WorldWideScience

Sample records for markets cost energy

  1. Fair division of costs in green energy markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Kronborg, Dorte; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers cost allocation in networks where agents are characterized by stochastic demand and supply of a non-storable good, e.g. green energy. The grid itself creates possibilities of exchanging energy between agents and we propose to allocate common costs in proportion to the economic...... gain of being part of the grid. Our model includes a set of fundamental requirements for the associated trading platform. In particular, it is argued that a suitable mechanism deviates from a traditional market. The approach is illustrated by simulations....

  2. Portfolio management : minimizing energy costs in an open access market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, P. [U.S. Generating Company (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This presentation addressed the issue of evolving market structures for electric utilities, discussed portfolio management in an open access market and enumerated critical abilities that will be required for success in the new marketplace. Viewgraphs provided information regarding the current retail restructuring landscape and merchant plant activity by region. Bar graphs were included to represent the growth of power marketing and the results of utility divestiture auctions. Critical capabilities to successfully optimize a competitive energy portfolio, including functional integration, teamwork and goals alignment, the aggressive use of information technology, liquidity, and risk management, were discussed at length. As an example of the new approach, the structure and operating plans of PG and E, one of the largest unregulated energy trading company in the U.S., were reviewed. In brief, the company plans to be aggressive in all competitive energy markets, to focus on asset development and acquisition, and to gain liquidity through trading and marketing. 16 figs.

  3. Liberalising energy markets: Cost management using measurement data; Energieliberalisierung: Kostenmanagement mit Messdaten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girsberger, H. [Girsberger Informatik AG, Brunnen (Switzerland)

    2000-07-01

    This article looks at the various factors involved in assuring good cost management and customer relations in the liberalised energy market such as price levels, additional services and added value for the customer. The additional information required by the utilities to be able to implement such customer-oriented strategies is considered and ways of collecting and processing the data on energy consumption, customer profiles and trends are described. The further analysis of the data and the compilation of reports for management, marketing, engineering and quality assurance departments are discussed, as are the information technology and equipment interfaces required to do this.

  4. Energy intensive industry for Alaska. Volume I: Alaskan cost factors; market factors; survey of energy-intensive industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, W.H.; Clement, M.; Baker, E.G.; Elliot, D.C.; Jacobsen, J.J.; Powers, T.B.; Rohrmann, C.A.; Schiefelbein, G.L.

    1978-09-01

    The Alaskan and product market factors influencing industry locations in the state are discussed and a survey of the most energy intensive industries was made. Factors external to Alaska that would influence development and the cost of energy and labor in Alaska are analyzed. Industries that are likely to be drawn to Alaska because of its energy resources are analyzed in terms of: the cost of using Alaska energy resources in Alaska as opposed to the Lower 48; skill-adjusted wage and salary differentials between relevant Alaskan areas and the Lower 48; and basic plant and equipment and other operating cost differentials between relevant Alaskan areas and the Lower 48. Screening and evaluation of the aluminum metal industry, cement industry, chlor-alkali industry, lime industry, production of methanol from coal, petroleum refining, and production of petrochemicals and agrichemicals from North Slope natural gas for development are made.

  5. The Energy Market 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-08-01

    This publication describes the markets for network based energy in a Nordic perspective, with an extension to the EU. The ongoing harmonization of the energy market policy is described in more detail in the sections dealing with energy policy and regulations. The network based energy markets differ in size, ownership structure and competition. The electricity and district heating markets in Sweden were deregulated in 1996. However, the natural gas market is being deregulated in stages, and will be completely open to competition by 2007 at the latest. The rules for promoting competition in trading and production on the network based energy markets have therefore been continually changed. The chapters dealing with the markets describe the effects of deregulation and how the market structures have changed. If a market is to perform well, the consumers must be active. A study performed by 'Elkonkurrensutredningen' (Electricity competition committee) shows that switching to a different supplier involves costs that restrict consumer mobility, and that the consumers are not sufficiently well informed. This publication also describes the development of prices and how the trading prices have developed on the competitive market. The markets for network based energy are in the course of continual development. This report gives a coherents view of the way the markets work and their development from a national monopoly to an open, competitive market. On such a deregulated market, consumers enjoy increased diversity and freedom of choice. This, in turn, has created the conditions for better utilization of resources at the production stage.

  6. Wind Energy Markets, 2. edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    The report provides an overview of the global market for wind energy, including a concise look at wind energy development in key markets including installations, government incentives, and market trends. Topics covered include: an overview of wind energy including the history of wind energy production and the current market for wind energy; key business drivers of the wind energy market; barriers to the growth of wind energy; key wind energy trends and recent developments; the economics of wind energy, including cost, revenue, and government subsidy components; regional and national analyses of major wind energy markets; and, profiles of key wind turbine manufacturers.

  7. Regional energy markets and the cost of natural flow dam operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparrow, F.T.; Preckel, P.V.; Gotham, D.J. [Purdue University, Energy Center at Discovery Park, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Bowen, B.H. [American University in Kosovo, Pristina (RS); Yu, Z. [EmberClear, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2011-11-15

    With the proliferation of electricity markets for the purchase and sale of firm and non-firm power and capacity, the possibility exists for using trade in these commodities to minimize the cost impact of operating dams to restore downstream flows to pre-dam patterns - so called Run of River (ROR) dam operation. We examine the impact of such markets on the incremental costs of ROR operation relative to least cost operation via a stochastic, dynamic optimization model. We identify features of the dam structure and of the economic environment that are critical to achieving ROR operation at modest incremental cost. (orig.)

  8. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  9. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  10. Energy-relevant cost and the deregulated market; Energierelevante Kosten - Bedeutung im liberalisierten Markt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuenfgeld, C.

    2001-07-01

    quantification of energy-relevant cost factors means economic assessment of technical processes in in-house energy management. Against the background of rising energy cost and more difficult energy acquisition, it can provide important decision aids. In-house implementation is based on the classic tool of cost calculation and takes into account both the production process and the energy and cost. [German] Die Quantifizierung der energierelevanten Kosten ist die oekonomisch richtige Bewertung der technischen Zusammenhaenge innerhalb der betrieblichen Energiewirtschaft und kann vor dem Hintergrund wieder ansteigender Energiepreise und dem durch die Marktentwicklung angestigenen Aufwand der betrieblichen Energiebeschaffung wichtige Entscheidungshilfen geben. Die betriebliche Umsetzung der Methode erfolgt mit den klassischen Werkzeugen der Kostenrechnung und verbindet den betrieblichen Produktionsfluss mit dem von Energie und Kosten. (orig.)

  11. Renewable energy technologies: costs and markets; Kosten und Maerkte regenerativer Energieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitsch, J.; Langniss, O.

    1997-12-31

    A prominent feature of renewable energy utilisation is the magnitude of renewable energy that is physically available worldwide. The present paper attempts an economic valuation of development strategies for renewable energy sources (RES) on the basis of the past development of RES markets. It comes to the conclusion that if current energy prices remain largely unchanged, it will be necessary to promote RES technologies differentially according to the technique and type of energy employed or to provide start-up funding. The more probable a long-term increase in energy prices becomes, the greater will be the proportion of successfully promoted technologies. Energy taxes on exhaustible or environmentally harmful energy carriers and other instruments to this end would contribute greatly to the attractivity of RES investment both in terms of national economy and from the viewpoint of the private investor. Renewable energies will play an important role in the hardware and services sectors of the energy market in the decades to come. Long-term promotion of market introduction programmes and unequivocal energy-political aims on the part of the government are needed if the German industry is to have a share in this growing market and be able to offer internationally competitive products. [Deutsch] Ausgangspunkt der Ueberlegungen zur Nutzung von regenerativen Energiequellen (REG) ist ihr ausserordentlich grosses physikalisches globales Angebot. Aus der bisherigen Entwicklung der REG-Maerkte und einer oekonomischen Bewertung der REG-Ausbaustrategie laesst sich das Fazit ziehen, dass REG-Techniken bei wenig veraenderten Energiepreisen einer deutlichen, nach Techniken und Energiearten differenzierten Foerderung bzw. zeitlich begrenzten Anschubfinanzierung beduerfen, wobei der Anteil erfolgreich gefoerderter Techniken umso hoeher sein wird, je sicherer ein laengerfristiger Anstieg des Energiepreisniveaus zu erwarten ist. Energiesteuern auf erschoepfliche bzw. umweltbelastende

  12. Thermal energy storage to minimize cost and improve efficiency of a polygeneration district energy system in a real-time electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, Kody M.; Kim, Jong Suk; Cole, Wesley J.; Kapoor, Kriti; Mojica, Jose L.; Hedengren, John D.; Edgar, Thomas F.

    2016-10-01

    District energy systems can produce low-cost utilities for large energy networks, but can also be a resource for the electric grid by their ability to ramp production or to store thermal energy by responding to real-time market signals. In this work, dynamic optimization exploits the flexibility of thermal energy storage by determining optimal times to store and extract excess energy. This concept is applied to a polygeneration distributed energy system with combined heat and power, district heating, district cooling, and chilled water thermal energy storage. The system is a university campus responsible for meeting the energy needs of tens of thousands of people. The objective for the dynamic optimization problem is to minimize cost over a 24-h period while meeting multiple loads in real time. The paper presents a novel algorithm to solve this dynamic optimization problem with energy storage by decomposing the problem into multiple static mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problems. Another innovative feature of this work is the study of a large, complex energy network which includes the interrelations of a wide variety of energy technologies. Results indicate that a cost savings of 16.5% is realized when the system can participate in the wholesale electricity market.

  13. Modeling of GE Appliances: Cost Benefit Study of Smart Appliances in Wholesale Energy, Frequency Regulation, and Spinning Reserve Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Parker, Graham B.

    2012-12-31

    This report is the second in a series of three reports describing the potential of GE’s DR-enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid. The first report described the modeling methodology used to represent the GE appliances in the GridLAB-D simulation environment and the estimated potential for peak demand reduction at various deployment levels. The third report will explore the technical capability of aggregated group actions to positively impact grid stability, including frequency and voltage regulation and spinning reserves, and the impacts on distribution feeder voltage regulation, including mitigation of fluctuations caused by high penetration of photovoltaic distributed generation. In this report, a series of analytical methods were presented to estimate the potential cost benefit of smart appliances while utilizing demand response. Previous work estimated the potential technical benefit (i.e., peak reduction) of smart appliances, while this report focuses on the monetary value of that participation. The effects on wholesale energy cost and possible additional revenue available by participating in frequency regulation and spinning reserve markets were explored.

  14. Energy Sector Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arent, D.; Benioff, R.; Mosey, G.; Bird, L.; Brown, J.; Brown, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Aabakken, J.; Parks, K.; Lapsa, M.; Davis, S.; Olszewski, M.; Cox, D.; McElhaney, K.; Hadley, S.; Hostick, D.; Nicholls, A.; McDonald, S.; Holloman, B.

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the results of energy market analysis sponsored by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weatherization and International Program (WIP) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The analysis was conducted by a team of DOE laboratory experts from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with additional input from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The analysis was structured to identify those markets and niches where government can create the biggest impact by informing management decisions in the private and public sectors. The analysis identifies those markets and niches where opportunities exist for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy use.

  15. Supermarket own brand foods: lower in energy cost but similar in nutritional quality to their market brand alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, G P; Livingstone, M B E; McCaffrey, T A; Kerr, M A

    2014-12-01

    The present study aimed to compare the nutritional quality (NQ) and energy costs (EC) (£ MJ(-1) ) of own brand (OB) versus market brand (MB) foods in 2010 and 2012. A list of processed foods (n = 32) was identified based on the most frequently consumed foods in the UK. Total fat, saturated fat, sugars, salt and energy density (ED) (kJ g(-1) ) in 2010 and 2012 were compared for six OB and one MB version of each food using a NQ scoring method based on the Food Standards Agency's Traffic Light System (TLS). Additional information (fruit, vegetable and nut content; protein; fibre and sodium) was recorded in 2012, and NQ was assessed using the Food Standards Agency's nutrient profiling model (NPM). The EC of the food baskets (FB) was compared in 2010 and 2012. There were no differences in overall NQ between OB and MB FB in 2010 (TLS, P = 0.978) or 2012 (TLS, P = 0.840; NPM, P = 0.696). However, the MB FB was highest in EC in 2010 and 2012 (both P < 0.001). There was an inverse relationship between the ED and EC of the MB foods in 2010 (r = -0.484; P = 0.005) and 2012 (r = -0.452; P = 0.009). The MB FB was higher in EC than the OB FB in 2010 and 2012 but not superior in overall NQ based on both the TLS and NPM. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  16. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 2: Assumptions, methodology and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. Solar thermal technology research and development (R&D) is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: The Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R&D funding.

  17. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 2: Assumptions, methodology and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. Solar thermal technology research and development (R&D) is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: The Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R&D funding.

  18. Market impact costs of institutional equity trades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, Jacob A.; Spierdijk, Laura; van der Sluis, Pieter Jelle

    2007-01-01

    This article analyzes market impact costs of equity trading by one of the world's largest pension funds. We find that, on average, these costs are small in terms of market disruption, but substantial in terms of costs for the pension fund. Average market impact costs equal 20 basis points for buys a

  19. Energy efficiency, market failures, and government policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, M.D.; Koomey, J.G.; McMahon, J.E.; Sanstad, A.H. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.; Hirst, E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Energy Div.

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents a framework for evaluating engineering-economic evidence on the diffusion of energy efficiency improvements. Four examples are evaluated within this framework. The analysis provides evidence of market failures related to energy efficiency. Specific market failures that may impede the adoption of cost-effective energy efficiency are discussed. Two programs that have had a major impact in overcoming these market failures, utility DSM programs and appliance standards, are described.

  20. Power Contro Energy Management and Market Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Addison; Andrew Stanbury

    2005-12-15

    More efficient use of the nation's electrical energy infrastructure will result in minimizing the cost of energy to the end user. Using real time electrical market information coupled with defined rules, market opportunities can be identified that provide economic benefit for both users and marketers of electricity. This report describes the design of one such system and the features a fully functional system would provide. This report documents several investigated methods of controlling load diversity or shifting.

  1. Transaction costs in beans market in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eterno Venâncio Assunção

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to evaluate the presence of transaction costs in the beans market in Brazil. Therefore, threshold autoregressive (TAR models were used to check co-integration and the existence of transaction costs in the Brazilian beans market. The results confirmed the presence of transaction costs in the beans market, which are mainly related to the freight component of production, since the markets are often far away from the producing regions.

  2. Essays on liberalized energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nese, Gjermund

    2003-07-01

    This thesis consists of four essays that aim at contributing to the understanding of some of the new challenges associated by the liberalized energy markets. More specifically the essays consider investments in energy generation projects; international trade of Green Certificates, market power in a Green Certificate system, and finally the behaviour of public firms in liberalized markets. Essay 1 considers energy investment, when a choice has to be made between fossil fuel and biomass fired production technologies. A dynamic model is presented to illustrate the effect of the different degrees of input price uncertainty on the choice of technology and the timing of the investment. It is shown that when the choice of technology is irreversible, it may be optimal to postpone the investment even if it would otherwise be optimal to invest in one or both of the plant types. We provide a numerical example based on cost estimates of two different power plant types. Essay 2 presents an analytical equilibrium model for simultaneously functioning international markets for electricity and Green Certificates is formulated. The percentage requirement is perceived as the policy instrument affecting the level of green electricity in end-use consumption. In none of the cases considered does an increase in the country's percentage requirement necessarily result in an increase in the generation of green electricity in that country, but it may have a positive effect on the trading partner's generation of green electricity. Further, under quite realistic assumptions, a country maximizes its generation of green electricity by setting the percentage requirement to zero. In essay 3 an analytic equilibrium model for a simultaneously functioning electricity market and a market for Green Certificates is formulated. The major focus of the paper is the effect of market power in a Green Certificate system. One of the main results is that the certificate system faced with market power

  3. An economic analysis of space solar power and its cost competitiveness as a supplemental source of energy for space and ground markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzwell, N. I.

    2002-01-01

    Economic Growth has been historically associated with nations that first made use of each new energy source. There is no doubt that Solar Power Satellites is high as a potential energy system for the future. A conceptual cost model of the economics value of space solar power (SSP) as a source of complementary power for in-space and ground applications will be discussed. Several financial analysis will be offered based on present and new technological innovations that may compete with or be complementary to present energy market suppliers depending on various institutional arrangements for government and the private sector in a Global Economy. Any of the systems based on fossil fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas, and synthetic fuels share the problem of being finite resources and are subject to ever-increasing cost as they grow ever more scarce with drastic increase in world population. Increasing world population and requirements from emerging underdeveloped countries will also increase overall demand. This paper would compare the future value of SSP with that of other terrestrial renewable energy in distinct geographic markets within the US, in developing countries, Europe, Asia, and Eastern Europe.

  4. Evolution of gas markets and energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrova, Tatiana

    2007-07-01

    Questions of energy security and international gas trade became indissolubly connected during the last years. Paradoxically during the evolution of natural gas markets concerns about security issues in gas trade are only growing at the same time as transaction costs. Market participants have developed several mechanisms of adaptation (vertical integration, mutual penetration of capital and long-term contracts) which should be regarded not as a market failure but as an essential part of energy security guarantees at the moment. Further gas market evolution will demand more unified institutional framework to decrease threats to energy security and transaction costs. But this framework should be a result of mutual compromise of all market participants. (auth)

  5. Simulating water markets with transaction costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfani, Tohid; Binions, Olga; Harou, Julien J.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents an optimization model to simulate short-term pair-wise spot-market trading of surface water abstraction licenses (water rights). The approach uses a node-arc multicommodity formulation that tracks individual supplier-receiver transactions in a water resource network. This enables accounting for transaction costs between individual buyer-seller pairs and abstractor-specific rules and behaviors using constraints. Trades are driven by economic demand curves that represent each abstractor's time-varying water demand. The purpose of the proposed model is to assess potential hydrologic and economic outcomes of water markets and aid policy makers in designing water market regulations. The model is applied to the Great Ouse River basin in Eastern England. The model assesses the potential weekly water trades and abstractions that could occur in a normal and a dry year. Four sectors (public water supply, energy, agriculture, and industrial) are included in the 94 active licensed water diversions. Each license's unique environmental restrictions are represented and weekly economic water demand curves are estimated. Rules encoded as constraints represent current water management realities and plausible stakeholder-informed water market behaviors. Results show buyers favor sellers who can supply large volumes to minimize transactions. The energy plant cooling and agricultural licenses, often restricted from obtaining water at times when it generates benefits, benefit most from trades. Assumptions and model limitations are discussed. This article was corrected on 13 JUN 2014. See the end of the full text for details.

  6. Analysis of the incremental cost and trade-offs between energy efficiency and physical distribution effectiveness in intercity freight markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, P.O.; Terziev, M.N.; Kneafsey, J.T.; Wilson, L.B.; Samuelson, R.D.; Chiang, Y.S.; Deephouse, C.V.

    1976-11-01

    This report describes a study of the effects of changes in national transportation policy on the traffic allocation and the energy consumption of various modes of intercity freight transportation. The study focuses on the linkages between freight transportation and industry structure. Starting from the viewpoint of the individual firm, the process of ordering and shipping supplies was analyzed in detail. Models were developed to predict the level of service associated with the transport alternatives available to a firm, and to predict the total logistics cost of each of these alternatives. These models make it possible to forecast the demand for various modal services at the disaggregate level. In order to predict total aggregate demand, a method was developed for sampling from the population of firms, and summing the demands. Using these models and methods, it is possible to make detailed forecasts of commodity flows under alternative policy options. The policy options selected for analysis include substantial rehabilitation of railroad yards and facilities, improving TOFC/COFC performance with shuttle trains, allowing unrestricted use of double trailers on the Interstate Highway System, increasing truck user charges, imposing waterway user charges, and an increase in fuel costs. The policies were investigated with a computerized model system which simulated freight flows between four pairs of major metropolitan area. Before the model could be applied, each policy had to be analyzed with regard to its effect on the key level of service determinants: waiting and travel time distributions, loss and damage, and tariff rates. The model system has been used to predict the impact of these level of service changes on the shipping patterns of a sample of individual firms. These results have been summed and expanded to produce aggregate forecasts of modal shares and energy consumption.

  7. Arrowhead Compliant Virtual Market of Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Luis Lino; Siksnys, Laurynas; Pedersen, Per

    2014-01-01

    Industrial processes use energy to transform raw materials and intermediate goods into final products. Many efforts have been done on the minimization of energy costs in industrial plants. Apart from working on “how” an industrial process is implemented, it is possible to reduce the energy costs...... or discrete manufacturing, with more degrees of flexibility. These manufacturing plants can consider a more flexible scheduling of the most energy-intensive processes in response to dynamic prices and overall condition of the electricity market. In this scenario, requests for energy can be encoded by means...

  8. Wind offering in energy and reserve markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago; Pinson, Pierre; Morais, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    their revenue, since currently wind turbine/farm technologies allow them to provide ancillary services. Thus, wind power producers are to develop offering strategies for participation in both energy and reserve markets, accounting for market rules, while ensuring optimal revenue. We consider a proportional...... offering strategy to optimally decide upon participation in both markets by maximizing expected revenue from day-ahead decisions while accounting for estimated regulation costs for failing to provide the services. An evaluation of considering the same proportional splitting of energy and reserve in both...

  9. Renewable Energy: Markets and Prospects by Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This information paper accompanies the IEA publication Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice (IEA, 2011a). It provides more detailed data and analysis, and explores the markets, policies and prospects for a number of renewable energy technologies. This paper provides a discussion of ten technology areas: bioenergy for electricity and heat, biofuels, geothermal energy, hydro energy, ocean energy, solar energy (solar photovoltaics, concentrating solar power, and solar heating), and wind energy (onshore and offshore). Each technology discussion includes: the current technical and market status; the current costs of energy production and cost trends; the policy environment; the potential and projections for the future; and an analysis of the prospects and key hurdles to future expansion.

  10. Scalable Planning for Energy Storage in Energy and Reserve Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Bolun; Wang, Yishen; Dvorkin, Yury; Fernandez-Blanco, Ricardo; Silva-Monroy, Cesar A.; Watson, Jean-Paul; Kirschen, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    Energy storage can facilitate the integration of renewable energy resources by providing arbitrage and ancillary services. Jointly optimizing energy and ancillary services in a centralized electricity market reduces the system's operating cost and enhances the profitability of energy storage systems. However, achieving these objectives requires that storage be located and sized properly. We use a bi-level formulation to optimize the location and size of energy storage systems which perform en...

  11. The Swedish Energy Market 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-10-01

    The Swedish Energy Market, 2005 is an annual publication that presents information and statistics on the network based energy markets in Sweden, i.e. the markets for electricity, natural gas and district heating. It also provides an overview of the issues that have arisen on these markets during the second half of 2004 and the first half of 2005. Considerable work is being carried out in the EU on creating a single market for electricity and natural gas. This publication therefore describes expansion of the Swedish market towards a Nordic and a European market. The publication normally includes a theme chapter, describing some event of particular interest for the Swedish energy market during the year. This year, the theme chapter is devoted to the Storm Gudrun, which struck the south of the country at the beginning of January, and its effects on electricity supply throughout the country. The chapter is based on the report submitted to the Government by the Energy Markets Inspectorate in the spring of 2005, and also includes a summary of the Inspectorate's proposals for measures to improve the security of electricity transmission. Energy in Sweden, which is another of the Swedish Energy Agency's annual publications, provides information and statistics on the development of the entire Swedish energy system.

  12. Learnings from liberalised energy markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The paper presents a number of overlooked problems in liberalised electricity markets, including supply security, environmental concerns and establishment of a sustainable energy development.......The paper presents a number of overlooked problems in liberalised electricity markets, including supply security, environmental concerns and establishment of a sustainable energy development....

  13. Market penetration of new energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packey, D.J.

    1993-02-01

    This report examines the characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, and, for some, the mathematical formulas of forecasting methods that can be used to forecast the market penetration of renewable energy technologies. Among the methods studied are subjective estimation, market surveys, historical analogy models, cost models, diffusion models, time-series models, and econometric models. Some of these forecasting methods are more effective than others at different developmental stages of new technologies.

  14. Structural Estimation of Stock Market Participation Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorunzhina, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops and estimates a dynamic model of stock market participation, where consumers' decisions regarding stock market participation are influenced by participation costs. The practical significance of the participation costs is considered as being a channel through which financial...... education programs can affect consumers' investment decisions. Using household data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, I estimate the magnitude of the participation cost, allowing for individual heterogeneity in it. The results show the average stock market participation cost is about 4–6% of labor...... income; however, it varies substantially over consumers' life. The model successfully predicts the level of the observed participation rate and the increasing pattern of stock market participation over the consumers' life cycle....

  15. Portfolio Diversification in Energy Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Galvani, Valentina; Plourde, Andre

    2009-01-01

    This papers results indicate that futures for crude oil, natural gas and unleaded gasoline fail to enhance the performance of representative energy stocks in terms of return to risk, but do decrease the overall level of risk exposure borne by passive equity investors. Our findings suggest that futures contracts on energy commodities are valuable to market participants with an interest in hedging against price fluctuations in energy markets by buy-and-hold strategies. However, this conclusion ...

  16. Energy economics and financial markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorsman, Andre [Vrije Univ. Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Finance; Simpson, John L. [Curtin Univ., Perth, WA (Australia). School of Economics and Finance; Westerman, Wim (eds.) [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Faculty of Economics and Business Economics, Econometrics and Finance

    2013-10-01

    Deals with the upcoming theme of energy issues. Links energy issues with economics and financial markets. Combines global focus with specific regional and local examples. Unites theoretical insights with timely data and practical insights. Specialized author team from all over the world. Energy issues feature frequently in the economic and financial press. Specific examples of topical energy issues come from around the globe and often concern economics and finance. The importance of energy production, consumption and trade raises fundamental economic issues that impact the global economy and financial markets. This volume presents research on energy economics and financial markets related to the themes of supply and demand, environmental impact and renewables, energy derivatives trading, and finance and energy. The contributions by experts in their fields take a global perspective, as well as presenting cases from various countries and continents.

  17. Fit for the liberalised energy market - with integrated IT solutions. Exploiting synergisms for cost improvement; Fit fuer den Energiemarkt - mit integrierten IT-Loesungen. Synergien zur Kostensenkung nutzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapp, J. [Siemens Business Services, Stuttgart (Germany); Vierheilig, N. [Siemens AG, Nuernberg (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The electric utilities are under increasing cost pressure as a result of worldwide deregulation of the energy markets. They have to find ways and means to improve their productivity. Modern information technology (IT) offers means to improve business processes and achieve synergy effects that will reduce costs. The IT solutions are no longer restricted to the traditional or specific power distribution tasks of utilities but increasingly are employed for the handling of entire business processes. This approach calls for integration of IT systems of a corporation, as today most systems installed are island systems. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Mit der weltweiten Deregulierung in den Energiemaerkten geraten die Energieversorgungsunternehmen (EVU) zunehmend unter Kostendruck. Sie muessen ihre Produktivitaet steigern. Moderne Informationstechnik (IT) ermoeglicht es, Geschaeftsprozesse zu verbessern und Synergien zur Kostensenkung zu nutzen. Die IT-Loesungen beschraenken sich nicht mehr wie bisher auf einzelne Aufgaben im EVU, sondern unterstuetzen die Bearbeitung kompletter Geschaeftsprozesse. Dies erfordert eine Integration der heute noch meist als Inselloesungen realisierten IT-Systeme. (orig.)

  18. Power marketing and renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J.M.

    1997-09-01

    Power marketing refers to wholesale and retail transactions of electric power made by companies other than public power entities and the regulated utilities that own the generation and distribution lines. The growth in power marketing has been a major development in the electric power industry during the last few years, and power marketers are expected to realize even more market opportunities as electric industry deregulation proceeds from wholesale competition to retail competition. This Topical Issues Brief examines the nature of the power marketing business and its relationship with renewable power. The information presented is based on interviews conducted with nine power marketing companies, which accounted for almost 54% of total power sales by power marketers in 1995. These interviews provided information on various viewpoints of power marketers, their experience with renewables, and their respective outlooks for including renewables in their resource portfolios. Some basic differences exist between wholesale and retail competition that should be recognized when discussing power marketing and renewable power. At the wholesale level, the majority of power marketers stress the commodity nature of electricity. The primary criteria for developing resource portfolios are the same as those of their wholesale customers: the cost and reliability of power supplies. At the retail level, electricity may be viewed as a product that includes value-added characteristics or services determined by customer preferences.

  19. 2015 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mone, Christopher; Hand, Maureen; Bolinger, Mark; Rand, Joseph; Heimiller, Donna; Ho, Jonathan

    2017-04-05

    This report uses representative commercial projects to estimate the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for both land-based and offshore wind plants in the United States for 2015. Scheduled to be published on an annual basis, the analysis relies on both market and modeled data to maintain an up-to-date understanding of wind generation cost trends and drivers. It is intended to provide insight into current component-level costs and a basis for understanding variability in the LCOE across the industry. Data and tools developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are used in this analysis to inform wind technology cost projections, goals, and improvement opportunities.

  20. 2014 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mone, Christopher [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stehly, Tyler [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maples, Ben [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Settle, Edward [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report uses representative commercial projects to estimate the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for both land-based and offshore wind plants in the United States for 2014. Scheduled to be published on an annual basis, the analysis relies on both market and modeled data to maintain an up-to-date understanding of wind generation cost trends and drivers. It is intended to provide insight into current component-level costs and a basis for understanding variability in the LCOE across the industry. Data and tools developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are used in this analysis to inform wind technology cost projections, goals, and improvement opportunities.

  1. Sunk cost investments and market information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe; Stieglitz, Nils

    2008-01-01

    This paper extends the strategic management literature on how firms' sunk cost investments and market orientation mutually shapes firm performance. Using data from 314 manufacturing firms, we decompose firms' sunk cost investments into industry-specific resources and firm-specific resources...... and investigate their effect on firm performance. Our results suggest that the salient components of a firm's market orientation - i.e. customer orientation and competitor orientation - have different effects on firms' performance as well as moderate the relationship between a firm's sunk cost investments and its...... performance. In particular, we find that a firm's customer orientation positively influence the effect of industry-specific resources on return on assets....

  2. 2013 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mone, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maples, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hand, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report uses representative project types to estimate the levelized cost of wind energy (LCOE) in the United States for 2013. Scheduled to be published on an annual basis, it relies on both market and modeled data to maintain a current understanding of wind generation cost trends and drivers. It is intended to provide insight into current component-level costs and a basis for understanding current component-level costs and a basis for understanding variability in the LCOE across the industry. Data and tools developed from this analysis are used to inform wind technology cost projections, goals, and improvement opportunities.

  3. Correlation in Energy Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Nina

    In this paper, I study the relationship between volatility of crude oil prices and volatility of the EURUSD rate. If there is a common factor in the volatility of crude oil and the volatility of exchange rates, possible explanations could be that the financial crisis caused a volatility spillover...... a period from 2000 to 2012. This data allows me to analyse the marketperceived volatility rather than investigating volatilities in the form of realised returns. A model-free analysis supports the presence of a joint factor in the volatilities since mid-2007. As the two markets are asynchronous in futures...... and options maturity date, a term structure models allow for a description of the observed volatility surfaces by one or more stochastic volatility processes. A term structure model including one joint volatility factor and two market-specific volatility factors is proposed to capture the joint factor...

  4. Streamline, Organizational, Legislative and Administrative Response to Permitting, PV Market Share, and Solar Energy Costs (Broward Go SOLAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsey, Jeffery D. [Broward County, Fort Lauderdale, FL (United States)

    2013-08-28

    Broward County and its partners (the Go SOLAR Team), operating under a Department of Energy Rooftop Solar Challenge Agreement, designed, developed and implemented an online permitting system for rooftop solar PV systems. This is a single web based system with a single permit fee that will issue a permit, with a set of design plans preapproved by partner building officials, within one hour. The system is currently available at gosolar.broward.org for use within any of the partner Authorities Having [permitting] Jurisdiction (AHJ). Additionally, the Go SOLAR Team researched, developed and to the extent feasible, implemented three best management practices to make a fertile environment for the new online permit system. These included Net Metering and Interconnection Standards, Solar-Friendly Financing, and Planning and Zoning Ordinances. Finally, the team implemented a substantial outreach effort to advocate for the development of solar in Broward County, with an emphasis on Solar Rights, concluding with a Go SOLAR Fest day and a half conference with over 1,200 attendees and 50 exhibitors. The Go SOLAR project was completed on time, under DOE’s budgeted amount, and all project objectives were met or exceeded.

  5. Energy economics can be costly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cluer, A. (Inst. Pet.); Solbett, J.

    1980-07-05

    According to A. Cluer (Inst. Pet.) at the Eurochem 80 conference (Birm. June 1980), the available reserves of conventional crude oil are, or will soon be, at their peak. The Middle East has 57% of the 88,000 Mtons of crude oil known to exist, about a 30 yr supply at current production rates. Uncertain supplies and an OPEC market price of about $35/bbl can only stimulate the development of synthetic oil production from coal and other hydrocarbon sources, although this will be hindered by environmental problems, large investments, and the long lead times needed, a view shared by J. Solbett (Humphreys and Glasgow Ltd.) at the conference. Both speakers agreed that the use of oil for transport and chemical feeds, for which oil is ideally suited, is the least amenable area for substitution by synthetic fuels; and that it is therefore important that general energy requirements be satisfied by alternatives such as coal and nuclear power. Cluer cited OECD statistics which show that implementing minimum energy efficiency standards could cut by 35% transport energy consumption, by 1985. Comments by T. Kantyka (ICI) on the cost effectiveness of energy conservation are also discussed.

  6. Cost-effectiveness analysis in markets with high fixed costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, David M; Ericson, Keith M Marzilli

    2010-01-01

    We consider how to conduct cost-effectiveness analysis when the social cost of a resource differs from the posted price. From the social perspective, the true cost of a medical intervention is the marginal cost of delivering another unit of a treatment, plus the social cost (deadweight loss) of raising the revenue to fund the treatment. We focus on pharmaceutical prices, which have high markups over marginal cost due to the monopoly power granted to pharmaceutical companies when drugs are under patent. We find that the social cost of a branded drug is approximately one-half the market price when the treatment is paid for by a public insurance plan and one-third the market price for mandated coverage by private insurance. We illustrate the importance of correctly accounting for social costs using two examples: coverage for statin drugs and approval for a drug to treat kidney cancer (sorafenib). In each case, we show that the correct social perspective for cost-effectiveness analysis would be more lenient than researcher recommendations.

  7. 2015 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moné, Christopher [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hand, Maureen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rand, Joseph [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Heimiller, Donna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ho, Jonathan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-27

    This report uses representative utility-scale projects to estimate the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for land-based and offshore wind plants in the United States. Data and results detailed here are derived from 2015 commissioned plants. More specifically, analysis detailed here relies on recent market data and state-of-the-art modeling capabilities to maintain an up-to-date understanding of wind energy cost trends and drivers. It is intended to provide insight into current component-level costs as well as a basis for understanding variability in LCOE across the industry. This publication reflects the fifth installment of this annual report.

  8. Wind offering in energy and reserve markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, T.; Pinson, P.; Morais, H.

    2016-09-01

    The increasing penetration of wind generation in power systems to fulfil the ambitious European targets will make wind power producers to play an even more important role in the future power system. Wind power producers are being incentivized to participate in reserve markets to increase their revenue, since currently wind turbine/farm technologies allow them to provide ancillary services. Thus, wind power producers are to develop offering strategies for participation in both energy and reserve markets, accounting for market rules, while ensuring optimal revenue. We consider a proportional offering strategy to optimally decide upon participation in both markets by maximizing expected revenue from day-ahead decisions while accounting for estimated regulation costs for failing to provide the services. An evaluation of considering the same proportional splitting of energy and reserve in both day- ahead and balancing market is performed. A set of numerical examples illustrate the behavior of such strategy. An important conclusion is that the optimal split of the available wind power between energy and reserve strongly depends upon prices and penalties on both market trading floors.

  9. Cost Linkages Transmit Volatility Across Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen; Schaur, Georg

    to link the domestic and export supply costs. This theoretical contribution has two new implications for the exporting firm. First, the demand volatility in the foreign market now directly affects the firm's domestic sales volatility. Second, firms hedge domestic demand volatility with exports. The model...

  10. Fixed Costs and Asset Market Participation Fixed Costs and Asset Market Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold H. Zhang

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of fixed costs on investor's decision of asset market participation. The model features a continuum of agents with heterogeneous initial wealth and attitude toward risk. We show that under certain conditions there exists a unique competitive equilibrium in which investors optimally choose to stay in autarky, participate just in the riskless asset market or in both the riskless and the risky asset markets. The model is calibrated based on earnings profile from the U.S. We find that using fixed costs that are comparable to the current commission charged by brokers the model can generate participation patterns similar to observed ones. Further, we find participation rates to be very sensitive to the costs differentials associated with entering the risky asset market while relatively less sensitive to the overall levels of fixed costs. Finally, we find that costs make it even harder for dynamic models to replicate the risk free rate and in that sense deepen that puzzle. This paper investigates the effects of fixed costs on investor's decision of asset market participation. The model features a continuum of agents with heterogeneous initial wealth and attitude toward risk. We show that under certain conditions there exists a unique competitive equilibrium in which investors optimally choose to stay in autarky, participate just in the riskless asset market or in both the riskless and the risky asset markets. The model is calibrated based on earnings profile from the U.S. We find that using fixed costs that are comparable to the current commission charged by brokers the model can generate participation patterns similar to observed ones. Further, we find participation rates to be very sensitive to the costs differentials associated with entering the risky asset market while relatively less sensitive to the overall levels of fixed costs. Finally, we find that costs make it even harder for dynamic models to replicate

  11. Geothermal power, policy, and design: Using levelized cost of energy and sensitivity analysis to target improved policy incentives for the U.S. geothermal market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Christopher L.

    At the core of the geothermal industry is a need to identify how policy incentives can better be applied for optimal return. Literature from Bloomquist (1999), Doris et al. (2009), and McIlveen (2011) suggest that a more tailored approach to crafting geothermal policy is warranted. In this research the guiding theory is based on those suggestions and is structured to represent a policy analysis approach using analytical methods. The methods being used are focus on qualitative and quantitative results. To address the qualitative sections of this research an extensive review of contemporary literature is used to identify the frequency of use for specific barriers, and is followed upon with an industry survey to determine existing gaps. As a result there is support for certain barriers and justification for expanding those barriers found within the literature. This method of inquiry is an initial point for structuring modeling tools to further quantify the research results as part of the theoretical framework. Analytical modeling utilizes the levelized cost of energy as a foundation for comparative assessment of policy incentives. Model parameters use assumptions to draw conclusions from literature and survey results to reflect unique attributes held by geothermal power technologies. Further testing by policy option provides an opportunity to assess the sensitivity of each variable with respect to applied policy. Master limited partnerships, feed in tariffs, RD&D, and categorical exclusions all result as viable options for mitigating specific barriers associated to developing geothermal power. The results show reductions of levelized cost based upon the model's exclusive parameters. These results are also compared to contemporary policy options highlighting the need for tailored policy, as discussed by Bloomquist (1999), Doris et al. (2009), and McIlveen (2011). It is the intent of this research to provide the reader with a descriptive understanding of the role of

  12. On market integration of renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeer, Sebastian

    2014-12-05

    Since the liberalization of electricity and gas markets in Europe, the energy sector has changed in every respect with one constant: most actors have underestimated renewable energies with regard to their growth, their economies of scale and their impact on existing energy markets. If that trend continues, the urgency for policy measures will increase. Given the security of supply, integration of renewables into energy markets is necessary to replace fossil and nuclear capacities. However, the further development of renewable energies plays a crucial role in the ability to meet the energy and climate policy targets. Thus, it increases the need for regulation to achieve societally desirable outcomes. This thesis has examined the effects of renewable energies on existing energy markets. It has also investigated the various other cost-efficient options that policy makers have in striving to reach energy and climate policy targets. We assumed that cost efficiency is a relevant side condition. In the past, this has not always been the case. Today, cost efficiency is definitely relevant and might also be an essential target in the future (see Bundesregierung 2013, p. 50). We contributed to the analysis of power prices as a result of increasing shares of renewables by showing that shutting down conventional capacities will have a merit order effect. This is necessary if renewable energies are to replace fossil and nuclear capacities. Any discussion of a change of market design should make mention of this effect, since spot market revenues impact a company's behaviour within potential capacity markets. From a consumer perspective, we have shown that there is a substantial need for secured capacity with low marginal costs to keep spot prices stable. This outcome has important implications for policy makers if they are to provide consumers with low-cost renewable market integration. Policy makers have numerous ways to reach policy targets than rapidly expanding

  13. Factors affecting robust retail energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelman, T.S.

    1999-04-01

    This paper briefly defines an active retail market, details the factors that influence market activity and their relative importance, compares activity in various retail energy markets to date, and predicts future retail energy market activity. Three primary factors translate into high market activity: supplier margins, translated into potential savings for actively shopping customers; market size; and market barriers. The author surveys activity nationwide and predicts hot spots for the coming year.

  14. Sustainable markets for sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, J.; Smyser, C.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses how the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) is involved in sustainable energy development. It presently has 50 loans and grants for non conventional renewable energy projects and ten grants for efficiency programs for $600 and $17 million respectively, representing 100 MW of power. The IDB is concerned with how to create a sustainable market for sustainable energy projects. The IDB is trying to work with government, private sector, NGOs, trading allies, credit sources, and regulators to find proper roles for such projects. He discusses how the IDB is working to expand its vision and objectives in renewable energy projects in Central and South America.

  15. Regions in Energy Market Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, W.

    2007-02-01

    This report explores the different options for spatial resolution of an energy market model--and the advantages and disadvantages of models with fine spatial resolution. It examines different options for capturing spatial variations, considers the tradeoffs between them, and presents a few examples from one particular model that has been run at different levels of spatial resolution.

  16. Regions in Energy Market Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-18

    This report explores the different options for spatial resolution of an energy market model and the advantages and disadvantages of models with fine spatial resolution. It examines different options for capturing spatial variations, considers the tradeoffs between them, and presents a few examples from one particular model that has been run at different levels of spatial resolution.

  17. 42 CFR 417.538 - Enrollment and marketing costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Enrollment and marketing costs. 417.538 Section 417... PREPAYMENT PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.538 Enrollment and marketing costs. (a) Principle. Costs incurred by an HMO or CMP in performing the enrollment and marketing activities described in subpart k...

  18. Outsourcing Marketing Activities - a strategic option for energy suppliers. Increasing efficiency and reducing costs; Netzvertraeglichkeitspruefungen nach dem Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz. Verpflichtung zur Vorlage der Netzdaten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissenborn, C. [Bereich Recht und Umwelt, Verband der Elektrizitaetswirtschaft - VDEW - e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    2006-07-03

    The transfer or certain functions in a company which do not belong to the originary core of the business to specialists has becom a normal attitude in economy nowadays. Thus it is no longer something special to decide for outsourcing facturing, personnel, legal or IT service departments. Up to now, marketing was not included in such considerations, not in energy industry at least. The following article shows that this might change in the years to come and explains which advantages could be achieved by outsourcing marketing activities and transferring them to third parties.

  19. Pollution Under Environmental Regulation in Energy Markets

    CERN Document Server

    Gullì, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Pollution Under Environmental Regulation in Energy Markets provides a study of environmental regulation when energy markets are imperfectly competitive. This theoretical treatment focuses on three relevant cases of energy markets. First, the residential space heating sector where hybrid regulation such as taxation and emissions trading together are possible. Second, the electricity market where transactions are organized in the form of multi-period auctions. Third, namely natural gas (input) and electricity (output) markets where there is combined imperfect competition in vertical related energy markets.   The development of free or low carbon technologies supported by energy policies, aiming at increasing security of supply, is also explored whilst considering competition policies that reduce market power in energy markets thus improving market efficiency. Pollution Under Environmental Regulation in Energy Markets discusses the key issues of whether imperfect competition can lessen the ability of environmen...

  20. Energy cost of measles infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Duggan, M B; Milner, R D

    1986-01-01

    A model predicting the nutritional cost of measles has been based on data from a study of energy balance in Kenyan children during and after measles. The energy shortfall, consequent upon a reduction in energy intake and a sustained level of energy expenditure, is met by tissue catabolism. The magnitude of resulting weight loss will be greater in lean than in plump children. During recovery, the intake of gross dietary energy to regain lost weight must take account of obligatory energy losses...

  1. Econometric Analysis of Marketing Costs: A Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuwornu, J.K.M.; Abboah, R.; Amegashie, D.P.K.; Kuiper, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes the marketing costs of a pineapple producing and export firm (Bomart Farms) in Ghana. Con­ sistent with the existing literature, we categorize marketing costs into assembling, processing, and distribution costs. The assembling cost comprises of cost of crating and loading fresh

  2. Econometric Analysis of Marketing Costs: A Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuwornu, J.K.M.; Abboah, R.; Amegashie, D.P.K.; Kuiper, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes the marketing costs of a pineapple producing and export firm (Bomart Farms) in Ghana. Con­ sistent with the existing literature, we categorize marketing costs into assembling, processing, and distribution costs. The assembling cost comprises of cost of crating and loading fresh f

  3. Econometric Analysis of Marketing Costs: A Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuwornu, J.K.M.; Abboah, R.; Amegashie, D.P.K.; Kuiper, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes the marketing costs of a pineapple producing and export firm (Bomart Farms) in Ghana. Con­ sistent with the existing literature, we categorize marketing costs into assembling, processing, and distribution costs. The assembling cost comprises of cost of crating and loading fresh f

  4. Risk premia in energy markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veraart, Almut E.D.; Veraart, Luitgard A.M.

    Risk premia between spot and forward prices play a key role in energy markets. This paper derives analytic expressions for such risk premia when spot prices are modelled by Lévy semistationary processes. While the relation between spot and forward prices can be derived using classical no......-arbitrage arguments as long as the underlying commodities are storable, the situation changes in the case of electricity. Hence, in an empirical study based on electricity spot prices and futures from the European Energy Exchange market, we investigate the empirical behaviour of electricity risk premia from...... a statistical perspective. We find that a model-based prediction of the spot price has some explanatory power for the corresponding forward price, but there is a significant additional amount of variability, the risk premium, which needs to be accounted for. We demonstrate how a suitable model for electricity...

  5. Energy Industry in China: Marketization and National Energy Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DanShi

    2005-01-01

    Opening up the market, breaking the monopoly, and allowing the market to decide prices these are the major items on the agenda for the marketization of China's energy industry, and have a direct bearing on national energy security. Research into China's energy security has so far focused on such fields as strategic energy reserves, stability of energy imports, and diversification of import channels. Little has been done in the study of national energy security from the perspective of marketization of the energy industry. However, opening up the energy market and marketizing the energy industry are not only major commitments to China's accession to WTO, they serve the nation's energy security needs as well. This paper takes a look at the actual results of opening up the energy market, the structure of that market, and the nation's energy pricing mechanisms, and on the basis of the findings, raises suggestions on how to tackle the energy security issue.

  6. Energy and commodities market; Energie- und Rohstoffmaerkte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bokermann, Marcus; Prass, Markus [Vattenfall Markets, Berlin (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The electricity markets in Central and Western Europe and in the nordic countries have further shown weak in 2014 with falling prices. The key factors were the declining quotations for coal and natural gas and the warm weather. Another driver was the growth of renewable energy. In the power markets conditions remained mostly an oversupply. The upward trending prices on the CO{sub 2} emissions market were not formative enough to turn the market sentiment. They only caused for volatility during the year. [German] Die Strommaerkte in Mittel- und Westeuropa sowie in den nordischen Laendern haben sich auch im Jahr 2014 weiterhin schwach bei fallenden Preisen gezeigt. Die wesentlichen Einflussfaktoren waren die sinkenden Notierungen fuer Steinkohle und Erdgas sowie das warme Wetter. Ein weiterer Treiber war das Wachstum der erneuerbaren Energien. Auf den Strommaerkten herrschte weiterhin ueberwiegend ein Ueberangebot. Die aufwaerts tendierenden Preise auf dem CO{sub 2}-Emissionsmarkt waren nicht praegend genug, um die Marktstimmung zu drehen. Sie sorgten lediglich fuer Volatilitaet im Jahresverlauf.

  7. Evaluating the Value of Flexibility in Energy Regulation Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neupane, Bijay; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Thiesson, Bo

    2015-01-01

    prices. Further, we analyze the benefit for various types of flexibility and market objectives, to detect the type of energy flexibility that maximizes the benefits. Results show that if 3.87% of total demand is flexible, market can reduce the regulation cost by 49% and the regulation volume by 29.4%....

  8. Market diffusion, technological learning, and cost-benefit dynamics of condensing gas boilers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, M.; Dittmar, L.; Junginger, H.M.; Patel, M.K.; Blok, K.

    2009-01-01

    High costs often prevent the market diffusion of novel and efficient energy technologies. Monitoring cost and price decline for these technologies is thus important in order to establish effective energy policy. Here, we present experience curves and cost-benefit analyses for condensing gas boilers

  9. Links between energy and food markets. A preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvis, H.J.; Woltjer, G.B.

    2010-04-15

    This report addresses the links between energy and food markets, and the long-term trends and large short-term fluctuations they have undergone. The ways in which these markets are related and which feedback mechanisms must be taken into account in scenario analyses were investigated. On the basis of international studies and prognoses, three links connecting energy and food markets were identified. The first link is formed by the common drivers on the demand side, namely demographic and economic developments, the second link is related to the energy costs of agricultural and food production and distribution, and the third link comprises the role of agriculture as a producer of energy.

  10. An improved market penetration model for wind energy technology forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, P.D. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1995-12-31

    An improved market penetration model with application to wind energy forecasting is presented. In the model, a technology diffusion model and manufacturing learning curve are combined. Based on a 85% progress ratio that was found for European wind manufactures and on wind market statistics, an additional wind power capacity of ca 4 GW is needed in Europe to reach a 30 % price reduction. A full breakthrough to low-cost utility bulk power markets could be achieved at a 24 GW level. (author)

  11. The sensitivity of wind technology utilization to cost and market parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodd, H.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Hock, S.M.; Thresher, R.W. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (USA))

    1990-11-01

    This study explores the sensitivity of future wind energy market penetration to available wind resources, wind system costs, and competing energy system fuel costs for several possible energy market evolution scenarios. The methodology for the modeling is described in general terms. Cost curves for wind technology evolution are presented and used in conjunction with wind resource estimates and energy market projections to estimate wind penetration into the market. Results are presented that show the sensitivity of the growth of wind energy use to key cost parameters and to some of the underlying modeling assumptions. In interpreting the results, the authors place particular emphasis on the relative influence of the parameters studied. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  12. International Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation provides an overview of international voluntary renewable energy markets, with a focus on the United States and Europe. The voluntary renewable energy market is the market in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. In 2010, the U.S. voluntary market was estimated at 35 terawatt-hours (TWh) compared to 300 TWh in the European market, though key differences exist. On a customer basis, Australia has historically had the largest number of customers, pricing for voluntary certificates remains low, at less than $1 megawatt-hour, though prices depend on technology.

  13. High-temperature superconducting transformer performance, cost, and market evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirks, J.A.; Dagle, J.E.; DeSteese, J.G.; Huber, H.D.; Smith, S.A.; Currie, J.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Merrick, S.B. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Williams, T.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Recent laboratory breakthroughs in high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials have stimulated both the scientific community and general public with questions regarding how these materials can be used in practical applications. While there are obvious benefits from using HTS materials (most notably the potential for reduced energy losses in the conductors), a number of issues (such as overall system energy losses, cost, and reliability) may limit applications of HTS equipment, even if the well known materials problems are solved. This study examined the future application potential of HTS materials to power transformers. This study effort was part of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD) research program, Superconductivity Technology for Electric Power Systems (STEPS). The study took a systems perspective to gain insights to help guide DOE in managing research designed to realize the vision of HTS applications. Specific objectives of the study were as follows: to develop an understanding of the fundamental HTS transformer design issues that can provide guidance for developing practical devices of interest to the electric utility industry; to identify electric utility requirements for HTS transformers and to evaluate the potential for developing a commercial market; to evaluate the market potential and national benefits for HTS transformers that could be achieved by a successful HTS development program; to develop an integrated systems analysis framework, which can be used to support R&D planning by DOE, by identifying how various HTS materials characteristics impact the performance, cost, and national benefits of the HTS application.

  14. Energy Policy Case Study - Texas: Wind, Markets, and Grid Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrell, Alice C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Homer, Juliet S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bender, Sadie R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-19

    This document presents a case study of energy policies in Texas related to power system transformation, renewable energy and distributed energy resources (DERs). Texas has experienced a dramatic increase in installed wind capacity, from 116 MW in 2000 to over 15,000 MW in 2015. This achievement was enabled by the designation of Competitive Renewable Energy Zones (CREZs) and new transmission lines that transmit wind to load centers. This report highlights nascent efforts to include DERs in the ERCOT market. As costs decline and adoption rates increase, ERCOT expects distributed generation to have an increasing effect on grid operations, while bringing potentially valuable new resources to the wholesale markets.

  15. Market and Policy Barriers to Energy Storage Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, Dhruv [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Currier, Aileen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hernandez, Jacquelynne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ma, Ookie [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Kirby, Brendan [Consultant

    2013-09-01

    Electric energy storage technologies can provide numerous grid services; there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment. These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market (economic) barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, cross-cutting barriers and technology barriers.

  16. German energy market 2014; Deutscher Energiemarkt 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm [World Energy Council, London (United Kingdom). World Energy Resources; Weltenergierat - Deutschland, Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' Energie fuer Deutschland'

    2015-03-15

    In 2014 the German government's primary goal of engaging German power suppliers to step up their production of renewable energy while speeding up energy efficiency improvement measures continued to dominate the debate. The present article provides an updated overview of the German energy market. Following on from last year's edition it gives a condensed synopsis of key indicators of the energy economy. Besides summarising general facts about the energy mix it goes into detail about the following individual energy resources: crude oil, natural gas, brown coal, hard coal, nuclear energy and renewable energies. It also explains current price trends in both the international and domestic markets.

  17. Energy markets : changes toward decarbonization and valorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram

    Mechanisms of global changes on energy markets are reviewed. The main mechanisms are decarbonization of energy recourses and valorization of energy products. The decarbonization covers modest increases of energy-efficiency in industries and households along with fast substitution of fossil energy

  18. MARKETING MIX IN OLTENIA ENERGY COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Păunescu Alberto Nicolae

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Electricity generation in Romania it’s realized in percentage 30 % in OLTENIA ENERGY COMPLEX. This is the biggest producer of energy, end coal in the country. Therefore Marketing mix is very important to ensure that the company grows. The final objective is that the volume of sales, market share and growth.

  19. Disclosure regulation in duopoly markets : Proprietary costs and social welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijs, J.P.M.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    The argument of proprietary costs is commonly used by firms to object against proposed disclosure regulations. The goal of this paper is to improve our understanding of the welfare consequences of disclosure in duopoly markets and to identify market settings where proprietary costs are a viable

  20. Energy to the masses : a blueprint for competition in Alberta's retail energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topp, L. [Direct Energy Marketing Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a framework for competition in Alberta's retail energy market and its influence on Direct Energy Marketing Limited . The main factors for successful retail energy competition were identified as being a level playing field for all retailers; a stable and committed regulatory framework; customer education; brand trust and visibility; regulated pricing which reflects market conditions; customer service and billing; unrestricted customer choice; and, conformity between electricity and gas markets. Direct Energy is a wholly owned subsidiary of British-based Centrica plc, one of the top 30 companies in the United Kingdom in terms of market capitalization. It was created during Britain's regulatory reform of the energy industry and operates through 4 retail brand units. Centrica entered the North American market in 2000 when it acquired Direct Energy Marketing Limited which supplies energy and services to half of the households in Ontario. Direct Energy is expected to increase its customer base with the pending closure of ATCO Gas and ATCO Electric in Alberta, making it Canada's largest provider of retail energy services. In a competitive energy market, retailers can offer a wider range of products than energy alone. Cost-to services can be reduced by offering services such as heating, ventilation and air conditioning.

  1. Power plant asset market evaluations: Forecasting the costs of power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefton, S.A.; Grunsrud, G.P. [Aptech Engineering Services, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    This presentation discusses the process of evaluating and valuing power plants for sale. It describes a method to forecast the future costs at a power plant using a portion of the past fixed costs, variable energy costs, and most importantly the variable cycling-related wear-and-tear costs. The presentation then discusses how to best determine market share, expected revenues, and then to forecast plant future costs based on future expected unit cycling operations. The presentation concludes with a section on recommendations to power plant buyers or sellers on how to manage the power plant asset and how to increase its market value. (orig.) 4 refs.

  2. On Transaction-Cost Models in Continuous-Time Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Poufinas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Transaction-cost models in continuous-time markets are considered. Given that investors decide to buy or sell at certain time instants, we study the existence of trading strategies that reach a certain final wealth level in continuous-time markets, under the assumption that transaction costs, built in certain recommended ways, have to be paid. Markets prove to behave in manners that resemble those of complete ones for a wide variety of transaction-cost types. The results are important, but not exclusively, for the pricing of options with transaction costs.

  3. 75 FR 35017 - Brookfield Energy Marketing LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Brookfield Energy Marketing LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Brookfield Energy Marketing LP's application...

  4. Transaction costs and sequential bargaining in transferable discharge permit markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netusil, N R; Braden, J B

    2001-03-01

    Market-type mechanisms have been introduced and are being explored for various environmental programs. Several existing programs, however, have not attained the cost savings that were initially projected. Modeling that acknowledges the role of transactions costs and the discrete, bilateral, and sequential manner in which trades are executed should provide a more realistic basis for calculating potential cost savings. This paper presents empirical evidence on potential cost savings by examining a market for the abatement of sediment from farmland. Empirical results based on a market simulation model find no statistically significant change in mean abatement costs under several transaction cost levels when contracts are randomly executed. An alternative method of contract execution, gain-ranked, yields similar results. At the highest transaction cost level studied, trading reduces the total cost of compliance relative to a uniform standard that reflects current regulations.

  5. Financing Renewable Energy in the European Energy Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jager, D.; Klessmann, C.; Stricker, E.; Winkel, T.; De Visser, E.; Koper, M. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands); Ragwitz, M.; Held, A. [Fraunhofer ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany); Resch, G.; Busch, S.; Panzer, C. [Energy Economics Group EEG, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Gazzo, A.; Roulleau, T.; Gousseland, P.; Henriet, M.; Bouille, A. [Ernst and Young, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    The Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (RES) sets the overall target to reach 20% renewable energy in gross final energy consumption in 2020. This target is broken down into binding individual Member State targets. Reaching these targets will require a huge mobilization of investments in renewable energies in the coming decade. In order to improve financing and coordination with a view to the achievement of the 20 % target, Article 23 (7) of the Directive requires the Commission to present an analysis and action plan with a view to: (a) The better use of structural funds and framework programmes; (b) The better and increased use of funds from the European Investment Bank and other public finance institutions; (c) Better access to risk capital; (d) The better coordination of Community and national funding and other forms of support; (e) The better coordination in support of renewable energy initiatives whose success depends on action by actors in several Member States. This report presents the results of the title project. The study provides an up to date and thorough assessment of the costs of renewable energy and the support and financing instruments available for renewable energy R and D, demonstration projects and large-scale deployment. This includes details of each Member State's expenditure (via grants, support schemes, loans etc.) and use of Community funds, including loans of the EIB (European Investment Bank) and the EBRD (European Bank for Reconstruction and Development). It also explores the possible instruments for use in the future and constraints in the capital market, which hinder the development of renewable energy. Finally, it develops recommendations for improving financing and support instruments, improving the sector's access to capital, and closing the financing gap for reaching the 2020 targets. The chapters of the report represent separate tasks: (1) Costs of renewable energy

  6. On Linearity Of Transaction Costs In Order Driven Market

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolay A. Andreev

    2014-01-01

    We research the properties of implicit transaction costs function for general-shaped limit order book. Equivalent conditions for linearity of the function are presented in terms of market liquidity. We also present a suitable functional form of implicit costs for order-driven market on the Moscow Interbank Currency Exchange (MICEX), based on high-frequency trading data. The proposed form meets the definition of costs and implied properties while corresponding to the real form of order distrib...

  7. Energy Savings in a Market Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The paper outlines the concept of energy savings as opposed to energy efficency. Afterwards are described briefly the up and down role of energy savings in recent Danish energy policy. It discusses the failure of leaving electricity savings and Integrated Resource Planning to the electricity...... and discussed. This finally leads to the difficulties in combining a more free market for energy in EU with a strong efforts to save energy. Ideas for electricity and heat saving policies are suggested....

  8. Cost analysis in support of minimum energy standards for clothes washers and dryers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-02

    The results of the cost analysis of energy conservation design options for laundry products are presented. The analysis was conducted using two approaches. The first, is directed toward the development of industrial engineering cost estimates of each energy conservation option. This approach results in the estimation of manufacturers costs. The second approach is directed toward determining the market price differential of energy conservation features. The results of this approach are shown. The market cost represents the cost to the consumer. It is the final cost, and therefore includes distribution costs as well as manufacturing costs.

  9. Integrated marketing communications at solar energy equipment market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.L. Litovchenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The article is devoted to the development of the concept of «integrated marketing communications», as well as its adaptation to a specific market of solar energy equipment. The theoretical development of foreign and domestic scholars in the field of IMC is considered. The aim of the article is to define the concept of «integrated marketing communications» and use them in the market of solar еnergy equipment in an information economy. The author's definition of the concept of IMC is given, including the achievement of synergies. The reasons for the transition to the use of modern enterprises IMC in marketing activities are explored, as well as the tendencies of their distribution. The results of the analysis. The article identified the following reasons for the transition to the concept of IMC: reducing the efficiency of the individual instruments of marketing communications policy, the rapid growth of the flow of information and the development of technology marketing communications under the influence of the Internet, and the transition to the individualization of consumption and, consequently, to a two-way interactive marketing communication; glut similar services and products. The study identified the following reasons for the transition to the concept of IMC: reducing the efficiency of the individual instruments of marketing communications policy, the rapid growth of the flow of information and the development of technology marketing communications under the influence of the Internet, and the transition to the individualization of consumption and, consequently, to a two-way interactive marketing communication; glut similar services and products. Trends of the present stage of development of the IMC are demonstrated. The factors that influence formation of the IMC complex of enterprise in the market of solar energy equipment are identified. They are the goals of the firm and its strategies are used , the type of

  10. Essays on Environmental Policy in Energy Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomhower, Judson Paul

    Producing and consuming energy involves costly environmental externalities, which are addressed through a wide range of public policy interventions. This dissertation examines three economic questions that are important to environmental regulation in energy. The first chapter measures the effect of bankruptcy protection on industry structure and environmental outcomes in oil and gas extraction. The second chapter measures additionality in an appliance replacement rebate program. Finally, the third chapter focuses on the environmental impacts of subsidizing electricity production from forest-derived biomass fuels. The first chapter measures the incentive effect of limited liability. When liability is limited by bankruptcy, theory says that firms will take excessive environmental and public health risks. In the long run, this "judgment-proof problem'' may increase the share of small producers, even when there are economies of scale. I use quasi-experimental variation in liability exposure to measure the effects of bankruptcy protection on industry structure and environmental outcomes in oil and gas extraction. Using firm-level data on the universe of Texas oil and gas producers, I examine the introduction of an insurance mandate that reduced firms' ability to avoid liability through bankruptcy. The policy was introduced via a quasi-randomized rollout, which allows me to cleanly identify its effects on industry structure. The insurance requirement pushed about 6% of producers out of the market immediately. The exiting firms were primarily small and were more likely to have poor environmental records. Among firms that remained in business, the bond requirement reduced oil production among the smallest 80% of firms by about 4% on average, which is consistent with increased internalization of environmental costs. Production by the largest 20% of firms, which account for the majority of total production, was unaffected. Finally, environmental outcomes, including those

  11. Characteristics of the Romanian energy market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stet, M.

    2017-05-01

    This paper highlights the main characteristics of the energy market in Romania. Starting from the mode of organization and operation of the electricity market, there are revealed prices and tariffs for electricity for different categories of customers and their evolution in time. There are pointed also ways of setting electricity prices and tariffs, taking into account the expenditures actually recorded by economic operators.

  12. Renewable energy markets in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinot, E.; Chaurey, A.; Lew, D.

    2002-01-01

    Renewable energy is shifting from the fringe to the mainstream of sustainable development. Past donor efforts achieved modest results but often were not sustained or replicated, which leads now to greater market orientation. Markets for rural household lighting with solar home systems, biogas...

  13. 75 FR 45111 - Electric Quarterly Reports; Strategic Energy Management Corp.; Solaro Energy Marketing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ...] Electric Quarterly Reports; Strategic Energy Management Corp.; Solaro Energy Marketing Corporation; Notice... Order, the Commission directed Strategic Energy Management Corp. and Solaro Energy Marketing Corporation... Energy Management Corp. and Solaro Energy Marketing Corporation) have failed to file their...

  14. A Strategic Market Game with Transactions Costs,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-30

    Hahn, F. M. (1971), "Equilibrium with Transaction Cost ," Econo- metrica, 39, 417-439. [91 Hicks, J. R. (1938), Value and Capital, Oxford University...of an Exchange Economy with Transaction Cost ," International Economic Review, 15, 699-717. [12] Kurz, M. (1974b), "Equilibrium with Transaction Costs

  15. Cost vs. Market Value: The Case for Reporting Endowment Investments at Market Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Harold

    1992-01-01

    The difference between cost and market value of endowment investments is significant for many colleges and universities. These investments should always be reported at market value to provide relevant, comparable, consistent, and understandable financial information. Nonmanagement users of institutional financial statements prefer market rather…

  16. Performance Contracting and Energy Efficiency in the State Government Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Goldman, Charles; Gilligan, Donald; Singer, Terry E.; Birr, David; Donahue, Patricia; Serota, Scott

    2008-11-14

    There is growing interest in energy efficiency (EE) among state policymakers as a result of increasing environmental concerns, rising electricity and natural gas prices, and lean economic times that motivate states to look more aggressively for cost-saving opportunities in public sector buildings. One logical place for state policymakers to demonstrate their commitment to energy efficiency is to 'lead by example' by developing and implementing strategies to reduce the energy consumption of state government facilities through investments in energy efficient technologies. Traditionally, energy efficiency improvements at state government facilities are viewed as a subset in the general category of building maintenance and construction. These projects are typically funded through direct appropriations. However, energy efficiency projects are often delayed or reduced in scope whereby not all cost-effective measures are implemented because many states have tight capital budgets. Energy Savings Performance Contracting (ESPC) offers a potentially useful strategy for state program and facility managers to proactively finance and develop energy efficiency projects. In an ESPC project, Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) typically guarantee that the energy and cost savings produced by the project will equal or exceed all costs associated with implementing the project over the term of the contract. ESCOs typically provide turnkey design, installation, and maintenance services and also help arrange project financing. Between 1990 and 2006, U.S. ESCOs reported market activity of {approx}$28 Billion, with about {approx}75-80% of that activity concentrated in the institutional markets (K-12 schools, colleges/universities, state/local/federal government and hospitals). In this study, we review the magnitude of energy efficiency investment in state facilities and identify 'best practices' while employing performance contracting in the state government sector. The

  17. Predicting Market Impact Costs Using Nonparametric Machine Learning Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saerom Park

    Full Text Available Market impact cost is the most significant portion of implicit transaction costs that can reduce the overall transaction cost, although it cannot be measured directly. In this paper, we employed the state-of-the-art nonparametric machine learning models: neural networks, Bayesian neural network, Gaussian process, and support vector regression, to predict market impact cost accurately and to provide the predictive model that is versatile in the number of variables. We collected a large amount of real single transaction data of US stock market from Bloomberg Terminal and generated three independent input variables. As a result, most nonparametric machine learning models outperformed a-state-of-the-art benchmark parametric model such as I-star model in four error measures. Although these models encounter certain difficulties in separating the permanent and temporary cost directly, nonparametric machine learning models can be good alternatives in reducing transaction costs by considerably improving in prediction performance.

  18. Predicting Market Impact Costs Using Nonparametric Machine Learning Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Saerom; Lee, Jaewook; Son, Youngdoo

    2016-01-01

    Market impact cost is the most significant portion of implicit transaction costs that can reduce the overall transaction cost, although it cannot be measured directly. In this paper, we employed the state-of-the-art nonparametric machine learning models: neural networks, Bayesian neural network, Gaussian process, and support vector regression, to predict market impact cost accurately and to provide the predictive model that is versatile in the number of variables. We collected a large amount of real single transaction data of US stock market from Bloomberg Terminal and generated three independent input variables. As a result, most nonparametric machine learning models outperformed a-state-of-the-art benchmark parametric model such as I-star model in four error measures. Although these models encounter certain difficulties in separating the permanent and temporary cost directly, nonparametric machine learning models can be good alternatives in reducing transaction costs by considerably improving in prediction performance.

  19. Alternative energies: Engineering, economics, market potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hake, B.

    1981-11-01

    Rentability calculations are disappointing for most alternative energies. Technical improvements that might change this are not in sight, so that the dependence on imported oil and gas will hardly be reduced. Producers of solar collectors, heat pumps, solar cells, and cogeneration units must keep in mind that the market will hardly expand. This was the result of a seminar on 'Alternative energy sources: Technology, economics, marketing potential - a critical review', held on May 5 at Haus der Technik, Essen.

  20. Entry, concentration and market efficiency: A simulation of the PJM energy market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvill, Terry

    The rapid and substantial expansion of the PJM energy market during 2004 and 2005 provides a unique opportunity to test the theory of market concentration and its effect on market efficiency. With ten years of operational experience, the PJM energy market is uniquely suited to test the theories of market concentration and efficiency in a natural experiment. This research tests the hypothesis that, for a given number of generating units in the industry, system marginal price will be a decreasing function of the number of owners or generators controlling the units (i.e., the industry concentration ratio). Market simulations are utilized to assess price-cost markups in the PJM energy market during three distinct periods of expansion: (1) pre-Commonwealth Edison integration, (2) pre-American Electric Power (AEP), Dayton Power and Light (DPL), Duquesne Light (Duquesne), and Dominion Virginia Power (Dominion) integration, and (3) post-AFT, DPL. Duquesne, and Dominion Integration. The results of the market simulations for the May 1 to August 31 periods for 2003, 2004, and 2005, indicate that the performance of the market improved with the addition of new market participants in 2004 and 2005. The results of the simulation indicate that the load-weighted Lerner index decreased to -3.70 percent in 2005 from 0.92 percent in 2003. Clearly, the addition of Commonwealth Edison in 2004 significantly increased constraints within the PJM energy market and likely impacted the observed prices in PJM during 2004 due to the lack of a significant link to the other PJM market participants. This deficiency was address in 2005 with the addition of American Electric Power. The market simulations also highlight the prevalence of computed negative markups in the simulation results. Many of the off-peak periods in particular are characterized by negative markups where the expected marginal cost exceeds the observed price. Unit commitment constraints are believed to largely account for these

  1. Promotion of Renewable Energy in a Liberalised Energy Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    1998-01-01

    government promotion of energy conservation and of systems based on renewable energy sources. This type of policy may in some instanes conflict with the principles of the unregulated commercial market. The official Danish target is that 35% of energy demand should be covered by renewables by year 2030......Liberalisation of energy markets has been progressing among OECD countries since the early nineties. In Europe this trend was accelerated by the decision in December 1996 by the EU Council of Ministers to adopt a new EU directive on liberalisation of the electricity market. This decision would lead...

  2. Dynamic Stock Market Participation of Households with Heterogeneous Participation Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorunzhina, Natalia

    This paper develops and estimates a dynamic model of stock market participation, where consumers’ decisions regarding stock market participation are influenced by participation costs. The practical significance of the participation costs is considered as being a channel through which financial...... education programs can affect consumers’ investment decisions. Using household data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, I estimate the magnitude of the participation cost, allowing for individual heterogeneity in it. The results show the average stock market participation cost is about 5% of labor...... income; however, it varies substantially over consumers’ life. The model successfully predicts the level of the observed participation rate and the increasing pattern of stock market participation over the consumers’ life cycle....

  3. Costs and benefits of Danish active labour market programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Svend; Munch, Jakob Roland; Skipper, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Since 1994, unemployed workers in the Danish labour market have participated in active labour market programmes on a large scale. This paper contributes with an assessment of costs and benefits of these programmes. Long-term treatment effects are estimated on a very detailed administrative dataset...

  4. Energy markets, US energy policy, and the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luis A. Sosa; Daniel J. Desnyder [Colorado School of Mines (USA). Division of Economics and Business, Department of Petroleum Engineering

    2003-09-01

    The terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 reinvigorated the debate over US energy policy initiated by the publication of the National Energy Policy Report (NEPR) of May 2001. US policymakers were aware of the importance of diversification and market risk management, but judged an expansion of domestic production could insulate the US from price shocks. The attacks called attention to the high petroleum intensity of the American economy, led to increases in costs associated with doing business in the oil patch, highlighted the fundamental security problem inherent in oil markets, and probably stymied a nascent recovery. Global energy markets were rattled but not rocked - a result of the preexisting economic downturn and determined market intervention. A review of the changes in US energy strategy since 11 September 2001 suggests cool heads blocked an emotional, short-run policy response and are instead working to diversify America's energy supply portfolio.

  5. Market survey Slovakia. Bio-energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    The study presents an overview of Slovakian bioenergy market, its current state and future prospects in terms of size and potentials. In the opening, the basic structure of Slovakian energy sources is presented from IEA energy statistics, then a list of programmes and valid legislation relating to RES follow. Figures from several sources show possible potential accomplishable in biomass utilisation in Slovakia. Some most promising areas containing interesting amounts of unutilised biomass are quoted. Chapter 4 contains overview of programmes supporting the use of RES, examples of already realised projects and some planned projects. In Chapter 5 there is a list of main stakeholders in the bioenergy sector, description of legal requirements and procedures necessary for starting a business in Slovakia and some ways how to promote bioenergy business in Slovakia. As the most promising opportunities identified in Slovakia we can consider projects of biomass utilisation in the form of installation of boilers and creation of distribution channels enabling steady supply of biomass for competitive prices. A lot of waste and other residues from woodworking industries or forestry is available for this purpose. Dutch companies should make maximum use of their technological know-how and try to offer equipment for biomass utilisation. Biogas is produced only on a very limited scale. The reason for that lies in relatively high initial costs that cannot be covered from farming companies and low rentability of realised projects. Still, projects solving disposal of agricultural waste on the one hand and energy production on the other are worth paying attention to. Success stories from the Netherlands could serve as a source of inspiration but doing of thoroughgoing analysis preceding investment itself is of necessity in order to cope with hidden risks and uncertainties. In any case, Dutch companies can offer technological equipment to Slovakian buyers without risks connected with

  6. Market survey Slovak Republic. Bio-energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    The study presents an overview of Slovakian bioenergy market, its current state and future prospects in terms of size and potentials. In the opening, the basic structure of Slovakian energy sources is presented from IEA energy statistics, then a list of programmes and valid legislation relating to RES follow. Figures from several sources show possible potential accomplishable in biomass utilisation in Slovakia. Some most promising areas containing interesting amounts of unutilised biomass are quoted. Chapter 4 contains overview of programmes supporting the use of RES, examples of already realised projects and some planned projects. In Chapter 5 there is a list of main stakeholders in the bioenergy sector, description of legal requirements and procedures necessary for starting a business in Slovakia and some ways how to promote bioenergy business in Slovakia. As the most promising opportunities identified in Slovakia we can consider projects of biomass utilisation in the form of installation of boilers and creation of distribution channels enabling steady supply of biomass for competitive prices. A lot of waste and other residues from woodworking industries or forestry is available for this purpose. Dutch companies should make maximum use of their technological know-how and try to offer equipment for biomass utilisation. Biogas is produced only on a very limited scale. The reason for that lies in relatively high initial costs that cannot be covered from farming companies and low rentability of realised projects. Still, projects solving disposal of agricultural waste on the one hand and energy production on the other are worth paying attention to. Success stories from the Netherlands could serve as a source of inspiration but doing of thoroughgoing analysis preceding investment itself is of necessity in order to cope with hidden risks and uncertainties. In any case, Dutch companies can offer technological equipment to Slovakian buyers without risks connected with

  7. Battery energy storage market feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, S. [Frost and Sullivan, Mountain View, CA (United States); Akhil, A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Dept.

    1997-07-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed energy storage as an important enabling technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1).

  8. The Cost and Value of Marketing Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Fred

    1979-01-01

    Institutional researchers and planners are urged to adopt conceptual marketing tools to help them deal with situations where data are sparse and time is short. An easily used decision technique is described that can increase the likelihood of getting good answers to the question: How much information is enough? (Author/LBH)

  9. German energy market 2016; Deutscher Energiemarkt 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm [World Energy Council, London (United Kingdom). World Energy Resources; Weltenergierat, Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Energie fuer Deutschland

    2017-03-15

    The basic orientation of the German energy supply to the increased use of renewable energies, while increasing energy efficiency, is prediscribed by the German government's energy concept and determines the market development. A current overview of the German energy market is given, which provides also this year a concentrated Compilation of the key data of the energy industry. As in the years before, the article not only summarizes general facts about the energy mix, but also goes into detail on the development of the individual energy sources, petroleum, natural gas, brown coal and hard coal, electricity as well as renewable energies. Furthermore, the price trends of international markets and in the domestic market are explained. A current overview of the development of greenhouse gas emissions concludes the contribution. [German] Die im Energiekonzept der Bundesregierung vorgegebene Grundausrichtung der deutschen Energieversorgung hin zur verstaerkten Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien bei gleichzeitiger Steigerung der Energieeffizienz bestimmt die Marktentwicklung. Vorliegend wird ein aktueller Ueberblick ueber den deutschen Energiemarkt gegeben, der auch in diesem Jahr eine konzentrierte Zusammenstellung der zentralen Eckdaten der Energiewirtschaft leistet. Wie in den Jahren zuvor fasst der Artikel nicht nur allgemeine Fakten zum Energiemix zusammen, sondern geht auch ausfuehrlich auf die Entwicklung der einzelnen Energietraeger Erdoel, Erdgas, Braun- und Steinkohle, Elektrizitaet sowie regenerative Energien ein. Ferner werden die Preistendenzen auf den internationalen Maerkten und im Inland erlaeutert. Eine aktuelle Uebersicht ueber die Entwicklung der Treibhausgas-Emissionen schliesst den Beitrag ab.

  10. Cost/benefit tradeoffs for reducing the energy consumption of the commercial air transportation system. Volume 2: Market and economic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanabkoude, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    The impact of the most promising fuel conserving options on fuel consumption, passenger demand, operating costs, and airline profits when implemented into the U.S. domestic and international airline fleets is assessed. The potential fuel savings achievable in the U.S. scheduled air transportation system over the forecast period, 1973-1990, are estimated.

  11. Hierarchical energy management mechanisms for an electricity market with microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Tzer Yang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses a micro-grid electricity market (MGEM with day-ahead (DA and real-time market mechanisms integrated. The bidding mechanisms for the market are described in this study, considering the generation cost of different distributed energy resources (DERs, like distributed generator, energy storage system and demand response. Including load and renewable generation forecasting systems and a fuzzy decision supporting system, a hierarchical micro-grid energy management system (MG-EMS is then proposed to ensure the benefits of involved micro-grid central controller, DER owners and customers. To verify the feasibility of the proposed system, the whole-year historical pricing and load data for New England independent system operator are employed. The numerical results show that the proposed MG-EMS is promising and effective for the operations of MGEM.

  12. Predictability of Wave Energy and Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chozas, Julia Fernandez

    2012-01-01

    The articlw addresses an important challenge ahead the integration of the electricity generated by wave energy conversion technologies into the electric grid. Particularly, it looks into the role of wave energy within the day-ahead electricity market. For that the predictability of the theoretical...

  13. Integrated energy systems and local energy markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Münster, Ebbe

    2006-01-01

    Significant benefits are connected with an increase in the flexibility of the Danish energy system. On the one hand, it is possible to benefit from trading electricity with neighbouring countries, and on the other, Denmark will be able to make better use of wind power and other types of renewable...... energy in the future. This paper presents the analysis of different ways of increasing flexibility in the Danish energy system by the use of local regulation mechanisms. This strategy is compared with the opposite extreme, i.e. trying to solve all balancing problems via electricity trade...

  14. The long memory and the transaction cost in financial markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daye; Nishimura, Yusaku; Men, Ming

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, we investigate the fractal dimensions of 30 important stock markets from 2006 to 2013; the analysis indicates that the Hurst exponent of emerging markets shifts significantly away from the standard Brownian motion. We propose a model based on the Hurst exponent to explore the considerable profits from the predictable long-term memory. We take the transaction cost into account to justify why the market inefficiency has not been arbitraged away in the majority of cases. The empirical evidence indicates that the majority of the markets are efficient with a certain transaction cost under the no-arbitrage assumption. Furthermore, we use the Monte Carlo simulation to display "the efficient frontier" of the Hurst exponent with different transaction costs.

  15. Forecasting market impact costs and identifying expensive trades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, J.A.; Spierdijk, L.; Hoevenaars, R.P.M.M.; Sluis, van der P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Often, a relatively small group of trades causes the major part of the trading costs on an investment portfolio. For the equity trades studied in this paper, executed by the world's second largest pension fund, we find that only 10% of all trades determines 75% of total market impact costs. Conseque

  16. Global fossil energy markets and climate change mitigation - an analysis with REMIND

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, Nico; Mouratiadou, Ioanna; Luderer, Gunnar; Baumstark, Lavinia; Brecha, Robert J.; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Kriegler, Elmar

    We analyze the dynamics of global fossil resource markets under different assumptions for the supply of fossil fuel resources, development pathways for energy demand, and climate policy settings. Resource markets, in particular the oil market, are characterized by a large discrepancy between costs

  17. TRANSACTION COSTS AND MARKET IMPACT IN INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kociński

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyse the major sources of transaction costs in financial markets, in particular to find the amounts of such costs on the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE. Sources of transaction costs are considered: commissions, bid-ask spread and market impact. The commissions are only briefly described since they are explicitly stated and easily measured. More attention is paid to the bid-ask spread which is one of the main causes of trading costs. It is shown that the investor who wants to outperform the Polish market should usually expect a much higher bid-ask spread than it follows from the officially used calculations. Then it is demonstrated how historical spreads can be used in predicting their future values. This seems to be important from the practical point of view, since forecasting trading costs is a compelling task for financial managers. Next, market impact and market impact costs are considered. The practical method of measuring these is applied and discussed.

  18. Renewable Energy and the need for local energy markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Frede Kloster

    2003-01-01

    The paper argues that a new offensive green energy policy should be established in Denmark both securing public and political acceptance, and the establishment of local markets securing the technical integration of a large proportion of windpower and other fluctuating renewable energy sources...... into the energy system....

  19. Marketing energy conservation options to Northwest manufactured home buyers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.; Mohler, B.L.; Taylor, Z.T.; Lee, A.D.; Onisko, S.A.

    1985-06-01

    This study relies on extensive, existing survey data and new analyses to develop information that would help design a marketing plan to achieve energy conservation in new manufactured homes. Existing surveys present comprehensive information about regional manufactured home occupants and their homes that are relevant to a potential conservation marketing plan. An independent analysis of the cost-effectiveness of various efficiency improvements provides background information for designing a marketing plan. This analysis focuses on the economic impacts of alternative energy conservation options as perceived by the home owner. Identifying impediments to conservation investments is also very important in designing a marketing plan. A recent report suggests that financial constraints and the need for better information and knowledge about conservation pose the major conservation investment barriers. Since loan interest rates for new manufactured homes typically exceed site-built rates by a considerable amount and the buyers tend to have lower incomes, the economics of manufactured home conservation investments are likely to significantly influence their viability. Conservation information and its presentation directly influences the manufactured home buyer's decision. A marketing plan should address these impediments and their implications very clearly. Dealers express a belief that consumer satisfaction is the major advantage to selling energy efficient manufactured homes. This suggests that targeting dealers in a marketing plan and providing them direct information on consumers' indicated attitudes may be important. 74 refs.

  20. The Brazilian wind energy market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves-Schwinteck, P. [DEWI GmbH, Oldenburg (Germany); Neddermann, B. [DEWI GmbH, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    At the end of 2011 Brazil had a total installed capacity of ca. 116,000 MW of electricity generation connected to its national interconnected system, in which more than 70% is from Hydropower. According to the latest expansion plan published by the National Energetic Research entity (EPE - Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica) in December 2011, the total energy demand of Brazil shall increase over 60% within the next 10 years. From this forecasted demand 67% will be still covered by Hydropower, which will, however, lose a significant share to other renewable sources like Wind, Biomass and Small Hydro. The forecast of EPE predicts the expansion of renewable energy sources in the overall electric energy supply matrix from the current 8% to 16%. Solely the participation of wind power shall increase from less than 1% to about 7% by the end of 2020. The forecast of the wind power expansion is supported by the Brazilian Wind Energy Atlas (Atlas Eolico Brasileiro) published by Eletrobras in 2011, which indicates an overall wind energy potential of 143 GW. (orig.)

  1. 2010 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hand, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maples, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schwabe, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-04-01

    This document provides a detailed description of NREL's levelized cost of wind energy equation, assumptions, and results in 2010, including historical cost trends and future projections for land-based and offshore utility-scale wind.

  2. 2010 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Lantz, E.; Schwabe, P.; Smith, A.

    2012-04-01

    This document provides a detailed description of NREL's levelized cost of wind energy equation, assumptions and results in 2010, including historical cost trends and future projections for land-based and offshore utility-scale wind.

  3. Cost-benefit analysis of the Dutch nature policy: Transaction costs and land market impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, R.A.; Polman, N.; Slangen, L.H.G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the financial and economic costs and benefits of the large scale National Ecological Network (NEN) nature conservation project in the Netherlands, taking into account transaction costs and land market impacts of different institutional arrangements. The net financial costs associ

  4. Cost-benefit analysis of the Dutch nature policy: Transaction costs and land market impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, R.A.; Polman, N.; Slangen, L.H.G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the financial and economic costs and benefits of the large scale National Ecological Network (NEN) nature conservation project in the Netherlands, taking into account transaction costs and land market impacts of different institutional arrangements. The net financial costs associ

  5. The structure of production costs of the different energy channels and the occurred learning for the formation of market prices and the operators strategy; La structure des couts de production des differentes filieres energetiques et les enseignements qui peuvent en etre tires sur la formation des prix de marche et la strategie des operateurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-15

    The first part of the report aims to fill the gap of data base describing the primary energies costs and the formation of their prices under geopolitical constraints. The second part describes how the arbitration terms between primary energies are modified by the electric power sector liberalization. The last part presents the complexity of the strategies used by the energy sector operators. Some recommendations on the market regulation are provided. (A.L.B.)

  6. Energy costs form European wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milborrow, D. [Windpower Monthly, Knebel (Denmark)

    1995-12-31

    Energy generation costs from European wind farms span a very wide range. Reasons for these variations, include differences in capital and operating costs, wind speeds and differing legislative and regulatory frameworks. This article compares costs, wind speeds and discount rates for British and German windfarms and sets these alongside data from elsewhere in the European Union. In this way it is possible to determine the reasons for differences in energy generation costs. (author)

  7. 75 FR 38514 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Brookfield Energy Marketing LP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Brookfield Energy Marketing LP AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Brookfield Energy Marketing LP... power marketing agencies and other entities within the United States. The existing...

  8. Implant marketing: cost effective implant dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohrle, P S; Levin, R P

    1996-01-01

    The application of the KAL-Technique to the field of implant dentistry allows both patients and dental practices to benefit. It is an exciting advance that decreases frustration and stress in providing implant procedures and lowers overall costs. Professionals using the KAL-Technique report significant predictability in achieving passive framework fit. They are also lowering overall cost of implant cases, which increases the number of patients who can accept implant treatment. It has been well established that the more individuals in a practice that receive implants, the more referrals a practice will gain. This is because implant patients find tremendous advances in the quality of life, and do not hesitate to tell others who can take advantage of this opportunity. Implant dentistry is one of the fastest growing fields in dentistry today. While some other areas of dentistry begin to decline in volume and need, implant dentistry provides the opportunity to keep practices strong and to insure long-term success.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of a ROPS social marketing campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, J A; Jenkins, P; Bayes, B; Clark, S; May, J J

    2010-01-01

    Tractor rollovers are the most frequent cause of death in the farm community. Rollover protection structures (ROPS) can prevent the injuries and fatalities associated with these events; however, almost half of U.S. farms lack these essential devices. One promising strategy for increasing ROPS use is social marketing. The purpose of this study was to assess the costs associated with the New York ROPS Social Marketing Campaign in relation to the cost of fatalities and injuries averted as a result of the campaign to determine whether cost savings could be demonstrated in the initial years of program implementation. A total of 524 farmers who had retrofitted a tractor through the program were mailed a survey to assess the number of rollovers or close calls that occurred since ROPS installation. Responses were obtained from 382 farmers, two of whom indicated that they had a potential fatality/injury scenario since retrofitting their tractor through the program. The cost savings associated with the intervention was estimated using a decision-tree analysis adapted from Myers and Pana-Cryan with appropriate consumer price index adjustments. The data were compared to the cost of the New York ROPS Social Marketing Campaign to arrive at an associated cost-savings estimate relative to the intervention. This study indicates that a net savings will likely be demonstrated within the third year of the New York ROPS Social Marketing initiative. These data may provide evidence for researchers hoping to generate support from state and private agencies for similar initiatives.

  10. The relative cost of biomass energy transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searcy, Erin; Flynn, Peter; Ghafoori, Emad; Kumar, Amit

    2007-04-01

    Logistics cost, the cost of moving feedstock or products, is a key component of the overall cost of recovering energy from biomass. In this study, we calculate for small- and large-project sizes, the relative cost of transportation by truck, rail, ship, and pipeline for three biomass feedstocks, by truck and pipeline for ethanol, and by transmission line for electrical power. Distance fixed costs (loading and unloading) and distance variable costs (transport, including power losses during transmission), are calculated for each biomass type and mode of transportation. Costs are normalized to a common basis of a giga Joules of biomass. The relative cost of moving products vs feedstock is an approximate measure of the incentive for location of biomass processing at the source of biomass, rather than at the point of ultimate consumption of produced energy. In general, the cost of transporting biomass is more than the cost of transporting its energy products. The gap in cost for transporting biomass vs power is significantly higher than the incremental cost of building and operating a power plant remote from a transmission grid. The cost of power transmission and ethanol transport by pipeline is highly dependent on scale of project. Transport of ethanol by truck has a lower cost than by pipeline up to capacities of 1800 t/d. The high cost of transshipment to a ship precludes shipping from being an economical mode of transport for distances less than 800 km (woodchips) and 1500 km (baled agricultural residues).

  11. Roadmap towards a competitive European energy market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    With the financial crisis evolving into a severe, global economic recession, there have been growing doubts over whether energy markets can continue to operate efficiently under present conditions or whether the shift to non-market mechanisms would be a better choice. This question remains an ongoing source of debate in the recently liberalised electricity sector. Textbook wisdom says that the market is the most efficient place to allocate financial means for investments. Therefore, during a period of a crisis, it should follow that we actually need more market mechanisms, not fewer, if we want to stimulate investments in an economically efficient way. Regulated electricity prices and nationalistic thinking will not help to solve Europe's electricity challenges with regards to either the generation or the transportation of electricity.

  12. Market and policy barriers to energy storage deployment :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Currier, Aileen B.; Hernandez, Jacquelynne; Ma, Ookie; Kirby, Brendan

    2013-09-01

    Electric energy storage technologies have recently been in the spotlight, discussed as essential grid assets that can provide services to increase the reliability and resiliency of the grid, including furthering the integration of variable renewable energy resources. Though they can provide numerous grid services, there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment. These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market (economic) barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, crosscutting barriers and technology barriers. This report, through interviews with stakeholders and review of regulatory filings in four regions roughly representative of the United States, identifies the key barriers restricting further energy storage development in the country. The report also includes a discussion of possible solutions to address these barriers and a review of initiatives around the country at the federal, regional and state levels that are addressing some of these issues. Energy storage could have a key role to play in the future grid, but market and regulatory issues have to be addressed to allow storage resources open market access and compensation for the services they are capable of providing. Progress has been made in this effort, but much remains to be done and will require continued engagement from regulators, policy makers, market operators, utilities, developers and manufacturers.

  13. Energy Market Transparency: Analyzing the Impacts of Constraint Relaxation and Out-of-Market Correction Practices in Electric Energy Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abdullah, Yousef Mohammad

    This work presents research on practices in the day-ahead electric energy market, including replication practices and reliability coordinators used by some market operators to demonstrate the impact these practices have on market outcomes. The practice of constraint relaxations similar to those an Independent System Operator (ISO) might perform in day-ahead market models is implemented. The benefits of these practices are well understood by the industry; however, the implications these practices have on market outcomes and system security have not been thoroughly investigated. By solving a day-ahead market model with and without select constraint relaxations and comparing the resulting market outcomes and possible effects on system security, the effect of these constraint relaxation practices is demonstrated. Proposed market solutions are often infeasible because constraint relaxation practices and approximations that are incorporated into market models. Therefore, the dispatch solution must be corrected to ensure its feasibility. The practice of correcting the proposed dispatch solution after the market is solved is known as out-of-market corrections (OMCs), defined as any action an operator takes that modifies a proposed day-ahead dispatch solution to ensure operating and reliability requirements. The way in which OMCs affect market outcomes is illustrated through the use of different corrective procedures. The objective of the work presented is to demonstrate the implications of these industry practices and assess the impact these practices have on market outcomes.

  14. Offshore Wind Energy Market Overview (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation describes the current international market conditions regarding offshore wind, including the breakdown of installation costs, how to reduce costs, and the physical siting considerations considered when planning offshore wind construction. The presentation offers several examples of international existing and planned offshore wind farm sites and compares existing international offshore resources with U.S. resources. The presentation covers future offshore wind trends and cites some challenges that the United States must overcome before it will be able to fully develop offshore wind sites.

  15. Renewable energy and the need for local energy markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Frede

    2006-01-01

    green energy policy should be introduced in order to secure both public and political acceptance. Local markets should be established in order to secure the technical integration of a large proportion of wind power and other fluctuating renewable energy sources into the energy system....... green energy technology cluster was established. During the second phase, new difficulties and challenges have arisen, both with regard to local public acceptance and the need for integrating an increasing percentage of fluctuating energy sources into the energy system. In this Phase 2, a new offensive...

  16. Modelling total energy costs of sports centres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussabaine, A.H.; Kirkham, R.J.; Grew, R.J. [Liverpool Univ., School of Architecture and Building Engineering, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    1999-12-07

    Providing and maintaining safe and comfortable conditions in sport centres raises many issues, particularly cost. The paper gives an overview of the factors associated with sport centre servicing and attempts to highlight the governing factors associated with this, particularly energy costs. A total of 19 sport centres in the City of Liverpool in the UK are investigated, using data elicited from the Liverpool Leisure Services Directorate. The energy operating costs were analysed using statistical methods. Six models were developed to predict total energy costs. Testing and validation results showed a high level of model accuracy. The models would be of use to professionals involved in feasibility studies at the design stage. (Author)

  17. Energy cost reduction in the baking industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Information is presented on methods for saving fuel and electric power in the baking industry; the cost of specific retrofits to bakery equipment and of modifications to processes; ways to reduce transportation costs and energy; and reducing energy demand for lighting, cooling, and heating bakeries. (LCL)

  18. Market failures, consumer preferences, and transaction costs inenergy efficiency purchase decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Murtishaw, Scott

    2004-11-23

    Several factors limit the energy savings potential and increase the costs of energy-efficient technologies to consumers. These factors may usefully be placed into two categories; one category is what economists would define as market failures and the other is related to consumer preferences. This paper provides a conceptual framework for understanding the roles of these factors, and develops a methodology to quantify their effects on costs and potentials of two energy efficient end uses - residential lighting and clothes washers. It notes the significant roles played by the high implicit cost of obtaining information about the benefits of the two technologies and the apparent inability to process and utilize information. For compact fluorescent lamps, this report finds a conservative estimate of the cost of conserved energy of 3.1 cents per kWh. For clothes washers, including water savings reduces the cost of conserved energy from 13.6 cents to 4.3 cents per equivalent kWh. Despite these benefits, market share remains low. About 18 million tons of CO2 could be saved cost effectively from 2005 sales of these two technologies alone. The paper also notes that trading of carbon emissions will incur transaction costs that will range from less than 10 cents per metric ton of CO2 for larger size projects and programs to a few dollars per metric ton of carbon for the smaller ones.

  19. The European market of renewable energies; Le marche europeen des energies renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2011-09-15

    This market study on renewable energies presents: 1 - the different renewable energy industries for power generation: the field of renewable energies (hydropower, wind power, solar energy, geothermal energy and biomass power plants) and their common points, their characteristics, advantages and constraints; 2 - the political and regulatory context with its ambitious goals: main steps of worldwide negotiations, Europe and the management of CO{sub 2} emissions, stiffening of the environmental regulation, the energy/climate package and the efforts to be borne by the different member states; 3 - Economy of the sector and the necessary public support: investment and production costs by industry, wholesale prices and competitiveness of the different power generation means, government's incentives for projects profitability; 4 - dynamics of the European market of renewable energies: energy-mix and evolution of the renewable energies contribution in the world and in the European Union, key-figures by country and by industry (installed capacity, production, turnover, employment); 5 - medium-term development perspectives: 2020 prospect scenarios, evolution of the energy mix, perspectives of development for each industry; 6 - the strengths in presence in the domain of facilities: main manufacturers, market shares, innovations, vertical integration, external growth; 7 - the strengths in presence in the domain of power facilities operation: main European operators, position and ranking, installed capacities, projects portfolio; 8 - medium-term perspectives of reconfiguration: best-positioned operators in a developing market, future of European manufacturers with respect to Asian ones, inevitable concentration in the operation sector. (J.S.)

  20. Energy Efficiency, Building Productivity and the Commercial Buildings Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.W.

    2002-05-16

    The energy-efficiency gap literature suggests that building buyers are often short-sighted in their failure to apply life-cycle costing principles to energy efficient building technologies, with the result that under investment in these advanced technology occurs. This study examines the reasons this behavior may occur, by analyzing the pressures that market forces place on purchasers of buildings. Our basic conclusion is that the fundamental manner in which the buildings sector does business creates pressures to reduce initial capital outlays and to hedge against a variety of risks, including the ability of building owners to capture benefits from energy efficiency. Starting from the position that building buyers' willingness to pay drives choices over building attributes, we examine basic market principles, the structure of the buildings market, including the role of lenders, and policies that promote penetration of energy efficient technologies. We conclude that greater attention to buyers, and to the incentives and constraints they face, would promote a better understanding of building investment choices and contribute to better policies to promote the penetration of these technologies into markets.

  1. Renewable energy costs, potentials, barriers: Conceptual issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbruggen, Aviel, E-mail: aviel.verbruggen@ua.ac.b [University of Antwerp (Belgium); Fischedick, Manfred [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment, Energy (Germany); Moomaw, William [Tufts University, Center for International Environment and Resource Policy (United States); Weir, Tony [University of the South Pacific, Fiji Islands (Fiji); Nadai, Alain [Centre International de Recherche sur nvironnement et le Developpement CIRED (France); Nilsson, Lars J. [University of Lund (Sweden); Nyboer, John [Simon Fraser University, School of Resource and Environmental Management (Canada); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Renewable energy can become the major energy supply option in low-carbon energy economies. Disruptive transformations in all energy systems are necessary for tapping widely available renewable energy resources. Organizing the energy transition from non-sustainable to renewable energy is often described as the major challenge of the first half of the 21st century. Technological innovation, the economy (costs and prices) and policies have to be aligned to achieve full renewable energy potentials, and barriers impeding that growth need to be removed. These issues are also covered by IPCC's special report on renewable energy and climate change to be completed in 2010. This article focuses on the interrelations among the drivers. It clarifies definitions of costs and prices, and of barriers. After reviewing how the third and fourth assessment reports of IPCC cover mitigation potentials and commenting on definitions of renewable energy potentials in the literature, we propose a consistent set of potentials of renewable energy supplies.

  2. Transforming Global Markets for Clean Energy Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This paper looks at three clean energy product categories: equipment energy efficiency; low-carbon transport, including high-efficiency vehicles and electric/plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EV/PHEVs); and solar photovoltaic (PV) power. Each section identifies ways to enhance global co-operation among major economies through case studies and examples, and ends with specific suggestions for greater international collaboration on market transformation efforts. An annex with more detailed case studies on energy-efficient electric motors, televisions, external power supplies and compact fluorescent lights is included in the paper.

  3. Predictability of Wave Energy and Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chozas, Julia Fernandez

    2012-01-01

    The articlw addresses an important challenge ahead the integration of the electricity generated by wave energy conversion technologies into the electric grid. Particularly, it looks into the role of wave energy within the day-ahead electricity market. For that the predictability of the theoretical...... power outputs of three wave energy technologies in the Danish North Sea are examined. The simultaneous and co-located forecast and buoy-measured wave parameters at Hanstholm, Denmark, during a non-consecutive autumn and winter 3-month period form the basis of the investigation. The objective...

  4. Market-oriented Energy Revolution in China and Impacts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhen; Xue Qing

    2015-01-01

    China has been undergoing a new round ofambitious reform in its energy sectors after presidentXi's call for“energy revolution”in June 2014. Thistop-down strategy paves a way to market-oriented transition for Chinese energy govern system on both industrial level and corporation level. This paper analyzes the newtrends of China's energy policy and its impacts on crude oil market as well as on Chinese state-owned petroleum enterprises. Thisrevolutionwill reshapethe managementsystemof Chinese energyindustryto cope with rising energy demand, supply restraints, huge environmental costs and backward technologies.With the deepening reform of oil and gas pricing mechanism and the opening-up of petroleum industry, Chinese domestic energy market will be upgraded towards a more rationalized and competitive system. Mixed ownerships will be introduced to stimulate the vitality, creativity and brandinfluence of state-owned petroleum corporations, pushing Chinese national oil majors to collaboratejointly withvarious foreign oil and gas companies and the emerging domestic private companies with great entrepreneurship.

  5. Market Integration and Transport Costs in France 1825-1903

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Mette; Persson, Karl Gunnar

    2000-01-01

    This article argues that the appropriate standard for the analysis of commodity market integration is the transport cost adjusted law of one price. A threshold error correction model that incorporates that property is developed and applied to French wheat prices in the 19th century. This type of ...

  6. The Spanish Wind Energy Market. Balance and Outlooks; El Mercado Eolico Espanol. Balance y Perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varela, M. [CIEMAT. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-06-01

    The present work accomplishes a revision to the situation of the wind market in Spain, its recent evolution, its regional distribution, the principal actors of the market (manufacturers, promoters). The balance includes a review of the programs of institutional support to wind energy, an analysis of the current installation costs and electricity production costs. Finally, other variables related the integration of wind energy are analysed, as the potential of employment generation or the associated environmental factors. (Author) 5 refs.

  7. Promotion of Renewable Energy in a Liberalised Energy Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    1998-01-01

    to higher efficiency and lower consumer prices. Most EU governments have accepted the new EU directive based on these commercial arguments. Denmark has, however, been in a different situation because its energy policy is based primarily on environmental considerations. Danish energy policy involves...... government promotion of energy conservation and of systems based on renewable energy sources. This type of policy may in some instanes conflict with the principles of the unregulated commercial market. The official Danish target is that 35% of energy demand should be covered by renewables by year 2030...

  8. Information erasure without an energy cost

    CERN Document Server

    Vaccaro, Joan A

    2010-01-01

    Landauer argued that the process of erasing the information stored in a memory device incurs an energy cost in the form of a minimum amount of mechanical work. We find, however, that this energy cost can be reduced to zero by paying a cost in angular momentum or any other conserved quantity. Erasing the memory of Maxwell's demon in this way implies that work can be extracted from a single thermal reservoir at a cost of angular momentum and an increase in total entropy. The implications of this for the second law of thermodynamics are assessed.

  9. Energy policy and energy market performance: The Argentinean case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recalde, Marina, E-mail: mrecalde@uns.edu.ar [Departamento de Economia, Universidad Nacional del Sur (UNS) - Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONICET), 12 de Octubre 1198 piso 7, B8000CTX Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2011-06-15

    In the early 1990s Argentina liberalized and privatized the energy system, trending to a total market oriented system and abandoning the use of energy policy. Since 2004, as a result of a boom in energy demand and constrains in energy supply, Argentina has gone through an energy problem mainly related to natural gas and electricity, which derived in energy shutdowns. In this frame, this study explores the role of energy policy and institutions in Argentina, with the aim of discussing whether it has been properly used to contrast the observed lack of coordination between fossil energy reserves management and the demand of fuels in power generation. The results of the analysis enhance the relevance of regulatory and control authorities, as well as the active use of long run energy policy for the energy system performance in order to avoid coordination failures between subsectors of the system. The relevance of energy consumption for the development process, and the particular characteristics of energy systems require a wide planning perspective. - Highlights: > This paper examines some aspects of the performance of the Argentinean energy system and energy policy. > There is a lack of coordination between fossil energy reserves management and electricity demand. > It is required an improvement of the regulatory framework, and an active role of the regulatory authorities. > A better planning for electricity supply and strengthening aspects related to the linking with other energy chains. > Promoting a systematic exploitation of NG and oil reserves' and increasing the share of RETs in the energy mix.

  10. Arrowhead Compliant Virtual Market of Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Luis Lino; Siksnys, Laurynas; Pedersen, Per

    2014-01-01

    by focusing on “when” it is performed. Although, some manufacturing plants (e.g. refining or petrochemical plants) can be inflexible with respect to time due to interdependencies in processes that must be respected for performance and safety reasons, there are other industrial segments, such as alumina plants...... or discrete manufacturing, with more degrees of flexibility. These manufacturing plants can consider a more flexible scheduling of the most energy-intensive processes in response to dynamic prices and overall condition of the electricity market. In this scenario, requests for energy can be encoded by means...... of a formal structure called flex-offers, then aggregated (joining several flex-offers into a bigger one) and sent to the market, scheduled, disaggregated and transformed into consumption plans, and eventually, into production schedules for given industrial plant. In this paper, we describe the flex...

  11. Reducing energy costs in nursing homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The handbook presents ideas and techniques for energy conservation in nursing homes. Case studies were developed of nursing homes located in different parts of the US. The typical nursing home assessed was proprietary, of intermediate-care level, medicaid-certified, and had less than 200 beds. Specific energy conservation measures were analyzed to determine the energy and dollar savings that could be realized. These include reducing heat loss through the building shell; reducing hot water costs; recovering the heat generated by dryers; reducing lighting costs; reducing heating and cooling costs, and analyzing fuels and fuel rates. A case for converting electric clothes dryers to gas was analyzed. (MCW)

  12. Renewables in a Liberalised Energy Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    1997-01-01

    Negotiations concerning the socalled liberalised electricity market in EU were started back in 1988.They have been lengthy and difficult due to different structures and priorities of the power sectors in different countries. Furthermore, several of the utilities have shown considerable reluctance...... to accept the proposed changes. It was not until December 1996 that an EU directive was finally passed by the Council of Ministers. This paper discusses the consequences for Danish energy policy of the new EU directive....

  13. Eastern Africa - A study of the Regional Maize Market and Marketing Costs

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    Maize is the most important staple food in the Eastern Africa region and the most widely traded agricultural commodity. Therefore, the performance of grain markets has a significant impact on people's welfare, particularly the poor, and is critical to inducing pro-poor growth in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, i.e. the countries under review in this report. Marketing costs at the borders woul...

  14. CO{sub 2} mitigation costs of large-scale bioenergy technologies in competitive electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, L. [Mid-Sweden University, Ostersund (Sweden). Dept. of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Ecotechnology; Madlener, R. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland). CEPE

    2003-11-01

    In this study, we compare and contrast the impact of recent technological developments in large biomass-fired and natural-gas-fired cogeneration and condensing plants in terms of CO{sub 2} mitigation costs and under the conditions of a competitive electricity market. The CO{sub 2} mitigation cost indicates the minimum economic incentive required (e.g. in the form of a carbon tax) to equal the cost of a less carbon extensive system with the cost of a reference system. The results show that CO{sub 2} mitigation costs are lower for biomass systems than for natural gas systems with decarbonization. However, in liberalized energy markets and given the sociopolitical will to implement carbon extensive energy systems, market-based policy measures are still required to make biomass and decarbonization options competitive and thus help them to penetrate the market. This cost of cogeneration plants, however, depends on the evaluation method used. If we account for the limitation of heat sinks by expanding the reference entity to include both heat and power, as is typically recommended in life-cycle analysis, then the biomass-based gasification combined cycle (BIG/CC) technology turns out to be less expensive and to exhibit lower CO{sub 2} mitigation costs than biomass-fired steam turbine plants. However, a heat credit granted to cogeneration systems that is based on avoided cost of separate heat production, puts the steam turbine technology despite its lower system efficiency at an advantage. In contrast, when a crediting method based on avoided electricity production in natural gas fired condensing plants is employed, the BIG/CC technology turns out to be more cost competitive than the steam turbine technology for carbon tax levels beyond about $150/t C. Furthermore, steam turbine plants are able to compete with natural gas fired cogeneration plants at carbon tax levels higher than about $90/tC. (author)

  15. Analysis of Fuel Cell Markets in Japan and the US: Experience Curve Development and Cost Reduction Disaggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, Sarah J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sohn, Michael D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Fuel cells are both a longstanding and emerging technology for stationary and transportation applications, and their future use will likely be critical for the deep decarbonization of global energy systems. As we look into future applications, a key challenge for policy-makers and technology market forecasters who seek to track and/or accelerate their market adoption is the ability to forecast market costs of the fuel cells as technology innovations are incorporated into market products. Specifically, there is a need to estimate technology learning rates, which are rates of cost reduction versus production volume. Unfortunately, no literature exists for forecasting future learning rates for fuel cells. In this paper, we look retrospectively to estimate learning rates for two fuel cell deployment programs: (1) the micro-combined heat and power (CHP) program in Japan, and (2) the Self-Generation Incentive Program (SGIP) in California. These two examples have a relatively broad set of historical market data and thus provide an informative and international comparison of distinct fuel cell technologies and government deployment programs. We develop a generalized procedure for disaggregating experience-curve cost-reductions in order to disaggregate the Japanese fuel cell micro-CHP market into its constituent components, and we derive and present a range of learning rates that may explain observed market trends. Finally, we explore the differences in the technology development ecosystem and market conditions that may have contributed to the observed differences in cost reduction and draw policy observations for the market adoption of future fuel cell technologies. The scientific and policy contributions of this paper are the first comparative experience curve analysis of past fuel cell technologies in two distinct markets, and the first quantitative comparison of a detailed cost model of fuel cell systems with actual market data. The resulting approach is applicable to

  16. Capturing Waste Gas: Saves Energy, Lower Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-07-12

    In June 2009, ArcelorMittal learned about the potential to receive a 50% cost-matching grant from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). ArcelorMittal applied for the competitive grant and, in November, received $31.6 million as a DOE cost-sharing award. By matching the federal funding, ArcelorMittal was able to construct a new, high efficiency Energy Recovery & Reuse 504 Boiler and supporting infrastructure.

  17. Transaction costs of raising energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostertag, K.

    2003-07-01

    Part of the debate evolves around the existence and importance of energy saving potentials to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions that may be available at negative net costs, implying that the energy cost savings of one specific technology can actually more than offset the costs of investing into this technology and of using it. This so called ''no-regret'' potential would comprise measures that from a pure economic efficiency point of view would be ''worth undertaking whether or not there are climate-related reasons for doing so''. The existence of the no-regret potential is often denied by arguing, that the economic evaluation of the energy saving potentials did not take into account transaction costs. This paper will re-examine in more detail the concept of transaction costs as it is used in the current debate on no-regret potentials (section 1). Four practical examples are presented to illustrate how transaction costs and their determinants can be identified, measured and possibly influenced (section 2). In order to link the presented cases to modelling based evaluation approaches the implications for cost evaluations of energy saving measures, especially in the context of energy system modelling, will be shown (section 3). (author)

  18. What will abandonment of nuclear energy cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, H.K.

    1988-01-01

    The Federal Republic of Germany holds position five on the list of the world's biggest energy consumers. This alone is a fact that puts special emphasis on the public discussion about the peaceful use of nuclear energy, in addition to the current events such as incidents and accidents in nuclear installations. A sober review of the pros and cons of nuclear energy for power generation has to take into account the economic effects and the costs to be borne by the national economy as a result of immediate abandonment of nuclear energy. The article in hand discusses chances, problems, and alternatives to nuclear energy (solar energy and wind power).

  19. Energy cost reduction in oil pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limeira, Fabio Machado; Correa, Joao Luiz Lavoura; Costa, Luciano Macedo Josino da; Silva, Jose Luiz da; Henriques, Fausto Metzger Pessanha [Petrobras Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    One of the key questions of modern society consists on the rational use of the planet's natural resources and energy. Due to the lack of energy, many companies are forced to reduce their workload, especially during peak hours, because residential demand reaches its top and there is not enough energy to fulfill the needs of all users, which affects major industries. Therefore, using energy more wisely has become a strategic issue for any company, due to the limited supply and also for the excessive cost it represents. With the objective of saving energy and reducing costs for oil pipelines, it has been identified that the increase in energy consumption is primordially related to pumping stations and also by the way many facilities are operated, that is, differently from what was originally designed. Realizing this opportunity, in order to optimize the process, this article intends to examine the possibility of gains evaluating alternatives regarding changes in the pump scheme configuration and non-use of pump stations at peak hours. Initially, an oil pipeline with potential to reduce energy costs was chosen being followed by a history analysis, in order to confirm if there was sufficient room to change the operation mode. After confirming the pipeline choice, the system is briefly described and the literature is reviewed, explaining how the energy cost is calculated and also the main characteristics of a pumping system in series and in parallel. In that sequence, technically feasible alternatives are studied in order to operate and also to negotiate the energy demand contract. Finally, costs are calculated to identify the most economical alternative, that is, for a scenario with no increase in the actual transported volume of the pipeline and for another scenario that considers an increase of about 20%. The conclusion of this study indicates that the chosen pipeline can achieve a reduction on energy costs of up to 25% without the need for investments in new

  20. Renewable Energy: Markets and Prospects by Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This information paper accompanies the IEA publication Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice (IEA, 2011a). It provides more detailed data and analysis on policies for Deploying Renewables and is intended to complement the main publication. This information paper provides an in-depth account of the regional markets and policy trends in all six focus regions; 56 countries in total. Each region is discussed with regards to: recent market developments in the electricity, heat and transport sector; policy developments; IEA projections; an analysis of the mid-term (2030) potential of renewable energy technologies in these regions; and an analysis of the strategic drivers underpinning the deployment of RE in each region.

  1. Consumer cost effectiveness of CO2 mitigation policies in restructured electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jared; Apt, Jay

    2014-10-01

    We examine the cost of carbon dioxide mitigation to consumers in restructured USA markets under two policy instruments, a carbon price and a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). To estimate the effect of policies on market clearing prices, we constructed hourly economic dispatch models of the generators in PJM and in ERCOT. We find that the cost effectiveness of policies for consumers is strongly dependent on the price of natural gas and on the characteristics of the generators in the dispatch stack. If gas prices are low (˜4/MMBTU), a technology-agnostic, rational consumer seeking to minimize costs would prefer a carbon price over an RPS in both regions. Expensive gas (˜7/MMBTU) requires a high carbon price to induce fuel switching and this leads to wealth transfers from consumers to low carbon producers. The RPS may be more cost effective for consumers because the added energy supply lowers market clearing prices and reduces CO2 emissions. We find that both policies have consequences in capacity markets and that the RPS can be more cost effective than a carbon price under certain circumstances: continued excess supply of capacity, retention of nuclear generators, and high natural gas prices.

  2. Prices and Market Shares in a Menu Cost Model

    OpenAIRE

    Burstein, Ariel Tomas; Hellwig, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Pricing complementarities play a key role in determining the propagation of monetary disturbances in sticky price models. We propose a procedure to infer the degree of firm-level pricing complementarities in the context of a menu cost model of price adjustment using data on prices and market shares at the level of individual varieties. We then apply this procedure by calibrating our model (in which pricing complementarities are based on decreasing returns to scale at the variety level) using ...

  3. Environmental impacts and costs of energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabl, Ari; Spadaro, Joseph V

    2006-09-01

    Environmental damage is one of the main justifications for continued efforts to reduce energy consumption and to shift to cleaner sources such as solar energy. In recent years there has been much progress in the analysis of environmental damages, in particular thanks to the ExternE (External Costs of Energy) Project of the European Commission. This article presents a summary of the methodology and key results for the external costs of the major energy technologies. Even though the uncertainties are large, the results provide substantial evidence that the classical air pollutants (particles, No(x), and SO(2)) from fossil fuels impose significant public health costs, comparable to the cost of global warming from CO(2) emissions. The total external costs are relatively low for natural gas (in the range of about 0.5-1 eurocents/kWh for most EU countries), but much higher for coal and lignite (in the range of about 2-6 eurocents/kWh for most EU countries). By contrast, the external costs of nuclear, wind, and photovoltaics are very low. The external costs of hydro are extremely variable from site to site, and the ones of biomass depend strongly on the specific technologies used and can be quite large for combustion.

  4. Proposed Methodology for Assessing Cost of Synergies between Offshore Renewable Energy and Other Sea Uses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Hanssen, Jan Erik; O´Sullivan, Keith;

    2015-01-01

    platforms are examined into details with the cost model realized within the MARINA FP7 project and with market projections for non-energy activities (fish farming, algae farming and desalination). The results are presented in terms of costs per unit, expected energy production and expected revenue from...

  5. Cost projections for Redox Energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, K.; Hall, G.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary design and system cost analysis was performed for the redox energy storage system. A conceptual design and cost estimate was prepared for each of two energy applications: (1) electric utility 100-MWh requirement (10-MW for ten hours) for energy storage for utility load leveling application, and (2) a 500-kWh requirement (10-kW for 50 hours) for use with a variety of residential or commercial applications, including stand alone solar photovoltaic systems. The conceptual designs were based on cell performance levels, system design parameters, and special material costs. These data were combined with estimated thermodynamic and hydraulic analysis to provide preliminary system designs. Results indicate that the redox cell stack to be amenable to mass production techniques with a relatively low material cost.

  6. The Cost of Enforcing Building Energy Codes: Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Alison [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Sarah K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Vine, Ed [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    The purpose of this study is to present key findings regarding costs associated with enforcing building energy code compliance–primarily focusing on costs borne by local government. Building codes, if complied with, have the ability to save a significant amount of energy. However, energy code compliance rates have been significantly lower than 100%. Renewed interest in building energy codes has focused efforts on increasing compliance, particularly as a result of the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) requirement that in order for states to receive additional energy grants, they must have “a plan for the jurisdiction achieving compliance with the building energy code…in at least 90 percent of new and renovated residential and commercial building space” by 2017 (Public Law 111-5, Section 410(2)(C)). One study by the Institute for Market Transformation (IMT) estimated the costs associated with reaching 90% compliance to be $810 million, or $610 million in additional funding over existing expenditures, a non-trivial value. [Majersik & Stellberg 2010] In this context, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted a study to better pinpoint the costs of enforcement through a two-phase process.

  7. Assessing the Cost of Energy Independence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, Marijn R.; Hüls, Jannik; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.; Remke, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Battery management strategies that reserve a certain capacity for power outages are able to increase the energy independence of a smart home. However, such strategies come at a certain cost, since these storage strategies are less flexible and energy from the grid may have to be bought at a high pri

  8. Levelized Cost of Energy of the Weptos wave energy converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report presents the cost of energy calculations of a wave energy array of 90 MW, consisting of 25 x 3.6 MW Weptos wave energy converters. The calculation has been made in analogy with a publically available document presented by the UK government, covering the case of a similar size wind...

  9. 2011 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S.; Lantz, E.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Smith, A.; Schwabe, P.

    2013-03-01

    This report describes the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for a typical land-based wind turbine installed in the United States in 2011, as well as the modeled LCOE for a fixed-bottom offshore wind turbine installed in the United States in 2011. Each of the four major components of the LCOE equation are explained in detail, such as installed capital cost, annual energy production, annual operating expenses, and financing, and including sensitivity ranges that show how each component can affect LCOE. These LCOE calculations are used for planning and other purposes by the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Program.

  10. Cost and Returns in the marketing of Local Leafy Vegetables in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... in the marketing of ten local/indigenous leafy vegetables in some markets in Ibadan metropolis. ... Data on costs and returns of marketing operations were collected using structured questionnaire.

  11. Review of the current wind energy technologies and global market

    OpenAIRE

    Komarov, Dragan; Stupar, Slobodan; Posteljnik, Zorana

    2011-01-01

    The modern wind energy technologies and recent global wind energy market trends are reviewed in the paper. Basic principles of conversion of wind energy to electricity are described with brief overview of the state-of-the-art technologies for subassemblies such as wind turbine blades and drive trains. Global wind energy market was reviewed in order to attain notion of wind power market developments in the future. The most developed countries in terms of wind energy utilization such as Denmark...

  12. Market power in interactive environmental and energy markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amundsen, Eirik S; Nese, Gjermund

    2017-01-01

    electricity and TGC markets, and focus on the role of market power (i.e., Stackelberg leadership). One result is that a certificate system faced with market power may collapse into a system of per-unit subsidies. Also, the model shows that TGCs may be an imprecise instrument for regulating the generation......A market for tradable green certificates (TGCs) is strongly interwoven in the electricity market in that the producers of green electricity are also the suppliers of TGCs. Therefore, strategic interaction may result. We formulate an analytic equilibrium model for simultaneously functioning...

  13. Nonlinear Pricing in Energy and Environmental Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Koichiro

    This dissertation consists of three empirical studies on nonlinear pricing in energy and environmental markets. The first investigates how consumers respond to multi-tier nonlinear price schedules for residential electricity. Chapter 2 asks a similar research question for residential water pricing. Finally, I examine the effect of nonlinear financial rewards for energy conservation by applying a regression discontinuity design to a large-scale electricity rebate program that was implemented in California. Economic theory generally assumes that consumers respond to marginal prices when making economic decisions, but this assumption may not hold for complex price schedules. The chapter "Do Consumers Respond to Marginal or Average Price? Evidence from Nonlinear Electricity Pricing" provides empirical evidence that consumers respond to average price rather than marginal price when faced with nonlinear electricity price schedules. Nonlinear price schedules, such as progressive income tax rates and multi-tier electricity prices, complicate economic decisions by creating multiple marginal prices for the same good. Evidence from laboratory experiments suggests that consumers facing such price schedules may respond to average price as a heuristic. I empirically test this prediction using field data by exploiting price variation across a spatial discontinuity in electric utility service areas. The territory border of two electric utilities lies within several city boundaries in southern California. As a result, nearly identical households experience substantially different nonlinear electricity price schedules. Using monthly household-level panel data from 1999 to 2008, I find strong evidence that consumers respond to average price rather than marginal or expected marginal price. I show that even though this sub-optimizing behavior has a minimal impact on individual welfare, it can critically alter the policy implications of nonlinear pricing. The second chapter " How Do

  14. IEA Wind Task 26: The Past and Future Cost of Wind Energy, Work Package 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.; Wiser, R.; Hand, M.

    2012-05-01

    Over the past 30 years, wind power has become a mainstream source of electricity generation around the world. However, the future of wind power will depend a great deal on the ability of the industry to continue to achieve cost of energy reductions. In this summary report, developed as part of the International Energy Agency Wind Implementing Agreement Task 26, titled 'The Cost of Wind Energy,' we provide a review of historical costs, evaluate near-term market trends, review the methods used to estimate long-term cost trajectories, and summarize the range of costs projected for onshore wind energy across an array of forward-looking studies and scenarios. We also highlight the influence of high-level market variables on both past and future wind energy costs.

  15. Optimal offering and allocation policies for wind power in energy and reserve markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago; Jensen, Tue Vissing; Mazzi, Nicolo

    2017-01-01

    Proliferation of wind power generation is increasingly making this power source an important asset in designs of energy and reserve markets. Intuitively, wind power producers will require the development of new offering strategies that maximize the expected profit in both energy and reserve markets...... while fulfilling the market rules and its operational limits. In this paper, we implement and exploit the controllability of the proportional control strategy. This strategy allows the splitting of potentially available wind power generation in energy and reserve markets. In addition, we take advantage......Cormick relaxation and piecewise linear decision rules are adapted and tested aiming to maximize the expected revenue for participating in both energy and reserve markets, while accounting for estimated balancing costs for failing to provide energy and reserve. A set of numerical examples, as well as a case study...

  16. AGENCY COSTS DAN KEBIJAKAN DIVIDEN PADA EMERGING MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darman Darman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to analyze agency costs and dividend policy onemerging market. The research population was 147 manufacture industry companies listedat the Indonesian Stock Exchange. Sample were retrieved bases on purposive sampling method,there were 25 companies, which were fulfilling the condition needed, starting from 2000until 2005, pooling data with analysis unit n = 6 x 25 = 150. Research used ordinary leastsquare. Research results showed that agency costs did not significantly influence dividendpolicy. Research conclusion was that agency costs were not important factors of dividendpolicy. Next analysis result showed that insider ownership, institutional ownership, dispertionof ownership, and free cash flow did not significantly influence dividen policy. Thecollateralizable asset significantly influenced dividend policy. This finding showed that therewas no agencial conflicts between manager (agent and stockholders (principals in emergingmarket (manufacture industry companies listed at the Indonesian Stock Exchange. However,there were agencial conflicts between stockholders and creditor (bondholders.

  17. In Brief: Hidden environment and health costs of energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-10-01

    The hidden costs of energy production and use in the United States amounted to an estimated $120 billion in 2005, according to a 19 October report by the U.S. National Research Council. The report, “Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use,” examines hidden costs, including the cost of air pollution damage to human health, which are not reflected in market prices of energy sources, electricity, or gasoline. The report found that in 2005, the total annual external damages from sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter created by coal-burning power plants that produced 95% of the nation's coal-generated electricity were about $62 billion, with nonclimate damages averaging about 3.2 cents for every kilowatt-hour of energy produced. It is estimated that by 2030, nonclimate damages will fall to 1.7 cents per kilowatt-hour. The 2030 figure assumes that new policies already slated for implementation are put in place.

  18. Renewable energy costs, potentials, barriers. Conceptual issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbruggen, Aviel [University of Antwerp (Belgium); Fischedick, Manfred [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment, Energy (Germany); Moomaw, William [Tufts University, Center for International Environment and Resource Policy (United States); Weir, Tony [University of the South Pacific, Fiji Islands (Fiji); Nadai, Alain [Centre International de Recherche sur Environnement et le Developpement CIRED (France); Nilsson, Lars J. [University of Lund (Sweden); Nyboer, John [Simon Fraser University, School of Resource and Environmental Management (Canada); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Renewable energy can become the major energy supply option in low-carbon energy economies. Disruptive transformations in all energy systems are necessary for tapping widely available renewable energy resources. Organizing the energy transition from non-sustainable to renewable energy is often described as the major challenge of the first half of the 21st century. Technological innovation, the economy (costs and prices) and policies have to be aligned to achieve full renewable energy potentials, and barriers impeding that growth need to be removed. These issues are also covered by IPCC's special report on renewable energy and climate change to be completed in 2010. This article focuses on the interrelations among the drivers. It clarifies definitions of costs and prices, and of barriers. After reviewing how the third and fourth assessment reports of IPCC cover mitigation potentials and commenting on definitions of renewable energy potentials in the literature, we propose a consistent set of potentials of renewable energy supplies. (author)

  19. Waste to energy plant operation under the influence of market and legislation conditioned changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomic, Tihomir; Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Pfeifer, Antun

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, gate-fee changes of the waste-to-energy plants are investigated in the conditions set by European Union legislation and by the introduction of the new heat market. Waste management and sustainable energy supply are core issues of sustainable development of regions, especially urban...... areas. These two energy flows logically come together in the combined heat and power facility by waste incineration. However, the implementation of new legislation influences quantity and quality of municipal waste and operation of waste-to-energy systems. Once the legislation requirements are met......, waste-to-energy plants need to be adapted to market operation. This influence is tracked by the gate-fee volatility. The operation of the waste-to-energy plant on electricity markets is simulated by using EnergyPLAN and heat market is simulated in Matlab, based on hourly marginal costs. The results have...

  20. Analysis of the Russian Market for Building Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lychuk, Taras; Evans, Meredydd; Halverson, Mark A.; Roshchanka, Volha

    2012-12-01

    This report provides analysis of the Russian energy efficiency market for the building sector from the perspective of U.S. businesses interested in exporting relevant technologies, products and experience to Russia. We aim to help U.S. energy efficiency and environmental technologies businesses to better understand the Russian building market to plan their market strategy.

  1. THE COSTS OF ENERGY SUPPLY SECURITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogner, H.H.; Langlois, L.M.; McDonald, A.; Weisser, D.; Howells, M.

    2007-07-01

    In general, increasing a country's energy supply security does not come for free. It costs money to build up a strategic reserve, to increase supply diversity or even to accelerate energy efficiency improvements. Nor are all investments in increasing energy supply security cost effective, even if the shocks they are designed to insure against can be predicted with 100% accuracy. The first half of the paper surveys different definitions and strategies associated with the concept of energy supply security, and compares current initiatives to establish an 'assured supply of nuclear fuel' to the International Energy Agency's (IEA's) system of strategic national oil reserves. The second half of the paper presents results from several case studies of the costs and effectiveness of selected energy supply security policies. One case study examines alternative strategies for Lithuania following the scheduled closure of the Ignalina-2 nuclear reactor in 2009. The second case study examines, for countries with different energy resources and demand structures, the effectiveness of a policy to increase supply diversity by expanding renewable energy supplies. (auth)

  2. Energy cost reduction in the pulp and paper industry - an energy benchmarking perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, D.W.; Towers, M.T.; Browne, T.C. [Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    With the increasing cost of energy and the rising concerns over the environment, interest in energy saving methods is growing in the industry sector. In the pulp and paper sector, energy represents a significant part of costs and the aims of this paper are first, to demonstrate that there is a potential for energy use reduction in the pulp and paper industry and secondly, to show how it can be achieved. Benchmarking studies have been carried out for both the kraft market pulp and newsprint sectors; in both cases the energy consumption of existing Canadian mills was compared to that of a modern mill using the best current technologies. Results showed that in both sectors, the application of best practices could result in significant savings. This study demonstrated that the application of current technologies in existing mills would yield significant energy use reductions.

  3. Nuclear-Renewable Energy Systems Secondary Product Market Analysis Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deason, Wesley Ray [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    electricity to the grid in a future with high renewable energy penetration, HESs allow for excess capacity to be diverted to a chemical process. If the chemical products sold on the market replace those sold previously – which would be the case if a currently operating manufacturing plant was modified to be a HES component – then the products would now be produced with reduced emission of carbon and other greenhouse gases. There are several key economic barriers that must be surmounted for HESs to be developed. The two primary barriers are the increased capital cost associated with coupling and controlling the HES components and the decreased utilization of the manufacturing plant capital due to intermittent energy delivery . Because of this, manufacturing plants that are less complex and have smaller non-variable operations and capital costs may be more attractive for integration. A secondary economic barrier for the HES is the market availability for its products. The system must operate a region where there is either an intermittent demand for its electricity, an intermittent demand for its secondary product, or both. In a region with an intermittent demand, product prices should shift accordingly, making it less attractive to produce one of the products. The HES then can shift production in order to maximize profit. Without an intermittent demand for at least one of its products, there would be little need for it to expend the extra capital required for integration as an HES.

  4. Software Cuts Homebuilding Costs, Increases Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    To sort out the best combinations of technologies for a crewed mission to Mars, NASA Headquarters awarded grants to MIT's Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics to develop an algorithm-based software tool that highlights the most reliable and cost-effective options. Utilizing the software, Professor Edward Crawley founded Cambridge, Massachussetts-based Ekotrope, which helps homebuilders choose cost- and energy-efficient floor plans and materials.

  5. Asymmetric-Structure Analysis of Carbon and Energy Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Cao, Guangxi

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the asymmetric structure between the carbon and energy markets from two aspects of different trends (up or down) and volatility-transmission direction using asymmetric detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) cross-correlation coefficient test, multifractal asymmetric DCCA (MF-ADCCA) method, asymmetric volatility-constrained correlation metric and time rate of information-flow approach. We sampled 1283 observations from January 2008 to December 2012 among pairs of carbon and energy markets for analysis. Empirical results show that the (1) asymmetric characteristic from the cross-correlation between carbon and returns in the energy markets is significant, (2) asymmetric cross-correlation between carbon and energy market price returns is persistent and multifractral and (3) volatility of the base assets of energy market returns is more influential to the base asset of the carbon market than that of the energy market.

  6. Battery Energy Storage Market: Commercial Scale, Lithium-ion Projects in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce; Gagnon, Pieter; Anderson, Kate; Elgqvist, Emma; Fu, Ran; Remo, Tim

    2016-10-01

    This slide deck presents current market data on the commercial scale li-ion battery storage projects in the U.S. It includes existing project locations, cost data and project cost breakdown, a map of demand charges across the U.S. and information about how the ITC and MACRS apply to energy storage projects that are paired with solar PV technology.

  7. Market Brief: Status of the Voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate Market (2011 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Armstrong, P.; Bird, L.

    2012-09-01

    This report documents the status and trends of U.S. 'voluntary' markets -- those in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. Voluntary REC markets continue to exhibit growth and spur renewable energy development. Voluntary green power markets provide an additional revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raise consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. Although a full estimate of the size of the voluntary market is not available for 2011, this review uses indicative metrics to capture 2011 voluntary market trends.

  8. Market Brief. Status of the Voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate Market (2011 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Armstrong, Philip [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This report documents the status and trends of U.S. 'voluntary' markets -- those in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. Voluntary REC markets continue to exhibit growth and spur renewable energy development. Voluntary green power markets provide an additional revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raise consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. Although a full estimate of the size of the voluntary market is not available for 2011, this review uses indicative metrics to capture 2011 voluntary market trends.

  9. Energy storage systems: power grid and energy market use cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarnicki Przemysław

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Current power grid and market development, characterized by large growth of distributed energy sources in recent years, especially in Europa, are according energy storage systems an increasingly larger field of implementation. Existing storage technologies, e.g. pumped-storage power plants, have to be upgraded and extended by new but not yet commercially viable technologies (e.g. batteries or adiabatic compressed air energy storage that meet expected demands. Optimal sizing of storage systems and technically and economically optimal operating strategies are the major challenges to the integration of such systems in the future smart grid. This paper surveys firstly the literature on the latest niche applications. Then, potential new use case and operating scenarios for energy storage systems in smart grids, which have been field tested, are presented and discussed and subsequently assessed technically and economically.

  10. A market approach to better care at lower cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antos, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    The Affordable Care Act expanded health insurance coverage in the United States but did little to address the structural problems that plague the U.S. health care system. Controlling cost while maintaining or improving access to quality care requires a more fundamental reform based on market principles. Such an approach means aligning the financial incentives of patients and providers to promote smarter spending. It also requires better information and more flexible regulation to promote well-functioning competitive markets. Key elements of these reforms include setting reasonable limits on subsidies for Medicare, Medicaid, and private health insurance; modernizing the Medicare program and adopting reforms that promote competition between traditional Medicare and Medicare Advantage; allowing greater flexibility for states in running their Medicaid programs; enacting smarter regulations to protect consumers without imposing greater inefficiency on the health market; and promoting more direct consumer involvement in all phases of their health and health care. These changes will challenge academic medical centers as a new era of creativity and competition emerges in the health care market.

  11. Linking Reduced Deforestation and a Global Carbon Market: Impacts on Costs, Financial Flows, and Technological Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Bosetti, Valentina; Lubowski, Ruben; Golub, Alexander; Markandya, Anil

    2010-01-01

    Discussions of tropical deforestation are currently at the forefront of climate change policy negotiations at national, regional, and international levels. This paper analyzes the effects of linking Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) to a global market for greenhouse gas emission reductions. We supplement a global climate-energy-economy model with alternative cost estimates for reducing deforestation emissions in order to examine a global program for stabilizin...

  12. Cost Benefit Analysis of the Power Storage System Considering Outage Cost in the Deregulated Power Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuru, Hirokazu; Fujii, Yasumasa

    In this paper, the authors propose the mathematical model which derives the optimal operation strategies of an on-site power storage system through the use of stochastic dynamic programming technique. The model takes account of the variations and uncertainties of electricity market prices as well as the outage costs of power grid failures. The market price fluctuation is modeled with stochastic differential equation. The stochastic state transitions between normal and failed systems are modeled with exponential density functions. The derived optimal operation indicates that the economic value of the storage system may be increased substantially, if the avoided outage costs are explicitly taken into account. The results of the sensitivity analysis indicate that the most influential parameters are the magnitude of outage cost and the mean time to failure of power grid.

  13. Managing customer loyalty in liberalized residential energy markets: the impact of energy branding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, P.; Ibanez, V.A. [University of the Basque Country, Bilbao (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales

    2007-04-15

    In numerous recently deregulated energy markets, utilities previously operating in monopolistic environments are now focusing on customer satisfaction and loyalty. In this study, a conceptual framework is proposed that analyses the effects of brand associations and perceived switching costs on customer satisfaction and loyalty in residential energy markets. Several brand associations relevant to energy branding are identified: perceived technical service quality and service process quality, perception of value-added services, environmental and social commitment of the company, brand trust, price perceptions and brand associations related to the corporate attributes 'innovative and dynamic'. Subsequently, the proposed model is tested in the scope of a representative survey of Spanish residential energy customers. Results indicate that customer satisfaction, brand trust and perceived switching costs are positively related to customer loyalty and that brand trust exerts a stronger influence on customer loyalty than satisfaction and switching costs. Findings also show significant effects of the perception of service process quality and environmental and social commitment on loyalty via customer satisfaction. Implications for energy brand managers and regulators are discussed. [Author].

  14. Marketing strategy for retailing small-scale wind energy turbines in Indian markets

    OpenAIRE

    Harjula, Nina

    2009-01-01

    The study analyzes the small-scale wind energy markets in Mumbai, focusing on questions: How feasible is the wind energy for SME businesses in Mumbai, and what are the main challenges and opportunities of small-scale wind energy in Mumbai? The study is a qualitative case study, in which, the data has been collected through observing the markets by visiting wind energy sites and companies, interviewing and meeting potential customers and other stakeholders in the market. Theoretical frame...

  15. 75 FR 6378 - Covanta Pylmouth Renewable Energy Limited Partnership Covanta Energy Marketing LLC Covanta Power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Covanta Pylmouth Renewable Energy Limited Partnership Covanta Energy..., Covanta Pylmouth Renewable Energy Limited Partnership, Covanta Energy Marketing LLC, and Covanta...

  16. Optimizing Data Centre Energy and Environmental Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikema, David Hendrik

    Data centres use an estimated 2% of US electrical power which accounts for much of their total cost of ownership. This consumption continues to grow, further straining power grids attempting to integrate more renewable energy. This dissertation focuses on assessing and reducing data centre environmental and financial costs. Emissions of projects undertaken to lower the data centre environmental footprints can be assessed and the emission reduction projects compared using an ISO-14064-2-compliant greenhouse gas reduction protocol outlined herein. I was closely involved with the development of the protocol. Full lifecycle analysis and verifying that projects exceed business-as-usual expectations are addressed, and a test project is described. Consuming power when it is low cost or when renewable energy is available can be used to reduce the financial and environmental costs of computing. Adaptation based on the power price showed 10--50% potential savings in typical cases, and local renewable energy use could be increased by 10--80%. Allowing a fraction of high-priority tasks to proceed unimpeded still allows significant savings. Power grid operators use mechanisms called ancillary services to address variation and system failures, paying organizations to alter power consumption on request. By bidding to offer these services, data centres may be able to lower their energy costs while reducing their environmental impact. If providing contingency reserves which require only infrequent action, savings of up to 12% were seen in simulations. Greater power cost savings are possible for those ceding more control to the power grid operator. Coordinating multiple data centres adds overhead, and altering at which data centre requests are processed based on changes in the financial or environmental costs of power is likely to increase this overhead. Tests of virtual machine migrations showed that in some cases there was no visible increase in power use while in others power use

  17. Interaction of Compliance and Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Lokey, E.

    2007-10-01

    In recent years, both compliance and voluntary markets have emerged to help support the development of renewable energy resources. Both of these markets are growing rapidly and today about half of U.S. states have RPS policies in place, with a number of these policies adopted in the last several years. In addition, many states have recently increased the stringency of their RPS policies. This paper examines key market interaction issues between compliance and voluntary renewable energy markets. It provides an overview of both the compliance and voluntary markets, addressing each market's history, purpose, size, scope, and benefits while addressing issues, including double counting.

  18. Interaction of Compliance and Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lokey, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2007-10-01

    In recent years, both compliance and voluntary markets have emerged to help support the development of renewable energy resources. Both of these markets are growing rapidly and today about half of U.S. states have RPS policies in place, with a number of these policies adopted in the last several years. In addition, many states have recently increased the stringency of their RPS policies. This paper examines key market interaction issues between compliance and voluntary renewable energy markets. It provides an overview of both the compliance and voluntary markets, addressing each market's history, purpose, size, scope, and benefits while addressing issues, including double counting.

  19. Past and Future Cost of Wind Energy: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.; Hand, M.; Wiser, R.

    2012-08-01

    The future of wind power will depend on the ability of the industry to continue to achieve cost reductions. To better understand the potential for cost reductions, this report provides a review of historical costs, evaluates near-term market trends, and summarizes the range of projected costs. It also notes potential sources of future cost reductions.

  20. Energy Cost Impact of Non-Residential Energy Code Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jian; Hart, Philip R.; Rosenberg, Michael I.

    2016-08-22

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code contains 396 separate requirements applicable to non-residential buildings; however, there is no systematic analysis of the energy cost impact of each requirement. Consequently, limited code department budgets for plan review, inspection, and training cannot be focused on the most impactful items. An inventory and ranking of code requirements based on their potential energy cost impact is under development. The initial phase focuses on office buildings with simple HVAC systems in climate zone 4C. Prototype building simulations were used to estimate the energy cost impact of varying levels of non-compliance. A preliminary estimate of the probability of occurrence of each level of non-compliance was combined with the estimated lost savings for each level to rank the requirements according to expected savings impact. The methodology to develop and refine further energy cost impacts, specific to building type, system type, and climate location is demonstrated. As results are developed, an innovative alternative method for compliance verification can focus efforts so only the most impactful requirements from an energy cost perspective are verified for every building and a subset of the less impactful requirements are verified on a random basis across a building population. The results can be further applied in prioritizing training material development and specific areas of building official training.

  1. Allocation of Transaction Cost to Market Participants Using an Analytical Method in Deregulated Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyasankari, S.; Jeslin Drusila Nesamalar, J.; Charles Raja, S.; Venkatesh, P.

    2014-04-01

    Transmission cost allocation is one of the major challenges in transmission open access faced by the electric power sector. The purpose of this work is to provide an analytical method for allocating transmission transaction cost in deregulated market. This research work provides a usage based transaction cost allocation method based on line-flow impact factor (LIF) which relates the power flow in each line with respect to transacted power for the given transaction. This method provides the impact of line flows without running iterative power flow solution and is well suited for real time applications. The proposed method is compared with the Newton-Raphson (NR) method of cost allocation on sample six bus and practical Indian utility 69 bus systems by considering multilateral transaction.

  2. Market integration of responsive customers : application to energy and balancing markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, C.; Valencia, I.; Alcazar, M. [Univ. Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain). Inst. of Energy Engineering; Gabaldon, A.; Escriva, G. [Univ. Politecnica de Cartagena, Cartagena (Spain). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Demand response management methods are now being adopted by many deregulated electric utilities. This article presented details of a method designed to create offers and bids for large electricity customers. The method was developed to analyze daily and monthly energy consumption rates and participation in energy and ancillary service markets in Spain. A simulation was used to analyze day-ahead, inter-daily, and balancing scenarios. Peak demand in winter and summer months was characterized. Energy consumption was analyzed for different demand packages related to air conditioning, outdoor lighting, indoor lighting, and other domestic loads. Prices for each package were calculated in order to assess demand reduction capabilities. Differences between real consumption levels and energy prices bought at real-time prices were compared. An overview of Spanish electricity market structures was provided. Results of the study showed that electricity customers may benefit from participating in demand response programs. It was concluded that lower prices obtained during periods of low electricity production outweighed the higher costs of peak electricity periods. 13 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  3. Cost optimal levels for energy performance requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Aggerholm, Søren; Kluttig-Erhorn, Heike;

    This report summarises the work done within the Concerted Action EPBD from December 2010 to April 2011 in order to feed into the European Commission's proposal for a common European procedure for a Cost-Optimal methodology under the Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings (recast) 2010/3...

  4. The High Cost of Saving Energy Dollars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Patricia

    1985-01-01

    In alternative financing a private company provides the capital and expertise for improving school energy efficiency. Savings are split between the school system and the company. Options for municipal leasing, cost sharing, and shared savings are explained along with financial, procedural, and legal considerations. (MLF)

  5. Potential Energy Cost Savings from Increased Commercial Energy Code Compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Michael I.; Hart, Philip R.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Zhang, Jian; Cohan, David F.

    2016-08-22

    An important question for commercial energy code compliance is: “How much energy cost savings can better compliance achieve?” This question is in sharp contrast to prior efforts that used a checklist of code requirements, each of which was graded pass or fail. Percent compliance for any given building was simply the percent of individual requirements that passed. A field investigation method is being developed that goes beyond the binary approach to determine how much energy cost savings is not realized. Prototype building simulations were used to estimate the energy cost impact of varying levels of non-compliance for newly constructed office buildings in climate zone 4C. Field data collected from actual buildings on specific conditions relative to code requirements was then applied to the simulation results to find the potential lost energy savings for a single building or for a sample of buildings. This new methodology was tested on nine office buildings in climate zone 4C. The amount of additional energy cost savings they could have achieved had they complied fully with the 2012 International Energy Conservation Code is determined. This paper will present the results of the test, lessons learned, describe follow-on research that is needed to verify that the methodology is both accurate and practical, and discuss the benefits that might accrue if the method were widely adopted.

  6. Essays on U.S. energy markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightwell, David A.

    2008-04-01

    This dissertation examines three facets of U.S. energy use and policy. First, I examine the Gulf Coast petroleum refining industry to determine the structure of the industry. Using the duality between cost-minimization and production functions, I estimate the demand for labor to determine the underlying production function. The results indicate that refineries have become more capital intensive due to the relative price increase of labor. The industry has consolidated in response to higher labor costs and costs of environmental compliance. Next, I examine oil production in the United States. An empirical model based on the theoretical framework of Pindyck is used to estimate production. This model differs from previous research by using state level data rather than national level data. The results indicate that the production elasticity with respect to reserves and the price elasticity of supply are both inelastic in the long run. The implication of these findings is that policies designed to increase domestic production through subsidies, tax breaks, or royalty reductions will likely provide little additional oil. We simulate production under three scenarios. In the most extreme scenario, prices double between 2005 and 2030 while reserves increase by 50%. Under this scenario, oil production in 2030 is approximately the same as the 2005 level. The third essay estimates demand for fossil fuels in the U.S. and uses these estimates to forecast CO2 emissions. The results indicate that there is almost no substitution from one fossil fuel to another and that all three fossil fuels are inelastic in the long run. Additionally, all three fuels respond differently to changes in GDP. The result of the differing elasticities with respect to GDP is that the energy mix has changed over time. The implication for forecasting CO2 emissions is that models that cannot distinguish changes in the energy mix are not effective in forecasting CO2 emissions.

  7. Expanding Energy Performance Contracting in china: policy solutions and market mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Liu, Xu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Meng, Lu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shi, Wenjing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Evans, Meredydd [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Roshchanka, Volha [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Yu, Sha [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-07-19

    Energy performance contracting is an important market mechanism that uses energy savings to pay over time for the upfront costs of energy efficiency retrofits in buildings, industries, and other types of facilities. Through energy performance contracts (EPCs), Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) play an important role in implementing energy efficiency retrofits. Both China and the United States have large markets for EPCs and significant opportunities for growth. The Chinese government has made great efforts in promoting the country’s ESCO business and expanding its EPC markets. This paper makes a series of recommendations for China to adopt more ambitious policy measures to encourage deep energy savings projects via EPCs. These recommendations are built on initial insights from a white paper developed by researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with the assistance from the ESCO Committee of China’s Energy Conservation Association (EMCA). Key recommendations are listed below.

  8. Wind farm production cost: Optimum turbine size and farm capacity in the actual market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laali, A.R.; Meyer, J.L.; Bellot, C. [Electricite de France, Chatou (France); Louche, A. [Espace de Recherche, Ajaccio (France)

    1996-12-31

    Several studies are undertaken in R&D Division of EDF in collaboration with ERASME association in order to have a good knowledge of the wind energy production costs. These studies are performed in the framework of a wind energy monitoring project and concern the influence of a few parameters like wind farm capacity, turbine size and wind speed on production costs, through an analysis of the actual market trend. Some 50 manufacturers and 140 different kind of wind turbines are considered for this study. The minimum production cost is situated at 800/900 kW wind turbine rated power. This point will probably move to more important powers in the future. This study is valid only for average conditions and some special parameters like particular climate conditions or lack of infrastructure for a special site the could modify the results shown on the curves. The variety of wind turbines (rated power as a function of rotor diameter, height and specific rated power) in the actual market is analyzed. A brief analysis of the market trend is also performed. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Production and cost of harvesting, processing, and transporting small-diameter (< 5 inches) trees for energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei Pan; Han-Sup Han; Leonard R. Johnson; William J. Elliot

    2008-01-01

    Dense, small-diameter stands generally require thinning from below to improve fire-tolerance. The resulting forest biomass can be used for energy production. The cost of harvesting, processing, and transporting small-diameter trees often exceeds revenues due to high costs associated with harvesting and transportation and low market values for forest biomass....

  10. Energy cost of creating quantum coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Avijit; Singh, Uttam; Bhattacharya, Samyadeb; Pati, Arun Kumar

    2016-05-01

    We consider physical situations where the resource theories of coherence and thermodynamics play competing roles. In particular, we study the creation of quantum coherence using unitary operations with limited thermodynamic resources. We find the maximal coherence that can be created under unitary operations starting from a thermal state and find explicitly the unitary transformation that creates the maximal coherence. Since coherence is created by unitary operations starting from a thermal state, it requires some amount of energy. This motivates us to explore the trade-off between the amount of coherence that can be created and the energy cost of the unitary process. We also find the maximal achievable coherence under the constraint on the available energy. Additionally, we compare the maximal coherence and the maximal total correlation that can be created under unitary transformations with the same available energy at our disposal. We find that when maximal coherence is created with limited energy, the total correlation created in the process is upper bounded by the maximal coherence, and vice versa. For two-qubit systems we show that no unitary transformation exists that creates the maximal coherence and maximal total correlation simultaneously with a limited energy cost.

  11. The Process Approach to Defining and Classifying the Marketing Costs of Trade Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoliarchuk Hanna V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article suggests the definition of marketing costs based on a process approach, taking into account the innovation component. A detailed analysis of existing approaches to the definition of the term of «marketing costs» has been carried out. It has been found that there is no single scientific-methodical approach to the definition of marketing costs among scientists. Feasibility of using the process approach to the definition of marketing costs has been substantiated. According to the allocated business processes of marketing activity, components of its costs have been provided with account of the costs of innovation. Prospect for further research is development of a system of the indicators for evaluating the efficiency of costs of business processes of marketing activity.

  12. Government policy and market penetration opportunities for US renewable energy technology in India and Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, J.; Weingart, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Some US renewable energy industries are now looking abroad, especially to the rapidly developing Asia-Pacific region, in order to increase sales and expand markets. The developing world appears in principle to be an important market for renewable energy technologies. These international markets have proven extremely difficult to penetrate, and the US competitive position is threatened by strong, well-organized, government-supported competition from Japan and Western Europe. For example, US photovoltaic manufacturers held 80% of the world PV market in 1980; today their market share is down to 35%. Less developed countries (LDCs) present a potentially significant but highly elusive market for renewable energy technologies. This market may develop for three major reasons; the shortage of electricity supply and the high cost of grid extension to rural areas, the high cost of oil imports and the scarcity of light oil products, and the gradual replacement of traditional fuels with modern ones. The focus of this report is on the policies and attitudes of national and regional governments in India and Pakistan towards renewable energy technology and how these policies and attitudes affect the potential for penetration of these markets by US industry. We have attempted to provide some useful insight into the actual market environment in India and Pakistan rather than just report on official laws, regulations, and policies. The report also examines the economics of technologies in comparison with more traditional sources of energy. It concentrates primarily on technologies, such as photovoltaics and wind electric systems, that would benefit from foreign participation, but also identifies potential market opportunities for advanced solar desalination and other renewable energy technologies. 31 refs.

  13. Real options and asset valuation in competitive energy markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduntan, Adekunle Richard

    The focus of this work is to develop a robust valuation framework for physical power assets operating in competitive markets such as peaking or mid-merit thermal power plants and baseload power plants. The goal is to develop a modeling framework that can be adapted to different energy assets with different types of operating flexibilities and technical constraints and which can be employed for various purposes such as capital budgeting, business planning, risk management and strategic bidding planning among others. The valuation framework must also be able to capture the reality of power market rules and opportunities, as well as technical constraints of different assets. The modeling framework developed conceptualizes operating flexibilities of power assets as "switching options' whereby the asset operator decides at every decision point whether to switch from one operating mode to another mutually exclusive mode, within the limits of the equipment constraints of the asset. As a current decision to switch operating modes may affect future operating flexibilities of the asset and hence cash flows, a dynamic optimization framework is employed. The developed framework accounts for the uncertain nature of key value drivers by representing them with appropriate stochastic processes. Specifically, the framework developed conceptualizes the operation of a power asset as a multi-stage decision making problem where the operator has to make a decision at every stage to alter operating mode given currently available information about key value drivers. The problem is then solved dynamically by decomposing it into a series of two-stage sub-problems according to Bellman's optimality principle. The solution algorithm employed is the Least Squares Monte Carlo (LSM) method. The developed valuation framework was adapted for a gas-fired thermal power plant, a peaking hydroelectric power plant and a baseload power plant. This work built on previously published real options valuation

  14. The energy costs of wading in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis G. Halsey

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies measuring the energy costs of wading in water have been limited to higher walking speeds in straight lines, in deep water. However, much foraging in water, by both humans and other primates, is conducted in the shallows and at low speeds of locomotion that include elements of turning, as befits searching for cryptic or hidden foods within a patch. The present study brings together data on the rate of oxygen consumption during wading by humans from previous studies, and augments these with new data for wading in shallower depths, with slower and more tortuous walking, to obtain a better understanding both of the absolute costs of wading in typical scenarios of aquatic foraging and of how the cost of wading varies as a function of water depth and speed of locomotion. Previous and present data indicate that, at low speeds, wading has a similar energetic cost to walking on land, particularly at lower water depths, and only at higher speeds is the cost of wading noticeably more expensive than when water is absent. This is probably explained by the relatively small volume of water that must be displaced during locomotion in shallow waters coupled with the compensating support to the limbs that the water affords. The support to the limbs/body provided by water is discussed further, in the context of bipedal locomotion by non-human primates during wading.

  15. Wind energy: A review of technical and market issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrad, A.D. [Garrad Hassan & Partners Ltd., Bristol (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    Opinions on the world market for wind power are presented in this paper. The paper is divided into three sections: the market, the technology, and general conclusions. The market section compares European and US wind energy growth and contributing factors and barriers to growth. A technology overview discusses wind turbine concepts, mass reduction, blade structural flexibility, and growth in machine size. Political decisions, economic aspects, public acceptance, and technology limitations are assessed for their influence on the growth of wind energy. 11 figs.

  16. Marketing: an approach to successful energy-conservation information programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutton, R. B.; McNeill, D. L.

    1980-08-01

    This monograph shows how the adoption of a marketing approach can improve the quality of the development and delivery of energy-conservation programs. Several factors make the use of such a marketing approach to conservation particularly beneficial, namely: (1) goals of conservation programs can be quantified (e.g., specified amount of energy to be saved); in addition, intermediate effects necessary for program success are also measureable (e.g., knowledge, attitude change, etc); (2) there is an apparent and increasing need for conservation by different parts (or sectors) of the population; however, it is clear that the desire for conservation is not the same for all sectors; (3) conservation programs can be thought of in much the same way as products with benefits and costs; this necessitates an understanding of how the population makes conservation decisions so that the program can fit into that decision process; (4) the need to tailor programs to the needs of the population is heightened by the general competition for the consumer dollar; it is necessary to design and present programs in a way that the individual will view conservation as an attractive choice among many (e.g., bank savings, buying clothes, furniture, car, etc.); and (5) the population's response to, and need for conservation is constantly changing; consequently, it is important to realize that these changes may need to be reflected in the conservation programs themselves (both ongoing and new).

  17. Causality Between Market Liquidity and Depth for Energy and Grains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Sari (Ramazan); S.M. Hammoudeh (Shawkat); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines the roles of futures prices of crude oil, gasoline, ethanol, corn, soybeans and sugar in the energy-grain nexus. It also investigates the own- and cross-market impacts for lagged grain trading volume and open interest in the energy and grain markets. According to the

  18. Trade costs, openness and productivity: market access at home and abroad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lejour, Arjan; Rojas-Romagosa, Hugo; Rodriguez, V.F.; Montalvo, Carlos; van der Zee, Frans

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the channels between openness and productivity and trade hampering factors. The stylized facts from the heterogeneous firms literature suggests that firms face market entry costs for each new product they export and to each new export market. Transport costs, border costs and

  19. Trade costs, openness and productivity: market access at home and abroad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lejour, Arjan; Rojas-Romagosa, Hugo; Rodriguez, Victor; Montalvo, Carlos; Zee, van der Frans

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the channels between openness and productivity and trade hampering factors. The stylized facts from the heterogeneous firms literature suggests that firms face market entry costs for each new product they export and to each new export market. Transport costs, border costs and re

  20. What is the optimum social marketing mix to market energy conservation behaviour: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheau-Ting, Low; Mohammed, Abdul Hakim; Weng-Wai, Choong

    2013-12-15

    This study attempts to identify the optimum social marketing mix for marketing energy conservation behaviour to students in Malaysian universities. A total of 2000 students from 5 major Malaysian universities were invited to provide their preferred social marketing mix. A choice-based conjoint analysis identified a mix of five social marketing attributes to promote energy conservation behaviour; the mix is comprised of the attributes of Product, Price, Place, Promotion, and Post-purchase Maintenance. Each attribute of the mix is associated with a list of strategies. The Product and Post-purchase Maintenance attributes were identified by students as the highest priority attributes in the social marketing mix for energy conservation behaviour marketing, with shares of 27.12% and 27.02%, respectively. The least preferred attribute in the mix is Promotion, with a share of 11.59%. This study proposes an optimal social marketing mix to university management when making decisions about marketing energy conservation behaviour to students, who are the primary energy consumers in the campus. Additionally, this study will assist university management to efficiently allocate scarce resources in fulfilling its social responsibility and to overcome marketing shortcomings by selecting the right marketing mix. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Capacity Payments in Restructured Markets under Low and High Penetration Levels of Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkin, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-11

    There is considerable debate about the degree to which restructured markets perform successfully in their use of capacity markets. In providing appropriate incentives for new and existing generation to meet reliability requirements, a variety of capacity market designs have developed across RTOs and ISOs in the United States and internationally. Growing levels of variable renewable energy (VRE) resources arguably create new challenges for capacity market designs, because VREs suppress energy prices while providing relatively little capacity, with these effects increase with VRE penetration. The purpose of this report is threefold. First, we provide a brief outline of the purpose and design of various capacity markets under consideration using variable resource requirement (VRR) demand curves. Second, we discuss some of the main challenges raised in existing literature and a set of interviews that we conducted with market participants, regulators, and observers, including where there substantive differences in opinion. Third, we consider some of the challenges that may be specific to higher penetration levels of VRE. While the well known 'merit order' effect from VRE can be expected to suppress wholesale energy prices and revenue, this may be partly mitigated by increased capacity payments and the greater importance of AS payments for flexible capacity. The potential for greater reliance on capacity markets for generator revenues may amplify any inefficiency and costs associated with capacity price volatility and other suboptimal market design choices. Regulatory intervention to ensure adequate capacity payments and ancillary service revenue may become more prevalent under current market designs as the timescale for market signals shifts increasingly from near term (e.g., day-ahead in wholesale electricity markets) to longer term (annual intervals in capacity markets). Our review and discussion with market participants suggest substantive challenges may

  2. Regulation of international energy markets: Economic effects of political actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakova, Anastasia V.

    's participation in a regulated market results in an average decline in its stock returns of up to 50 basis points per day, and a cumulative loss of more than 3.5% of its market value. Negative shocks to securities returns persist for at least two months. Participation in a regulated market, however, is not always unfavorable, as involved firms not directly targeted by regulatory action appear to gain sizable risk premiums. Additional evidence suggests that, although there is no direct linear relationship between firm size and effect magnitude, large firms tend to be hurt more in the short term, while small firms suffer bigger declines in returns over a longer time period. The last chapter turns to global electricity sectors to examine the development of Demand Response (DR) programs, which have become popular means of addressing the sector's central market failure of pricing below marginal generation cost. DR programs incorporate demand signals into retail electricity rates, and have the potential to effectively and inexpensively improve grid reliability and increase end-use efficiency. However, DR faces many challenges, arguably the most important of which is a general lack of information among consumers regarding usage levels and existence of alternative providers and rate plans. Financial considerations, lack of access to technological infrastructure, and misaligned producer incentives also play an important role in DR's limited success.

  3. Analysis of Implementing Lifetime Energy Cost, Including Fully Burdened Cost of Fuel and Energy Footprints of Contractors, as Mandatory Decision Factors in Navy Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    25 3. Green Building in Government Construction Contracting, American Bar Association .............................. 26 III. METHODOLOGY...Energy Efficiency Project SFG Senior Focus Group TOC Total Ownership Cost USGBC United States Green Building Counsel xv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...the currency market fluctuated, and thus would not necessarily indicate an increase or decrease in efficiency. 3. Green Building in Government

  4. Extending market activities for a distribution company in hourly-ahead energy and reserve markets-Part II: Numerical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashhour, M., E-mail: m.mashhour@ee.kntu.ac.i [Electrical Engineering Department of K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran 16315-1355 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Golkar, M.A., E-mail: Golkar@kntu.ac.i [The Electrical Engineering Department of K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran 16315-1355 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghaddas-Tafreshi, S.M., E-mail: tafreshi@eetd.kntu.ac.i [Electrical Engineering Department of K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran 16315-1355 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    The present work is to show the application and implementation of the algorithms and models proposed in part I. It also represents the simulation results of (a) extracting a lumped financial model (the aggregated model) of the distribution system with distributed generations (DGs) and interruptible loads (ILs), (b) distribution company's (DISCO's) process of decision-making, based on the created financial model, on allocating its generating capability for internal usage and proposing to the hourly-ahead energy and reserve markets, and (c) a profit-based network reconfiguration methodology that increases the DISCO's technical ability and directs its financial affairs towards more profitable transactions in the upcoming markets. The function of the algorithms used for detecting unfeasible configurations, namely loop path and/or isolated part in the network are shown and well exemplified. Influential factors in DISCO's generating capability and in the coefficients of DISCO's internal cost function (ICF) are investigated. The present study substantiates the ICF-based optimization method by comparing the relevant results with the results obtained based on the use of total cost function (TCF). Several scenarios on market prices of energy and reserve and on the contingency probability factor pertaining to the real-time generation in reserve market are considered. Simulation results indicate that getting more economical benefits, DISCO may necessarily play different roles in the market and change the network configuration, at different hours.

  5. Introduction to energy storage with market analysis and outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Robert; Pillot, Christophe

    2014-06-01

    At first, the rechargeable battery market in 2012 will be described by technology - lead acid, NiCd, NiMH, lithium ion - and application - portable electronics, power tools, e-bikes, automotive, energy storage. This will be followed by details of the lithium ion battery market value chain from the raw material to the final application. The lithium ion battery market of 2012 will be analyzed and split by applications, form factors and suppliers. There is also a focus on the cathode, anode, electrolyte and separator market included. This report will also give a forecast for the main trends and the market in 2020, 2025. To conclude, a forecast for the rechargeable battery market by application for 2025 will be presented. Since energy storage plays an important role for the growing Electric Vehicle (EV) market, this EV issue is closely considered throughout this analysis.

  6. Technical Barriers, Gaps, and Opportunities Related to Home Energy Upgrade Market Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, M. V. A.

    2011-11-01

    This report outlines the technical barriers, gaps, and opportunities that arise in executing home energy upgrade market delivery approaches, as identified through research conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America program. The objective of this report is to outline the technical1 barriers, gaps, and opportunities that arise in executing home energy upgrade market delivery approaches, as identified through research conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program. This information will be used to provide guidance for new research necessary to enable the success of the approaches. Investigation for this report was conducted via publications related to home energy upgrade market delivery approaches, and a series of interviews with subject matter experts (contractors, consultants, program managers, manufacturers, trade organization representatives, and real estate agents). These experts specified technical barriers and gaps, and offered suggestions for how the technical community might address them. The potential benefits of home energy upgrades are many and varied: reduced energy use and costs; improved comfort, durability, and safety; increased property value; and job creation. Nevertheless, home energy upgrades do not comprise a large part of the overall home improvement market. Residential energy efficiency is the most complex climate intervention option to deliver because the market failures are many and transaction costs are high (Climate Change Capital 2009). The key reasons that energy efficiency investment is not being delivered are: (1) The opportunity is highly fragmented; and (2) The energy efficiency assets are nonstatus, low-visibility investments that are not properly valued. There are significant barriers to mobilizing the investment in home energy upgrades, including the 'hassle factor' (the time and effort required to identify and secure improvement works), access to financing, and the

  7. RECENT CHANGES IN THE EU RENEWABLE ENERGY MARKET REGULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Danylova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies recent trends of the world energy supply. Factors affecting changes in the state policy of the European energy strategy are identified. The role of renewable energy sources in solving energy problems is revealed. The mechanism of the EU renewable market development is illustrated. The main changes in the dynamics and structure of energy consumption are identified. The major participants in the modern European renewable energy market are demonstrated. A set of measures to build a new energy policy in EU is formed.

  8. The Program Administrator Cost of Saved Energy for Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billingsley, Megan A.; Hoffman, Ian M.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; LaCommare, Kristina

    2014-03-19

    End-use energy efficiency is increasingly being relied upon as a resource for meeting electricity and natural gas utility system needs within the United States. There is a direct connection between the maturation of energy efficiency as a resource and the need for consistent, high-quality data and reporting of efficiency program costs and impacts. To support this effort, LBNL initiated the Cost of Saved Energy Project (CSE Project) and created a Demand-Side Management (DSM) Program Impacts Database to provide a resource for policy makers, regulators, and the efficiency industry as a whole. This study is the first technical report of the LBNL CSE Project and provides an overview of the project scope, approach, and initial findings, including: • Providing a proof of concept that the program-level cost and savings data can be collected, organized, and analyzed in a systematic fashion; • Presenting initial program, sector, and portfolio level results for the program administrator CSE for a recent time period (2009-2011); and • Encouraging state and regional entities to establish common reporting definitions and formats that would make the collection and comparison of CSE data more reliable. The LBNL DSM Program Impacts Database includes the program results reported to state regulators by more than 100 program administrators in 31 states, primarily for the years 2009–2011. In total, we have compiled cost and energy savings data on more than 1,700 programs over one or more program-years for a total of more than 4,000 program-years’ worth of data, providing a rich dataset for analyses. We use the information to report costs-per-unit of electricity and natural gas savings for utility customer-funded, end-use energy efficiency programs. The program administrator CSE values are presented at national, state, and regional levels by market sector (e.g., commercial, industrial, residential) and by program type (e.g., residential whole home programs, commercial new

  9. Blue Cross market share, economies of scale, and cost containment effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, R; Greenberg, W

    1981-01-01

    This paper examines two components of the hospital insurance market structure-market share and the absolute number of enrollees in Blue Cross plans-to ascertain whether market structure affects the willingness of Blue Cross plans to use cost control measure. Empirical estimates show that larger plans are more likely to use prospective reimbursement, pre-admission testing, and concurrent review. Market share, however, has a positive effect only on concurrent review. We suggest that there are economies of scale to cost control efforts, but that high market share generally does not lead to increased cost-consciousness.

  10. Social Cost of Biomass Energy from Switchgrass in Western Massachusetts

    OpenAIRE

    Timmons, David

    2013-01-01

    Producing biomass energy requires much land, and effects of biomass production on ecosystem services could greatly affect total biomass energy cost. This study estimates switchgrass production cost in western Massachusetts at three levels: private production cost, private cost plus social cost of nitrogen fertilizer externalities, and those costs plus the social opportunity cost of foregone forest ecosystem services. Values for nitrogen externalities and forest ecosystem services estimated wi...

  11. Solar Renewable Energy Certificate (SREC) Markets: Status and Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Kreycik, C.

    2011-11-01

    This paper examines experience in solar renewable energy certificate (SREC) markets in the United States. It describes how SREC markets function--key policy design provisions, eligible technologies, state and regional eligibility rules, solar alternative compliance payments, measurement and verification methods, long-term contracting provisions, and rate caps. It also examines the trends of SREC markets--trading volumes, sourcing trends, trends in the size of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems driven by these markets, and trends in price and compliance. Throughout, the paper explores key issues and challenges facing SREC markets and attempts by policymakers to address some of these market barriers. Data and information presented in this report are derived from SREC tracking systems, brokers and auctions, published reports, and information gleaned from market participants and interviews with state regulators responsible for SREC market implementation. The last section summarizes key findings.

  12. Long-term Stochastic Forecasting of the Nuclear Energy Global Market

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Kharitonov; Uliana Kurelchuk; Sergey Masterov

    2015-01-01

    As a result of a number of catastrophic events in the nuclear energy sector, the increasing attention paid to the industry has acquired an undesirable and negative nuance. At the same time, this key economic industry — with high innovation potential — has achieved significant progress in making energy production more efficient and reducing production costs. The authors of this article set out their own model to assess the future state of the nuclear energy market and pres...

  13. Final Report - Stationary and Emerging Market Fuel Cell System Cost Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contini, Vince [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Heinrichs, Mike [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); George, Paul [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Eubanks, Fritz [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Jansen, Mike [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Valluri, Manoj [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Mansouri, Mahan [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Swickrath, Mike [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-04-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is focused on providing a portfolio of technology solutions to meet energy security challenges of the future. Fuel cells are a part of this portfolio of technology offerings. To help meet these challenges and supplement the understanding of the current research, Battelle has executed a five-year program that evaluated the total system costs and total ownership costs of two technologies: (1) an ~80 °C polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology and (2) a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology, operating with hydrogen or reformate for different applications. Previous research conducted by Battelle, and more recently by other research institutes, suggests that fuel cells can offer customers significant fuel and emission savings along with other benefits compared to incumbent alternatives. For this project, Battelle has applied a proven cost assessment approach to assist the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program in making decisions regarding research and development, scale-up, and deployment of fuel cell technology. The cost studies and subsequent reports provide accurate projections of current system costs and the cost impact of state-of-the-art technologies in manufacturing, increases in production volume, and changes to system design on system cost and life cycle cost for several near-term and emerging fuel cell markets. The studies also provide information on types of manufacturing processes that must be developed to commercialize fuel cells and also provide insights into the optimization needed for use of off-the-shelf components in fuel cell systems. Battelle’s analysis is intended to help DOE prioritize investments in research and development of components to reduce the costs of fuel cell systems while considering systems optimization.

  14. Changing market for renewable energy in New England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, M. [Second Wind Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The author discusses the rapidly changing power market in New England in the face of deregulation of the electric power industry. Utilities are moving to sell their generation assets, and the new players in the market are striving to present themselves as active in a green market. But there is little knowledge about renewable energy sources on the part of the new marketers, and little capacity available, while there does appear to be customer demand. Legislative action seems to be putting in place policies making renewable energy a more attractive option. The author looks at the disparity between demand and availability at this time.

  15. Fostering renewable energy markets in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Jeremy [North American Comission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), (United States)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation describes projects, programs and other issues addressed in order to promote renewable energy markets in North America. These are carried out by the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC). In the first part of this presentation, there are going to be found some of the rules imposed by the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC). Then, it is shown the structure of the CEC as well as its programs, besides, there are presented the environment projects and the objectives along with their respective trades. There are described both benefits environmental and non-environmental. Also, there are shown the issues which the CEC is working in. And finally, it is shown a list mentioning the aspects that would change if: the expansion of the Mexico's Federal Commission of Electricity (CFE), happens, the grid-interconnected and the self supply of Renewable Electricity increase. [Spanish] En esta presentacion se describen los proyectos, los programas y otras cuestiones, cuyo objetivo es impulsar los mercados de energia renovable en America del Norte, realizadas por la North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation. En la primera parte, se encuentran algunas de las reglas impuestas por el Acuerdo de Cooperacion Ambiental de America del Norte (ACAAN). Enseguida, se muestra la estructura y los programas de la Comision para la Cooperacion Ambiental (CCA). Asimismo, se describen los proyectos ambientales, los objetivos junto con sus correspondientes tratados. Mas adelante, se explican tanto los beneficios ambientales como aquellos que no lo son. Igualmente, explican las cuestiones que podrian cambiar de: suceder la expansion de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), incrementarse el auto- suministro de la energia renovable y los sistemas interconectados.

  16. Price determinants of the European carbon market and interactions with energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Katja; Cludius, Johanna; Matthes, Felix [Oeko Institut e.V., Berlin (Germany); Diekmann, Jochen; Zaklan, Aleksandar [Deutsches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany); Schleich, Joachim [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    This report explores the determinants of short run price movements in the carbon market and their interaction with energy markets, in particular with the electricity market. Focusing on Phase 2 of the EU ETS we conduct econometric time series analysis based on continental EU and UK market data. Our findings suggest that market fundamentals have a dominant effect on the EUA price, but that non-fundamental factors may also play a role. We further found that the electricity price has a significant positive impact on the carbon price in the short run.

  17. The social costs to the US of monopolization of the world oil market, 1972--1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L.; Leiby, P.N.

    1993-03-01

    The partial monopolization of the world oil market by the OPEC cartel has produced significant economic costs to the economies of the world. This paper reports estimates of the costs of monopolization of oil to the US over the period 1972--1991. Two fundamental assumptions of the analysis are, (1) that OPEC has acted as a monopoly, albeit with limited control, knowledge, and ability to act and, (2) that the US and other consuming nations could, through collective (social) action affect the cartel's ability to act as a monopoly. We measure total costs by comparing actual costs for the 1972--1991 period to a hypothetical more competitive'' world oil market scenario. By measuring past costs we avoid the enormous uncertainties about the future course of the world oil market and leave to the reader's judgment the issue of how much the future will be like the past. We note that total cost numbers cannot be used to determine the value of reducing US oil use by one barrel. They are useful for describing the overall size of the petroleum problem and are one important factor in deciding how much effort should be devoted to solving it. Monopoly pricing of oil transfers wealth from US oil consumers to foreign oil producers and, by increasing theeconomic scarcity of oil, reduces the economy's potential to produce. The actions of the OPEC cartel have also produced oil price shocks, both upward and downward, that generate additional costs because of the economy's inherent inability to adjust quickly to a large change in energy prices. Estimated total costs to the United States from these three sources for the 1972--1991 period are put at $4.1 trillion in 1990$($1.2 T wealth transfer, $0.8 T macroeconomic adjustment costs, $2.1 T potential GNP losses). The cost of the US's primary oil supply contingency program is small ($10 B) by comparison.

  18. Implications of carbon cap-and-trade for US voluntary renewable energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Holt, Edward [Ed Holt and Associates, Inc., 28 Headland Road, Harpswell, ME 04079-2923 (United States); Levenstein Carroll, Ghita [University of Colorado at Boulder, 3315 Folsom Street, Boulder, CO 80304 (United States)

    2008-06-15

    Many consumers today are purchasing renewable energy in large part for the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions benefits that they provide. Emerging carbon regulation in the US has the potential to affect existing markets for renewable energy. Carbon cap-and-trade programs are now under development in the Northeast under the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) and in early stages of development in the West and Midwest. There is increasing discussion about carbon regulation at the national level as well. While renewable energy will likely benefit from carbon cap-and-trade programs because compliance with the cap will increase the costs of fossil fuel generation, cap-and-trade programs can also impact the ability of renewable energy generation to affect overall CO{sub 2} emissions levels and obtain value for those emissions benefits. This paper summarizes key issues for renewable energy markets that are emerging with carbon regulation, such as the implications for emissions benefits claims and voluntary market demand and the use of renewable energy certificates (RECs) in multiple markets. It also explores policy options under consideration for designing carbon policies to enable carbon markets and renewable energy markets to work together. (author)

  19. Market potential and market hindrances for thermal solar energy; Marktpotentiale und Markthindernisse fuer die thermische Solarenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerheuser, F. W.

    2002-10-15

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the market potential and market hindrances for thermal solar energy systems. The author notes that solar systems for heating domestic hot water have a considerable market potential, especially for single-family homes. Such installations are discussed in detail, whereby not only technicalities but also market image and the latent potential for such systems are discussed. The results of surveys made are presented and discussed. The lower potential for installations on apartment blocks is also mentioned.

  20. Energy independence versus world market; Independance energetique versus marche mondial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P

    2003-07-01

    The geo-policy is the unity of the rules and political actions coming from taking into account the problem of the national energy demands facing the world energy market. The aim of this paper is to show that these actions are confronted to two paradigms of public policy. One is the research of the energy policy, the other is the effort of building and safety of the world market. (A.L.B.)

  1. 2008 Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremper, C.

    2009-07-01

    This report assesses the market for Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) services as it existed in FY 2008. It discusses Federal energy management goal progress in FY 2008, and examines the environment in which agencies implemented energy management projects over the last three years. The report also discusses some recent events that will increase the market for FEMP services, and outlines FEMP's major strategies to address these changes in FY 2009 and beyond.

  2. 78 FR 4842 - Linden VFT, LLC v. Brookfield Energy Marketing, LP, Cargill Power Markets, LLC; Notice of Complaint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Linden VFT, LLC v. Brookfield Energy Marketing, LP, Cargill Power Markets... a formal complaint against Brookfield Energy Marketing, LP and Cargill Power Markets, LLC...., Washington, DC 20426. This filing is accessible on-line at http://www.ferc.gov , using the ``eLibrary'' link...

  3. Aqueous nitrate waste treatment: Technology comparison, cost/benefit, and market analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide information necessary for the Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the practical utility of the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic or Glass (NAC/NAG/NAX) process, which is under development in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The NAC/NACx/NAX process can convert aqueous radioactive nitrate-laden waste to a glass, ceramic, or grout solid waste form. The tasks include, but are not limited to, the following: Identify current commercial technologies to meet hazardous and radiological waste disposal requirements. The technologies may be thermal or non-thermal but must be all inclusive (i.e., must convert a radionuclide-containing nitrate waste with a pH around 12 to a stable form that can be disposed at permitted facilities); evaluate and compare DOE-sponsored vitrification, grouting, and minimum additive waste stabilization projects for life-cycle costs; compare the technologies above with respect to material costs, capital equipment costs, operating costs, and operating efficiencies. For the NAC/NAG/NAX process, assume aluminum reactant is government furnished and ammonia gas may be marketed; compare the identified technologies with respect to frequency of use within DOE for environmental management applications with appropriate rationale for use; Assess the potential size of the DOE market for the NAC/NAG/NAX process; assess and off-gas issues; and compare with international technologies, including life-cycle estimates.

  4. Stocks and energy shocks : the impact of energy accidents on stock market value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, B.; Boersen, A.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate how financial market participants value energy accidents. We employ an event study to look into the response of stock markets to 209 accidents. These accidents were derived from Sovacool's (2008) database on major energy accidents from 1907 to 2007. It appears that the stock market in

  5. 75 FR 12737 - Applications To Export Electric Energy; Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... Applications To Export Electric Energy; Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corp. AGENCY: Office of Electricity... applications, Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corp. (NEMT) has applied for authority to transmit electric... electric energy from the United States to Mexico and from the United States to Canada as a power...

  6. Energy Cost Accounting: Conventional and Flow-oriented Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bierer Annett

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In more and more companies, energy efficiency and energy cost come to the fore. The scope ranges from energy consumption and energy delivery cost to energy losses and the infrastruc-ture facilitating the use of energy. Their increasing importance asks for more trans¬parency of the cost of energy consumption, losses, and conservation potentials. However, despite of the identified relevance, no mature concepts exist to record energy-related cost in a way that con-sumption and losses become transparent. Consequently, based on the charac¬teris¬tics of the production factor energy, the paper presents options for a sophisticated energy cost accu¬mu¬la-tion and assignment in conventional cost accounting and flow cost accounting methodology.

  7. 75 FR 54063 - Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets; Technical Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ...-000] Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets; Technical Conference AGENCY... address the use of a net benefits test for determining when to compensate demand response providers and the allocation of costs associated with demand response. DATES: The technical conference will be...

  8. Cost Benefit and Alternatives Analysis of Distribution Systems with Energy Storage Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Tom; Nagarajan, Adarsh; Baggu, Murali; Bialek, Tom

    2017-06-27

    This paper explores monetized and non-monetized benefits from storage interconnected to distribution system through use cases illustrating potential applications for energy storage in California's electric utility system. This work supports SDG&E in its efforts to quantify, summarize, and compare the cost and benefit streams related to implementation and operation of energy storage on its distribution feeders. This effort develops the cost benefit and alternatives analysis platform, integrated with QSTS feeder simulation capability, and analyzed use cases to explore the cost-benefit of implementation and operation of energy storage for feeder support and market participation.

  9. Energy Savings Certificate Markets: Opportunities and Implementation Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, B.; Bird, L.; Barbose, G.

    2009-07-01

    Early experiences with energy savings certificates (ESCs) have revealed their merits and the challenges associated with them. While in the United States ESC markets have yet to gain significant traction, lessons can be drawn from early experiences in the states of Connecticut and New York, as well as from established markets in Italy, France, and elsewhere. The staying power of European examples demonstrates that ESCs can help initiate more efficiency projects. This article compares ESCs with renewable energy certificates (RECs), looks at the unique opportunities and challenges they present, and reviews solutions and best practices demonstrated by early ESC markets. Three major potential ESC market types are also reviewed: compliance, voluntary, and carbon. Additionally, factors that will benefit ESC markets in the United States are examined: new state EEPS policies, public interest in tools to mitigate climate change, and the growing interest in a voluntary market for ESCs.

  10. Improving Energy Market Regulation:Domestic and International Issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DANIEL; P.AHN

    2013-01-01

    Recent extreme energy price highs and volatility have brought worldwide attention to the regulation of commodity markets in the context of the broader global financial overhaul.As part of the DoddFrank Act,the U.S.government now mandates centralized clearing and margin and capital requirements.But commodity markets are globally integrated and international policy coordination is required for effective market regulation.Improved regulation and supervision of commodity markets has been highlighted in the G20 agenda.Essential details of the new global regulatory landscape still need to be fleshed out,particularly in five major areas:physical transparency;financial transparency;centralized clearing and standardized contracts;capital and margin requirements;and position limits.This paper presents energy policy options that achieve market efficiency by preventing market manipulation,manage systemic risk,and control excessive volatility.

  11. 77 FR 24940 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ...: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy'', dated March 10, 2011, 76 FR 13168. May 29, 2012, the cost figures...: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department... forecasting the representative average unit costs of five residential energy sources for the year...

  12. Improving the Energy Market: Algorithms, Market Implications, and Transmission Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, Paula Ann

    This dissertation aims to improve ISO operations through a better real-time market solution algorithm that directly considers both real and reactive power, finds a feasible Alternating Current Optimal Power Flow solution, and allows for solving transmission switching problems in an AC setting. Most of the IEEE systems do not contain any thermal limits on lines, and the ones that do are often not binding. Chapter 3 modifies the thermal limits for the IEEE systems to create new, interesting test cases. Algorithms created to better solve the power flow problem often solve the IEEE cases without line limits. However, one of the factors that makes the power flow problem hard is thermal limits on the lines. The transmission networks in practice often have transmission lines that become congested, and it is unrealistic to ignore line limits. Modifying the IEEE test cases makes it possible for other researchers to be able to test their algorithms on a setup that is closer to the actual ISO setup. This thesis also examines how to convert limits given on apparent power---as is in the case in the Polish test systems---to limits on current. The main consideration in setting line limits is temperature, which linearly relates to current. Setting limits on real or apparent power is actually a proxy for using the limits on current. Therefore, Chapter 3 shows how to convert back to the best physical representation of line limits. A sequential linearization of the current-voltage formulation of the Alternating Current Optimal Power Flow (ACOPF) problem is used to find an AC-feasible generator dispatch. In this sequential linearization, there are parameters that are set to the previous optimal solution. Additionally, to improve accuracy of the Taylor series approximations that are used, the movement of the voltage is restricted. The movement of the voltage is allowed to be very large at the first iteration and is restricted further on each subsequent iteration, with the restriction

  13. Evaluation of a marketing program designed to increase consumer consideration of energy-efficient products in Denver, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-01

    A demonstration marketing program to sensitize Denver homeowners to incorporate the energy cost of ownership orientation in their decision process regarding purchase of energy-efficient products is described. Personal interviews with Denver homeowners were conducted. A first survey established a baseline for consumer awareness and acceptance of energy conservation and conservation-related products and provided information which could be utilized in developing marketing strategies related to energy conservation and the concept of energy cost of ownership. A second survey measured shifts in awareness and attitudes which might have occurred as a result of the marketing demonstration program. The methodology and results of the evaluation are discussed in detail. The Denver Test Market Media Campaign conducted through multi-media advertising and public relations campaigns to sensitize the residents to the positive consideraton of energy-efficient products is described. (MCW)

  14. Evaluation of a marketing program designed to increase consumer consideration of energy-efficient products in Denver, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-01

    A demonstration marketing program to sensitize Denver homeowners to incorporate the energy cost of ownership orientation in their decision process regarding purchase of energy-efficient products is described. Personal interviews with Denver homeowners were conducted. A first survey established a baseline for consumer awareness and acceptance of energy conservation and conservation-related products and provided information which could be utilized in developing marketing strategies related to energy conservation and the concept of energy cost of ownership. A second survey measured shifts in awareness and attitudes which might have occurred as a result of the marketing demonstration program. The methodology and results of the evaluation are discussed in detail. The Denver Test Market Media Campaign conducted through multi-media advertising and public relations campaigns to sensitize the residents to the positive consideraton of energy-efficient products is described. (MCW)

  15. Evaluation of NEB energy markets and supply monitoring function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-01

    Canada's National Energy Board regulates the exports of oil, natural gas, natural gas liquids and electricity. It also regulates the construction, operation and tolls of international and interprovincial pipelines and power lines. It also monitors energy supply and market developments in Canada. The Board commissioned an evaluation of the monitoring function to ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of the monitoring activities, to identify gaps in these activities and to propose recommendations. The objectives of the monitoring mandate are to provide Canadians with information regarding Canadian energy markets, energy supply and demand, and to ensure that exports of natural gas, oil, natural gas liquids and electricity do not occur at the detriment of Canadian energy users. The Board ensures that Canadians have access to domestically produced energy on terms that are as favourable as those available to export buyers. The following recommendations were proposed to improve the monitoring of energy markets and supply: (1) increase focus and analysis on the functioning of gas (first priority) and other commodity markets, (2) increase emphasis on forward-looking market analysis and issue identification, (3) demonstrate continued leadership by encouraging public dialogue on a wide range of energy market issues, (4) improve communication and increase visibility of the NEB within the stakeholder community, (5) build on knowledge management and organizational learning capabilities, (6) improve communication and sharing of information between the Applications and Commodities Business Units, and (7) enhance organizational effectiveness of the Commodities Business Unit. figs.

  16. 7 CFR 1709.5 - Determination of energy cost benchmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of energy cost benchmarks. 1709.5... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements § 1709.5 Determination of energy cost benchmarks. (a) The Administrator shall establish, using the...

  17. Perturbation Analysis of the Wholesale Energy Market Equilibrium in the Presence of Renewables

    CERN Document Server

    Kiani, Arman

    2012-01-01

    One of the main challenges in the emerging smart grid is the integration of renewable energy resources (RER). The latter introduces both intermittency and uncertainty into the grid, both of which can affect the underlying energy market. An interesting concept that is being explored for mitigating the integration cost of RERs is Demand Response. Implemented as a time-varying electricity price in real-time, Demand Response has a direct impact on the underlying energy market as well. Beginning with an overall model of the major market participants together with the constraints of transmission and generation, we analyze the energy market in this paper and derive conditions for global maximum using standard KKT criteria. The effect of uncertainties in the RER on the market equilibrium is then quantified, with and without real-time pricing. Perturbation analysis methods are used to compare the equilibria in the nominal and perturbed markets. These markets are also analyzed using a game-theoretic point of view. Suff...

  18. ORCED: A model to simulate the operations and costs of bulk-power markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, S.; Hirst, E.

    1998-06-01

    Dramatic changes in the structure and operation of US bulk-power markets require new analytical tools. The authors developed the Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch (ORCED) model to analyze a variety of public-policy issues related to the many changes underway in the US electricity industry. Such issues include: policy and technology options to reduce carbon emissions from electricity production; the effects of electricity trading between high- and low-cost regions on consumers and producers in both regions; the ability of the owners of certain generating units to exercise market power as functions of the transmission link between two regions and the characteristics of the generating units and loads in each region; and the market penetration of new energy-production and energy-use technologies and the effects of their adoption on fuel use, electricity use and costs, and carbon emissions. ORCED treats two electrical systems connected by a single transmission link ORCED uses two load-duration curves to represent the time-varying electricity consumption in each region. The two curves represent peak and offpeak seasons. User specification of demand elasticities permits ORCED to estimate the effects of changes in electricity price, both overall and hour by hour, on overall electricity use and load shapes. ORCED represents the electricity supply in each region with 26 generating units. The two regions are connected by a single transmission link. This link is characterized by its capacity (MW), cost ({cents}/kWh), and losses (%). This report explains the inputs to, outputs from, and operation of ORCED. It also presents four examples showing applications of the model to various public-policy issues related to restructuring of the US electricity industry.

  19. Energy efficiency business options for industrial end users in Latin American competitive energy markets: The case of Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botero, Sergio

    2002-01-01

    Energy markets today in Latin America and worldwide are being restructured from monopolies, either state-owned or privately-owned, to be more openly competitive and incorporate more participation from the private sector. Thus, the schemes that were formerly developed to foster end use energy efficiency are no longer applicable because they were based on mandatory regulations made with political decisions, without sufficiently considering economic feasibility. A consensus exists that the only way energy efficiency could survive in this new paradigm is by being market oriented, giving better services, and additional options to users. However; there is very little information on what end users prefer, and which options would most satisfy customers. Using Colombia as a case study, this research determines and categorizes the energy efficiency business options for large energy end users that can freely participate in the competitive energy market. The energy efficiency market is understood as a market of services aiming to increase efficiency in energy use. These services can be grouped into seven business options. A survey, following the descriptive method, was sent to energy end users in order to determine their preferences for specific energy efficiency business options, as well as the decision-making criteria taken into account for such options. This data was categorized in ten industry groups. As a conclusion, energy efficiency providers should adapt not only to the economic activity or processes of each customer, but also to the potential business options. It was also found that not all industries consider performance contracting as their most preferred option, as a matter of fact, some industries show much higher preference for conventional business options. Among end users, the divergence in option preferences contrasted with the convergence in decision-making criteria. The decision-making criteria "cost-benefit ratio" overwhelmed all other criterion. End users

  20. THE MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES AND THE LOW-COST MARKETS OF SOUTH-EAST ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaconu Laura

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to be considered a low-cost market, the cost advantage of one or more factors of production offered by a state – generally, a developing one – must be exploited by the multinational firms. Therefore, we may speak about these markets only after 19

  1. Energy Savings in a Market Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The paper outlines the concept of energy savings as opposed to energy efficency. Afterwards are described briefly the up and down role of energy savings in recent Danish energy policy. It discusses the failure of leaving electricity savings and Integrated Resource Planning to the electricity...

  2. Brief presentation of the wordl fossil energy market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preda Andreescu Mihaela

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of the third millennium brought the globalization of the worldwide energy market. The fossil fuels, especially petroleum resources are, generally, limited and concentrated in few regions and the world energy market becomes more and more dependent of some “key regions”: the Middle East, the Caspian Sea Region, Russian Federation-Siberia. The great consumers try to consolidate their position in the regions reach in energy resources. And this is happening while growing economies, such as China and India begin to dominate the global demand for energy and push higher the oil prices worldwide. World market energy consumption is projected to increase by 57 percent from 2004 to 2030. China and India together account for 45 percent of the increase of the energy demand.

  3. Costs and benefits of relaunching nuclear energy in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This paper supplies elements for assessing the costs and benefits of electronuclear energy in order to pursue three objectives: security of supply, cost reduction, and environmental sustainability. The study reached the following conclusions: 1) the use of nuclear energy increases the diversification of the energy mix and of energy suppliers, raising energy security levels, but it does not reduce Italy�s dependence on foreign energy; 2) the use of nuclear energy would not imply a reduction ...

  4. Current and Future Costs for Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Systems in the US Market: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C.; Mehos, M.; Ho, C. K.; Kolb, G. J.

    2010-10-01

    NREL's Solar Advisor Model (SAM) is employed to estimate the current and future costs for parabolic trough and molten salt power towers in the US market. Future troughs are assumed to achieve higher field temperatures via the successful deployment of low melting-point, molten-salt heat transfer fluids by 2015-2020. Similarly, it is assumed that molten salt power towers are successfully deployed at 100MW scale over the same time period, increasing to 200MW by 2025. The levelized cost of electricity for both technologies is predicted to drop below 11 cents/kWh (assuming a 10% investment tax credit and other financial inputs outlined in the paper), making the technologies competitive in the marketplace as benchmarked by the California MPR. Both technologies can be deployed with large amounts of thermal energy storage, yielding capacity factors as high as 65% while maintaining an optimum LCOE.

  5. Transaction costs and marketing decision: a case study of smallholder tomato farmers in Makurdi, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel O. Osebeyo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the impact of transaction costs and other institutional and socio-economic factors on smallholder tomato farmers marketing decision in Makurdi Local Government Area, Benue State, Nigeria. The study used a survey data from 165 randomly selected farm households. Using a Logit model, the study found that the probability of market participation is significantly affected by transaction cost variables (namely access to market information, market distance and transport cost. Education and dependency ratio also had significant effect on decision to sell in the market. While access to market information and education significantly increase the probability of tomato farmers’ participation in the market, transport cost, market distance and dependency ratio significantly decrease the probability. The study stresses the need for government intervention by means of providing the necessary infrastructures that will help to reduce transaction costs and thus increase farmers’ participation in the market. Also policies to provide adequate and timely information about the market situations as well as polices to enhance access to education are advocated.

  6. TRADING ACTIVITY AND PRICES IN ENERGY FUTURES MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegul Ates

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine trading activity and the relationship between futures trading activity by trader type and energy price movements in three energy futures markets –natural gas, crude oil and heating oil. We find that the level of net positions of speculators are positively related to future returns and in contrast net positions of hedgers are negatively related to futures price changes in all three markets. The changes in net positions are relatively more informative compare to the level of net positions in predicting price changes in related markets.

  7. Framework for State-Level Renewable Energy Market Potential Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreycik, C.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Doris, E.

    2010-01-01

    State-level policymakers are relying on estimates of the market potential for renewable energy resources as they set goals and develop policies to accelerate the development of these resources. Therefore, accuracy of such estimates should be understood and possibly improved to appropriately support these decisions. This document provides a framework and next steps for state officials who require estimates of renewable energy market potential. The report gives insight into how to conduct a market potential study, including what supporting data are needed and what types of assumptions need to be made. The report distinguishes between goal-oriented studies and other types of studies, and explains the benefits of each.

  8. 78 FR 44556 - Chesapeake Energy Marketing, Inc. v. Midcontinent Express Pipeline LLC; Notice of Complaint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Chesapeake Energy Marketing, Inc. v. Midcontinent Express Pipeline LLC... Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission), 18 CFR 385.206, Chesapeake Energy Marketing, Inc. (CEMI...

  9. Marketing of renewable energies. Foundations, business models, case studies; Marketing Erneuerbarer Energien. Grundlagen, Geschaeftsmodelle, Fallbeispiele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbes, Carsten [HfWU Nuertingen-Geislingen, Nuertingen (Germany); Friege, Christian (ed.)

    2015-07-01

    How to market green electricity or biomethane? What is the right price for renewable energy and how do you design the optimal use of social media? What impact have the EEG or electromobility to the Green Power Marketing? Does direct marketing works or is online marketing the guarantee of success? Answers to these and many other basic questions provides the band with contributions from leading scientists and renowned practitioners. For the first time they describe in a structured form the basics of marketing of renewable energies, provide an introduction to the legal and market-based features and present new business models. The book is based on the latest research results, treats all questions of marketing issues important for practitioners, provides case studies and specific recommendations. [German] Wie vermarktet man Oekostrom oder Biomethan? Was ist der richtige Preis fuer Erneuerbare Energien und wie gestaltet man den optimalen Einsatz von Social Media? Welche Auswirkungen haben das EEG oder die Elektromobilitaet auf das Gruenstrom-Marketing? Funktioniert Direktvertrieb oder ist Online-Marketing der Erfolgsgarant? Antworten auf diese und viele weitere grundlegende Fragen liefert dieser Band mit Beitraegen fuehrender Wissenschaftler und renommierter Praktiker. Erstmals beschreiben sie hier in strukturierter Form die Grundlagen der Vermarktung von Erneuerbaren Energien, fuehren in die gesetzlichen und marktlichen Besonderheiten ein und stellen neue Geschaeftsmodelle vor. Das Buch fusst auf aktuellen Forschungsergebnissen, behandelt saemtliche fuer Praktiker wichtige Fragen der Vermarktung, liefert Fallbeispiele und konkrete Empfehlungen.

  10. Economic Dispatch of Hydrogen Systems in Energy Spot Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Nørgård, Per Bromand

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen system, as a new energy carrier, could deliver clean and efficient energy services in a wide range of applications. This paper presents an economic dispatch-based mathematical model that facilitates investigations on the techno-economic feasibility of hydrogen systems in the context...... of energy spot markets. The generic hydrogen system is comprised of an electrolysis for hydrogen production, a hydrogen storage tank and a fuel cell system for cogeneration of electricity and heat. A case study is presented with information from practical hydrogen systems and the Nordic energy markets...

  11. Cost, resources, and energy efficiency of additive manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing (AM is the process of joining materials to make objects from Computer Aided Design (CAD model data, usually layer upon layer, as opposed to using subtractive manufacturing methods. The use of rapid prototyping technologies has increased significantly in recent years. These new techniques, while still evolving, are projected to exert a profound impact on manufacturing. They can reduce energy use and time to market and offer industry new design flexibility. We include a brief study on the cost and energy efficiency of selected methods of additive manufacturing compared to traditional methods of manufacturing parts. One common claim is that 3D printers are more energy-efficient than other manufacturing technologies. We present energy efficiency and time requirements for producing a typical mechanical part and a very complicated element, using both traditional manufacturing and rapid prototyping methods. This paper represents an attempt to answer the questions of when 3D printing can be used efficiently and of choosing the appropriate technology on the basis of batch size, element size, complexity, and material requirements.

  12. MARKETING FRIENDLY (ECONOMICALLY- FRIENDLY, COSTLY- FRIENDLY, BIO- FRIENDLY)

    OpenAIRE

    Aftab Alam; Dr. Mohammad Almotairi; Dr. Kamisan Gaadar

    2013-01-01

    Green revelation, work on green, ecological protection, maintainable lifetime, workable progress. Defending our global and other numerous and additional commodity develop from nature in our ordinary life, Green marketing is tool of weapons using by many firm in numerous business to follow this fashion, a lot of researchers work on green marketing and related literature review. This paper analyzes the influences of green marketing policies on consumers fulfillment and ecological caring by incl...

  13. MARKETING FRIENDLY (ECONOMICALLY- FRIENDLY, COSTLY- FRIENDLY, BIO- FRIENDLY)

    OpenAIRE

    Aftab Alam; Dr.Mohammad Almotairi; Dr.Kamisan Gaadar

    2013-01-01

    Green revelation, work on green, ecological protection, maintainable lifetime, workable progress. Defending our global and other numerous and additional commodity develop from nature in our ordinary life, Green marketing is tool of weapons using by many firm in numerous business to follow this fashion, a lot of researchers work on green marketing and related literature review. This paper analyzes the influences of green marketing policies on consumers fulfillment and ecological caring by incl...

  14. Energy and environmental market in industrial enterprises in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    This paper discusses markets related with energy conservation and environment preservation in industrial enterprises in Thailand. The present Thailand is not in a situation that investments are made into environmental businesses or energy saving businesses. However, the attitude of the government toward environment is that emphasis is placed on solving the environmental pollution problems. Laws and regulations are defined for assistance in environment preservation to corporations making efforts to increase export, resource protection and energy conservation. These measures lead to expectation on bright future in developing technologies and markets related to environment preservation and energy conservation. Control of wastes by using clean technologies and enhancement in productivity are very important issues for the export of Thailand partly because European countries and America set these requirements as a condition for transaction. The markets related to energy conservation and environment preservation are anticipated of participation from such businesses as consultants, device manufacturers, and inspection and analysis of environmental effects. (NEDO)

  15. European Strategies for Energy Security in the Natural Gas Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyka Stefanova

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the European Union's (EU approach to energy security on the example of its natural gas imports from Russia, the largest supplier of gas to European markets. Two major projects, Nord Stream in the Northern and Western part of the EU, and Nabucco in South-Central Europe, demonstrate opposing energy security strategies, seemingly at odds with the EU objective of achieving energy independence from Russia. The question arises: Are these strategies sustainable? How can they be reconciled and pursued under a common policy? The main argument is that such conflicting sub-regional policy initiatives are amenable to progressive realignment and serve common security objectives. The article examines the Nord Stream and Nabucco pipelines in the context of the Third Energy Package, a set of policy instruments for the creation of an EU-wide internal energy market. It demonstrates that the energy security strategies pursued through Nord Stream and Nabucco fit well with the logic of the internal market reflected in premises of flexibility and efficiency. The article concludes that the security of the EU's energy market may be pursued in practice by applying different formulas relying on a variable mix of networks, partnerships, and market integration with non-members.

  16. Reducing Operating Costs and Energy Consumption at Water Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to their unique combination of high energy usage and potential for significant savings, utilities are turning to energy-efficient technologies to help save money. Learn about cost and energy saving technologies from this brochure.

  17. Forecasting market impact costs and identifying expensive trades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, Jacob A.; Spierdijk, Laura; Hoevenaars, Roy P. M. M.; Van der Sluis, Pieter Jelle

    2008-01-01

    Often, a relatively small group of trades causes the major part of the trading costs on an investment portfolio. Consequently, reducing the trading costs of comparatively few expensive trades would already result in substantial savings on total trading costs. Since trading costs depend to some exten

  18. The renewable energy targets of the Maghreb countries: Impact on electricity supply and conventional power markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, Bernhard, E-mail: brandb@uni-koeln.de [Institute of Energy Economics at the University of Cologne, Vogelsanger Strasse 321, 50827 Cologne (Germany); Zingerle, Jonas [Institute of Energy Economics at the University of Cologne, Vogelsanger Strasse 321, 50827 Cologne (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia, the three countries of the North African Maghreb region, are showing increased efforts to integrate renewable electricity into their power markets. Like many other countries, they have pronounced renewable energy targets, defining future shares of 'green' electricity in their national generation mixes. The individual national targets are relatively varied, reflecting the different availability of renewable resources in each country, but also the different political ambitions for renewable electricity in the Maghreb states. Open questions remain regarding the targets' economic impact on the power markets. Our article addresses this issue by applying a linear electricity market optimization model to the North African countries. Assuming a competitive, regional electricity market in the Maghreb, the model minimizes dispatch and investment costs and simulates the impact of the renewable energy targets on the conventional generation system until 2025. Special emphasis is put on investment decisions and overall system costs. - Research Highlights: >Market simulation shows impact of RES-E penetration on the conventional power system of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. >Noticeable effects on dispatch and investments in fossil power plants. >Reduced utilization of base-load plants - stronger investments in flexible capacities. >Overall system costs can be decreased by optimizing the RES-E goals.

  19. Integration of liberalised energy market; Samspillet mellem de liberaliserede energimarkeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinge Jacobsen, H.; Fristrup, P.; Munksgaard, J.; Pade, L.L.; Henriksen, T.C.

    2004-03-01

    The markets for electricity, natural gas and district heating are inter-linked both with respect to the energy flows and with respect to ownership of supply sources and infrastructure. The extent and the possible consequences of these linkages are examined in this report. The options for public interventions in these markets are analysed to compare instruments with respect to their ability to provide the necessary incentives for an efficient functioning of the liberalised markets. Aspects of retail markets with households facing multi-product distribution companies and aspects of the production of combined heat and power based on natural gas has been covered. This project identifies some important aspects related to final consumers and the interaction of markets with different types of regulation and scope for liberalisation. From a Danish perspective the district heat market and the dependence on market conditions for natural gas is a specific concern. Consumer concerns also relate to the creation of multi-product energy distribution companies that are privately owned and possibly controlled by foreign interests. Such companies might use bundled sales of energy products to extent their dominant position in one market e.g. a regulated heat market to a market with considerable competition (electricity). Bundled sales would not necessarily result in a loss for the consumer due to economies of scope in supplying energy products. However, the regulatory authorities responsible for district heat prices will have a more complicated job in surveying the bundled price setting. Integration of activities within natural gas distribution and CHP production has been analysed with respect to incentives and welfare implications. Results of the project point to critical market conditions and identify areas of concern for regulatory policies. The analysis shows that there is a large welfare loss associated with having monopolies in both natural gas supplies and the CHP production

  20. German energy market in 2015; Deutscher Energiemarkt 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm [World Energy Council, London (United Kingdom). World Energy Resources; Weltenergierat - Deutschland, Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' ' Energie fuer Deutschland' '

    2016-03-15

    The given basic orientation of the energy concept of the federal government for the German energy supply increased towards renewable energy while increasing energy efficiency determines the market trend. In the present case, a current overview of the German energy market will be given of this year providing a concentrated compilation of the central main features of the energy industry. As in previous years, the article summarizes not only general facts about the energy, but also goes in detail on the development of the individual fuels such as oil, natural gas, lignite and hard coal, nuclear energy and renewable energies. Furthermore, the price trends are described in the international markets and in the domestic market. [German] Die im Energiekonzept der Bundesregierung vorgegebene Grundausrichtung der deutschen Energieversorgung hin zur verstaerkten Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien bei gleichzeitiger Steigerung der Energieeffizienz bestimmt die Marktentwicklung. Vorliegend wird ein aktueller Ueberblick ueber den deutschen Energiemarkt gegeben, der auch in diesem Jahr eine konzentrierte Zusammenstellung der zentralen Eckdaten der Energiewirtschaft leistet. Wie in den Jahren zuvor fasst der Artikel nicht nur allgemeine Fakten zum Energiemix zusammen, sondern geht auch ausfuehrlich auf die Entwicklung der einzelnen Energietraeger Erdoel, Erdgas, Braun- und Steinkohle, Kernenergie sowie regenerative Energien ein. Ferner werden die Preistendenzen auf den internationalen Maerkten und im Inland erlaeutert.

  1. Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K. [R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

  2. Balancing the fit and logistics costs of market segmentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkensteen, M.; Sierksma, G.; Wieringa, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Segments are typically formed to serve distinct groups of consumers with differentiated marketing mixes, that better fit their specific needs and wants. However, buyers in a segment are not necessarily geographically closely located. Serving a geographically dispersed segment with one marketing mix

  3. Balancing the fit and logistics costs of market segmentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkensteen, M.; Sierksma, G.; Wieringa, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Segments are typically formed to serve distinct groups of consumers with differentiated marketing mixes, that better fit their specific needs and wants. However, buyers in a segment are not necessarily geographically closely located. Serving a geographically dispersed segment with one marketing mix

  4. Comparing markets rents from a user cost and reaction model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francke, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    The current policy in the Netherlands is that rents in the social housing sector are regulated and do not reflect market conditions. Housing associations are studying the possibility to partly adjust rents to the market rent, or at least they want to have insight in the size of the implicit subsidy

  5. Investigations of a Cost-Optimal Zero Energy Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Nørgaard, Jesper; Heiselberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    have indicated that with current energy prices and technology, a cost-optimal Net ZEB zero energy balance accounts for only the building related energy use. Moreover, with high user related energy use is even more in favour of excluding appliances from the zero energy balance......., in particular the types of energy use that should be included in it. Since the user perspective and the cost of energy-efficiency technologies is so crucial for the successful adaptation of energy-conservation solutions, such like the Net ZEB concept, this paper has deployed the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis...... and taken a view point of private building owner to investigate what types of energy uses should be included in the cost-optimal zero energy balance. The analysis is conducted for five renewable energy supply systems and five user profiles with a study case of a multi-storey residential Net ZEB. The results...

  6. The Island Smart Energy System and Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2016-01-01

    and influential factors impact on the development of the singleisland or multi-island smart energy system are different. This paper presents the influential factors of the island smart energy system development by the literature analysis. Meanwhile, taking Philippines as a case study to investigate...

  7. The global recession and energy markets

    OpenAIRE

    Leonid Grigoriev

    2010-01-01

    In the years before the economic crisis, global demand for energy resources rose sharply, especially from developing countries. During the economic crisis, oil demand decreased for a short period. In forecasting post-crisis developments, it is reasonable to assume a future reduction in the elasticity of demand for energy in GDP growth as a result of government measures and technological progress.

  8. Battery energy storage market feasibility study -- Expanded report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, S. [Frost and Sullivan, Mountain View, CA (United States); Akhil, A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Dept.

    1997-09-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the battery energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed battery storage as an important technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1).

  9. Certification and brand identity for energy efficiency in competitive energy services markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prindle, W.R.; Wiser, R.

    1998-07-01

    Resource commitments for energy efficiency from electricity companies are disappearing rapidly as the regulated Integrated Resource Planning and Demand-Side Management paradigms that fostered them give way to competitive power markets in a restructuring electricity industry. While free-market advocates claim that energy efficiency needs will be taken care of by competitive energy service providers, there is no assurance that efficiency will compete effectively with the panoply of other energy-related (and non-energy-related) services that are beginning to appear in early market offerings. This paper reports the results of a feasibility study for a certification and brand identity program for energy efficiency geared to competitive power markets. Funded by the Energy Foundation, this study involved a survey and personal interviews with stakeholders, plus a workshop to further the discussion. Stakeholders include independent power marketers and energy service companies, utility affiliate power marketers and energy service companies, government agencies, trade associations, non-profit organizations, equipment manufacturers, and consultants. The paper summarizes the study's findings on such key issues as: Whether a brand identity concept has a critical mass of interest and support; how qualification and certification could work in such a program; how a brand identity could be positioned in the market; how an efficiency brand identity could co-brand with renewable power branding programs and other green marketing efforts; and the resources and components needed to make such a program work on a national scale.

  10. Whole Foods Market Improves Energy Efficiency in New Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    Whole Foods Market partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to reduce annual energy consumption in new stores by at least 50% versus requirements set by ASHRAE/ANSI/IESNA Standard 90.1-20041 as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) program.

  11. Low-energy buildings on mainstream market terms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Elle, Morten; Hoffmann, Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    This paper looks into the challenge of actually implementing energy efficient technologies and concepts in mainstream new build. The aim of the paper is to point out some of the provisos of promoting low-energy buildings on mainstream market terms, emphasising the need to understand forces working...

  12. Pricing and Hedging Quanto Options in Energy Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benth, Fred Espen; Lange, Nina; Myklebust, Tor Åge

    2015-01-01

    In energy markets, the use of quanto options has increased significantly in recent years. The payoff from such options are typically written on an underlying energy index and a measure of temperature. They are suited to managing the joint price and volume risk in energy markets. Using a Heath–Jar...... expressions for hedging. Further, we illustrate the use of our model by an empirical pricing exercise using NewYork Mercantile Exchange-traded natural gas futures and Chicago Mercantile Exchange-traded heating degree days futures for NewYork....

  13. Potentials and market prospects of wind energy in Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katić Vladimir A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of the wind energy potentials, technologies and market prospects in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, the region of Serbia with the most suitable location for exploitation of wind energy. The main characteristics of the region have been presented regarding wind energy and electric, road, railway and waterway infrastructure. The wind farm interconnection with the public grid is explained. The most suitable locations for the wind farms are presented, with present situation and future prospects of wind market in Vojvodina.

  14. Technology diffusion of energy-related products in residential markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, L.J.; Bruneau, C.L.

    1987-05-01

    Acceptance of energy-related technologies by end residential consumers, manufacturers of energy-related products, and other influential intermediate markets such as builders will influence the potential for market penetration of innovative energy-related technologies developed by the Department of Energy, Office of Building and Community Systems (OBCS). In this report, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed the available information on technology adoption, diffusion, and decision-making processes to provide OBCS with a background and understanding of the type of research that has previously been conducted on this topic. Insight was gained as to the potential decision-making criteria and motivating factors that influence the decision-maker(s) selection of new technologies, and some of the barriers to technology adoption faced by potential markets for OBCS technologies.

  15. Cost allocation model for distribution networks considering high penetration of distributed energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago; Pereira, Fábio; Morais, Hugo;

    2015-01-01

    , losses, and congestion costs) is proposed comprising the use of a large set of DER, namely distributed generation (DG), demand response (DR) of direct load control type, energy storage systems (ESS), and electric vehicles with capability of discharging energy to the network, which is known as vehicle......The high penetration of distributed energy resources (DER) in distribution networks and the competitive environment of electricity markets impose the use of new approaches in several domains. The network cost allocation, traditionally used in transmission networks, should be adapted and used...

  16. Modeling energy market dynamics using discrete event system simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez-Alcaraz, G. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Instituto Tecnologico de Morelia, Av. Tecnologico 1500, Col. Lomas de Santiaguito 58120, Morelia Michoacan (Mexico); Sheble, G.B. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Portland State University, Portland, OR 97207-0751 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    This paper proposes the use of Discrete Event System Simulation to study the interactions among fuel and electricity markets and consumers, and the decision-making processes of fuel companies (FUELCOs), generation companies (GENCOs), and consumers in a simple artificial energy market. In reality, since markets can reach a stable equilibrium or fail, it is important to observe how they behave in a dynamic framework. We consider a Nash-Cournot model in which marketers are depicted as Nash-Cournot players that determine supply to meet end-use consumption. Detailed engineering considerations such as transportation network flows are omitted, because the focus is upon the selection and use of appropriate market models to provide answers to policy questions. (author)

  17. Farmers' choice of cattle marketing channels under transaction cost ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... and monitoring costs on the decision to sell to private buyers, speculators or at auction. ... and decreased with knowledge of the buyer, suggesting higher opportunity costs ...

  18. 78 FR 65978 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Brookfield Energy Marketing Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Brookfield Energy Marketing Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery.... (BEMI) has applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada... electric energy that BEMI proposes to export to Canada would be surplus energy purchased from...

  19. 77 FR 20375 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation AGENCY: Office of Electricity... Corporation (Rainbow) has applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to... Department of Energy (DOE) issued Order No. EA-296 authorizing Rainbow to transmit electric energy from...

  20. Energy drink consumption and marketing in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Nicholas; van Walbeek, Corné; Maboshe, Mashekwa; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Hofman, Karen

    2017-05-17

    Energy drinks are a fast-growing class of beverage containing high levels of caffeine and sugar. Advertising and marketing have been key to their growth in South Africa. This paper documents trends in energy drink consumption and energy drink advertising, and examines the relationship between exposure to energy drink advertising and consumption. Logistic regressions were estimated of categories of energy drink consumption on individual characteristics, as well as exposure to energy drink advertising. Exposure to advertising is measured by reported viewing of channels high in energy drink advertising. Energy drink consumption in South Africa is higher among younger, wealthier males. Spending on energy drink advertising is mostly focused on television. Targeted channels include youth, sports and general interest channels. Viewers of channels targeted by energy drink advertisers have higher odds of any and moderate levels of energy drinks consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The energy report. Transforming markets. 1998 Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This year`s Energy Report reflects the main results of the work done to make the United Kingdom`s energy sector function as a proper market. It summarises main events in each energy sector and reports main developments in energy policy and related initiatives. Further chapters are headed: energy regulation; environmental and international issues; energy demand and energy efficiency; fuel poverty; gas supply; electricity; nuclear, new and renewable sources of energy; coal; oil and gas production; and downstream oil. Three papers by the Energy Advisory Panel are included. Appendices include tables relating to the energy industries including productivity, employment, trade, production, supply, demand, prices and energy-related atmospheric emissions. 217 refs., 7 apps.

  2. Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  3. Considerations for Emerging Markets for Energy Savings Certificates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, B.; Bird, L.; Barbose, G.

    2008-10-01

    Early experiences with energy savings certificates (ESCs) have revealed both their merit and the challenges associated with them. In the United States, there has been little activity to date, so any lessons must be drawn from experiences in Italy, the United Kingdom (UK), France, and elsewhere. The staying power of European examples, particularly in Italy, demonstrates that ESCs can help initiate more efficiency projects. Although a robust market for renewable energy certificates (RECs) has emerged in both the voluntary and policy compliance contexts in the United States, ESCs have yet to gain significant traction. This report looks at the opportunity presented by ESCs, the unique challenges they bring, a comparison with RECs that can inform expectations about ESC market development, and the solutions and best practices early ESC market experience have demonstrated. It also examines whether there are real market barriers that have kept ESCs from being adopted and what structural features are necessary to develop effective trading programs.

  4. Privatization and the globalization of energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report reviews recent global efforts to privatize energy resources and outlines the opportunities and challenges privatization has presented to U.S. and foreign multinational energy companies. The group of energy companies studied in this report includes the major U.S. petroleum companies and many foreign companies. The foreign companies reviewed include state-run energy enterprises, recently privatized energy enterprises, and foreign multinationals that have been privately held. The privatization of non-petroleum energy industries, such as electricity generation and transmission, natural gas transmission, and coal mining, are also discussed. Overseas investments made by electric companies, natural gas companies, and coal companies are included. The report is organized into six chapters: (1) economics of privatization; (2) petroleum privatization efforts among non-U.S. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development nations; (3) petroleum privatization efforts in Latin America; (4) privatization in socialist and former socialist regimes; (5) privatization efforts in global electric power generation, transmission, and distribution industries; and (6) privatization and globalization of world coal.

  5. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling Installation and Decommissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, Mark J

    2012-01-01

    Offshore wind energy is one of the most promising and fastest growing alternative energy sources in the world. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling provides a methodological framework to assess installation and decommissioning costs, and using examples from the European experience, provides a broad review of existing processes and systems used in the offshore wind industry. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling provides a step-by-step guide to modeling costs over four sections. These sections cover: ·Background and introductory material, ·Installation processes and vessel requirements, ·Installation cost estimation, and ·Decommissioning methods and cost estimation.  This self-contained and detailed treatment of the key principles in offshore wind development is supported throughout by visual aids and data tables. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling is a key resource for anyone interested in the offshore wind industry, particularly those interested in the technical and economic aspects of installation and decom...

  6. Current State of the Voluntary Renewable Energy Market (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2013-09-01

    This presentation highlights the status of the voluntary green power market in 2012. The voluntary green power market totaled more than 48 million MWh in 2012, with about 1.9 million customers participating. The supply continues to be dominated by wind, though solar is increasing its share of utility green pricing programs. Prices for voluntary renewable energy certificates (RECs) increased to above $1/MWh.

  7. Formulation of market strategies for Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    The ANL Energy and Environmental Systems Division has undertaken studies of implementation mechanisms and commercialization prospects for ''integrated community energy systems.'' Real Estate Research Corp. was commissioned to formulate marketing strategies appropriate to the implementation of ICES in the U.S. Objectives of this assignment are to: assist ICES program managers in formulating market strategies for the acceptance and widespread application of ICES systems; provide sufficient background information on the processes of development so that marketing strategies can be suitably tailored to particular concerns and characteristics of development projects; establish an information system for identifying areas, subareas, sites, or projects with substantial growth and development activity, as potential candidates for the application of ICES; test the information system to determine its potential usefulness for identifying candidate sites; and provide recommendations on strategies and techniques that might be used in a comprehensive marketing program for application of ICES systems. Chapter 2 presents information on the development process, which is used as a framework for other elements of the report. The project information system for identifying candidate projects for ICES applications is described in Chapter 3, and that system is subjected to a limited test and evaluation in Chapter 4. Description of the characteristics of development process appears in Chapter 5, and discussion of the formulation of marketing strategies in Chapter 6, and presentation of marketing techniques as part of an ICES marketing program in Chapter 7.

  8. Methodology of investment effectiveness evaluation in the local energy market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamrat, W.

    1999-07-01

    The paper presents issues of investment effectiveness evaluation in the local energy market. Results of research presented in the paper are mainly proposing a concept of a methodology which allows the evaluation of investment processes in regional power markets at the decision-making stage. In this respect, selecting a rational investment strategy is an important stage of the entire investment process. In view of criteria of various nature, the construction of a methodology of investment effectiveness bears an especially important meaning for a local decision-maker or investor. It is of particular significance to countries that are undergoing a transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. (orig.)

  9. Governance variety in the energy service contracting market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostertag, Katrin; Huelsmann, Friederike

    2008-07-01

    There is a surprisingly high variety of actors involved in the supply of energy service contracting arrangements. Based on an empirical record of approximately 2,500 contracting projects in the domain of space heating in Germany, the paper analyses specialisation patterns of contractors. An econometric model is used to test hypotheses derived from transaction cost economics, which contractor type should be expected for which kind of contracting project. According to our results, if physical, site and human asset specificity are high, governance modes are preferred, for which contracting represents a downward integration of business activities along the value-added chain. This includes the supply of contracting by municipal utilities. More specifically, municipal utilities occur as superior suppliers of contracting if combined heat and power is implemented, if the building served is connected to their gas grid and if it is a public building. This pattern could orient the development of contracting activities for utilities reconsidering their strategic position following the liberalisation of the electricity market. (orig.)

  10. Barriers to Building Energy Efficiency (BEE) promotion: A transaction costs perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian Kun, Queena

    Worldwide, buildings account for a surprisingly high 40% of global energy consumption, and the resulting carbon footprint significantly exceeds that of all forms of transportation combined. Large and attractive opportunities exist to reduce buildings' energy use at lower costs and higher returns than in other sectors. This thesis analyzes the concerns of the market stakeholders, mainly real estate developers and end-users, in terms of transaction costs as they make decisions about investing in Building Energy Efficiency (BEE). It provides a detailed analysis of the current situation and future prospects for BEE adoption by the market's stakeholders. It delineates the market and lays out the economic and institutional barriers to the large-scale deployment of energy-efficient building techniques. The aim of this research is to investigate the barriers raised by transaction costs that hinder market stakeholders from investing in BEES. It explains interactions among stakeholders in general and in the specific case of Hong Kong as they consider transaction costs. It focuses on the influence of transaction costs on the decision-making of the stakeholders during the entire process of real estate development. The objectives are: 1) To establish an analytical framework for understanding the barriers to BEE investment with consideration of transaction costs; 2) To build a theoretical game model of decision making among the BEE market stakeholders; 3) To study the empirical data from questionnaire surveys of building designers and from focused interviews with real estate developers in Hong Kong; 4) To triangulate the study's empirical findings with those of the theoretical model and analytical framework. The study shows that a coherent institutional framework needs to be established to ensure that the design and implementation of BEE policies acknowledge the concerns of market stakeholders by taking transaction costs into consideration. Regulatory and incentive options

  11. Redefining RECs: Additionality in the voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillenwater, Michael Wayne

    In the United States, electricity consumers are told that they can "buy" electricity from renewable energy projects, versus fossil fuel-fired facilities, through participation in a voluntary green power program. The marketing messages communicate to consumers that their participation and premium payments for a green label will cause additional renewable energy generation and thereby allow them to claim they consume electricity that is absent pollution as well as reduce pollutant emissions. Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) and wind energy are the basis for the majority of the voluntary green power market in the United States. This dissertation addresses the question: Do project developers respond to the voluntary REC market in the United States by altering their decisions to invest in wind turbines? This question is investigated by modeling and probabilistically quantifying the effect of the voluntary REC market on a representative wind power investor in the United States using data from formal expert elicitations of active participants in the industry. It is further explored by comparing the distribution of a sample of wind power projects supplying the voluntary green power market in the United States against an economic viability model that incorporates geographic factors. This dissertation contributes the first quantitative analysis of the effect of the voluntary REC market on project investment. It is found that 1) RECs should be not treated as equivalent to emission offset credits, 2) there is no clearly credible role for voluntary market RECs in emissions trading markets without dramatic restructuring of one or both markets and the environmental commodities they trade, and 3) the use of RECs in entity-level GHG emissions accounting (i.e., "carbon footprinting") leads to double counting of emissions and therefore is not justified. The impotence of the voluntary REC market was, at least in part, due to the small magnitude of the REC price signal and lack of

  12. Marketing energy conservation options to Northwest manufactured home buyers. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.; Mohler, B.L.; Taylor, Z.T.; Lee, A.D.; Onisko, S.A.

    1985-10-01

    Manufactured, or HUD-Code, homes comprise a growing share of the housing stock in the Northwest, as well as nationally. Their relatively low cost has made them especially attractive to lower income families, first-time home-buyers, and retired persons. The characteristics of manufactured home (MH) buyers, the unique energy consumption characteristics of the homes, and their increasing market share make this market an especially critical one for energy consumption and conservation planning in the Northwest. This study relies on extensive, existing survey data and new analyses to develop information that can potentially assist the design of a marketing plan to achieve energy conservation in new manufactured homes. This study has the objective of assisting BPA in the development of a regional approach in which numerous organizations and parties would participate to achieve conservation in new manufactured homes. A previous survey and information collected for this study from regional dealers and manufacturers provide an indication of the energy conservation options being sold to manufactured home buyers in the PNW. Manufacturers in the Northwest appear to sell homes that usually exceed the HUD thermal requirements. Manufacturers typically offer efficiency improvements in packages that include fixed improvements in insulation levels, glazing, and infiltration control. Wholesale costs of these packages range from about $100 to $1500. Typical packages include significant upgrades in floor insulation values with modest upgrades in ceilings and walls. This study identifies trends and impacts that a marketing plan should consider to adequately address the financial concerns of manufactured home buyers.

  13. Green Energy in New Construction: Maximize Energy Savings and Minimize Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventresca, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    People often use the term "green energy" to refer to alternative energy technologies. But green energy doesn't guarantee maximum energy savings at a minimum cost--a common misconception. For school business officials, green energy means getting the lowest energy bills for the lowest construction cost, which translates into maximizing green energy…

  14. Operations Optimization of Hybrid Energy Systems under Variable Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jun; Garcia, Humberto E.

    2016-07-01

    Hybrid energy systems (HES) have been proposed to be an important element to enable increasing penetration of clean energy. This paper investigates the operations flexibility of HES, and develops a methodology for operations optimization to maximize its economic value based on predicted renewable generation and market information. The proposed operations optimizer allows systematic control of energy conversion for maximal economic value, and is illustrated by numerical results.

  15. Volatility spillover across energy indices of the stock markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Acatrinei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper will use a MSGARCH model to analyze how are transmitted the sudden changes in volatility transmission from the energy market across several energy indices including Romania. In addition to the GARCH models, the class of Markov-switching GARCH (MSGARCH may provide an early warning indication of changes in the conditional volatility. We use daily closing data spanning a ten year period in order to capture the dependencies and sensitivities of energy related equity sector.

  16. Geothermal energy market potential in industrial processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, R.J.; Hanny, J.A.; Knuth, W.H.

    1978-11-01

    Geothermal energy is currently being used for a number of industrial processes in countries throughout the world. Its application in the United States is mainly limited to space heating even though the temperature of the geothermal fluid is sufficient for process uses, and could be sold at attractive prices while maintaining a high return on investment. The temperature span for industrial use ranges from 40 to 275/sup 0/C, thus encompassing both the abundant low temperature and the less available high temperature resources. Hydrothermal fluids can be used either directly or indirectly dependent upon fluid quality and process needs. The barriers facing hydrothermal industrial process development are (a) the development infrastructure does not exist, (b) energy users are not aware of hydrothermal energy and its advantages, (c) federal incentives are limited, (d) resources are not fully defined.

  17. Introducing cost-optimal levels for energy requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    2012-01-01

    The recast of the Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings (EPBD) states that Member States (MS) must ensure that minimum energy performance requirements for buildings are set “with a view to achieve cost-optimal levels”, and that the cost-optimal level must be calculated in accordance...... with a comparative methodology. The ultimate goal of this is to achieve a cost-optimal improvement of buildings’ energy performance (new and existing) in reality....

  18. Assessment of the potential future market in Sweden for hydrogen as an energy carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleson, G.

    Future hydrogen markets for the period 1980-2025 are projected, the probable range of hydrogen production costs for various manufacturing methods is estimated, and expected market shares in competition with alternative energy carriers are evaluated. A general scenario for economic and industrial development in Sweden for the given period was evaluated, showing the average increase in gross national product to become 1.6% per year. Three different energy scenarios were then developed: alternatives were based on nuclear energy, renewable indigenous energy sources, and the present energy situation with free access to imported natural or synthetic fuels. An analysis was made within each scenario of the competitiveness of hydrogen on both the demand and the supply of the following sectors: chemical industry, steel industry, peak power production, residential and commercial heating, and transportation. Costs were calculated for the production, storage and transmission of hydrogen according to technically feasible methods and were compared to those of alternative energy carriers. Health, environmental and societal implications were also considered. The market penetration of hydrogen in each sector was estimated, and the required investment capital was shown to be less than 4% of the national gross investment sum.

  19. Energy disclosure, market behavior, and the building data ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontokosta, Constantine E

    2013-08-01

    Energy disclosure laws represent one of the most promising public policy tools to accelerate market transformation around building energy efficiency. For this type of information to have an impact on market behavior, it must be collected, analyzed, and disseminated to support the decision-making processes of each end user and influence both the producers and consumers of building performance data. This paper explores the significance of energy disclosure requirements and outlines a framework for utilizing these new sources of transparent, publicly available information. It presents the mechanisms by which information can alter market behavior in the commercial real estate sector and develops a wiring diagram for the flows of information through the building data ecosystem. It concludes with a discussion of the motivations, metrics, and constraints faced by the various stakeholders in the ecosystem and how these factors influence investment decision models.

  20. Advertising, marketing and purchase behavior for energy-related products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiedemann, K.; Nelson, D.

    1998-07-01

    Energy conservation programs have relied heavily on incentives and regulatory standards to reduce residential energy consumption. However, in the changing market environment characterized by competitive pressures, alternative mechanisms such as marketing and promotions may increase substantially in importance compared to the demand-side management programs which have been the focus of most research. This paper describes the role of marketing and promotions in encouraging energy efficiency at the household level in British Columbia. The paper examines three related issues: first, the purchase process for energy-related products; second, the criteria used by customers in making purchase decisions; and third, the impact and effectiveness of alternative marketing tools. A key finding is the energy-related purchases do not fall into the impulse purchase category. There are two reasons for this: first, most of these products require installation and this requires a high level of commitment on the part of the purchaser; second, many energy-related products require a significant outlay of funds and this reduces impulse buying.

  1. Finding attractive markets for the educational programs of the Energy Delta Institute (EDI) : Market research in three European regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerhof, Jos

    2005-01-01

    The Energy Delta Institute, a provider of courses on many subjects related to natural gas, wants to know the market potential of the different national natural gas markets and market players in three European regions. This research uses data about thirty-nine national natural gas markets to make a

  2. Finding attractive markets for the educational programs of the Energy Delta Institute (EDI) : Market research in three European regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerhof, Jos

    2005-01-01

    The Energy Delta Institute, a provider of courses on many subjects related to natural gas, wants to know the market potential of the different national natural gas markets and market players in three European regions. This research uses data about thirty-nine national natural gas markets to make a r

  3. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in dynamical energy markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den

    2008-01-01

    The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle allows vehicle propulsion from multiple internal power sources. Electric energy from the grid can be utilized by means of the plug-in connection. An on-line energy management (EM) strategy is proposed to minimize the costs for taking energy from each power source.

  4. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in dynamical energy markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den

    2008-01-01

    The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle allows vehicle propulsion from multiple internal power sources. Electric energy from the grid can be utilized by means of the plug-in connection. An on-line energy management (EM) strategy is proposed to minimize the costs for taking energy from each power source.

  5. Cost and returns analysis of catfish marketing in Aba South Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Cost and returns analysis of catfish marketing in Aba South Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria ... Data were analyzed using net returns and regression models.

  6. The costs of marketing slaughter cattle by computerized and conventional auction systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chieruzzi, Alice M., 1956-; Buccola, Steven T.

    1981-01-01

    by Alice M. Chieruzzi and Steven T. Buccola This report is based upon Alice Chieruzzi's Master's thesis, A Cost Comparison of Computerized and Conventional Auction Marketing Systems for Slaughter Cattle.

  7. Social marketing potential of qualitative cost-free-to-patient eye care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social marketing potential of qualitative cost-free-to-patient eye care program ... socio-demographic factors, source of awareness about the eye care program, ... care personnel and overall assessment of the eye care program was carried out.

  8. Cost analysis, cost recovery, marketing and fee-based services a guide for the health sciences librarian

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, M Sandra

    2013-01-01

    This outstanding volume won the 1986 Ida and George Eliot Prize--awarded by the Medical Library Association for the work judged most effective in furthering medical librarianship. Library professionals review the controversy behind fee-for-service programs and provide a rationale for incorporating them into contemporary library philosophies of service. Some fee-based services are necessary for survival in a society that treats information as a marketable commodity; this comprehensive book gives practical advice on cost analysis, cost recovery and marketing of reference services, and presents i

  9. Energy storage benefits and market analysis handbook : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA); Corey, Garth P.; Iannucci, Joseph J., Jr. (Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA)

    2004-12-01

    This Guide describes a high level, technology-neutral framework for assessing potential benefits from and economic market potential for energy storage used for electric utility-related applications. In the United States use of electricity storage to support and optimize transmission and distribution (T&D) services has been limited due to high storage system cost and by limited experience with storage system design and operation. Recent improvement of energy storage and power electronics technologies, coupled with changes in the electricity marketplace, indicate an era of expanding opportunity for electricity storage as a cost-effective electric resource. Some recent developments (in no particular order) that drive the opportunity include: (1) states adoption of the renewables portfolio standard (RPS), which may increased use of renewable generation with intermittent output, (2) financial risk leading to limited investment in new transmission capacity, coupled with increasing congestion on some transmission lines, (3) regional peaking generation capacity constraints, and (4) increasing emphasis on locational marginal pricing (LMP).

  10. Making Markets for Low-Cost Schooling: The Devices and Investments behind Bridge International Academies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riep, Curtis B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the market-making devices behind Bridge International Academies: a for-profit education company aiming to school millions of nursery and primary aged-students living on less than $2 per day. A wide variety of devices are utilised by Bridge International Academies to construct mass markets for low-cost schooling, including GPS…

  11. Renewable energy sources offering flexibility through electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago

    All over the world, penetration of renewable energy sources in power systems has been increasing, creating new challenges in electricity markets and for operation and management of power systems, since power production from these resources is by nature uncertain and variable. New methods and tools...... governments. Renewable energy sources are characterized by their uncertain and variable production that limits the current operation and management tools of the power system. Nevertheless, recent developments of renewable energy technologies enable these resources to provide, to some extent, ancillary...... of future energy and reserve markets. Towards a power system based on distributed energy resources, mainly comprising renewable sources, new operation and management of distribution systems needs to be thought of. In fact, the existing passive distribution grid management does not provide the flexibility...

  12. Literature review of market studies of thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattrup, M.P.

    1988-02-01

    This report presents the results of a review of market studies of thermal energy storage (TES). This project was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). PNL staff reviewed and consolidated the findings of existing TES market studies conducted in the industrial, commercial, and residential sectors. The purpose of this project was to review and assess previous work and to use the information obtained to help provide direction for future technology transfer planning activities and to identify additional economic research needed within those three sectors. 37 refs.

  13. Valuation in emerging markets : how to adjust the cost of capital for country risk

    OpenAIRE

    Benserud, Mats; Austgulen, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we conduct valuations on four Argentine companies, all registered on the Buenos Aires Stock Exchange. Our goal is to investigate how to best calculate the relevant cost of capital in emerging markets. We start by thoroughly presenting the Argentine economic history and present macro-economic environment, before we present relevant theory for conducting valuations in emerging markets. We further carefully discuss theory on calculating the cost of capital and how to apply it. We ...

  14. Draft Submission; Social Cost of Energy Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-01-05

    This report is intended to provide a general understanding of the social costs associated with electric power generation. Based on a thorough review of recent literature on the subject, the report describes how these social costs can be most fully and accurately evaluated, and discusses important considerations in applying this information within the competitive bidding process. [DJE 2005

  15. Social cost benefit analysis and energy policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Nooij, M.

    2012-01-01

    Most research into the reliability of electricity supply focuses on the suppliers. Reductions in the number of power interruptions will often be possible, but also very costly. These costs will eventually be borne by the electricity users. This paper studies the value of supply security in order to

  16. Association of Hospital Market Concentration With Costs of Complex Hepatopancreaticobiliary Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerullo, Marcelo; Chen, Sophia Y; Dillhoff, Mary; Schmidt, Carl; Canner, Joseph K; Pawlik, Timothy M

    2017-09-20

    Trade-offs involved with market competition, overall costs to payers and consumers, and quality of care have not been well defined. Less competition within any given market may enable provider-driven increases in charges. To examine the association between regional hospital market concentration and hospital charges for hepatopancreaticobiliary surgical procedures. This study included all patients undergoing hepatic or pancreatic resection in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2011. Hospital market concentration was assessed using a variable-radius Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) in the 2003, 2006, and 2009 Hospital Market Structure files. Data were analyzed from November 19, 2016, through March 2, 2017. Hepatic or pancreatic resection. Multivariable mixed-effects log-linear models were constructed to determine the association between HHI and total costs and charges for hepatic or pancreatic resection. Weighted totals of 38 711 patients undergoing pancreatic resection (50.8% men and 49.2% women; median age, 65 years [interquartile range, 55-73 years]) and 52 284 patients undergoing hepatic resection (46.8% men and 53.2% women; median age, 59 years [interquartile range, 49-69 years]) were identified. Higher institutional volume was associated with lower cost of pancreatic resection (-5.4%; 95% CI, -10.0% to -0.5%; P = .03) and higher cost of hepatic resection (13.4%; 95% CI, 8.2% to 18.8%; P markets relative to moderately concentrated markets, although overall charges were 8.3% lower (95% CI, -14.0% to -2.3%; P = .008) in highly concentrated markets. For hepatic resections, hospitals in highly concentrated markets had 8.4% lower costs (95% CI, -13.0% to -3.6%; P = .001) compared with those in unconcentrated markets and charges that were 13.4% lower (95% CI, -19.3% to -7.1%; P markets and 10.5% lower (95% CI, -16.2% to -4.4%; P = .001) compared with unconcentrated markets. Higher market concentration was

  17. Three essays on regulated markets. Renewable energies, hospital competition and health insurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unfried, Matthias

    2012-11-15

    This doctoral thesis presents an analysis of regulated markets especially focusing on the behavior of the actors, the effects of regulatory interventions on market outcome, and the necessity of the regulation itself. With respect to the particular characteristics, three different markets are analyzed: the German market for photovoltaic capacity, the German hospital sector, and the market for health insurance with respect to outpatient care. Chapter two provides an analysis of the German system of feed-in tariffs for photovoltaic power with respect to effectiveness and efficiency. To ensure a certain volume of investment in photovoltaic capacity investors receive fixed feed-in tariffs for 20 years for each unit of energy they feed into the grid. This remuneration is reduced according to a certain cut-off scheme for devices which will be installed in the future. In the past view years, an enormous volume of photovoltaic devices has been installed, especially in the weeks before the cut-offs. To analyze the efficiency and the effectiveness of the German feed-in tariff system, first, the determinants of such investment are analyzed by estimating an Error Correction model. The results of the estimation are used to simulate alternative mechanisms of adjusting the feed-in tariffs and compare them to the current regime in terms of target achievement and social costs. One of the key results is that the current system causes early investments, but does not induce over-investment. Moreover, it is shown that a system of continuously adjusted feed-in tariffs could be more appropriate than the current regime and that the adjustment should be related to the investment costs. In chapter three, the German hospital market which is characterized by regulated treatment fees and several different ownership types is analyzed. This part of the thesis tries to answer the question how the existence of non-profit hospitals influences market outcome and welfare compared to a market where

  18. 75 FR 57911 - Application To Export Electric Energy; GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity..., Inc. (GSEMNA) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada... received an application from GSEMNA for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States...

  19. 75 FR 57912 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation AGENCY: Office of Electricity... Corporation (Rainbow) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico... received an application from Rainbow for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States...

  20. 75 FR 78980 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Direct Energy Marketing, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Direct Energy Marketing, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery.... (DEMI) has applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada... to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada for a two-year term as a power...

  1. A thermal storage capacity market for non dispatchable renewable energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennouna, El Ghali; Mouaky, Ammar; Arrad, Mouad; Ghennioui, Abdellatif; Mimet, Abdelaziz

    2017-06-01

    Due to the increasingly high capacity of wind power and solar PV in Germany and some other European countries and the high share of variable renewable energy resources in comparison to fossil and nuclear capacity, a power reserve market structured by auction systems was created to facilitate the exchange of balance power capacities between systems and even grid operators. Morocco has a large potential for both wind and solar energy and is engaged in a program to deploy 2000MW of wind capacity by 2020 and 3000 MW of solar capacity by 2030. Although the competitiveness of wind energy is very strong, it appears clearly that the wind program could be even more ambitious than what it is, especially when compared to the large exploitable potential. On the other hand, heavy investments on concentrated solar power plants equipped with thermal energy storage have triggered a few years ago including the launching of the first part of the Nour Ouarzazate complex, the goal being to reach stable, dispatchable and affordable electricity especially during evening peak hours. This paper aims to demonstrate the potential of shared thermal storage capacity between dispatchable and non dispatchable renewable energies and particularly CSP and wind power. Thus highlighting the importance of a storage capacity market in parallel to the power reserve market and the and how it could enhance the development of both wind and CSP market penetration.

  2. 75 FR 5782 - Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corporation; Supplemental Notice That.... This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Noble Energy Marketing and...

  3. THE ROLE OF SUNK COSTS IN ENTRY PROCESS INTO A FOREIGN MARKET: THEORETICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nadtochii

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The category of sunk costs is studied along with specific features of entry barriers. Different scientific approaches in defining a category are compared to make author's own. The study elucidates a role of sunk costs, including its influence on researching a market, evaluating an efficiency of entering into market and evaluating its risk. The paper highlights three main components of sunk costs, that are: investments to reduce production costs of incumbents relative to newcomers, investments to change a structure of rival's costs and investments to positive change of a demand on a product. Author proposes to consider sunk costs as a strategic barrier, due to a huge influence of incumbents' activities. A need to invest these costs also determines a high competitiveness of a new firm.

  4. Commercial Building Energy Asset Rating Program -- Market Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Molly J.; Wang, Na

    2012-04-19

    Under contract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, HaydenTanner, LLC conducted an in-depth analysis of the potential market value of a commercial building energy asset rating program for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The market research objectives were to: (1) Evaluate market interest and need for a program and tool to offer asset rating and rapidly identify potential energy efficiency measures for the commercial building sector. (2) Identify key input variables and asset rating outputs that would facilitate increased investment in energy efficiency. (3) Assess best practices and lessons learned from existing national and international energy rating programs. (4) Identify core messaging to motivate owners, investors, financiers, and others in the real estate sector to adopt a voluntary asset rating program and, as a consequence, deploy high-performance strategies and technologies across new and existing buildings. (5) Identify leverage factors and incentives that facilitate increased investment in these buildings. To meet these objectives, work consisted of a review of the relevant literature, examination of existing and emergent asset and operational rating systems, interviews with industry stakeholders, and an evaluation of the value implication of an asset label on asset valuation. This report documents the analysis methodology and findings, conclusion, and recommendations. Its intent is to support and inform the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy on the market need and potential value impacts of an asset labeling and diagnostic tool to encourage high-performance new buildings and building efficiency retrofit projects.

  5. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design... FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.508 Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 508.1The...

  6. Impact of Germany's energy transition on the Nordic power market – A market-based multi-region energy system model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakeri, Behnam; Virasjoki, Vilma; Syri, Sanna

    2016-01-01

    The EU energy policy aims at creating a single European electricity market through market couplings and grid expansions. To analyse the implications of such power market couplings, we propose a market-based multi-region energy system model. The model simulates a multi-region power market (by...... applying market optimization and network theory), with detailed representation of each region as an energy system (by simulation of both heat and power sectors). We examine the impact of further integration of variable renewable energy (VRE) in Germany on the Nordic power market. The results indicate...... that the average electricity price slightly grows in the Nordic power market after Germany's Energy Transition (Energiewende). Hence, the economic surplus of Nordic consumers diminishes while Nordic producers improve their gain under new market conditions. Considering the gird congestion income, the overall system...

  7. Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure development program: Cost analysis requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Custer, W.R. Jr.; Messick, C.D.

    1996-03-31

    This report was prepared to support development of the Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure -- a new capability to independently estimate and analyze costs. Currently, the cost data are reported according to a structure that blends level of effort tasks with product and process oriented tasks. Also. the budgetary inputs are developed from prior year funding authorizations and from contractor-developed parametric estimates that have been adjusted to planned funding levels or appropriations. Consequently, it is difficult for headquarters and field-level activities to use actual cost data and technical requirements to independently assess the costs generated and identify trends, potential cost savings from process improvements, and cost reduction strategies.

  8. Labor Market Policy: A Comparative View on the Costs and Benefits of Labor Market Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Lawrence M.

    2012-01-01

    I review theories and evidence on wage-setting institutions and labor market policies in an international comparative context. These include collective bargaining, minimum wages, employment protection laws, unemployment insurance (UI), mandated parental leave, and active labor market policies (ALMPs). Since it is unlikely that an unregulated…

  9. The North American Market For Renewable Energy Certificates, 6. edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-10-15

    The report provides a study of the Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) market and takes a comprehensive look at what RECs are, how they work, the role they can play in spurring renewable energy development, the different models for implementing RECs, current offerings of REC suppliers, and customer purchases of RECs. Topics covered include: an overview of green power; definition of what RECs are and how they work; discussion of the history of RECs and their uses; explanation of the benefits of RECs and the challenges they face; discussion of how RECs interact with Renewable Portfolio Standards; discussion of the REC certification process; overview of the current market for RECs in the U.S.; profiles of major North American REC tracking systems; and, profiles of 40 key North American REC market participants.

  10. Cost of photovoltaic energy systems as determined by balance-of-system costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, L.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of the balance-of-system (BOS), i.e., the total system less the modules, on photo-voltaic energy system costs is discussed for multikilowatt, flat-plate systems. Present BOS costs are in the range of 10 to 16 dollars per peak watt (1978 dollars). BOS costs represent approximately 50% of total system cost. The possibility of future BOS cost reduction is examined. It is concluded that, given the nature of BOS costs and the lack of comprehensive national effort focussed on cost reduction, it is unlikely that BOS costs will decline greatly in the next several years. This prognosis is contrasted with the expectations of the Department of Energy National Photovoltaic Program goals and pending legislation in the Congress which require a BOS cost reduction of an order of magnitude or more by the mid-1980s.

  11. On The Economics of Energy Labels in the Housing Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brounen, D. [Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kok, N. [Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2010-08-15

    The residential housing market can play an important role in the reduction of global carbon emissions. This paper reports the first evidence on the market adoption and economic implications of energy performance certificates implemented by the European Union. The results show that adoption rates are low and declining over time, coinciding with negative sentiment regarding the label in the popular media. Labels are clustered among smaller, post-war homes in neighborhoods with more difficult selling conditions. We also document that the adoption rates of energy labels have a positive relation to the number of 'green' voters during the 2006 national elections. Within the sample of labeled homes, the energy label creates transparency in the energy performance of dwellings. Our analysis shows that consumers capitalize this information into the price of their prospective homes.

  12. Introducing cost-optimal levels for energy requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    2012-01-01

    The recast of the Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings (EPBD) states that Member States (MS) must ensure that minimum energy performance requirements for buildings are set “with a view to achieve cost-optimal levels”, and that the cost-optimal level must be calculated in accordance wi...

  13. Determinants of Transactions Costs in the Brazilian Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Zoratto Sanvicente

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Lesmond (2005 method for estimating transactions costs, based on a limited-dependent variable model, is used in order to test for the significance of plausible explanations for cross sectional cost differences. Variables such as liquidity, volatility, firm size, quality of corporate governance and participation in ADR programs are considered, in addition to the possible impact of the 2008 crisis. Daily data for 1999-2009 are used, covering at least 250 securities each year. The average total transaction cost declined from 2.95% in 1999 to 1.22% in 2009. Stock volatility and quality of corporate governance appear to be the most relevant factors associated with the measure of transactions cost.

  14. Essays on the economics of energy markets. Security of supply and greenhouse gas abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckhoener, Caroline

    2013-02-01

    In summary, the presented thesis analyzes two distinct economic subjects: security of supply in natural gas markets and greenhouse gas abatement potentials in the residential heating market. These subjects considered both reflect key points in the triangle of energy policy and are both associated with transnational market failures within energy markets. The security of supply analyses in an intermeshed network are approached from a rather normative, top-down perspective of a social planner. On the contrary, the analyses of greenhouse gases emitted by households are positive analyses of consumer choices. The normative analyses of security of supply in natural gas markets and the positive analyses on greenhouse gas abatement in the residential heating market are organized in two parts of the thesis. 1. Normative analyses - Security of supply in natural gas markets: The two papers of the first part of the dissertation thesis are based on a normative approach with the European natural gas market and infrastructure model TIGER that allows for security of supply analyses. The general idea behind the modeling approach is based on the assumption of a social planner and finds an efficient utilization of the natural gas infrastructure. More precisely, the security of supply analyses conducted in the first part of the thesis refer to scenario simulations of disrupted supply routes in the European natural gas network. The effects of these security of supply scenarios on the usage of other infrastructure components, on marginal supply costs and disruptions to consumers are investigated. 2. Positive analyses of greenhouse gas abatement potentials - Econometric modeling of consumer choices and evaluation of public policies: The second part of the thesis includes two positive analyses which investigate household choices to derive greenhouse gas abatement potentials. In the residential heating market, the energy efficiency level exhibited and the type of energy carrier used are

  15. Optimizing Ice Thermal Storage to Reduce Energy Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Christopher L.

    Energy cost for buildings is an issue of concern for owners across the U.S. The bigger the building, the greater the concern. A part of this is due to the energy required to cool the building and the way in which charges are set when paying for energy consumed during different times of the day. This study will prove that designing ice thermal storage properly will minimize energy cost in buildings. The effectiveness of ice thermal storage as a means to reduce energy costs lies within transferring the time of most energy consumption from on-peak to off-peak periods. Multiple variables go into the equation of finding the optimal use of ice thermal storage and they are all judged with the final objective of minimizing monthly energy costs. This research discusses the optimal design of ice thermal storage and its impact on energy consumption, energy demand, and the total energy cost. A tool for optimal design of ice thermal storage is developed, considering variables such as chiller and ice storage sizes and charging and discharge times. The simulations take place in a four-story building and investigate the potential of Ice Thermal Storage as a resource in reducing and minimizing energy cost for cooling. The simulations test the effectiveness of Ice Thermal Storage implemented into the four-story building in ten locations across the United States.

  16. Solar Power Satellites: Creating the Market for Beamed Energy Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, Jonathan

    2010-05-01

    Beamed energy advocates must investigate the potential of major markets like space based solar satellites and space-based nuclear waste disposal. For BEP to succeed, its proponents must work with these possible users to generate interest and resources needed to develop BEP.

  17. Electric energy storage systems in a market-based economy. Comparison of emerging and traditional technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazempour, S. Jalal; Moghaddam, M. Parsa; Haghifam, M.R.; Yousefi, G.R. [Department of Electrical and computer Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University (TMU), Tehran (Iran)

    2009-12-15

    Unlike markets for storable commodities, electricity markets depend on the real-time balance of supply and demand. Although much of the present-day grid operate effectively without storage technologies, cost-effective ways of storing electrical energy can make the grid more efficient and reliable. This work addresses an economic comparison between emerging and traditional Electric Energy Storage (EES) technologies in a competitive electricity market. In order to achieve this goal, an appropriate Self-Scheduling (SS) approach must first be developed for each of them to determine their maximum potential of expected profit among multi-markets such as energy and ancillary service markets. Then, these technologies are economically analyzed using Internal Rate of Return (IRR) index. Finally, the amounts of needed financial supports are determined for choosing the emerging technologies when an investor would like to invest on EES technologies. Among available EES technologies, we consider NaS battery (Natrium Sulfur battery) and pumped-storage plants as emerging and traditional technologies, respectively. (author)

  18. Security of supply in electricity markets: Improving cost efficiency of supplying security and possible welfare gains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Grenaa Jensen, Stine

    2012-01-01

    by possible welfare gains. From a welfare perspective it is possible that security levels are too high and obtained with too high costs. Adjusting the effort so that marginal cost for securing supply is at similar levels in generation capacity and in network maintenance could increase welfare even without......In liberalised markets the ability to maintain security of electricity supply is questioned because security is characterised as a public good. We discuss if this property can be modified with changing technology. Furthermore, we examine if construction of markets for security can be justified...... the need to construct markets. Secondarily, a consumer defined average level of security might improve welfare. Finally, different willingness to pay among customers and construction of advanced markets might increase welfare further. We argue that several cost and welfare improvements can be achieved...

  19. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Cement Making An ENERGY STAR® Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worrell, E.; Kermeli, Katerina; Galitsky, Christina

    2013-01-01

    The cost of energy as part of the total production costs in the cement industry is significant, typically at 20 to 40% of operational costs, warranting attention for energy efficiency to improve the bottom line. Historically, energy intensity has declined, although more recently energy intensity see

  20. The Cost of Enforcing Building Energy Codes: Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Alison [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Vine, Ed [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sturges, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rosenquist, Greg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to summarize key findings regarding the costs associated with enforcing building energy code compliance—primarily focusing on costs borne by local government. The review takes into consideration over 150 documents that discuss, to some extent, code enforcement. This review emphasizes those documents that specifically focus on costs associated with energy code enforcement. Given the low rates of building energy code compliance that have been reported in existing studies, as well as the many barriers to both energy code compliance and enforcement, this study seeks to identify the costs of initiatives to improve compliance and enforcement. Costs are reported primarily as presented in the original source. Some costs are given on a per home or per building basis, and others are provided for jurisdictions of a certain size. This literature review gives an overview of state-based compliance rates, barriers to code enforcement, and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and key stakeholder involvement in improving compliance with building energy codes. In addition, the processes and costs associated with compliance and enforcement of building energy codes are presented. The second phase of this study, which will be presented in a different report, will consist of surveying 34 experts in the building industry at the national and state or local levels in order to obtain additional cost information, building on the findings from the first phase, as well as recommendations for where to most effectively spend money on compliance and enforcement.

  1. Harvesting forest biomass for energy in Minnesota: An assessment of guidelines, costs and logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Dalia El Sayed Abbas Mohamed

    The emerging market for renewable energy in Minnesota has generated a growing interest in utilizing more forest biomass for energy. However, this growing interest is paralleled with limited knowledge of the environmental impacts and cost effectiveness of utilizing this resource. To address environmental and economic viability concerns, this dissertation has addressed three areas related to biomass harvest: First, existing biomass harvesting guidelines and sustainability considerations are examined. Second, the potential contribution of biomass energy production to reduce the costs of hazardous fuel reduction treatments in these trials is assessed. Third, the logistics of biomass production trials are analyzed. Findings show that: (1) Existing forest related guidelines are not sufficient to allow large-scale production of biomass energy from forest residue sustainably. Biomass energy guidelines need to be based on scientific assessments of how repeated and large scale biomass production is going to affect soil, water and habitat values, in an integrated and individual manner over time. Furthermore, such guidelines would need to recommend production logistics (planning, implementation, and coordination of operations) necessary for a potential supply with the least site and environmental impacts. (2) The costs of biomass production trials were assessed and compared with conventional treatment costs. In these trials, conventional mechanical treatment costs were lower than biomass energy production costs less income from biomass sale. However, a sensitivity analysis indicated that costs reductions are possible under certain site, prescriptions and distance conditions. (3) Semi-structured interviews with forest machine operators indicate that existing fuel reduction prescriptions need to be more realistic in making recommendations that can overcome operational barriers (technical and physical) and planning and coordination concerns (guidelines and communications

  2. Installed Cost Benchmarks and Deployment Barriers for Residential Solar Photovoltaics with Energy Storage: Q1 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardani, Kristen; O' Shaughnessy, Eric; Fu, Ran; McClurg, Chris; Huneycutt, Joshua; Margolis, Robert

    2016-12-01

    In this report, we fill a gap in the existing knowledge about PV-plus-storage system costs and value by providing detailed component- and system-level installed cost benchmarks for residential systems. We also examine other barriers to increased deployment of PV-plus-storage systems in the residential sector. The results are meant to help technology manufacturers, installers, and other stakeholders identify cost-reduction opportunities and inform decision makers about regulatory, policy, and market characteristics that impede solar plus storage deployment. In addition, our periodic cost benchmarks will document progress in cost reductions over time. To analyze costs for PV-plus-storage systems deployed in the first quarter of 2016, we adapt the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's component- and system-level cost-modeling methods for standalone PV. In general, we attempt to model best-in-class installation techniques and business operations from an installed-cost perspective. In addition to our original analysis, model development, and review of published literature, we derive inputs for our model and validate our draft results via interviews with industry and subject-matter experts. One challenge to analyzing the costs of PV-plus-storage systems is choosing an appropriate cost metric. Unlike standalone PV, energy storage lacks universally accepted cost metrics, such as dollars per watt of installed capacity and lifetime levelized cost of energy. We explain the difficulty of arriving at a standard approach for reporting storage costs and then provide the rationale for using the total installed costs of a standard PV-plus-storage system as our primary metric, rather than using a system-size-normalized metric.

  3. Nanopositioner actuator energy cost and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, J.B.C.; Khatib, M.G.; Abelmann, L.; Elwenspoek, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the energy consumption and seek-time performance of different actuator types for nanopositioners, with emphasis on their use in a parallel-probe-based data-storage system. Analytical models are derived to calculate the energy consumption and performance of electrodynamic (coil and per

  4. Renewable Energy Cost Modeling. A Toolkit for Establishing Cost-Based Incentives in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gifford, Jason S. [Sustainable Energy Advantage, LLC, Framington, MA (United States); Grace, Robert C. [Sustainable Energy Advantage, LLC, Framington, MA (United States); Rickerson, Wilson H. [Meister Consultants Group, Inc., Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-05-01

    This report serves as a resource for policymakers who wish to learn more about levelized cost of energy (LCOE) calculations, including cost-based incentives. The report identifies key renewable energy cost modeling options, highlights the policy implications of choosing one approach over the other, and presents recommendations on the optimal characteristics of a model to calculate rates for cost-based incentives, FITs, or similar policies. These recommendations shaped the design of NREL's Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST), which is used by state policymakers, regulators, utilities, developers, and other stakeholders to assist with analyses of policy and renewable energy incentive payment structures. Authored by Jason S. Gifford and Robert C. Grace of Sustainable Energy Advantage LLC and Wilson H. Rickerson of Meister Consultants Group, Inc.

  5. The energy markets deregulation; L'ouverture des marches de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document is devoted to the opening of the energy markets and the associated production forms. The deregulation is going to change the technology with the need of a global answer to the the energy demands of the manufacturers and the local governments. In this context, the nuclear pole in the world facing the other forms of energy is discussed. (A.L.B.)

  6. Achieving energy security through integrated Canadian-American markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moens, A. [Fraser Inst., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Rastin, T.; O' Keefe, G. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The oil and gas sector in the United States and Canada has become increasingly integrated over the last 2 decades, and competitive market forces have displaced attempts at government intervention in both countries. Regulatory measures in both countries are often geared to optimize free-market exchanges. As a result, trade in oil, gas, and electricity is flourishing between Canada and the United States. This paper argued that the relationship between the United States and Canada is under increasing pressure to change. In Canada, energy nationalism and the rising importance of Alberta's oil sands deposits may cause other regions to look at political methods to redistribute wealth or redirect trade flows. The extraction methods used by the oil sands industry as well as Arctic, offshore oil and coalbed methane (CBM) industries are more detrimental to the environment than traditional methods of energy source development, and may attract critics who will call for freezes on production and excessive government intervention. Data on energy production, consumption and trade in North America was provided as well as a history of the evolution of market and regulatory conditions. Challenges and opportunities in the oil and gas sector were outlined. It was recommended that governments in both countries emphasize their commitment to market-based solutions and attempt to remove uncertainties arising from environmental restrictions and First Nations claims. 104 refs.

  7. Advanced Modeling of Renewable Energy Market Dynamics: May 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, M.; Little, R.; Lloyd, K.; Malikov, G.; Passolt, G.; Arent, D.; Swezey, B.; Mosey, G.

    2007-08-01

    This report documents a year-long academic project, presenting selected techniques for analysis of market growth, penetration, and forecasting applicable to renewable energy technologies. Existing mathematical models were modified to incorporate the effects of fiscal policies and were evaluated using available data. The modifications were made based on research and classification of current mathematical models used for predicting market penetration. An analysis of the results was carried out, based on available data. MATLAB versions of existing and new models were developed for research and policy analysis.

  8. Impact of Variable Renewable Energy in the Iberian Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuño, Edgar; Pereira, Adelino J. C.; Machado Ferreira, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Market and system operators face new challenges as more renewable energy sources are added. The driving factors in this trend are mainly associated with environmental benefits of the renewable generation and climate change mitigation, as well as the reduction of the dependency of conventional...... and external energy source. If integrated in large scale, the nondispatchable nature of intermittent resources imposes some technical and economic challenges on the operation of power systems. Particularly, market dynamics and prices could be influenced by such integrations. Over the last years, the generation...... mix of Spain and Portugal has undergone a dramatic change, driven by new environmental policies and financial incentives. In this regard, wind has become one of the most popular alternative sources of energy, bringing new challenges from the operational and structural point of view. This trend has...

  9. An Ad-Hoc Initial Solution Heuristic for Metaheuristic Optimization of Energy Market Participation Portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Faia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The deregulation of the electricity sector has culminated in the introduction of competitive markets. In addition, the emergence of new forms of electric energy production, namely the production of renewable energy, has brought additional changes in electricity market operation. Renewable energy has significant advantages, but at the cost of an intermittent character. The generation variability adds new challenges for negotiating players, as they have to deal with a new level of uncertainty. In order to assist players in their decisions, decision support tools enabling assisting players in their negotiations are crucial. Artificial intelligence techniques play an important role in this decision support, as they can provide valuable results in rather small execution times, namely regarding the problem of optimizing the electricity markets participation portfolio. This paper proposes a heuristic method that provides an initial solution that allows metaheuristic techniques to improve their results through a good initialization of the optimization process. Results show that by using the proposed heuristic, multiple metaheuristic optimization methods are able to improve their solutions in a faster execution time, thus providing a valuable contribution for players support in energy markets negotiations.

  10. Clean Energy Policies Analysis: The Role of Policy in Clean Energy Market Transformation (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, E.

    2010-11-01

    This presentation was written and presented by Elizabeth Doris (NREL) at the November 17 TAP Webinar to provide background detail about how state policies are transforming the clean energy market in different regions of the country.

  11. Credit Market Concentration, Relationship Lending and the Cost of Debt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Bonini (Stefano); A. Dell'Aqua (Alberto); M. Fungo (Matteo); V. Kysucky (Vlado)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate how the banking industry concentration and the strength of credit relationships (relationship lending) jointly affect the cost of borrowing of firms. Our results indicate that relationship lending is not associated with the rent extraction mechanism deriving from informati

  12. Analysis of the Chinese Market for Building Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Shi, Qing

    2014-03-20

    China will account for about half of the new construction globally in the coming decade. Its floorspace doubled from 1996 to 2011, and Chinese rural buildings alone have as much floorspace as all of U.S. residential buildings. Building energy consumption has also grown, increasing by over 40% since 1990. To curb building energy demand, the Chinese government has launched a series of policies and programs. Combined, this growth in buildings and renovations, along with the policies to promote green buildings, are creating a large market for energy efficiency products and services. This report assesses the impact of China’s policies on building energy efficiency and on the market for energy efficiency in the future. The first chapter of this report introduces the trends in China, drawing on both historical analysis, and detailed modeling of the drivers behind changes in floorspace and building energy demand such as economic and population growth, urbanization, policy. The analysis describes the trends by region, building type and energy service. The second chapter discusses China’s policies to promote green buildings. China began developing building energy codes in the 1980s. Over time, the central government has increased the stringency of the code requirements and the extent of enforcement. The codes are mandatory in all new buildings and major renovations in China’s cities, and they have been a driving force behind the expansion of China’s markets for insulation, efficient windows, and other green building materials. China also has several other important policies to encourage efficient buildings, including the Three-Star Rating System (somewhat akin to LEED), financial incentives tied to efficiency, appliance standards, a phasing out of incandescent bulbs and promotion of efficient lighting, and several policies to encourage retrofits in existing buildings. In the third chapter, we take “deep dives” into the trends affecting key building components

  13. Life Cycle Cost Optimization of a Bolig+ Zero Energy Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna

    included in the current building code, and ten renewable energy supply systems including both on-site and off-site options. Theresults indicated that although the off-site options have lower life cycle costs than the on-site alternatives, their application would promote renewable technologies overenergy......, cost-optimal “zero” energybalance accounts only for the building related energy use....... owners’ approach to it. For thisparticular target group, the cost is often an obstacle when investing money in environmental or climate friendly products. Therefore, this PhD project took theperspective of a future private ZEB owner to investigate the cost-optimal Net ZEB definition applicable...

  14. Monitor energy consumption - Reduce costs; Energieverbrauch ueberwachen - Kosten senken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolliger, R.

    2008-07-01

    This article takes a look at energy consumption in residential, industrial and commercial buildings and how energy consumption metering can help reduce energy consumption. The proprietary system briefly described uses the KNX bus system to transfer data. Visualisation of the data collected is briefly described. Peak-load management and ways of adapting user behaviour are discussed. Trends towards higher levels of consumption - particularly in emerging markets - are discussed. Energy needs, carbon dioxide emissions, investments and potentials for making savings are discussed. Possibilities of increasing energy efficiency in the residential, industrial and commercial sectors are examined.

  15. Characterizing Synergistic Water and Energy Efficiency at the Residential Scale Using a Cost Abatement Curve Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillwell, A. S.; Chini, C. M.; Schreiber, K. L.; Barker, Z. A.

    2015-12-01

    Energy and water are two increasingly correlated resources. Electricity generation at thermoelectric power plants requires cooling such that large water withdrawal and consumption rates are associated with electricity consumption. Drinking water and wastewater treatment require significant electricity inputs to clean, disinfect, and pump water. Due to this energy-water nexus, energy efficiency measures might be a cost-effective approach to reducing water use and water efficiency measures might support energy savings as well. This research characterizes the cost-effectiveness of different efficiency approaches in households by quantifying the direct and indirect water and energy savings that could be realized through efficiency measures, such as low-flow fixtures, energy and water efficient appliances, distributed generation, and solar water heating. Potential energy and water savings from these efficiency measures was analyzed in a product-lifetime adjusted economic model comparing efficiency measures to conventional counterparts. Results were displayed as cost abatement curves indicating the most economical measures to implement for a target reduction in water and/or energy consumption. These cost abatement curves are useful in supporting market innovation and investment in residential-scale efficiency.

  16. Construction Cost Growth for New Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubic, Jr., William L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-05-25

    Cost growth and construction delays are problems that plague many large construction projects including the construction of new Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities. A study was conducted to evaluate cost growth of large DOE construction projects. The purpose of the study was to compile relevant data, consider the possible causes of cost growth, and recommend measures that could be used to avoid extreme cost growth in the future. Both large DOE and non-DOE construction projects were considered in this study. With the exception of Chemical and Metallurgical Research Building Replacement Project (CMRR) and the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF), cost growth for DOE Nuclear facilities is comparable to the growth experienced in other mega construction projects. The largest increase in estimated cost was found to occur between early cost estimates and establishing the project baseline during detailed design. Once the project baseline was established, cost growth for DOE nuclear facilities was modest compared to non-DOE mega projects.

  17. The avoided external costs of using wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markandya, A. [Harvard Inst. for International Development, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This article discusses the external costs of electricity generated by conventional fossil fuel sources, such as coal and nuclear power. It compares the costs of electricity generated with coal with that generated with wind. A measure of the benefits of wind energy is the difference between these two external costs. The methodology used for the estimation of the external costs, as well as the estimates of these costs, are taken from the EC ExternE study, financed by DGXII of the European Commission. The present author was a lead economist for that study. (author)

  18. DEPENDENCE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND COST OF PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sklyarov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic systems exist on condition of receipt and spending of energy. Energy consumption is a necessary condition for the existence and functioning of the economic systems of any scale: macroeconomics, microeconomics, regional economy or the world economy.The economic system operates on the scale at which it is able to produce energy and get access to energy. Moreover, receipt and consumption of energy in the operation of the economic system is mainly determined by, the level of energy production from energy sources, since this level is determined by the level of energy consumption by industries and enterprises of the economy.Currently, the economic system does not produce energy in reserve. Thus, the question of energy effi ciency and energy saving was always acute.The article describes the energy efficiency and energy saving effect on the cost of production. Were used two methods: “costs and release” matrix and “price - value added” matrix. The result is the equation of dependence of energy efficiency and costs.

  19. Efficient integration of renewable energies in the German electricity market; Effiziente Integration erneuerbarer Energien in den deutschen Elektrizitaetsmarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabe, C.A.

    2006-07-01

    Liberalisation of the electricity sector aims to carry out coordination tasks within the system by markets and market prices. This study examines how markets need to be designed to carry out coordination tasks caused by integration of renewable energies in an efficient way. This question is applied to the German electricity system and recommendations are derived from identified deficits. The examination uses the structure-conduct-performance approach of industrial organisation economics. Integration of renewable energies does not result in entirely new coordination tasks but complicates those that exist in any electricity supply system. Within the short-term coordination tasks provision and operation of reserve capacity is affected by renewable energies. Long-term coordination means that the relation between fixed and variable costs of generators as well as generator flexibility has to be adjusted to the characteristics of renewable energies. The relevant short-term coordination task with the network is congestion management. In the long run costs of grid expansion and permanent congestion management have to be balanced. For the execution of short-run coordination tasks integrated and centralised market architectures are superior to decentralised architectures. The increase of short-term coordination tasks due to renewable energies caused by inflexibilities of consumers and conventional generators results in more information that has to be considered. By centralising that information in one market, an increase in productive efficiency can be obtained. In Germany the increased coordination tasks are determined by the integration of wind generators into the electricity system. The present German market architecture results in inefficiencies in short-term coordination. This is demonstrated by an analysis of procedural rules and prices of the ancillary service markets. They demonstrate that market performance is low and significant deviations from competitive prices

  20. Microeconomic and macroeconomic analysis of the cost and benefit effects of the continued development of renewable energies in the German electricity and heat market. Stock-taking and assessment of current methods of quantifying the cost and benefit effects of the continued development of renewable energies in the electricity and heat sector. Work package 1; Einzel- und gesamtwirtschaftliche Analyse von Kosten- und Nutzenwirkungen des Ausbaus Erneuerbarer Energien im deutschen Strom- und Waermemarkt. Bestandsaufnahme und Bewertung vorliegender Ansaetze zur Quantifizierung der Kosten-Nutzen-Wirkungen des Ausbaus Erneuerbarer Energien im Strom- und Waermebereich. Arbeitspaket 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitschopf, Barbara; Klobasa, Marian; Sensfuss, Frank [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (DE)] (and others)

    2010-03-15

    The present study forms the first part of an extensive project dedicated to an analysis of the cost and benefit effects of the continued development of renewable energies in the electricity and heat sectors. The project's objective is to establish a scientifically substantiated, generally accepted basis for a comprehensive assessment of the use and continued development of renewable energies up to the present. For this purpose the following report presents an overview and discussion of the approaches and methods used in the past for determining such effects. While some effects have already been quantified and discussed at length, others have largely been ignored or only considered in qualitative terms. The study particularly gives impetus to the analysis of cost and benefit effects in the heat sector, whereas in regard to the electricity sector it largely focuses on a thorough evaluation of studies already performed. All studies under review are categorised within a conceptual framework for the purpose of arriving at an overall assessment of effects without double counting or gaps. Effects are classified as follows, depending on the category in question: costs and benefits of renewable energy technologies; burdening of and relief to market participants; and effects on value creation and employment. Wherever possible, effects are quantified in monetary terms stating the object (e.g. electricity from renewable energy) and range of analysis in each case. The analysis horizon has initially been defined such that it captures the present situation (2007 and possibly 2008). The second part of the project covers follow-on or in-depth studies aimed at improving estimates and representations of current and future effects (in the years from 2020 to 2030).

  1. Cost benefit indicators associated with the integration of alternative energy sources: A systems approach for Carinthia, Austria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlgemuth, N.

    1999-01-01

    , over the horizon to 2020, the technical and market penetration potentials of AES in the context of the Carinthian energy system. Apart from market penetration rates, cost benefit indicators are also computed to support the decision making process in the local energy and environmental policy....... These indicators comprise import dependency, employment effects, capital expenditure, carbon dioxide emissions and government revenues. The systems approach adopted, the simultaneous consideration of not only market penetration rates but also of the associated economic indicators, gives a more complete picture...

  2. Market potential for optical fiber sensors in the energy sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosselmann, T.

    2007-07-01

    For a long time electric power was taken as a natural unlimited resource. With globalisation the demand for energy has risen. This has brought rising prices for fossil fuels, as well as a diversification of power generation. Besides conventional fossil, nuclear plants are coming up again. Renewable energy sources are gaining importance resulting in recent boom of wind energy plants. In the past reliability and availability and an extremely long lifetime were of paramount importance. Today this has been added by cost, due to the global competition and the high fuel costs. New designs of power components have increased efficiency using lesser material. Higher efficiency causes inevitably higher stress on the materials, of which the machines are built. As a reduction of lifetime is not acceptable and maintenance costs are expected to be at a minimum, condition monitoring systems are going to being used now. This offers potentials for fibre optic sensor application.

  3. Reactors Save Energy, Costs for Hydrogen Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    While examining fuel-reforming technology for fuel cells onboard aircraft, Glenn Research Center partnered with Garrettsville, Ohio-based Catacel Corporation through the Glenn Alliance Technology Exchange program and a Space Act Agreement. Catacel developed a stackable structural reactor that is now employed for commercial hydrogen production and results in energy savings of about 20 percent.

  4. Regulatory intervention on the dynamic European gas market. Neoclassical economics or transaction cost economics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spanjer, Aldo R. [Economics Department, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9520, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2009-08-15

    Shifts at the international gas market indicate that the transaction cost perspective provides better underpinnings for European gas regulation than the current neoclassical perspective. Three implications are that policymakers should: (1) allow alternative coordination measures to complement market exchange; (2) recognize that less than perfect competition outcomes may be optimal and (3) be more reticent in prescribing interventionist measures. Finally, the analysis provides the foundations for the empirical research required to complement this paper's theoretical approach. (author)

  5. Regulatory intervention on the dynamic European gas market-neoclassical economics or transaction cost economics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spanjer, Aldo R. [Economics Department, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9520, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)], E-mail: a.r.spanjer@law.leidenuniv.nl

    2009-08-15

    Shifts at the international gas market indicate that the transaction cost perspective provides better underpinnings for European gas regulation than the current neoclassical perspective. Three implications are that policymakers should: (1) allow alternative coordination measures to complement market exchange; (2) recognize that less than perfect competition outcomes may be optimal and (3) be more reticent in prescribing interventionist measures. Finally, the analysis provides the foundations for the empirical research required to complement this paper's theoretical approach.

  6. The Cost of Collateralized Borrowing in the Colombian Money Market: Does Connectedness Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Constanza Martínez; Carlos León

    2014-01-01

    Under the view that the market is a weighted and directed network (Barabási, 2003), this document is a first attempt to model the Colombian money market within a spatial econometrics framework. By estimating two standard spatial econometric models, we study the cost of collateralized borrowing (i.e. sell/buy backs) among Colombian financial institutions, and its relationship with the effects induced by traditional variables (leverage, size and borrowing levels), and by spatial variables resul...

  7. Transport costs and market cause fall in Colombian exports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    It does not look good for Colombian coal exports in 1999. Although the wrangling over port access is settled, other aspects have clouded the picture - beyond infrastructure upgrading - to stop Colombian coal living up to expectations. The Colombian peso has not been devalued to the same extent as the Australian Dollar or South African Rand, and productivity improvements have also been lost because of increased transport costs. Access fee arrangements at ports remain unresolved, and negotiations continue. Although rail charges are falling, until the port issue is resolved, little will improve in the industry. 2 photos.

  8. Impact of global financial crisis on stylized facts between energy markets and stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Tan Kim; Cheong, Chin Wen; Hooi, Tan Siow

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the stylized facts is extremely important and has becomes a hot issue nowadays. However, recent global financial crisis that started from United States had spread all over the world and adversely affected the commodities and financial sectors of both developed and developing countries. This paper tends to examine the impact of crisis on stylized facts between energy and stock markets using ARCH-family models based on the experience over 2008 global financial crisis. Empirical results denote that there is long lasting, persists and positively significant the autocorrelation function of absolute returns and their squares in both markets for before and during crisis. Besides that, leverage effects are found in stock markets whereby bad news has a greater impact on volatility than good news for both before and during crisis. However, crisis does not indicate any impact on risk-return tradeoff for both energy and stock markets. For forecasting evaluations, GARCH model and FIAPARCH model indicate superior out of sample forecasts for before and during crisis respectively.

  9. Dampak Mediasi Market-Driven Costing Terhadap Hubungan Intensitas Persaingan dan Karakteristik Pelanggan dengan Kinerja Keuangan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Tjahjadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The financial performance of organizatios is crucial to stockholders since most organizations are expected to generate margin in order to finance its growth. This study focuses on hospital organization because competitive intensity among hospitals in Surabaya tends to be higher and higher. Some local and foreign investors have invested aggressively in hospital business. The characteristics of healthcare customers are also dynamic in nature because of the information era. Healthcare customers are more sophisticated, knowledgable, and demanded. This study empirically investigates the mediating effect of market-driven costing on competitive intensity-customer characteristics-financial performance relationships. Thirty nine managers participated in this study. Result of the study shows that (1 market-driven costing fully mediates competitive intensity-financial performance relationship, and (2 market-driven costing fully mediates customer characteristics-financial performance relation­ship.

  10. Developing Information on Energy Savings and Associated Costs and Benefits of Energy Efficient Emerging Technologies Applicable in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang; Slaa, Jan Willem; Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-12-15

    Implementation and adoption of efficient end-use technologies have proven to be one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the industries. In many cases, implementing energy efficiency measures is among one of the most cost effective investments that the industry could make in improving efficiency and productivity while reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Over the years, there have been incentives to use resources and energy in a cleaner and more efficient way to create industries that are sustainable and more productive. With the working of energy programs and policies on GHG inventory and regulation, understanding and managing the costs associated with mitigation measures for GHG reductions is very important for the industry and policy makers around the world and in California. Successful implementation of applicable emerging technologies not only may help advance productivities, improve environmental impacts, or enhance industrial competitiveness, but also can play a significant role in climate-mitigation efforts by saving energy and reducing the associated GHG emissions. Developing new information on costs and savings benefits of energy efficient emerging technologies applicable in California market is important for policy makers as well as the industries. Therefore, provision of timely evaluation and estimation of the costs and energy savings potential of emerging technologies applicable to California is the focus of this report. The overall goal of the project is to identify and select a set of emerging and under-utilized energy-efficient technologies and practices as they are important to reduce energy consumption in industry while maintaining economic growth. Specifically, this report contains the results from performing Task 3 Technology Characterization for California Industries for the project titled Research Opportunities in Emerging and Under-Utilized Energy-Efficient Industrial Technologies, sponsored by

  11. Building-to-Grid Integration through Commercial Building Portfolios Participating in Energy and Frequency Regulation Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlak, Gregory S.

    Building energy use is a significant contributing factor to growing worldwide energy demands. In pursuit of a sustainable energy future, commercial building operations must be intelligently integrated with the electric system to increase efficiency and enable renewable generation. Toward this end, a model-based methodology was developed to estimate the capability of commercial buildings to participate in frequency regulation ancillary service markets. This methodology was integrated into a supervisory model predictive controller to optimize building operation in consideration of energy prices, demand charges, and ancillary service revenue. The supervisory control problem was extended to building portfolios to evaluate opportunities for synergistic effect among multiple, centrally-optimized buildings. Simulation studies performed showed that the multi-market optimization was able to determine appropriate opportunities for buildings to provide frequency regulation. Total savings were increased by up to thirteen percentage points, depending on the simulation case. Furthermore, optimizing buildings as a portfolio achieved up to seven additional percentage points of savings, depending on the case. Enhanced energy and cost savings opportunities were observed by taking the novel perspective of optimizing building portfolios in multiple grid markets, motivating future pursuits of advanced control paradigms that enable a more intelligent electric grid.

  12. Cost Control Best Practices for Net Zero Energy Building Projects: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, M.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2014-02-01

    For net zero energy (NZE) buildings to become the norm in commercial construction, it will be necessary to design and construct these buildings cost effectively. While industry leaders have developed workflows (for procurement, design, and construction) to achieve cost-effective NZE buildings for certain cases, the expertise embodied in those workflows has limited penetration within the commercial building sector. Documenting cost control best practices of industry leaders in NZE and packaging those strategies for adoption by the commercial building sector will help make the business case for NZE. Furthermore, it will promote market uptake of the innovative technologies and design approaches needed to achieve NZE. This paper summarizes successful cost control strategies for NZE procurement, design, and construction that key industry users (such as building owners, architects, and designers) can incorporate into their everyday workflows. It will also evaluate the current state of NZE economics and propose a path forward for greater market penetration of NZE buildings. By demonstrating how to combine NZE technologies and design approaches into an overall efficiency package that can be implemented at minimal (zero, in certain cases) incremental capital cost, the domain of NZE design and construction can be expanded from a niche market to the commercial construction mainstream.

  13. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities forpetroleum refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-02-15

    The petroleum refining industry in the United States is the largest in the world, providing inputs to virtually any economic sector,including the transport sector and the chemical industry. The industry operates 146 refineries (as of January 2004) around the country,employing over 65,000 employees. The refining industry produces a mix of products with a total value exceeding $151 billion. Refineries spend typically 50 percent of cash operating costs (i.e., excluding capital costs and depreciation) on energy, making energy a major cost factor and also an important opportunity for cost reduction. Energy use is also a major source of emissions in the refinery industry making energy efficiency improvement an attractive opportunity to reduce emissions and operating costs. Voluntary government programs aim to assist industry to improve competitiveness through increased energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact. ENERGY STAR (R), a voluntary program managed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, stresses the need for strong and strategic corporate energy management programs. ENERGY STAR provides energy management tools and strategies for successful corporate energy management programs. This Energy Guide describes research conducted to support ENERGY STAR and its work with the petroleum refining industry.This research provides information on potential energy efficiency opportunities for petroleum refineries. This Energy Guide introduces energy efficiency opportunities available for petroleum refineries. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure, and production of the refining industry and the energy used in the refining and conversion processes. Specific energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The Energy Guide draws upon the experiences with energy efficiency measures of petroleum refineries worldwide

  14. Life Cycle Cost Optimization of a BOLIG+ Zero Energy Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna

    included in the current building code, and ten renewable energy supply systems including both on-site and off-site options. The results indicated that although the off-site options have lower life cycle costs than the on-site alternatives, their application would promote renewable technologies over energy......, cost-optimal “zero” energy balance accounts only for the building related energy use....... building owners’ approach to it. For this particular target group, the cost is often an obstacle when investing money in environmental or climate friendly products. Therefore, this PhD project took the perspective of a future private ZEB owner to investigate the cost-optimal Net ZEB definition applicable...

  15. FACTS Devices Cost Recovery During Congestion Management in Deregulated Electricity Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashwani Kumar; Mittapalli, Ram Kumar; Pal, Yash

    2016-09-01

    In future electricity markets, flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) devices will play key role for providing ancillary services. Since huge cost is involved for the FACTS devices placement in the power system, the cost invested has to be recovered in their life time for the replacement of these devices. The FACTS devices in future electricity markets can act as an ancillary services provider and have to be remunerated. The main contributions of the paper are: (1) investment recovery of FACTS devices during congestion management such as static VAR compensator and unified power flow controller along with thyristor controlled series compensator using non-linear bid curves, (2) the impact of ZIP load model on the FACTS cost recovery of the devices, (3) the comparison of results obtained without ZIP load model for both pool and hybrid market model, (4) secure bilateral transactions incorporation in hybrid market model. An optimal power flow based approach has been developed for maximizing social welfare including FACTS devices cost. The optimal placement of the FACTS devices have been obtained based on maximum social welfare. The results have been obtained for both pool and hybrid electricity market for IEEE 24-bus RTS.

  16. Evaluation of the Development of the Renewable Energy Markets in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Aleksandrovna Grechukhina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to systemize and present the quantitative and quality evaluation of the economic and non-economic effects of the implementation of the new mechanism of the support of renewable energy in Russia. It should allow meeting the middle-term goal of 2.5 % of renewables at the Russian wholesale electricity market by 2024. To achieve this aim, in the introduction part of the article, a detailed description of the new mechanism of the support of the renewable energy in Russia is presented. It is based on the payment for energy in the wholesale electricity market. The estimated aggregate positive effect resulting from this mechanism’s implementation was expected as follows: a replacement of non-renewable fossil fuels to renewable energy, b reduction of carbon dioxide emissions, c the average prices reduction in the wholesale electricity market, d reduction of the costs on environmental measures and health protection measures in traditional power generation, e creating new jobs, f reduction of fresh water used for cooling in traditional power generation, g multiplicative effects from the development of renewable energy and etc. The resulting economic effect is estimated at 47.77 billion rubles per year by 2024. The authors relied on expert estimates, forecasts of the Ministry of Energy and the Ministry of Economic Development, the Russian Energy Agency, the International Energy Agency, the International Agency for Renewable Energy, the Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century, the experience of foreign countries, the data of Russian Federal State Statistics Service.

  17. Strategic cost-benefit analysis of energy policies: overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davitian, H; Groncki, P J; Kleeman, P; Lukachinski, J; Goettle, IV, R J; Hudson, E A

    1979-10-01

    This study describes three possible energy strategies and analyzes each in terms of its economic, environmental, and national security benefits and costs. Each strategy is represented by a specific policy. In the first, no additional programs or policies are initiated beyond those currently in effect or announced. The second is directed toward reducing the growth in energy demand, i.e., energy conservation. The third promotes increased domestic supply through accelerated development of synthetic and unconventional fuels. The analysis focuses on the evaluation and comparison of these strategy alternatives with respect to their energy, economic, and environmental consequences. The results indicate that conservation can substantially reduce import dependence and slow the growth of energy demand, with only a small macroeconomic cost and with substantial environmental benefits; the synfuels policy reduces imports by a smaller amount, does not reduce the growth in energy demand, involves substantial environmental costs and slows the rate of economic growth. These relationships could be different if the energy savings per unit cost for conservation are less than anticipated, or if the costs of synthetic fuels can be significantly lowered. Given these uncertainties, both conservation and RD and D support for synfuels should be included in future energy policy. However, between these policy alternatives, conservation appears to be the preferred strategy. The results of this study are presented in three reports (see also BNL--51127 and BNL--51128).

  18. Cost-optimal levels for energy performance requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Aggerholm, Søren; Kluttig-Erhorn, Heike

    2011-01-01

    The CA conducted a study on experiences and challenges for setting cost optimal levels for energy performance requirements. The results were used as input by the EU Commission in their work of establishing the Regulation on a comparative methodology framework for calculating cost optimal levels o...

  19. The impact of rising energy costs on representative farms

    OpenAIRE

    Raulston, J. Marc; Knapek, George M.; Richardson, James W.; Outlaw, Joe L.; Bryant, Henry L.

    2005-01-01

    Recent increases in natural gas and fossil fuel based energy sources have had a negative impact on the financial condition of agricultural producers across the nation. • In addition to higher fuel costs for trucks, equipment, and irrigation motors, the cost of nitrogen fertilizer is closely linked to energy prices and has also increased significantly. • This study quantifies the impacts of these increases on the economic viability of representative farms located throughout the United States f...

  20. 76 FR 6128 - Energy Exchange International, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ...-000] Energy Exchange International, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing... the above-referenced proceeding Energy Exchange International, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  1. Shaping sustainable energy technologies and use - a system, policy or market responsibility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2002-01-01

    The article present the problem of delegating energy technology innovation to new market condition after liberalisation.......The article present the problem of delegating energy technology innovation to new market condition after liberalisation....

  2. Life Cycle Cost Optimization of a Bolig+ Zero Energy Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna

    in the Danish context. The review of the various ZEB approaches indicated a general concept of a Zero Energy Building as a building with significantly reduced energy demand that isbalanced by an equivalent energy generation from renewable sources. And, with this as a general framework, each ZEB definition...... should further specify: (1) the connection orthe lack of it to the energy infrastructure, (2) the unit of the balance, (3) the period of the balance, (4) the types of energy use included in the balance, (5) the minimumenergy performance requirements (6) the renewable energy supply options...... case of a multi-storey residential Net ZEB aimed to determine the cost-optimal “zero” energy balance,minimum energy performance requirements and options of supplying renewable energy. The calculation encompassed three levels of energy frames, which mirrored theDanish low-energy building classes...

  3. The Role of Fusion in the Future World Energy Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, John

    1996-05-01

    The energy world, in which fusion energy must compete, has changed in recent years with the prospect of a 40-year supply of low-cost oil and gas. This cheap fuel represents a one-time opportunity for developing countries to raise their standards of living, and if historical trends continue, lower their rate of population growth. This brief opportunity for cheap fossil-fuel and the similar 40-year period to commercialize fusion are transients when viewed against the time scale of civilization. We need to develop and deploy the long-term energy sources, such as fusion (fission and 'renewables'), and in all cases improve energy efficiency before the fossil fuels rise in cost and a large fraction of a burgeoning world population is condemned to permanent poverty.

  4. NREL Benchmarks the Installed Cost of Residential Solar Photovoltaics with Energy Storage for the First Time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-13

    Fact sheet summarizing technical report TP-7A40-67474. New National Renewable Energy Laboratory research fills a gap in the existing knowledge about barriers to PV-plus-storage systems by providing detailed component- and system-level installed cost benchmarks for systems in the first quarter of 2016. The report is meant to help technology manufacturers, installers, and other stakeholders identify cost-reduction opportunities and inform decision makers about regulatory, policy, and market characteristics that impede PV-plus-storage deployment.

  5. Advance market commitments for vaccines against neglected diseases: estimating costs and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Ernst R; Glennerster, Rachel; Kremer, Michael R; Lee, Jean; Levine, Ruth; Weizsäcker, Georg; Williams, Heidi

    2007-05-01

    The G8 is considering committing to purchase vaccines against diseases concentrated in low-income countries (if and when desirable vaccines are developed) as a way to spur research and development on vaccines for these diseases. Under such an 'advance market commitment,' one or more sponsors would commit to a minimum price to be paid per person immunized for an eligible product, up to a certain number of individuals immunized. For additional purchases, the price would eventually drop to close to marginal cost. If no suitable product were developed, no payments would be made. We estimate the offer size which would make revenues similar to the revenues realized from investments in typical existing commercial pharmaceutical products, as well as the degree to which various model contracts and assumptions would affect the cost-effectiveness of such a commitment. We make adjustments for lower marketing costs under an advance market commitment and the risk that a developer may have to share the market with subsequent developers. We also show how this second risk could be reduced, and money saved, by introducing a superiority clause to a commitment. Under conservative assumptions, we document that a commitment comparable in value to sales earned by the average of a sample of recently launched commercial products (adjusted for lower marketing costs) would be a highly cost-effective way to address HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis. Sensitivity analyses suggest most characteristics of a hypothetical vaccine would have little effect on the cost-effectiveness, but that the duration of protection conferred by a vaccine strongly affects potential cost-effectiveness. Readers can conduct their own sensitivity analyses employing a web-based spreadsheet tool.

  6. The branding of energy services: A consumer goods approach to marketing energy services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, G.M. [Macro International, Calverton, MD (United States); Gartman, H. [Macro International, Calverton, MD (United States); Paterson, S. [Macro International, New York, NY (United States); Gill, M. [Michael Gates Gill and Friends, Norfolk, CT (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Historically, utilities operated as regulated monopolies with little concern about competition. Consumers had little choice among energy suppliers. Companies providing energy efficiency services used rebates, grants, and other funds to help market products and services. Utility competition is poised to displace regulation and most financial assistance programs are gone or shrinking. Energy projects will compete for funding on an equal footing with other investments. To compete successfully, energy and energy services will need distinct brand identities that clearly convey a memorable promise of benefits to the target audience. This identity must be unique enough to differentiate a company and its products from that of its competitors. Macro International has recently helped two clients brand energy products. We will discuss the benefits of branding products in an emerging energy market using these two cases as examples: alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and industrial motors efficiency programs.

  7. A Multi-Scale Energy Demand Model suggests sharing Market Risks with Intelligent Energy Cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Methenitis, G.; Kaisers, M.; La Poutré, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a multi-scale model of energy demand that is consistent with observations at a macro scale, in our use-case standard load profiles for (residential) electric loads. We employ the model to study incentives to assume the risk of volatile market prices for intelligent energy c

  8. Geothermal energy and the utility market -- the opportunities and challenges for expanding geothermal energy in a competitive supply market: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal city. This year's conference, Program Review X, was held in San Francisco on March 24--26, 1992. The theme of the review, Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- The Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market,'' focused on the needs of the electric utility sector. Geothermal energy, with its power capacity potential of 10 GWe by the year 2010, can provide reliable, enviromentally clean electricity which can help offset the projected increase in demand. Program Review X consisted of seven sessions including an opening session with presentations by Mr. Vikram Budhraja, Vice President of System Planning and Operations, Southern California Edison Company, and Mr. Richard Jaros, President and Chief Operating Officer, California Energy Company. The six technical sessions included presentations by the relevant field researchers covering DOE-sponsored R D in hydrothermal, hot dry rock, and geopressured energy. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  9. Neuroscience Role on Marketing Insurance (Senses Impact on Reducing Marketing Costs)

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghan, Fatemeh; HASSANPOUR, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Although the insurance industry as one of the most important needs of today's population lives in the comfort and safety of bankruptcy and incurring financial losses and damage to people during his lifetime has helped but for various reasons, including lack of awareness and economic problems in developing countries, particularly low-income communities and developing and less attention has been seriously. The aim of the present study, a description of the different marketing methods ...

  10. Transforming shortcomings into opportunities: Can market incentives solve Lebanon's energy crisis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruble, Isabella, E-mail: economics.ir@gmail.co [American University of Beirut, Department of Economics, P.O.Box 11-0236, Riad El-Solh/Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon); Nader, Pamela [American University of Beirut, Department of Economics, P.O.Box 11-0236, Riad El-Solh/Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon)

    2011-05-15

    Over the past decades Lebanon's energy sector has been largely ignored and this has led to high economic and environmental costs. The sector is characterized by electricity poverty, an expanding and mainly unregulated transport sector and a lack of energy savings spanning through all sectors of the economy. Recently, the Government of Lebanon has committed to increase the share of renewable energy to 10% of the total energy supply by 2013 and to 12% by the year 2020; it also aims at reducing energy consumption by 6% by the year 2013. This paper aims at contributing to the formulation of a more comprehensive energy strategy for Lebanon by analyzing the recent changes in policy direction and by recommending legal, regulatory and policy measures in order to transform current shortcomings into opportunities allowing the country to become a regional 'success story' in the deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency. - Research highlights: {yields} This paper reviews the current situation of Lebanon's energy sector. {yields} We analyze the recent development of the markets for renewable energy and energy efficiency. {yields} Policy recommendations that will allow for a sustainable energy future are made.

  11. Strategic cost-benefit analysis of energy policies: detailed projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davitian, H.; Groncki, P.J.; Kleeman, P.; Lukachinski, J.

    1979-10-01

    Current US energy policy includes many programs directed toward restructuring the energy system in order to decrease US dependence on foreign supplies and to increase our reliance on plentiful and environmentally benign energy forms. However, recent events have led to renewed concern over the direction of current energy policy. This study describes three possible energy strategies and analyzes each in terms of its economic, environmental, and national security benefits and costs. Each strategy is represented by a specific policy. In the first, no additional programs or policies are initiated beyond those currently in effect or announced. The second is directed toward reducing the growth in energy demand, i.e., energy conservation. The third promotes increased domestic supply through accelerated development of synthetic and unconventional fuels. The analysis focuses on the evaluation and comparison of these strategy alternatives with respect to their energy, economic, and environmental consequences. Results indicate that conservation can substantially reduce import dependence and slow the growth of energy demand, with only a small macroeconomic cost and with substantial environmental benefits; the synfuels policy reduces imports by a smaller amount, does not reduce the growth in energy demand, involves substantial environmental costs and slows the rate of economic growth. These relationships could be different if the energy savings per unit cost for conservation are less than anticipated, or if the costs of synthetic fuels can be significantly lowered. Given these uncertainties, both conservation and RD and D support for synfuels should be included in future energy policy. However, between these policy alternatives, conservation appears to be the preferred strategy. The results of this study are presented in three reports (see also BNL--51105 and BNL--51128). 11 references, 3 figures, 61 tables.

  12. Constraining Forest Certificate's Market to Improve Cost-Effectiveness of Biodiversity Conservation in São Paulo State, Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paula Bernasconi; Stefan Blumentrath; David N Barton; Graciela M Rusch; Ademar R Romeiro

    2016-01-01

      The recently launched Brazilian "forest certificates" market is expected to reduce environmental compliance costs for landowners through an offset mechanism, after a long history of conservation laws...

  13. Balancing the carbon market. Analysing the international carbon market and abatement costs in 2020 for low-concentration targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Elzen, M.G.J.; Mendoza-Beltran, M.A.; Piris-Cabezas, P.; Van Vuuren, D.P.

    2009-08-15

    This report describes our analysis of the impact of various policy choices and scientific uncertainties on the price of tradable emission units on the global carbon market in 2020 and the associated abatement costs. Our analysis was done under the assumption that the overall goal is to stabilise long-term greenhouse gas concentrations at 450 ppm CO2-eq. To meet these stabilisation targets on the long-term, Annex I countries as a group need to reduce by 25-40% below 1990 levels by 2020, and non-Annex I countries as a group need to keep emissions substantially below baseline (about 15 to 30%). The integrated modelling framework FAIR 2.2 is used for our analysis. The main findings of this study are: the degree of ambition for reductions of Annex I and non-Annex I countries is the most important policy choice influencing the price and abatement costs. Other less important policy choices include the ambition of US climate policy and the participation of the developing countries in the global carbon market. By allowing the use of forest-based options - including avoiding deforestation - for compliance in a well-designed carbon trading system, the global abatement costs could be reduced by between 25% and 65%. This would also make ambitious mitigation targets more feasible. In addition to the policy choices, important scientific uncertainties, in particular the baseline emissions (i.e. emissions in the absence of climate policy) and the assumed marginal abatement costs, strongly influence the carbon market.

  14. Energy Costs of Energy Savings in Buildings: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rousse

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available It is often claimed that the cheapest energy is the one you do not need to produce. Nevertheless, this claim could somehow be unsubstantiated. In this article, the authors try to shed some light on this issue by using the concept of energy return on investment (EROI as a yardstick. This choice brings semantic issues because in this paper the EROI is used in a different context than that of energy production. Indeed, while watts and negawatts share the same physical unit, they are not the same object, which brings some ambiguities in the interpretation of EROI. These are cleared by a refined definition of EROI and an adapted nomenclature. This review studies the research in the energy efficiency of building operation, which is one of the most investigated topics in energy efficiency. This study focuses on the impact of insulation and high efficiency windows as means to exemplify the concepts that are introduced. These results were normalized for climate, life time of the building, and construction material. In many cases, energy efficiency measures imply a very high EROI. Nevertheless, in some circumstances, this is not the case and it might be more profitable to produce the required energy than to try to save it.

  15. The rising cost of low-energy-density foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Pablo; Drewnowski, Adam

    2007-12-01

    Consuming lower-energy-density foods is one recommended strategy for management of body weight. This cross-sectional study used retail food prices to test the hypothesis that low-energy-density foods are not only more costly per kilocalorie, but have increased disproportionately in price as compared to high-energy-density foods. For a list of 372 foods and beverages belonging to a food frequency questionnaire database, retail prices were obtained from major supermarket chains in the Seattle, WA, metropolitan area in 2004 and 2006. Energy density of all items was calculated and prices were expressed as $/100 g edible portion and as $/1,000 kcal. Foods were stratified by quintiles of energy density and the differences in energy cost and in percent price change were tested using analyses of variance. High-energy-density foods provided the most dietary energy at least cost. Energy cost of foods in the bottom quintile of energy density, beverages excluded, was $18.16/1,000 kcal as compared to only $1.76/1,000 kcal for foods in the top quintile. The 2-year price change for the least energy-dense foods was +19.5%, whereas the price change for the most energy-dense foods was -1.8%. The finding that energy-dense foods are not only the least expensive, but also most resistant to inflation, may help explain why the highest rates of obesity continue to be observed among groups of limited economic means. The sharp price increase for the low-energy-density foods suggests that economic factors may pose a barrier to the adoption of more healthful diets and so limit the impact of dietary guidance.

  16. Impacts on irrigated agriculture of changes in electricity costs resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, B.K.; Flaim, S.J.; Howitt, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Palmer, S.C. [Western Area Power Administration, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Irrigation is a major factor in the growth of US agricultural productivity, especially in western states, which account for more than 85% of the nation`s irrigated acreage. In some of these states, almost all cropland is irrigated, and nearly 50% of the irrigation is done with electrically powered pumps. Therefore, even small increases in the cost of electricity could have a disproportionate impact on irrigated agriculture. This technical memorandum examines the impacts that could result from proposed changes in the power marketing programs of the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Office. The changes could increase the cost of power to all Western customers, including rural municipalities and irrigation districts that rely on inexpensive federal power to pump water. The impacts are assessed by translating changes in Western`s wholesale power rate into changes in the cost of pumping water as an input for agricultural production. Farmers can adapt to higher electricity prices in many ways, such as (1) using different pumping fuels, (2) adding workers and increasing management to irrigate more efficiently, and (3) growing more drought-tolerant crops. This study projects several responses, including using less groundwater and planting fewer waterintensive crops. The study finds that when dependence on Western`s power is high, the cost of power can have a major effect on energy use, agricultural practices, and the distribution of planted acreage. The biggest percentage changes in farm income would occur (1) in Nevada and Utah (however, all projected changes are less than 2% of the baseline) and (2) under the marketing alternatives that represent the lowest capacity and energy offer considered in Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement. The aggregate impact on farm incomes and the value of total farm production would be much smaller than that suggested by the changes in water use and planted acreage.

  17. 77 FR 11515 - Application to Export Electric Energy; NRG Power Marketing LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; NRG Power Marketing LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ] ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: NRG Power Marketing LLC (NRGPML) has... would be surplus energy purchased from electric utilities and Federal power marketing agencies...

  18. Two-Stage Coordinated Operational Strategy for Distributed Energy Resources Considering Wind Power Curtailment Penalty Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Qiu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of virtual power plant (VPP has been proposed to facilitate the integration of distributed renewable energy. VPP behaves similar to a single entity that aggregates a collection of distributed energy resources (DERs such as distributed generators, storage devices, flexible loads, etc., so that the aggregated power outputs can be flexibly dispatched and traded in electricity markets. This paper presents an optimal scheduling model for VPP participating in day-ahead (DA and real-time (RT markets. In the DA market, VPP aims to maximize the expected profit and reduce the risk in relation to uncertainties. The risk is measured by a risk factor based on the mean-variance Markowitz theory. In the RT market, VPP aims to minimize the imbalance cost and wind power curtailment by adjusting the scheduling of DERs in its portfolio. In case studies, the benefits (e.g., surplus profit and reduced wind power curtailment of aggregated VPP operation are assessed. Moreover, we have investigated how these benefits are affected by different risk-aversion levels and uncertainty levels. According to the simulation results, the aggregated VPP scheduling approach can effectively help the integration of wind power, mitigate the impact of uncertainties, and reduce the cost of risk-aversion.

  19. Life Cycle Cost optimization of a BOLIG+ Zero Energy Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marszal, A.J.

    2011-12-15

    Buildings consume approximately 40% of the world's primary energy use. Considering the total energy consumption throughout the whole life cycle of a building, the energy performance and supply is an important issue in the context of climate change, scarcity of energy resources and reduction of global energy consumption. An energy consuming as well as producing building, labelled as the Zero Energy Building (ZEB) concept, is seen as one of the solutions that could change the picture of energy consumption in the building sector, and thus contribute to the reduction of the global energy use. However, before being fully implemented in the national building codes and international standards, the ZEB concept requires a clear understanding and a uniform definition. The ZEB concept is an energy-conservation solution, whose successful adaptation in real life depends significantly on private building owners' approach to it. For this particular target group, the cost is often an obstacle when investing money in environmental or climate friendly products. Therefore, this PhD project took the perspective of a future private ZEB owner to investigate the cost-optimal Net ZEB definition applicable in the Danish context. The review of the various ZEB approaches indicated a general concept of a Zero Energy Building as a building with significantly reduced energy demand that is balanced by an equivalent energy generation from renewable sources. And, with this as a general framework, each ZEB definition should further specify: (1) the connection or the lack of it to the energy infrastructure, (2) the unit of the balance, (3) the period of the balance, (4) the types of energy use included in the balance, (5) the minimum energy performance requirements (6) the renewable energy supply options, and if applicable (7) the requirements of the building-grid interaction. Moreover, the study revealed that the future ZEB definitions applied in Denmark should mostly be focused on grid

  20. A Phenomenological Cost Model for High Energy Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Shiltsev, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Accelerator-based high-energy physics have been in the forefront of scientific discoveries for more than half a century. The accelerator technology of the colliders has progressed immensely, while the beam energy, luminosity, facility size, and cost have grown by several orders of magnitude. The method of colliding beams has not fully exhausted its potential but has slowed down considerably in its progress. In this paper we derive a simple scaling model for the cost of large accelerators and colliding beam facilities based on costs of 17 big facilities which have been either built or carefully estimated. Although this approach cannot replace an actual cost estimate based on an engineering design, this parameterization is to indicate a somewhat realistic cost range for consideration of what future frontier accelerator facilities might be fiscally realizable.

  1. Status and Trends in U.S. Compliance and Voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate Markets (2010 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-10-01

    The "voluntary" or "green power" market is that in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match all or part of their electricity needs. Voluntary action provides a revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raises consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. There are numerous ways consumers and institutions can purchase renewable energy. Historically, the voluntary market has consisted of three market sectors: (1) utility green pricing programs (in states with regulated electricity markets), (2) competitive suppliers (in states with restructured electricity markets), and (3) unbundled renewable electricity certificate (REC) markets, where RECs are purchased by consumers separately from electricity ("unbundled").

  2. A least cost energy analysis of US CO sub 2 reduction options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, S.C.; Lee, J.; Goldstein, G. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Solomon, B.D. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (USA)); Hill, D. (Hill (Douglas), Huntington, NY (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Public policy debate on global climate change is increasingly focused on the cost of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Discussion in the US has centered on national energy policy and the desirability and cost of increased energy conversion efficiency and end-use conservation, and on shifting from high greenhouse gas emitting fuels to natural gas, renewable and nuclear-based energy sources. This paper overviews the US MARKAL model, a dynamic linear programming (LP) model of US energy supply and demand. Useful energy projections are specified exogenously to the model, which then determines the optimal energy supply that can meet the demand. We have updated MARKAL with currently available energy technology cost and market penetration data and have applied it to the CO{sub 2} reduction problem for the US. In addition, we have varied some key inputs to the model to test the sensitivity of the energy system to alternative assumptions and to overcome some of the key limitations of the input data. 27 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Energy cost of activities in preschool-aged children

    Science.gov (United States)

    The absolute energy cost of activities in children increase with age due to greater muscle mass and physical capability associated with growth and developmental maturation; however, there is a paucity of data in preschool-aged children. Study aims were 1) to describe absolute and relative energy cos...

  4. Reducing Building HVAC Costs with Site-Recovery Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pargeter, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Building owners are caught between two powerful forces--the need to lower energy costs and the need to meet or exceed outdoor air ventilation regulations for occupant health and comfort. Large amounts of energy are wasted each day from commercial, institutional, and government building sites as heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC)…

  5. Nonlinear analysis and dynamic structure in the energy market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghababa, Hajar

    This research assesses the dynamic structure of the energy sector of the aggregate economy in the context of nonlinear mechanisms. Earlier studies have focused mainly on the price of the energy products when detecting nonlinearities in time series data of the energy market, and there is little mention of the production side of the market. Moreover, there is a lack of exploration about the implication of high dimensionality and time aggregation when analyzing the market's fundamentals. This research will address these gaps by including the quantity side of the market in addition to the price and by systematically incorporating various frequencies for sample sizes in three essays. The goal of this research is to provide an inclusive and exhaustive examination of the dynamics in the energy markets. The first essay begins with the application of statistical techniques, and it incorporates the most well-known univariate tests for nonlinearity with distinct power functions over alternatives and tests different null hypotheses. It utilizes the daily spot price observations on five major products in the energy market. The results suggest that the time series daily spot prices of the energy products are highly nonlinear in their nature. They demonstrate apparent evidence of general nonlinear serial dependence in each individual series, as well as nonlinearity in the first, second, and third moments of the series. The second essay examines the underlying mechanism of crude oil production and identifies the nonlinear structure of the production market by utilizing various monthly time series observations of crude oil production: the U.S. field, Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), non-OPEC, and the world production of crude oil. The finding implies that the time series data of the U.S. field, OPEC, and the world production of crude oil exhibit deep nonlinearity in their structure and are generated by nonlinear mechanisms. However, the dynamics of the non

  6. Starship Sails Propelled by Cost-Optimized Directed Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, J.

    Microwave and laser-propelled sails are a new class of spacecraft using photon acceleration. It is the only method of interstellar flight that has no physics issues. Laboratory demonstrations of basic features of beam-driven propulsion, flight, stability (`beam-riding'), and induced spin, have been completed in the last decade, primarily in the microwave. It offers much lower cost probes after a substantial investment in the launcher. Engineering issues are being addressed by other applications: fusion (microwave, millimeter and laser sources) and astronomy (large aperture antennas). There are many candidate sail materials: carbon nanotubes and microtrusses, beryllium, graphene, etc. For acceleration of a sail, what is the cost-optimum high power system? Here the cost is used to constrain design parameters to estimate system power, aperture and elements of capital and operating cost. From general relations for cost-optimal transmitter aperture and power, system cost scales with kinetic energy and inversely with sail diameter and frequency. So optimal sails will be larger, lower in mass and driven by higher frequency beams. Estimated costs include economies of scale. We present several starship point concepts. Systems based on microwave, millimeter wave and laser technologies are of equal cost at today's costs. The frequency advantage of lasers is cancelled by the high cost of both the laser and the radiating optic. Cost of interstellar sailships is very high, driven by current costs for radiation source, antennas and especially electrical power. The high speeds necessary for fast interstellar missions make the operating cost exceed the capital cost. Such sailcraft will not be flown until the cost of electrical power in space is reduced orders of magnitude below current levels.

  7. Assessing Risk in Costing High-energy Accelerators: from Existing Projects to the Future Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Lebrun, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    High-energy accelerators are large projects funded by public money, developed over the years and constructed via major industrial contracts both in advanced technology and in more conventional domains such as civil engineering and infrastructure, for which they often constitute one-of markets. Assessing their cost, as well as the risk and uncertainty associated with this assessment is therefore an essential part of project preparation and a justified requirement by the funding agencies. Stemming from the experience with large circular colliders at CERN, LEP and LHC, as well as with the Main Injector, the Tevatron Collider Experiments and Accelerator Upgrades, and the NOvA Experiment at Fermilab, we discuss sources of cost variance and derive cost risk assessment methods applicable to the future linear collider, through its two technical approaches for ILC and CLIC. We also address disparities in cost risk assessment imposed by regional differences in regulations, procedures and practices.

  8. The wind energy market in the U.K. and Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindley, D. [Lindley and Associates, Buckinghamshire (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    The market for renewable energy projects has been created in England and Wales by measures established by the Electricity Act 1989 which created the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO). Identical market enablement mechanisms now exist for Scotland and Northern Ireland whilst yet another version of the NFFO mechanism has been established in Ireland. As a result, the UK now has 31 operational windfarms with a total rating of 195MW whilst the completion of the first windfarm in Ireland is expected in early 1997. This paper gives details of these mechanisms and the impact they have had on the creation of a renewables market. Current expectations are that additional wind energy capacity of about 900MW will be added in the UK and Ireland by the end of the millennium. This implies a market worth between US$525 million and US$600 million in turbine sales and a total turnkey investment cost of between US$1.2 billion and US$1.5 billion. 6 refs., 8 tabs.

  9. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Cement Making An ENERGY STAR® Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Worrell, E.; Kermeli, Katerina; Galitsky, Christina

    2013-01-01

    The cost of energy as part of the total production costs in the cement industry is significant, typically at 20 to 40% of operational costs, warranting attention for energy efficiency to improve the bottom line. Historically, energy intensity has declined, although more recently energy intensity seems to have stabilized with the gains. Coal and coke are currently the primary fuels for the sector, supplanting the dominance of natural gas in the 1970s. A variety of waste fuels, including tires,...

  10. Thermal energy storage for electricity-driven space heating in a day-ahead electricity market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pensini, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Thermal Energy Storage (TES) in a space heating (SH) application was investigated. The study aimed to determine the economic benefits of introducing TES into an electricity-driven SH system under a day-ahead electricity market. The performance of the TES was assessed by comparing the cost...... of electricity in a system with a TES unit to the case where no storage is in use and the entire heat requirement is fulfilled by purchasing electricity according to the actual load. The study had two goals: 1. Determining how the size – in terms of electricity input (Pmax) and energy capacity (Emax......) – of the TES unit influences the savings. For this purpose, a reference price signal was used. Results show that it is possible to save up to approximately 14% of the electricity costs. In general, savings increase with Pmax and Emax. However, the benefit of increasing these two values ceases when certain...

  11. Firms’ strategic preferences, national institutions and the European Union’s Internal Energy Market: A challenge to European integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Williams

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available "Although liberal intergovernmentalism claims that economic interest groups shape national preferences towards integration, while neofunctionalism assumes that these groups support integration for its expected economic benefits, these approaches cannot account for variation in EU integration across policy areas. We employ an analytical framework to explain divergent firm preferences towards integration in the EU-wide internal energy market. Building on Weber and Hallerberg’s (2001 specification of transaction costs and external (competitive threat as independent variables in their model of divergence in firm preferences towards ‘binding’ EU rules, our analysis incorporates domestic market structure and firms’ international relationships as intervening (contextual variables. Testing our argument in four cases - Germany, Italy, France and the UK - confirms that distinct national institutions promote divergent attitudes towards the internal energy market because domestic market structures and firms’ international settings respond to transaction costs and external threat in this market within the context of member states’ traditional local models of capitalism. In relation to theories of European integration, this study underscores the importance of varieties of capitalism in preference formation vis-à-vis integration, offering additional insights into the conditions under which national institutions have been influential in response to common external pressures in the energy market.

  12. Shale gas. Opportunities and challenges for European energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Joode, J.; Plomp, A.J.; Ozdemir, O. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    The outline of the presentation shows the following elements: Introduction (Shale gas revolution in US and the situation in the EU); What could be the impact of potential shale gas developments on the European gas market?; How may shale gas developments affect the role of gas in the transition of the power sector?; and Key messages. The key messages are (1) Prospects for European shale gas widely differ from US case (different reserve potential, different competition, different market dynamics); (2) Shale gas is unlikely to be a game changer in Europe; and (3) Impact of shale gas on energy transition in the medium and long term crucially depends on gas vs. coal prices and the 'penalty' on CO2 emissions.

  13. The Race to Refinance Debt: Market Offers Opportunities to Reduce Interest Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, Lorrie A.

    1992-01-01

    In this interest market, colleges and universities could benefit from careful evaluation of debt portfolios. Refinancing debt is an opportunity to lower debt service costs, ease cash flow, change security pledges, eliminate debt service reserves, update bond documents. Timing is important. Existing and new bonds can also be combined…

  14. The Cost of Technical Trading Rules in the Forex Market: A Utility-based Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.D.R. Dewachter (Hans); M. Lyrio (Marco)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe compute the opportunity cost for rational risk averse agents of using technical trading rules in the foreign exchange rate market. Our purpose is to investigate whether these rules can be interpreted as near-rational investment strategies for rational investors. We analyze four

  15. The Cost of Technical Trading Rules in the Forex Market: A Utility-based Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.D.R. Dewachter (Hans); M. Lyrio (Marco)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe compute the opportunity cost for rational risk averse agents of using technical trading rules in the foreign exchange rate market. Our purpose is to investigate whether these rules can be interpreted as near-rational investment strategies for rational investors. We analyze four di.ere

  16. Starship Sails Propelled by Cost-Optimized Directed Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Benford, James

    2011-01-01

    Microwave propelled sails are a new class of spacecraft using photon acceleration. It is the only method of interstellar flight that has no physics issues. Laboratory demonstrations of basic features of beam-driven propulsion, flight, stability ('beam-riding'), and induced spin, have been completed in the last decade, primarily in the microwave. It offers much lower cost probes after a substantial investment in the launcher. Engineering issues are being addressed by other applications: fusion (microwave, millimeter and laser sources) and astronomy (large aperture antennas). There are many candidate sail materials: carbon nanotubes and microtrusses, graphene, beryllium, etc. For acceleration of a sail, what is the cost-optimum high power system? Here the cost is used to constrain design parameters to estimate system power, aperture and elements of capital and operating cost. From general relations for cost-optimal transmitter aperture and power, system cost scales with kinetic energy and inversely with sail di...

  17. Statistical Arbitrage and Optimal Trading with Transaction Costs in Futures Markets

    CERN Document Server

    Tsagaris, Theodoros

    2008-01-01

    We consider the Brownian market model and the problem of expected utility maximization of terminal wealth. We, specifically, examine the problem of maximizing the utility of terminal wealth under the presence of transaction costs of a fund/agent investing in futures markets. We offer some preliminary remarks about statistical arbitrage strategies and we set the framework for futures markets, and introduce concepts such as margin, gearing and slippage. The setting is of discrete time, and the price evolution of the futures prices is modelled as discrete random sequence involving Ito's sums. We assume the drift and the Brownian motion driving the return process are non-observable and the transaction costs are represented by the bid-ask spread. We provide explicit solution to the optimal portfolio process, and we offer an example using logarithmic utility.

  18. Energy storage systems cost update : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenung, Susan M. (Longitude 122 West, Menlo Park, CA)

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports the methodology for calculating present worth of system and operating costs for a number of energy storage technologies for representative electric utility applications. The values are an update from earlier reports, categorized by application use parameters. This work presents an update of energy storage system costs assessed previously and separately by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program. The primary objective of the series of studies has been to express electricity storage benefits and costs using consistent assumptions, so that helpful benefit/cost comparisons can be made. Costs of energy storage systems depend not only on the type of technology, but also on the planned operation and especially the hours of storage needed. Calculating the present worth of life-cycle costs makes it possible to compare benefit values estimated on the same basis.

  19. 78 FR 64207 - Application To Export Electric Energy; New Brunswick Energy Marketing Corporation (f/k/a New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; New Brunswick Energy Marketing Corporation (f/k/a New Brunswick Power... Power Generation Corporation, has applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from the... Generation Corporation, to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a power marketer...

  20. Essays in energy policy and planning modeling under uncertainty: Value of information, optimistic biases, and simulation of capacity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ming-Che

    Optimization and simulation are popular operations research and systems analysis tools for energy policy modeling. This dissertation addresses three important questions concerning the use of these tools for energy market (and electricity market) modeling and planning under uncertainty. (1) What is the value of information and cost of disregarding different sources of uncertainty for the U.S. energy economy? (2) Could model-based calculations of the performance (social welfare) of competitive and oligopolistic market equilibria be optimistically biased due to uncertainties in objective function coefficients? (3) How do alternative sloped demand curves perform in the PJM capacity market under economic and weather uncertainty? How does curve adjustment and cost dynamics affect the capacity market outcomes? To address the first question, two-stage stochastic optimization is utilized in the U.S. national MARKAL energy model; then the value of information and cost of ignoring uncertainty are estimated for three uncertainties: carbon cap policy, load growth and natural gas prices. When an uncertainty is important, then explicitly considering those risks when making investments will result in better performance in expectation (positive expected cost of ignoring uncertainty). Furthermore, eliminating the uncertainty would improve strategies even further, meaning that improved forecasts of future conditions are valuable ( i.e., a positive expected value of information). Also, the value of policy coordination shows the difference between a strategy developed under the incorrect assumption of no carbon cap and a strategy correctly anticipating imposition of such a cap. For the second question, game theory models are formulated and the existence of optimistic (positive) biases in market equilibria (both competitive and oligopoly markets) are proved, in that calculated social welfare and producer profits will, in expectation, exceed the values that will actually be received

  1. An Evaluation of the Consumer Costs and Benefits of Energy Efficiency Resource Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessans, Mark D.

    Of the modern-day policies designed to encourage energy efficiency, one with a significant potential for impact is that of Energy Efficiency Resource Standards (EERS). EERS policies place the responsibility for meeting an efficiency target on the electric and gas utilities, typically setting requirements for annual reductions in electricity generation or gas distribution to customers as a percentage of sales. To meet these requirements, utilities typically implement demand-side management (DSM) programs, which encourage energy efficiency at the customer level through incentives and educational initiatives. In Maryland, a statewide EERS has provided for programs which save a significant amount of energy, but is ultimately falling short in meeting the targets established by the policy. This study evaluates residential DSM programs offered by Pepco, a utility in Maryland, for cost-effectiveness. However, unlike most literature on the topic, analysis focuses on the costs-benefit from the perspective of the consumer, and not the utility. The results of this study are encouraging: the majority of programs analyzed show that the cost of electricity saved, or levelized cost of saved energy (LCSE), is less expensive than the current retail cost of electricity cost in Maryland. A key goal of this study is to establish a metric for evaluating the consumer cost-effectiveness of participation in energy efficiency programs made available by EERS. In doing so, the benefits of these programs can be effectively marketed to customers, with the hope that participation will increase. By increasing consumer awareness and buy-in, the original goals set out through EERS can be realized and the policies can continue to receive support.

  2. Management of Energy Costs for Sme’s, Evidence From Kosova Economic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valon Kastrati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with issues of strategic management, particularly strategic planning of energy costs and their effect on the overall performance of businesses. It is based on empirical results of the original research survey Enterprise Surveys data for Republic of Kosova,. performed via questionnaire surveys by the World Bank in three rounds during years 2005, 2009 and 2013. The analyses presented in the paper were conducted on the third round sample of  organizations operating mostly in the SME sector in the Republic of Kosova.Among typical obstacles to the economic environment we found also the energy problem, specifically the power outages that increase further the costs of power supply for SME’s.  These phenomena not only create a state of turmoil and turbulence in the competitive environment and generate changes in market conditions, but require changes and development in organizations. In these circumstances organizations are forced to adapt costly solutions, like generators or other tools to guarantee  the customer satisfaction.Therefore to achieve any competitive advantage, organizations must take in consideration the current economic environment.The interdependence between the level of energy costs and enterprise performance criteria is examined with the use of some hypotheses. The results are commented and discussed.Keywords: energy costs, business strategy, performance criteria, questionnaire research,   

  3. Electricity from geothermal energy: Costs and cost reduction potentials; Strom aus Geothermie. Kosten und Kostensenkungspotenziale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koelbel, Thomas; Eggeling, Lena [EnBW Energie Baden-Wuerttemberg AG, Karlsruhe (Germany). Forschung und Innovation; Kruck, Christoph [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER); Weimann, Thorsten [gec-co Global Engineering and Consulting-Company GmbH, Augsburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The use of geothermal energy for power generation in low-enthalpy devices is a young technology. The first German plant was taken in operation in 2004 at Neustadt-Glewe (Federal Republic of Germany). Three more plants came up by the end of 2009. Although the demonstration stage just was left, investigations provided prime costs similar to those of other renewable energies.

  4. Energy Cost Minimization in Heterogeneous Cellular Networks with Hybrid Energy Supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ever increasing data demand has led to the significant increase of energy consumption in cellular mobile networks. Recent advancements in heterogeneous cellular networks and green energy supplied base stations provide promising solutions for cellular communications industry. In this article, we first review the motivations and challenges as well as approaches to address the energy cost minimization problem for such green heterogeneous networks. Owing to the diversities of mobile traffic and renewable energy, the energy cost minimization problem involves both temporal and spatial optimization of resource allocation. We next present a new solution to illustrate how to combine the optimization of the temporal green energy allocation and spatial mobile traffic distribution. The whole optimization problem is decomposed into four subproblems, and correspondingly our proposed solution is divided into four parts: energy consumption estimation, green energy allocation, user association, and green energy reallocation. Simulation results demonstrate that our proposed algorithm can significantly reduce the total energy cost.

  5. Greening the Grid: Advances in Production Cost Modeling for India Renewable Energy Grid Integration Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Jaquelin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palchak, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-07-12

    The Greening the Grid: Pathways to Integrate 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid study uses advanced weather and power system modeling to explore the operational impacts of meeting India's 2022 renewable energy targets and identify actions that may be favorable for integrating high levels of renewable energy into the Indian grid. The study relies primarily on a production cost model that simulates optimal scheduling and dispatch of available generation in a future year (2022) by minimizing total production costs subject to physical, operational, and market constraints. This fact sheet provides a detailed look at each of these models, including their common assumptions and the insights provided by each.

  6. 75 FR 68607 - BP Canada Energy Marketing Corp. Apache Corporation; Notice for Temporary Waivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission BP Canada Energy Marketing Corp. Apache Corporation; Notice for Temporary... Apache Corporation filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission a Joint Petition for...

  7. 78 FR 40473 - Plainfield Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Plainfield Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding, of Plainfield Renewable Energy, LLC's application for...

  8. 77 FR 64980 - Chesapeake Renewable Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Chesapeake Renewable Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Chesapeake Renewable Energy LLC's application...

  9. Discrete Fluctuations in Memory Erasure without Energy Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croucher, Toshio; Bedkihal, Salil; Vaccaro, Joan A.

    2017-02-01

    According to Landauer's principle, erasing one bit of information incurs a minimum energy cost. Recently, Vaccaro and Barnett (VB) explored information erasure within the context of generalized Gibbs ensembles and demonstrated that for energy-degenerate spin reservoirs the cost of erasure can be solely in terms of a minimum amount of spin angular momentum and no energy. As opposed to the Landauer case, the cost of erasure in this case is associated with an intrinsically discrete degree of freedom. Here we study the discrete fluctuations in this cost and the probability of violation of the VB bound. We also obtain a Jarzynski-like equality for the VB erasure protocol. We find that the fluctuations below the VB bound are exponentially suppressed at a far greater rate and more tightly than for an equivalent Jarzynski expression for VB erasure. We expose a trade-off between the size of the fluctuations and the cost of erasure. We find that the discrete nature of the fluctuations is pronounced in the regime where reservoir spins are maximally polarized. We also state the first laws of thermodynamics corresponding to the conservation of spin angular momentum for this particular erasure protocol. Our work will be important for novel heat engines based on information erasure schemes that do not incur an energy cost.

  10. Energy cost and optimisation in breath-hold diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trassinelli, M

    2016-05-07

    We present a new model for calculating locomotion costs in breath-hold divers. Starting from basic mechanics principles, we calculate the work that the diver must provide through propulsion to counterbalance the action of drag, the buoyant force and weight during immersion. Compared to those in previous studies, the model presented here accurately analyses breath-hold divers which alternate active swimming with prolonged glides during the dive (as is the case in mammals). The energy cost of the dive is strongly dependent on these prolonged gliding phases. Here we investigate the length and impacts on energy cost of these glides with respect to the diver characteristics, and compare them with those observed in different breath-hold diving species. Taking into account the basal metabolic rate and chemical energy to propulsion transformation efficiency, we calculate optimal swim velocity and the corresponding total energy cost (including metabolic rate) and compare them with observations. Energy cost is minimised when the diver passes through neutral buoyancy conditions during the dive. This generally implies the presence of prolonged gliding phases in both ascent and descent, where the buoyancy (varying with depth) is best used against the drag, reducing energy cost. This is in agreement with past results (Miller et al., 2012; Sato et al., 2013) where, when the buoyant force is considered constant during the dive, the energy cost was minimised for neutral buoyancy. In particular, our model confirms the good physical adaption of dolphins for diving, compared to other breath-hold diving species which are mostly positively buoyant (penguins for example). The presence of prolonged glides implies a non-trivial dependency of optimal speed on maximal depth of the dive. This extends previous findings (Sato et al., 2010; Watanabe et al., 2011) which found no dependency of optimal speed on dive depth for particular conditions. The energy cost of the dive can be further

  11. U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Storage Cost Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Karen; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey; Han, Vickie; Chan, Michael; Chiang, Helena; Leonard, Jon

    2013-03-11

    The overall objective of this project is to conduct cost analyses and estimate costs for on- and off-board hydrogen storage technologies under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on a consistent, independent basis. This can help guide DOE and stakeholders toward the most-promising research, development and commercialization pathways for hydrogen-fueled vehicles. A specific focus of the project is to estimate hydrogen storage system cost in high-volume production scenarios relative to the DOE target that was in place when this cost analysis was initiated. This report and its results reflect work conducted by TIAX between 2004 and 2012, including recent refinements and updates. The report provides a system-level evaluation of costs and performance for four broad categories of on-board hydrogen storage: (1) reversible on-board metal hydrides (e.g., magnesium hydride, sodium alanate); (2) regenerable off-board chemical hydrogen storage materials(e.g., hydrolysis of sodium borohydride, ammonia borane); (3) high surface area sorbents (e.g., carbon-based materials); and 4) advanced physical storage (e.g., 700-bar compressed, cryo-compressed and liquid hydrogen). Additionally, the off-board efficiency and processing costs of several hydrogen storage systems were evaluated and reported, including: (1) liquid carrier, (2) sodium borohydride, (3) ammonia borane, and (4) magnesium hydride. TIAX applied a bottom-up costing methodology customized to analyze and quantify the processes used in the manufacture of hydrogen storage systems. This methodology, used in conjunction with ® software and other tools, developed costs for all major tank components, balance-of-tank, tank assembly, and system assembly. Based on this methodology, the figure below shows the projected on-board high-volume factory costs of the various analyzed hydrogen storage systems, as designed. Reductions in the key cost drivers may bring hydrogen storage system costs closer to this DOE target

  12. Powering change in low-income energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Emma; Garside, Ben

    2011-06-15

    Market-based interventions to improve access to energy rarely benefit the poorest, especially if they are driven by specific technologies or external agendas, such as climate change mitigation. Failure to understand local needs and preferences results in inappropriate goods and services and low uptake. Yet business can deliver low-carbon technologies to the 'bottom billion' and support sustainable development. To do so, they must work more closely with government agencies, development practitioners and local communities in designing and delivering products and services. Impact should be measured in terms of development benefits, not products sold or carbon emissions saved.

  13. Encouraging energy conservation in multifamily housing: RUBS and other methods of allocating energy costs to residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClelland, L

    1980-10-01

    Methods of encouraging energy conservation in multifamily housing by allocating energy costs to residents are discussed; specifically, methods appropriate for use in master metered buildings without equipment to monitor energy consumption in individual apartments are examined. Several devices available for monitoring individual energy consumption are also discussed plus methods of comparing the energy savings and cost effectiveness of monitoring devices with those of other means of promoting conservation. Specific information in Volume I includes a comparison study on energy use in master and individually metered buildings; types of appropriate conservation programs for master metered buildings; a description of the Resident Utility Billing System (RUBS); energy savings associated with RUBS; Resident reactions to RUBS; cost effectiveness of RUBS for property owners; potential abuses, factors limiting widespread use, and legal status of RUBS. Part I of Volume II contains a cost allocation decision guide and Part II in Volume II presents the RUBS Operations Manual. Pertinent appendices to some chapters are attached. (MCW)

  14. WINS. Market Simulation Tool for Facilitating Wind Energy Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahidehpour, Mohammad [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-10-30

    Integrating 20% or more wind energy into the system and transmitting large sums of wind energy over long distances will require a decision making capability that can handle very large scale power systems with tens of thousands of buses and lines. There is a need to explore innovative analytical and implementation solutions for continuing reliable operations with the most economical integration of additional wind energy in power systems. A number of wind integration solution paths involve the adoption of new operating policies, dynamic scheduling of wind power across interties, pooling integration services, and adopting new transmission scheduling practices. Such practices can be examined by the decision tool developed by this project. This project developed a very efficient decision tool called Wind INtegration Simulator (WINS) and applied WINS to facilitate wind energy integration studies. WINS focused on augmenting the existing power utility capabilities to support collaborative planning, analysis, and wind integration project implementations. WINS also had the capability of simulating energy storage facilities so that feasibility studies of integrated wind energy system applications can be performed for systems with high wind energy penetrations. The development of WINS represents a major expansion of a very efficient decision tool called POwer Market Simulator (POMS), which was developed by IIT and has been used extensively for power system studies for decades. Specifically, WINS provides the following superiorities; (1) An integrated framework is included in WINS for the comprehensive modeling of DC transmission configurations, including mono-pole, bi-pole, tri-pole, back-to-back, and multi-terminal connection, as well as AC/DC converter models including current source converters (CSC) and voltage source converters (VSC); (2) An existing shortcoming of traditional decision tools for wind integration is the limited availability of user interface, i.e., decision

  15. Geothermal Energy Development in the Eastern United States, Sensitivity analysis-cost of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, S.M.; Kroll, P.; Nilo, B.

    1982-12-01

    The Geothermal Resources Interactive Temporal Simulation (GRITS) model is a computer code designed to estimate the costs of geothermal energy systems. The interactive program allows the user to vary resource, demand, and financial parameters to observe their effects on delivered costs of direct-use geothermal energy. Due to the large number and interdependent nature of the variables that influence these costs, the variables can be handled practically only through computer modeling. This report documents a sensitivity analysis of the cost of direct-use geothermal energy where each major element is varied to measure the responsiveness of cost to changes in that element. It is hoped that this analysis will assist those persons interested in geothermal energy to understand the most significant cost element as well as those individuals interested in using the GRITS program in the future.

  16. Hydrogen Production Costs of Various Primary Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae Hyuk; Tak, Nam Il; Kim, Yong Hee; Park, Won Seok

    2005-11-15

    Many studies on the economical aspects of hydrogen energy technologies have been conducted with the increase of the technical and socioeconomic importance of the hydrogen energy. However, there is still no research which evaluates the economy of hydrogen production from the primary energy sources in consideration of Korean situations. In this study, the hydrogen production costs of major primary energy sources are compared in consideration of the Korean situations such as feedstock price, electricity rate, and load factor. The evaluation methodology is based on the report of the National Academy of Science (NAS) of U.S. The present study focuses on the possible future technology scenario defined by NAS. The scenario assumes technological improvement that may be achieved if present research and development (R and D) programs are successful. The production costs by the coal and natural gas are 1.1 $/kgH{sub 2} and 1.36 $/kgH{sub 2}, respectively. However, the fossil fuels are susceptible to the price variation depending on the oil and the raw material prices, and the hydrogen production cost also depends on the carbon tax. The economic competitiveness of the renewable energy sources such as the wind, solar, and biomass are relatively low when compared with that of the other energy sources. The estimated hydrogen production costs from the renewable energy sources range from 2.35 $/kgH{sub 2} to 6.03 $/kgH{sub 2}. On the other hand, the production cost by nuclear energy is lower than that of natural gas or coal when the prices of the oil and soft coal are above $50/barrel and 138 $/ton, respectively. Taking into consideration the recent rapid increase of the oil and soft coal prices and the limited fossil resource, the nuclear-hydrogen option appears to be the most economical way in the future.

  17. Increased demand-side flexibility: market effects and impacts on variable renewable energy integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Grytli Tveten

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of increased demand-side flexibility (DSF on integration and market value of variable renewable energy sources (VRE. Using assumed potentials, system-optimal within-day shifts in demand are investigated for the Northern European power markets in 2030, applying a comprehensive partial equilibrium model with high temporal and spatial resolution. Increased DSF is found to cause only a minor (less than 3% reduction in consumers’ cost of electricity. VRE revenues are found to increase (up to 5% and 2% for wind and solar power, respectively, and total VRE curtailment decreases by up to 7.2 TWh. Increased DSF causes only limited reductions in GHG emissions. The emission reduction is, however, sensitive to underlying assumptions. We conclude that increased DSF is a promising measure for improving VRE integration. However, low consumers’ savings imply that policies stimulating DFS will be needed to fully use the potential benefits of DSF for VRE integration

  18. Economic and cost engineering aspects of wind energy conversion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacRae, A.N.

    1990-08-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the economic feasibility of current wind energy conversion systems (WECS) from a cost engineering basis is presented. The initial stage covers a subjective review of the cost implications of various design aspects of current medium sized Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWTs), based around a 330 kW wind turbine (WT). The second stage is focused on the collection and initial analysis of a comprehensive database of WT technical, cost and performance information from over 100 WT models ranging in size from 8 metre to 55 metre rotor diameter. The formulation of a life cycle cost estimation model for HAWTs, based on semi-empirical relationships between sub-system cost, mass and design parameters is described. The economic feasibility of WECS private generating operation under the tariff structures available in the UK, under the auspices of the Energy Act of 1983, is examined, and broad results are given in terms of feasible tariff scenarios for topographical and regional locations throughout the UK. The prospects for reducing the cost of energy from WECS are explored, and the macro-economic and socio-environmental aspects of WECS are examined. (author).

  19. A unified theory for the energy cost of legged locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontzer, Herman

    2016-02-01

    Small animals are remarkably efficient climbers but comparatively poor runners, a well-established phenomenon in locomotor energetics that drives size-related differences in locomotor ecology yet remains poorly understood. Here, I derive the energy cost of legged locomotion from two complementary components of muscle metabolism, Activation-Relaxation and Cross-bridge cycling. A mathematical model incorporating these costs explains observed patterns of locomotor cost both within and between species, across a broad range of animals (insects to ungulates), for a wide range of substrate slopes including level running and vertical climbing. This ARC model unifies work- and force-based models for locomotor cost and integrates whole-organism locomotor cost with cellular muscle physiology, creating a predictive framework for investigating evolutionary and ecological pressures shaping limb design and ranging behaviour.

  20. The environmental costs of wind energy in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares Llamas, P. [CIEMAT-IEE, Madrid (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    This article summarizes the assessment of the environmental costs of the wind fuel cycle in Spain. It has been carried out within the ExternE project of the European Commission, and so it has been done following a site-, technology-specific methodology. The main impacts identified have been noise, and the loss of visual amenity. As a result some values for the external costs of wind energy have been obtained, which have shown to be much lower than those of conventional fuel cycles. It is also important to note that careful planning would avoid most of these costs. (author)

  1. Gelatin/graphene systems for low cost energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landi, Giovanni [Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, FernUniversität Hagen, 58084 Hagen (Germany); Fedi, Filippo; Sorrentino, Andrea; Iannace, Salvatore [Institute for Composite and Biomedical Materials (IMCB-CNR), Piazzale Enrico Fermi 1, 80055 Portici (Italy); Neitzert, Heinz C. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, 84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    In this work, we introduce the possibility to use a low cost, biodegradable material for temporary energy storage devices. Here, we report the use of biologically derived organic electrodes composed of gelatin ad graphene. The graphene was obtained by mild sonication in a mixture of volatile solvents of natural graphite flakes and subsequent centrifugation. The presence of exfoliated graphene sheets was detected by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy. The homogeneous dispersion in gelatin demonstrates a good compatibility between the gelatin molecules and the graphene particles. The electrical characterization of the resulting nanocomposites suggests the possible applications as materials for transient, low cost energy storage device.

  2. DETERMINING ENERGY SAVINGS IN BUILDINGS USING THE REDUCING COSTS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STAN IVAN F.E.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is structured in four parts. The first part presents the importance of thermal insulation for buildings energy economy and some insulation properties. In the second part of the paper it is described the reducing cost method to determine the energy savings. The third part of the paper includes an analysis and a comparison for an exterior wall provided with different thicknesses of insulation layer in order to determine the average savings cost. The last part presents conclusions and discussion.

  3. EU's forest fuel resources, energy technology market and international bioenergy trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asikainen, A.; Laitila, J.; Anttila, P.; Parikka, H. (The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit, Joensuu (Finland)), email: antti.asikainen@metla.fi; Virkkunen, M.; Leinonen, A.; Heiskanen, V.-P.; Flyktman, M. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)); Heinimoe, J. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)), email: jussi.heinimo@lut.fi

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the project was to provide for Finnish bioenergy technology, machine and appliance manufactures information about forest fuel resources in EU and international bioenergy trade mechanism. The projects results act as an instrument for market potential assessments and provide information to the local energy producer about biomass as an energy source. The possibilities to use forest chips in CHP and heating plants were investigated in three case studies. Case studies include three main tasks: (1) Assessment of forest fuel resources around the CHP or heating plant. (2) Forest fuel procurement cost study and (3) Study on the economics of forest fuel based energy production. The project was carried out as co-operation between Finnish research institutes and companies, and local actors. First case study was carried out at Poland. The second case study country was the Czech Republic and the third case study country was France. (orig.)

  4. 75 FR 75994 - Application To Export Electric Energy; NRG Power Marketing LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; NRG Power Marketing LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: NRG Power Marketing LLC (NRGPML) has..., Federal power marketing agencies, and other entities within the United States. The existing...

  5. Energy benchmarking of commercial buildings: a low-cost pathway toward urban sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Matt; Brown, Marilyn A.; Sun, Xiaojing

    2013-09-01

    US cities are beginning to experiment with a regulatory approach to address information failures in the real estate market by mandating the energy benchmarking of commercial buildings. Understanding how a commercial building uses energy has many benefits; for example, it helps building owners and tenants identify poor-performing buildings and subsystems and it enables high-performing buildings to achieve greater occupancy rates, rents, and property values. This paper estimates the possible impacts of a national energy benchmarking mandate through analysis chiefly utilizing the Georgia Tech version of the National Energy Modeling System (GT-NEMS). Correcting input discount rates results in a 4.0% reduction in projected energy consumption for seven major classes of equipment relative to the reference case forecast in 2020, rising to 8.7% in 2035. Thus, the official US energy forecasts appear to overestimate future energy consumption by underestimating investments in energy-efficient equipment. Further discount rate reductions spurred by benchmarking policies yield another 1.3-1.4% in energy savings in 2020, increasing to 2.2-2.4% in 2035. Benchmarking would increase the purchase of energy-efficient equipment, reducing energy bills, CO2 emissions, and conventional air pollution. Achieving comparable CO2 savings would require more than tripling existing US solar capacity. Our analysis suggests that nearly 90% of the energy saved by a national benchmarking policy would benefit metropolitan areas, and the policy’s benefits would outweigh its costs, both to the private sector and society broadly.

  6. Technology, market and policy aspects of geothermal energy in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortall, Ruth; Uihlein, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan) is the technology pillar of the EU's energy and climate policy. The goal of the SET-Plan is to achieve EU worldwide leadership in the production of energy technological solutions capable of delivering EU 2020 and 2050 targets for a low carbon economy. The Joint Research Centre (JRC) runs and manages the SET-Plan Information System (SETIS) to support the SET-Plan. Under SETIS, the JRC publishes a number of regularly updated key references on the state of low carbon technology, research and innovation in Europe. Within the framework of the SET-Plan, the geothermal sector is placed into context with other power and heat generation technologies. The talk will give an introduction to some of JRC's geothermal research activities. Amongst others, the JRC Geothermal status report will be presented. This report aims to contribute to the general knowledge about the geothermal sector, its technology, economics and policies, with a focus on innovation, research, development and deployment activities as well as policy support schemes within the European Union. The speech will present the main findings of the report, providing an overview of the activities and progress made by the geothermal energy sector, the status of its sub-technologies and current developments. In addition, the speech will discuss the economic, market and policy aspects of geothermal energy for power production, direct use and ground source heat pumps in Europe and beyond.

  7. Cost of equity on the Polish and global coal market - comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Michalak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The mining industry in Poland as well as in the world is considered to be a strategic industry, of special significance for the economy. At the same time it is an industry requiring high capital outlays. Equity plays an important role in financing of the mining enterprises. The objective of the article is to compare the cost of equity on the Polish and global coal market. The object of the research are the Polish and foreign mining enterprises listed on the stock markets. The basic research method is CAPM.

  8. A Transmission-Cost-Based Model to Estimate the Amount of Market-Integrable Wind Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales González, Juan Miguel; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    In the pursuit of the large-scale integration of wind power production, it is imperative to evaluate plausible frictions among the stochastic nature of wind generation, electricity markets, and the investments in transmission required to accommodate larger amounts of wind. If wind producers......-cost perspective. This model accounts for the uncertain character of wind by using a modeling framework based on stochastic optimization, simulates market barriers by means of a bi-level structure, and considers the financial risk of investments in transmission through the conditional value-at-risk. The major...

  9. Application analysis of solar total energy systems to the residential sector. Volume IV, market penetration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    This volume first describes the residential consumption of energy in each of the 11 STES regions by fuel type and end-use category. The current and projected costs and availability of fossil fuels and electricity for the STES regions are reported. Projections are made concerning residential building construction and the potential market for residential STES. The effects of STES ownership options, institutional constraints, and possible government actions on market penetration potential were considered. Capital costs for two types of STES were determined, those based on organic Rankine cycle (ORC) heat engines and those based on flat plate, water-cooled photovoltaic arrays. Both types of systems utilized parabolic trough collectors. The capital cost differential between conventional and STE systems was calculated on an incremental cost per dwelling unit for comparison with projected fuel savings in the market penetration analysis. The market penetration analysis was planned in two phases, a preliminary analysis of each of the geographical regions for each of the STE systems considered; and a final, more precise analysis of those regions and systems showing promise of significant market penetration. However, the preliminary analysis revealed no geographical regions in which any of the STES considered promised to be competitive with conventional energy systems using utility services at the prices projected for future energy supplies in the residential market. Because no promising situations were found, the analysis was directed toward an examination of the parameters involved in an effort to identify those factors which make a residential STES less attractive than similar systems in the commercial and industrial areas. Results are reported. (WHK)

  10. Market-Based Decision Guidance Framework for Power and Alternative Energy Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaleb, Hesham

    With the introduction of power energy markets deregulation, innovations have transformed once a static network into a more flexible grid. Microgrids have also been deployed to serve various purposes (e.g., reliability, sustainability, etc.). With the rapid deployment of smart grid technologies, it has become possible to measure and record both, the quantity and time of the consumption of electrical power. In addition, capabilities for controlling distributed supply and demand have resulted in complex systems where inefficiencies are possible and where improvements can be made. Electric power like other volatile resources cannot be stored efficiently, therefore, managing such resource requires considerable attention. Such complex systems present a need for decisions that can streamline consumption, delay infrastructure investments, and reduce costs. When renewable power resources and the need for limiting harmful emissions are added to the equation, the search space for decisions becomes increasingly complex. As a result, the need for a comprehensive decision guidance system for electrical power resources consumption and productions becomes evident. In this dissertation, I formulate and implement a comprehensive framework that addresses different aspect of the electrical power generation and consumption using optimization models and utilizing collaboration concepts. Our solution presents a two-prong approach: managing interaction in real-time for the short-term immediate consumption of already allocated resources; and managing the operational planning for the long-run consumption. More specifically, in real-time, we present and implement a model of how to organize a secondary market for peak-demand allocation and describe the properties of the market that guarantees efficient execution and a method for the fair distribution of collaboration gains. We also propose and implement a primary market for peak demand bounds determination problem with the assumption that

  11. 10 CFR 436.17 - Establishing energy or water cost data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishing energy or water cost data. 436.17 Section 436.17 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.17 Establishing energy or water cost data....

  12. Energy cost saving strategies in distributed power networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tcheukam Alain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study energy cost saving strategies in power networks in presence of prosumers. Three tips are considered: (i distributed power network architecture, (ii peak energy shaving with the integration of prosumers’ contribution, (iii Electric vehicles self-charging by means of prosumers’ production. The proposed distributed power network architecture reduces significantly the transmission costs and can reduce significantly the global energy cost up to 42 percent. Different types of prosumer who use self-charging photovoltaic systems, are able to intelligently buy energy from, or sell it, to the power grid. Therein, prosumers interact in a distributed environment during the purchase or sale of electric power using a double auction with negotiation mechanism. Using a two-step combined learning and optimization scheme, each prosumer can learn its optimal bidding strategy and forecast its energy production, consumption and storage. Our simulation results, conducted for the region of Sicily in Italy, show that the integration of prosumers can reduce peak hour costs up to 19 percent and 6 percent for eligible prosumers with electric vehicles.

  13. A study of the cost-effective markets for new technology agricultural aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelrigg, G. A., Jr.; Clyne, F.

    1979-01-01

    A previously developed data base was used to estimate the regional and total U.S. cost-effective markets for a new technology agricultural aircraft as incorporating features which could result from NASA-sponsored aerial applications research. The results show that the long-term market penetration of a new technology aircraft would be near 3,000 aircraft. This market penetration would be attained in approximately 20 years. Annual sales would be about 200 aircraft after 5 to 6 years of introduction. The net present value of cost savings benefit which this aircraft would yield (measured on an infinite horizon basis) would be about $35 million counted at a 10 percent discount rate and $120 million at a 5 percent discount rate. At both discount rates the present value of cost savings exceeds the present value of research and development (R&D) costs estimated for the development of the technology base needed for the proposed aircraft. These results are quite conservative as they have been derived neglecting future growth in the agricultural aviation industry, which has been averaging about 12 percent per year over the past several years.

  14. Cost analysis study of oral antidiabetic drugs available in Indian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisharani B Jadhav, Manisha S Bhosale, Charles V Adhav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There exists a wide range of variation in the prices of drugs marketed in India and other countries of the world. Very few studies have been conducted to reveal such price variations in the open market. Aim & Objectives: To evaluate the cost of oral anti-diabetics of different generic classes and different brand names of one compound, To evaluate the difference in cost of different brands for the same active drug by calculating percentage variation of cost. Methods: Cost of a particular drug being manufactured by different companies, in the same strength, number and dosage form was compared. The difference in the maximum and minimum price of the same drug manufactured by different pharmaceutical companies and the percentage variation in price was calculated. Results: In Single drug therapy, among sulfonylurea group of drugs, Glimepiride (1 mg shows maximum price variation of 655.38%, while Glipizide (10mg shows variation of 38.88%. In Biguanides & Thizolidinediones groups of drugs, Metformin (500 mg & Pioglitazone (15 mg show maximum price variation of 308.33% & 542% respectively. In α-glucosidases inhibitor group of drugs, Miglitol shows maximum price variation of 135.50 %. In combination therapies, Glipizide & Metformin combination shows the maximum variation up to 399.04 %. Conclusion: The average percentage price variation of different brands of the same drug manufactured in India is very wide and the appraisal and management of marketing drugs should be directed toward maximizing the benefits of therapy and minimizing negative personal and economic consequences

  15. Preliminary evaluation of the lifecycle costs and market barriers of reflective pavements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, M.; Koomey, J.G.; Pomerantz, M.

    2001-11-21

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the life cycle costs and market barriers associated with using reflective paving materials in streets and parking lots as a way to reduce the urban heat island effect. We calculated and compared the life cycle costs of conventional asphalt concrete (AC) pavements to those of other existing pavement technologies with higher reflectivity-portland cement concrete (PCC), porous pavements, resin pavements, AC pavements using light-colored chip seals, and AC pavements using light-colored asphalt emulsion additives. We found that for streets and parking lots, PCC can provide a cost-effective alternative to conventional AC when severely damaged pavements must be completely reconstructed. We also found that rehabilitating damaged AC streets and intersections with thin overlays of PCC (ultra-thin white topping) can often provide a cost-effective alternative to standard rehabilitation techniques using conventional AC. Chip sealing is a common maintenance treatment for low-volume streets which, when applied using light-colored chips, could provide a reflective pavement surface. If the incremental cost of using light-colored chips is low, this chip sealing method could also be cost-effective, but the incremental costs of light-colored chips are as of yet uncertain and expected to vary. Porous pavements were found to have higher life cycle costs than conventional AC in parking lots, but several cost-saving features of porous pavements fell outside the boundaries of this study. Resin pavements were found to be only slightly more expensive than conventional AC, but the uncertainties in the cost and performance data were large. The use of light-colored additives in asphalt emulsion seal coats for parking lot pavements was found to be significantly more expensive than conventional AC, reflecting its current niche market of decorative applications. We also proposed two additional approaches to increasing the reflectivity of conventional AC

  16. Annual Energy Usage Reduction and Cost Savings of a School: End-Use Energy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiman Roslizar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Buildings are among the largest consumers of energy. Part of the energy is wasted due to the habits of users and equipment conditions. A solution to this problem is efficient energy usage. To this end, an energy audit can be conducted to assess the energy efficiency. This study aims to analyze the energy usage of a primary school and identify the potential energy reductions and cost savings. A preliminary audit was conducted, and several energy conservation measures were proposed. The energy conservation measures, with reference to the MS1525:2007 standard, were modelled to identify the potential energy reduction and cost savings. It was found that the school’s usage of electricity exceeded its need, incurring an excess expenditure of RM 2947.42. From the lighting system alone, it was found that there is a potential energy reduction of 5489.06 kWh, which gives a cost saving of RM 2282.52 via the improvement of lighting system design and its operating hours. Overall, it was found that there is a potential energy reduction and cost saving of 20.7% when the energy conservation measures are earnestly implemented. The previous energy intensity of the school was found to be 50.6 kWh/m2/year, but can theoretically be reduced to 40.19 kWh/mm2/year.

  17. Impact of Renewable Energy Forecast Imperfections on Market-Clearing Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordoudis, Christos; Pinson, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    . Hence, innovative market structures have been proposed to cope with the uncertainty introduced. Nonetheless, the quality of wind power forecasts may affect the market outcome due to their inaccuracy. For this reason, a framework is proposed to examine market-clearing algorithms, both deterministic...... and stochastic approaches, under imperfect wind power forecasts in order to quantify their influence on the market outcome. Results show that mean value mismatch between “estimated” and “realized” distributions has the highest impact on total system cost. Finally, it is examined if cost recovery for market...... players is guaranteed in the presence of inaccurate wind power forecasts....

  18. Examining the energy cost and intensity level of prenatal yoga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Nathan Anthony; Schlaff, Rebecca A

    2016-01-01

    A popular form of pregnancy physical activity (PA) is prenatal yoga. However, little is known about the intensity and energy cost of this practice. To examine the energy cost and intensity level of prenatal yoga. Pregnant women in a prenatal yoga class (n = 19) wore a Sense Wear Armband during eleven 60 min classes each, and self-reported demographic variables, height and weight, prepregnancy weight, and PA behaviors and beliefs. Sense Wear Armband data included kilocalories, metabolic equivalent (MET) values, and time spent in various intensities. Descriptive statistics and frequencies were utilized to describe energy expenditure and intensity. Energy expenditure averaged 109 ± 8 kcals, and the average MET value was 1.5 ± 0.02. On average, 93% and 7% of classes were sedentary and moderate intensity PA, respectively. Time spent in a prenatal yoga class was considered to be primarily a sedentary activity. Future research should utilize larger samples, practice type, and skill level to increase generalizability.

  19. Integrated Energy Systems (IES) for Buildings: A Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeMar, P.

    2002-10-29

    Integrated Energy Systems (IES) combine on-site power or distributed generation technologies with thermally activated technologies to provide cooling, heating, humidity control, energy storage and/or other process functions using thermal energy normally wasted in the production of electricity/power. IES produce electricity and byproduct thermal energy onsite, with the potential of converting 80 percent or more of the fuel into useable energy. IES have the potential to offer the nation the benefits of unprecedented energy efficiency gains, consumer choice and energy security. It may also dramatically reduce industrial and commercial building sector carbon and air pollutant emissions and increase source energy efficiency. Applications of distributed energy and Combined heat and power (CHP) in ''Commercial and Institutional Buildings'' have, however, been historically limited due to insufficient use of byproduct thermal energy, particularly during summer months when heating is at a minimum. In recent years, custom engineered systems have evolved incorporating potentially high-value services from Thermally Activated Technologies (TAT) like cooling and humidity control. Such TAT equipment can be integrated into a CHP system to utilize the byproduct heat output effectively to provide absorption cooling or desiccant humidity control for the building during these summer months. IES can therefore expand the potential thermal energy services and thereby extend the conventional CHP market into building sector applications that could not be economically served by CHP alone. Now more than ever, these combined cooling, heating and humidity control systems (IES) can potentially decrease carbon and air pollutant emissions, while improving source energy efficiency in the buildings sector. Even with these improvements over conventional CHP systems, IES face significant technological and economic hurdles. Of crucial importance to the success of IES is the ability

  20. Competitive energy markets and nuclear power: Can we have both, do we want either?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Steve, E-mail: Stephen.thomas@gre.ac.u [Public Services International Research Unit (PSIRU), Business School, University of Greenwich, 30 Park Row, London SE10 9LS (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-15

    In 1987, the UK Conservative Party was re-elected promising to transform the electricity industry into a privatised competitive industry and to promote an expansion of nuclear power. Fulfilling both objectives was not possible. The nuclear plants were withdrawn from the sale and plans to build new plants were abandoned, but privatisation proceeded. In 2007, the Labour government began a new attempt to build nuclear plants to operate in the competitive electricity market, promising that no subsidies would be offered to them. By 2010, the utilities that were planning to build nuclear plants were beginning to suggest that 'support' in some form would be needed if they were to build new plants. More surprisingly, the energy regulator, Ofgem, cast doubt on whether a competitive wholesale electricity market would provide security of supply. In 1990, the UK government opted for a competitive electricity market over expanding nuclear power. Now, the option of opting for a competitive electricity market may not exist. However, this might not leave the way open for new nuclear plants. The expected cost of power from new nuclear plants is now so high that no more than one or two heavily subsidised plants will be built.

  1. Competitive energy markets and nuclear power. Can we have both, do we want either?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Steve [Public Services International Research Unit (PSIRU), Business School, University of Greenwich, 30 Park Row, London SE10 9LS (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-15

    In 1987, the UK Conservative Party was re-elected promising to transform the electricity industry into a privatised competitive industry and to promote an expansion of nuclear power. Fulfilling both objectives was not possible. The nuclear plants were withdrawn from the sale and plans to build new plants were abandoned, but privatisation proceeded. In 2007, the Labour government began a new attempt to build nuclear plants to operate in the competitive electricity market, promising that no subsidies would be offered to them. By 2010, the utilities that were planning to build nuclear plants were beginning to suggest that 'support' in some form would be needed if they were to build new plants. More surprisingly, the energy regulator, Ofgem, cast doubt on whether a competitive wholesale electricity market would provide security of supply. In 1990, the UK government opted for a competitive electricity market over expanding nuclear power. Now, the option of opting for a competitive electricity market may not exist. However, this might not leave the way open for new nuclear plants. The expected cost of power from new nuclear plants is now so high that no more than one or two heavily subsidised plants will be built. (author)

  2. Economic expansion of the European renewable energy market in case of European Union law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilotskiy Sergiy Dmitrovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article.The paper deals with current trends of the global energy market, signs of a crisis which determine the appearance of the market of renewable energy are revealed. Also comparative description of Ukrainian and European Renewable Energy Markets attractiveness is conducted, impact factors of state policy change in Energy Regulation of the European Union, in particular the development of the renewable energy sources, are analysed. The results of the analysis. Under the conditions of world economic globalization and the growing problem of energy crisis, the role of renewable energy is actualizing for finding in the growing demand of energy, which leads to the formation of a new market in the world economic system – renewable energy market. The initial phase of the market is characterized by the absence of intense competitive environment, the uncertainty of the major players in the market and unallotted market shares, what requires that Ukrainian producers of renewable energy can demonstrate the level of competitiveness in the international market. At the same time, for successfully entrance to the EU market it is needed depth study of legal aspects of economical activity of Ukrainian enterprises in the international market. Comparative analysis of the legal framework of Ukraine and the EU in the renewable energies industry led to positive conclusions about the attractiveness of the European market and let to identify the characteristics of the European Union. Conclusions and directions of further researches. Therefore, the construction of an entry strategy on the international market should pay great attention to aspects of international law to predict the political and legal risks of foreign market. The strategy of economic expansion is most effective in the present context of globalization of the world economy and can provide a quick entry to Ukrainian companies to the EU market and take their niche in it. In addition

  3. To end with the untruth on the wind energy cost; Pour en finir avec les contre-verites sur le cout de l'energie eolienne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Biez, V

    2008-07-01

    In a study published by the Montaigne institute, in July 2008, Vincent Le Biez aimed to criticize the development of the wind energy and more especially its cost. Experts of the SER (Syndicat of the Renewable Energies) and the FEE (France Wind Energy ) answer, in this report, to the criticisms of V. Le Biez. Their analysis shows that the wind energy already constitutes a protection against the increase of the electrical market prices and will offer a real benefit for the collectivity in 2020. The increase of the wind energy in the world shows the trumps of this electricity production form. (A.L.B.)

  4. Energy conversion/power plant cost-cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, K.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Kenneth Nichols, Barber-Nichols, Inc., is about cost-cutting in the energy conversion phase and power plant phase of geothermal energy production. Mr. Nichols discusses several ways in which improvements could be made, including: use of more efficient compressors and other equipment as they become available, anticipating reservoir resource decline and planning for it, running smaller binary systems independent of human operators, and designing plants so that they are relatively maintenance-free.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of solar energy in energy-efficient buildings; Kosten und Nutzen von Solarenergie in energieeffizienten Bauten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, S.; Iten, R.; Vettori, A. [Infras, Zuerich (Switzerland); Haller, A.; Ochs, M. [Ernst Schweizer AG, Hedingen (Switzerland); Keller, L. [Bureau d' Etudes Keller-Burnier, Lavigny (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study that examined the potentials and restraints with respect to the use of solar energy in the new construction and refurbishment of residential buildings in Switzerland. The method used is based on a 'learning-curve' technique. The first part of the report deals with the development of prices for solar-collector installations from 1990 until now. The second part deals with today's costs and future developments up to the year 2030. A reference building is used as the basis for the comparison of eight system variants. A further eight variants combine solar technology with traditional heating installations such as oil, gas and wood boilers and heat-pumps. Scenarios for the market situation for solar energy in 2030 are discussed.

  6. Exposure to digital marketing enhances young adults’ interest in energy drinks: An exploratory investigation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buchanan, Limin; Kelly, Bridget; Yeatman, Heather

    2017-01-01

    .... The impact of online food marketing on "digital native" young adults is unclear. This study examined the effects of online marketing on young adults' consumption behaviours, using energy drinks as a case example...

  7. Life cycle cost-based risk model for energy performance contracting retrofits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghorn, George H.

    Buildings account for 41% of the primary energy consumption in the United States, nearly half of which is accounted for by commercial buildings. Among the greatest energy users are those in the municipalities, universities, schools, and hospitals (MUSH) market. Correctional facilities are in the upper half of all commercial building types for energy intensity. Public agencies have experienced reduced capital budgets to fund retrofits; this has led to the increased use of energy performance contracts (EPC), which are implemented by energy services companies (ESCOs). These companies guarantee a minimum amount of energy savings resulting from the retrofit activities, which in essence transfers performance risk from the owner to the contractor. Building retrofits in the MUSH market, especially correctional facilities, are well-suited to EPC, yet despite this potential and their high energy intensities, efficiency improvements lag behind that of other public building types. Complexities in project execution, lack of support for data requests and sub-metering, and conflicting project objectives have been cited as reasons for this lag effect. As a result, project-level risks must be understood in order to support wider adoption of retrofits in the public market, in particular the correctional facility sub-market. The goal of this research is to understand risks related to the execution of energy efficiency retrofits delivered via EPC in the MUSH market. To achieve this goal, in-depth analysis and improved understanding was sought with regard to ESCO risks that are unique to EPC in this market. The proposed work contributes to this understanding by developing a life cycle cost-based risk model to improve project decision making with regard to risk control and reduction. The specific objectives of the research are: (1) to perform an exploratory analysis of the EPC retrofit process and identify key areas of performance risk requiring in-depth analysis; (2) to construct a

  8. The emerging roles of energy storage in a competitive power market: Summary of a DOE Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, S.P.; Falcone, P.K. [eds.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains a summary of the workshop, {open_quotes}The Emerging Roles of Energy Storage in a Competitive Power Market,{close_quotes} which was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and Sandia National Laboratories and was held in Pleasanton, California on December 6-7, 1994. More than 70 people attended, representing government agencies, national laboratories, equipment vendors, electric utilities and other energy providers, venture capital interests, and consultants. Many types of energy storage were discussed, including electrical (batteries and superconducting magnets), mechanical (flywheels and pumped hydro), hydrogen, compressed air, and thermal energy storage. The objectives of the workshop were to communicate within the energy storage community regarding the costs, benefits, and technical status of various technology options; to explore and elucidate the evolving roles of energy storage in a more dynamic and competitive power and energy marketplace; and to discuss the optimum federal role in this area. The goals of the workshop were fully realized through knowledgeable and insightful presentations and vigorous discussion, which are summarized.

  9. Legal and economic aspects of Ukrainian enterprises activity at the European renewable energy market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiy Bilotskiy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a current trend of the global energy market, which is characterized by rising tension in relations between the performers of the energy market regulation mechanisms, and it leads to the emergence of alternative energy sources. The article is called to identify the causes of renewable energy markets nascence, to make comparative description of Ukrainian and European Renewable Energy Markets attractiveness, and to characterize the state policy change in a renewable energy market. Different interpretation of nature and classification of the field of renewable energy in foreign and Ukrainian approaches shows the problem of legal criteria of renewable energy markets regulation. It is proved the existence of double barrier penetration of the European market for renewable energy for Ukrainian companies, which includes compliance with the accepted EU Directives and compliance with the Rules of each member individually. The presence of clearly defined standards and certificates of quality for the European market allows producers to show the competitiveness of Ukrainian products in the international market and stimulate Ukrainian manufacturers. The presence of clearly formulated laws, stable and balanced political and legal environment of the EU allows Ukrainian producers of renewable energy to develop such a strategy that considers the time factor, as the primary parameter of competitiveness in international business. The market of solid biofuels in EU is under formation, its development timeframe and uncertainty of environmental risks becoming is especially important for Ukrainian producers.

  10. Increasing nuclear power at liberalised energy markets- case Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syri, S.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Satka, V.

    2012-10-01

    Several Finnish projections for future electricity demand and the need for peak load capacity indicate a demand growth of about 2 GW from the present to the year 2030. The retirement of existing fossil fuel plants and old nuclear power plants will cause increased net import needs during 2020's, even when assuming additional energy efficiency measures and the commissioning of two new nuclear power plants recently approved by the Finnish Parliament. By the year 2030, the need for additional new capacity will be about 6 GW. The increased dependence on import is in contradiction with the official Government targets. This situation is not unique to Finland, but rather is likely to be the case in many other European countries as well. Both the energy company Fortum and energy-intensive industry in Finland see nuclear energy as a viable future generation technology. We describe the « Mankala » concept which is successfully used to build new nuclear capacity at liberalised electricity market in Finland.

  11. Increasing nuclear power at liberalised energy markets- case Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satka V.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Several Finnish projections for future electricity demand and the need for peak load capacity indicate a demand growth of about 2 GW from the present to the year 2030. The retirement of existing fossil fuel plants and old nuclear power plants will cause increased net import needs during 2020’s, even when assuming additional energy efficiency measures and the commissioning of two new nuclear power plants recently approved by the Finnish Parliament. By the year 2030, the need for additional new capacity will be about 6 GW. The increased dependence on import is in contradiction with the official Government targets. This situation is not unique to Finland, but rather is likely to be the case in many other European countries as well. Both the energy company Fortum and energy-intensive industry in Finland see nuclear energy as a viable future generation technology. We describe the « Mankala » concept which is successfully used to build new nuclear capacity at liberalised electricity market in Finland.

  12. Minimizing Wind Power Producer's Balancing Costs Using Electrochemical Energy Storage: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miettinen, J.; Tikka, V.; Lassila, J.; Partanen, J.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-08-01

    This paper examines how electrochemical energy storage can be used to decrease the balancing costs of a wind power producer in the Nordic market. Because electrochemical energy storage is developing in both technological and financial terms, a sensitivity analysis was carried out for the most important variables in the wind-storage hybrid system. The system was studied from a wind power producer's point of view. The main result is that there are no technical limitations to using storage for reducing the balancing costs. However, in terms of economic feasibility, installing hybrid wind-storage systems such as the one studied in this paper faces challenges in both the short and long terms.

  13. Minimizing Wind Power Producer's Balancing Costs Using Electrochemical Energy Storage: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miettinen, J.; Tikka, V.; Lassila, J.; Partanen, J.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-08-01

    This paper examines how electrochemical energy storage can be used to decrease the balancing costs of a wind power producer in the Nordic market. Because electrochemical energy storage is developing in both technological and financial terms, a sensitivity analysis was carried out for the most important variables in the wind-storage hybrid system. The system was studied from a wind power producer's point of view. The main result is that there are no technical limitations to using storage for reducing the balancing costs. However, in terms of economic feasibility, installing hybrid wind-storage systems such as the one studied in this paper faces challenges in both the short and long terms.

  14. Energy conservation and cost benefits in the dairy processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Guidance is given on measuring energy consumption in the plant and pinpointing areas where energy-conservation activities can return the most favorable economics. General energy-conservation techniques applicable to most or all segments of the dairy processing industry, including the fluid milk segment, are emphasized. These general techniques include waste heat recovery, improvements in electric motor efficiency, added insulation, refrigeration improvements, upgrading of evaporators, and increases in boiler efficiency. Specific examples are given in which these techniques are applied to dairy processing plants. The potential for energy savings by cogeneration of process steam and electricity in the dairy industry is also discussed. Process changes primarily applicable to specific milk products which have resulted in significant energy cost savings at some facilities or which promise significant contributions in the future are examined. A summary checklist of plant housekeeping measures for energy conservation and guidelines for economic evaluation of conservation alternatives are provided. (MHR)

  15. COST - EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS IN CONTEXT OF THE NEW LEGISLATION ON ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionescu Sas Mihaela

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author presents some aspects of a broader analysis on the macroeconomic effects it generates new energy regulations on energy efficiency in the European Union. Are presented for this purpose EU targets for achieving targets 20% reduction in energy consumption by 2020 and improve the prospect of cuts in 2030. In a time when environmental concerns, economic and social becoming increasingly important, being represented by climate change or the endangering energy security, resource depletion or ability to pay energy bills, reduce energy consumption in buildings and industrial sector of strategic importance, both nationally and internationally. In addition to efforts to build new buildings and industrial facilities with low energy requirements, obtained from conventional sources of energy is essential to address the high levels of consumption of existing buildings and facilities. Improving the energy efficiency of the existing buildings and facilities is essential not only for achieving national targets for energy efficiency in the medium term, but also to meet long-term objectives of the strategy on climate change and the transition to a competitive, low carbon dioxide by 2030. The analysis consists in determining and assessing costs, benefits on energy efficiency in the European Union and national level. In Romania the gradual liberalization of the electricity market and gas is unsustainable in the context of the energy sector, which faces a variety of challenges, including high energy losses. In the medium term, the energy market liberalization leads to an appreciable increase in electricity prices, gas and heat, a process that takes place very late and that will put high pressure on the capacity of all energy consumers (industrial and residential to pay energy bills. An obvious solution, but not convenient, is to reduce energy consumption through energy efficiency or by reducing energy losses. The article ends with the

  16. Energy Cost Optimization in a Water Supply System Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. Moreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the life cycle costs (LCC of a pump are related to the energy spent in pumping, with the rest being related to the purchase and maintenance of the equipment. Any optimizations in the energy efficiency of the pumps result in a considerable reduction of the total operational cost. The Fátima water supply system in Portugal was analyzed in order to minimize its operational energy costs. Different pump characteristic curves were analyzed and modeled in order to achieve the most efficient operation point. To determine the best daily pumping operational scheduling pattern, genetic algorithm (GA optimization embedded in the modeling software was considered in contrast with a manual override (MO approach. The main goal was to determine which pumps and what daily scheduling allowed the best economical solution. At the end of the analysis it was possible to reduce the original daily energy costs by 43.7%. This was achieved by introducing more appropriate pumps and by intelligent programming of their operation. Given the heuristic nature of GAs, different approaches were employed and the most common errors were pinpointed, whereby this investigation can be used as a reference for similar future developments.

  17. Cost and benefit of renewable energy in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram

    2013-01-01

    An assessment is made as to whether renewable energy use for electricity generation in the EU was beneficial throughout the cycle of high and low oil prices. Costs and benefits are calculated with the EU statistics for the period of low oil prices 1998–2002 and high oil prices 2003–2009. The share o

  18. Unravelling historical cost developments of offshore wind energy in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voormolen, J. A.; Junginger, H. M.; van Sark, W. G J H M

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to provide insights in the cost developments of offshore wind energy in Europe. This is done by analysing 46 operational offshore wind farms commissioned after 2000. An increase of the Capital Expenditures (CAPEX) is found that is linked to the distance to shore and depth of more rec

  19. 76 FR 30147 - Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power Marketing Initiative to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power Marketing...-2017 remarketing efforts, the Energy Management and Planning Program (Program), and the Conformed...

  20. Integral Cost-Benefit Analysis of Maglev Rail Projects Under Market Imperfections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Paul Elhorst

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates a new mode of high speed ground transportation, the magnetic levitation rail system (Maglev. The outcomes of this evaluation provide policy information on the interregional redistribution of employment and population and the national welfare improvement of two Dutch urban-conglomeration and two Dutch core-periphery projects. This article also compares the results of an integral cost- benefit analysis with those of a conventional cost-benefit analysis and concludes that the additional economic benefits due to market imperfections vary from –1% to +38% of the direct transport benefits, depending on the type of regions connected and the general condition of the economy.