adolescent Smoking: Can They See the Signs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Malinda; Chan, Andie; Sampilo, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    Point-of-sale (POS) advertising at retail stores is one of the key marketing avenues used by the tobacco industry. The United States Surgeon General urges actions to eliminate POS tobacco advertisements because of their influence on youth smoking. Many youth empowerment programs are implemented to address tobacco industry marketing influences, including POS tobacco advertisements. While youth are asked to take on such collective action, little is known regarding their perceptions and understanding of tobacco industry marketing influences and related advocacy activities. This mixed methods study examined Oklahoma's tobacco control youth empowerment program members' perceptions of tobacco industry marketing influences. Four focus groups were held with active program members from rural and urban areas. Overall, the focus group participants viewed the program as purposeful, as an avenue to help others, and as a way to make a difference. Specifically, the older participants (median age = 18 years) identified tobacco industry marketing influences such as POS, movies, and magazine advertisements and reported participating in activities that counter POS tobacco advertisements at retail stores. Likewise younger participants (median age = 16 years), identified similar tobacco industry marketing influences, but also included tobacco use by friends and family as tobacco industry marketing influences. Moreover, the younger participants did not report engaging in activities that addressed POS tobacco advertisements. The study results suggest that the empowerment program should tailor its programming, training, materials, and activities with input from youth of various ages. Thoughtfully developed messages and specific activities can truly empower youth and maximize their contribution as change agents who address POS or other initiatives at the retail environments to prevent chronic diseases.

  8. An analysis of the content of food industry pledges on marketing to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna; Harris, Jennifer L

    2011-08-01

    To identify pledges made by the food industry to change food marketing to children worldwide, examine their content and discuss their potential to reduce the harmful effects of food marketing to children. A search for pledges and specific commitments made by participating companies and a content analysis of their scope and criteria used to define the marketing covered or excluded. Global. Food industry pledges. Between 2005 and 2009, the food industry developed thirteen pledges on food marketing to children, involving fifty-two food companies. Two of the pledges were global, two were regional and nine applied to specific countries. Three were specific to the soft drinks industry and to the fast-food industry, with the rest being food industry wide. Ten of the pledges required companies to publish individual commitments; a total of eighty-two such commitments were published, many of which extended beyond the minimum standards set in the pledges. All pledges included definitions of children and child-targeted media, as well as the communication channels and marketing techniques covered, and permitted companies to set criteria for foods that are exempted from any restrictions. There were many similarities between the pledges and individual commitments; however, there were also many differences. The development of pledges on food marketing to children in such a short span of time is impressive. However, limitations and inconsistencies in the pledges and commitments suggest that the food industry has a long way to go if its pledges are to comprehensively reduce the exposure and power of marketing to children.

  9. Finding the core : Network structure in interbank markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    in 't Veld, Daan; van Lelyveld, Iman

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the network structure of interbank markets. Using a dataset of interbank exposures in the Netherlands, we corroborate the recent hypothesis that the core periphery model is a 'stylised fact' of interbank markets. We find a core of highly connected banks intermediating between

  10. On the Use of Structural Equation Models in Marketing Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenkamp, J.E.B.M.; Baumgartner, H.

    2000-01-01

    We reflect on the role of structural equation modeling (SEM) in marketing modeling and managerial decision making. We discuss some benefits provided by SEM and alert marketing modelers to several recent developments in SEM in three areas: measurement analysis, analysis of cross-sectional data, and

  11. Labor Market Structure and Salary Determination among Professional Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Michael

    1988-01-01

    The author investigates the labor market structure and determinants of salaries for professional basketball players. An expanded version of the resource perspective is used. A three-tiered model of labor market segmentation is revealed for professional basketball players, but other variables also are important in salary determination. (Author/CH)

  12. Structure of labour market and unemployment in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nour, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the structure of the labour market and unemployment in Sudan. One advantage of our analysis is that we explain several stylized facts on the labour market using new secondary data on population, employment and unemployment based on Sudan Central Bureau of Statistics (2010) the

  13. Horticultural marketing channels in Kenya : structure and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, T.

    1997-01-01

    This study analyses the structure and development of horticultural marketing channels in Kenya. It is based primarily on a farm survey among some 500 farmers in Nyandarua, Kisii and Taita Taveta Districts and a trade survey of about 750 horticultural traders in 18 different market places.

  14. MARKETING COMMUNICATION TO INDUSTRIAL CLUSTERS OF SLOVAK REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Loučanová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the growing attention is paid to the promotion and development of clusters, i.e. concentration of businesses and other cooperating institutions in a sector and region. Despite of the economy globalization and sophisticated global communications technologies, the factor of geographical concentration should be declined, however the experts highlight the importance of direct contact with local and tacit knowledge. The aim of this paper is analyzing of marketing communication tools in different clusters of Slovakia.

  15. Essays in Industrial Organization: Intermediation, Marketing, and Strategic Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Wismer, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation deals with certain business strategies that have become particularly relevant with the spread and development of new information technologies. The introduction explains the motivation, discusses different ways of defining the term "two-sided market", and briefly summarizes the subsequent essays. The first essay examines the effects of product information on the pricing and advertising decision of a seller who offers an experience good whose quality is unknown to cons...

  16. Understanding Market Segments and Competition in the Private Military Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Likert scale, and importance scale) and “open-end” (unstructured) questions ( Kotler , 2009, p.137). We applied parts of the Tailored Design Method... Kotler , 2008, p. 249). Item 2 and Items 8-10 of the questionnaire attempted to capture the market niche/s that the respondents’ reportedly... Kotler , 2009, p. 137). These questions were designed using Likert-type items to assess the participant’s level of importance or level of

  17. Power Industry Reliability Coordination in Asia in a Market Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Hammons, Thomas J.; Voropai, Nikolai I.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the problems of power supply reliability in a market environment. The specific features of economic interrelations between the power supply organization and consumers in terms of reliability assurance are examined and the principles of providing power supply reliability are formulated. The economic mechanisms of coordinating the interests of power supply organization and consumers to provide power supply reliability are discussed. Reliability of restructuring China's powe...

  18. Social Media Marketing in Fast Moving Consumer Goods Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this master thesis is to analyze the social media engagement of the FMCGs (Fast Moving Consumer Goods) in Austria. The used methodologies are literature studies, Internet searches as well as internal data evaluations of the FMCG clients of a marketing agency. The thesis analyses selected key success factors on Social Media focusing on facebook, evaluates their development in the monitored period, and recommends main possibilities of future measures aiming on reaching an improvement...

  19. Green power marketing in Canada: the state of the industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogterom, J.J.; McCulloch, M.; Pape-Salmon, A.

    2002-12-01

    The introduction of low-impact renewable energy in Canada's electricity supply is being accomplished using a relatively new, market-based initiative called green power marketing. Consumers now have the option of choosing their electricity supplier in two provinces, as a result of electricity market restructuring in those provinces. In some jurisdictions, green power is being offered at a premium price. Green power options are also available in other jurisdictions through the existing vertically integrated power companies. Green power programs are available to residential and commercial sector consumers in Alberta by ENMAX Energy and EPCOR Energy Services Inc. Prince Edward Island (Maritime Electric Company Ltd.) and Saskatchewan (SaskPower) both offer green power programs. The basis for those programs is specific amounts of electricity purchased. The success of the various programs was examined by the Pembina Institute for Appropriate Development, based on installed capacity of green power, consumer enrolment, product design, and environmental benefits. This report presented the results of this evaluation. For the purpose of this report, only those programs in place by the end of 2001 were considered. The environmental impacts of new generation technologies that were implemented as a result of green power marketing programs were analyzed. Historical emission data of the primary generation sources was used as a basis for the investigation and the quantification of the benefits in each province, since different types of power generation are used in the provinces. Greenhouse gases, acid deposition precursors, ground-level ozone precursors, particulate matter, and carbon monoxide are the significant emissions avoided through the use of green power. Included in the emissions reduction analysis in each province considered were life cycle emissions from conventional power sources and green power sources. Alberta, Saskatchewan and Prince Edward Island were the provinces

  20. Segmentation of the industrial market for food commodities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2001-01-01

    by the appearance of changing demands and technological opportunities, which potentially can lead to differentiation possibilities. The article describes a framework for the study of industrial buying of food commodities and the results of a conjoint study based on interviews with oil purchasers in the margarine...... and mayonnaise industries in Denmark, Sweden, Germany, the United Kingdom and Switzerland. The main result of the study is that the price is an omnipotent decision criterion, when vegetable fats and mayonnaise producers buy vegetable oil, but also that product and supplier criteria can be used to segment...

  1. Analysis of the physiotherapy industry: challenges for marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, L

    1996-01-01

    The physiotherapy industry can be analysed using Porter's (1979) five forces. Physiotherapy uses medical, geographic and funding segmentation. The power of the buyers in these segments is considerable. Substitutes are posing a threat to physiotherapy with few barriers to entry to operate in the health care environment. The suppliers, particularly doctors, have significant power in referring clients. Competitive rivalry for these clients can exist between individual physiotherapists and multi-disciplinary clinics. The difference in orientation of private and public physiotherapy can also be a basis for rivalry. Repositioning to view the client as both the supplier and recipients enables the physiotherapy industry to gain competitive advantage and ensures long term growth.

  2. Green pricing: Customer-oriented marketing of the electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, T.

    1998-01-01

    There are at present about 15 established projects launched by energy suppliers in Germany which deserve to be called ''green pricing'' marketing strategies, and about an equal number of further projects at various stages of development which also offer as a ''green'' incentive for customers electricity from renewable energy sources. Worldwide, there are about 50 established green pricing projects, offered primarily in the USA, Switzerland and the Netherlands, and in Germany. The targeted customers of these projects for the time being are exclusively households that cannot easily switch over to other than their local suppliers. It can be expected that with progressive market liberalisation in Great Britain, the USA and, finally, in Germany, competition for this customer group will rapidly increase the number of green pricing marketing projects in these countries. This is why the article here presents a thorough analysis of the specific features of green pricing contracts, their impact on enhanced development and application of the technology for electricity generation from renewables, and a forecast on future developments. (orig./CB) [de

  3. Marketing communications in industrial B2b markets enhancing the value of the corporate brand relying on common added values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Ignacio Monrabal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, industrial Business-to-Business (B2B markets are mainly characterized by a highly trained customer for making rational decisions in a highly competitive and global market, requiring more than ever organizations to approach their markets with a single and consistent message. Such demanding scenario requires to define a corporate brand transmitting in one message all the advantages that a Customer may appreciate in the long-term, based not only on what the company stands for in the market, but also the benefits of all its products throughout its portfolio. Such elements are referred as Common Added Values (CAVs, being some general examples the technology, quality, innovation and reliability; the capacity, infrastructure and distribution network; after-sales service policies, support and training; or the price and financial policies. This paper tries to explain the source of this need, describing the main differences between a brand communications model focused on the product or including the main B2B corporate values; and highlighting the main CAVs, to get an industry player either small or large, can succeed in generating brand equity through an integrated marketing communications strategy.

  4. Regulatory policy and structural change in the natural gas industry: A transaction cost perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has recently promoted policy initiatives designed to substitute market responsive industry practices for the micro-management regulatory practices previously employed. These new policies are expected to generate a flexible gas pricing policy that more accurately reflects market supply and demand conditions. Historically, much of the regulation of this industry was enacted to ensure that pipeline companies would be able to recover the very large up-front investments in immobile equipment that characterize the production, transportation, storage, and distribution of natural gas. The institutional detail available from historical accounts of the development of the industry are used to describe structural change over time. Regulatory policy, the level of asset specificity, and the extent of secondary environmental uncertainty are all shown to exert significant effects on the level of integration into production, storage and marketing

  5. Intra-industry momentum and product market competition around the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between product market competition and intra-industry momentum returns. Based on 12,982 firm observations from 19 developed markets for the period of 1990–2010, I find that buying winners and selling losers in competitive industries generates significantly higher momentum profits than that in concentrated industries. The higher the intensity of product market competition, the larger are the intra-industry momentum returns. The results are robust to sub-samples (periods of the U.S., non-U.S. countries, the G7 countries, 1990–2000, and 2001–2010. I further employ the nearness of a stock's price to the 52-week high to determine past winners and losers and find stronger results. I also compare intra-industry momentum returns with Jegadeesh and Titman (1993 individual stock momentum and Moskowitz and Grinblatt (1999 inter-industry momentum strategies. My results suggest that intra-industry momentum strategy outperforms the latter two strategies in most cases. The overall results are consistent with the notion that severe product market competition induces managers to improve financial performance.

  6. Market power and price structure in the electricity market; Markedsmakt og prisstruktur i kraftmarkedet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halseth, Arve

    1998-12-01

    This report evaluates the importance of market power on price formation and price structure in the Norwegian electricity market. A simple oligopoly model is used to show how the equilibrium is affected by demand, distribution of capacity between two major suppliers, and marginal production costs, given that the suppliers do not cooperate. Two important conclusions can be drawn from the calculations: (1) a high concentration on the supply side does not necessarily lead to essential market power, and (2) market power may contribute to increased stability and predictability. The main conclusion is that market power can be positive for society and it is not uniquely associated with a high concentration on the supply side. If emphasis is placed on stability and predictability, market power should not be defined as deviation from prices under free competition but rather should be related to the requirement that the suppliers should not obtain unreasonably high profit with unreasonably little utilization of capacity. 10 refs., 11 figs.

  7. Moves towards privatization and market liberalization in Ukraine's electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, A.

    1997-01-01

    The problems surrounding Ukraine's electricity industry and the safety of its nuclear reactors have attracted much international concern. This paper describes the political and economic developments in the country since it became independent in 1991, and highlights the electricity sector reforms which have been aided by the EBRD, the IMPF and the World Bank. (author)

  8. Multifractal structure in Latin-American market indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zunino, Luciano; Figliola, Alejandra; Tabak, Benjamin M.; Perez, Dario G.; Garavaglia, Mario; Rosso, Osvaldo A.

    2009-01-01

    We study the multifractal nature of daily price and volatility returns of Latin-American stock markets employing the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. Comparing with the results obtained for a developed country (US) we conclude that the multifractality degree is higher for emerging markets. Moreover, we propose a stock market inefficiency ranking by considering the multifractality degree as a measure of inefficiency. Finally, we analyze the sources of multifractality quantifying the contributions of two factors, the long-range correlations of the time series and the broad fat-tail distributions. We find that the multifractal structure of Latin-American market indices can be mainly attributed to the latter.

  9. China’s Capital Market: its Structure and Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Bălțătescu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present article is to briefly overview the main characteristics and structure of China’s capital market. The first part of the paper presents the main stock exchanges, futures exchanges and commodity exchanges of China, securities products available in China, China’s level of domestic market capitalization and other key financial information and statistics regarding China capital market. The second part of the paper contains a short review on the liberalization and reforms of China’s financial market, especially the programs QFII (Qualified Foreign Institutional Investor, QDII (Qualified Domestic Institutional Investor and mini-QFII.

  10. A survey on technical efficiency, marketing and market structure of saffron crop, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Shaban

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study attempted to determine technical efficiency as well as study the marketing and market structure of Saffarn crop in Iran. To access the research goals 140 farms, 25 retailers and 14 wholesalers randomly selected. The necessary data collected through interview and filling questionarie. Apart from this, some agricultural Expert from selected cities of Razavi province have been chosen to interview. To determine the market time-series data for the period of 1995-12 was used. To determine technical efficiency DEA method, to calculate marketing margins Digbi method and to find market structure concentration ratio and Herfindal index were used. The results indicated that, the average technical efficiency was 63.49 and minimum and maximum technical efficiency respectively 19.04 and 100, retailer margin mean of Saffron was more than wholesale margin mean and average marketing cost coefficient of Saffron was about 14.78. It means that, marketing factors share in final price is 14.78. Address to the results the Saffaran’s market structure is oligopoly.

  11. Market-opening rules and potentialities of destabilization of hierarchical power industries in an open economy: institutional scenarios on the French power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of the paper is to analyse the reform of the French power industry, the extreme integration of the industrial organisation of which is deeply rooted in the French institutional particularisms. After the presentation of the main features of the 1999 reform, different elements of instability of the new structure are pointed out: the over-dominant position of the incumbent company which dissuades entries, institutional isomorphism between economies integrated to a regional space (heterogeneity of structures between European Community countries generates problems of reciprocity and fairness), and the end of the traditional capture of the regulator by the incumbent company because of the autonomy of the function of regulation. Two institutional scenarios are defined, which give a different weight to two competition paradigms in conflicts: the traditional ''industrial economics'' which inclines to preserve hierarchy in the national area to gain competitive advantages in the European field, and the neo-classical paradigm. In the first one, in the name of strategic efficiency, the integration of the industrial organisation could be preserved in spite of the asymmetry of structures between countries, and the playing field is the continental Europe on which national champions compete. In the second one the French industrial organisation has to conform to the competitive model, with vertical and horizontal disintegration and creation of a power exchange market. This scenario necessitates to test the force of the institutional determinism of the nuclear legacy. (author)

  12. DOES MARKET TIMING DRIVE CAPITAL STRUCTURE? EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM AN EMERGING MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Çelik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to test how equity market timing affects capital structure from the perspective of IPO (Initial Public Offering event in ISE for the period between 1999-2008. Our dataset comprises of all firms (75 firms that went public from the period of January 1999 to December 2008 in Turkey that are available in ISE database. We analyse the market timing theory by applying cross sectional regression method. For this purpose, first, we test the impact of market timing on the amount of equity issued by IPO firms. Second we examine the impact of market timing on capital structure. We conclude that market timing theory is not valid for Turkey.

  13. Ownership structure in agrifood chains: the marketing cooperative.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrikse, G.; Bijman, J.

    2002-01-01

    Globalization, technological developments, and consumer concerns press farmers and food producers to enhance product innovation and to seek more efficient production and distribution structures. These changes in agrifood markets shift the relative importance of the investments by different chain

  14. New structures in the European gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangen, Kristian

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide a background for assessing elements of change in the European gas market that in the long run may produce new framework conditions for Norwegian gas exports. It will also serve as an empirical basis for further studies. The main question is: What can the extension of the pipeline network and the growing number of actors tell us about future competition in spite of the fact that both Russia, Algeria and Norway have non-contracted capacity in the pipelines they are building. A number of uncertainties make it hard to draw any clear conclusions about a totally different competitive situation than only a few years ago. In the Netherlands groups of former distribution companies are threatening Gasunies' monopoly while Ruhrgas' attempt to expand into Austria may lead to gas to gas competition there. Signs of a similar development are seen in Italy and Spain as well. Increasing competition can be explained partly by the growing number of actors downstream in the gas market - in trade, transmission and among the large consumers, the electricity producers, the consequence of direct volumes and of shorter duration which in itself promotes competition. Several large pipeline projects have been carried through in co-operation between several actors which indicates that new types of projects are being developed in order to reduce risks for each actor. These will be easier to realise in the absence of long-term ''take-or-pay'' contracts at company level, what we may call companies rhetoric and argumentation as a result of comprehensive market positioning. Furthermore it seems likely that a kind of spot market will develop. Even if we can expect that only small volumes will be traded through this channel at first. Such a development may have considerable influence on prices in the long run. 5 tabs, 29 refs

  15. Essential Facility Financing and Market Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Caillaud, Bernard; Tirole, Jean

    2004-01-01

    The Paper analyses the funding of an infrastructure project (high speed train line, platform, tunnel, harbor, regional airport, fibre-to-the-home network, etc.) in a situation in which an incumbent operator has private information about market profitability (demand, cost) and the infrastructure owner is subject to a budget constraint, either on a per project basis or over the entire infrastructure. An open access policy raises welfare, but may make the project non-viable since funding must be...

  16. Organization, structure, and performance in the US nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    Several propositions are advanced concerning the effects of industry organization and structure on the economic performance of the American commercial nuclear power industry. Both the electric utility industry and the nuclear power plant supply industry are relatively high degree of horizontal disaggregation. The latter is also characterized by an absence of vertical integration. The impact of each of these factors on construction and operating performance is discussed. Evidence is presented suggesting that the combination of horizontal and vertical disaggregation in the industry has had a significant adverse effect on economic performance. The relationship between industrial structure and regulatory behavior is also discussed. 43 references, 4 figures, 9 tables

  17. The UK electricity market and the wind industry - a perspective of 1998 proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batley, S.L.; Twidell, J.W.; Gibbons, C.

    1997-01-01

    After April 1st 1998, the Public Electricity Supplier monopoly ( in England, Wales and Scotland) over their local franchise market will cease and all customers, regardless of size, will be able to choose their supplier. These changes will have a major impact on the UK wind energy industry. An increased number of Second Tier Suppliers will compete with existing market players for electricity purchase from generators and sale of electricity to consumers. Market changes should improve possibilities for wind generators to obtain a Second Tier Supplier licence and serve the domestic, small demand, market. There may also be market opportunities to sell to specialist 'green' suppliers. The post 1998 changes are of importance to the European Union 'Guarantee of Result' project, which aims to promote small scale wind systems through guaranteed quality and performance of systems. For the Guarantee of Results to be utilised in the UK, all markets for the generated electricity from a wind system must be considered and evaluated. (Author)

  18. Exploratory market structure analysis. Topology-sensitive methodology.

    OpenAIRE

    Mazanec, Josef

    1999-01-01

    Given the recent abundance of brand choice data from scanner panels market researchers have neglected the measurement and analysis of perceptions. Heterogeneity of perceptions is still a largely unexplored issue in market structure and segmentation studies. Over the last decade various parametric approaches toward modelling segmented perception-preference structures such as combined MDS and Latent Class procedures have been introduced. These methods, however, are not taylored for qualitative ...

  19. Market Structure in the Context of Developing Competitive Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Algirdas Krivka; Romualdas Ginevičius

    2011-01-01

    The abstract deals with the application of positioning strategies under the conditions of classical market structures. It is discovered that the assumptions of pure competition leave no space for M. Porter’s generic cost leadership and differentiation strategies to be applied. The enterprise’s actions, influencing five competitive forces and implementing generic strategies, are reasonable under the conditions of imperfect competition market structures. The game theory models, applied to oligo...

  20. Industry Consolidation and Future Airline Network Structures in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Nigel

    2003-01-01

    In the current downturn in demand for air travel, major airlines are revising and rationalizing their networks in an attempt to improve financial performance and strengthen their defences against both new entrants and traditional rivals. Expansion of commercial agreements or alliances with other airlines has become a key reaction to the increasingly competitive marketplace. In the absence, for regulatory reasons, of cross-border mergers these are the principal means by which the industry can consolidate internationally. This paper analyzes the developments which have been taking place and attempts to itentify the implications for airline network structures and the function of different hub airports. The range of services available to passengers in long-haul markets to/from Europe is evaluated before and after recent industry reorganization. Hubs are crucial to interlink the route networks of parmers in an alliance. However, duplication between nearby hub airports that find themselves within the same airline alliance can lead to loss of service at the weaker locations. The extent to which the alliance hubs in Europe duplicate or complement each other in terms of network coverage is assessed and this methodology also enables the optimal partnerships for "unattached" airlines to be identified. The future role of the various European hubs is considered under different scenarios of global alliance development. The paper concludes by considering possible longer-term developments. In an environment where the low-cost carriers will provide a major element of customer choice, it is suggested that the traditional airlines will retrench around their hubs, surrendering many secondary cities to the low-cost sector. Further reduction in the number of alliances could threaten more of the European hubs. For both regulatory and commercial reasons, the end result may be just one airline alliance - so recreating in the deregulated market the historic rule of IATA.

  1. Financial crisis and market risk premium: Identifying multiple structural changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. García-Machado

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between macroeconomic variables and stock market returns is, by now, well-documented in the literature. However, in this article we examine the long-run relationship between stock and bond markets returns over the period from 1991:11 to 2009:11, using Bai and Perron’s multiple structural change approach. Findings indicate that while the market risk premium is usually positive, periods with negative values appear only in three periods (1991:1-1993:2, 1998:3-2002:2 and from 2007:1-2009:11 leading to changes in the GDP evolution. Thereby, the study shows the presence of structural breaks in the Spanish market risk premium and its relationship with business cycle. These findings contribute to a better understanding of close linkages between the financial markets and the macroeconomic variables such as GDP. Implications of the study and suggestions for future research are provided.

  2. Will the leading firm continue to dominate the market in the Taiwan notebook industry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hsiao-Ping; Yeh, Ming-Liang; Sher, Peter J.; Chiu, Yi-Chia

    2007-09-01

    This study investigates whether the market share leader in the notebook industry in Taiwan is likely to maintain its dominant position. Market share data are used to investigate the intensity of competitiveness in the industry, and data on the gap in market shares are employed to elucidate the dominance of the leading firm in Taiwan's notebook industry during the 1998-2004 period. The newly developed Panel SURADF tests advanced by Breuer et al. [Misleading inferences from panel unit root tests with an illustration from purchasing power parity, Rev. Int. Econ. 9 (3) (2001) 482-493] are employed to determine whether the market share gap is stationary or not. Unlike other panel-based unit root tests which are joint tests of a unit root for all members of a panel and are incapable of determining the mix of I(0) and I(1) series in a panel setting, the Panel SURADF tests have the advantage of being able to investigate a separate unit root null hypothesis for each individual panel member and are, therefore, able to identify how many and which series in a panel are stationary processes. The empirical results from several panel-based unit root tests substantiate that the market shares of the firms studied here are non-stationary, indicating that Taiwan's notebook industry is highly competitive; however, Breuer et al.'s [12] Panel SURADF tests unequivocally show that only Compal is stationary with respect to market share gap. In terms of sales volume, Compal is the second largest firm in the notebook industry in Taiwan, and the results indicate that it alone has the opportunity to become the market share leader in the notebook industry.

  3. Some design lessons from market-based greenhouse gas regulation in the restructured Australian electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGill, Iain; Outhred, Hugh; Nolles, Karel

    2006-01-01

    There is growing worldwide interest in the use of market-based policy instruments for climate change regulation in the electricity sector. These mechanisms would seem to offer some efficiency and flexibility advantages over more traditional regulatory approaches, while being highly compatible with competitive market-based electricity industries. Australia has been an early and enthusiastic adopter of both electricity industry restructuring and market-based environmental instruments. This paper first outlines some of these recent policy developments. In particular, we describe the objectives, design and outcomes to date of electricity industry restructuring, the Mandatory Renewable Energy Target, the NSW Greenhouse Benchmarks, the Queensland 13% Gas scheme and Government accredited Green Power. From this, we draw some key design lessons for such market-based instruments. These include the perils of abstraction in scheme design, the vital importance of setting appropriate baselines in 'baseline and credit' schemes, the possibility that such measures may interact in ways that reduce their environmental effectiveness, 'market for lemon' risks with tradable instruments that have measurement, verification or 'additionality' difficulties, and the challenges of creating transparent liquid markets for these mechanisms. The mixed performance of these Australian schemes to date illustrates the need for great care in designing such market-based approaches

  4. Some design lessons from market-based greenhouse gas regulation in the restructured Australian electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacGill, Iain [School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia)] e-mail: i.macgill@unsw.edu.au; Outhred, Hugh [School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia); Nolles, Karel [School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2006-01-01

    There is growing worldwide interest in the use of market-based policy instruments for climate change regulation in the electricity sector. These mechanisms would seem to offer some efficiency and flexibility advantages over more traditional regulatory approaches, while being highly compatible with competitive market-based electricity industries. Australia has been an early and enthusiastic adopter of both electricity industry restructuring and market-based environmental instruments. This paper first outlines some of these recent policy developments. In particular, we describe the objectives, design and outcomes to date of electricity industry restructuring, the Mandatory Renewable Energy Target, the NSW Greenhouse Benchmarks, the Queensland 13% Gas scheme and Government accredited Green Power. From this, we draw some key design lessons for such market-based instruments. These include the perils of abstraction in scheme design, the vital importance of setting appropriate baselines in 'baseline and credit' schemes, the possibility that such measures may interact in ways that reduce their environmental effectiveness, 'market for lemon' risks with tradable instruments that have measurement, verification or 'additionality' difficulties, and the challenges of creating transparent liquid markets for these mechanisms. The mixed performance of these Australian schemes to date illustrates the need for great care in designing such market-based approaches.

  5. Some design lessons from market-based greenhouse gas regulation in the restructured Australian electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iain MacGill; Hugh Outhred; Karel Nolles [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Electrical Engineering & Telecommunications

    2006-01-01

    There is growing worldwide interest in the use of market-based policy instruments for climate change regulation in the electricity sector. These mechanisms would seem to offer some efficiency and flexibility advantages over more traditional regulatory approaches, while being highly compatible with competitive market-based electricity industries. Australia has been an early and enthusiastic adopter of both electricity industry restructuring and market-based environmental instruments. This paper first outlines some of these recent policy developments. It then describes the objectives, design and outcomes to date of electricity industry restructuring, the Mandatory Renewable Energy Target, the NSW Greenhouse Benchmarks, the Queensland 13% Gas scheme and Government accredited Green Power. From this, some key design lessons are drawn for such market-based instruments. These include the perils of abstraction in scheme design, the vital importance of setting appropriate baselines in 'baseline and credit' schemes, the possibility that such measures may interact in ways that reduce their environmental effectiveness, 'market for lemon' risks with tradable instruments that have measurement, verification or 'additionality' difficulties, and the challenges of creating transparent liquid markets for these mechanisms. The mixed performance of these Australian schemes to date illustrates the need for great care in designing such market-based approaches. 36 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Logistics Concepts at the Industrial Enterprise under Conditions of the Globalization of Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trushkina Nataliia V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to assess the dynamics of indicators of Ukraine’s foreign trade in goods and services; conduct a comparative analysis of logistics concepts used at industrial enterprises under conditions of the globalization of markets; determine the ways to improve the management of international production and distribution activities of industrial enterprises. The study analyzes the dynamics of volumes of exports–imports of goods and transport services in Ukraine; freight traffic by mode of transport; export, import and transit of goods; foreign direct investment from countries of the world in the Ukrainian economy. Modern information systems and logistics concepts used at industrial enterprises under conditions of the globalization of markets are considered. The ways to improve the management of international production and distribution activities of industrial enterprises are defined and systematized. Prospects for further research in this direction are the development of proposals for information support of providing services for customers of the industrial enterprise.

  7. Impact of Market Access Reforms On the Canadian Dairy Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hacault, Anastasie; Rude, James; Carlberg, Jared G.

    2010-01-01

    The World Trade Organization's (WTO) latest round of negotiations, the Doha Development Agenda (DDA), will likely change the way most agricultural products are traded around the world. These new liberalization policies will potentially affect the Canadian production and consumption of dairy products. This paper uses a partial equilibrium model with stochastic world prices to evaluate the effects of these trade reforms on the Canadian dairy industry. Different liberalization scenarios are simu...

  8. Refining capacity in Quebec : the Quebec market, industry viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trudelle, F.

    2004-01-01

    Canada's second largest oil refinery is operated by Ultramar Ltd. in Levis, Quebec. The refinery, which supplies 45 per cent of all Quebec's petroleum, distributes its products to Quebec, Ontario and the Maritime provinces. The refinery currently produces 215,000 barrels per day. Ultramar is a division of Valero, an American firm which has a total refining capacity of 2.4 million barrels per day. A summary of the company's petroleum energy distribution, consumption, and reserves was presented and compared with the national and global position. It was noted that world demand for petroleum products increases yearly by 1 to 1.5 per cent while the demand for automobile fuel in North America increases by 2.5 to 3.5 per cent. In the last 10 years, world demand has increased by more than 22 per cent but refining capacity has only increased by 12 per cent. The average profitability of the refining industry from 1992 to 2002 was approximately 5.5 per cent, which limited investments in new refinery installations. Much of the industry's profits have been utilized to modify installations in order to reduce the sulphur content in gasoline and diesel fuels. Furthermore, the obtention of permits to construct new refining installations has become a major obstacle and the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol may signify a 30 per cent reduction in automotive fuel demand. Given this, there is currently some hesitation and uncertainty by the refining industry to proceed with new major installations. tabs., figs

  9. Gender Equality in Labor Markets: A Survey About the Industry and Service Sectors in Gaziantep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Balcı İzgi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a survey on women labor issues in two different sectors –industry and service sectors- in Gaziantep. The main aim is to modify the structure of women labor in Gaziantep. The main characteristics of women labour market for Gaziantep is that women labor participation is sharply decreased after marriage which is a traditional issue. Inaddition entrepreneurship is very high. Besides working years with insurance is quite low in all levels of education. The promotions system do not change with education. Education is a crucial variable in the analysis. For instance, the positions are not assigned according to the education in most of the times. This creates inefficiency in labor markets. Another important finding that the rate of entrepreneurship is very high related with other cities of Turkey. The topics of wages, working hours, the comparison of the appropriateness of the work according to education, cultural activities, satisfaction, pleasure from working have been considered from the aspect of the relationship between the working life and family life and besides, finance deficiency in entrepreneurship, and sex discrimination not clear are the main problems in different ratios. The work and the education were not found as related. The level of social coverage, trade union membership and salaried work does change with education positively

  10. Analysis of industrial markets for low and medium Btu coal gasification. [Forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-30

    Low- and medium-Btu gases (LBG and MBG) can be produced from coal with a variety of 13 existing and 25 emerging processes. Historical experience and previous studies indicate a large potential market for LBG and MBG coal gasification in the manufacturing industries for fuel and feedstocks. However, present use in the US is limited, and industry has not been making substantial moves to invest in the technology. Near-term (1979-1985) market activity for LBG and MBG is highly uncertain and is complicated by a myriad of pressures on industry for energy-related investments. To assist in planning its program to accelerate the commercialization of LBG and MBG, the Department of Energy (DOE) contracted with Booz, Allen and Hamilton to characterize and forecast the 1985 industrial market for LBG and MBG coal gasification. The study draws five major conclusions: (1) There is a large technically feasible market potential in industry for commercially available equipment - exceeding 3 quadrillion Btu per year. (2) Early adopters will be principally steel, chemical, and brick companies in described areas. (3) With no additional Federal initiatives, industry commitments to LBG and MBG will increase only moderately. (4) The major barriers to further market penetration are lack of economic advantage, absence of significant operating experience in the US, uncertainty on government environmental policy, and limited credible engineering data for retrofitting industrial plants. (5) Within the context of generally accepted energy supply and price forecasts, selected government action can be a principal factor in accelerating market penetration. Each major conclusion is discussed briefly and key implications for DOE planning are identified.

  11. Efficacy testing and market research for the pork industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivinski, Jacek S.

    Low dose (less than 30 krad) gamma irradiation of Trichinella spiralis infected pork renders the parasites sexually sterile and blocks maturation of the ingested larvae in the host gut. Irradiation of freshly slaughtered, market weight hog carcasses indicate that larvae throughout the carcass have essentially identical sensitivities to radiation. The research data indicate that 30 krad of 0.66 MeV gammas can be delivered to market weight, split carcasses with acceptable uniformity, and that such a dose can provide a substantial margin of safety for human consumption of even heavily infected meat. Feasibility studies of pork irradiation in commercial operations have shown the process to be technically, economically, and financially feasible. Treatment during the first four years of operation in a 2,000 hog per day plant will cost about 0.0034 dollars per pound and 0.0011 dollars per pound thereafter. Social and political feasibility are addressed in a 1,000-family consumer survey completed in the first quarter of 1984.

  12. Efficacy testing and market research for the pork industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivinski, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    Low dose (less than 30 krad) gamma irradiation of Trichinella spiralis infected pork renders the parasites sexually sterile and blocks maturation of the ingested larvae in the host gut. Irradiation of freshly slaughtered, market weight hog carcasses indicate that larvae throughout the carcass have essentially identical sensitivities to radiation. The research data indicate that 30 krad of 0.66 MeV gammas can be delivered to market weight, split carcasses with acceptable uniformity, and that such a dose can provide a substantial margin of safety for human consumption of even heavily infected meat. Feasibility studies of pork irradiation in commercial operations have shown the process to be technically, economically, and financially feasible. Treatment during the first four years of operation in a 2,000 hog per day plant will cost about 0.0034 dollars per pound and 0.0011 dollars per pound thereafter. Social and political feasibility are addressed in a 1,000-family consumer survey completed in the first quarter of 1984. (author)

  13. Overview of the developments in the domestic airline industry in South Africa since market deregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Luke

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Deregulation or liberalisation of air transport has had major global impacts on the domestic air transport markets, with effects ranging from stimulation to changes in the structure and functioning of these markets. In South Africa, deregulation has had wide-reaching effects on the domestic market. The purpose of this article was to investigate the current domestic air transport market. A literature review was performed to examine the effects of deregulation in other domestic air transport markets around the world. This was followed by a review of the South African domestic air transport market prior to deregulation in order to determine the changes that were made following deregulation. The ten-year period immediately following deregulation was also examined; this period was characterised by relatively large numbers of market entries and exits. A database was obtained from the Airports Company South Africa; air traffic movements, passenger numbers and load factors were evaluated. The study showed that the market is still characterised by regular market entries and exits. Also that the entry of the low-cost carriers has stimulated the market, resulting in increased air traffic movements, higher passenger numbers, higher load factors in general and the opening of a secondary airport in Gauteng, Lanseria International. Deregulation and, more specifically, the entry of the low-cost carriers has resulted in structural changes in the market and more choice for passengers.

  14. Marketing mix of the music industry in the United States and South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Ruyi

    2016-01-01

    Even though many (probably most) people, would think that the music industry is still/ngrowing, figures show that this sector is shrinking. However, the United States and South/nKorea reported good trends on their revenues. This paper aims to provide a better/nunderstanding of the music industry of an emerging country (South Korea) compared to/nthe leader in the industry (the United States). The four elements of the marketing mix/nare used to explore their music industry and to identify the d...

  15. Results of a European industrial heat market analysis as a pre-requisite to evaluating the HTR market in Europe and elsewhere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredimas, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    High temperature nuclear reactors will mainly address the market of industrial cogeneration. This market is a part of the overall market of the heat concretely consumed by industry, in particular heat intensive industries. In simpler terms, the HTR market is a part of the industrial cogeneration market, which itself is a part of the industrial heat market. The EU-supported project EUROPAIRS (2009–2011) has therefore carried out a comprehensive study of the complete European industrial heat market in order to prepare for the deployment of HTRs. This information did not exist priori to the study. The purposes of this paper are (1) to present the methodology of the study and the experience gathered in order to exchange with non-European equivalent or future initiatives (beyond the discussions already engaged with the US), (2) to synthesise the quantitative results of the study and (3) to briefly report on the cogeneration usages in several key industries (e.g. chemicals, refining, steelmaking…) which may affect HTR designing. The paper finishes with some reflection on the part of the heat market that HTRs could potentially address. In correlation with our other paper on the pre-economic analysis, this paper intend to pave the way for an international cooperation on evaluating the market for HTR worldwide, which is an information of common interest to the HTR community

  16. Profile of the worldwide semiconductor industry market prospects to 1997

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, A

    1995-01-01

    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. The prolongation of global recession continues to have a significant impact on this core sector of the electronics industry, compelling many manufacturers to review their operations and business strategies. Fierce competition and the need to reduce costs have resulted in many companies cutting back on commercial sales to concentrate on vertically integrated manufacturing or in new alliances being forged to strengthen product portfolios whilst minimising R & D costs. This updated sixth edition of the report charts indust

  17. An exploration study to find important factors in market entrance: A case study of truck industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoheir Khodamoradi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to find important factors influencing market penetration in truck industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 51 questions, distributes it among 300 people who worked for different truck industry related units and collects 262 filled ones. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.89. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.845 and 3067.443, respectively. The study has implemented principal component analysis and the results have indicated that there were eight factors influencing entering truck making industry including adaptation strategies, new ideas, cost competitiveness, product capabilities, market characteristics, competition threats from external market environment and export accelerators.

  18. Industrial structural transformation and carbon dioxide emissions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jie; Li, Junpeng

    2013-01-01

    Using provincial panel data from the period 1995–2009 to analyze the relationship between the industrial structural transformation and carbon dioxide emissions in China, we find that the first-order lag of industrial structural adjustment effectively reduced the emissions; technical progress itself did not reduce the emissions, but indirectly led to decreasing emissions through the upgrading and optimization of industrial structure. Foreign direct investment and intervention by local governments reduced carbon dioxide emissions, but urbanization significantly increased the emissions. Thus, industrial structural adjustment is an important component of the development of a low-carbon economy. In the context of industrial structural transformation, an effective way to reduce a region’s carbon dioxide emissions is to promote the upgrading and optimization of industrial structure through technical progress. Tighter environmental access policies, selective utilization of foreign direct investment, and improvements in energy efficiency can help to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. - Highlights: ► Relationship between the transformation of industrial structure and CO 2 emissions in China. ► Dynamic panel data model. ► Industrial structural adjustments can effectively reduce current CO 2 emissions. ► Technical progress leads to decreasing CO 2 emissions through upgrading of industrial structure

  19. Industrial application trends and market perspectives for virtual reality and visual simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Valerio Netto

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to provide an overview of current market trends in industrial applications of VR (Virtual Reality and VisSim (visual simulation for the next few years. Several market studies recently undertaken are presented and commented. A profile of some companies that are starting to work with these technologies is provided, in an attempt to motivate Brazilian companies into the use of these new technologies by describing successful example applications undertaken by foreign companies.

  20. Role of the HTGR in the U.S. industrial energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeth, G.G.

    1981-01-01

    The HTGR is considered for a variety of applications to the U.S. industrial energy markets. These include a number of synfuel processes, shale oil conversion, methanol production, ammonia production, and both open and closed-loop pipeline systems. Potential market size appears to be approximately 300-400 GW (t) in the 2000 to 2020 time period. In addition to potential cost advantages, the closed-loop nuclear system has several significant advantages over alternative fossil systems. 5 refs

  1. Model Keterkaitan Market Orientation, Leadership, Organizational Innovation dan Organizational Performance pada Industri Kerajinan di Sumatera Barat

    OpenAIRE

    PRIMA LITA, RATNI; MEUTHIA, MEUTHIA; FAISAL, RANNY FITRIANA

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of market orientation, leadership, organizational innovation and organizational performance in handycraft industry in Bukittinggi City, Pariaman City, Padang Pariaman Regency, and Pesisir Selatan Regency. This research uses quantitative methods, while the sampling technique using Purposive sampling with sample size of 86 craft companies. The criteria assigned to the respondent is the handycraft business that produce and market their own pr...

  2. FINANCIAL MARKET REACTIONS TO INTERNATIONAL MERGERS & ACQUISITIONS IN THE BREWING INDUSTRY: AN EVENT STUDY ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Heyder, Matthias; Ebneth, Oliver; Theuvsen, Ludwig

    2008-01-01

    Cross-border acquisitions have been the growing trend in recent years in the world brewing industry, giving brewers the opportunity to enhance their degree of internationalization and market share remarkably. This study employs event study analysis to examine 31 mergers and acquisitions among leading European brewing groups. Differences regarding financial market reactions can be determined within the European peer group. Managerial implications as well as future research propositions conclud...

  3. Obesity and industry self-regulation of food and beverage marketing: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronit, K; Jensen, J D

    2014-07-01

    Obesity is a growing concern at national and international levels, and it is increasingly recognised that the industry has a role in and hence needs to be involved in halting the obesity epidemic. The objective of this study is to describe, analyse and evaluate research on industry self-regulation regarding food and beverage marketing and nutrition labelling. Five databases were searched for combinations of the search terms-obesity, nutrition, food, beverages, industry, self-regulation, labelling, advertising and marketing-and papers were selected on the basis of paper titles and, subsequently, on the basis of abstracts. Of the 4978 identified publications, 22 were included in the final review. The studies show that commitments in industry self-regulation schemes tend to be relatively vague and permissive, that the measurable effects of the self-regulations tend to be relatively small and that some extent of public regulation may catalyse the effectiveness of industry self-regulation. Although the reviewed studies vary in terms of analytic units and methods applied, they generally stress an ineffectiveness of existing self-regulation schemes. Food industry self-regulation in relation to obesity prevention is an emerging field of research, and further research is needed in such schemes' definitions of regulatory standards, their monitoring and sanctioning mechanisms, and their interactions with public regulation, if industry self-regulation of marketing behaviour is to become an effective and credible approach.

  4. Food industry structure in Norway and Denmark since the 1990s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimek, Bjørn; Hansen, Henning Otte

    2017-01-01

    Structural changes in Norwegian and Danish food industry since the 1990s is analysed as a path dependent response to the neo-liberal turn. Norway entered the 1990s as a protected market and Denmark as case of an export oriented industry. These developmental strategies are rooted in early 20th...... ‘varieties of capitalism’ framework with corporate strategy theories on food industry M&As. We identify two different types of path dependent development, a self-reinforcing in Denmark and a transformative ‘breaking point’ in Norway....

  5. The Role of Using Social Media in the Performance of Manufacturers in Industrial Marketing (Case Study: Industries in western Iran)

    OpenAIRE

    Abolfazl Tajzadeh Namin; Abedin Pouya

    2016-01-01

    Social media are always considered as an important source for industrial marketing research. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of social media on the manufacturers’ performance in western Iran. For this purpose, the impact of using social media on variables, includingmanufacturers’ personal goals ( Bulletin et al., 2011), The benefits of research media (Homburg et al., 2010; Schultz, 2012), support of producers from each (Schultz et al., 2012), manufacturers’ characteristic...

  6. Deregulation of Electricity Market and Drivers of Demand for Electrical Energy in Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojnec Štefan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates deregulation of electricity market focusing on electricity prices and drivers of demand for electrical energy in industry in Slovenia. The patterns in evolution of real electricity price developments and the three main components of the electricity price are calculated: liberalized market share for purchased electricity price, regulated infrastructure share for use of electricity network grids and mandatory state charges in the sale of electricity (duty, excise duty and value-added tax. To calculate the real value of electricity prices, producer price index of industrial commodities for electricity prices in industry is used as deflator and implicit deflator of gross domestic product for the size of the economy. In the empirical econometric part is used regression analysis for the amount electricity consumption in the industry depending on the real gross domestic product, direct and cross-price elasticity for natural gas prices in the industry. The results confirmed volatility in real electricity price developments with their increasing tendency and the increasing share of different taxes and state charges in the electricity prices for industry. Demand for electrical energy in industry is positively associated with gross domestic product and price of natural gas as substitute for electrical energy in industry use, and negatively associated with prices of electrical energy for industry.

  7. A Perspective on Industry Classification and Market Reaction to Corporate News: Evidence from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharjee Nayanjyoti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we provide a cross-industry perspective on the market reaction to different corporate news in the context of Indian stock market. We have studied the price and volume movements associated with eight broadly defined news categories namely Analyst Calls, Earnings, Earnings Forecasts, Finance, Legal and Regulatory, Management, Operations and Restructuring. We have employed the standard event study methodology on a sample of stocks listed on the National Stock Exchange of India for the purpose of our study. We observe that the market reaction to firm specific corporate news varies according to the type of news across different industry groups. We also observe that the sentiment of the news is a critical factor which influences the market reaction to such news flow across industry groups. We also provide a cross-industry perspective on the relative importance of different corporate news categories after taking into account the sentiment of the news in the context of Indian stock market.

  8. Using tobacco-industry marketing research to design more effective tobacco-control campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2002-06-12

    To improve tobacco-control efforts by applying tobacco-industry marketing research and strategies to clinical and public health smoking interventions, we analyzed previously secret tobacco-industry marketing documents. In contrast to public health, the tobacco industry divides markets and defines targets according to consumer attitudes, aspirations, activities, and lifestyles. Tobacco marketing targets smokers of all ages; young adults are particularly important. During the 1980s, cost affected increasing numbers of young and older smokers. During the 1990s, eroding social acceptability of smoking emerged as a major threat, largely from increasing awareness of the dangers of secondhand smoke among nonsmokers and smokers. Physicians and public health professionals should use tobacco-industry psychographic approaches to design more relevant tobacco-control interventions. Efforts to counter tobacco marketing campaigns should include people of all ages, particularly young adults, rather than concentrating on teens and young children. Many young smokers are cost sensitive. Tobacco-control messages emphasizing the dangers of secondhand smoke to smokers and nonsmokers undermine the social acceptability of smoking.

  9. Medical students' exposure to pharmaceutical industry marketing: a survey at one U.S. medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellin, Melena; McCarthy, Susan; Drevlow, Laurel; Pierach, Claus

    2004-11-01

    While much is known about the interactions between the pharmaceutical industry and physicians, very little is known about pharmaceutical marketing directed toward medical students. This study sought to characterize the extent and forms of medical students' exposure to pharmaceutical industry marketing. In 2001-02, an anonymous, 17-item questionnaire was distributed to 165 preclinical and 116 clinical students at the University of Minnesota Medical School-Twin Cities. The main outcome measures were the number and forms of exposures to pharmaceutical industry marketing reported by medical students and whether students had discussed these exposures with teachers or advisors. Preclinical and clinical students were compared using chi(2) analysis (p marketing. Seventy-six (71.7%) clinical students compared to 38 (33.3%) preclinical students recalled over 20 exposures (p textbook (p marketing with an instructor or advisor; 59 (55.7%) clinical students as compared to 87 (80.6%) preclinical students recalled no such discussion (p marketing during their early years of training. Given existing evidence that such exposure influences physicians' practice and prescribing patterns, the authors propose that medical school curricula include formal instruction to prepare students to critically assess these contacts.

  10. Industrious but Redundant: Gender and Labor Market Mobility in Brazil in the 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadya Araújo Guimarães

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the inter-sectorial mobility of industrial workers in Brazil based on longitudinal data from the Brazilian Ministry of Labor on the number of hired and dismissed workers during the 1990s. Comparing two industries in two regional labor markets, the author argues that gender differences are important for understanding patterns of mobility in formal labor markets independent of the degree of their formality, the different patterns of women’s work permeability, and the nature of their restructuring process.

  11. Policies of industrial market and science and technology: the case of Brazilian nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R.G. de.

    1981-01-01

    The relationship between policies and the definition of a national program of nuclear energy, is considered. The case under study is the Brazilian one. It is shown that an overall evaluation of market, industry and science and technology is mandatory for the definition of a nuclear energy program, and serious fault and hesitation, leading to contradiction and failure, have their roots in a basic lack of definition in policies. The evolution of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Program will probably remain at a mediocre level until a definition at the level of policy-making in marketing, industry and science and technology is firmly pursued and maintained. (Author) [pt

  12. Economic structure and performance of forest-based industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Laughlin, J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the economic structure, conduct, and performance of industries dependent on the nation's forests that are topics of special importance for research. A major challenge to research involving industrial organization of forest-based industries is to link descriptions of structure, conduct, and industrial performance in ways that facilitate public and private policy making. Not to be overlooked is the need to continue efforts to monitor changes in structure and conduct dimensions at the national level and to conduct baseline studies of industry structure-conduct-performance at regional, state, and local levels. Specifically needed is research that will improve understanding of restructuring within the wood-based industry; definitions of the wood-based industry and segments thereof; linkages between structure and regional economic development; timberland as a managerial and economic variable; structural consequences of technological innovations; corporate strategies as related to performance; structural dimensions in an international setting; and structure and performance of nonwood-based forest industries. Economics research focused in such directions will go far toward improving the manner in which the nation's many forest industries organize and conduct their activities

  13. How market structure drives commodity prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wong, K. Y. Michael; Chan, Amos H. M.; So, Tsz Yan; Heimonen, Hermanni; Wei, Junyi; Saad, David

    2017-11-01

    We introduce an agent-based model, in which agents set their prices to maximize profit. At steady state the market self-organizes into three groups: excess producers, consumers and balanced agents, with prices determined by their own resource level and a couple of macroscopic parameters that emerge naturally from the analysis, akin to mean-field parameters in statistical mechanics. When resources are scarce prices rise sharply below a turning point that marks the disappearance of excess producers. To compare the model with real empirical data, we study the relationship between commodity prices and stock-to-use ratios in a range of commodities such as agricultural products and metals. By introducing an elasticity parameter to mitigate noise and long-term changes in commodities data, we confirm the trend of rising prices, provide evidence for turning points, and indicate yield points for less essential commodities.

  14. Banking on industry: the impact of financial services on regional industrial structure and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Jaap W.B.; Degl'Innocenti, Marta

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the extent to which local banking market characteristics can explain where small enterprises (SEs) are located and how they thrive. We start from a simple theory that explains the channels along which local banking market structure can affect the growth of SEs. Subsequently, we make

  15. Current market of industrial bio-products and biofuels, and predictable evolutions by 2015/2030. Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-04-01

    The main objectives of this study were to describe the current status of the energetic and industrial bio-product markets (biofuels, bio-lubricants, biomaterials, papers, cosmetics, and so on), to identify and analyze the evolution perspectives of these new markets on a long and medium term, to define scenarios of evolution for different sectors (agro-industry, energy, organic chemistry), to identify the most promising new markets, and to select the priority agro-industrial sectors

  16. Modeling the Structural Dynamic of Industrial Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Ian F.; Wiley, James B.; Lin, Aizhong

    Market systems consist of locally interacting agents who continuously pursue advantageous opportunities. Since the time of Adam Smith, a fundamental task of economics has been to understand how market systems develop and to explain their operation. During the intervening years, theory largely has stressed comparative statics analysis. Based on the assumptions of rational, utility or profit-maximizing agents, and negative, diminishing returns) feedback process, traditional economic analysis seeks to describe the, generally) unique state of an economy corresponding to an initial set of assumptions. The analysis is tatic in the sense that it does not describe the process by which an economy might get from one state to another.

  17. Does pop music exist? Hierarchical structure in phonographic markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buda, Andrzej

    2012-11-01

    I find a topological arrangement of assets traded in phonographic markets which has associated a meaningful economic taxonomy. I continue using the Minimal Spanning Tree and the correlations between assets, but now outside the stock markets. This is the first attempt to use these methods on phonographic markets where we have artists instead of stocks. The value of an artist is defined by record sales. The graph is obtained starting from the matrix of correlation coefficients computed between the world’s most popular 30 artists by considering the synchronous time evolution of the difference of the logarithm of weekly record sales. This method provides the hierarchical structure of the phonographic market and information on which music genre is meaningful according to customers. Statistical properties (including the Hurst exponent) of weekly record sales in the phonographic market are also discussed.

  18. An overview of uranium industries in countries of completed market economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Chenglong

    2007-01-01

    Uranium is an important energy mineral and strategic resources, in countries of completed market economy, energy mineral exploration belongs to commercial mineral exploration. Because uranium exploration is higher in investment risk and rebound, the countries of completed market economy regulate uranium exploration by using laws, paying taxes and protecting environment. China will put the exploration of coal, oil and gas, uranium, oil shale, gas in coalbed in the first place in commercial mineral exploration. Therefore, it is quite necessary to understand uranium exploration industries in countries of completed market economy. (authors)

  19. Innovative-marketing directions of recreational-tourism industry in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko Hanna Mykolayivna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article the necessity of the development of recreational-tourism industry in Ukraine, despite the difficult political and economic situation in the country, based on the innovative marketing activities is grounded. The features of recreation areas on the analysis of the relevant natural resources are described, and the marketing activities for the development of recreational-tourist areas of Ukraine are proposed, in particular the creation of the database objects of recreational management, using the tool of marketing generations, the strengthening cooperation with government agencies and travel agencies.

  20. A comprehensive survey on selective breeding programs and seed market in the European aquaculture fish industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chavanne, Hervé; Janssen, Kasper; Hofherr, Johann

    2016-01-01

    –50 % market share. Only part of the European fish aquaculture industry today fully exploits selective breeding to the best advantage. A larger impact assessment still needs to be made by the remainder, particularly on the market share of fish seed (eggs, larvae or juveniles) and its consequences for hatchery...... of molecular tools is now common in all programs, mainly for pedigree traceability. An increasing number of programs use either genomic or marker-assisted selection. Results related to the seed production market confirmed that for Atlantic salmon there are a few dominant players at the European level, with 30...

  1. Identifying and prioritizing industry-level competitiveness factors: evidence from pharmaceutical market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabaninejad, Hosein; Mehralian, Gholamhossein; Rashidian, Arash; Baratimarnani, Ahmad; Rasekh, Hamid Reza

    2014-04-03

    Pharmaceutical industry is knowledge-intensive and highly globalized, in both developed and developing countries. On the other hand, if companies want to survive, they should be able to compete well in both domestic and international markets. The main purpose of this paper is therefore to develop and prioritize key factors affecting companies' competitiveness in pharmaceutical industry. Based on an extensive literature review, a valid and reliable questionnaire was designed, which was later filled up by participants from the industry. To prioritize the key factors, we used the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). The results revealed that human capital and macro-level policies were two key factors placed at the highest rank in respect of their effects on the competitiveness considering the industry-level in pharmaceutical area. This study provides fundamental evidence for policymakers and managers in pharma context to enable them formulating better polices to be proactively competitive and responsive to the markets' needs.

  2. Supply Network Planning for New Product Market Entry in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Reinholdt Nyhuus; Grunow, Martin

    2011-01-01

    uncertainty and the risk of a forced label change and includes solution robustness. While considering limited shelf life of the drug, the supply of packaging material and outsourcing, the objective of our model is to reduce supply chain cost including lost peak sales from delayed market entry....... planning before and during the market entry of the drug after the drug has been approved. Production of the active pharmaceutical ingredient [API] is characterized by long change-over times due to cleaning requirements. Production planning is long term, multiple batches of each drug are produced...... industry, reimbursement negotiations have to be carried out before a drug can be marketed. These negotiations both necessitate time phasing market entries and introduce a series of uncertainties e.g. varying allowed price and awarded subsidy. Also if the label is not approved for marketing, all packaged...

  3. Identifying and assessing the factors affecting skill gap in digital marketing in communication industry companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Ghotbifar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As far as new communication channels are concerned, there have been extensive developments in communications and marketing in digital era. Today, therefore, companies try to take advantage of digital marketing channels to provide suitable services to customers to improve their satisfaction level. However, this study aimed to identify and assess factors affecting skill gap in digital marketing. This was descriptive correlation study. The population consisted of experts in communications industry to identify most important skill gaps in digital marketing and factors affecting them; also, managers and specialists of these companies were investigated to determine the role of identified factors in reducing skills gaps. Using localized questionnaire and interviewing with ten experts who were selected by Delphi snowball method, the skill gaps in marketing and factors affecting them were identified. Also, a researcher made questionnaire with 32 questions was distributed among 226 employees to investigate the identified factors role in reducing skills gap in digital marketing. The results showed that from four identified factors, the components including operational strategic factors and environmental factors had direct and positive impact on creating skill gap in digital marketing of studied companies. The environmental factors such as social and cultural conditions, religion, technology, and economy had more proactive impact on skills gap in digital marketing. Also, the results showed that among skills gaps in digital marketing of studied companies, the skills (Principles of Communication and (Predicting Future had the highest and lowest gaps, respectively.

  4. Structural changes, market concentration and vertical integration: would they lead to more stable markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahmassebi, H.

    1991-01-01

    This communication is concerned with three major developments that are likely to have significant impact on the future structure of world oil markets: oil company mergers and acquisitions, shift of exploration and production activity from the United States to overseas, and joint venture agreements between producing countries and oil companies aimed at further downstream integration by OPEC. The last two developments are likely to contribute substantially to price and market stability in the future

  5. Structural changes, market concentration and vertical integration: would they lead to more stable markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahmassebi, H.

    This communication is concerned with three major developments that are likely to have significant impact on the future structure of world oil markets: oil company mergers and acquisitions, shift of exploration and production activity from the United States to overseas, and joint venture agreements between producing countries and oil companies aimed at further downstream integration by OPEC. The last two developments are likely to contribute substantially to price and market stability in the future.

  6. ICT ADOPTION IN EMERGING CONTEMPORARY MARKETING PRACTICES: THE CASE OF THE NIGERIAN PAINTS INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Oluwaseun OLOMU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The growing awareness of firms about the deployment of information and communications technology continued to stimulate competitive advantage for them in the marketplace. This study investigated the numerous information and communications technologies deployed for products marketing in the Nigerian paints industry and also examined the degree of capacity in which ICTs were deployed in relations to contemporary marketing practices. This study considerably administered 240 questionnaire on paints manufacturing and marketing firms in Nigeria which resulted to 84.5% response rate in year 2014. The outcomes of the analysis revealed that the telephone and e-mail were widely embraced for marketing in the Nigerian paints industry. It was also discovered that paints companies adopted ICT more in a reinforcing capability as against enhancing and transforming purposes. The study suggested that paints producing and marketing firms in Nigeria need to incorporate more of ICT facilities and utilize the various offers of electronic marketing for their daily operations and automations thereby improving firm’s profitability and performance. More importantly, attention should be shifted on companies’ capability to innovate and consequently introducing new ICT products and services in the market.

  7. Structured Mathematical Modeling of Industrial Boiler

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz, Abdullah Nur; Nazaruddin, Yul Yunazwin; Siregar, Parsaulian; Bindar, Yazid

    2014-01-01

    As a major utility system in industry, boilers consume a large portion of the total energy and costs. Significant reduction of boiler cost operation can be gained through improvements in efficiency. In accomplishing such a goal, an adequate dynamic model that comprehensively reflects boiler characteristics is required. This paper outlines the idea of developing a mathematical model of a water-tube industrial boiler based on first principles guided by the bond graph method in its derivation. T...

  8. Structural analysis of oligopoly market based on the reflective game model by the example of telecommunication market in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna A. Biryukova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to analyze the possible structures of the oligopoly market distribution by the example of telecommunication industry in terms of the agentsrsquo reflexive behavior. nbsp Methods game theory economicmathematical modeling. Results the article states that one of the first objects in the game theory is an oligopoly market. Based on the analysis of game theory studies it was found that there is a need to achieve information equilibrium in reflexive games of three agents in the oligopoly market. To solve this problem we analyzed all possible representations of the agents leading to the set of games in the Russian telecommunications market for three agents OJSC ldquoMTSrdquo OJSC ldquoMegafonrdquo and OJSC ldquoVympelcomrdquo. Three reflection grades were studied 1 representations of the agent about other agents 2 representations of the agentrsquos perception of other agents about it and 3 representations of the agent about what its competitors think about the first agentrsquos opinion about the other two. As a result the general patterns were revealed of the expressions of conjectural variations in each case it was proved that further detailing of the reflection is not needed. As a result of calculations the models of informational equilibriums of the Russian telecommunication market were constructed for that the averaged values of the demand and cost functions parameters functions of cellular communication operators were taken. It was also revealed that in 2015 the actual telecommunication market in the Russian Federation qualitatively i.e. by the ratio of market shares was close to equilibrium on condition of first rank reflexive behavior for the case when the market leader OJSC ldquoMTSrdquo represents its counterparties ndash OJSC ldquoMegafonrdquo and OJSC ldquoVympelcomrdquo ndash as the driven agents. Scientific novelty the analytical expressions for the information equilibrium parameters issues and profits of the agents aggregate

  9. The nuclear industry and its markets in Europe. 1996, strategic and financial future prospects. Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This synthesis report assesses the strategic and financial future prospects of the nuclear industry. It includes in particular the future prospects of the nuclear energy demand increase in the world and compares the nuclear power production with the electric power production due to other energy sources. The different markets of the nuclear industry are detailed. At last are given the main European manufacturers of the nuclear sector. (O.M.)

  10. Pengaruh Entrepreneurial Marketing Dan Kebijakan Pemerintah Terhadap Daya Saing Industri Alas Kaki Di Bogor

    OpenAIRE

    Septiani, Stevia; Sarma, Ma'mun; Limbong, Wilson H

    2013-01-01

    Entrepreneurial marketing is the suitable approach in terms of resource constraints and problems that exist in small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Footwear industry is a sector of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) that is supported by the government of Bogor. Problems of development of footwear industry are divided into two main factors: the competence of SMEs and local government policy. Based on these problems, this study aims to (1) Identify the characteristics of entrepreneurs, busines...

  11. Market segmentation and the changing budget hotel industry in urban South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Market segmentation and the changing budget hotel industry in urban South Africa

    2013-01-01

    Market segmentation is a critical driver of change in the hotel industry, resulting in the appearance of differentiated forms of hotel property developments, including budget hotels. International research on budget hotels is mainly limited to North America and Europe, with some more recent studies on emerging economies. This article examines the role of budget hotels within the wider restructuring of the South African hotel industry following the country’s re-entry into the global tourism ec...

  12. An Empirical Study on Marketing Prospecs and Potential of Steel Industry in India

    OpenAIRE

    Bagla, Varun

    2008-01-01

    In this dissertation, a sectoral review of the steel industry in India was taken into consideration. The emphasis was laid down in finding out to know the competitive advantages, which the large Indian Steel Companies have created overtime and their adaptation to the changing environment. I also analyzed the marketing potential and prospects of the steel industry in India. This study focuses on the two major companies in the steel sector in India, namely Steel authority of India ltd (SAIL) ...

  13. OECD Structural Analysis Databases: Sectoral Principles in the Study of Markets for Goods and Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina D. Simonova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the characteristics of the information database of the OECD structural business statistics in the analysis of markets of goods and services, and macroeconomic trends. The system of indicators of structural statistics is presented in OECD publications and on-line access to a wide range of users. Collected data sources generated by the OECD offices are based on the national statistical offices of country-members, Russia and the BRICS. Data on the development of economic sectors are calculated according to the methodology of individual countries, regional and international standards: annual national accounts of countries, annual industry and business surveys, methodology of short-term indicators, statistics of international trade in goods. Data are aggregated on the basis of complex indicators statements of the enterprises' questionnaire and business surveys. Information system of structural statistics which is available and continuously updated, has certain features. It is composed of several subsystems: Structural Statistics on Industry and Services, EU entrepreneurship statistics, Indicators of Industry and Services, International Trade in Commodities Statistics. The grouping of industries is based on the International standard industrial classification of all economic activities (ISIC. Classification of foreign trade flows is made in accordance with the Harmonized system of description and coding of goods. The structural statistics databases comprise four classes of industries' grouping according to the technology intensity. The paper discusses the main reasons for the non-comparability of data in the subsystems in certain time intervals.

  14. A Good Beginning Makes a Good Market: The Effect of Different Market Opening Structures on Market Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinterleitner, Gernot; Leopold-Wildburger, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the market structure at the opening of the trading day and its influence on subsequent trading. We compare a single continuous double auction and two complement markets with different call auction designs as opening mechanisms in a unified experimental framework. The call auctions differ with respect to their levels of transparency. We find that a call auction not only improves market efficiency and liquidity at the beginning of the trading day when compared to the stand-alone continuous double auction, but also causes positive spillover effects on subsequent trading. Concerning the design of the opening call auction, we find no significant differences between the transparent and nontransparent specification with respect to opening prices and liquidity. In the course of subsequent continuous trading, however, market quality is slightly higher after a nontransparent call auction. PMID:26351653

  15. ESCO market and industry trends: Updated results from the NAESCO database project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Julie G.; Goldman, Charles A.; Hopper, Nicole C.

    2001-10-15

    Today's U.S. energy efficiency services industry is one of the most successful examples of private sector energy efficiency services in the world, yet little empirical information is available on the actual market activity of this industry. LBNL, together with the National Association of Energy Services Companies (NAESCO), has compiled the most comprehensive dataset of the energy efficiency services industry: nearly 1,500 case studies of energy efficiency projects. Our analysis of these projects helps shed light on some of the conventional wisdom regarding industry performance and evolution. We report key statistics about typical projects and industry trends that will aid state, federal, and international policymakers, and other investors interested in the development of a private sector energy efficiency services industry.

  16. The structure of a market containing boundedly rational firms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Adyda; Zura, Nerda; Saaban, Azizan

    2017-11-01

    The structure of a market is determined by the number of active firms in it. Over time, this number is affected by the exit of existing firms, called incumbents, and entries of new firms, called entrant. In this paper, we considered a market governed by the Cobb-Douglas utility function such that the demand function is isoelastic. Each firm is assumed to produce a single homogenous product under a constant unit cost. Furthermore, firms are assumed to be boundedly rational in adjusting their outputs at each period. A firm is considered to exit the market if its output is negative. In this paper, the market is assumed to have zero barrier-to-entry. Therefore, the exiting firm can reenter the market if its output is positive again, and new firms can enter the market easily. Based on these assumptions and rules, a mathematical model was developed and numerical simulations were run using Matlab. By setting certain values for the parameters in the model, initial numerical simulations showed that in the long run, the number of firms that manages to survive the market varies between zero to 30. This initial result is consistent with the idea that a zero barrier-to-entry may produce a perfectly competitive market.

  17. Measuring capital market efficiency: Global and local correlations structure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištoufek, Ladislav; Vošvrda, Miloslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 392, č. 1 (2013), s. 184-193 ISSN 0378-4371 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Capital market efficiency * Fractal dimension * Long-range dependence * Short-range dependence Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.722, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/E/kristoufek-measuring capital market efficiency global and local correlations structure.pdf

  18. THE CONCEPT AND ESSENCE, THE STRUCTURE OF REAL ESTATE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar V. Hovsepyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the help of the international research literature, and the legislative framework of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Armenia in the article reveals the basic concepts and the essence of the real estate market, as well as given the classification of real estate. Thoroughly explains the difference between the concepts of "real estate" and "real property". In the article considered the main elements which includes the structure of the real estate market.

  19. Entry Regulations, Product Differentiation and Determinants of Market Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Maican, Florin; Orth, ´Matilda

    2013-01-01

    We use a dynamic oligopoly model of entry and exit to evaluate how entry regulations affect profitability and market structure in retail. The model incorporates demand and store-level heterogeneity. Based on unique data for all retail food stores in Sweden, we find that the average entry costs for small and large stores are 10 and 18 percent lower, respectively, in markets with liberal compared with restrictive regulations. Counterfactual simulations show that lower entry costs in restrictive...

  20. Dynamics of cluster structures in a financial market network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocheturov, Anton; Batsyn, Mikhail; Pardalos, Panos M.

    2014-11-01

    In the course of recent fifteen years the network analysis has become a powerful tool for studying financial markets. In this work we analyze stock markets of the USA and Sweden. We study cluster structures of a market network constructed from a correlation matrix of returns of the stocks traded in each of these markets. Such cluster structures are obtained by means of the P-Median Problem (PMP) whose objective is to maximize the total correlation between a set of stocks called medians of size p and other stocks. Every cluster structure is an undirected disconnected weighted graph in which every connected component (cluster) is a star, or a tree with one central node (called a median) and several leaf nodes connected with the median by weighted edges. Our main observation is that in non-crisis periods of time cluster structures change more chaotically, while during crises they show more stable behavior and fewer changes. Thus an increasing stability of a market graph cluster structure obtained via the PMP could be used as an indicator of a coming crisis.