Full Text Available New product launching (NPL process in subsidiaries is very complex, expensive and risky. This process is marked by the problem of role partition between headquarter and subsidiaries. This research emphasizes the quality of relation between subsidiaries and headquarter which determines the qualities of NPL process into local market. Typology of initiative-decision during NPL process has been documented. Using cluster analysis, three clusters of ‘initiative-decision’ during NPL are found in this research: ‘headquarters domination’, ‘mix-initiative’ and ‘interaction’. Using ANOVA analysis, this research found that interaction between subsidiary and headquarter managers positively increases the effectiveness of marketing-strategy during NPL process. This finding suggests that interaction mechanism between subsidiary and headquarter is the best solution to launch a new product to the local market.
Vivian Eugenia da Matta
Full Text Available The launch of new products resulted from investments in research and development and the need for them markets makes risk management is an important practice within companies in order to reduce the negative risks generated in the release process. The purpose of this article is to carry out studies to identify the risks involved in launching new products and forms of treatment used by the organization to deal with these risks. For this we conducted a case study in a Brazilian company that operates in the aerospace market. Information was collected through semi-structured interviews with three managers of the company. The risks identified and strategies for treating these risks have been organized into tables where risks identified for staff involved are presented. The results of the study showed that the risk management, in fact, contributes to the reduction of the negative risks that may adversely affect the process of launching new products in the market. The study identified some findings, such as the aerospace market shares for the sale of its products occur mainly in the phase prior to the production and delivery of these. The identified risks are generated by the interaction between the company and those involved in the supply chain, one of the ways of treating risk used by the company is to maintain the same relationship network, in addition to establishing rules of conduct for the supply chain. The release of new products does not occur through mass media face, since there is a specific, small market segment that has the means to buy the products. Study limitations stem from the inability to generalize the results depending on the method used and the interviews only to company officials.
This bachelor’s thesis aims to create a detailed guideline for using marketing videos in various online channels for Altal Oy. The commissioning company, Altal Oy is a Finn-ish start-up founded by three employees in 2014. It operates in the smart home tech-nology sector. The thesis topic is based on the current needs of the company to pro-mote for the launch of its brand new products in the Finnish market. A real project of making a promotion video is conducted and reported in parallel with t...
Launching a new product can be a tense time for a small or large business. There are those moments when you wonder if all of the work done to develop the product will pay off in revenue, but there are many things are can do to help increase the likelihood of a successful product launch. An open-minded consumer-oriented approach is imperative in todayís diverse global marketplace so a firm can identify and serve its target market, minimize dissatisfaction, and stay ahead of competitors. Final consumers purchase for personal, family, or household use. Finally, the kind of information that the marketing team needs to provide customers in different buying situations. In high-involvement decisions, the marketer needs to provide a good deal of information about the positive consequences of buying. The sales force may need to stress the important attributes of the product, the advantages compared with the competition; and maybe even encourage ìtrialî or ìsamplingî of the product in the hope of securing the sale. The final stage is the post-purchase evaluation of the decision. It is common for customers to experience concerns after making a purchase decision. This arises from a concept that is known as ìcognitive dissonance
Robben, H.S.J.; Langerak, F.; Hultink, E.J.
Some scholars have suggested recently that a market-oriented culture leads to superior performance, at least in part, because of the new products that are developed and are brought to market. Others have reinforced this wisdom by revealing that a market-oriented culture enhances organizational
Full Text Available On the basis of increased complexity of the exchange mechanism, at the beginning of the third millennium the contemporary marketing suffers some physiognomic changes. Holistic orientation of the contemporary marketing is imposed by the new dimensions the
This article discusses the delays being encountered in the introduction of fuel cells into various application areas and the work that is still to be done before this technology breaks through into the market. The situation in the space-heating / decentralised power generation segment is examined, where a large amount of work still has to be done before such fuel cell units attain the status of everyday domestic appliances. The situation in the combined heat and power (CHP) segment in Germany is discussed, where local utilities are working together with fuel cell manufacturers within the framework of field trails of domestic fuel cell appliances. The setting-up of 'virtual power stations' - a network of remote-controlled distributed fuel-cell CHP units - is discussed and the chances for the success of applications for miniaturised fuel cells in consumer goods such as cameras and mobile telephones is examined. The situation in the automobile industry, where the introduction of fuel cell applications in vehicles is also suffering delays, is looked at. Also, the production of hydrogen for use in the fuel cells is examined
Song, L.Z.; Song, Michael; Benedetto, Di A.C.
Successfully launching its first product is critical to a new venture's continued success, yet the new venture has relatively few financial or human resources to support its marketing or R&D activities. It is thus important for the new venture to attract funding from external investors such as
Song, Lisa Z.; Song, Michael; Di Benedetto, Anthony
Successfully launching its first product is critical to a new venture's continued success, yet the new venture has relatively few financial or human resources to support its marketing or R&D activities. It is thus important for the new venture to attract funding from external investors such as
The purpose of this thesis was to conduct a brand study for Company X, which pro-duces small and medium childcare products. The final objective was to have a better knowledge of the Chinese market to adapt as well as possible the Company X brand strategy comparing with competitors are doing in terms of brand strategy and entry mode solution. The introduction shows the purpose and the objectives of the thesis and the concep-tual framework including all the theoretical concepts developed. Th...
In recent times product launch has become vital deciding factor in the success of a product. The significance of product launch becomes even higher if the product is radically new and different from existing products in the market. The aim of this dissertation is to look into the possible factors which might influence the product launch of Google Chrome Operating System that has radical concepts and design. The essential variations which might be needed for the successful launch in India as c...
Hansen, Klaus Reinholdt Nyhuus; Grunow, Martin
Shorter product life cycles and the resulting increase in new product introductions boost the importance of product launch operations. In the pharmaceutical sector, product launch operations are of particular importance, as companies seek to reduce time-to-market to better exploit patent protection....... Large volumes of product need to be ready to fill the downstream supply chain immediately at market launch. Building up the required inventory is, however, connected to several risks. In addition to the risk associated with the lack of demand information for a new product, there are several risks unique...... to the pharmaceutical sector. After approval by central authorities such as the FDA or EMA, a new drug still needs to receive market authorization, which is in most cases granted by some local authorities – in Europe, for example, by more than 30 national and regional bodies. The duration of these different market...
Amit Mehra; Gireesh Shrimali
Public “Beta” launches have become a preferred route of entry into the markets for new software products and web site based services. While beta testing of novel products is nothing new, typically such tests were done by experts within firm boundaries. What makes public beta testing so attractive to firms? By introducing semi-completed products in the market, the firm can target the early adopter population, who can then build the potential market through the word of mouth effect by the time ...
Manish Gunjan; Jegathambigai Rameshwar Naidu; Ishab Kumar; Yogesh Kumar
ABSTRACT Purpose: The purpose of the study was to find out the basic challenges and major aspects in launching of new pharmaceutical products, and the usual way to overcome with the concerned challenges. The second most important purpose was to find out the role of innovative and creative way in promotion of new pharmaceutical product and its impact on their market value. Methodology: I went through questionnaire based survey on 10 medical representatives and 10 doctors respectively to find o...
Hansen, Klaus Reinholdt Nyhuus; Grunow, Martin; Gani, Rafiqul
launching activities after the drug has been approved. In this paper, we present a recourse-based stochastic model, which allows for time phasing the market entries to balance the fluctuating demand with the fixed and periodic production of the active pharmaceutical ingredient. The two major risk elements...... during launch are forecasting inaccuracy and the risk of a required label change from local regulatory authorities. Robust solutions are found by implementing the Robust Optimization framework....
Full Text Available This paper aims the difficult problem of creating new product concepts in thearea of high-technology and innovation. Because of scientific discoveries andimpressive development of technology, many companies compete for marketsupremacy on the technological innovations market. In a global market,which is currently in an economic and financial crisis, consumers make a newhierarchy of priorities in terms of expenditure and consumption. Therefore,companies that create new products must be very careful about 2 aspects,so the new product may not become a failure: the products positioning on themarket and the target group which they address to. This paper belongs to themarketing area by bringing into discussion theoretical concepts, by analyzingthe stages crossed by a company in the process of launching a new hightechproduct and crossing the abyss in the product adoption process byconsumers.
This paper calls for a merger of technology and marketing under a customer value perspective; for an enhancement of the traditional technological innovation orientation of the technology-based firm with a market thrust. It establishes technology-based products as product-service offerings that are
Banerjee, Sumitro; Soberman, David A.
Our objective is to understand how a firm’s product development capability (PDC) affects the launch strategy for a durable product that is sequentially improved over time in a market where consumers have heterogeneous valuations for quality. We show that the launch strategy of firms is affected by the degree to which consumers think ahead. However, only the strategy of firms with high PDC is affected by the observability of quality. When consumers are myopic and quality is observable, both hi...
Koch, Marcus A.
Objectives To take inventory of the current state of affairs of Market Access Launch Excellence in the life sciences industry. To identify key gaps and challenges for Market Access (MA) and discuss how they can be addressed. To generate a baseline for benchmarking MA launch excellence. Methodology An online survey was conducted with pharmaceutical executives primarily working in MA, marketing, or general management. The survey aimed to evaluate MA excellence prerequisites across the product life cycle (rated by importance and level of implementation) and to describe MA activity models in the respective companies. Composite scores were calculated from respondents’ ratings and answers. Results Implementation levels of MA excellence prerequisites generally lagged behind their perceived importance. Item importance and the respective level of implementation correlated well, which can be interpreted as proof of the validity of the questionnaire. The following areas were shown to be particularly underimplemented: 1) early integration of MA and health economic considerations in research and development decision making, 2) developing true partnerships with payers, including the development of services ‘beyond the pill’, and 3) consideration of human resource and talent management. The concept of importance-adjusted implementation levels as a hybrid parameter was introduced and shown to be a viable tool for benchmarking purposes. More than 70% of respondents indicated that their companies will invest broadly in MA in terms of capital and headcount within the next 3 years. Conclusions MA (launch) excellence needs to be further developed in order to close implementation gaps across the entire product life cycle. As MA is a comparatively young pharmaceutical discipline in a complex and dynamic environment, this effort will require strategic focus and dedication. The Market Access Launch Excellence Inventory benchmarking tool may help guide decision makers to prioritize
Marcus A. Koch
Full Text Available Objectives: To take inventory of the current state of affairs of Market Access Launch Excellence in the life sciences industry. To identify key gaps and challenges for Market Access (MA and discuss how they can be addressed. To generate a baseline for benchmarking MA launch excellence. Methodology: An online survey was conducted with pharmaceutical executives primarily working in MA, marketing, or general management. The survey aimed to evaluate MA excellence prerequisites across the product life cycle (rated by importance and level of implementation and to describe MA activity models in the respective companies. Composite scores were calculated from respondents’ ratings and answers. Results: Implementation levels of MA excellence prerequisites generally lagged behind their perceived importance. Item importance and the respective level of implementation correlated well, which can be interpreted as proof of the validity of the questionnaire. The following areas were shown to be particularly underimplemented: 1 early integration of MA and health economic considerations in research and development decision making, 2 developing true partnerships with payers, including the development of services ‘beyond the pill’, and 3 consideration of human resource and talent management. The concept of importance-adjusted implementation levels as a hybrid parameter was introduced and shown to be a viable tool for benchmarking purposes. More than 70% of respondents indicated that their companies will invest broadly in MA in terms of capital and headcount within the next 3 years. Conclusions: MA (launch excellence needs to be further developed in order to close implementation gaps across the entire product life cycle. As MA is a comparatively young pharmaceutical discipline in a complex and dynamic environment, this effort will require strategic focus and dedication. The Market Access Launch Excellence Inventory benchmarking tool may help guide decision
Puig-Junoy, Jaume; López-Valcárcel, Beatriz González
This paper provides empirical evidence on the explanatory factors affecting introductory prices of new pharmaceuticals in a heavily regulated and highly subsidized market. We collect a data set consisting of all new chemical entities launched in Spain between 1997 and 2005, and model launch prices following an extended version of previous economic models. We found that, unlike in the US and Sweden, therapeutically "innovative" products are not overpriced relative to "imitative" ones after having controlled for other factors. Price setting is mainly used as a mechanism to adjust for inflation independently of the degree of innovation. The drugs that enter through the centralized EMA approval procedure are overpriced, which may be a consequence of market globalization and international price setting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nguyen, Thi Bich Ngoc; Nguyen, Thi Xuan Thu
Abstract Date May 29th, 2009 Course Master Thesis EFO705, International Marketing Tutor Daniel Tolstoy Authors Thi Bich Ngoc Nguyen Thi Xuan Thu Nguyen Title Brand Launching and Sustaining in a Developing CountryPurpose The project is to investigate the Brand Launching and Sustaining in a The Case Study of Honda on Vietnam Motorcycle Market developing country through the study on how Honda has successfully launched and sustained its Brand on the Motorcycle Market of Vietnam. Problems Hond...
’T Riet, Van Jonathan; Onwezen, M.C.; Bartels, Jos; Lans, Van Der I.A.; Kraszewska, Magdalena
The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of four different marketing claims and price information on consumers’ product choices for novel fruits and novel fruit products, using a choice experiment. In total, 1,652 people in Greece (n = 400), the Netherlands (n = 419), Poland (n =
C. Hernández-Mireles (Carlos)
textabstractThis thesis addresses the analysis of new or very recent marketing data and the introduction of new marketing models. We present a collection of models that are useful to analyze (1) the optimal launch time of new and dominant technologies, (2) the triggers, speed and timing of new
The world of luxury products for many years was reserved only for the selective and exclusive audience. It looked like it was impossible to experience it or to get in for someone from outside. Marketers of luxury brands have created such an environment where clients could feel exclusivity and enjoy timeless quality, values, history and heritage of the brand. It is very important to maintain the traditional values for luxury brands but in order to stay in touch with the target audience, luxury...
The influence of petroleum market disturbances on price increases was discussed with particular reference to Hurricane Katrina and the loss of refinery production and damage to oil infrastructure in the United States. The supply of petroleum products in Canada will be very tight heading into the winter of 2006, despite the fact that Canadian refineries are operating at full capacity to ensure an adequate supply of gasoline and diesel fuel for consumers. In addition to refinery production, petroleum supplies are also determined by the adequacy of inventories and the efficiency of the infrastructure in place to deliver products to where they are needed. The lack of spare capacity has reduced the flexibility of the North American refining system to respond to further disruptions. Refiners were asked to provide information on 4 areas of their operations in order for Natural Resources Canada to analyze the short-term outlook for petroleum products markets. The 4 areas included refinery utilization rates and capability to increase production; any planned refinery turnaround that would affect petroleum product supplies; inventory levels compared to levels in previous years; and, any logistical problems that could affect product distribution. A graph depicting the relationship between Canadian production of gasoline and domestic sales clearly illustrated the seasonal nature of gasoline consumption and that production in Canada is much higher than consumption. Canada exports large volumes of gasoline, primarily to the United States eastern seabord from refineries in Atlantic Canada. The trend is similar for diesel fuel. Demand for both gasoline and diesel is expected to continue to grow in 2005 as high prices have had a limited impact on demand growth. In general, the Ontario/Quebec region is short of gasoline and must import gasoline during the summer months to cover the shortfall. It was noted that motorists and homeowners who heat with oil will bear the burden of higher
This paper discusses experiences on launching Korea’s first-ever regulated derivatives market, namely stock index futures, on May 3, 1996, and subsequent opening of a stock index options market on July 7, 1997. It illustrates what went on as the Korea Stock Exchange was making a decision on its opening and describes the current status of the derivatives market.
The information revolution has transformed telecommunication markets. The explosive demand for global communication has spawned accelerating technical innovation and fierce competition for telecommunication revenues. Deregulation of telecommunication...
Petro-Canada's views regarding energy deregulation were presented. Their experience with gasoline retailing and their response to competition was also discussed. Petro-Canada regards deregulation as a good thing in terms of its promotion of fair competition. Industrial and residential consumers of energy will benefit from more efficient and innovative service. Today's consumers are very well informed about existing energy products and while they are incredibly price sensitive, they still want to buy value. The relevance of brand names in a competitive market was examined. One reaction to the demanding customer has been to augment the base product (the fuel) with other things, such as convenience store items, car washes, specialized bay businesses and promotional offerings. Petro-Canada has been successful in improving sales volumes with these sales strategies, and profits achieved indicate good target audience acceptance. Shareholders and the board of directors also appear to be in agreement with the Corporation's performance to date
The main aim of this diploma thesis is to suggest improvements of the marketing and business strategy of Kiehl's, a luxury skincare brand within the L'Oréal portfolio, in order to strengthen the brand's position on the Czech market. The theoretical part defines what luxury is and what the specific features of luxury brands are. Following is the overview of the luxury and cosmetics markets, describing the current situation and the trends. The next part depicts the business model of Kiehl's, th...
ANN-MARIE NIENABER; GERHARD SCHEWE
Using a collection of data among 490 participants from different companies in the field of medical engineering market, we contribute to the role of contact intensity by a business partner when launching new products by introducing trust as a mediator to the concept of perceived risk reduction to enhance the relationship commitment. The findings show that the common concept of risk reduction to enhance the relationship commitment is overrated. In detail, the results show first, that the influe...
awareness model. The model can be used to generate improved marketing plans. In this connection, it is important that the model includes the marketing variables, for it is only in this way that the model can be used for marketing plan optimization. It is predicted that a future direction of development...... and use of sales forecasting models for new products will be within optimization of the marketing plan for launching a new product, and not only as a tool for forecasting sales for just one marketing plan....
Moreno, Christina; Besson, Madeleine
International audience; Major theoretical contributions have recently advocated a paradigm shift to a "new dominant logic for marketing", integrating customer-to-customer interactions and balancing "high tech and high touch" services. In this paper we attempt to illustrate the relevance of such a framework to understand the take-off of mobile value-added services after the launch of the "iPhone" on the French market. Major theoretical contributions have recently advocated a paradigm shift to ...
techniques and high cost of transportation are some of the problems encountered in the production and marketing of prosopis condiment in Makurdi metropolis. Key words: ... this, forest managers should no longer be concerned solely with ...
This book is relatively short, with 134 pages, 15 chapters, 52 figures, and 20 tables. It ranges from cultivar descriptions, production, biotic and abiotic challenges to production, to postharvest, aril and juice production, health benefits, and international trade. It contains great information and...
Full Text Available The present paper deals with the concept of green product management. To create a significantly greener economy, there will need to be a range of new and greener products and technologies. Today we are faced with a growth in more innovative "clean technology" solutions. Successful development of new green products requires high levels of communication and integration, good information, early consideration of green issues, support from top management, and benchmarking. The set of controllable tactical marketing tools (product, price, place and promotion that the company blends to produce the response it wants in the target green market, is the matter of the primary importance to the management.
Lee, G.; Tussyadiah, Iis; Zach, F.
Understanding the needs and wants of consumers in the process of new product development has been recognized as an essential aspect of preparing effective marketing strategies for the success of business. The new product development strategy has now moved into Consumer-Driven Innovation (CDI), wh...... development process, adding their creativity to the tour itinerary and design elements. Several lessons and significance for future development of the tour are provided....
Crès, Hervé; Tvede, Mich
Abstract In the present paper we study voting-based corporate control in a general equilibrium model with incomplete financial markets. Since voting takes place in a multi-dimensional setting, super-majority rules are needed to ensure existence of equilibrium. In a linear-quadratic setup we show ...... that the endogenization of voting weights (given by portfolio holdings) can give rise to - through selffulfilling expectations - dramatical political instability, i.e. Condorcet cycles of length two even for very high majority rules....
Crès, Hervé; Tvede, Mich
In the present paper we study voting-based corporate control in a general equilibrium model with incomplete financial markets. Since voting takes place in a multi-dimensional setting, super-majority rules are needed to ensure existence of equilibrium. In a linear-quadratic setup we show that the ...... that the endogenization of voting weights (given by portfolio holdings) can give rise to - through self-fulfilling expectations - dramatical political instability, i.e. Condorcet cycles of length two even for very high majority rules....
Danzon, Patricia M; Epstein, Andrew J
This study examines the effect of price regulation and competition on launch timing and pricing of new drugs. Our data cover launch experience in 15 countries from 1992 to 2003 for drugs in 12 major therapeutic classes. We estimate a two-equation model of launch hazard and launch price of new drugs. We find that launch timing and prices of new drugs are related to a country's average prices of established products in a class. Thus to the extent that price regulation reduces price levels, such regulation directly contributes to launch delay in the regulating country. Regulation by external referencing, whereby high-price countries reference low-price countries, also has indirect or spillover effects, contributing to launch delay and higher launch prices in low-price referenced countries. Referencing policies adopted in high-price countries indirectly impose welfare loss on low-price countries. These findings have implications for US proposals to constrain pharmaceutical prices through external referencing and drug importation.
The thesis content and scope is built around the needs of the franchise chain X which had over 50 stores in Finland and a few stores in Europe and North America in late 2015. The internalization of the chain created new challenges for the launch marketing planning. The launch activities play always a crucial role in the future success of a store but are even more important for a franchise chain as the success or failure of one shop affects the image of the whole chain. The target of the thesi...
Negassa, Asfaw; Rashid, Shahidur; Gebremedhin, Berhanu
The livestock is an important sub-sector within Ethiopia’s economy in terms of its contributions to both agricultural value-added and national GDP. Between 1995/96 and 2005/06, the livestock sub-sector’s share averaged 24 percent of agricultural GDP and 11 percent of national GDP, with the highest shares recorded at 27 percent and 13 percent, respectively, at its peak (NBE 2005/06). The contribution of livestock and livestock product exports to foreign exchange earnings is also large. The ann...
Social media as a digital communications and marketing tool for new businesses is a cost-effective and useful way to reach audiences. Professional social media pages can be used as a form of direct communication with the customer, a visual representation of the com-pany and can serve as advertising channels. This is a project based thesis for a new restaurant, Odessa Comptoir. The objective is to launch a social media presence for the company via a digital marketing plan. To do so suc-ce...
Askins, Bruce; Robinson, Kimberly
NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) successfully completed its Critical Design Review (CDR) in 2015, a major milestone on the journey to an unprecedented era of exploration for humanity. CDR formally marked the program's transition from design to production phase just four years after the program's inception and the first such milestone for a human launch vehicle in 40 years. While challenges typical of a complex development program lie ahead, CDR evaluators concluded that the design is technically and programmatically sound and ready to press forward to Design Certification Review (DCR) and readiness for launch of Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) in the 2018 timeframe. SLS is prudently based on existing propulsion systems, infrastructure and knowledge with a clear, evolutionary path as required by mission needs. In its initial configuration, designated Block I, SLS will a minimum of 70 metric tons (t) of payload to low Earth orbit (LEO). It can evolve to a 130 t payload capacity by upgrading its engines, boosters, and upper stage, dramatically increasing the mass and volume of human and robotic exploration while decreasing mission risk, increasing safety, and simplifying ground and mission operations. CDR was the central programmatic accomplishment among many technical accomplishments that will be described in this paper. The government/industry SLS team successfully test fired a flight-like five-segment solid rocket motor, as well as seven hotfire development tests of the RS-25 core stage engine. The majority of the major test article and flight barrels, rings, and domes for the core stage liquid oxygen, liquid hydrogen, engine section, intertank, and forward skirt were manufactured at NASA's Michoud Assembly Facility. Renovations to the B-2 test stand for stage green run testing were completed at NASA Stennis Space Center. Core stage test stands are rising at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The modified Pegasus barge for core stage transportation from manufacturing
Gabriela CĂPĂȚÎNĂ; Roxana-Denisa STOENESCU
This article explores one dimension of green marketing programs: their potential application as a solution in achieving and maintaining the ecological sustainability on global market. We examine the necessity to develop and launch green products which can respond to environment degradation as a treatment against this phenomenon. This paper is structured in three sections: the first section is related to a clear delimitation and a better understanding of terms; the second one is an overvi...
Describes characteristics of the online marketplace. Topics discussed include technology barriers; data ownership; markets for online services, including libraries and end users; marketing and promotion tactics, including exhibits and conferences, advertising, direct mail, and user groups; international marketing and service; strategic marketing…
Executive Summary: 1. A model for forecasting the sales of a new product is presented. This model allows to predict the sales development of a new product before it is actually launched on the market. 2. The model makes separate forecasts for the volume of trial and repeat purchases. It also...... incorporates a special model to explain consumer awareness of the new product. 3. Consumer awareness is explained by distribution (shelf facings and in-store promotion), advertising and giving away free samples. 4. The trial model incorporates the total market potential, the probability of being in a buying...... the product after some time. 6. The model requires three types of data input: market data, market research data, and marketing plan data. Using these data, prediction can be made by a user-friendly PC programme. 7. An example is shown demonstrating that the predictions made by the model were in good...
Full Text Available This article explores one dimension of green marketing programs: their potential application as a solution in achieving and maintaining the ecological sustainability on global market. We examine the necessity to develop and launch green products which can respond to environment degradation as a treatment against this phenomenon. This paper is structured in three sections: the first section is related to a clear delimitation and a better understanding of terms; the second one is an overview of the literature about ecological sustainability; the third section is the most relevant part of this paper because is trying to shape a framework of marketing programs for the development of green products, considering the decisions related to marketing mix elements. Even if green marketing programs make sense, current understanding of how managers can start to develop or transform their marketing efforts is far from comprehensive; therefore, this study is addressed to this knowledge gap.
The consumer's knowledge and perception of a product's country of ongm play an important role m food marketing strategies. "Think-national" campaigns are used widelym some EC countries but are not, however, as effective as quantitative restnctions on imports. Surveys and leg1slat10n at both national and EC levels reflect the desire of European consumers for "origin markmg" to appear on food product labels. National stereotypes are frequently adopted by generic and brand advertisers to promote...
This paper examines the role of marketing research as pathway to developing optimal market oriented products. The objectives of this paper among others are to (i) Establish whether the use of marketing research has effect on new product adoption process by consumers (ii) Find out if there is any relationship between the ...
Klompmaker, Jay E.; And Others
Discusses the role of test marketing in new product development, based on interviews with marketing executives. Attempts to clarify when a test market should be done, what its aims should be, and how it should be used. (JG)
This is the accepted, refereed and final manuscript to the article published This research paper aims to develop a practical method to highlight certain key risk factors involved in the product development process. A new definition of the term “launch risk” is introduced in this work. The term is defined as the uncertainty about and severity of the consequences of failed launch. The launch could be the further development of existing products or the introduction of new products/services or...
Full Text Available Annotation. This article presents the analysis of marketing environment of the enterprises that produce yogurt products in Ukraine. In order to carry out a deeper analysis of the marketing environment of the new yoghurt drinks with a balanced composition of the major nutrients in food and increased probiotic properties, PEST and SWOT-analyses were conducted, they identified environmental factors that have favorable and adverse effects as well as internal strengths and weaknesses of the new product. Based on the results of marketing research of consumer preferences, the core audience of new yoghurt drink with a balanced chemical composition and the elevated concentration of Bifidobacteria were defined. The received results led to justification of the expediency of elaboration of new yoghurt drinks with probiotic properties and balanced composition of basic food nutrients as well as to formulation of a strategy of new product promotion on the consumer market of Ukraine.
Full Text Available Decisions are a result of choices made between several alternatives and will affect all participants in the decision-making process. In this paper we analyze the Monte Carlo simulation as an important management tool in evaluating decisions under risk. The method is particularly useful in simulating decision problems. For example, the profit that could be achieved if a company launches a new product may depend on a number of factors (market share, advertising, production costs, launch costs, the lifetime of the product, etc. The company manager should identify all factors that could affect profit and then to consider the large number of ways in which these factors may interrelate. In such situations it is recommended company manager to divide the problem into smaller parts, asking him to estimate the probability distribution for market share, for advertising, for the cost of launch. Once they were obtained it can be determined their combined effect in order to obtain the probability distribution of profit. Through computer can generate a large number of possible combinations of situations where you choose a particular course of action. Upon completion of the simulation possible combination will be generated mostly while the least possible combination will be generated less frequently. For exemplification we selected a company producing shoes in Cluj market who wants to launch a new model for autumn-winter 2013-2014. In the current period the company has limited production capacity, has a number of additional contracts honored and general economic crisis situation makes money availability to be extremely limited. Accordingly, the company will have to choose a single product to be launched next season. The company will have to decide which of the two new products to be launched on the market: a model of boots for men in business class or a new model of women\\'s boots of the same class business. The company is not sure either production costs or
Andersen, Torben M.; Rose Skaksen, Jan
Product Market Integration, Comparative Advantages andLabour Market Performance@*In a two-country model with trade driven by comparative advantages, it is considered howimperfectly competitive labour markets are affected by lower frictions in international goodstrade. Easier goods trading...... is equivalent to increased mobility of employment acrosscountries and thus a change in the trade-off between wages and employment faced by wagesetters. While the effects of product market integration on the trade-off between wages andemployment in general is ambiguous, it is shown that product market...... integration works like ageneral improvement in productivity via the specialization it allows through trade.Unambiguously, real wages and employment and welfare improve upon reductions in tradefrictions, and therefore workers are better off irrespective of whether the market power ofunions is enhanced or muted...
Cette, G.; Lopez, J.; Mairesse, J.
This study is an attempt to evaluate the effects of product and labour market regulations on industry productivity through their various impacts on changes in production prices and wages. In a first stage, the estimation of a regression equation on an industry*country panel, with controls for
Junge, Martin; Severgnini, Battista; Sørensen, Anders
The role of product and marketing innovation for productivity growth is addressed using survey and register data for the Danish economy. It is hypothesized that product and marketing innovation are complementary inputs and that innovation activities are skill-intensive. It is established...... that product and marketing innovation in skill-intensive firms results in significantly faster productivity growth. Moreover, product and marketing innovation have independent roles in productivity growth, which cannot be attributed to organizational changes. Finally, we apply an instrument variable approach...... for firms, innovation choices to study endogeneity. The results strongly support the idea that product–marketing innovation leads to faster productivity growth in skill-intensive firms....
Baldwin, John R.; Yan, Beiling
This paper asks how market expansion contributes to productivity growth. It investigates whether entry to both new international markets and new domestic markets is associated with greater productivity growth. It also examines whether exit from export markets is necessarily associated with deteriorating performance or whether it too can lead to success when associated with movements to new markets. Finally, the paper examines the strategy of firms that move to new markets after they withdraw ...
Finley, John Weldon; Finley, John Wescott; Ellwood, Kathleen; Hoadley, James
Launching a new food/dietary supplement into the US market can be a confusing process to those unfamiliar with the food industry. Industry capability and product specifications are initial determinants of whether a candidate product can be manufactured in a reproducible manner and whether pilot production can be brought up to the market scale. Regulatory issues determine how a product can be produced and marketed; the primary federal institutions involved in regulations are the US Department of Agriculture, the Food and Drug Administration, and the Federal Trade Commission. A primary distinction is made between food and drugs, and no product may enter the food market if it is in part or whole a drug. Product safety is a major concern, and myriad regulations govern the determination of safety. New foods/dietary supplements are often marketed by health claims or structure/function claims, and there are specific regulations pertaining to claims. Not understanding the regulatory issues involved in developing a new product or failing to comply with associated regulations can have legal and financial repercussions.
Andersen, Torben M.; Rose Skaksen, Jan
of the specialization gains are similar to anincrease in labour productivity, whereas the labour market reform effectis similar to an increase in the degree of competition in the labourmarket. Wages, employment and welfare increase as a result of furtherproduct market integration. It is interesting to note......In this paper, we set up a two-country general equilibrium modelwhere trade unions have wage bargaining power. We show that adecrease in trade distortions inducing further product market integrationgives rise to specialization gains as well as a labour market reformeffect. The implications...... that the labourmarket reform effect of product market integration is achieved despitean increase in the wage level.JEL Classification: F15, J30, J50.Keywords: Trade frictions, wage formation, employment, welfaregains....
Laclair, L. M.
An integrated propellant manufacturing plant and distribution system located at Kennedy Space Center is studied. The initial planned propellant and pressurant production amounted to 160 tons/day (TPD) LH2, 10 TPD GH2, 800 TPD LO2, 400 TPD LN2, and 120 TPD GN2. This was based on a shuttle launch frequency of 104 per year. During the study, developments occurred which may lower cryogen requirements. A variety of plant and processing equipment sizes and costs are considered for redundancy and supply level considerations. Steam reforming is compared to partial oxidation as a means of generating hydrogen. Electric motors, steam turbines, and gas turbines are evaluated for driving compression equipment. Various sites on and off Government property are considered to determine tradeoffs between costs and problems directly associated with the site, product delivery and storage costs, raw material costs, and energy costs. Coproduction of other products such as deuterium, methanol, and ammonia are considered. Legal questions are discussed concerning a private company's liabilities and its rights to market commercial products under Government tax and cost shelters.
V. O. Karasev
Full Text Available The article highlights the problems in the construction of the launch-site "Vostochniy" production and installation logistic. The stages of complex high-end product lifecycle described. The concepts and techniques of life cycle management and variants of their application offered as solution of this problems. Practical way to optimize logistics and lifecycle management processes using ILS Suite multi-agent software submitted. Side effect of this solution is creating of relevant integrated logistic support database, that could be used in the future projects. Results for tests and some perspectives for future investigation described.
This bachelor thesis is dedicated to analysis of marketing communication for se- lected product on the Internet and afterwards propose appropriate marketing communication strategy on the Internet. The thesis also describes the available options of marketing communication on the internet and defines the differences in consumer behaviour related to the online environment.
van Puijenbroek, E P; Hepburn, P A; Herd, T M; van Grootheest, A C
Post Launch Monitoring (PLM) is one of the new approaches that are used in assessing the safety of novel foods or ingredients. It shares a close resemblance with procedures applied in the field of medicines, where Post Marketing Surveillance (PMS) has been carried out since the beginning of the
Full Text Available The article surveys printing and publishing market and its strong and weak aspects. The concept of a new product is described as well as its lifetime and the necessity of its introduction to the market. The enterprise X operating on the market is analyzed, its strong and weak characteristics are presented. The segmentation of the company consumers is performed. On the basis of the performed analysis the potential promising company products are defined.Article in Lithuanian
Librarians ... may have failed to adopt marketing theory and practices for a variety of .... of marketing principles in the context of libraries and information centres. ...... The membership fee is tax deductible as a business expense in some countries. ...... Prepared by Chin Saik Yoon, Publisher, Southbound, Penang, Malaysia, ...
25 nov. 2009 ... Market Dynamics and Productivity in Developing Countries : Economic Reforms in the Middle East and North Africa. Book cover Market Dynamics and Productivity in Developing Countries: Economic Reforms in the Middle East. Directeur(s):. Khalid Sekkat. Maison(s) d'édition: Springer, CDRI. 25 novembre ...
Hingley, M.; Lindgreen, A.
This article focuses on the relationship marketing approach to marketing of agricultural products. The article provides specific insights into, and comparisons between, suppliers of two particular agricultural products sectors: in Britain, the fresh produce (fruits and vegetables) sector and, in New
Stephen A. Smith
This paper considers the problem of pricing a new product in a market having competing products of different qualities and market penetration levels, as measured by the cumulative number of units sold. Each customer type selects his optimal product based on maximizing consumer surplus. Pricing policies for a new product are determined for the seller based on cumulative profit maximization without discounting. An example is solved in detail for two demand function forms.
This paper presents Electrical Line magazine's industry news, where it covers the launch by Eaton Corporation of electric vehicle (EV) certification for the fast-growing electric vehicle market. The aim of the certification is to help homeowners locate electricians specializing in electric vehicle support. Eaton certified EV contractors will visit the residence of people interested in an EV and determine if it can support a charging station. These contractors are trained, qualified and members of Eaton's certified contractor network. The residential power stations come in a wall-mount or pedestal model that can fully charge an electric car in 6 to 24 hours, depending on the model. The article also covers a new venture by Powercheck, a Vancouver-based company, which ensures that electrical wiring in older homes is safe and complies with their insurance company's safety requirements. Powercheck examines the entire house for electrical fire hazards and produces a detailed report listing the corrective actions needed.
Junge, Martin; Severgnini, Battista; Sørensen, Anders
The role of product and marketing innovation for productivity growth is addressed using survey and register data for the Danish economy. It is argued that marketing and product innovation are complementary inputs and that innovation activities are skill-intensive. It is found that product...... and marketing innovation in skill-intensive firms results in significantly faster productivity growth than in unskilled-intensive firms that introduce this combination of innovation activities. More precisely, an increase in the share of educated workers of one percentage point, increases productivity growth...... by around 0.1 percentage point in firms with product and marketing innovation. In addition, it is found that firms that engage in product innovation but not in marketing innovation or the other way around do not demonstrate a growth effect from their innovation activities. It is also found that product...
Full Text Available The current paper has the aim to provide guidelines for post-launching monitoring activities and steps related to new transactional banking products addressed to SMEs. While the pre-launching activities have the purpose of accurately defining the objectives, assumptions and estimations, the purpose of the post-launching plan is to identify: if the final objectives of a product launching have been met, on one hand, to analyze results in the sense of identifying an efficient action plan in order to overcome the lack of results (if case, but most important, to identify opportunities for optimizing the products and for communicating properly the value proposition. This paper also presents schemes for monitoring the results from a business case and for motivating the sales force, as an essential step in increasing the sales. Therefore, alternatives of incentive campaigns are presented, as sustainable campaigns with to purpose to achieve an expected success rate. As an additional support guideline for the sales force, some scenarios and post-sales actions are presented, together with an example of portfolio analysis considering potential per client. Considering the methods and details presented in the current paper, one can identify the importance and find out how to monitor the results after launching a new transactional product addressed to SMEs, can understand and design an incentive scheme and also define actions to be taken in order to increase revenues from a newly launched transactional product.
Talke, K.S.S.; Snelders, Dirk
This research investigates how the adoption of new high-tech consumer products can be stimulated by communicating product-related information in launch messages. In an initial pilot study, the authors find that for making an adoption decision, consumers require different types of product-related
The aim of this thesis is to show marketing possibilities for fermentation products and to generate sepcific recommendations for potential producers and marketers of fermentation products. Since the marketing of fermenting products is largely unexplored and a research gap, this project was launched with an exploratory phase. After the exploratory phase, private gardeners were identified as a promising customer group. Knowledge about the preferences of private gardeners when purchasing soil and fertilizer are crucial for the market success of processed fermentation products. In order to fathom the decision-making behavior of this potential customer group, personal interviews were conducted with private gardeners. These results enable potential producers and marketers of fermentation products to create a product that is in demand on the market because it meets the needs of potential consumers. The personal preferences, however, can be very different, for which reason a segmentation into different groups with similar preferences is made. [de
Full Text Available This paper includes an analysis upon the variables of marketing mix for high technology products used for individual consumption. There are exposed the essential aspects related to marketing policies and strategies used by high technology companies for providing consumers the best solutions tailored to their needs. A special attention is given to the necessity for inclusion in the marketing mix of the fifth element – the assistance and informational support for customers.
Storytelling is an integral part of our daily lives that has existed far beyond docu-mented history. Currently, storytelling is predominately used through digital media and has never been easier to reach the masses. This is an important tool for marketers who want to utilize the benefits of storytelling. The aim of the research was to examine storytelling in detail, how storytelling is used as a marketing tool and why it is effective. The research focused on the use of storytelling in tourism...
Drechsler, Wenzel; Natter, Martin; Leeflang, Peter S. H.
In many firms, the marketing department plays a minor role in new product development (NPD). However, recent research demonstrates that marketing capabilities more strongly influence firm performance than other areas such as research and development. This finding underscores the importance of
Howington, K.; Flandermeyer, G.
The US electric power production market is experiencing significant changes sparking interest in the current and future alternatives for power production. Coal gasification technology is being marketed to satisfy the needs of the volatile power production industry. Coal gasification is a promising power production process in which solid coal is burned to produce a synthesis gas (syn gas). The syn gas may be used to fuel combustion integrated into a facility producing electric power. Advantages of this technology include efficient power production, low flue gas emissions, flexible fuel utilization, broad capability for facility integration, useful process byproducts, and decreased waste disposal. The primary disadvantages are relatively high capital costs and lack of proven long-term operating experience. Developers of coal gasification intend to improve on these disadvantages and lop a strong position in the power generation market. This paper is a marketing analysis of the partial oxidation coal gasification processes emerging in the US in response to the market factors of the power production industry. A brief history of these processes is presented, including the results of recent projects exploring the feasibility of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) as a power production alternative. The current power generation market factors are discussed, and the status of current projects is presented including projected performance
The thesis was commissioned by Oriola-KD. It deals with a marketing plan for a product line called Pharmacare. The product line will be launched in 2012 in the Moscow region in the Russian Federation. The purpose of this thesis was to acquire useful information about the Moscow market for the target company and produce a marketing plan that they can implement. The research question was how to create an effective marketing plan and what it entails. The literary review consisted of the theo...
Bisp, Søren; Harmsen, Hanne
A large body of research results on successful product development exists. The results are full of normative advice on how to conduct prod-uct development. At the same time studies have shown that product development practice has only to a very li extent been influenced by these research results...
ATĂNĂSOAIE GEORGE SEBASTIAN
Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present prices on PAE market (PAE- organic foods market. Prices areanalyzed in terms of importance and the main factors that contribute to their establishment (quality of products,distribution channels, certification and eco-labeling system, customer segments and market development stage.The paper shows that are used three strategic options of prices: prices with high rigidity located in a low or highlevel and fluctuating prices, characterized by variations on short periods of time. Price is a very importantbarrier to market development but this importance can be mitigated through appropriate communicationpolicies with the market, which are essential especially for markets in early stages of development
Andersen, Torben M.; Sørensen, Allan
"protection" and "specialization" rents. In particular, wage inequality among similar workers (residual wage inequality) may be U-shaped, at first decreasing and then increasing in the process of product market integration. Consequently, there may be gains in both the efficiency and the equity dimension until......Globalization in the form of product market integration affects labour markets and produces winners and losers. While there are aggregate gains, it is in general ambiguous how inequality is affected. We explore this issue in a Ricardian model and show that it depends on the balance between...
Full Text Available This paper investigates whether product market competition acts as an external mechanism for disciplining management and also whether there is any relationship between the degree of competition a firm faces and its corporate governance. We find that firms in competitive industries or with low market power tend to have weak corporate governance structures. Results are robust to various competition measures at firm and industry levels, even after controlling for firm-specific variables. We further find that corporate governance quality has a significant effect on performance only when product market competition is weak. The overall evidence suggests that product market competition has a substantial impact on corporate governance and that it substitutes for corporate governance quality. Finally, we provide evidence that the disciplinary force of competition on management is from the fear of liquidation.
Riemsdijk, van Lenka; Ingenbleek, Paul T.M.; Trijp, van Hans C.M.; Veen, van der Gerrita
This article presents a conceptual framework that aims to encourage consumer animal-friendly product choice by introducing positioning strategies for animal-friendly products. These strategies reinforce the animal welfare with different types of consumption values and can therefore reduce
The thesis focuses on a B2C Digital Marketing Communications plan on a mobile gamification application. The marketing communications plan takes a clear step away from the traditional views on marketing planning and PR, above all because of the evolvement of social media and the massive cultural shift that has deeply affected the way societies use the most widely spread communications platform ever invented, the Internet. The project for which the marketing communications plan is made, is ...
Full Text Available The production of fruits and vegetables in our country still faces challenges, including informality in sector of planting material, high costs of inputs purchased and fuel (especially affecting the green houses with heating, low productivity and high losses of post-harvest, especially in the case of fruit. Fresh fruit and vegetable marketing is different in many respects from the marketing of other agricultural and nonagricultural products. Hundreds of individual commodities comprise the total group. Each product has its own special requirements for growing and handling, with its own quality attributes, merchandising methods, and standards of consumer acceptance (How, R. B. 2012, 1. Food safety standards of fruits and vegetables their compliance with key standards and certification as a prerequisite and a challenge to be addressed in order to increase Albanian exports of agricultural products to European markets. Concerning vegetables and fruits, Albanian farmers face important marketing problems. Such problems are encountered at all stages of the production system-provision of inputs, both in terms of processing, promotion and other market incentives, which directly assist in the efficient realization of the sale of fruits and vegetables.
Full Text Available The aim of customers' marketing research is to acquire information about the way domestic customers behave towards organic agricultural products. This research focuses the overview of conditions and factors influencing customer behavior in nutrition processes in the EM and in Yugoslavia. The acquired information about changes and directions directly affect the possibilities of getting involved into supply processes as well as the 'transmission' of some directions in customer behavior. Anticipations based, on marketing research deal with changes on customers' level, in consumption, products and other competitors. The results of a part of problems concerning customer behavior in nutrition processes follow below, with an emphasis on organic agricultural products.
It is critical to the successful commercialization of the irradiated food process to secure either a full-time marketing person or a consulting organization to aid food industries in the successful world-wide commercialization of new irradiated food products. Expert advice/guidance is needed to help attain the goals on commercialization of this new product
Wood briquettes have constituted an important input to the Swedish energy system during the last two decades. However, the development of the production and markets for briquettes during the years 2000-2007 has not been studied in detail. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the state of the briquette industry. More specifically, the aims were to map the production of briquettes, describe the development of its markets, describe the production process, describe the producers and to examine the competitive situation for the producers. To collect data regarding the production and the producers, the markets, raw materials and company structures, a questionnaire was sent out to the producers during the fall in the year 2007. The results were then compiled and compared to previous studies. The description of the production process was mainly based on literature studies. The results were analyzed and related to M.E. Porter's Five force model to be able to describe the competitive environment for the briquette producers. The study was limited to production in Sweden and did not intend to cover a possible import of briquettes. Regarding the production process, the most common types of briquetting equipment were described. The results showed that the trend in the briquette industry was neutral, possibly negative. The turnover derived from briquette sales during the year 2006 was roughly a quarter of a billion SEK. The industry was very concentrated, with one producer accounting for 43 % of the aggregate production in the year 2006. Since the year 2000, the production of briquettes among the participating producers increased from some 210 000 tons (980 GWh) (2002) to some 280 000 tons (1 300 GWh) in the year 2006. The planned expansion of the production capacity was 3,8 % within the two years to come. A typical small scale briquette producer was a small saw mill, planing mill or a joinery using their by-products as raw material. 78 % of the briquettes are produced
This study was carried out by ECOTEC Research and Consulting Limited (ECOTEC) in collaboration with the Newcastle Photovoltaic Application Centre (NPAC) and ECD Energy and Environment (ECD) under the Department of Trade and Industry's (DTI) New and Renewable Energy Programme (contract reference S/P2/00277/00/00). The aim was to assess the future market potential for building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) products in terms of current product availability, product development needs, the nature and size of the potential market, and the opportunities for government and the PV supply industry to work together to develop the market. The study itself comprised a review of existing BIPV products, an analysis of the development of the world market for BIPV, a market research survey of building professionals, and meetings of two 'focus groups' drawn from the PV 'supply side' and from buildings professionals. In principle, BIPV products can be used in virtually any type of building, but the main applications are considered to be housing and offices. (author)
Kuboń Maciej; Olech Elżbieta
The article presents an outline of the issue concerning formulation of a marketing strategy and the possibility of using the knowledge on consumers' preferences for organic development of farms and their products on the example of southern Poland. The paper analyses the distribution process of organic food in the aspect of developing innovative marketing strategies. The studies were performed in 50 organic farms and on the example of 100 respondents from the region of southern Poland. In the ...
Bennette, Caroline S; Richards, Catherine; Sullivan, Sean D; Ramsey, Scott D
The cost of treating cancer has risen to unprecedented heights, putting tremendous financial pressure on patients, payers, and society. Previous studies have documented the rising prices of cancer drugs at launch, but less critical attention has been paid to the cost of these drugs after launch. We used pharmacy claims for commercially insured individuals to examine trends in postlaunch prices over time for orally administered anticancer drugs recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In the period 2007-13, inflation-adjusted per patient monthly drug prices increased 5 percent each year. Certain market changes also played a role, with prices rising an additional 10 percent with each supplemental indication approved by the FDA and declining 2 percent with the FDA's approval of a competitor drug. Our findings suggest that there is currently little competitive pressure in the oral anticancer drug market. Policy makers who wish to reduce the costs of anticancer drugs should consider implementing policies that affect prices not only at launch but also later. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Domestic Shipping Services Product Launch of Parcel Select Regional... Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM[supreg]), to introduce a new competitive shipping option, Parcel Select Regional Ground \\TM\\ service. DATES: Effective Date: April 17, 2011...
Ostertag, K.; Dreher, C.
Cooperative procurement is a variation of public purchasing which may be used as an instrument to transform the market and stimulate innovation enhancing environmental performance. The core of the procedure is the following: Coordinated by a central agency a group of buyers - public administrations, but also private companies, associations, etc. - gets together and jointly formulates a catalogue of performance requirements for a specific product truly suiting their preferences. This catalogue may contain (combinations of) requirements not yet available on the market and includes energy efficiency and/or environmental performance among other preferences important to the users. On the basis of the product requirements the buyer group launches a call for tenders, evaluates the bids received from the manufacturers and commits to buying the winning product. Thus, a market is provided for the most successful innovators in a given area of technology. The paper discusses the effectiveness of cooperative procurement as a policy instrument in the context of innovation theory and learning curves and it presents some empirical results on the feasibility of the transfer of this policy instruments to a wider range of European countries and/or to the European level. (orig.)
Lamey, L.; Deleersnyder, Barbara; Steenkamp, J.E.B.M.; Dekimpe, Marnik
Marketing activities that influence shoppers along the various stages of their path-to-purchase are gaining attention from both manufacturers and retailers. Using a dataset with detailed information on 105 new products (NPs) launched in the U.K. by 44 leading brands and sold across 13 major retail
Morris, Charles A; Avorn, Jerry
Passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act in 1994 restricted the Food and Drug Administration's control over dietary supplements, leading to enormous growth in their promotion. The Internet is often used by consumers as a source of information on such therapies. To assess the information presented and indications claimed on the Internet for the 8 best-selling herbal products. We searched the Internet using the 5 most commonly used search engines. For each, we entered the names of the 8 most widely used herbal supplements (ginkgo biloba, St John's wort, echinacea, ginseng, garlic, saw palmetto, kava kava, and valerian root). We analyzed the health content of all Web sites listed on the first page of the search results. We analyzed all accessible, English-language Web sites that pertained to oral herbal supplements. A total of 522 Web sites were identified; of these, 443 sites met inclusion criteria for the analysis. The nature of the Web site (retail or nonretail), whether it was a sponsored link, and all references, indications, claims, and disclaimers were recorded. Two reviewers independently categorized medical claims as disease or nondisease according to Food and Drug Administration criteria. Among 443 Web sites, 338 (76%) were retail sites either selling product or directly linked to a vendor. A total of 273 (81%) of the 338 retail Web sites made 1 or more health claims; of these, 149 (55%) claimed to treat, prevent, diagnose, or cure specific diseases. More than half (153/292; 52%) of sites with a health claim omitted the standard federal disclaimer. Nonretail sites were more likely than retail sites to include literature references, although only 52 (12%) of the 443 Web sites provided referenced information without a link to a distributor or vendor. Consumers may be misled by vendors' claims that herbal products can treat, prevent, diagnose, or cure specific diseases, despite regulations prohibiting such statements. Physicians should be
Fontagné, Lionel; Secchi, Angelo; Tomasi, Chiara
This paper analyzes how multi-product firms adjust their exported product-mix across desti- nations. Using cross sections of Italian and French data, we show that firms do not follow a rigid ordering in their product mix exported in different markets but rather they adapt their choices to better match with country characteristics. By using metrics based on export shares and on sequences of product names we provide new insights on the extent a firm's products portfolio changes across destinati...
Full Text Available Transylvania and the Banat are two historical regions that gave birth to several domestic animal breeds. Over the last 15 years, number have sunken dramatically, because these local breeds have been greatly replaced by imported ones. Although very many so- called agrotouristic pensions are now on the market, only about 1% of them promote real traditional food products obtained from local animal breeds. Only few people, especially old people, know traditional recipes older than two or three hundred years and the youth totally ignore them. On the one hand, a large variety of names for different products have appeared on the market, but they are manufactured by big firms and do not have the quality of the traditional products. On the other hand, small producers often have hygiene problems. The reinforcement of traditional products can only occur if people know the quality and the value of the products obtained from the local animal breeds, many of them being endangered species.
WIlliams, R. H.
Despite its recognized importance for carbon (C)-mitigation, progress in advancing biomass energy with CO2 capture and sequestration (BECCS) has been slow. A BECCS market launch strategy based on technologies ready for commercial-scale demonstration is discussed—based on co-gasification of coal and biomass to make H2 with CCS. H2 so produced would be a key element of a H2 balancing capacity (H2-BC) strategy for ensuring reliable grid power at high IRE penetrations. High grid penetrations of IRE must be complemented by fast-ramping balancing (backup and/or storage) capacity (BC) to ensure reliable grid power. BC provided now by natural gas-fired gas turbine combined cycle and combustion turbine units would eventually have to be decarbonized to realize C-mitigation goals, via CCS or other means. Capital-intensive CCS energy systems require baseload operation to realize favourable economics, but at high IRE penetrations, BC plants must be operated at low capacity factors. A H2-BC strategy is a promising way to address this challenge. The elements of a H2-BC system are: (a) H2 production from carbonaceous feedstocks in baseload plants with CCS; (b) H2 consumption in fast-ramping BC units that operate at low capacity factors; (c) Buffer underground H2 storage to enable decoupling baseload H2 production from highly variable H2 consumption by BC units. The concept is likely to "work" because underground H2 storage is expected to be inexpensive. A H2 production analysis is presented for a negative GHG-emitting H2-BC system based on cogasification of corn stover and coal, with captured CO2 used for enhanced oil recovery. The technical readiness of each system component is discussed, and preliminary insights are offered as to the conditions under which the corresponding H2-BC system might compete with natural gas in providing backup for IRE on US electric grids. Public policy to help advance this strategy might be forthcoming, because 2 US Senate bills with broad
Gonzalez Elias, Andres
The advance of environmental strategies in Colombia during the nineties, Cleaner Production mainly, showed to the industry the benefits of environmental management. In the last five years some of the Colombian enterprises became leaders on the management of the environment because their initiatives and the continuous work supported by the regional authorities for environmental protection. The results of the CP programs in different sectors enhanced the innovative capacity of enterprises. In the other hand the development of environmental regulations and the evolution of the competitiveness parameters in the regional and foreign markets claims for new initiatives near to the Colombian industries that are in the need to maintain the level obtained through hard efforts in the past years. The vision of an environmental management oriented to life cycle of product complements the CP efforts because involves environmental issues on design and product development process with the purpose to increase the green product participation in market. This paper presents a sight of the possible future development of the green market in our country by two ways. At the first we identify trends towards the green market in the current institutional process of the environmental sector in Colombia and in the second, provides an instrumental view of the relationship between the LCA and the environmental management product oriented
Full Text Available Analyses realized on markets showed in time that these are not amorphous masses of buyers but are formed of different divisions that we can often find under the name of market segments. Market can be divided in more segments of request composed of buyers, instinctively in the search of the same characteristic of the products. The liability of the firm is that of defining well the segments and serves them well with perfectly adapted products. Business positioning on well-defined segments of consumers leads to a relationship optimization between the business field and consumers. The present study takes into discussion positioning strategy, from the 4 proposed business strategies. We have tried to underline the fact that the correspondent or defective model for issuing and application of the positioning strategy determined the success or the failure at the level of the entire firm.
Binnekamp, M.H.A.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.
New products that are based on higher animal welfare standards encounter several barriers on the road to market acceptance. The authors focus on the Dutch poultry sector and distinguish between retailer and consumer barriers. Retailer barriers include the powerful position of retailers, the price
Bacteriological quality of some pharmaceutical products purchased from open markets, buses and drug stores in Uyo metropolis was studied in order to determine the level of contamination of the drugs. The drug samples examined were Tetracycline capsules, Paracetamol tablets, Ampicillin capsules, Chloroquine tablets, ...
Seva, Rosemary R; Duh, Henry Been-Lirn; Helander, Martin G
Emotions are compelling human experiences and product designers can take advantage of this by conceptualizing emotion-engendering products that sell well in the market. This study hypothesized that product attributes influence users' emotions and that the relationship is moderated by the adherence of these product attributes to purchase criteria. It was further hypothesized that the emotional experience of the user influences purchase intention. A laboratory study was conducted to validate the hypotheses using mobile phones as test products. Sixty-two participants were asked to assess eight phones from a display of 10 phones and indicate their emotional experiences after assessment. Results suggest that some product attributes can cause intense emotional experience. The attributes relate to the phone's dimensions and the relationship between these dimensions. The study validated the notion of integrating affect in designing products that convey users' personalities.
Janine Fleith de Medeiros
Full Text Available This article investigates dimensions and factors that according to the perception of business managers drive the market success of environmentally sustainable products. Initially, publications related to new products introduced to the market (with or without environmental focus were evaluated. Four complementary dimensions were identified as responsible for proper performance: (i Market Knowledge, (ii Interfunctional Collaboration, (iii Knowledge Integration Mechanisms, and (iv Generative Learning. Considering the above, an exploratory study following a qualitative approach was conducted with managers that work in the Brazilian market. For the choice of the respondents, some characteristics were considered, such as growth in the sector of activity where the organization works, and the area that they manage. Results lead to the validation and ranking of the factors and dimensions mentioned in the literature. They also allowed the identification of new factors as: technological domain, competitive price, quality, company's brand, and payback. Moreover, considering the variables described and the relationships established among them, it was inferred that technological domain can be considered as a dimension. This suggestion is based on the respondents' perception concerning "technological domain", such as: specialized people, research budget, and also budget for facilities and equipment. The study also shows deeper difference among practice areas than among sectors. Based on the list of factors that was generated, new studies are recommended to measure the impact of the factors and dimensions on the success of green products.
The rare earths (RE) market is relatively small. The total production during 1968 was only 10000 tons (REO) which rose to 27000 tons (REO) during 1985. The three major areas of application, which are volume market for ceric rare earths are catalysts, glass ceramics and metallurgy. Among the other uses of rare earths, the permanent magnets, lamp phosphors and fine ceramics have registered significant growth in RE consumption. Monazite and bastnasite are the main natural source for rare earths and processing of these for one of the rare earths in high demand leads to over production of some others not in demand, thus creating a balance problem. The growth in RE market has always been influenced by the technology shifts and product substitution. For example, the RE consumption during 1974/76 for desulfurization of steel had substantially decreased due to the usage of calcium. Similarly, 1985 had witnessed a drastic cut in the use of REs in fluid cracking due to the introduction of stabilized zeolites which contain less REO. Thus, the overall compound growth rate of demand was only 3.9 % per year during the period 1970-1985. At present, 37 % of the rare earths production goes to the glass/ceramics industry, 33 % for catalyst and 25 % to metallurgy. The price of REs constantly shows a downward trend. This trend coupled with the rapid changes taking place in the various technological fields, demands greater flexibility and high marketing skills from the RE producers. The key factor for future expansion of RE market will be the development of 'high volume' application of ceric rare earths. (author) 2 figs., 8 tabs
Gjerstad, Steven D; Porter, David; Smith, Vernon L; Winn, Abel
Prior studies have shown that traders quickly converge to the price-quantity equilibrium in markets for goods that are immediately consumed, but they produce speculative price bubbles in resalable asset markets. We present a stock-flow model of durable assets in which the existing stock of assets is subject to depreciation and producers may produce additional units of the asset. In our laboratory experiments inexperienced consumers who can resell their units disregard the consumption value of the assets and compete vigorously with producers, depressing prices and production. Consumers who have first participated in experiments without resale learn to heed their consumption values and, when they are given the option to resell, trade at equilibrium prices. Reproducibility is therefore the most natural and most effective treatment for suppression of bubbles in asset market experiments.
Discusses trends for the future in marketing communication: expanding channels for communication, global marketing, product brands, and changing jobs. Suggests ways marketing communicators can prepare for these changes. (SR)
Full Text Available Results of conjoint analysis showed quality attributes preferred by the entrepreneurs. They were Arabica and Robusta (50:50 mixed variety, mixing of 70:30 coffee, chicory ratio, keeping quality up to 6 months, medium level of taste/aroma, filter size of the powder and roasting time of 15 minutes/ 10 kg of seeds. About 83.00 per cent of entrepreneurs produced coffee powder as a final form of coffee product, nearly two-third (63.00 % of the entrepreneurs did not have any brand name or logo, cent per cent of them reported manual packing only. Major criteria to fix different price rate of coffee product were International daily market price (90.00 %, factors affecting the price policy were market price fluctuation (93.33 %, season (90.00 % and Cent per cent of them had adopted coffee price forecasting broadcasted by various media. Selection of the location depends on nearby town and coffee potential area, techniques to overcome the competitor were better pricing and supply of quality coffee product, attraction of customers depends on personal contact, attractive display boards, quality, taste, aroma and flavor. Promotional activities carried out by the entrepreneurs were developing the customer base (83.33 % and working towards building customer loyalty (76.67%. Relationships followed among stakeholders were good partnership, price and profit sharing, commission basis, service and quality, supply-service and demand. Further, market demand reported by entrepreneurs were: the demand for coffee beans peaked during July to November, coffee powder were more demand in three seasons namely rainy season (June-September, winter season (December- January and summer holidays (April-May. Feedback mechanism reported by coffee entrepreneurs were: quality analysis report received from the export organization, physical analysis, cup test, personal contact through phone, e-mail and also personal letters.
Full Text Available The article presents an outline of the issue concerning formulation of a marketing strategy and the possibility of using the knowledge on consumers' preferences for organic development of farms and their products on the example of southern Poland. The paper analyses the distribution process of organic food in the aspect of developing innovative marketing strategies. The studies were performed in 50 organic farms and on the example of 100 respondents from the region of southern Poland. In the opinion of the surveyed representatives of the organic food producers, a competitive advantage of their offer depends the most on the health values, brand, reputation, and taste. Moreover, information on products and the form and place of their sale are significant. The analysis shows that the knowledge is the most eagerly obtained from the Internet. Thus, producers should publish their profiles and pages on social media and business portals.
A program underway in the People's Republic of China to modify the Titan-class CZ-2/3 satellite-launch and ICBM boosters is described on the basis of a recent visit to the manufacturing plant in Shanghai. The present two-stage CZ-2 and three-stage CZ-3 can place 5000 lbs in LEO or 3080 lbs in GEO, respectively, and are produced on a custom basis with a delivery time of about 2 yrs. Modifications introduced include 4 x 6-ft fins and a pogo-suppression system for the four-engine first stage and a steel support band for the combustion chamber of the 80-ton-thrust second-stage main engine.
M. MATIUTI; A. T. BOGDAN
Transylvania and the Banat are two historical regions that gave birth to several domestic animal breeds. Over the last 15 years, number have sunken dramatically, because these local breeds have been greatly replaced by imported ones. Although very many so- called agrotouristic pensions are now on the market, only about 1% of them promote real traditional food products obtained from local animal breeds. Only few people, especially old people, know traditional recipes older than two or three hu...
Jung Hur; Yohanes E. Riyanto
We analyze an interaction between a firm’s choice of organizational structure and competition in the product-market. Two organizational structures are considered, namely a centralized-organization, whereby formal authority is retained by a principal, and a decentralized-organization, whereby formal authority is delegated to an agent. We show that the choice of organizational structure hinges on a trade-off between operating-profit and managerial effort. The principal may prefer to choose an o...
This paper investigates the short- and medium-term effects of the deregulation of shopopening hours legislation on retail employment in Germany. In 2006, the legislative competence was shifted from the federal to the state level, leading to a gradual deregulation of shop opening restrictions in most of Germany’s sixteen federal states. The paper exploits regional variation in the legislation in order to identify the effect product market deregulation has on retail employment. We find robust e...
Full Text Available The literature abounds with articles and books on marketing and especially promoting consumer products. As consumers for these goods we are exposed each day to promotional messages of major product brands in order to attract or retain us when we are already buyers. Fewer things have been written about how to do promotion of industrial goods, which are a special category of goods, but have a very high quota in trade of goods, both nationally and internationally. This article will analy
Hertzmark, D.; Gould, B.
This report presents results of econometric estimations and mathematical simulations of markets for joint feed products of motor ethanol. The major issues considered are the nature of current market price relationships, effects on prices, including feed substitutes prices, and effects of demands for increased use of distillers' grains and gluten meal. The econometric section shows that soybean meal was by far the dominant force in the pricing of the two products. However, neither one could be adequately explained without the inclusion of corn in the estimating equations. Later research shows that this was due to the importance of both feeds for metabolizable energy as well as for protein in livestock diets. Current ration formulations would require some discounting of the value of the protein content of the two feeds. Careful siting of the ethanol facilities, and flexible design of the plants so that a maximum number of products may be extracted from the feedstock, seem necessary. Finally, the analysis indicates that substitution in animal diets of these joint products for the corn or milo used originally requires that additional energy be supplied to the animal by some type of forage crop. This implies that additional land may be required for energy production, for such marginal crops as hay and alfalfa, rather than for row crops.
Full Text Available This paper evaluates product efficiency in the Spanish automobile market. We use non parametric frontier techniques in order to estimate product efficiency scores for each model. These scores reflect the minimum price for which each car could be sold, given the bundle of tangible features it offers in comparison to the best-buy models. Unlike previous research, we use discounted prices which have been adjusted by car dealerships to meet sale targets. Therefore, we interpret the efficiency scores as indicators of the value of the intangible features of the brand. The results show that Audi, Volvo, Volkswagen and Mercedes offer the greatest intangible value, since they are heavily overpriced in terms of price/product ratios. Conversely, Seat, Kia, Renault and Dacia are the brands that can be taken as referent in terms of price/product ratios.
Critical issues in Investment, Production and Marketing of Moringa oleifera as an ... to enhance its large scale production, processing, marketing and investment as an industrial raw material in Nigeria. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT
Riet, J.P. van 't; Onwezen, M.C.; Bartels, J.; Lans, I.A. van der; Kraszewska, M.
The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of four different marketing claims and price information on consumers’ product choices for novel fruits and novel fruit products, using a choice experiment. In total, 1,652 people in Greece (n = 400), the Netherlands (n = 419), Poland (n = 423),
This paper presents a review by Purvin and Gertz of western Canadian crude oil supply. This energy consulting firm provides advise to the energy sector. It suggests that oil sands production will surpass declining conventional production. Oil sands supply includes bitumen, synthetic crude oil (SCO), and diluent. It is forecasted that oil sands will increase from 42 per cent of western supply in 2002 to 78 per cent in 2015. The potential of Alberta's oil sands was discussed along with a recent study of refined products and petrochemicals from bitumen. Upgrading, refining and petrochemical case studies were presented. The author examined if a Canadian oil sands upgrading project with high capital costs can be competitive with competing projects in the United States and internationally. In addition to supply and demand issues, the presentation examined infrastructure capability and market potential in the United States. The economic potential and risks of preferred business cases compared to upgrading to SCO were also evaluated. 15 figs
Kitanaka, Hideaki; Shiba, Naoki; Tanaka, Hirokazu
When new products are launched in the marketplace, companies try to alter market conditions in their favor through various marketing activities. Such activities will cause several phenomena in the marketplace. Word-of-mouth communication is one of such phenomena. Word-of-mouth communication attracts wide attention from researchers and practitioners because of its potential influence in consumers purchasing decision process. We have chosen sanitary products because of unique characteristics of...
Hossain Shahid SHOHROWARDHY; H.M. Kamrul HASSAN
A product is anything that can be accessible to the market for satisfaction. The basic objective of marketing is maximum satisfaction since satisfaction of consumer and business performance is positively related to each other. For satisfaction, product is diversified in different categories i.e. generic product, product type product, substitute product and product line etc. Sachet product is one of the expansions of product line. The term ‘Sachet’ is originated from the French word which mean...
Boulhol, H.; Dobbelaere, S.D.; Maioli, S.
This discussion paper resulted in a publication in the British Journal of Industrial Relations, 49(2), 331-361. 10.1111/j.1467-8543.2009.00760.x This paper tests the pro-competitive effect of trade in the product and labour markets of UK manufacturing sectors between 1988 and 2003 using a two-stage estimation procedure. In the first stage, we use data on 9820 firms from twenty manufacturing sectors to simultaneously estimate mark-up and workers’ bargaining power parameters according to sector...
The purpose of the study is to find out and improve on strategy used in the Marketing of Insurance Products in Kenya; Case of African Merchants Assurance Company Ltd (AMACO). AMACO is one of the 44 insurance firms in Kenya. Among others it is a local incorporated company, which makes a difference in that it is not one of the leading insurance firms in Kenya, which is held by such firms as British-American insurance company. The methodology used is quantitative, qualitative methods, interview ...
This paper looks at three clean energy product categories: equipment energy efficiency; low-carbon transport, including high-efficiency vehicles and electric/plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EV/PHEVs); and solar photovoltaic (PV) power. Each section identifies ways to enhance global co-operation among major economies through case studies and examples, and ends with specific suggestions for greater international collaboration on market transformation efforts. An annex with more detailed case studies on energy-efficient electric motors, televisions, external power supplies and compact fluorescent lights is included in the paper.
Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hansen, Christian Lindschou; Hvam, Lars
This paper presents an operational model that allows description of market, products and production architectures. The main feature of this model is the ability to describe both structural and functional aspect of architectures. The structural aspect is an answer to the question: What constitutes...... the architecture, e.g. standard designs, design units and interfaces? The functional aspect is an answer to the question: What is the behaviour or the architecture, what is it able to do, i.e. which products at which performance levels can be derived from the architecture? Among the most important benefits...... of this model is the explicit ability to describe what the architecture is prepared for, and what it is not prepared for - concerning development of future derivative products. The model has been applied in a large scale global product development project. Among the most important benefits is contribution to...
Srinivasan, M. M.; Peterson, C. A.; Doorn, B.
In order to effectively address the applications requirements of future Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission data users, we must understand their needs with respect to latency, spatial scales, technical capabilities, and other practical considerations. We have developed the 1st SWOT User Survey for broad distribution to the SWOT applications community to provide the SWOT Project with an understanding of and improved ability to support users needs. Actionable knowledge for specific applications may be realized when we can determine the margins of user requirements for data products and access. The SWOT Applications team will be launching a SWOT Early Adopters program and are interested in identifying a broad community of users who will participate in pre-launch applications activities including meetings, briefings, and workshops. The SWOT applications program is designed to connect mission scientists to end users and leverage the scientific research and data management tools with operational decision-making for different thematic users and data requirements. SWOT is scheduled to launch in 2020, so simulated hydrology and ocean data sets have been and will continued to be developed by science team members and the SWOT Project in order to determine how the data will represent the physical Earth systems targeted by the mission. SWOT will produce the first global survey of Earth's surface water by measuring sea surface height and the heights, slopes, and inundated areas of rivers, lakes, and wetlands. These coastal, lake and river measurements will be used for monitoring the hydrologic cycle, flooding, and climate impacts of a changing environment. The oceanographic measurements will enhance understanding of submesoscale processes and extend the capabilities of ocean state and climate prediction models.
Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to determine the prospects of the market of organic products in Ukraine. The article studies the market for organic produce dynamic area of organic farmland, number of organic farms in volume production of organic products. Identified key factors influencing the market for organic products Ukraine, outlined areas of the market based on its current state. Grain industry serves as a source of sustainable development of agriculture, determines the socio-economic condition of society and is the basis of agricultural exports. Therefore, the development of the organic market of grain and its products are of particular importance and led to the goal and objectives of bottom investigation. Methodology. The theoretical and methodological basis of the study are works of economists on the development of ecology management, general scientific methods and approaches in the field of business management: historical, dialectical, abstract logical methods of system-structural analysis and synthesis of scientific research and provision of economic theory, management. Results. Proved that Ukraine has considerable potential as a producer of agricultural products, including organic farming, export, consumption in the domestic market. To determine the market trends of organic products studied the dynamics of agricultural surfaces of Ukraine, reserved for growing organic products. To further study the characteristics and trends of the market for organic products in Ukraine, examined the dynamics of the number of organic farms. For determining the main trends and the prospects of the organic products market, and in addition for researching proposals, examined demand for market research of market demand for organic products in terms of production of organic products in Ukraine. Practical implications. The main problem of Ukraine of organic production is exported domestic products as organic production of agricultural products. Analysis of key
Susmita Ghosh; Bhaskar Bhowmick
Market is an important factor for start-ups to look into during decision-making in product development and related areas. Emerging country markets are more uncertain in terms of information availability and institutional supports. The literature review of market uncertainty reveals the need for identifying factors representing the market uncertainty. This paper identifies factors for market uncertainty using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and confirmed the number of fa...
Economics of Local Cow Milk Products Marketing in Kwara State, Nigeria. ... The marketing chain for the commodity is simple and crude. It starts from the raw cow milk processors ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...
Romeo, N C
The health care marketplace is changing dramatically, even without federal reform measures. This is a volatile, yet promising, time to market a managed care plan. Before marketing the product, it is critical that the competition is thoroughly evaluated and consumer and employer needs are researched. The final product should be distinguishable from the competition and address market needs. Promotion can then begin, utilizing a proactive public relations and advertising campaign in addition to traditional methods of marketing.
Hard cider and apple wine offer new value-added marketing opportunities to the apple industry. Both products are situated in rapidly growing categories of the beverage industry. The development of effective marketing strategies for these products requires an understanding of the forces driving competition in these markets. This paper provides background information to support competitive analysis and strategy development. Development of these markets will be positive for the apple industry, b...
Aromolaran, Adebayo B.
Economists have argued that increasing female schooling positively influences the labor supply of married women by inducing a faster rise in market productivity relative to non-market productivity. I use the Nigerian Labor Force Survey to investigate how own and husband's schooling affect women's labor market participation. I find that additional years of postsecondary education increases wage market participation probability by as much as 15.2%. A marginal increase in primary schooling has n...
Hernández-Fernández, Dra Asunción; Mora, Elísabet; Vizcaíno Hernández, María Isabel
The dual aim of this research is, firstly, to analyze the physiological and unconscious emotional response of consumers to a new technological product and, secondly, link this emotional response to consumer conscious verbal reports of positive and negative product perceptions. In order to do this, biometrics and self-reported measures of emotional response are combined. On the one hand, a neuromarketing experiment based on the facial recognition of emotions of 10 subjects, when physical attributes and economic information of a technological product are exposed, shows the prevalence of the ambivalent emotion of surprise. On the other hand, a nethnographic qualitative approach of sentiment analysis of 67-user online comments characterise the valence of this emotion as mainly negative in the case and context studied. Theoretical, practical and methodological contributions are anticipated from this paper. From a theoretical point of view this proposal contributes valuable information to the product design process, to an effective development of the marketing mix variables of price and promotion, and to a successful selection of the target market. From a practical point of view, the approach employed in the case study on the product Google Glass provides empirical evidence useful in the decision making process for this and other technological enterprises launching a new product. And from a methodological point of view, the usefulness of integrated neuromarketing-eWOM analysis could contribute to the proliferation of this tandem in marketing research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zihare, Lauma; Blumberga, Dagnija
This study investigates available resources that has not been used or is used with low added value, such as woody crops, forest residues and invasive species possibilities in case of cellulosic products. Main aspect is this study is market outlook, to see if the products can have positive market sales if produced. Resource have been selected by availability and current usage and properties they contain. Products have been chosen the most basic, to see is there possibility to enter an existing cellulose product markets. GE/McKinsey matrix have been used for clear visual decision making. The results show that only two out of seven products has a potential in international market.
Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the development of new and improvement of existing theoretical and methodological basis of forming and developing the market of organic products, its correspondence to the present-day situation, determination of problems and ways of their solving, introduction in practical activity of Ukrainian enterprises. The main objective of the article is to determine the specific features of forming and developing organic products market in Ukraine, and the perspective directions of its development based on analysis and practice of functioning of such markets in the world. The environmentally sound products market in the world is being analyzed, some information on the countries with the most commodity turnover of organic products, structure of international market of organic products, volumes of sales of organic products in the European countries is provided. As a result of studying the modern trends of economic development the authors reach a conclusion on problems of standard introduction, investigate the European norms and requirements for organic products. The conducted research allows distinguishing the basic features of Ukrainian market of organic products: it quickly grows, which makes it especially appealing for the participants of market relations, however entry into this market requires considerable capital investments and is characterized by high risk; criteria for qualifying products as environmentally sound products are unstructured and unclear. The potential for growth of organic products market in Ukraine is examined.
Full Text Available The modern agricultural market is characterized by an increasing demand for higher quality agricultural products and food. Thus certified organic production was launched in Ukraine, which prohibited the use of chemically synthesized components, genetically modified organisms, etc., and labelling requirements for such products were established. However, experiencing both external and internal demand, the market for organic products in Ukraine is developing slowly. The subject of study focuses on the theoretical, methodological, and practical aspects of forming the organizational-economic basis of organic agricultural products market development in Ukraine. Methodology. Methodological support for the study is based on dialectical and systemic approaches to the study of economic phenomena and processes of formation of the organizational-economic bases of organic agricultural products market development. General scientific and special methods are used, in particular: methods of analogies and comparisons, systematization, statistical and economic, calculation-constructive, program-oriented. The aim of the research is to identify the state of organic agricultural products market in Ukraine and prospects of its further development. The defined goal led to the following tasks: a study of the current state of organic production in Ukraine is carried out; set of problems that hinder its further development are defined; the possible scenarios of this market are identified; prospective tasks, solution of which will contribute to the further development of the market of organic agricultural products in Ukraine, are outlined. According to the results of the conducted research, the following conclusions are made: the tendencies of organic market development in Ukraine are investigated; it is found that the lack of a proper legislative and regulatory framework, a lack of modern market infrastructure, and effective mechanisms of its functioning are holding back
Riswan Efendi Tarigan
Full Text Available Currently, many company’s marketing strategies are limited only to face-to-face communication, telephone, facsimile, company portfolio, and product brochures. However, those marketing strategies are well- known to have limited impacts. Therefore, the presence of e-marketing as one of the marketing strategies would be appropriate to cover the weaknesses and to solve a number of the marketing problems. The purpose of this study is to discuss matters related to marketing, such as, proposing a marketing plan using website, expanding marketing segment, and introducing existing products for a chemical manufacturing company. The adopted research method is a descriptive method where the study is directly performed on the research object to acquire necessary data. The collected data are further analyzed using the Porter’s Five Force and SWOT analysis. Fi- nally, the work provides a number of recommendations for implementing e-marketing strategies to support the company business.
including product market rents and the possibility that jobs may be relocated across national labour markets. Possibilities and threats, however, will not in general be uniformly distributed across firms and therefore groups in the labour market. These issues are explored in a Ricardian trade model......International product market integration enhances both export possibilities through easier access to foreign markets, but also the import threat arising from foreign firms penetrating into the domestic market. These mechanisms affect wage formation and employment creation through many channels...... with imperfect competition, heterogeneity in the labour market, and decentralized wage-bargaining. The Paper analyses how product market integration affects wage formation, and identifies characteristics of winners and losers in the integration process....
Data are presented in these appendices on the marketing and economic potential for soda ash, aluminia, and nahcolite as by-products of shale oil production. Appendices 1 and 2 contain data on the estimated capital and operating cost of an oil shales/mineral co-products recovery facility. Appendix 3 contains the marketing research data.
To understand the crude oil price determination process it is necessary to extend the analysis beyond the markets for petroleum. Crude oil prices are determined in two closely related markets: the markets for crude oil and the markets for refined products. An econometric-linear programming model was developed to capture the linkages between the markets for crude oil and refined products. In the LP refiners maximize profits given crude oil supplies, refining capacities, and prices of refined products. The objective function is profit maximization net of crude oil prices. The shadow price on crude oil gives the netback price. Refined product prices are obtained from the econometric models. The model covers the free world divided in five regions. The model is used to analyze the impacts on the markets of policies that affect crude oil supplies, the demands for refined products, and the refining industry. For each scenario analyzed the demand for crude oil is derived from the equilibrium conditions in the markets for products. The demand curve is confronted with a supply curve which maximizes revenues providing an equilibrium solution for both crude oil and product markets. The model also captures crude oil price differentials by quality. The results show that the demands for crude oil are different across regions due to the structure of the refining industries and the characteristics of the demands for refined products. Changes in the demands for products have a larger impact on the markets than changes in the refining industry. Since markets for refined products and crude oil are interrelated they can't be analyzed individually if an accurate and complete assessment of a policy is to be made. Changes in only one product market in one region affect the other product markets and the prices of crude oil
Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The market of organic products around the world increased its volume in Central and Eastern Europe with organic food market has a number of shared features, which include the relatively low demand for organic food, low share of regular customers, the problems of producers marketing, the lack of enterprises which process organic products. Consumer behavior purchasing organic foods is influenced by several factors, among which is dominated consumer personality, income, finances and lifestyle, as well as psychological factors such as perception, motivation, learning, cognition and attitudes. Cultural and social factors in consumer behavior exhibit a lesser degree. Organic fruit and organic vegetables quality is generally higher for content of biologically active substances such as vitamins, polyphenols and flavonoids. The content of pesticide residues in organic food is significantly lower than conventional production. Regular monitoring of chemical and microbiological safety of organic products already in the primary production occurring in the raw state and after working in various sectors of food, an intensification of awareness raising and targeted increased support for organic agriculture. Multifunctional sector and increased support for family farms oriented for sectors with higher added value than the home sale, production processing on the farm and so on. By support of the sale of high quality domestic production by the state will be possible to persuade more people to personal health status and greater consumption of organic food affects the health and prevent the occurrence of various diseases.doi:10.5219/96
Aim of this research is to analyze if the success of the apple iPhone should be credited wholly or partially to its marketing strategy adopted by the heads at apple. The research will go further in depth into analyzing why and how the strategy worked for the company as the iPhone is one of the only products that managed to create a massive hype before its launch that made people wait impatiently for its launch in most of the countries.
This research study was conducted in order to explore the Iphone market. The main aim of this study was to find out whether or not the heads at the Apple Company were wholly responsible for the hype created for the phone. Conducting this research interests me because from my understanding Apple Iphone is the only product that could create such a massive hype, a hype that persists even today. My study is ‘for’ the topic and it further goes into talking about what marketing strategies were ...
Hossain Shahid SHOHROWARDHY
Full Text Available A product is anything that can be accessible to the market for satisfaction. The basic objective of marketing is maximum satisfaction since satisfaction of consumer and business performance is positively related to each other. For satisfaction, product is diversified in different categories i.e. generic product, product type product, substitute product and product line etc. Sachet product is one of the expansions of product line. The term ‘Sachet’ is originated from the French word which means “mini”. In Bangladesh, sachet product has a strong market share. Thus, this study attempts to determine the exiting share of sachet product and measure the impact of marketing strategies on sachet product in Bangladesh. This study uses the selective 22 dimensions to favor the sachet product on the basis of 4Ps (Product, Price, Place and Promotion. To accomplish the study, 125 samples have been taken from selective markets in Cosmopolitan city, Chittagong. The study found that sachet product has strong market position comparative with other categories of products, where promotional effect is the dominant factor who played the vital role to sustain the sachet product in Bangladesh. The results of this study will be constructive for executives and policy-makers of business organization who works with fast moving consumer good (FMCG items effectively in Bangladesh.
Forsberg, Charles W.
The cost of delivered hydrogen includes production, storage, and distribution. For equal production costs, large users (>10 6 m 3 /day) will favor high-volume centralized hydrogen production technologies to avoid collection costs for hydrogen from widely distributed sources. Potential hydrogen markets were examined to identify and characterize those markets that will favor large-scale hydrogen production technologies. The two high-volume centralized hydrogen production technologies are nuclear energy and fossil energy with carbon dioxide sequestration. The potential markets for these technologies are: (1) production of liquid fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet) including liquid fuels with no net greenhouse gas emissions and (2) peak electricity production. The development of high-volume centralized hydrogen production technologies requires an understanding of the markets to (1) define hydrogen production requirements (purity, pressure, volumes, need for co-product oxygen, etc.); (2) define and develop technologies to use the hydrogen, and (3) create the industrial partnerships to commercialize such technologies. (author)
The author proves that the level of counterfeit presentation of goods on the market directly affects the equilibrium of the market. The greater the number of counterfeit products, the greater the level of losses holders of intellectual property rights, the lower the level of consumer confidence to the market.
On the basis of introducing the concept of water market and the water market research in cluding both domestic market and foreign market,the system design features of water market are analyzed.The features include the prior distribution of agricultural water right,the close construction of market structure,reasonable price of water obtaining right and water pollution-discharge right and scientific stipulation of total volume of water use and total volume of pollution drainage.The practical significances of basin water market construction on Chinese agricultural production are revealed,which clover safeguarding the safety of agricultural water;effectively alleviating agricultural drought;saving the agricultural production water and improving the quality of agricultural products.
Chisholm, Andrew M
This comprehensive resource provides a complete introduction to global capital markets by explaining key instruments used in markets and their practical applications. An Introduction to Capital Marketsassumes no starting knowledge of the subject and begins with a general overview of the structure of the capital markets industry. Readers will quickly learn about swaps applications, options trading strategies, and much more. This introduction to financial markets offer valuable insights for anyone interested in the theory, practice, products, and applications within this field.
Ahmed, Dr. Ashfaque
Rural markets offer a great scope for a concentrated marketing effort because of the recent increase in the rural incomes and the likelihood that such incomes will increase faster because of better production and higher prices for agricultural commodities. Rural Marketing is a developing concept, and as a part of any economy has untapped potential; marketers have realized the opportunity recently. Improvement in infrastructure and reach promise a bright future for those intending to go rural....
Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to evaluate how supportive is Estonian national innovation system toward the launching of new innovative products by high technology firms. The article intends to combine two broad areas of research – national innovation system approach and the different models of the new product launching. Based on the literature review and in-depth analysis of three case studies of Estonian high-tech company’s major barriers as well success factors of highly innovative product launches were identified. The barriers of the new product launching were linked with the systemic failures of the national innovation system. The most relevant failures of Estonian national innovation system inhibiting the new product development are capability and networking failures. The sources of innovation of high-technology firms are too narrow, linkages with domestic firms and higher education institutions as well with foreign firms are poorly developed. High-tech firms have also serious capacity problems due to the extremely weak support mechanism by national innovation system on the seed funding stage of product development and prototype building stage as well. Paper argues that resources needed for the innovation should not be looked too narrowly following linear innovation model approach. Instead interactive approach is needed, which combines capability building, network development, interactive learning with direct investments into fundamental research.
Johnson, Donald A.; Boehlje, Michael
This study of the farm firm integrates long run investment and financial decisions, and short-run production and marketing decisions into a single decision framework that includes both time and risk. The results suggest that the use of various strategies for managing market risks allow the entrepreneur to accept mores risk in investing and producing; and that an integrated analysis of production, marketing and investment-financing alternatives is essential to make accurate recommendations abo...
Lai, Tat-kei; Ng, Travis
While standard models of training focus on how input market affects firms' training decisions, this paper investigates the impact of product market competition on training provision. Using the longitudinal data from Statistics Canada's Workplace and Employee Survey, we find that increased...... that increasing training is an important channel through which competition raises productivity....
Marketing Information Products and Services : A Primer for Librarians and Information Professionals. Couverture du livre Marketing Information Products and Services : A Primer for Librarians and Information Professionals. Directeur(s) : Abhinandan K. Jain, Ashok Jambhekar, T.P.Rama Rao et S. Sreenivas Rao. Maison(s) ...
Galeotti, Andrea; Moraga-González, José Luis
We study a two-sided market where a platform attracts firms selling differentiated products and buyers interested in those products. In the subgame perfect equilibrium of the game, the platform fully internalises the network externalities present in the market and firms and consumers all participate
In an endeavour to improve the livestock production and particularly the marketing of livestock in the Northern Communal Areas of Namibia, this study analyses the perception of livestock farmers in this regard. The low off-take percentage is the most serious production constraint, but marketing, although a constraint, is not ...
It is shown that R & D joint ventures make it more likely that firms will be able to sustain tacit product-market collusion, all else equal......It is shown that R & D joint ventures make it more likely that firms will be able to sustain tacit product-market collusion, all else equal...
Using a product called the synchro-pulse welder as a case study example, this paper discusses the activities of CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) in identifying and marketing new high-technology products. A general discussion of CSIRO's market research plans includes two goals to be attained within the next 5…
Dai, Xiaoyong; Cheng, Liwei
Market distortions can generate resource misallocations across heterogeneous firms and reduce aggregate productivity. This paper measures market distortions and aggregate productivity growth in China's energy sector. We use the wedge between output elasticities and factor shares in revenues to recover a measure of firm-level market distortions. Using data on a large sample of Chinese energy enterprises from 1999 to 2007, our estimations provide strong evidence of the existence of both factor and product market distortions within and across China's various energy industries. The productivity aggregation and decomposition results demonstrate that the estimated aggregate productivity growth (APG) is, on average, 2.595% points per year, of which technological change, resource reallocation, and firm entries and exits account for 1.981, 0.068, and 0.546% points, respectively. The weak contributions of resource reallocation and firm turnover to APG are also found in energy sub-industries, except in the coal industry. Our research suggests that China's energy sector has major potential for productivity gains from resource reallocation through the reduction of market distortions. - Highlights: •We estimate market distortions and productivity growth of China's energy sector. •We use a large sample of Chinese energy enterprises. •There are evidences of the existence of factor and product market distortions. •Aggregate productivity growth is largely driven by firm-level technological change. •China's energy sector can realize productivity gains from resource reallocations.
Linden, Mikael; Peltola-Ojala, Paeivi
In the article the market of household heat products is defined independently. The market consists mainly of electricity, district heating, light fuel oil, and wood. Geographically household heat product markets are limited to the area which is covered by the local district heating network. We test indirectly whether this market definition is valid, i.e. do different household heat products act as substitutes to each other. However, the substitution may quite often be limited since the local district heat supplier is the only supplier on the area and also electricity companies have high market shares in the area they are located. The amount of competitors even in these enlarged markets is low. Also the local district heating network gives a technological potential to non-competitive product specific pricing. Thus, a relevant case exists where the district heating company can determine the price of its product without constraints from other firms and heat products. We test empirically whether the local prices of district heating are affected by the local heat product market shares of district heating companies. We use panel data which consists of 75 district heating companies in years 1996 - 2002. The data includes market share, joint production, district heating tariffs, production scale, and raw material input cost variables. The results obtained from different estimations indicate clearly that competitive case is not the prevailing one in the Finnish district heating pricing. The market shares of district heating companies had a positive effect on the district heating prices. The result also does not support the hypothesis that different household heat products belong to same heat product markets. (Author)
Full Text Available Given that the market equilibrium at a given time t is the result of ratio of product demand, at the same moment of time t, and the supply launched at an earlier time t − Δt , and given that the product remains on the market until the sale was full, rationality of supply decision, by future sizing anticipating of demand, has a fundamental influence on the stability and equilibrium of product market. This paper provides an interactive version for study of sizing impact on offer, based from three dynamic models of perfect markets, derived from Kaldor's cobweb model. Using the same values of marginal demand, marginal supply and incompressible demand and supply are presented interactively the influences of the producer decision on the stability of the product market. IT produs, dezvoltat pentru acest scop poate fi utilizat, de asemenea, în cereri şi cursuri practice în microeconomie, dinamica economică, luarea deciziilor şi altele.
Weissig, Volkmar; Pettinger,Tracy; Murdock,Nicole
Volkmar Weissig,1 Tracy K Pettinger,2 Nicole Murdock3 1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Midwestern University College of Pharmacy Glendale, Glendale, AZ, USA; 2Department of Pharmacy Practice and Administrative Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID, USA; 3Department of Pharmacy Practice, Midwestern University College of Pharmacy Glendale, Glendale, AZ, USA Abstract: In 2000, the National Institute of Health launched the National Nanotec...
Philpott, Andy; Guan, Ziming; Khazaei, Javad; Zakeri, Golbon
Electricity market designs that decentralize decision making for participants can lead to inefficiencies in the presence of nonconvexity or missing markets. This has been shown in the case of unit-commitment problems that can make a decentralized market equilibrium less efficient than a centrally planned solution. Less attention has been focused on systems with large amounts of hydro-electric generation. We describe the results of an empirical study of the New Zealand wholesale electricity market that attempts to quantify production efficiency losses by comparing market outcomes with a counterfactual central plan. (author)
Full Text Available In this paper, a dynamic multi-objective linear integer programming model is proposed to optimally distribute a firm’s advertising budget among multiple products and media in a segmented market. To make the media plan responsive to the changes in the market, the distribution is carried out dynamically by dividing the planning horizon into smaller periods. The model incorporates the effect of the previous period advertising reach on the current period (taken through retention factor, and it also considers cross-product effect of simultaneously advertising different products. An application of the model is presented for an insurance firm that markets five different products, using goal programming approach.
Full Text Available In the marketing area, planning might be defined as an anticipation process of those changes that affect the market and as an elaboration process of the corresponding action means. It will result in a marketing plan, which might be tactical (short-term period, spread on a period of time that might vary from six months to one year, or a strategic (long-term, spread on a period of time of three to ten years. Planning means building action programs in which the objectives, the set financing method or the steps of achieving it should be clearly defined. Marketing planning also proves to be important for its liaison between what the company can offer and the consumers’ needs and expectations.
Full Text Available A healthy way of life requires green products which protect the environment and the quality of life. Organic products have relevant green characteristics and particular benefits for the consumers, the producers and the environment. The benefits support the rapidly growing world market of organic food in both developed and developing countries. Green issues and products have a growing importance in Romania. Even if the Romanians have not become fans of the green products yet, a growing number of consumers prefer organic food. More important, Romanian organic food has success on the export markets. Supporting and promoting organic products on both domestic and international markets requires significant efforts, including those in the green marketing area. The requirements of the green marketing imply new thinking and acting towards new responsibilities and solutions. The task of the marketing is to bring on the market the green problems under the form of new products, the change of the existing products through ecological improvement and abandoning the ecologically obsolete products.
The sixth product level called compliant product is a connecting element between the physical product characteristics and the strategy of the producer company. The article discusses the differentiation among the product offers of companies working in the global markets, as well as the strategies which they use and could use in that respect.
The Petroleum Product Market Report (PPMR) is prepared in the Petroleum Products Section of the Canadian Oil Markets and Emergency Planning Division of Energy, Mines and Resources. The data is compiled from 10 major cities in Canada. The trends in sales and prices are compared on four petroleum products; regular unleaded gasoline, middle gasoline, premium unleaded gasoline and automotive diesel and propane. 7 tabs. 11 figs
Sergey S. Rakhmanov
Full Text Available The article describes the general situation of power tools on the market, both in Russia and in the world. A comparative analysis of competitors, market structure analysis of power tools, as well as assessment of competitiveness of some major product lines. Also the analysis methods of promotion used by companies selling tools, competitive analysis range Bosch, the leader in its segment, power tools available on the market in Russia.
Chrysovalantou Milliou; Joel Sandonis
We study final product manufacturersâ€™ incentives to introduce new products into the market and how they are affected by a merger among them. We show that when manufacturers distribute their products through multi-product retailers, a manufacturers merger, although it leads to an increase in the wholesale prices, it can enhance product variety. The merger generated product variety efficiencies though arise only when vertical relations are present: when manufacturers sell directly their produ...
Products and services developed for a deregulated electric power industry were discussed. The wide-ranging discussion covered products created by unbundling existing services, new products and services related to energy use, products created by expansion into communications services, and the pricing of products and services. In addition to products and services, the discussion also covered strategies for a deregulated market and the challenges of raising equity capital in a regulated environment
Full Text Available This paper deals with global trends of healthy food market growth, Serbian export potential as well as with the importance and role of positioning and other marketing strategies in this field. Secondary data will be used for identifying characteristics and range of healthy food market on a global level and key segments. In that context, the economic importance and export potential of this sector in Serbia will be discussed. Food sector accounts for high percentage of total Serbian export. Yet, those products are of low added value, neither branded nor packed. In order to position producers of healthy food on an international market successfully, strength and weaknesses of domestic production and export will be identified as well as measures for its promotion. In this paper, literature review in field of food positioning and marketing will be presented. Various positioning strategies of healthy food will be discussed from the aspect of branding, country of origin image, marketing mix instruments, with special emphasis on promotion and product labelling. Special part of paper will be dedicated to specific aspects of buying and food consumption behaviour. This behaviour is under the influence of numerous factors, both personal and sociodemographic, which will be analyzed in order to identify adequate positioning strategies. At the end, recommendations for successfully healthy food positioning on an international market will be given. We will present ways of improving marketing strategies regarding exploiting identified chances on an international market.
T. F. Kiseleva
Full Text Available In this paper, studies on juice products market in Kemerovo, preferences of Kemerovo residents buying juice products were conducted. With the help of the data obtained, the characteristics of juice products market in Kemerovo with the identification of the main suppliers of products were given. The object of the study in thiswork was the residents of Kemerovo. The purpose of the work was to study juice products market in Kemerovo, to investigate the preferences of Kemerovo residents buying juice products. The objectives of this work werethe following: characteristics of juice products market in Kemerovo, determining of the potential of the juice products market, analysis of the division of the market between producers, processing of the data obtained concerning the state of the juice products market in Kemerovo. The survey method was used to study the goals. Questioning is a method of collecting primary material in the form of a written survey of a large number of respondents to collect information on the state of certain aspects of the process under study. The questionnaire can cover a wide range of people, which makes it possible to minimize atypical manifestations, while personal contact with the respondent is not necessary. Another important advantage of the method is the convenience of performing mathematical processing of questionnaires. According to the processed questionnaires, advice of recommendation character, which is not mandatory for use, was given to the producers of juice products. Taking these recommendations into account, the manufacturer will be able to determine the characteristic and inherent features of the juice market in Kemerovo. Kemerovo residents were asked to answer a number of questions. The survey was conducted anonymously. The answers are informative and will be used for further study.
Sagary, C.; Saniere, A
World investment in E and P (including the Russia and China) is expected to reach an all-time high of $170 billion in 2005. On the three most important markets, key players are investing substantially and competition from Chinese companies is increasing. (author)
Sagary, C.; Saniere, A.
World investment in E and P (including the Russia and China) is expected to reach an all-time high of $170 billion in 2005. On the three most important markets, key players are investing substantially and competition from Chinese companies is increasing. (author)
Durkin, Mark; Howcroft, Barry; Fairless, Craig
Purpose: During the last 20 years or so the changing environment in which universities operate has meant that commensurately more emphasis has been placed on marketing principles. In light of this emphasis, it is perhaps a little surprising that relatively little attention has been directed towards the processes by which universities develop their…
Bowie, B H; Kivney, N
A marketing research study determined patient needs and wants in order to tailor services within a family maternity care unit. In addition, an educational program, implemented in an effort to change the behavior of the caregivers in the clinical area, is described.
George B. Harpole
Mathematical models can be used to solve quickly some simple day-to-day marketing problems. This note explains how a sawmill production manager, who has an essentially fixed-capacity mill, can solve several optimization problems by using pencil and paper, a forecast of market prices, and a simple algorithm. One such problem is to maximize profits in an operating period...
This dissertation contains three essays that study the implications of online search activity for new-product marketing. Using the U.S. motion picture industry as a test case, the first essay examines the dynamic causal relationship between traditional media, consumers' media generation activity, media consumption activity, and market demand…
Marketing of Non-Timber Forest Products in Kajola Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. ... International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems ... The results of the marketing margin reveal that charcoal commanded the highest margin of ₦2500, followed by bush meat (₦300), while wrapping had the ...
Verhees, F.J.H.M.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.
Most research on market orientation, innovation and performance is related to big enterprises and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). In this study a model is developed to investigate the combined effect of market orientation and innovativeness on product innovation and company performance,
King, Donald W.; Brown, A. M.
This study was addressed to marketing considerations for the American Institute of Physics (AIP) information products and services. The general system and its operation in a marketing environment, including promotion, channels of distribution and pricing are covered. Particular emphasis is placed on the cost/demand/price relationship for four…
... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What products may be sold at the USDA Farmers Market...) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.3 What products may be sold at the USDA Farmers Market? Products that may be sold at the market include, but are...
Full Text Available There is an ongoing change on customers’ needs on selecting customers’ needs, which may influence requirements on designing products and services as well as export sale and company’s market shares in domestic and international market. In the present study, through descriptive approach with qualitative method and case study, we investigate important key factors influencing on new product development and products’ successive factors at overseas nutritional market. In addition by presenting a new model in accordance with the present condition of the organization we explore the closest product development model and affective factors influencing them. The study investigates 36 factors and extracts six important ones, which influence product development including intelligent information, process research and development, strategy introduced, participation strategy, market survey and differentiation strategy.
Production and marketing challenges of vegetable farming: a case study of Kumasi metropolis of Ashanti region, Ghana. ... Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Marketing strategy and product performance: a study of selected firms in Nigeria. ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... This paper therefore recommends that business organisations should accord necessary ...
E M IGBOKWE
Keyword: Household roles, kolanut, production, marketing ..... management system (i.e. they manage their kola farm by themselves), while 1.2% of ... obvious because land preparation is a tedious operation, hence not many women.
Weissig, Volkmar; Pettinger, Tracy K; Murdock, Nicole
In 2000, the National Institute of Health launched the National Nanotechnology Initiative to support, coordinate, and advance research and development of nanoscale projects. The impact of this new program on health-science related research and development became quickly visible. Broad governmental financial support advanced the start of new, and the deepening of already existing, interdisciplinary research. The anticipated merger of nanoscience with medicine quickly instigated the conceptualization of nanomedicine. The adoption of nanoscience terminology by pharmaceutical scientists resulted in the advent of nanopharmaceuticals. The term "nano" became tantamount to "cutting-edge" and was quickly embraced by the pharmaceutical science community. Colloidal drug delivery systems reemerged as nanodrug delivery systems; colloidal gold became a suspension of nano gold particles. In this review, we first review nanoscience related definitions applied to pharmaceuticals, we then discuss all 43 currently approved drug formulations which are publicized as nanopharmaceuticals, and finally we analyze clinical aspects of selected drug formulations.
Song, Michael; Chen, Yan
Extensive research has shown that organizational attributes affect product innovation. Extending this literature, this article delimits two general categories of organizational attributes and relates them to product innovation. Organizational attributes can be either control oriented or flexibility
The objective of the study was to determine the decision-making processes concerning major model year product introductions and alterations in the automotive industry as well as to investigate techniques of price positioning, product and image positi...
The objective of the study was to determine the decision-making processes concerning major model year product introductions and alterations in the automotive industry as well as to investigate techniques of price positioning, product and image positi...
Wiser, R.H.; Pickle, S.J.
As one of the first US stages to open its doors to retail electric competition, California offers an important opportunity to assess the effectiveness of green power marketing as a mechanism for supporting renewable energy. This report is an interim assessment of key green power product, industry, and market trends in California. The report identifies and analyzes: the potential size of the green power market in California; the companies participating in the green power market; the green power products being offered and their prices; the impact of the green market on renewable generators and the environment; and the influence of several public policies and non-governmental programs on the market for green power. Data used in this paper have been collected, in large part, from surveys and interviews with green power marketers that took place between December 1997 and April 1998. There remain legitimate concerns over the viability of green power marketing to support significant quantities of renewable energy and provide large environmental gains, and it is far too early to assess the overall strength of customer demand for renewable energy. A critical finding of this report is that, because of the high cost of acquiring and servicing residential customers and the low utility default service price, green power marketing affords new energy service providers one of the only viable entrees to California`s residential marketplace.
Wiser, R.H.; Pickle, S.J.
As one of the first US stages to open its doors to retail electric competition, California offers an important opportunity to assess the effectiveness of green power marketing as a mechanism for supporting renewable energy. This report is an interim assessment of key green power product, industry, and market trends in California. The report identifies and analyzes: the potential size of the green power market in California; the companies participating in the green power market; the green power products being offered and their prices; the impact of the green market on renewable generators and the environment; and the influence of several public policies and non-governmental programs on the market for green power. Data used in this paper have been collected, in large part, from surveys and interviews with green power marketers that took place between December 1997 and April 1998. There remain legitimate concerns over the viability of green power marketing to support significant quantities of renewable energy and provide large environmental gains, and it is far too early to assess the overall strength of customer demand for renewable energy. A critical finding of this report is that, because of the high cost of acquiring and servicing residential customers and the low utility default service price, green power marketing affords new energy service providers one of the only viable entrees to California's residential marketplace
Franke, Nikolaus; Poetz, Marion; Schreier, Martin
Who provides better inputs to new product ideation tasks, problem solvers with expertise in the area for which new products are to be developed or problem solvers from “analogous” markets that are distant but share an analogous problem or need? Conventional wisdom appears to suggest that target...... market expertise is indispensable, which is why most managers searching for new ideas tend to stay within their own market context even when they do search outside their firms' boundaries. However, in a unique symmetric experiment that isolates the effect of market origin, we find evidence...... for the opposite: Although solutions provided by problem solvers from analogous markets show lower potential for immediate use, they demonstrate substantially higher levels of novelty. Also, compared to established novelty drivers, this effect appears highly relevant from a managerial perspective: we find...
Marin, Ericsson; Diab, Ahmad; Shakarian, Paulo
Marketplaces specializing in malicious hacking products - including malware and exploits - have recently become more prominent on the darkweb and deepweb. We scrape 17 such sites and collect information about such products in a unified database schema. Using a combination of manual labeling and unsupervised clustering, we examine a corpus of products in order to understand their various categories and how they become specialized with respect to vendor and marketplace. This initial study prese...
Bensaid, B.; Saniere, A.
After falling 4% in 2002 to $107.5 billion, world investment in E and P (not including China or the CIS) is expected to rise in 2003 (+5%) to a record breaking $113 billion. In 2004, expenditure (not including the CIS or China) should keep expanding and exceed $115 billion, driven by three factors: in 2004, world oil demand should grow by more than 1 Mbbl/day; major players on the North American market are showing optimism; and oil and gas prices are expected to remain high
Full Text Available The company today, in causes turbulent environment and intensive integrations must cooperate, accept and develop high technology in order to achieve needs of customers. It's only way that companies replay on challenge global environment, decrease costs of investment per capita, decrease the risk, captivate new market and held competitive in causes of global market. High tech technology marketing function is help that results of new technology transfer on economy. Their function is reach need of customers, too. Positive influence of technology is the highest in area of production costs and productivity. Speed years are in front of our and it demands larger productivity, which primary source must be technology changes. High technology marketing is the most provocative framework for take competitive advantage, answer on global change and way of permanent reach rigorous need of customers.
Full Text Available Volkmar Weissig,1 Tracy K Pettinger,2 Nicole Murdock3 1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Midwestern University College of Pharmacy Glendale, Glendale, AZ, USA; 2Department of Pharmacy Practice and Administrative Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID, USA; 3Department of Pharmacy Practice, Midwestern University College of Pharmacy Glendale, Glendale, AZ, USA Abstract: In 2000, the National Institute of Health launched the National Nanotechnology Initiative to support, coordinate, and advance research and development of nanoscale projects. The impact of this new program on health-science related research and development became quickly visible. Broad governmental financial support advanced the start of new, and the deepening of already existing, interdisciplinary research. The anticipated merger of nanoscience with medicine quickly instigated the conceptualization of nanomedicine. The adoption of nanoscience terminology by pharmaceutical scientists resulted in the advent of nanopharmaceuticals. The term “nano” became tantamount to “cutting-edge” and was quickly embraced by the pharmaceutical science community. Colloidal drug delivery systems reemerged as nanodrug delivery systems; colloidal gold became a suspension of nano gold particles. In this review, we first review nanoscience related definitions applied to pharmaceuticals, we then discuss all 43 currently approved drug formulations which are publicized as nanopharmaceuticals, and finally we analyze clinical aspects of selected drug formulations. Keywords: amphotericin-B, fenofibrate, nanodrugs, nanomedicine, nanoparticle, drug delivery
This study examines the potential for separating, upgrading and marketing sodium mineral co-products together with shale oil production. The co-products investigated are soda ash and alumina which are derived from the minerals nahcolite and dawsonite. Five cases were selected to reflect the variance in mineral and shale oil content in the identified resource. In the five cases examined, oil content of the shale was varied from 20 to 30 gallons per ton. Two sizes of facilities were analyzed for each resource case to determine economies of scale between a 15,000 barrel per day demonstration unit and a 50,000 barrel per day full sized plant. Three separate pieces of analysis were conducted in this study: analysis of manufacturing costs for shale oil and co-products; projection of potential world markets for alumina, soda ash, and nahcolite; and determination of economic viability and market potential for shale co-products.
Landwehr Jan R.
Full Text Available The success stories of design-oriented companies like Apple, Audi or Nike have put design on the agenda in many marketing departments. Consumers cannot elude the effect of aesthetics and therefore design is a major factor for business success. Typically consumers choose the product with the best design, all other aspects being equal. Only when the interplay of product characteristics, brand and design is carefully coordinated can successful products be created. This requires an integrated approach to design, one which is applied right at the beginning of the value chain. Product development, marketing and design need to work in close cooperation, communicate well and frequently, and collect feedback from the market. Superior aesthetics are always important but should be a top priority in cases where efficiency-oriented Asian competitors are able to offer functionally similar products at much lower prices.
Full Text Available Environmental marketing (Eco-marketing, as a relatively new movement, emerged at the beginning of the 20th century, is in the growing phase of its development. Eco-labeling and other ways/types of eco-marketing are attracting more attention of consumers, since they are aware of the necessity of nature conservation and environmental protection. There has been a lot of misunderstanding and miss leadings in interpretation and substantiation of ecomarketing claims in previous period of time. One of the most concrete improvements in eco-marketing was appearance and establishment of ISO 14020 guidelines. ISO 14020 guidelines are integral part of ISO 14000 series of standards, which could be implemented in eco-marketing. At the same time, development of "green" products and marketing of "green" products, are direct positive contributions to resources reduction, environmental protection and sustainable economic development. Companies designing this kind of products can expect better position on the market, improvement of competitiveness, reduction of expenses (less raw materials, less waste, less harmful effects on the environment, raising corporate social responsibility, higher export.
Fatima M. Ramazanova
Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives The aim of the study is to develop a system of practical measures to ensure the most effective promotion of construction products to the market. Method During the process of research, methods of logical, statistical and comparative analysis as well as expert evaluations were used. Results Analysis and assessment of the construction market situation enabled a group of factors that affect the sales of construction products – in particular, building materials – to be identified, which constituted an empirical basis for developing a strategy for their promotion, aimed at maximum satisfaction of solvent demand and profit. It is determined that as an instrument of the communication policy of a construction enterprise, the promotion of construction products is a system of incentive measures and techniques designed to stimulate sales. A characterisation of the promotional system of construction products as an instrument of marketing communications is presented, revealing the target dependence of measures to stimulate sales from stages of the life cycle. The criteria for selecting the promotion channels have been systematised, serving as the basis for the strategic approach to the organisation of the distribution logistic system in construction and the steady positioning of construction products on the market. Conclusion A strategic approach to the promotion of construction products in the market ensures the creation of a system of effectively integrated marketing communications, implemented in the form of a strategic bridging partnership. Realisation of the strategy of construction product promotion comprises a reliable basis for strengthening the market positions of construction companies under the harsh conditions of a competitive environment.
Mining and Quarrying and manufacturing industrial production quantity index ..... Notably, the survival rate of the manufacture of wearing apparel, except footwear ...... Thus, weaknesses in design makes Tunisia's public credit registry a less ...
Reymard Savio Sampaio de Melo
Full Text Available Abstract This study focuses on the problems associated with the traditional practice of reducing costs in construction and the need to increase business competitiveness in the residential real estate sector. In this context, target costing is a promising approach to improve the competitiveness of companies by ensuring that the products launched on the market do not jeopardize the company's results and value delivery to customers. However, far too little attention is paid to target costing implementation by companies that develop residential real state products for sale and face strong market competition. Thus, this paper seeks to investigate whether the standard framework of target costing in the literature applies - with or without adjustments - to real estate developers. Case study was the research strategy adopted. Guidelines are proposed for the introduction of target costing in the development process of residential real estate products. The proposed guidelines are related to the three main sections of the target costing process: market-driven costing, product-level target costing and component-level target costing.
Antonio Thiago Benedete da Silva
Full Text Available Strategies for running companies in low-income markets have been in the spotlight in both the academic and the corporate environments.However, the first discussions about the relevance of such markets arose during the 1980s, when scenario-prospecting studies showed that popular markets would provide many opportunities around the year 2000.Indeed, at present, the base of the pyramid has many unaddressed needs that offer business possibilities for those companies that are willing to review their strategies. In this context, product development becomes increasingly important, since products targeting consumers of the C, D and E classes may need different features from those of goods manufactured for the A and B classes.The aim of this study is to revisit past popular market forecasts and to identify development trends for goods that target low- income consumers.Our results indicate that Wright and Johnson’s (1984 studies predicted that Brazil would maintain both qualitative and quantitative progress in its socioeconomic development over the next two decades and that the development of popular products is undergoing a buoyant phase.Several functional perspectives were used to develop an understanding of the phenomenon, especially marketing, engineering and manufacturing.Key words: Future studies. Popular markets. Product development.
Description: This thesis deals with product-innovation in small firms. It aims at a better understanding of the determinants of product innovation in small firms, particularly those determinants that are related to the market orientation of small firms. The focus of the study is on small firms that
Love, Edwin; Stone, Donn E.; Wilton, Taine
Thanks in part to groundbreaking work by companies such as Apple and IDEO, there has been growing interest in design as a way to improve the odds of new product success. This paper describes a user-centered design workshop developed for a new product marketing course. The workshop included exercises designed to explain and illustrate the…
After four years of heavy activity, growth on the upstream service and supply markets is slowing. At the end of 2008, the oil and gas price fell subsequent to the decline in demand for petroleum products. This is an indication that exploration-production activity will slow in 2009 and that the price of services - hence sales at service and supply companies - will drop
Ouden, den M.
The research described in this thesis was focused on the development of economic simulation and optimization computer models to support decision making with respect to pork production- marketing chains. The models include three production stages: pig farrowing, pig fattening and pig slaughtering
LIANG, Hua; SHEN, Zhongming
The volume of production and marketing of Chinaâ€™s conventional aquatic products is increasing. Compared with price of livestock and poultry products, price of conventional aquatic products is relatively low. Differentiated brand marketing for Chinaâ€™s conventional aquatic products is a key approach for increasing market demand for conventional aquatic products and increasing value of conventional aquatic products. The differentiated brand marketing is an inevitable trend of market developm...
Full Text Available Conventional agricultural production is denoted by high levels of chemisation, strait specialised production, high yields and low costs per production unit, however this production causes risky interventions, which could affect negatively on environment and human health Research results indicate possibilities for growing vegetables in alternative systems, less risky for environment with satisfying economic success. The aim of this research was to determine economic success of organic, sustainable and conventional production of tomato in the Mediterranean area of Republic Croatia. Bianual research was conducted during 2002/2003. During vegetation we examined parameters of growth, marketable yields and costs for materials, work and machinery which are used in economic analysis. Economical analysis of tomatoes production indicate worst results in organic production system. Loses in tomatoes organic production were consequences of two main factors: lower marketed yield and equal product price for all three production types. Lower yields in organic production were expected, therefore bad financial results were caused by mainly low market prices, which do not validate quality and food safety. Therefore financial success is preconditioned by higher market validation, which can be obtained through market analysis and product development. Consumer awareness about organic agriculture is still very weak and this point requires further attention. The link between organic agriculture and the environment/nature protection is missing too. The purchase of organic food is influenced by the level of information and knowledge of consumers with reference to these products. Doubts about the truthfulness and significance of some data were raised by main places where organic food is purchased, since an excessive greatest limitations are high prices and a low level of information to consumers. Current standard of life of most Croatian consumers does not permit them to
Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G.; Hawk, E.; Maskew, J.
Mitretek Systems and CONSOL Inc. have completed the first phase of a market potential study for Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) domestic power production. The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded this study. The objective of this study is to provide DOE with data to estimate the future domestic market potential of IGCC for electricity generation. Major drivers in this study are the state of technology development, feedstock costs, environmental control costs, demand growth, and dispatchability. This study examines IGCC potential for baseload power production in the Northeast U. S., an important market area by virtue of existing coal infrastructure and proximity to coal producing regions. IGCC market potential was examined for two levels of technology development as a function of natural gas price and carbon tax. This paper discusses the results of this study, including the levels of performance and cost necessary to insure competitiveness with natural gas combined cycle plants
Full Text Available This paper examines the correlation between promotion as a marketing mix instrument, product quality and marketing strategy on the mobile devices market. The research paper consists of four sections. Each section determines the key factors of the main subject's elements. The research makes analysis of the influence of promotional activities on consumer behavior. It was conducted via survey questions. The questions referred to mobile device brands, user satisfactory rates and other parameters in the Republic of Serbia. The aim was to define the impact of promotional activities on consumer choice when purchasing a mobile device. In addition, the product quality and marketing strategies of top mobile device brands are also taken into consideration. Observational statements are made based on statistical evidence from the completed research surveys.
Lamers, P. [Ecofys Germany, Berlin (Germany)
The global biodiesel market has shown an exponential growth in production and trade across the past decade. Nowadays, more biodiesel than ever before is sourced from abroad and procurement areas - especially of large scale producers and traders - span the globe. While this trend is bound to continue, markets and trade developments are still strongly linked to support and trade policies. Furthermore, the biodiesel industry is strongly linked to other sectors (agriculture and mineral oil industry in particular) and faces significant market disturbances some of which have led to various inefficiencies in the past. Due to the pace of this market development, a methodological assessment and understanding of the numerous influencing factors was needed to reduce uncertainties and risks for those involved. A recently published analysis by Ecofys and the Copernicus Institute, Utrecht University, provided such an analysis. It evaluates how the interaction of domestic policies steered global trade streams towards different markets, in particular in connection to underlying trade policies and additional market forces, over the past decade. It provides robust data on international production and trade volumes which have already served as input to the recently published Special Report on Renewable Energy (SRREN) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). This market brochure was commissioned by UFOP to build upon the methodologies and findings of Lamers et al. and to provide a picture of the global biodiesel market in 2010/2011. It is structured in six sections: an overview of global production volumes (Section 2); developments of EU (Section 3) and other world (Section 4) markets and (trade) policies; global net trade volumes (Section 5); vegetable oil trade patterns and their link to biodiesel trade (Section 6); Conclusions and Outlook (Section 7)
Søndergaard, Helle Alsted; Harmsen, Hanne
development are also fulfilled since the development teams recognize the value of the information and actively use it in their product development decision making. However, the means-end approach cannot (in its present form) reveal experienced quality since the approach includes no trying of the product...... of abstraction in consumers' minds. At the same time they are reminded that this information should feed into the process of making decisions in product development....... on the understanding of consumers' vertical and horizontal decision structure) combined with considerations on effective internal use of the information. Design/methodology/approach - The suggested model is applied in case studies in an action research project, and experiences with the application are discussed...
Unteawati, Bina; Fitriani; Fatih, Cholid
Cassava product has the important role for enhancing household's income in rural. Cassava as raw material food is plentiful as local food in Lampung. Cassava product is one of strategic value addition activities. Value additional activities are a key to create income source enrichment in rural. The household was product cassava as a snack or additional food. Their product cassava was operated in small-scale, traditional, and discontinuous production. They have been lacked in technology, capital, and market access. Measurement the sustainability of their business is important. The market has driven the business globally. This research aims to (1) describe the cassava demand to locally product cassava in rural and (2) analysis the consumer's perception of cassava product. Research take placed in Lampung Province, involved Bandar Lampung and Metro City, Pringsewu, Pesawaran, Central Lampung, and East Lampung district. It is held in February until April 2017. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistic and multidimensional scaling. Based on the analysis conclude that (1) the demand of product cassava from rural was massive in volume and regularity with the enormous transaction. This fact is very important to role business cycles. Consumers demand continuously will lead the production of cassava product sustain. Producers of product cassava will consume fresh cassava for the farmer. Consumption of fresh cassava for home industry regularly in rural will develop balancing in fresh cassava price in the farming gate (2) The consumer's perception on cassava product in the different market showed that they prefer much to consume cassava chips as cassava product products than other. Next are crackers, opak, and tiwul rice. Urban consumers prefer product products as snacks (chips, crumbs, and opak), with consumption frequency of 2-5 times per week and volume of 1-3 kg purchases. Consumers in rural were more frequent with daily consumption frequency. Multidimensional scaling
Following two banner years for the oil service and supply sector, marked by strong activity and a substantial increase in prices, the Exploration and Production market continued at a frenetic pace in 2007, although certain local markets retreated. In 2008, activity should stay high and prices should start stabilizing. With services in short supply, companies in the sector have been able to shift the balance of power with oil firms in their favor
Mathä, Thomas Y.; Pierrard, Olivier
Abstract Abstract Empirical evidence suggests that most firms operate in imperfectly competitive markets. We develop a search-matching model between wholesalers and retailers. Firms face search costs and form long-term relationships. Price bargain results in both wholesaler and retailer markups, which depend on firms? relative bargaining power. We simulate the general equilibrium model and explore the role of product market search frictions for business cycles. We conclu...
Advertising represents for producers the least expensive admission to an ample market and it enables to consumers to orient at the market. All advertising means serve to intensifying of the product sale or image of firm. The article describes current situation in the area of exquisite instruments of advertising and next a firm's deciding if it hires an advertising agency or if carries out advertising on their own - what advantages and risks result from the cooperation of the firm and the agen...
Key, Nigel D.
The increasing use of production contracts in the hog sector has reduced the number of spot market transactions, raised concerns about price manipulation and helped to spur legislation requiring price reporting by packers. Using data from the 2002 and 2007 Censuses of Agriculture, this study looks for evidence of market manipulation by examining whether the local prevalence of contracting affects the average price received by independent producers. The empirical approach uses a fixed-effects ...
C. Fuchs (Christoph)
markdownabstractIn the old days, companies developed products for their customers. The idea that the customer would have any role in the process beyond expressing a particular colour or flavour preference seemed unthinkable. Henry Ford supposedly said that if he had asked people what they
Schaumans, C.B.C.; Verboven, F.L.
We propose a methodology for estimating the competition effects from entry when firms sell differentiated products. We first derive precise conditions under which Bres- nahan and Reiss'entry threshold ratios (ETRs) can be used to test for the presence and to measure the magnitude of competition
Philip A. Araman
Competitiveness, imports, exports, and technological improvements--these are issues facing secondary wood-product manufacturers. The major problems focus on increasing foreign imports and the inability of U.S. industries to repell the imports. How and where should we, as researchers, allocate our efforts to enhance the competitiveness of secondary forest industries in...
Jan de Leeuw
Vaak zien we dat (sport-) bedrijven hun productaanbod differentiëren: ze bieden verschillende varianten van een product aan die voor verschillende groepen afnemers aantrekkelijk kunnen zijn. Dit noemen we productdifferentiatie. Dit kan gerealiseerd worden door het aanbieden van productvormen van
COSMOS-3M is a two stage launcher with liquid propellant rocket engines. Since 1960's COSMOS has launched satellites of up to 1.500kg in both circular low Earth and elliptical orbits with high inclination. The direct SSO ascent is available from Plesetsk launch site. The very high number of 759 launches and the achieved success rate of 97,4% makes this space transportation system one of the most reliable and successful launchers in the world. The German small satellite company OHB System co-operates since 1994 with the COSMOS manufacturer POLYOT, Omsk, in Russia. They have created the joint venture COSMOS International and successfully launched five German and Italian satellites in 1999 and 2000. The next commercial launches are contracted for 2002 and 2003. In 2005 -2007 COSMOS will be also used for the new German reconnaissance satellite launches. This paper provides an overview of COSMOS-3M launcher: its heritage and performance, examples of scientific and commercial primary and piggyback payload launches, the launch service organization and international cooperation. The COSMOS launch service business strategy main points are depicted. The current and future position of COSMOS in the worldwide market of launch services is outlined.
Combination products are therapeutic and diagnostic products that combine drugs, devices and/or biological products, leading to safer and more effective treatments thanks to careful and precise drug targeting, local administration and individualized therapy. These technologies can especially benefit patients suffering from serious diseases and conditions such as cancer, heart disease, multiple sclerosis and diabetes, among others. On the other hand, drug-device combination products have also introduced a new dynamic in medical product development, regulatory approval and corporate interaction. Due to the increasing integration of drugs and devices observed in the latest generation of combination products, regulatory agencies have developed specific competences and regulations over the last decade. Manufacturers are required to fully understand the specific requirements in each country in order to ensure timely and accurate market access of new combination products, and the development of combination products involves a very specific pattern of interactions between manufacturers and regulatory agencies. The increased sophistication of the products brought to market over the last couple of decades has accentuated the need to develop drugs and devices collaboratively using resources from both industries, fostering the need of business partnering and technology licensing. This review will provide a global overview of the market trends, as well as (in the last section) an analysis of the drug-device combination products approved by the FDA during the latest 5 years. Copyright 2015 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.
Stoher, F. F.; Pinelli, T. E.
Technical reports constitute a product, the primary means for communicating the results of research to the user. The Langley scientific and technical information (STI) review and evaluation project undertook a review of the technical report as an effective product for information communication. Style manuals describing theory and practice in technical report preparation; publication manuals covering such factors as design, layout, and type style; and copies of technical reports were obtained from industrial, academic, governmental, and research organizations. Based on an analysis of this material, criteria will be established for the report components, for the relationship of the components within the report context, and for the overall report organization. The criteria will be used as bench marks and compared with the publication standards currently used to prepare NASA technical reports.
Chambers, David W
There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).
Ofek , Elie; Turut, Özge; Turut, Ozge
A firm may want to preannounce its plans to develop a new product in order to stimulate future demand. But given that such communications can affect rivals' incentives to develop the same new product, a firm may decide to preannounce untruthfully in order to deter competitors. We examine an incumbent's preannouncement strategy when there is uncertainty regarding the commercial viability of a new product opportunity and a threat of rival entry Each firm has a private assessment of the market p...
Landwehr, Jan Rüdiger; Herrmann, Andreas
The success stories of design-oriented companies like Apple, Audi or Nike have put design on the agenda in many marketing departments. Consumers cannot elude the effect of aesthetics and therefore design is a major factor for business success. Typically consumers choose the product with the best design, all other aspects being equal. Only when the interplay of product characteristics, brand and design is carefully coordinated can successful products be created. This requires an integrated app...
Feld, Ashley L; Johnson, Trent O; Byerly, Katherine W; Ribisl, Kurt M
As tobacco companies continue to heavily market their products at the point of sale, tobacco control groups seek strategies to combat the negative effects of this marketing. Store observations, which have been widely used by researchers and practitioners alike, are an excellent surveillance tool. This article provides a guide for public health practitioners interested in working in the tobacco retail environment by detailing the steps involved in conducting store observations of tobacco marketing and products including 1) obtaining tobacco product retailer lists, 2) creating measures, 3) selecting a mode of data collection, 4) training data collectors, and 5) analyzing data. We also highlight issues that may arise while in the field and provide information on disseminating results of store observations, including the potential policy implications.
Andersen, Torben M.; Sørensen, Allan
of product market integration for the public sector are far from straightforward. The reason is gains-from-trade effects which tend to increase the tax base and decrease the opportunity costs of public consumption (marginal utility of private consumption falls). It follows that the retrenchment view...... that product market integration inevitable leads to a downward pressure on public sector activities does not get support in a standard setting. A particularly noteworthy finding is that a country with a large public sector (strong preferences for public consumption) may benefit more by integrating......The implications of product market integration for public sector activities (transfers and public consumption) are considered in a standard setting. The analysis supports that a larger public sector (higher tax rate) tends to increase wages and worsen wage competitiveness. However, the implications...
Grimpe, Christoph; Sofka, Wolfgang; Bhargava, Mukesh
or unusual distribution channels, may lead to new products. However, it is unclear whether they pay off, particularly when the firm follows a dual strategy, that is, investing in both innovative marketing and R&D at the same time. We draw from theory on competence development as well as diffusion......This paper investigates the relationship between investments in marketing innovation, that is, the way in which technologically unchanged products are designed, priced, distributed, and/or promoted, and a firm's new product performance. Marketing innovation, such as calorie-based packaging...... of innovation and argue that pursuing a dual strategy lowers performance, an effect that we attribute to the role of complexity in innovation. Based on a mixed methods study that integrates a data set of 866 firms from a representative set of industries in Germany and extensive interview evidence, we find...
Lee, Wonkyong B.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Ling, Pamela M.
Ethical issues surrounding the marketing and trade of controversial products such as tobacco require a better understanding. Virginia Slims, an exclusively women’s cigarette brand first launched in 1968 in the USA, was introduced during the mid 1980s to major Asian markets, such as Japan and Korea, dominated by male smokers. By reviewing internal corporate documents, made public from litigation, we examine the marketing strategies used by Philip Morris as they entered new markets such as Japan and Korea and consider the extent that the company attempted to appeal to women in markets where comparatively few women were smokers. The case study of Virginia Slims reveals that the classification of “vulnerable” consumers is variable depending on culture, tobacco firms display responsive efforts and strategies when operating within a “mature” market, and cultural values played a role in informing Philip Morris’ strategic decision to embrace an adaptive marketing approach, particularly when entering the Korean market. Finally, moral questions are raised with tobacco being identified as a priority product for export and international trade agreements being used by corporations, governments, or trade partners in efforts to undermine domestic public health policies. PMID:28025588
Dewhirst, Timothy; Lee, Wonkyong B; Fong, Geoffrey T; Ling, Pamela M
Ethical issues surrounding the marketing and trade of controversial products such as tobacco require a better understanding. Virginia Slims, an exclusively women's cigarette brand first launched in 1968 in the USA, was introduced during the mid 1980s to major Asian markets, such as Japan and Korea, dominated by male smokers. By reviewing internal corporate documents, made public from litigation, we examine the marketing strategies used by Philip Morris as they entered new markets such as Japan and Korea and consider the extent that the company attempted to appeal to women in markets where comparatively few women were smokers. The case study of Virginia Slims reveals that the classification of "vulnerable" consumers is variable depending on culture, tobacco firms display responsive efforts and strategies when operating within a "mature" market, and cultural values played a role in informing Philip Morris' strategic decision to embrace an adaptive marketing approach, particularly when entering the Korean market. Finally, moral questions are raised with tobacco being identified as a priority product for export and international trade agreements being used by corporations, governments, or trade partners in efforts to undermine domestic public health policies.
Full Text Available Card business in the Republic of Croatia started to develop more than 30 years ago in the form of non-bank card products, issued by American Express and Diners Club global payment systems. These card products were defined as standard charge cards and had been the only card products present in the market until bank cards appeared about ten years ago. The situation changed completely when banks started to enter the market as active participants in the card business. In co-operation with bank global payment systems, MasterCard Worldwide and Visa International, banks have issued several millions of various cards in just a few years, while non-bank issuers have followed the same trend with new card products. This paper explores the current situation in the domestic market; it determines who the cardholders of particular products are, which products they are familiar with, whether they use them or not and for what reason. Cardholders’ opinions, attitudes and preferences towards existing products have been explored, as well as the benefits they would like to get. The results obtained imply that cardholders are familiar with all bank and non-bank card brands, but that they use mostly those which provide them with specific benefits. Therefore, instead of focusing on providing more similar products, issuers should concentrate on designing differentiated products that have been tailored to cardholders’ real needs.
Full Text Available We study an entrant firm’s product quality choice and the price competition arising between the entrant and the incumbent firm. We show that the entrant firm should introduce a relatively higher (lower quality than the incumbent firm when the consumers’ valuation for quality is sufficiently large (small. We also study how the incumbent firm modifies its price in response to the ensuing price competition. We find that the incumbent firm should decrease its price. We also profile how the incumbent firm’s price non-linearly depends on consumers’ valuation for quality.
Full Text Available Rabbit meat is a nutritional food containing high protein and low cholesterol, fat and sodium. Current research in rabbit production is aimed for developing production strategies to increase the nutritional and economic values of rabbit meat products as functional food. Nowadays, producing rabbit is a popular farming activity in many parts of Indonesia as a small and medium scale operation for food security and cash income. Rabbit farming is to produce meat, skin and hides, fur, organic fertilizers and pet or fancy animals. Consumption of rabbit meat is considered very low, due partly to low meat supply and inavailability of marketing. In some tourist areas, such as Lembang (West Java, Tawangmangu (Central Java, Sarangan and Batu (East Java rabbit meat is a specific food. Attempt to create and drive rabbit markets will simultaneously increase meat production to fulfill the demand and meet economic scale of farming. Hence, this will give significant impact to the farmers’ welfare. Availability of good quality meat, dissemination and diversification of meat products, production efficiency toward competitive price along with its proper marketing strategy will drive consumers’ preferences to consume more rabbit meat. Market driving needs to be created in order to promote rabbit meat products by establishing food outlets. This program has been developed by a farmers group in Magelang, Central Java. During the period of 2006 – 2007 the food outlets had increased to 5 outlets, and in 2012 become 9 outlets. This market driving will also have an impact on changing orientation of rabbit farming from traditional to a small and medium economic scale that will influence the production efficiency.
This thesis will discuss the brand of champagne and its status as a luxury product. The aim is to find out how the luxury label might have affected the success of champagne and how it is marketed and branded. Champagne is one of the strongest brands in the wine industry throughout the history. It was branded already in the 19th century as the drink of the royals and today, is protected not by only the Comité Champagne, but also EU legislation. As a luxury product, champagne marketing rel...
Mazarrasa, Inés; Olsen, Ylva S; Mayol, Eva; Marbà, Núria; Duarte, Carlos M
Exploitation of the world's oceans is rapidly growing as evidenced by a booming patent market of marine products including seaweed, a resource that is easily accessible without sophisticated bioprospecting technology and that has a high level of domestication globally. The investment in research effort on seaweed aquaculture has recently been identified to be the main force for the development of a biotechnology market of seaweed-derived products and is a more important driver than the capacity of seaweed production. Here, we examined seaweed patent registrations between 1980 and 2009 to assess the growth rate of seaweed biotechnology, its geographic distribution and the types of applications patented. We compare this growth with scientific investment in seaweed aquaculture and with the market of seaweed production. We found that both the seaweed patenting market and the rate of scientific publications are rapidly growing (11% and 16.8% per year respectively) since 1990. The patent market is highly geographically skewed (95% of all registrations belonging to ten countries and the top two holding 65% of the total) compared to the distribution of scientific output among countries (60% of all scientific publications belonging to ten countries and the top two countries holding a 21%), but more homogeneously distributed than the production market (with a 99.8% belonging to the top ten countries, and a 71% to the top two). Food industry was the dominant application for both the patent registrations (37.7%) and the scientific publications (21%) followed in both cases by agriculture and aquaculture applications. This result is consistent with the seaweed taxa most represented. Kelp, which was the target taxa for 47% of the patent registrations, is a traditional ingredient in Asian food and Gracilaria and Ulva, which were the focus of 15% and 13% of the scientific publications respectively, that are also used in more sophisticated applications such as cosmetics, chemical
Full Text Available A situation, in which two firms compete, is in the economic theory described by duopoly models. Market equilibrium on the duopoly market is formed in a reciprocal adjustment process of market prices and materialized market opportunities. The goal of the analysis is to find out whether the agricultural products market is significantly influenced by appearance of duopolies, what form they have and if they can fundamentally influence the price level of food. That food chain stores endeavour to mutually adapt food product prices is generally known; it is set especially by the inelastic demand for the mentioned goods on the side of consumers, i.e., by the need to demand basic food. Duopoly reactions to price competition in food chain stores are particularly strong in the case of commodities of milk and tomatoes, where the reactions and approximation of prices can be clearly seen. Based on statistical research it is obvious that the reactions are most reflected on sales of the food chain stores Billa and Albert. To identify specific reactions of price duopoly at retail chains the ANOVA statistical method was used. The firm’s duopoly behaviour as such on the food market need not be a subject for applying punishment from the antimonopoly bureau, if it does not have the cartel agreement character. An example can be the identical potato prices inquiry in the supermarkets of food chain stores.
Natal'ya Anatol'evna Alekseeva
Full Text Available The current state of regional markets development and the production of eggs and egg products for a long period — from 1990 to 2009 — is reviewed in this paper. The main research method is the method of statistical groupings. The variable amount of egg production was chosen as the grouping characteristic, since this figure fits well into research goals and has the property of the prevalence in the aggregate / total. To analyze the trends of the Russian regional markets involved into egg production, official statistics on consumer prices was used as well as producer prices, the volume of egg production per capita based on food import and export products. This allowed to group regions for comparison with average values of indicators carried out by different criteria, and to draw conclusions about trends in the development of regional markets. The most relevant factors influencing the development of egg production, among which the factor of vertical integration of production was especially noticed: building own plants and feed mills, joining the land in order to ensure the needs for higher quality raw materials and other activities were identified.
Full Text Available Biocidal products are active substances and preparations containing one or more active substances, putin a form that is supplied to the user, with aim to destroy, to prevent the action or to exercise control over adifferent effect any harmful organism by chemical or biological means.By definition, these products are susceptible to have harmful effects on humans, animals and theenvironment as the main objective of European legislative regulations in this area is to ensure the highestlevel protection by restricting the placing on the market and use only those biocidal products which have anacceptable risk of danger to humans or the environment.The favourable opinion for the placing on the market is made after the evaluation of technicaldocumentation of biocidal products, completed by preparing a report of assessment with the formulation of theproposal to issue notice for placing on the market by the National Commission of Biocidal Products.ICBMV is designated as an authority competent to assess technical documentations on efficacy,chemistry and toxicity data of biocidal products, product type 3: Veterinary hygiene products.
The paper introduces the lemon effect of green agricultural products,analyzes the formation reasons of the lemon effect of green agricul-tural products and summarizes problems brought by the effect,such as malicious deception and high price.The paper proposes countermeasures toavoid the lemon effect of green agricultural products from a perspective of marketing.The first is to strengthen the quality supervision of green agri-cultural products,upgrade the quality of products,and build up branded products.The government should foster the main body of the products andguide the main body to realize the importance of brand construction and management.The second is to construct a sales channel system of greenagricultural products,making use of the trading center of modern green agricultural products to sell products,developing a long term partnershipwith processing industries,big supermarket and restaurants,making use of internet and selling products online and offline.The third is to propagatethe products.Make a good use of advertisement,personal sales,propagation and public relations to accelerate the healthy development of greenagricultural market.
Morales González, Juan Miguel; Zugno, Marco; Pineda, Salvador
In this paper, we consider an electricity market that consists of a day-ahead and a balancing settlement, and includes a number of stochastic producers. We first introduce two reference procedures for scheduling and pricing energy in the day-ahead market: on the one hand, a conventional network...... attains higher market efficiency in expectation than the conventional day-ahead auction, it suffers from fundamental drawbacks with a view to its practical implementation. In particular, it requires flexible producers (those that make up for the lack or surplus of stochastic generation) to accept losses...... in some scenarios. Using a bilevel programming framework, we then show that the conventional auction, if combined with a suitable day-ahead dispatch of stochastic producers (generally different from their expected production), can substantially increase market efficiency and emulate the advantageous...
Hansen, Christian Lindschou; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars
an architecture of the market. This is to be interpreted as the ‘market perspective’ of the product family referring to the design of the product family from the market’s point of view. The main result of this paper is the suggestion of a definition of a market architecture with an articulation of its elements...
Juhl, Hans Jørn; Kristensen, Kai; Østergaard, Peder
Executive summary 1. The purpose of this study was to empirically investigate the influence of different competitive conditions on market orientation in the new product predevelopment activities that food companies carry out. If differences in market orientation were found, differences in business...... with quite equivalent conditions in many other respects. 3. The findings from this sample indicate that New Zealand food companies are indeed more successful than Danish food companies when it comes to launching new products, but we did not find that this difference is due to varying degree of market...
Full Text Available This paper explores the perceptions of young students, who are training in the field of economics, to the very new products and outlines the role that marketing plays in bringing to market products based on innovative technologies. The study is conducted in Romania and tries to highlight Romanian specific features about the relationship between marketing and innovation. The goal is to outline in a clear and actual image of young people thoughts about new technologies insertion on the market. The pursued objectives are: motivation investigation of option for new products; determining predisposition to the radical or incremental innovations, assessing perceptions of the link between marketing and innovation. Research have been made in this field on various areas of activity. At the level of the European Community there are several organizations which activate in the field of innovation research. Eurobarometer through its subdivision Innobarometer brings in the attention of the public on a regular basis, through a series of publications, the results of researches undertaken from the business perspective, and are concerning all areas of action. Research aims to identify the impact that new technologies have on the consumers most open to innovation. This exploratory research is based on a direct gathering of information, using an online questionnaire. Data are processed using SPSS software package, and the results show the type and nature of links between variables to be examined by applying bivariate and multivariate correlation tests. Analysis report provides descriptive, easy to follow, for all the situations covered and investigated in the questionnaire. The results show a clear output of the relationship between compromises that those open to using new technologies are making to obtain superior advantages from the newest products on the market. Research carried out by the author being the first one in this area, only manages to outline the
This study has aimed at describing the strategies and processes that apply during the introduction of international magazines to the Czech market. We have chosen the well-known and widely read, truly international magazines National Geographic and Reader's Digest as our material. We have focused on the role of these magazines in the interaction of cultures (Czech and American). We have realized that this area of translatological knowledge has not yet been analysed thoroughly enough. There are...
Mizuno, T.; Watanabe, T.
We empirically investigate fluctuations in product prices in online markets by using a tick-by-tick price data collected from a Japanese price comparison site, and find some similarities and differences between product and asset prices. The average price of a product across e-retailers behaves almost like a random walk, although the probability of price increase/decrease is higher conditional on the multiple events of price increase/decrease. This is quite similar to the property reported by previous studies about asset prices. However, we fail to find a long memory property in the volatility of product price changes. Also, we find that the price change distribution for product prices is close to an exponential distribution, rather than a power law distribution. These two findings are in a sharp contrast with the previous results regarding asset prices. We propose an interpretation that these differences may stem from the absence of speculative activities in product markets; namely, e-retailers seldom repeat buy and sell of a product, unlike traders in asset markets.
David, C.; Abecassis, J.; Carcea, M.
yield under organic production. The choice of cultivar, green manure, fertilization and intercropping legumes – grain or forage – are efficient ways to obtain high grain quality and quantity. The economic viability of wheat production in Europe is also affected by subsidies from European Union agri......This chapter is a first attempt to analyse bottlenecks and challenges of European organic bread wheat sector involving technical, political and market issues. From 2000, the organic grain market has largely increased in Western Europe. To balance higher consumer demand there is a need to increase...... organic production by a new transition and technical improvement. Bread wheat is grown in a variety of crop rotations and farming systems where four basic organic crop production systems have been defined. Weeds and nitrogen deficiency are considered to be the most serious threat inducing lowest grain...
Xu Zhicheng; Feng Zhixiong; Jiang Peizhen
This study consists of two parts: irradiation processing of cooked meat and irradiation preservation of prepackaged chilled fresh cut meats. Irradiation of prepackaged pickled meat products dipped in grains stillage at a dose 6-8 kGy eliminated common food-borne microorganisms, such as E. Coli and other microbial pathogens and extended the shelf life of the product to 10 days at 5 deg. C. Test marketing of 40,000 bags (about 10,000 kg) of the product in more than 100 supermarkets in the city of Shanghai showed no untoward problem with consumer acceptance. Irradiation of prepackaged chilled fresh cut pork at a dose 3 kGy led to inactivation of microbial pathogens and parasites with a concomitant reduction in numbers of common spoilage microorganisms and extension of shelf life of the product for 30 days at 5 deg. C. The cost benefit and marketing applications were evaluated. (author)
Hinloopen, J.; Vandekerckhove, J.
Building on the framework developed by Qiu (1997) we investigate the influence of product market competition on incentives to invest in cooperative R&D. For that we disentangle the three components that make up the combined-profits externality. The strategic component is always negative and the size
This study assessed roles of household members in kolanut production and marketing in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling procedure was used in selecting 80 kolanut farmers. Data were collected from the respondents using structured interview schedule. Data were presented and analyzed using frequency counts, ...
Full Text Available As one of the biggest issues facing today’s global society, sustainability cuts across all areas of production and consumption and presents challenges for marketers who attempt to understand and incorporate sustainability in their everyday practices [1–3]. [...
Mukherjee, A.; Balasubramanian, N.
This paper considers technology transfer in a Cournot-duopoly market where the firms produce horizontally differentiated products. It turns out that without the threat of imitation from the licensee, the licenser always transfers its best technology. However, the patent licensing contract consists
Improved Processing and Marketing of Healthy Fish Products in Inland Fisheries in Malawi (CultiAF). This project aims ... They will test different pre-drying methods: -no pre-drying treatment -parboiling -smoking -brining Solar dryer and business model testing Researchers will assess the solar dryers' economic performance.
Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Rossi, A.
The paper focuses on labor and product market deregulations, as fundamental elements in the passage from an investment to an innovation-based economy.The approach undertaken is prominently empirical.After a very brief description of the regulatory levels on the two sides of the Atlantic, we take two
Nijssen, E.J.; Frambach, R.T.
This research investigates (1) the share of new product development (NPD) research services in market research (MR) companies’ turnover, (2) MR companies’ awareness and use of NPD tools and the modifications made to these NPD tools, and (3) MR company managers’ perceptions of the influence of client
Nijssen, Edwin J.; Frambach, Ruud T.
This research investigates (1) the share of new product development (NPD) research services in market research (MR) companies' turnover, (2) MR companies' awareness and use of NPD tools and the modifications made to these NPD tools, and (3) MR company managers' perceptions of the influence of client
Koetter, Michael; Noth, Felix
Information management is a core process in banking that can resolve information a symmetries and thereby help to mitigate competitive pressure. We test if the use of information technology (IT) contributes to bank output, and how IT-augmented bank productivity relates to differences in market
ter Hofstede, F; Steenkamp, JBEM; Wedel, M
With increasing competition in the global marketplace, international segmentation has become an ever more important issue in developing, positioning, and selling products across national borders. The authors propose a methodology to identify cross-national market segments, based on means-end chain
All is not well with agriculture in Southeast Asia. The productivity gains of the Green Revolution have slowed and even reversed and environmental problems and shortages of water and land are evident. At the same time changing world markets are shifting the dynamics of national agricultural economies. But from the point of view of farmers themselves, it is their season-to-season economic survival that is at stake. Bali is in some ways typical of other agricultural areas in the region, but it is also a special case because of its distinctive economic and cultural environment dominated by tourism. In this environment, farmers are doubly marginalized. At the same time the island offers them unique market opportunities for premium and organic produce. This article examines the ways in which these opportunities have been approached and describes their varying degrees of success. It focuses especially on one project that has been successful in reducing production costs by conversion to organic production, but less so in marketing its produce. It argues finally for the need for integrated studies of the entire rice production/marketing complex, especially from the bottom-up point of view of farmers.
'Kafa' (a solid maize product, marketed wrapped in leaves), were purchased from four different locations in Kasuwan Barchi, Tudun wada, Kaduna. They were analysed for their microbial quality using the standard plate count (SPC) method. The mean total plate count using standard plate count Agar varied between 2.25 x ...
Wheeler, J R; Smith, D G
To understand better the financial management practices and strategies of modern health care organizations, we conducted interviews with chief financial officers (CFOs) of several leading health care systems. The constraints imposed on health care systems by both capital and product markets has made the role of the CFO a challenge.
Laura Catalina TIMIRAS
Full Text Available Based on the latest official statistics on food and beverage purchases, overall and by product category, the article captures quantitative and qualitative changes in recent years on the Romanian market for this category of goods. It has been also highlighted the gaps observed in the different categories of households by: living environment, presence and number of children, employment status and age of household head, all from the perspective of the demand for those products.
Nasiopoulos, Dimitrios K.; Sakas, Damianos P.; Vlachos, D. S.; Mavrogianni, Amanda
Businesses from all Information Technology sectors use market segmentation in their product development and strategic planning. Many studies have concluded that market segmentation is considered as the norm of modern marketing. With the rapid development of technology, customer needs are becoming increasingly diverse. These needs can no longer be satisfied by a mass marketing approach and follow one rule. IT Businesses can face with this diversity by pooling customers with similar requirements and buying behavior and strength into segments. The result of the best choices about which segments are the most appropriate to serve can then be made, thus making the best of finite resources. Despite the attention which segmentation gathers and the resources that are invested in it, growing evidence suggests that businesses have problems operationalizing segmentation. These problems take various forms. There may have been a rule that the segmentation process necessarily results in homogeneous groups of customers for whom appropriate marketing programs and procedures for dealing with them can be developed. Then the segmentation process, that a company follows, can fail. This increases concerns about what causes segmentation failure and how it might be overcome. To prevent the failure, we created a dynamic simulation model of market segmentation based on the basic factors leading to this segmentation.
Colnerud Granstroem, Sigrid; Gaaverud, Henrik; Glimhall, Alexandra
The Swedish gas market consists mainly of the natural gas network that extends through the southwestern Sweden, and the local biogas markets. Biogas share of the Swedish gas market is growing steadily. The fact that the Swedish gas net is limited and fragmented forms an obstacle for biogas use to expand. That the gas market as a whole, natural gas included, must develop and expand is therefore a prerequisite for the large potential for Swedish Biogas to be realized. This in contrast with the ultimate objective to completely replace natural gas in the Swedish gas market. When policy changes are made in order to support biogas it is crucial for long-term competitiveness of biogas that these changes should not impact the natural gas market and hinder its development. Such a scenario would ultimately mean that also biogas development opportunities deteriorate. Biogas operations encounter three main problems that prevent or impede its expansion in the gas market. First, the potential for profitability in biogas production must be enhanced. Second, natural gas and biogas markets should be more integrated with each other. Thirdly, the biogas must be distributed in a cost-effective manner. The present investigation aims to supplement the Natural Gas Act with special provisions which takes into account the input and transmission of biogas. In addition to the production of biogas, it is now the producer's responsibility to clean the gas from water vapor, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide and to augment the calorific value of the gas to the standard of Danish natural gas quality by propane addition and to ensure that the physical connection to network is available. There are thus a number of options available for shifting demarcation between biogas production and network operations. Short-term competitiveness of biogas would be strengthened most if purification and spiking the gas with propane and the connection to the network was imposed on network owners. In the
Trafton, W. C.; Simpson, J.
- Ukranian, Russian, American and Norwegian; Delta - U.S., Swedish and Japanese; Arianespace - European; RSC H2A - Japanese and U.S. This approach will continue because of the cost of new engine development, to name one, versus acquiring other new technology will continue to be evaluated from a business perspective. The commercial market will remain flat for the near and mid term unless broadband or some other "killer application" emerges. A fragmented multiple player launch services market will service customers for the near term. Some degree of consolidation or elimination of existing launch services alternatives is expected. We are already seeing some consolidation - Boeing Launch Services (BLS) marketing Sea Launch and Delta; International Launch Services (ILS) marketing Atlas and Proton; Arianespace/Starsem marketing Ariane and Soyuz. So what will be the key for Space Transportation Success in the future? Focusing on the "Whole Product Offering," providing a product that provides not only the generic and expected services, but also augmented services that provide differentiation and raises the value. At the Boeing Company, we are continually evaluating the augmented product, focusing on high problem solving value to provide a substantial, not incremental value of improvement. Our focus is on not just our customer, but also our customer's customer. And our focus is on how we can effect a positive change in their current business plan. We evaluate the areas of space segment risk, price and finance, and performance. Through these three areas, we are continuing to improve our product and become more integrated with the Customer and participants in ensuring the successful implementation of their business plans. Our augmented offerings include - Risk Management - Financial Performance - Performance Assurance We continue to build upon and extend these features to move beyond an augmented product and to prepare ourselves to offer "Potential Products" to recognize changes in the
Friedrich, H; Witt, J
Hospitals have traditionally maintained physician referral programs as a means of attracting physicians to their network of affiliated providers. The advent of managed care and impending healthcare reform has altered the relationship of hospitals and physicians. An exploratory study of marketing approaches used by twelve healthcare organizations representing twenty-five hospitals in a large city was conducted. Strategies encountered in the study ranged from practice acquisition to practice promotion. This study suggests that healthcare providers might adopt consumer product branding strategies to secure market-share, build brand equity, and improve profitability.
Tiedemann, K.; Nelson, D.
Energy conservation programs have relied heavily on incentives and regulatory standards to reduce residential energy consumption. However, in the changing market environment characterized by competitive pressures, alternative mechanisms such as marketing and promotions may increase substantially in importance compared to the demand-side management programs which have been the focus of most research. This paper describes the role of marketing and promotions in encouraging energy efficiency at the household level in British Columbia. The paper examines three related issues: first, the purchase process for energy-related products; second, the criteria used by customers in making purchase decisions; and third, the impact and effectiveness of alternative marketing tools. A key finding is the energy-related purchases do not fall into the impulse purchase category. There are two reasons for this: first, most of these products require installation and this requires a high level of commitment on the part of the purchaser; second, many energy-related products require a significant outlay of funds and this reduces impulse buying.
Yunita; Galinium, M.; Lukas
New product development in real estate industry is a challenging process since it is related to long term concept and high cost. A newly proposed product development should meet customer need and their preferences which appropriate with customer buying power and company value. This research use data mining for profiling customer transaction and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method for product selection in new product development. This research utilizes Weka as data mining open source software to profiling data customers. The analysis correlated product preferences and profiling demography such as city, age, gender and occupation. Demography profiles gives description buying power and product preferences. The products proposed are based on customer profiles and rank of the product by AHP method. The product with the highest score will be proposed as new product development. Case studies of this research are real estate projects in Serang, Makassar, and Balikpapan. Makassar and Balikpapan are the project that already gained success and Serang is new project which new products development will be proposed to launch. Based on profiling and product preference of customer in Balikpapan, Makassar, and prospectus of Serang markets, new products development that will be proposed are house type of 120/200 m2 with price around Rp1.300.000.000 and house type of 71/120 m2 with price around Rp800.000.000. The markets of Serang and Balikpapan have similarities in profiles as urban city so the new products development will adopt the succeed story of Balikpapan project.
Keywords: Smallholder poor farmers, market access, bananas, productivity, efficiency, labour demand, labour supply,
Dobbelaere, S.; Mairesse, J.
Consistent with two models of imperfect competition in the labor market-the efficient bargaining model and the monopsony model-we provide two extensions of a microeconomic version of Hall's framework for estimating price-cost margins. We show that both product and labor market imperfections generate
Almeida, Pedro de; Silva, Pedro D.
Energy is essential for present societies. In particular, transportation systems depend on petroleum-based fuels. That world oil production is set to pass a peak is now a reasonably accepted concept, although its date is far from consensual. In this work, we analyze the true expectations of the oil market participants about the future availability of this fundamental energy source. We study the evolution through time of the curves of crude oil futures prices, and we conclude that the market participants, among them the crude oil producers, already expect a near-term peak of oil production. This agrees with many technical predictions for the date of peak production, including our own, that point to peak dates around the end of the present decade. If this scenario is confirmed, it can cause serious social and economical problems because societies will have little time to perform the necessary adjustments
Deason, Wesley Ray [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
In order to properly create a program surrounding the development of any technological concept it is necessary to fully understand the market in which it is being developed. In the case of Integrated Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems (HES), there are two economic markets in which it must be able to participate in: the electricity market and the secondary product market associated with the specific system. The purpose of the present report is to characterize the secondary product market in the U.S. and to provide recommendations for further developing the HES program. While HESs have been discussed in depth in many other reports, it is helpful to discuss them briefly in the present work [REF]. The concept of the HES can be deduced to a system, featuring a combination of a nuclear power plant, a renewable energy source, and an industrial manufacturing plant . The system is designed in a fashion that allows it either to produce electricity or to manufacture a secondary product as needed. The primary benefit of this concept lies in its ability to maximize economic performance of the integrated system and to manufacture products in a carbon-free manner. A secondary benefit is the enhanced supply-side flexibility gained by allowing the HES to economically provide grid services. A key tenant to nuclear power plant economics in today’s electricity market is their ability to operate at a very high capacity factor. Unfortunately, in regions with a high penetration of renewable energy, the carbon free energy produced by nuclear power may not be needed at all times. This forces the nuclear power plant to find a user for its excess capacity. This may include paying the electric grid to find a user, releasing energy to the environment by ‘dumping steam’, or reducing power. If the plant is unable to economically or safely do any of these actions, the plant is at risk of being shutdown. In order to allow for nuclear power plants to continue to contribute carbon free
This thesis studies electricity derivative markets from a view point of an electricity producer. The traditionally used asset pricing methods, based on the no arbitrage principle, are extended to take into account electricity specific features: the non storability of electricity and the variability in the load process. The sources of uncertainty include electricity forward curve, prices of resources used to generate electricity, and the size of the future production. Also the effects of competitors' actions are considered. The thesis illustrates how the information in the derivative prices can be used in investment and production planning. In addition, the use of derivatives as a tool to stabilize electricity dependent cash flows is considered. The results indicate that the information about future electricity prices and their uncertainty, obtained from derivative markets, is important in investment analysis and production planning. (orig.)
Deason, Wesley Ray
In order to properly create a program surrounding the development of any technological concept it is necessary to fully understand the market in which it is being developed. In the case of Integrated Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems (HES), there are two economic markets in which it must be able to participate in: the electricity market and the secondary product market associated with the specific system. The purpose of the present report is to characterize the secondary product market in the U.S. and to provide recommendations for further developing the HES program. While HESs have been discussed in depth in many other reports, it is helpful to discuss them briefly in the present work [REF]. The concept of the HES can be deduced to a system, featuring a combination of a nuclear power plant, a renewable energy source, and an industrial manufacturing plant . The system is designed in a fashion that allows it either to produce electricity or to manufacture a secondary product as needed. The primary benefit of this concept lies in its ability to maximize economic performance of the integrated system and to manufacture products in a carbon-free manner. A secondary benefit is the enhanced supply-side flexibility gained by allowing the HES to economically provide grid services. A key tenant to nuclear power plant economics in today's electricity market is their ability to operate at a very high capacity factor. Unfortunately, in regions with a high penetration of renewable energy, the carbon free energy produced by nuclear power may not be needed at all times. This forces the nuclear power plant to find a user for its excess capacity. This may include paying the electric grid to find a user, releasing energy to the environment by -dumping steam', or reducing power. If the plant is unable to economically or safely do any of these actions, the plant is at risk of being shutdown. In order to allow for nuclear power plants to continue to contribute carbon free
This thesis studies electricity derivative markets from a view point of an electricity producer. The traditionally used asset pricing methods, based on the no arbitrage principle, are extended to take into account electricity specific features: the non storability of electricity and the variability in the load process. The sources of uncertainty include electricity forward curve, prices of resources used to generate electricity, and the size of the future production. Also the effects of competitors' actions are considered. The thesis illustrates how the information in the derivative prices can be used in investment and production planning. In addition, the use of derivatives as a tool to stabilize electricity dependent cash flows is considered. The results indicate that the information about future electricity prices and their uncertainty, obtained from derivative markets, is important in investment analysis and production planning. (orig.)
Brodsky, R. F.; Wolfe, M. G.; Pryke, I. W.
A survey is given of progress made by other nations in providing or preparing to provide satellite launch services. The European Space Agency has four generations of Ariane vehicles, with a fifth recently approved; a second launch facility in French Guiana that has become operational has raised the possible Ariane launch rate to 10 per year, although a May failure of an Ariane 2 put launches on hold. The French Hermes spaceplane and the British HOTOL are discussed. Under the auspices of the Italian National Space Plane, the Iris orbital transfer vehicle is developed and China's Long March vehicles and the Soviet Protons and SL-4 vehicles are discussed; the Soviets moreover are apparently developing not only a Saturn V-class heavy lift vehicle with a 150,000-kg capacity (about five times the largest U.S. capacity) but also a space shuttle and a spaceplane. Four Japanese launch vehicles and some vehicles in an Indian program are also ready to provide launch services. In this new, tough market for launch services, the customers barely outnumber the suppliers. The competition develops just as the Challenger and Titan disasters place the U.S. at a disadvantage and underline the hard work ahead to recoup its heretofore leading position in launch services.
This paper introduces the connotation of marketing channels of agricultural products, and gives an overall of current modes of marketing channels of agricultural products in China, including the marketing channel of transportation and sale of agricultural products, the marketing channel of intermediary sales agent, and the marketing channel of mutual cooperation. The problems existing in the marketing channel of agricultural products in China as follows: first, the cost is high; second, the technological content is low; third, the upstream main body lacks competitiveness; fourth, the structure of investment is irrational. Corresponding countermeasures are put forward to develop marketing channels of agricultural products as follows: perfect the service function of wholesale market of agricultural products; propel the construction of integration and expansion of wholesale market; develop the circulation cooperatives of agricultural products; develop the integrated organization of production and sales of agricultural products.
Davis, L.J.; Bruneau, C.L.
Acceptance of energy-related technologies by end residential consumers, manufacturers of energy-related products, and other influential intermediate markets such as builders will influence the potential for market penetration of innovative energy-related technologies developed by the Department of Energy, Office of Building and Community Systems (OBCS). In this report, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed the available information on technology adoption, diffusion, and decision-making processes to provide OBCS with a background and understanding of the type of research that has previously been conducted on this topic. Insight was gained as to the potential decision-making criteria and motivating factors that influence the decision-maker(s) selection of new technologies, and some of the barriers to technology adoption faced by potential markets for OBCS technologies.
Knapp, Robert H.
To shed light on the movement of sustainable technologies from basic science to widespread use, this chapter describes key aspects of the quite different paths followed by two important examples—photovoltaics (a product) and passive-house buildings (a standard). Discussion of photovoltaics includes the experience curve concept, the increasing significance of balance-of-system costs, and the importance of market heterogeneity (niches and sub-national markets) to the long-term trajectory of major cost reductions. Discussion of passive-houses highlights the array of technical developments needed for present-day energy efficient houses, and the relevance of "stretch" standards to the development of a market for very high-performance houses.
Dahmani, A.; Al-Osaimy, M.H.
This paper first establishes a statistical measurement for OPEC Member Countries' compliance levels with their respective quotas and then examines the correlations and the casual relationships between compliance levels and oil market fundamentals. The compliance level is measured by the deviation of the production level from the respective quota for OPEC Member Countries, and this is based on the Euclidean distance formula, while oil market fundamentals are represented by OECD oil demand and stock levels, and the OPEC Basket price and oil supply. Monthly data from January 1996 to June 2000 was used and two sub-periods considered, where the first sub-period was characterized by a low level of compliance and the second by a high level. The analytical results of correlations and causality showed different directions of relationships between compliance levels and oil market fundamentals. (author)
Considine, T.J.; Heo, Eunnyeong
Unlike many studies of commodity inventory behavior, this paper estimates a model with endogenous spot and forward prices, inventories, production, and net imports. Our application involves markets for refined petroleum products in the United States. Our model is built around the supply and demand for storage. We estimate the model using Generalized Method of Moments and perform dynamic, simultaneous simulations to estimate the impacts of supply and demand shocks. Supply curves for the industry are inelastic and upward sloping. High inventory levels depress prices. Inventories fall in response to higher sales, consistent with production smoothing. Under higher input prices, refiners reduce their stocks of crude oil but increase their product inventories, consistent with cost smoothing. In some cases, imports of products are more variable than production or inventories. 25 refs
Monteiro, Eliseu; Mantha, Vishveshwar; Rouboa, Abel
As opposite in Portugal, the wood pellets market is booming in Europe. In this work, possible reasons for this market behavior are foreseen according to the key indicators of biomass availability, costs and legal framework. Two major constrains are found in the Portuguese pellets market: the first one is the lack of an internal consumption, being the market based on exportations. The second one is the shortage of raw material mainly due to the competition with the biomass power plants. Therefore, the combination of the biomass power plants with pellet production plants seems to be the best option for the pellets production in the actual Portuguese scenario. The main constrains for pellets market has been to convince small-scale customers that pellets are a good alternative fuel, mainly due to the investment needed and the strong competition with natural gas. Besides some benefits in the acquisition of new equipment for renewable energy, they are insufficient to cover the huge discrepancy of the investment in pellets heating. However, pellets are already economic interesting for large utilizations. In order cover a large amount of households, additional public support is needed to cover the supplementary costs of the pellets heating systems. - Highlights: ► There is a lack of internal consumption being the pellets market based on exportation. ► The shortage of raw material is mainly due to the biomass power plants. ► Combining pellet plants with biomass power plants seems to be a wise solution. ► The tax benefits of renewable energy equipments are not enough to cover the higher investment. ► Pellets are already economic interesting for large utilizations in the Portuguese scenario.
S.M. Greene; A.L. Hammett; S. Kant
Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are important in rural southwest Virginia as a source of household income. Marketing system of crafts, medicinal and herbal, and specialty wood products are studied using exploratory and qualitative research methods. Fifty market players at various levels in marketing chains are interviewed to get the information on elements of...
Hill, Andrew; Camacho, Oscar M
In 2012 the US FDA suggested the use of mathematical models to assess the impact of releasing new nicotine or tobacco products on population health outcomes. A model based on system dynamics methodology was developed to project the potential effects of a new nicotine product at a population level. A model representing traditional smoking populations (never, current and former smokers) and calibrated using historical data was extended to a two-product model by including electronic cigarettes use statuses. Smoking mechanisms, such as product initiation, switching, transition to dual use, and cessation, were represented as flows between smoking statuses (stocks) and the potential effect of smoking renormalisation through a feedback system. Mortality over a 50-year period (2000-2050) was the health outcome of interest, and was compared between two scenarios, with and without e-cigarettes being introduced. The results suggest that by 2050, smoking prevalence in adults was 12.4% in the core model and 9.7% (including dual users) in the counterfactual. Smoking-related mortality was 8.4% and 8.1%, respectively. The results suggested an overall beneficial effect from launching e-cigarettes and that system dynamics could be a useful approach to assess the potential population health effects of nicotine products when epidemiological data are not available. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sipilae, K.; Oasmaa, A.; Solantausta, Y.; Arpiainen, V.; Nyroenen, T.
Commercial power production from biomass is mainly based on various combustion technologies, new gasification technologies being on pilot and demonstration scale in Europe. From the market viewpoint, there will be an attractive and large market volume for small and medium-scale combined heat and power production (CHP) and for liquid bioenergy products in order to meet the Kyoto challenges in Europe by the year 2010. Biomass pyrolysis technology offers a novel method of converting solid biomass to a liquid product which can easily be transported, stored and utilised for electricity production by diesel engines and gas turbines. The overall efficiency in pyrolysis oil production can be increased from 65 to 90 % (LHV) by integrating the big-oil production to a conventional boiler plant, the-system identified by VTT. A modern diesel power plant has an efficiency of 40 - 44 % with a high power-to-heat ratio. Parallel to diesel power plants, the big-oil can be used in existing heating oil boilers with minor burner modifications. The paper comprises an overview of market assessments in Scandinavia and a summary of pyrolysis oil production, stability and properties tests. The challenge of today is to understand and improve the properties of pyrolysis oils in order to reach a 12-month storage time without any changes in the homogeneity of pyrolysis oils. Reliable operation of oil-fired boilers and diesel power plants has to be demonstrated. As soon as these problems have been solved, biomass pyrolysis technologies will offer new attractive bioenergy market opportunities where a huge potential can be reached by conversing existing petroleum-fired boilers, 0.1 - 10 MW to big-oils and followed by combined heat and power production with high-efficiency diesel power plants in 0.1 - 10 MW scale. Pyrolysis technology is clearly the most attractive method for producing liquid biofuels, compared to bioalcohols and biodiesel. With the present price structure, pyrolysis oil can be
Lai, Tat-kei; Ng, Travis
's Workplace and Employee Survey, we find that increased competition is strongly associated with more training provision within workplace. We show that this association is unlikely to be driven by unobservable workplace heterogeneity, the specific measures used, and other relevant factors which can affect...... training provisions. To the extent that training is a significant source of human capital and industry competitiveness, our empirical results suggest increasing training is a significant channel through which competition raises productivity.......While standard models of training focus on how the structure of the input market affects training provisions of firms, this paper investigates the relationship between product market competition and training provision. Using the longitudinal and nationally representative data from Statistics Canada...
John D. Lawrence
Australia and New Zealand are major beef producing countries and major beef exporters. Unlike the case in the United States, where less than 10 percent of beef is exported, approximately 60 percent of Australia's and 85 percent of New Zealand's beef production is exported. Because of their dependency on a diverse set of export customers, these two countries are developing quality assurance programs that differentiate their beef in the global market and assure individual customers that the pro...
My Pham, TH; Nasir, M
The fast growth of fashion brands and the popularity of counterfeit goods has posed certain challenges to the existing and new luxury fashion brand players. This study elaborates on the factors driving the market for counterfeit products in the UK. The data collected by means of survey questionnaires from 306 respondents and empirical techniques including descriptive and inferential statistics (correlation and multiple regression analysis), have shown that the consumers have a negative attitu...
Since in the present times families have much less time to prepare meals or even deserts, and because sweets are always so well accepted to enjoy a moment of pleasure either alone or shared, it was the aim of this academic work to prepare an alternative desert, not at sale in the Portuguese market, and study its acceptance by the consumers. The product selected was sweet samosas, and these were prepared with different filings (apple & cinnamon, chocola...
Aggarwal, S.; Gupta, A.; Govindan, K.
creates a spectrum effect in market with an aim to create wider product awareness and influence the market size. Whereas the differentiated promotion strategy plays major role in external influence component in the respective segment and target for adoption by the current potential segment. Previous......This study develops diffusion models for technological consumer products under the marketing environment when a product is marketed in a segmented market and observes two distinctive promotional strategies of mass and differentiated promotion; an under explored study area. Mass promotion strategy...... studies on segmented diffusion models assumed only first time purchase and constant market size which may yield underestimated results and fail to give appropriate insight of the diffusion process. The study develops and validates generalized diffusion models for segmented market incorporating...
Colliander, A.; Jackson, T. J.; Chan, S.; Dunbar, R.; Das, N. N.; Kim, S.; Reichle, R. H.; De Lannoy, G. J.; Liu, Q.; Kimball, J. S.; Yi, Y.; Cosh, M. H.; Bindlish, R.; Crow, W. T.; Dang, L.; Yueh, S. H.; Njoku, E. G.
NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission is scheduled for launch in October 2014. The objective of the mission is global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state. SMAP utilizes an L-band radar and radiometer sharing a rotating 6-meter mesh reflector antenna. The instruments will operate onboard the SMAP spacecraft in a 685-km Sun-synchronous near-polar orbit, viewing the surface at a constant 40-degree incidence angle with a 1000-km swath width. Merging of active and passive L-band observations of the mission will enable an unprecedented combination of accuracy, resolution, coverage and revisit-time for soil moisture and freeze/thaw state retrieval. SMAP measurements will enable significantly improved estimates of water, energy and carbon transfers between the land and atmosphere. The SMAP science data product suite of geophysical parameters will include estimates of surface (top 5 cm) and root-zone (down to 1-m depth) soil moisture, net ecosystem exchange, and classification of the frozen/non-frozen state of the landscape. The primary validation reference of the data products will be ground-based measurements. Other remote sensing and model-based products will be used as additional resources. The post-launch timeline of the mission requires that the geophysical data products are validated (with respect to the mission requirements) within 12 months after a 3-month in-orbit check-out phase. SMAP is taking several preparatory steps in order to meet this schedule. One of the main steps consists of running a rehearsal to exercise calibration and validation procedures planned for the Cal/Val Phase. The rehearsal is divided into two stages. Phase 1, which was conducted in June-August 2013, focused on validation methodologies for the geophysical data products. Phase 2, which will be conducted in May-June 2014, includes operational aspects including a fully functioning SMAP Science Data System. (Note that the rehearsals do not include an airborne field
Trang Huyen My Pham
Full Text Available The fast growth of fashion brands and the popularity of counterfeit goods has posed certain challenges to the existing and new luxury fashion brand players. This study elaborates on the factors driving the market for counterfeit products in the UK. The data collected by means of survey questionnaires from 306 respondents and empirical techniques including descriptive and inferential statistics (correlation and multiple regression analysis, have shown that the consumers have a negative attitude towards counterfeit luxury products. However, they showed fewer tendencies to seek for a brand whose counterfeit cannot easily be found and preferred to buy a genuine rather than a counterfeit. In terms of frequency of purchase, reversion to counterfeit has negative impact, unlike the tendency to seek a brand whose counterfeit is hard to find. The overall results show that the attitude and acceptance of counterfeit do not greatly prevail in the market. However, about 27% of respondents demonstrated either a positive or a neutral tendency towards counterfeit products, which could have serious implications for the luxury goods market.
Lugasi, Andrea; Horacsek, Márta; Martos, Eva
According to recent legislation, food supplements are foodstuffs with the purpose of supplementing normal diet. Food supplements are concentrated sources of nutrients such as vitamins and minerals and other substances with a physiological or nutritional effect. In Hungary, marketing of food supplements has not been bound to pre-market authorization since joining to the European Union. The food business operator, who is responsible for production or distribution of the product, must notify it at National Institute for Food and Nutrition Science latest at the time when the product has been placed on the market and it can be distributed simultaneously. Distribution, ingredients, and all those information which appear on the label are determined by numerous regulations and prescriptions but at the same time the lack of harmonized legislation at certain places may cause a lot of problems on Community level. The first part of the study shows the laws and regulations influencing the distribution and ingredients of food supplements, while the main target of the second part is to introduce the evaluation process of components from nutritional and physiological point of view, and the role played by the food supplements in nutrition.
Mujawamariya, G.; Burger, C.P.J.; Haese, D' M.F.C.
Low returns from marketing of non-timber forest products such as gum arabic restrict the collection of these products. A hypothesis is tested that access to good markets motivates collectors to harvest and market gum arabic. Analyses of the choice of participation in group marketing, sale price,
... establish or provide for the establishment of production research, marketing research, and development... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production research, market research and development...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF...
... Secretary, may establish or provide for the establishment of production research, marketing research and... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production research and market research and...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF...
Views on the future are based on supplies from a relatively stable Middle East and continued economic growth in the southeast Asian and Pacific countries. Under these circumstances the oil market for the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) will expand considerably during the decade of the 90's. Pacific country demand, 5.92 MMB/D, in 1990 is likely to grow to 7.06 MMB/D in 2000. Regional production could supply about 40% of this. The Asia-Pacific shortage of refining capacity could lead to high regional refined product prices and health refining profit margins. (author)
Fitjar, Rune Dahl; Gjelsvik, Martin; Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés
This paper assesses the extent to which the organization of the innovation effort in firms, as well as the geographical scale at which this effort is pursued, affects the capacity to benefit from product innovations. Three alternative modes of organization are studied: hierarchy, market and triple-helix-type networks. Furthermore, we consider triple-helix networks at three geographical scales: local, national and international. These relationships are tested on a random sample of 763 firms located in five urban regions of Norway which reported having introduced new products or services during the preceding 3 years. The analysis shows that firms exploiting internal hierarchy or triple-helix networks with a wide range of partners managed to derive a significantly higher share of their income from new products, compared to those that mainly relied on outsourcing within the market. In addition, the analysis shows that the geographical scale of cooperation in networks, as well as the type of partner used, matters for the capacity of firms to benefit from product innovation. In particular, firms that collaborate in international triple-helix-type networks involving suppliers, customers and R&D institutions extract a higher share of their income from product innovations, regardless of whether they organize the processes internally or through the network.
Holdford, David A
To (1) discuss buzz marketing, contrast it with traditional forms of promotional communications, and provide guidelines for use and (2) describe a successful buzz-marketing program used by Sentara Healthcare to decrease overuse and inappropriate use of antibiotic medications. An English-language-only literature search of ABI Inform, Lexus-Nexus, InfoTrac, and university library databases from 1980 to the present using the keywords buzz, word of mouth, opinion leader, and thought leader. Articles and books were cross referenced for other works of interest. Performed by the author for their contribution to an exploratory analysis of this topic. Performed by the author. Buzz marketing is an indirect communications method that has been used successfully in the promotion of a wide variety of products, services, and ideas. By identifying and cultivating nonmedia opinion leaders, the technique generates word-of-mouth communications between these early adopters of products and services and the early and late majority of people who tend to follow their lead. Opinion leaders can be categorized as ordinary or extraordinary, technical or social, and specialist or generalist, depending on the nature of their communications, expertise, and range of knowledge. Buzz marketing is most useful for ideas that are memorable, produce small changes in behavior that have big effects over time, and have the potential to reach a "tipping point" in terms of momentum among a target population. Pharmacists can use buzz marketing for promoting innovative services such as pharmaceutical care. A case study is presented on the use of buzz marketing by a health system for decreasing antibiotic resistance through lessening of public demand for antibiotics and support of physicians in prescribing the agents appropriately. Buzz marketing is a potent force in the promotion of pharmaceuticals and can be used by pharmacists. It works best when patients perceive the benefits of innovations. Providing
One of the factors that has been strongly associated with successful new product development is a profound knwledge of customers' needs and wants as well as the ability to transform this knowledge into specific product characteristics and benefits there is a general agreement on the importance of......-processing companies. Preliminary results show that the companies have improved their market orientation, but also that the change pro has been difficult and time-consuming and improvements rather incremental.......One of the factors that has been strongly associated with successful new product development is a profound knwledge of customers' needs and wants as well as the ability to transform this knowledge into specific product characteristics and benefits there is a general agreement on the importance...
Hua; LIANG; Zhongming; SHEN
The volume of production and marketing of China’s conventional aquatic products is increasing. Compared with price of livestock and poultry products,price of conventional aquatic products is relatively low. Differentiated brand marketing for China’s conventional aquatic products is a key approach for increasing market demand for conventional aquatic products and increasing value of conventional aquatic products. The differentiated brand marketing is an inevitable trend of market development and also a powerful arm for market competition. China’s conventional aquatic products can take differentiated brand marketing strategies such as brand orientation,brand concept,brand culture,and place name brand,to better keep market competitive edge and increase economic benefits.
Smeets, Roger; Wei, Yingqi
Smeets R. and Wei Y. Productivity effects of United States multinational enterprises: the roles of market orientation and regional integration, Regional Studies. This paper considers the role of market orientation and regional integration in foreign direct investment (FDI) productivity effects.
The presentation discusses various aspects of the world oil production, the energy demand, the future oil supply, the oil prices and the production growth. Some problems with produced water are also discussed as well as aspects of the market for produced water technology (tk)
The Preven Emergency Contraceptive Kit, a product approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) for emergency contraception, is now on the market for sale. Produced by Gynetics of Somerville, NJ, the kit consists of an easy-to-use pregnancy test, patient information guide, and 4 blue pills, each containing 0.05 mg ethinyl estradiol and 0.25 mg levonorgestrel. After a woman determines that she is not pregnant by using the kit's test, she takes 2 pills as soon as possible within 72 hours after having unprotected sexual intercourse. The remaining 2 pills are taken 12 hours later. Although Preven is available now only by prescription, Gynetics will cooperate with the USFDA in assessing whether it should be sold over the counter. One course of Preven costs about $20 at a pharmacy, less than any oral contraceptive pills currently used as emergency contraceptives. The Preven Kit carries Health Care Financing Administration approval for Medicaid reimbursement, and most health maintenance organizations have agreed to cover its costs. Two more progestin-only emergency contraceptive products may enter the US market in 1999. Gynetics is in the advanced stages of developing a levonorgestrel-only emergency contraceptive, while Women's Capital Corp. of Seattle, WA, and Washington, DC, plans to submit its application for product approval to the USFDA for a similar progestin-only product by the end of October.
Botterud, Audun; Yildiz, Bilge; Conzelmann, Guenter; Petri, Mark C.
Nuclear energy has the potential to play an important role in the future energy system as a large-scale source of hydrogen without greenhouse gas emissions. Thus far, economic studies of nuclear hydrogen tend to focus on the levelized cost of hydrogen without accounting for the risks and uncertainties that potential investors would face. We present a financial model based on real options theory to assess the profitability of different nuclear hydrogen production technologies in evolving electricity and hydrogen markets. The model uses Monte Carlo simulations to represent uncertainty in future hydrogen and electricity prices. It computes the expected value and the distribution of discounted profits from nuclear hydrogen production plants. Moreover, the model quantifies the value of the option to switch between hydrogen and electricity production, depending on what is more profitable to sell. We use the model to analyze the market viability of four potential nuclear hydrogen technologies and conclude that flexibility in output product is likely to add significant economic value for an investor in nuclear hydrogen. This should be taken into account in the development phase of nuclear hydrogen technologies
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to address how the secondary market affects the strategy of the manufacturer’s new product introduction by using the optimization method. To do so, we develop a two-period model in which a monopolistic manufacturer sells its new durable products directly to end consumers in both periods, while an entrant operates a reverse channel selling used products in the secondary market. We assume that the manufacturer launches a higher quality product in the second period for the technological innovation. We find that the secondary market can actually increase the manufacturer’s profitability and drives the new product introduction in the second period. We also derive the effect of the durability and the degree of quality improvement on the pricing of supply chain partners.
One political development in Europe that will affect the petroleum refining industry is the opening of a single market among the European Commission countries. Although the single market officially opens on January 1, 1993, a single market for energy will not happen at that time. Most European countries feel that refining is a strategic industry and adopt some form of protectionism in this sector. Environmental policy in Europe tends to be separate from energy policy, making conflicts in setting standards for emissions and fuel composition somewhat inevitable. For example, both environmental and energy policies favor a carbon tax on fuels; the EC environmental commission does not want to be seen as favoring nuclear power, so it favors penalizing all fuels about the same amount, while the energy commission says the carbon tax should be related to the fuel carbon content. A measure affecting the refining industry is the proposal for reducing sulfur in diesel fuel. By 1994 EC countries will have a common 0.2% standard and by 1996 a 0.05% standard for automotive diesel. To meet the latter standard, refineries will need upgrading at an estimated cost of US$4 billion. Another political consideration for the refining industry is whether eastern Europe should be part of the EC energy community. However, if there is a reluctance in the western European countries for a single western market, there is even less enthusiasm for an energy market that includes eastern Europe as well. In addition, there is a reluctance to accept that there should be a free flow of petroleum products from east to west
The Nordic electricity market has been partly deregulated since 1994. Today only Denmark follows the timetable recommended by the European Union, while Sweden, Norway and Finland are completely deregulated. As in most countries, the production of electricity is deregulated while the distribution is still a monopoly. This deregulation of the electricity market has created a new situation for plant life management. In order to be competitive on the market it is important to cut cost down a level when the nuclear power companies earn money again. All means to cut cost have to be used while still maintaining safety and the possibilities for operation over at least 40+ years. The possibilities to invest in modernization are limited to the absolutely necessary modifications. All investments must be very thoroughly questioned and the money can only be spent where most benefit is gained. This means new prerequisites for the absolute necessary long-strategic planning. New safety requirements from the authorities have to be discussed between the industry and the authority. The requirement cost must be compared to the benefit to safety. The authority is today requested to carry out such analyses and do so in most cases. Since the electricity market is international the requirements of the authorities must be harmonized on the whole market. The political threat against nuclear power is serious in many countries and it is important to continue working with public acceptance and lobbying. Especially in Sweden a lot of effort is spent on trying to change the taxation of nuclear power. In the near future increasing electricity demand will make the prices go up to a level when nuclear power companies earn money again. The very serious worries about climate change will also strengthen the competitiveness of nuclear power. (author)
Nesta, Lionel; Vona, Francesco; Nicolli, Francesco
We investigate the effectiveness of policies in favor of innovation in renew- able energy under different levels of competition. Using information regarding renewable energy policies, product market regulation and high-quality green patents for OECD countries since the late 1970's, we develop a pre-sample mean count-data econometric specification that also accounts for the endogeneity of policies. We find that renewable energy policies are significantly more effective in fostering green innovation in countries with deregulated energy markets. We also find that public support for renewable energy is crucial only in the generation of high-quality green patents, whereas competition enhances the generation of green patents irrespective of their quality. (authors)
E. V. Orlova
Full Text Available The article studies price behavior of oligopolies in industrial market where price competition is replaced by non-price competition. There is a developed technology for pricing management of the products of industrial enterprises, which, unlike the existing ones, takes into account the dynamics of changes in consumer preferences and changes in the pricing policy of the enterprise competitor and is based on usage of system dynamics models to simulate the financial and economic performance of enterprises and the fuzzy model for situational analysis and decisionmaking on changes in prices for the products. A pricing simulation model is offered. It is based on system-dynamic modeling method, which takes into account the complex cause-to-effect concatenation of factors on price such as product quality, cost, price competition, price elasticity of economic demand, competitors’ quantity of output and estimates the impact of changing factors of internal and external enterprise environment on the effectiveness of its activities.The simulation model allows us to conduct diverse experiments and analyze the impact of management decisions on the efficiency of the enterprise. Based on the fuzzy approach a price decision-making model is developed. It operates not only precise (numeric values, but also qualitative assessments of variables and provides an adequate use of logical relationships and the laws of the mutual influence of market and production and economic factors. Qualitative dependences, which establish the influence of external and internal factors on the price change, are identified as a result of the study of economic laws and legal conformity that are in the context of rapid economic change and market turbulence may not be strictly formalized and take the form of linguistic statements, which express the conditional relationship between the qualitative assessments of initial factors and changes in the relative price.
As the end of regulated tariffs for industries and local communities resulted in a total new deal on the electric power and gas providing market, notably with newcomers who decided to cut prices, this study aims at identifying actual perspectives for the power and gas markets by 2019, and actual levers of action for providers to gain market shares. After a synthesis and a proposal of some strategic conclusions, the report proposes an analysis of the activity and of its perspectives: determining factors, overview of the activity until 2016 (power and gas provisions in France, production and consumption prices for gas and for electric power, regulated tariffs), and provisional scenario by 2019 regarding electricity and gas provisions in France. A second part analyses the external environment through a discussion of external drivers and brakes, and an analysis of demand. The third part reports an analysis of the competitive landscape (market shares per strategic groups, in power providing and in gas providing, and switch rate between residential and non-residential customers). The last part addresses development axes and proposes a discussion of offensive conquest strategies, a discussion of actor positioning on green energies, a discussion of supply adaptation and targeting depending on customers with an analysis of three specific segments (mobility, data centres, and self-consumption), and a discussion of the diversification of services
Maria Cecilia Mancini
Full Text Available Typical products can contribute to socio-economic development of their place of origin if they are able to take part in the logic of the global market. The aim of this research is to examine one type of innovation, the use of PDO products as ingredients, as a part of a strategy to re-launch PDO products which have a mature market. The evolution of the concept of innovation is discussed; innovation is then considered in relation to product life cycle and information asymmetry. There is then a case study on the use of PDO Parmigiano Reggiano cheese as an ingredient in industrial processing. This case shows that even incremental innovation can have serious effects for the market when it is applied on production phases which lie outside the direct control of the PDO producers. In order to protect the consumer as well as the PDO producer, it would be advisable for new legislation to regulate in more detail innovation involving products bearing origin certificates.
... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production research and marketing research and....45 Production research and marketing research and development projects. (a) The following activities... Secretary, establish or provide for the establishment of production research, and marketing research and...
... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production research, marketing research and... Production research, marketing research and development. The committee may, with the approval of the Secretary, establish or provide for the establishment of production research, marketing research and...
Kim, So Youn; Cho, Jahyang; Cha, Sung-Ho; Bae, Chong-Woo
The goal of this study was to build basic information related to the production and market of human vaccine products in Korea, which can be an important indicator to provide basic data in practical use. Statistical data were obtained from the Bank of Korea, Korea Health Industry Development Institute, Korea Pharmaceutical Traders Association, and Korea Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association. Vaccines are the 10th ranked drugs in the classification of whole complete preparated drugs. The production output of vaccines in Korea was 392.2 billion KRW in 2011, comprising 2.83% of complete preparated drug production output (13 trillion 880.8 billion KRW) and 2.54% of medical-pharmaceutical product output (15 trillion 440.3 billion KRW). The market scale of vaccines in Korea was 710 billion KRW in 2011, with an annual average growth rate of 11% in the past 6 years, comprising 2% of vaccine market in the world. There was also a significant increase in essential vaccines and other preventive vaccines in a global scale. Vaccines have the potential of becoming an emerging attractive industry. Based on the current analysis about the production of vaccine products and market scale, further development of the vaccine industry is expected in Korea.
The purpose of this thesis was to identify the new marketing mode in the consuming products industry and to discuss its feasibility to apply the emerging marketing mode into other industries or countries. The new marketing mode is called the “Fans economy” marketing mode. The objectives of the thesis are comparing the new marketing mode with the traditional one rather than challenging it, so that the thesis can make the analysis about the advantages and the disadvantages of the new marketing ...
Ardley, Barry Charles; Quinn, Lee
Responding to repeated calls for marketing academicians to connect with marketing actors, we offer an empirically-sourced discourse analysis of the ways in which managers portray their practices. Focusing on the micro-discourses and narratives that marketing actors draw upon to represent their work we argue that dominant representations of marketing knowledge production present a number of critical concerns for marketing theory and marketing education. We also evidence that the often promoted...
Bjerrisgaard, Sofie Møller; Kjeldgaard, Dannie
Overview This chapter addresses the topic of global market research and questions the conventional understanding of market research techniques as managerial devices used to improve marketing decisions. Instead, this chapter considers market research as a cultural practice. This means that market...... upon market research addresses the question of how the type of insights generated about consumers/markets is structured by the choice of market research method. Based upon an ethnographic study of a global market research technique within the context of advertising, this chapter demonstrates how...... divergent practices and orientations of market research frame the kind of knowledge generated about consumers, markets, products and brands in global markets. The implications of such a reconceptualization of market research concern the refl exivity of managers upon their own marketplace embeddedness...
Potential future hydrogen market and possible applications of fusion were analyzed. Hydrogen is expected as a major energy and fuel mediun for the future, and various processes for hydrogen production can be considered as candidates for the use of fusion energy. In order to significantly contribute to reduction of CO 2 emission, fusion must be deployed in developing countries, and must substitute fossil based energy with synthetic fuel such as hydrogen. Hydrogen production processes will have to evaluated and compared from the aspects of energy efficiency and CO 2 emission. Fusion can provide high temperature heat that is suitable for vapor electrolysis, thermo-chemical water decomposition and steam reforming with biomass waste. That is a possible advantage of fusion over renewables and Light water power reactor. Despite of its technical difficulty, fusion is also expected to have less limitation for siting location in the developing countries. Under environmental constraints, fusion has a chance to be a major primary energy source, and production of hydrogen enhances its contribution, while in 'business as usual', fusion will not be selected in the market. Thus if fusion is to be largely used in the future, meeting socio-economic requirements would be important
Van der Linde, H.J.
The South African food irradiation program is a joint undertaking of the Nuclear Development Corporation and the Department of Agriculture. After almost a decade of research and development, it was decided to proceed to the commercialisation stage. A private company erected a commercial bath irradiator for the radurisation of, especially, subtropical fruits. There are now three commercial irradiators involved in the radurisation of fresh and processed food products in South Africa. The outcome of the marketing trials and ensuing factors found to be most important in the commercialisation of radurisation are discussed
Ganganee C. Samaraweera
Full Text Available Product harm crisis has become a serious issue in the business world today irrespective of the crisis mitigating strategies adopted to remedy the harm. The purpose of the study is to determine whether national culture shapes consumer reactions to crisis response strategies as a result of variation of consumers’ perceptions the affected firm’s moral responsibility. The study considers a comparison of 303 marketing-based Chinese and Sri Lankan students. Findings of independent sample t tests and Analysis of variance (ANOVA suggested that consumers’ moral perceptions vary significantly between China and Sri Lanka in response to crisis response strategies revealing a new insight in the crisis mitigating literature. A wounded company has to launch a super effort response in Sri Lanka whereas the voluntary recall response in China is sufficient in a crisis in order to maintain moral reputation. Moreover, the study reveals that implementation of an inappropriate strategy leads to significant financial and moral reputational loss to a company. Therefore, the study recommends companies choosing culture-specific response strategies in order to protect moral reputational status and to make the market sustainable.
Full Text Available PCR-based technique for GMO detection is the most reliable choice because of its high sensitivity and specificity. As a candidate of the European Union, Turkey must comply with the rules for launching into the market, traceability, and labeling of GMOs as established by EU legislation. Therefore, the objective of this study is to assess soybean products in the Turkish market to verify compliance with legislation using qualitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR assay to detect the presence of GM soybean and to quantify its amount of GM soybean in the samples tested positive using real-time PCR. DNA extracted by the modified CTAB method was properly used for PCR amplification of food materials. The amplification of a 118 bp DNA fragment of the lectin gene from soybean by PCR was successfully achieved in all samples. The GMO screening was based on the detection of 35S promoter and NOS terminator sequences. The GM positive samples were subjected to detection of Roundup ReadyTM soybean (RR using quantitative real-time PCR. It was found that 100% of the tested food samples contained less than 0.1 per cent of EPSPS gene.
Anjuman Ara Begum
Full Text Available Probiotics containing food supplements available in Bangladesh market were identified and collected for assessment. To assess their label claim, they were resuspended into sterile distilled water. Then, series dilutions of each sample solution were prepared and immediately plated out, in duplicate, into De Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS agar. These plates were then incubated at 37°C for 48 hours and colonies were counted. Viable cell numbers stated on the labels were compared with actual viable cell numbers. To assess the viability of the probiotics included in the products, probiotic strains were isolated from each of the four products and screened for inhibitory activity against six indicator strains. It was surprisingly found that although the viable cell numbers of all supplements were three to four log cycles lower than label claim of the products, however, this problem did not affect the inhibitory activity of the probiotic strains against indicator strains according to in vitro assessment. Legislation and regulation regarding prebiotic-probiotic containing products should be built up in Bangladesh to ensure quality products supply to the consumers. Moreover, manufacturers of probiotic containing products should take the responsibility for providing the consumer with scientifically and legally correct information.
Shmuel S. Oren; Michael H. Rothkopf
New product planning models attempt to predict the market consequences of product line and product design decisions. One output of such models, especially those driven by subjective or market research data, is usually theoretical market shares based upon consumer preferences under idealized conditions. This paper describes a class of models that bridge the gap between such theoretical market shares and dynamic sales forecasts. This model accounts for differences in customer awareness of diffe...
Urbain, R.W.; Urbain, W.M.
Marketing procedures need to be designed specifically for the particular products involved. While most marketing efforts are directed toward the consumer, it is likely that with radiation insect-disinfestated foods, the principal effort will be concerned with food distributors and retailers. Labelling as ''irradiated'' should be at the option of the vendor and not mandatory. A three-step procedure for marketing is proposed: (1) identification of specific market need or opportunity; (2) test production and marketing; and (3) commercial production and marketing. It is suggested that information on irradiated foods directed toward answering potential consumer interests and concerns be made available
Greene, Sarah Marsden
Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are important in rural southwest Virginia as a source of household sustenance and supplemental income. The trade in NTFPs from this region is centuries old and now helps supply growing worldwide demands. Although marketing is a vital part of optimizing the value of these products, it has been ignored in rural natural resource development. This research analyzes marketing systems for selected NTFPs in southwest Virginia by describing marketing chains, inter...
A. N. Polozova
Full Text Available Summary. Methodical procedures economic monitoring market position of industrial organization, particularly those relating to food production, including the 5 elements: matrix «component of business processes», matrix «materiality – efficiency», matrix «materiality – relevant», matrix emption and hindering factors matrix operation scenarios. Substantiated components assess the strengths and weaknesses of the business activities of organizations that characterize the state of internal business environment on the elements: production, organization, personnel, finance, marketing. The advantages of the matrix «materiality – relevance» consisting of 2 materiality level - high and low, and 3 directions relevance – «no change», «gain importance in the future», «lose importance in the future». Presented the contents of the matrix «scenarios functioning of the organization», involving 6 attribute levels, 10 classes of scenarios, 19 activities, including an optimistic and pessimistic. The evaluation of primary classes of scenarios, characterized by the properties of «development», «dynamic equilibrium», «quality improvement», «competitiveness», «favorable realization of opportunities», «competition resistance».
Asnah Hassan; Norimah Yusof
Wound dressing plays an important role in wound management of burns and other surface injuries. Each year our local health authorities spend around 320 million in importing conventional and modern wound dressing. Modern and synthetic dressing made up only 7% of this imports and more are in demand as their usage usage can reduce the cost of wound treatment up to 60%. Locally produced synthetic dressing will help to reduce the currency flow from the country. MINT has successfully produced a hydrogel- based synthetic dressing during the 7 th Malaysia Plan. The product has been filed for patent in 2000( File no; PI 2000 2615) and has been licensed to Pharmaniaga Manufacturing Bhd for the commercial production on 25 June 2002. This presentation will highlight events leading to the transfer from laboratory scale to a larger scale production at MINT-Pharmaniaga Laboratory. This technology transfer is made possible through integrated effort of personal from various division in MINT. Continuous interaction between MINT researcher and the production unit of the company will ensure that the product will reach the market on time. (Author)
Full Text Available This research studied bio-hydrogen production from vegetable waste from a fresh market in order to recover energy. A series of batch experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of initial volatile solids concentration on the bio-hydrogen production process. Lab bench scale anaerobic continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTR were used to study the effect of substrate and sludge inoculation on hydrogen production. Three different concentrations of initial total volatile solids (TVS of organic waste were varied from 2%, 3% and 5% respectively. The pH was controlled at 5.5 for all batches in the experiment. The results showed that bio-hydrogen production depended on feed-substrate concentration. At initial TVS content of 3%, the highest hydrogen production was achieved at a level of 0.59 L-H2/L at pH 5.5. The maximum hydrogen yield was 15.3 ml H2/g TVS or 8.5 ml H2/g COD. The composition of H2 in the biogas ranged from 28.1-30.9% and no CH4 was detected in all batch tests.
Full Text Available Why are product prices in online markets dispersed in spite of very small search costs? To address this question, we construct a unique dataset from a Japanese price comparison site, which records price quotes offered by e-retailers as well as customers' clicks on products, which occur when they proceed to purchase the product. The novelty of our approach is that we seek to extract useful information on the source of price dispersion from the shape of price distributions rather than focusing merely on the standard deviation or the coefficient of variation of prices, as previous studies have done. We find that the distribution of prices retailers quote for a particular product at a particular point in time (divided by the lowest price follows an exponential distribution, showing the presence of substantial price dispersion. For example, 20 percent of all retailers quote prices that are more than 50 percent higher than the lowest price. Next, comparing the probability that customers click on a retailer with a particular rank and the probability that retailers post prices at a particular rank, we show that both decline exponentially with price rank and that the exponents associated with the probabilities are quite close. This suggests that the reason why some retailers set prices at a level substantially higher than the lowest price is that they know that some customers will choose them even at that high price. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that price dispersion in online markets stems from heterogeneity in customers' preferences over retailers; that is, customers choose a set of candidate retailers based on their preferences, which are heterogeneous across customers, and then pick a particular retailer among the candidates based on the price ranking.
Mizuno, Takayuki; Watanabe, Tsutomu
Why are product prices in online markets dispersed in spite of very small search costs? To address this question, we construct a unique dataset from a Japanese price comparison site, which records price quotes offered by e-retailers as well as customers’ clicks on products, which occur when they proceed to purchase the product. The novelty of our approach is that we seek to extract useful information on the source of price dispersion from the shape of price distributions rather than focusing merely on the standard deviation or the coefficient of variation of prices, as previous studies have done. We find that the distribution of prices retailers quote for a particular product at a particular point in time (divided by the lowest price) follows an exponential distribution, showing the presence of substantial price dispersion. For example, 20 percent of all retailers quote prices that are more than 50 percent higher than the lowest price. Next, comparing the probability that customers click on a retailer with a particular rank and the probability that retailers post prices at a particular rank, we show that both decline exponentially with price rank and that the exponents associated with the probabilities are quite close. This suggests that the reason why some retailers set prices at a level substantially higher than the lowest price is that they know that some customers will choose them even at that high price. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that price dispersion in online markets stems from heterogeneity in customers’ preferences over retailers; that is, customers choose a set of candidate retailers based on their preferences, which are heterogeneous across customers, and then pick a particular retailer among the candidates based on the price ranking. PMID:24015219
Full Text Available Nowadays, companies offer product bundles with special discounts in order to sell more products. However, it is important to note that customers show different levels of loyalties to companies, and each segment of the market has unique features, which influences the customers’ buying patterns. The primary purpose of this paper is to propose a novel model for product bundling in e-commerce websites by using market segmentation variables and customer loyalty analysis. RFM model is employed to calculate customer loyalty. Subsequently, the customers are grouped based on their loyalty levels. Each group is then divided into different segments based on market segmentation variables. The product bundles are determined for each market segment via clustering algorithms. Apriori algorithm is also used to determine the association rules for each product bundle. Classification models are applied in order to determine which product bundle should be recommended to each customer. The results demonstrate that the silhouette coefficient, support, confidence, and accuracy values are higher when both customer loyalty level and market segmentation variables are used in product bundling. Accordingly, the proposed model increases the chance of success in direct marketing and recommending product bundles to customers.
Pennings, J.M.E.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.
Farms are increasingly being affected by policies that involve production rights. Because of fluctuations in the prices of these rights in the spot market, farmers face a price risk. Establishing a futures market might enable them to hedge against this price risk. Rights futures have some features
van Nierop, E.; van Herpen, E.; Sloot, L.M.
To stimulate sales of sustainable products, retailers need to know whether their in-store instruments effectively influence their market shares. This study uses actual sales data and a multilevel modeling approach to describe the market shares of sustainable brands according to price level, price
... POSTAL SERVICE Market Test of Experimental Product: ``Gift Cards'' AGENCY: Postal Service \\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service gives notice of a market test of an experimental product in... notice pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3641(c)(1) that it will begin a market test of its ``Gift Cards...
The purpose of the qualitative positivistic case study was to explore whether resource communication technology has helped or would help the marketing of textile products in the U.S. textile industry. The contributions of human capital in the marketing department, the marketing-demand information system function, and the product supply chain…
... Gift Cards market test on April 28, 2011.\\11\\ The market test enabled customers to purchase a gift card... United States Postal Service for Temporary Extension of Gift Cards Market Test, June 18, 2013; Docket No... authorized the market test to proceed subject to the condition that the sale of gift cards be limited to...
Asp, Nils-Georg; Bryngelsson, Susanne
Since 1990 certain health claims in the labelling and marketing of food products have been allowed in Sweden within the food sector's Code of Practice. The rules were developed in close dialogue with the authorities. The legal basis was a decision by the authorities not to apply the medicinal products’ legislation to “foods normally found on the dinner table” provided the rules defined in the Code were followed. The Code of Practice lists nine well-established diet–health relationships eligible for generic disease risk reduction claims in two steps and general rules regarding nutrient function claims. Since 2001, there has also been the possibility for using “product-specific physiological claims (PFP)”, subject to premarketing evaluation of the scientific dossier supporting the claim. The scientific documentation has been approved for 10 products with PFP, and another 15 products have been found to fulfil the Code's criteria for “low glycaemic index”. In the third edition of the Code, active since 2004, conditions in terms of nutritional composition were set, i.e. “nutrient profiles”, with a general reference to the Swedish National Food Administration's regulation on the use of a particular symbol, i.e. the keyhole symbol. Applying the Swedish Code of practice has provided experience useful in the implementation of the European Regulation on nutrition and health claims made on foods, effective from 2007.
Sorenson, Douglas J.
Strategic reviews of the Irish Food and Beverage Industry have consistently emphasised the need for food and beverage firms to improve their innovation and marketing capabilities, in order to maintain competitiveness in both domestic and overseas markets. In particular, the functional food and beverages market has been singled out as an extremely important emerging market, which Irish firms could benefit from through an increased technological and market orientation. Although h...
Gyulnara M. Gasymova
Full Text Available The article studies basic aspects of marketing applying on the Russian flower market. The author has identified the main trends of marketing activities of companies and selected features of marketing mix of the flowers. In addition, the features of the communication policy of flower companies are identified. The author conducted a competitive analysis of companies at the wholesale and retail sectors of the Russian flower market.
Chenavaz, Régis; Paraschiv, Corina; Turinici, Gabriel
Dynamic pricing of new products has been extensively studied in monopolistic and oligopolistic markets. But, the optimal control and differential game tools used to investigate the pricing behavior on markets with a finite number of firms are not well-suited to model competitive markets with an infinity of firms. Using a mean-field games approach, this paper examines dynamic pricing policies in competitive markets, where no firm exerts market power. The theoretical setting is based on a diffu...
O.F. Gryshсhenko; A.D. Niesheva
The aim of this article. The aim of this article is to analyze the connection and relation between social media marketing and enterprise’s products promotion, to show the importance of using social media in marketing and the role of marketers in this process. The results of the analysis. This article is based on the investigation of specialized literature regarding new promotional techniques used at the global market nowadays. Authors analyze the definition to the social media marketing...
The evolution of power markets in the United States from traditional cost based rates to mature markets, characterized by significant specialization, high volume financial market and multiple futures/indices, is described. The meaning and characteristic features of the commodity market in electricity, OTC/futures products for the electricity markets, physical delivery vs. financial settlement, models for producer trading positions and consumer trading positions, long producer position, long spread option position, short consumer position, and long producer time spread position were explained
The economy of palm oil production and marketing in Igala land. ... Palm oil processing and marketing constituted one of the major occupations of the people as men, women and even the young ones ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT
On the basis of defining the concept of market access for agricultural products,this paper analyzes the necessity of establishing market access system of agricultural products,proposes the conception of establishing market access system of agricultural products in China;sets up the frame of market access system of agricultural products;analyzes the rationality of the frame of market access system of agricultural products;poses the consideration of economic law regarding setup of market access system of agricultural products.This paper also puts forward the legislative suggestions for establishing market access system of agricultural products as follows:establish the frame of market access system of agricultural products taking quality access as core;establish and perfect the compensation and relief system of guaranteeing benefit of manager and producers;establish the market access system of agricultural products with hierarchical structure;sort out existing laws and form the sound the legal frame of market access system of agricultural products.
... derived from clinical investigations and presented as part of a marketing application. The marketing... product is safe and effective for its intended uses, as reflected in the marketing application, it... general principles underlying the IND submission and the general requirements for an IND's content and...
The Phase 1 report (ORNL/Sub/94-SVO44/1), completed earlier in this program, involved a comprehensive field survey and market analysis comparing various specialized outdoor air handling units. This initial investigation included conventional cooling and reheat, conventional cooling with sensible recovery, total energy recovery systems (passive desiccant technology) and various active desiccant systems. The report concluded that several markets do promise a significant sales opportunity for a Climate Changer-based active desiccant system offering. (Climate Changer is a registered trademark of Trane Company.) This initial market analysis defined the wants and needs of the end customers (design engineers and building owners), which, along with subsequent information included in this report, have been used to guide the determination of the most promising active desiccant system configurations. This Phase 2 report begins with a summary of a more thorough investigation of those specific markets identified as most promising for active desiccant systems. Table 1 estimates the annual sales potential for a cost-effective product line of active desiccant systems, such as that built from Climate Changer modules. The Product Development Strategy section describes the active desiccant system configurations chosen to best fit the needs of the marketplace while minimizing system options. Key design objectives based on market research are listed in this report for these active desiccant systems. Corresponding performance goals for the dehumidification wheel required to meet the overall system design objectives are also defined. The Performance Modeling section describes the strategy used by SEMCO to design the dehumidification wheels integrated into the prototype systems currently being tested as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Desiccant Technology Program. Actual performance data from wheel testing was used to revise the system performance and energy analysis
F. J. Herbst
Full Text Available The purpose of the study as demarcated in this article was to test the use of the product life cycle concept (PLC theory among marketing decision-makers and product decision-makers dealing with mortgage products and markets in the leading South African Banks. The main focus was to test the application and likelihood to use the PLC assumptions provided by Kotler (2003:340 on marketing characteristics, described marketing objectives and the proposed marketing strategies in the four PLC phases. A major finding was that the majority of these decision-makers in banks indicated a high likelihood of continuing to use the product life cycle concept. Another important conclusion of this study was that further empirical research is needed to develop product life cycle concept assumptions to be inclusive of the intangible nature linked to the marketing of services.
Oguntade, Adegboyega E; Oluwalana, Isaac B
There are informal and formal markets for medicinal plants' products in Nigeria. The formal market is subject to the national regulatory framework for Food and Drug Administration and Control. It is relatively new and underdeveloped. This study was designed to appraise this market with special emphasis on the market participants, market structure, marketing functions performed, conduct of sellers in the market and; standards and regulations to which the market is subject. Information used for this study was collected through personal interviews and interactions with key participants in the market; especially the officials of regulatory agency. The market structure was analysed in terms of the share of market controlled by participants and product types. Concentration Ratios (CR2 and CR4) were used to assess the market share. Marketing functions being performed were described in terms of the exchange, physical and facilitating functions while the conduct was described in terms of pricing and promotional strategies. The regulatory framework under which the market operates was appraised. The market was highly concentrated with a CR2 and CR4 of 58.5% and 80.8 %; respectively. Imported products accounted for only 12.3% of the market. The predominant modes of presentation of the product were capsule (41.6%) and liquid (36.2%). About 20.77% of the products were classified as multivitamins, 13.85% were antibiotics while 10.77% addressed sexual dysfunctional problems. These products were regulated under the Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) decrees, 1993-1999. Only 2.3% of the products have received full registration status while the others were only listed.
Baker, Alister Derek; Christensen, Tove
A model of a 3-stage food marketing chain is presented for the case of two products. Its extension of existing work is its capacity to examine non-competitive input and output markets in two marketing chains at once, and have them related by demand and cost interactions. The simulated impacts...... of market power in a single chain generally reproduce those delivered by previous authors. The impacts of market power in related chains are found to depend on linkages between chains in terms of interactions in consumer demand. Interactions between products in costs (economies of scope) generate...... an interesting result in that a possible market failure is identified that may be offset by the exercise of market power. The generation of farm-level innovation is seen to be largely unaffected by market power, but where market power is exercised the benefits are extracted from farmers and consumers...
Full Text Available Green agriculture can improve biodiversity, increase farmers’ income, reduce agricultural non-point source pollution, solve food safety issues, and will be an important way to promote sustainable development in China. At present, the green transformation of China’s agriculture has encountered a bottleneck in the development of a green agricultural product market. How to develop a green agricultural product market has become an issue worthy of in-depth study in the academia. Previous studies have already given persuasive explanations for the inability to form a green agricultural product market, but few have explored its development path from the angle of cooperation. By employing the method of a Transferable Utilities (TU cooperative game, and based on theoretical analyses and hypothetical data, this thesis aims to prove the effectiveness of the multilateral coalition to develop the green agricultural product market in China. The results show the effectiveness of the developed model of the green agricultural product market in which producers, consumers, food safety inspection departments, and e-commerce platforms cooperate with each other. This model meets the objective needs of the times and that of the market economy. According to the marginal contribution value of participants in different coalition orders, this thesis finds 6 kinds of coalition orders. When producers and consumers of green agricultural products enter the coalition in the last place, the marginal contribution value is maximized, which reflects the importance of the supply side and demand side of green agricultural products. In other words, the development of the green agricultural product market is a dynamic process—determined by consumers and promoted by producers—in which both sides promote and restrict each other. Finally, this article presents two policy recommendations: at the national level, to clearly proposes a strategy to build a green agricultural product e
Full Text Available In this paper, we have performed a survey to study the effects of aggressive marketing, price leadership and product focus on marketing channels in relationship-oriented marketing. The study adopts a model developed earlier by Rokkan and Haugland (2002 [Rokkan, A. I., & Haugland, S. A. (2002. Developing relational exchange: effectiveness and power. European Journal of Marketing, 36(1/2, 211-230.]. The study has been executed among all managers of a firm named PET Technologies. There were 30 managers working for the proposed case study of this paper and we have designed a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributed it among all managers of this firm. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.931, which is well above the minimum acceptable level of 0.70. The results have confirmed that all thee marketing strategies influence on relationship-oriented marketing, positively.
Eymar, Patrick; Grimard, Max
still think about the future, especially at industry level in order to make the most judicious choices in technologies, vehicle types as well as human resources and facilities specialization (especially after recent merger moves). and production as prime contractor, industrial architect or stage provider have taken benefit of this expertise and especially of all the studies ran under national funding and own financing on reusable vehicles and ground/flight demonstrators have analyzed several scenarios. VEHICLES/ASTRIUM SI strategy w.r.t. launch vehicles for the two next decades. Among the main inputs taken into account of course visions of the market evolutions have been considered, but also enlargement of international cooperations and governments requests and supports (e.g. with the influence of large international ventures). 1 firstname.lastname@example.org 2
This report completes a two-part project in support of the Volpe Center program, Public Acceptance and Markets for Various IVHS Services. The first report, A Primer on Marketing Research, provides an overview of the research approaches an...
Ardley, Barry; Taylor, Nick
Purpose: The aim of this paper is to analyse the central characteristics of tacit knowledge in marketing decision making. Little empirical or theoretical work in marketing specifically addresses this area. Design\\methods: The study reports on a series of in depth interviews with marketing managers, using discourse analysis as a method of framing their accounts of practice. Findings: Managers in this study offer up a rich alternative discourse to much current mainstream theory in market...
The ''Red Book'' has been compiled since the mid-1960s as a joint OECD/NEA and IAEA publication. The analysis presents an overview of present uranium supply and demand with perspectives reaching as far as 2035. Data from 35 countries were accumulated about exploration, resources, production, and prices. The 23 rd edition contains the most recent basic evaluations of the world uranium market, providing a profile of nuclear fuel supply. Forecasts of nuclear generating capacity and uranium requirement for reactor use up until 2035 are presented along with a discussion of uranium supplies and aspects of demand beyond that time frame. Worldwide expenditures for the exploration of uranium resources in 2008 totaled more than US $1.6 billion, which is a 133% increase over expenses in 2006. Most of the important producer countries reported rising expenses for exploration as well as for commissioning new production centers. The total ''identified'' (=reasonably assured and inferred) reserves as of January 1, 2009 in the 3 O 8 ) category decreased slightly to 5,404,000 t U while a clear increase to 6,306,300 t U was seen in the re-introduced ''high cost'' category ( 3 O 8 ). Uranium production in 2008 amounted to 43,880 t U, which is an increase of 6% over 2007 (41,244 t U), and of 11% over 2006 (39,617 t U). In 2008, worldwide uranium production (43,880 t U) covered roughly 74% of the worldwide requirement for use in reactors (59,065 t U). The balance was met out of secondary sources. (orig.)
Konov, Joshua Ioji
Market economy of enhancing business laws in contracting, bonding, insuring, legal corporate structures , e.g. will marginalize the economic agents and tools that make market competition unfair, empower small and medium businesses and investors, and boost business activities, fiscal strength, employment, and capital transmission. Keynesian capital infusion will extend its market effect in such higher security marketplace.
The fourth essay uses bargaining theory and compares the outcome of a negotiation in two differently organized markets. In the first market, sellers simultaneously offer their good or service for sale. In the second market, sellers queue and offer their good or service sequentially for sale.
Spiteri, Sheree A; Olstad, Dana Lee; Woods, Julie L
Food manufacturers have made public statements and voluntary commitments, such as the Healthier Australia Commitment (HAC), to improve the nutritional quality of foods. However, limited information about the nutritional quality or healthfulness of new products makes it difficult to determine if manufacturers are doing this. The purpose of this study was to assess the healthfulness of new food products released into the Australian retail market in 2015, and whether those companies who were HAC members released healthier food options compared to non-HAC members. This cross-sectional study assessed the healthfulness of all new retail food products launched in Australia in 2015 as indexed in Mintel's Global New Products Database. Healthfulness was assessed using three classification schemes: Healthy Choices Framework Victoria, Australian Dietary Guidelines and NOVA Food Classification System. Descriptive statistics and chi-squared tests described and compared the number and proportions of new foods falling within each of the food classification schemes' categories for companies that were and were not HAC members. In 2015, 4143 new food products were launched into the Australian market. The majority of new products were classified in each schemes' least healthy category (i.e. red, discretionary and ultra-processed). Fruits and vegetables represented just 3% of new products. HAC members launched a significantly greater proportion of foods classified as red (59% vs 51% for members and non-members, respectively) discretionary (79% vs 61%), and ultra-processed (94% vs 81%), and significantly fewer were classified as green (8% vs 15%), core foods (18% vs 36%) and minimally processed (0% vs 6%) (all p food market in 2015 were classified in each of three schemes' least healthy categories. A greater proportion of new products launched by companies that publicly committed to improve the nutritional quality of their products were unhealthy, and a lower proportion were healthy
Herpen, van E.; Nierop, van J.E.M.; Sloot, L.M.
To stimulate sales of sustainable products, such as organic and fair trade products, retailers need to know whether their in-store instruments effectively enhance market shares. This study uses sales data and a multilevel modeling approach to explain the market shares of sustainable products
van Herpen, Erica; van Nierop, Erjen; Sloot, Laurens
To stimulate sales of sustainable products, such as organic and fair trade products, retailers need to know whether their in-store instruments effectively enhance market shares. This study uses sales data and a multilevel modeling approach to explain the market shares of sustainable products
Haase, Ethan E.
The market for space launch services has undergone significant development in the last two decades and is poised to change even further. With the introduction of new players in the market, and the development of new vehicles by existing providers, competition has increased. At the same time, customer payloads have been changing as satellites grow in size and capability. Amidst these changes, launch delays have become a concern in the industry, and launch service providers have developed different solutions to avoid delays and satisfy customer needs. This analysis discusses these trends in the launch services market and their drivers. Focus is given to the market for medium, intermediate, and heavy launch services which generally includes launches of GEO communication satellites, large government payloads, and NGSO constellations. .
Rachel Griffith; Rupert Harrison; Helen Simpson
This report analyses the impact of product market reforms, in the form of the EU Single Market Programme, on the extent of product market competition and the subsequent effects of competition on innovation activity and productivity growth.The report first summarises the main messages from the existing theoretical and empirical literature on the relationship between competition and innovation and uses this to inform the subsequent empirical analysis. The theoretical literature on competition a...
Rowles, Kristin; Henehan, Brian M.; White, Gerald B.
This report compiles the results of several studies focused on the markets for processed apple products. These studies were conducted as part of a multidisciplinary project examining the processing apple industry in the Northeastern United States. The purpose of the studies was to explore the potential for new products and new marketing strategies that might bring innovation to the apple industry. In the global and highly competitive markets in which apple products fight for shelf space and c...
Full Text Available according to the author, in modern conditions of globalization of food markets, the researching the state of the domestic market of poultry products in order to provide the population with high-grade food products is important. It is established that the formation of demand in the poultry market is mainly due to production by domestic producers, while imports for the period under review are being reduced and meet mainly the needs of processing industry enterprises.
Barbano, David M
During the first 100 years of the Journal of Dairy Science, dairy foods and dairy production dairy scientists have partnered to publish new data and research results that have fostered the development of new knowledge. This knowledge has been the underpinning of both the commercial development of the fluid milk processing industry and regulations and marketing policies for the benefit of dairy farmers, processors, and consumers. During the first 50 years, most of the focus was on producing and delivering high-quality raw milk to factories and improving the shelf life of pasteurized fluid milk. During the second 50 years, raw milk quality was further improved through the use of milk quality payment incentives. Due to changing demographics and lifestyle, whole fluid milk consumption declined and processing technologies were developed to increase the range of fluid milk products (skim and low-fat milks, flavored milks, lactose-reduced milk, long-shelf-life milks, and milks with higher protein and calcium contents) offered to the consumer. In addition, technology to produce specialty high-protein sports beverages was developed, which expanded the milk-based beverage offerings to the consumer. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pop Cohut Ioana
Full Text Available The current stage of retail trade development in Romania still shows an important capacity to absorb, both of large outlets as well as of small outlets, which lately have disappeared from the market and they hardly cope with the superstore competition. A part of the market which has been yet insufficiently explored, with an important potential for development and which is represented by the stores selling traditional Romanian products, as well as the bio product stores, as long as these are made in Romania and are not imported. Also, the paper is trying to analyse the importance of this type of trade and its trends, its lacks and the possibilities of development.
Full Text Available This paper begins with the term product brand identity as the new market paradigm. It aims to define the term product brand identity and its significance for realisation of the market value of a product’s brand and overall marketing goals of an economic operator. The strategy of economic operator and desired market positioning of a brand is implemented by means of product brand identity and a combination of its elements. Systematic creation and identity management of a product’s brand resulted in the uniqueness of the brand, and set the foundation for building the entire process of product brand management.
Full Text Available In general terms, the mortgage market has two faces, the primary and the secondary markets. The primary market covers housing mortgage loans. On the other side of the mechanism, these loans are securitized and issued in financial markets with different form of securities in secondary markets. The common name of these instruments is “mortgage backed securities - MBS”. A mortgage backed security is a financial instrument issued in capital markets for investors, derived from either backed by the cash flow of the housing loan repayments (which is called pay-through or backed by directly selling the mortgage pools to the MBS issuers (which is called passthrough. The most trading secondary mortgage market instruments and world practices are explained in this article.
Romao, J.; Neuts, B.; Nijkamp, P.; Leeuwen, E.S. van
The tourism sector is evolving into an advanced industrial sector. Modern tourism presupposes an attractive portfolio of tourist services for a varied set of visitors. Meanwhile, tourism destinations have turned into multifaceted tourist complexes comprising a broad package of amenities that satisfy the needs of a heterogeneous group of clients. Such tourist complexes may be regarded as export-oriented multi-product companies, characterized by spatial and functional market segmentation and by...
Contemporary Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.
The proposed strategy, which is designed to maximize the effectiveness and minimize the costs of marketing the Information Analysis Products (IAPs) produced by the 16 ERIC Clearinghouses, is based on a study of the concept of centralized versus decentralized ordering of selected ERIC products. The experiment measured four variables--postage,…
Ingenbleek, P.; Frambach, R.T.; Verhallen, T.M.M.
Although the positive effect of a market orientation on new product success is widely accepted and the market orientation literature has increased its understanding of how a market orientation leads to performance, the extant literature has overlooked the role of value-informed pricing in the
Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Frambach, R.T.; Verhallen, Th.M.M.
Although the positive effect of a market orientation on new product success is widely accepted and the market orientation literature has increased its understanding of how a market orientation leads to performance, the extant literature has overlooked the role of value-informed pricing in the
Smits, A.A.J.; Dankbaar, B.; Vissers, G.
This paper focuses on the marketing function in product innovation projects in established b-t-b firms. The marketing function in an innovation project is a term to denote both the project members that connect the project to customers or, more broadly, the market, and their activities in innovation
George, Lisa M.
This paper examines the effect of ownership concentration on product position, product variety and readership in markets for daily newspapers. US antitrust policy presumes that mergers reduce the amount and diversity of content available to consumers. However, the effects of consolidation in differentiated product markets cannot be determined solely from theory. Because multi-product firms internalize business stealing, mergers may encourage firms to reposition products, leading to more, not ...
As far as the period after the Meiji era is concerned, at its begining marketing of animal products was formed in conlpliance with the properties of products as a public commodity and the amount of investment needed. The former factor depends basically on the divisibility and the preservation possibilities of the products. The latter is the capital needed for marketing and production. 1) Eggs are the most divisible and preservable of all the animal products. Also, hens can be kept with sm...
Obersteiner, M. H.; Müller, H.; Spies, H.
This paper presents a business planning model for a commercial space launch system. The financing model is based on market analyses and projections combined with market capture models. An operations model is used to derive the annual cash income. Parametric cost modeling, development and production schedules are used for quantifying the annual expenditures, the internal rate of return, break even point of positive cash flow and the respective prices per launch. Alternative consortia structures, cash flow methods, capture rates and launch prices are used to examine the sensitivity of the model. Then the model is applied for a promising semi-reusable launcher concept, showing the general achievability of the commercial approach and the necessary pre-conditions.
Koke, J.; Renneboog, L.D.R.
This study investigates the impact of corporate governance and product market competition on total factor productivity growth for two large samples of German and UK firms. In poorly performing UK firms, the presence of strong outside blockholders lead to substantial increases in productivity.
While export of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) has been promoted as a sustainable development strategy, the literature suggests that local and regional markets are also potentially important, not only for producers but also for traders and consumers (Shackleton et al. 2007). For producers, regional markets are thought to offer more accessible and more stable markets, while for traders, these markets offer employment, and for consumers, reasonably priced, diverse, fresh food. Consumptio...
Ali, Noaman; Wanwang, Alisa
This paper aims to examine salient issues in the Halal food business with special focus on entering Thai Halal food products into international market. Market screening plays an important role in entering new market or setting up the business in the foreign country. In this paper we have analyzed the importance of Halal Food for the Muslims and explained the growth of Halal food in French markets. The study focuses attention on the identification of key areas in Halal food export and channel ...
Föllmi, Reto; Meister, Urs
This paper presents an attempt to create competition in the water market by means of direct competition. We argue that the usual liberalisation device, competition for the market by franchise bidding, is problematic due to the particular features of the water industry. Our approach proposes the implementation of product market competition, i.e. competition in the market. In such a situation several water utilities using a single set of pipes compete for customers in the same area. Since the w...
This article aims to present the recent labour market policies for encouraging economic activity of working age population, labour market inclusion and increasing labour productivity. It points out that a number of different programs and labour market measures have been implemented in Bulgaria in the last twenty years. The results of the analysis show up both positive and negative features of the implemented policies. These policies contribute to increasing labour market inclusion in the shor...
Bamford, James; Ernst, David; Fubini, David G
More than 5,000 joint ventures, and many more contractual alliances, have been launched worldwide in the past five years. Companies are realizing that JVs and alliances can be lucrative vehicles for developing new products, moving into new markets, and increasing revenues. The problem is, the success rate for JVs and alliances is on a par with that for mergers and acquisitions--which is to say not very good. The authors, all McKinsey consultants, argue that JV success remains elusive for most companies because they don't pay enough attention to launch planning and execution. Most companies are highly disciplined about integrating the companies they target through M&A, but they rarely commit sufficient resources to launching similarly sized joint ventures or alliances. As a result, the parent companies experience strategic conflicts, governance gridlock, and missed operational synergies. Often, they walk away from the deal. The launch phase begins with the parent companies' signing of a memorandum of understanding and continues through the first 100 days of the JV or alliance's operation. During this period, it's critical for the parents to convene a team dedicated to exposing inherent tensions early. Specifically, the launch team must tackle four basic challenges. First, build and maintain strategic alignment across the separate corporate entities, each of which has its own goals, market pressures, and shareholders. Second, create a shared governance system for the two parent companies. Third, manage the economic interdependencies between the corporate parents and the JV. And fourth, build a cohesive, high-performing organization (the JV or alliance)--not a simple task, since most managers come from, will want to return to, and may even hold simultaneous positions in the parent companies. Using real-world examples, the authors offer their suggestions for meeting these challenges.
Steven Berry; Alon Eizenberg; Joel Waldfogel
It is well documented that, in the presence of substantial fixed costs, markets offer preference majorities more variety than preference minorities. This fact alone, however, does not demonstrate the market outcome is in any way biased against preference minorities. In this paper, we clarify the sense in which the market outcome may in fact be biased against preference minorities, and we provide some conditions for such bias to occur. We then estimate the degree of bias in a particular indust...
Schmit, Otto; Fontguyon, Guy de; Sans, Pierre
The contribution presents some of the main results of a European program of investigation (titled Organic Marketing Initiatives – OMIs – and Rural Development). Firstly, consumer behavior, as well as attitudes, expectations, motives and buying barriers concerning organic food are explored. Then, authors give a brief overview of the organic market analysis of 18 European countries, based on a Delphi inquiry. Finally, the third part highlights the role of OMIs in the organic market development ...
Hopper, J A; Busbin, J W
America is undergoing a profound age shift in its demographic make-up with people 55 and over comprising an increasing proportion of the population. Marketers may need to increase their response rate to this shift, especially in refining the application of marketing theory and practice to older age consumers. To this end, a survey of older couple buying behavior for health insurance coverage is reported here. Results clarify evaluative criteria and the viability of multiple market segmentation for health care coverage among older consumers as couples. Commentary on the efficacy of present health coverage marketing programs is provided.
Mehta, Kaye; Phillips, Clare; Ward, Paul; Coveney, John; Handsley, Elizabeth; Carter, Patricia
To investigate marketing techniques used on the packaging of child-oriented products sold through supermarkets. Food and beverage products which met criteria for 'marketed to children' were recorded as child-oriented. The products were analysed for food categories, nutritional value, and type and extent of marketing techniques used. A major supermarket chain in Adelaide, South Australia. Child-oriented food and beverage products. One hundred and fifty-seven discrete products were marketed to children via product packaging; most (75·2 %) represented non-core foods, being high in fat or sugar. Many marketing techniques (more than sixteen unique marketing techniques) were used to promote child-oriented food products. Claims about health and nutrition were found on 55·5 % of non-core foods. A median of 6·43 marketing techniques per product was found. The high volume and power of marketing non-core foods to children via product packaging in supermarkets should be of concern to policy makers wanting to improve children's diet for their health and to tackle childhood obesity. Claims about health or nutrition on non-core foods deserve urgent attention owing to their potential to mislead and confuse child and adult consumers.
Full Text Available The primary aim of this paper was to discover connection between company’s competitiveness and product placement as a marketing tool. The secondary aim was searching for the genesis of product placement. The mentioned issues are explained from the perspectives of three groups: TV studios experts, directors and producers, and other experts (media agencies and advertisers. The Czech Republic market where product placement can be registered is very small – only few television companies. The survey was conducted during years 2011 and 2012 in the Czech Republic. There is no directly measurable tool to tell us exact outputs. However, the results reveal: Marketers are sure that product placement is efficient. The product placement belongs to a longterm marketing field where the brand building is also included. On the basis of the ascertainments acquired by the survey, the basic links between product placement, long-term marketing, and competitiveness are explained in this paper.
Rogers, John D; Biener, Lois; Clark, Pamela I
This exploratory study was designed to assess the availability, price, and point-of-purchase marketing strategies for new smokeless tobacco products in 4 test market areas. A random sample of 50 gas stations, convenience and food stores, and tobacco shops was selected in each of 4 test market areas. Pairs of observers visited each store, recorded product information, and engaged vendors in conversation about product demand. Snus was available in 64% of the stores, but availability and price differed by brand. Point-of-purchase marketing also varied by brand on a variety of dimensions and all brands appeared to be marketed primarily to smokers. Camel Snus was described by store attendants as having the highest demand and was also the most expensive of the observed products. In light of the number of test market cities and intensity of promotion at retail locations, Camel Snus was the most intensively marketed product. The results appear to reflect differences in marketing strategy by American snus manufacturers. These strategies may help to predict future marketing of snus and other tobacco products and may provide a baseline for later assessments of product acceptance.
Full Text Available This article discusses the important issue of the development of the global market of oil and oil products. It offers an overview of how this market was formed and its current status, classification, location and potential of countries in the oil and oil processing business. It analyzes the Ukrainian oil products market. The article discusses the shortcomings and strategic areas for the development of Ukraine’s oil transport system. It presents an optimum method for creating integration groups in order to develop the oil processing business in Ukraine for the future. The article considers the main trends and outlines development prospects for the global oil and oil products market.
Lončar, Dragan; Rajičić, Vesna
Confectionery products make up a significant part of the consumer basket, which makes them a strategically important segment of the consumer standard in Serbia. Hence the authors' interest in the domains of market concentration and antitrust regulation of this industry. The aim of this paper is to present the current status and trends in the confectionery products market, to define the methodological framework and to perform an analysis of competition and market concentration. The methodology...
Reto Foellmi; Urs Meister
This paper analyses and compares potential efficiency gains induced by the introduction of product market competition and cross boarder trade in the piped water market. We argue that due to the specific circumstances in the water sector product market competition, i.e. competition by common carriage is not expected to be very intensive. The connection of networks could alternatively be used for cross boarder trade between neighboured water utilities. We show that competition by common carriag...
Test marketing for value-added root and tuber based products in Ikwuano local government area ... JE Ewuziem, C Aniedu, E Oti, VO Onyenobi ... root and tuber based products, developed at National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike.
Dan Cumbo; Robert Smith; Philip A. Araman
Due to recent downturn in the economy and changes in traditional hardwood markets. U.S. hardwood manufacturers are facing significant difficulties. In particular, markets for low-grade lumber have been diminishing, while increased levels of the material are being produced at hardwood sawmills in the United States. A nationwide survey of hardwood lumber manufacturers...
Enzing, C.; Batterink, M.H.; Janszen, F.H.A.; Omta, S.W.F.
Purpose – This paper seeks to investigate with reference to which factors the innovation processes of new and improved products differ and how these factors relate to the products' success on the market, with a specific focus on technology- and market-related factors. Design/methodology approach –
Jo Anne Shatkin; Theodore H. Wegner; E.M. (Ted) Bilek; John Cowie
Nanocellulose provides a new materials platform for the sustainable production of high-performance nano-enabled products in an array of applications. In this paper, potential applications for cellulose nanomaterials are identified as the first step toward estimating market volume. The overall study, presented in two parts, estimates market volume on the basis of...
According to relevant data,we select five indices,namely management ability,organization and management capability,enterprise culture,development ability and technical equipment ability,to establish the index system of core competitiveness of wholesale market of agricultural products.Based on combination weight arithmetic average(CWAA) operator,we advance an evaluation model of core competitiveness of wholesale market of agricultural products which involves participation of many people.By inviting five exerts,we conduct evaluation in terms of management ability of wholesale market of agricultural products,organization and management capability of leadership,enterprise culture of wholesale market of agricultural products,future development ability of wholesale market of agricultural products,and exiting technical equipment ability of wholesale market of agricultural products.We adopt hundred-mark system to grade and evaluate core competitiveness of wholesale market of agricultural products.The results show that the experts’ evaluation score of core competitiveness of wholesale market of agricultural products is high.The evaluation result is reasonable and authentic and this model is feasible.
van der Veen, R.A.C.; Kisjes, K.H.; Nikolic, I.
The shift to markets based on servicising, i.e. market-level transitions from product-based to service-based production and consumption patterns, may contribute to achieve absolute decoupling, i.e. the combined development of economic growth and environmental impact reduction. However, the
Jacobsen, Lina; Grunert, Klaus G; Søndergaard, Helle Alsted
In order to increase the new product development (NPD) success for novel food products, it is crucial to understand how information can be optimally disseminated within companies. This systematic literature review concentrates on factors influencing internal communication between market......, and knowledge management, food companies can enhance internal communication between market and technology functions during the NPD process....
A customized product is a special product designed and manufactured for individual customers to meet their individual needs. Managers need to understand why customers demand and how companies supply customized products. The importance of this study is to highlight business, marketing and manufacturing strategies so as to supply customized products efficiently. It is expected from a manufacturer to successfully adopt relationship marketing, mass customization, agile manufacturing and supply ch...
MHANDO, David Gongwe; IKENO, Jun
This study examines the current situation and challenges in orange production and marketing in Muheza District, Tanga Region, Tanzania. Tanga Region is a major orange production area in Tanzania, and it is estimated that more than 80% of all oranges in Tanga Region are produced in Muheza District. Utilizing field data collected in Mkuzi and Mindu villages in Muheza District, this paper explores the current situation of orange production and marketing. Orange production makes a substantial con...
Nguyen, Thong Tien; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe; Haider, Wolfgang
Understanding market competition and consumer preferences are important first steps in developing a business. In a competitive market, effectiveness of the various elements of a firm’s marketing mix depends not only on the absolute value of each element but also on the relative values......-employed consumers are the most sensitive to price. Four segments are identified and described in terms of both consumer characteristics and preferences. Our results are meaningful for producers and retailers to develop marketing strategies and production plan....... of the elements with respect to the firm’s position in the market. In this paper we analyze the demand structure and market positions for a variety of seafood products in the French retail market. We use a labeled choice experiment (LCE) to analyze twelve seafood species. The choice options are labeled...
Thel Augusto Monteiro
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present how innovation networks can be used to develop a new product or service, using the marketing compound. The study methodology consists of an exploratory research from literature review on this subject. After an initial discussion of the characteristics of innovation networks and marketing functions, the study presents proposals that allow adequately addressing the main difficulties in the management of marketing in innovation networks. Through this study it can be stated that these networks have been identified as an attractive alternative for the development of new products, when using the marketing mix, given the dynamics of the contemporary market. Innovation networks bring a lot of benefits to companies that embrace the relationship between these networks and marketing. The discussion reveals that the structure in the form of innovation networks can bring effective results in the organization which adopt it, providing competitiveness and adaptability in the face of its target market.
Full Text Available This paper contains an analysis of the marketing mix followed by a Swot analysis of company Avon. It continues with a market research conducted among women in Brasov highlighting the attitudes, opinions and behaviour of women in Brasov on the acquisition and use of cosmetics product. The present paper analyzes the cosmetics market, the company Avon position in Brasov’s market, identifying the company’s main competitors, population segmentation. After analyzing data from market research shows that most women acquires cosmetic products from Avon company, the representatives role being extremely important. Most women buy products through the catalogue, 77% of them using the products every day, often buying the personal care products.
Kelly, Bridget; Bochynska, Katarzyna; Kornman, Kelly; Chapman, Kathy
The aim of the present study was to describe the nature and extent of food marketing on popular children's websites and food product websites in Australia. Food product websites (n 119) and popular children's websites (n 196) were selected based on website traffic data and previous research on frequently marketed food brands. Coding instruments were developed to capture food marketing techniques. All references to food on popular children's websites were also classified as either branded or non-branded and according to food categories. Websites contained a range of marketing features. On food product websites these marketing features included branded education (79.0% of websites), competitions (33.6%), promotional characters (35.3%), downloadable items (35.3%), branded games (28.6%) and designated children's sections (21.8%). Food references on popular children's websites were strongly skewed towards unhealthy foods (60.8% v. 39.2% healthy food references; Pfood references for unhealthy foods. Branded food references displayed similar marketing features to those identified on food product websites. Internet food marketing uses a range of techniques to ensure that children are immersed in brand-related information and activities for extended periods, thereby increasing brand familiarity and exposure. The relatively unregulated marketing environment and increasing use of the Internet by children point to the potential increase in food marketing via this medium. Further research is required to investigate the impact of Internet food marketing on children's food preferences and consumption, and regulatory options to protect children.
Currently, the petroleum products market is totally regulated. The operations and pricing mechanism must be conducted under prevailing Government rules and regulations. Indeed, in Nigeria today, no industry is as regulated as the Oil Industry (downstream emphasised) - which constitute the totality of petroleum products market. This situation has arisen as a result of the seeming classification of the oil industry as being strategic. Due to the regulations of the market, it can no longer adapt to the changing economic trend of liberalization and interplay of market forces, even when under serious pressure to yield to the dynamics of free market enterprise. As a result of the resistance to change, the market becomes stressed and over-burdened by the shackles of regulation which leads to a breakdown of the system and the impact becomes noticeable almost immediately. Needless to emphasize that, for the petroleum products market to survive and thrive, a cursory look at what obtains currently would afford us the opportunity to access the strength and weaknesses of such system, with a view to ascertaining the survival strategy to be applied for sustainable growth. In addition, a serious examination of the roles being played by the key operators in the petroleum products market otherwise called down stream operators (refineries, pipelines and marketers) is imperative. Since it requires the co-operation of the operators to achieve synergy in the market, any bottleneck arising from any of the sub-sectors has the capacity to disrupt the system
Full Text Available Purpose: In decentralized organizations (today a great majority of the large multinational groups, much of the decision-making power is in its individual business units-BUs-. In these cases, the management control system (MCS uses transfer prices to coordinate actions of the BUs and to evaluate their performance with the goal of guaranteeing the whole corporation optimum. The purpose of the investigation is to design transfer prices that suit this goal. Design/methodology/approach: Considering the results of the whole company supply chain optimization models (in the presence of seasonality of demand the question is to design a mechanism that creates optimal incentives for the managers of each business unit to drive the corporation to the optimal performance. Mathematical programming models are used as a start point. Findings: Different transfer prices computation methods are introduced in this paper for decentralised organizations with two divisions (production and marketing. The methods take into account the results of the solution of the whole company supply chain optimization model, if exists, and can be adapted to the type of information available in the company. It is mainly focused on transport costs assignment. Practical implications: Using the methods proposed in this paper a decentralized corporation can implement more accurate transfer prices to drive the whole organization to the global optimum performance. Originality/value: The methods proposed are a new contribution to the literature on transfer prices with special emphasis on the practical and easy implementation in a modern corporation with several business units and with high seasonality of demand. Also, the methods proposed are very flexible and can be tuned depending on the type of information available in the company.
The high cost of power from solar photovoltaic (PV) panels has been a major deterrent to the technology’s market penetration. Proponents have argued, however, that typical analyses overlook many of the benefits of solar PV. Some of those benefits are in the realm of environmental and security externalities, but others occur within the electricity markets. In this paper, I attempt to do a more complete market valuation of solar PV. I incorporate the fact that power from solar PV panels is gene...
Grunert, Klaus G.; Baadsgaard, Allan
This note informs about the Danish MAPP research programme, a collection of 15 research projects aimed at making product and process innovation in the food sector more market-based. The programme, which has an interdisciplinary base, but is geared towards marketing applications, is concerned...... with the organization of the innovation process, the interaction of consumer and producer criteria in product development, the assessment of long-term developments in the market environment and the role distribution system in product innovation. Innovation in both primary production and processing are considered....
Wu, Yan; Freed, Anita; Lavrich, David; Raghavachari, Ramesh; Huynh-Ba, Kim; Shah, Ketan; Alasandro, Mark
In the past decade, many guidance documents have been issued through collaboration of global organizations and regulatory authorities. Most of these are applicable to new products, but there is a risk that currently marketed products will not meet the new compliance standards during audits and inspections while companies continue to make changes through the product life cycle for continuous improvement or market demands. This discussion presents different strategies to bringing drug product marketing applications to meet current and emerging standards. It also discusses stability and method designs to meet process validation and global development efforts.
DoD 5000.2-R, Mandatory Procedures for Major Defense Acquisition Programs and Major Automated Information System Acquisition Programs, requires that market research and analysis be conducted to determine...
Full Text Available Female labor market participation is one of the central investigation topics in feminist economics’ studies. Even after an increase in the labor market participation and the decrease in the wage gap between men and women, the latter still face great difficulties on being remunerated and promoted when compared to men. Neoclassical economic models cannot explain completely these differences without making use of strong hypothesis about individual preferences and family goals. This study has as the main objective to analyze difference on the housework participation as an influencer to different conditions in the labor market for men and women. Our results show that women still have a double work shift. Among our main conclusions, we can say that women benefit more from personal income increase than with labor market participation, because their bargain power within family increases and they can decrease their housework hours.
I consider the current state of pharmaceutical marketing vis-à-vis ethical and legal standards and advocate measures to improve it. There is abundant evidence of unethical or illicit marketing. It fuels growing concerns about undue corporate influence over pharmaceutical research, education, and consumption. The most extensive evidence of industry transgressions comes from the United States (US), where whistle-blowers are encouraged by financial rewards to help uncover illicit marketing and fraud. Outside the US increasing evidence of transgressions exists. Recently I have observed a range of new measures to align pharmaceutical marketing practices with ethical and legal standards. In the interest of public health, I highlight the need for additional and more profound reforms to ensure that information about medicines supports quality and resource-efficient care.
Today, just as businesses must compete for survival, growth, and market space ... for raising money, offers tips and techniques for better service management, and ... S. Sreenivas Rao has recently retired as Professor of business policy at IIMA.
By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer The 2013 National Cancer Institute (NCI) at Frederick Farmers’ Market regular season may have closed, but that doesn’t mean customers who want fresh produce, handmade crafts, and other homemade goodies from local vendors are out of luck. Winter Markets, which began Jan. 7, will be held every other Tuesday, from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m., in
Firms could position themselves to compete within the same industry in different ways. They try to get their competitive advantage, which is defined as the ability to earn a higher rate of economic profit than the average of economic profit of other firms competing within the same markets (Besanko et al, 2013). Michael Porter (1980) coined generic strategies for firms to compete in the markets they serve, i.e. cost leadership, benefit leadership, and focus. Besanko et al (2014) noted three po...
Maican, Florin; Orth, ´Matilda
We use a dynamic oligopoly model of entry and exit to evaluate how entry regulations affect profitability and market structure in retail. The model incorporates demand and store-level heterogeneity. Based on unique data for all retail food stores in Sweden, we find that the average entry costs for small and large stores are 10 and 18 percent lower, respectively, in markets with liberal compared with restrictive regulations. Counterfactual simulations show that lower entry costs in restrictive...
textabstractThe paper analyses the advertising as power vs. advertising as information controversy as well as its recent empirical testing. It is stressed that this distinction focuses too much on the interaction between consumer and manufacturer while ignoring the retailer as an important stake-holder. To compensate for this lack, a complex marketing system perspective is introduced in which consumer, retailer, and manufacturer interact. However, these complex marketing systems might drift t...
Omland, Anne Line Holck
This study set out to explore consumer responses to pre-launch advertising, i.e. the advertising of products prior to launch. According to the construal level theory (CLT) people’s representation of future objects and events change with temporal distance. Drawing inferences from CLT to marketing, consumers’ attraction towards forthcoming products is explained. Further, using theory on consumer judgments the effects of pre-launch advertising is explored over time. A longitudi...
Jawad, Mohammed; Nakkash, Rima T; Hawkins, Ben; Akl, Elie A
Understanding product development and marketing strategies of transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) has been of vital importance in developing an effective tobacco control policy. However, comparatively little is known of the waterpipe tobacco industry, which TTCs have recently entered. This study aimed to gain an understanding of waterpipe tobacco products and marketing strategies by visiting a waterpipe trade exhibition. In April 2014, the first author attended an international waterpipe trade exhibition, recording descriptions of products and collecting all available marketing items. We described the purpose and function of all products, and performed a thematic analysis of messages in marketing material. We classified waterpipe products into four categories and noted product variation within categories. Electronic waterpipe products (which mimic electronic cigarettes) rarely appeared on waterpipe tobacco marketing material, but were displayed just as widely. Claims of reduced harm, safety and quality were paramount on marketing materials, regardless of whether they were promoting consumption products (tobacco, tobacco substitutes), electronic waterpipes or accessories. Waterpipe products are diverse in nature and are marketed as healthy and safe products. Furthermore, the development of electronic waterpipe products appears to be closely connected with the electronic cigarette industry, rather than the waterpipe tobacco manufacturers. Tobacco control policy must evolve to take account of the vast and expanding array of waterpipe products, and potentially also charcoal products developed for waterpipe smokers. We recommend that tobacco substitutes be classified as tobacco products. Continued surveillance of the waterpipe industry is warranted. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Webb, Darryl W.; Nguyen, McLinton B.; Seibold, Robert W.; Wong, Frank C.; Budd, Gerald D.
The Aerospace Corporation developed an integrated Business Case Analysis (BCA) model on behalf of the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC). This model evaluated the potential profitability of the Towed Glider Air Launched System (TGALS) concept, under development at AFRC, identifying potential technical, programmatic, and business decisions that could improve its business viability. The model addressed system performance metrics; development, production and operation cost estimates; market size and product service positioning; pricing alternatives; and market share.
... POSTAL SERVICE International Product Change--United States Postal Service Inbound Market-Dominant... Inbound Market-Dominant Multi- Service Agreements to the Market-Dominant Products List pursuant to 39 U.S... the Postal Regulatory Commission to Add Market-Dominant Multi-Service Agreements with Foreign Postal...
This paper analyses recent uranium supply and demand relationship and projects supply through 2010. The extremely depressed record low market prices have led to the ongoing annual inventory drawdown of over 25,000 t U resulting from the current 45% world production shortfall. The policy of the European Union and anti-dumping related activities in the USA are restricting imports of uranium from CIS producers to a majority of the world's nuclear utilities. These factors are reducing low priced uranium supply and forcing buyers to again obtain more of their requirements from producers. It discusses how the sale of Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) produced from of 550 t High Enriched Uranium (HEU) from Russia and Ukraine could potentially supply about 15% of world requirements through 2010. However, legislation currently being developed by the US Congress may ration the sale of this material, extending the LEU supply well into the next century. Nuclear generation capacity and its uranium requirements are projected to grow at about 1.5% through 2010. Demand for new uranium purchases is however, increasing at the much higher rate of 25-30% over the next 10-15 years. This increasing demand in the face of decreasing supply is resulting in a market recovery in which the spot price for non-CIS produced uranium has risen over 25% since October 1994. Prices will continue to increase as the market equilibrium shifts from a balance with alternative excess low priced supply to an equilibrium between production and demand. 19 refs, 14 figs, 2 tabs
Full Text Available The formation of innovation policy innovative economy is impossible without an understanding of the conceptual basis of the efficiency of production of innovative products. In particular, determination of the influence of market structure on the possibility of expanded reproduction of innovative products. The article is devoted to consideration of existing in this field of research and definition of the limits of quantitative assessment of the influence of defects of market structures on efficiency.
Duret, François; Fabrizi, Antonio
Several studies have been performed in Europe aiming to promote the full development of a small launch vehicle to put into orbit one ton class spacecrafts. But during the last ten years, the european workforce was mainly oriented towards the qualification of the heavy class ARIANE 5 launch vehicle.Then, due also to lack of visibility on this reduced segment of market, when comparing with the geosatcom market, no proposal was sufficiently attractive to get from the potentially interrested authorities a clear go-ahead, i.e. a financial committment. The situation is now rapidly evolving. Several european states, among them ITALY and FRANCE, are now convinced of the necessity of the availability of such a transportation system, an important argument to promote small missions, using small satellites. Application market will be mainly scientific experiments and earth observation; some telecommunications applications may be also envisaged such as placement of little LEO constellation satellites, or replacement after failure of big LEO constellation satellites. FIAT AVIO and AEROSPATIALE have proposed to their national agencies the development of such a small launch vehicle, named VEGA. The paper presents the story of the industrial proposal, and the present status of the project: Mission spectrum, technical definition, launch service and performance, target development plan and target recurring costs, as well as the industrial organisation for development, procurement, marketing and operations.
Wayne, G Ferris; Connolly, G N
Regulatory oversight of tobacco product design has gained momentum in the US and internationally. Appropriate standards for assessing commercial brands and characterising product features must be considered a priority. An area of potential concern is in-market design changes adopted within a single commercial brand over time. Internal tobacco industry documents were identified and used to assess internal discussion of product guidelines and practices regarding in-market brand changes. Commercial tobacco products undergo a constant process of revision in-market, beginning at the most basic level of physical product characteristics and components, and including every aspect of design. These revisions commonly exceed guidelines for acceptable product variance adopted within the industry. While consumer and market testing is conducted to ensure that products remain acceptable to users, explicit marketing often may not accompany brand changes. In the absence of such marketing, it should not be assumed that a brand remains unchanged. For manufacturers, assessment of competitor brands includes identification and analysis of non-routine changes; that is, those changes likely to significantly alter the character of a given brand. Regulators must adopt a similar practice in determining standards for product evaluation in the face of ongoing commercial product revision.
Borkfelt, Sune; Kondrup, Sara Vincentzen; Gjerris, Mickey
– thus attempting to display a green, eco-, climate-, and animal friendly production. The tension between marketing and the idea of ethical consumerism is apparent as the need for independent information to make value-based choices is challenged by the liberal rules of the market and more specifically......Empirical cases from the Danish food market are examined in order to critically discuss the respective modes of communication in light of the premises of socially responsible consumer marketing. This analysis suggests that specific marketing instruments are used to sell animal products by blurring...... by the lack of a restrictive food labelling policy. The relationship between the ways in which animal welfare is communicated and emphasized through food marketing, and commonly held perceptions of acceptable standards for animal welfare, is discussed and the need for transparency in the area of animal...
Evans, W D; Pattanayak, S K; Young, S; Buszin, J; Rai, S; Bihm, Jasmine Wallace
Like commercial marketing, social marketing uses the 4 "Ps" and seeks exchange of value between the marketer and consumer. Behaviors such as handwashing, and products such as those for oral rehydration treatment (ORT), can be marketed like commercial products in developing countries. Although social marketing in these areas is growing, there has been no systematic review of the current state of practice, research and evaluation. We searched the literature for published peer-reviewed studies available through major online publication databases. We identified manuscripts in the health, social science, and business literature on social marketing that used at least one of the 4 Ps of marketing and had a behavioral objective targeting the behaviors or products related to improving water and sanitation. We developed formalized decision rules and applied them in identifying articles for review. We initially identified 117 articles and reviewed a final set of 32 that met our criteria. Social marketing is a widespread strategy. Marketing efforts have created high levels of awareness of health threats and solutions, including behavior change and socially marketed products. There is widespread use of the 4 Ps of marketing, with price interventions being the least common. Evaluations show consistent improvements in behavioral mediators but mixed results in behavior change. Interventions have successfully used social marketing following widely recommended strategies. Future evaluations need to focus on mediators that explain successful behavior change in order to identify best practices and improve future programs. More rigorous evaluations including quasi-experimental designs and randomized trials are needed. More consistent reporting of evaluation results that permits meta-analysis of effects is needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pillai, Rajasekharan; Rao, M S; Thampy, Jaik; Peter, Jerrin
Abstract Marketing of service product requires a slightly different strategy owing to the idiosyncratic nature of service items. The present study explores the customer oriented marketing strategy of LIC International in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The approach of the study was exploratory and personal interview was conducted to contribute major input source to the research. The company has been following a different marketing strategy in the study area different from the conventional approach in...
The purpose of this qualitatitive research was to find the way for a Finnish company to market the eco-efficient characteristics as an advantage of their products and bring the message effectively to their consumers in Russia. The core objective was to create a strategic marketing plan; the goal was to work out an efficient strategy, practical marketing steps and effective solutions. The first theory part focused on the comparison of general eco-awareness in Europe and Russia. The part rev...
The objective of this work is to identify and examine major factors constraining pawpaw production and marketing in Ekiti State, Southwestern Nigeria. Questionnaire schedule and personal interviews were used to collect data from ten Local Government Areas in the state. A total of 76 pawpaw farmers were randomly interviewed for this study. The study identified poor patronage in the market, poor marketing system, inadequate capital, poor price, inadequate extension services, poor transportation...
Ricardo Machado; Michael C. Cant; Helen Seaborne
Traditionally, marketing was about delivering the right product to the consumer at the right place and set at the right price. In recent years, experiential marketing has increased in popularity among companies that aim at delivering holistic experiences to be enjoyed by their consumers. With the technology explosion and the level of development the past number of years, marketers have become more and more focussed on different ways and methods to reach consumers. The use of experiential mark...
This paper investigates the determinants of the productivity of independent retail stores in Sweden by focusing on the impact of market size and regional hierarchy while controlling for several store and employee characteristics over time. The analysis utilizes Swedish store-level data for the years 2002–2008. To capture the urban-periphery interaction in retail markets, the analysis (i) uses an accessible market potential measure, which captures the impact of the potential demand both in clo...
Marketing strategies and consumer preferences for fertilizers and soils from organic residues of biogas production; Vermarktungsstrategien und Konsumentenpraeferenzen fuer Duenger und Erden aus organischen Reststoffen der Biogasproduktion
The aim of this thesis is to show marketing possibilities for fermentation products and to generate sepcific recommendations for potential producers and marketers of fermentation products. Since the marketing of fermenting products is largely unexplored and a research gap, this project was launched with an exploratory phase. After the exploratory phase, private gardeners were identified as a promising customer group. Knowledge about the preferences of private gardeners when purchasing soil and fertilizer are crucial for the market success of processed fermentation products. In order to fathom the decision-making behavior of this potential customer group, personal interviews were conducted with private gardeners. These results enable potential producers and marketers of fermentation products to create a product that is in demand on the market because it meets the needs of potential consumers. The personal preferences, however, can be very different, for which reason a segmentation into different groups with similar preferences is made. [German] Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, Vermarktungsmoeglichkeiten fuer Gaerprodukte aufzuzeigen und konkrete Empfehlungen fuer potenzielle Hersteller und Vermarkter von Gaerprodukten zu generieren. Da die Vermarktung von Gaerprodukten weitestgehend unerforscht ist und eine Forschungsluecke darstellt, wurde dieses Vorhaben mit einer explorativen Phase gestartet. Nach der explorativen Phase wurden Privatgaertner als vielversprechende Kundengruppe identifiziert. Kenntnisse ueber die Praeferenzen von Privatgaertnern beim Kauf von Erden und Duengern sind entscheidend fuer den Markterfolg von aufbereiteten Gaerprodukten. Um das Entscheidungsverhalten dieser potenziellen Kundengruppe naeher zu ergruenden, wurden persoenliche Interviews mit Privatgaertnern durchgefuehrt. Diese Ergebnisse ermoeglichen es potenziellen Herstellern und Vermarktern von Gaerprodukten ein Produkt zu kreieren, das auf dem Markt nachgefragt wird, da es den Wuenschen der
Bakhmach, I.; Siora, O.; Kharchenko, V.; Sklyar, V.; Andrashov, A.
This paper presents key results of RPC Radiy activities within Canadian nuclear market. RPC Radiy (located in Kirovograd, Ukraine) is a vendor which designs and produces digital safety I and C platform as well as turnkey applications, based on the platform, for NPPs (safety systems). The main feature of the Radiy Platform is the application of Field Programmable Gates Arrays (FPGA) as programmable components for logic control operations. Since 2009 RPC Radiy started to explore the possibility to conduct the expansion to Canadian nuclear market. The activities performed by RPC Radiy related to this direction are resulted in several joint projects with Canadian companies. (author)
Kristensen, Preben Sander
A study of the Danish foods industry shows that producers of food products have built up and maintain development of end-user products in interaction with customers in distant sophisticated markets. Concurrently, the Danish agro-industrial complex been singled out in other studies as a paradigmatic...... produce and utilize sticky and fastchanging information about production and markets respectively. It is precisely by not interacting wi market business-to-business demand from changing end-user market that the Danish agro-industrial complex has avoided being insulated. The managerial implication...... is that a company in search of partners for joint development in global agro-industra networks can realize a competitive advantage by applying a market view that is euclidean upstream and equidstant downstream....
Vermeulen, B.; Kok, de A.G.
Many methods to arrive at a product-market choice through selection and (re)design assume stationary demand and a stable range of products to pick and maximize profit trading off operational performance in manufacturing versus (under)servicing certain market segments. The determination and
PSI/Malawi is a local affiliate of the non-profit NGO, Population Services International, which operates in over 50 countries worldwide. PSI/Malawi's mission is to "improve and sustain the health of all Malawians through cost-effective social marketing of needed and affordable health products". In this context, social marketing involves using a range of media channels to create demand for branded health products which are sold at subsidised prices through a wide range of distribution outlets (e.g. wholesalers/retailers, institutions, NGOs, the workplace, etc.). Chishango is PSI/Malawi's condom brand which was launched in 1994 to provide sexually active Malawians with an affordable means of protecting themselves and their partners from HIV transmission. In 2001, research indicated that the brand needed a 'face lift' to improve its relevance to modern Malawians and therefore lead to an increase in consistent condom use resulting in a further reduction in HIV transmission. The newly packaged and positioned Chishango was launched on the 13th May 2002. The speech below was given by the Resident Director of PSI/Malawi, Dr Desmond Chavasse at the relaunch of Chishango.
Waade, Anne Marit
Facebook and the mobile, photo-based app Instagram as the main platforms, the producers of the movie are following the users and followers online closely to understand but also stage and direct their expectations in the relation to the movie. As such, the marketing of the movie is representing a new...
Huber, D. [Verband Schweizerischer Elektrizitaetswerke, Zuerich (Switzerland)
The company NaturEnergie (natural energy), a subsidiary of the Energieversorger Kraftwerk Laufenburg AG (KWL) is located in Grenzach-Whylen (Germany) near Basel (Switzerland) has been selling power generated from sun and water since the 1st of October 1998. The company employes a cleverly designed, emotional marketing strategy in order to position the brand ``NaturEnergie`` as a label for ``green power`` on the market. Bulletin VSE talked to Dr. Kai-Hendrik Schlusche (40), co-founder and member of the board of NaturEnergie AG about marketing and pricing of ``green`` power and about relations with Switzerland.(orig.) [Deutsch] Im grenznahen Grenzach-Whylen bei Basel verkauft die Firma NaturEnergie, eine Tochtergesellschaft der Energieversorger Kraftwerk Laufenburg AG (KWL) und Kraftuebertragungswerke Rheinfelden AG (KWR), seit 1. Oktober 1998 Oekostrom aus Sonne und Wasser. Mit Hilfe einer ausgekluegelten emotionellen Marketingstrategie will das junge Unternehmen die Marke `NaturEnergie` als Label fuer `gruenen Strom` im Markt positionieren. Bulletin VSE sprach mit Dr. Kai-Hendrik Schlusche (40), seit Mai 1998 Gruendungsvorstand der NaturEnergie AG, ueber Marketing, Preisgestaltung von `gruenem Strom` und die Beziehungen zur Schweiz. (orig.)
The factors that influence farmers' decisions to produce cooking banana for market in southeast Nigeria were examined. Data were collected from a ... Results of the study indicate that about 80% of the farmers interviewed produce cooking banana both for household consumption and for sale. The proportion of cooking ...
2005 was an outstanding year for the upstream service and supply sector, with E and P investment and key markets reaching record highs. This trend should continue in 2006. The biggest challenges facing the sector are the tight supply of equipment and raw materials (especially steel), the competition from Chinese companies and the shortage of qualified personnel. (author)
per capita consumption of mutton is five kg and the sheep meat ... A market segment for goat's meat has been identified in the growing Muslim .... basis of studies at two farms; one located in the fjord and the other in .... But in most cases the differences are small as ..... behaviour of Korean American Families in. California.
The result showed that household size, income from other occupation, labour cost and durable input cost significantly affected the decision and level of participation in extraction and marketing of NTFPs in the area of study. It was also revealed from the study that kolanut and bitter kola were more profitable and efficient out ...
Full Text Available The pharmaceutical market is characterized by the existence of state regulations restricting his freedom to market and is one of the fastest growing sectors of the economy all over the world. Factors that have a real impact on determining the price of drugs can be grouped into three categories: medical factors, economic factors, political and environmental factors. In the group of medical factors can be distinguished patent protection, the cost of producing the drug and the value of the drug. To economic factors, taking into account the aspect of market competitiveness of companies, include: the size of the producer, nature of the company - whether it is a research unit of the pharmaceutical company, return on investment – effectiveness of use of expenditure with the aim of achieving a profit (return on investment, ROI, profitability entity. The remaining group of factors (environmental, and political relate mainly to national regulations. They are connected with among others the registration system of marketing authorization, whether a reimbursement system that determines whether and how drugs are financed from public funds. Membership in the European Union forces on all Member States to make reimbursement decisions by the so-called Transparency Directive. It is connected with the obligation to justify decisions, and calling upon objective reasons. Medical Technology Assessment Agency formulating recommendations take into account factors i.e. a therapeutic, benefits for the patients, cost-effectiveness, impact on the budget.
market growth are explored in detail in this research. Key words: l ife ... terms of sustaining old-age income and social schemes. He argues that ... Over time, the household equity increases; this is due both to the value of the property .... Improved health among the population results in both increased life expectancy and the ...
The energy-efficiency gap literature suggests that building buyers are often short-sighted in their failure to apply life-cycle costing principles to energy efficient building technologies, with the result that under investment in these advanced technology occurs. This study examines the reasons this behavior may occur, by analyzing the pressures that market forces place on purchasers of buildings. Our basic conclusion is that the fundamental manner in which the buildings sector does business creates pressures to reduce initial capital outlays and to hedge against a variety of risks, including the ability of building owners to capture benefits from energy efficiency. Starting from the position that building buyers' willingness to pay drives choices over building attributes, we examine basic market principles, the structure of the buildings market, including the role of lenders, and policies that promote penetration of energy efficient technologies. We conclude that greater attention to buyers, and to the incentives and constraints they face, would promote a better understanding of building investment choices and contribute to better policies to promote the penetration of these technologies into markets.
For banks to survive in the highly competitive Nigerian environment, they need to innovate in marketing and customer relationship management. This article is based on the highlights of a recent survey of the industry and the implications of the findings. The perceptions and attitudes of the contemporary bank customer are ...
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transportation and marketing of prison-labor... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Merchandise Produced by Convict, Forced, Or Indentured Labor § 12.45 Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products. If any apparent...
Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Agricultural Education.
Instructional materials are provided for a unit dealing with production and marketing of wood as an energy source. Unit objectives and a list of visual masters appear first. Content is arranged by six topics: introduction, pre-cutting activities (planning a fuelwood cutting, marketing, chain saw safety), cutting activities, post-cutting…
Scheinberg, Joshua; Radhakrishna, Rama; Cutter, Catherine N.
A needs assessment survey was developed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of poultry vendors at farmers' markets in Pennsylvania, on food safety, regulation, and poultry production. Vendors were administered a 32-question paper survey, in person, during market hours. The results revealed critical vendor practices and identified important…
Matt Bumgardner; Urs Buehlmann; Al Schuler; Karen. Koenig
The housing correction that started in 2007 continues to run its course. Excessive inventory levels, limited credit availability, and record foreclosure rates continue to have an impact on U.S. housing markets. With inventories high and demand for new construction low, the U.S. hardwood industry's largest markets for appearance-grade products remain under pressure...
Increased demand for fresh market broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has led to increased production along the eastern seaboard of the United States. Maximizing broccoli yields is a primary concern for quickly expanding eastern commercial markets. Thus, a plant density study was carried ...
Martinez-Val, J. M.; Valcarcel, M.; Rodriguez Herrerias, J.
The paper presents the European Union methodology for keeping a high level of safety standards of industrial products in the general market, while fostering the dynamics of such market. It includes the explanation of how this methodology is applied in Spain particularly through the campaigns of the Ministry of Industry with the assistance of Foundation F2I2. (Author)
Milch, R A
Community hospitals would seem to have every reason to identify and capitalize on their product-market strengths. The strategic marketing/planning model provides a framework for rational analysis of the community hospital dilemma and for developing sensible solutions to the complex problems of accelerating hospital price-inflation.
Full Text Available Intensive development, recorded by global markets and correlated with modern consumer’s demands, has led to the formation of a new, more complex approach, related to the food sector and to its main determinants. Old theories about the mechanism of market trading came into disuse. The consumer is no longer unsuspecting, he is rather very active, and whose requirements must be taken into account by the manufacturer and by technological schemes of production. The age of “caveat emptor” turns into the era of “caveat vendor”. So, the challenge launched by the consumer to the manufacturer, is a simplistic one, namely: ensuring and guaranteeing product quality. But this goal is not a goal in itself; it is part of a trinomial term: the natural environment, the economic environment and the social -human environment. Today, an agro-alimentary product must guarantee not only safety of consumption but it also must have an ecological footprint as reduced as possible; it must meet producer’s expectations and contribute to social and human development. This research aims to emphasize the directive that must be supported by manufacturers and sellers in order to ensure quality agro-alimentary products through the implementation of standardized production methods and through the correct, complete and comprehensible consumer’s informing. Identifying the current position of the management of food quality from the suggestions of the researched segment a design of “an agroalimentary good” was proposed, that is perfectly adaptable to the requirements of consumer, to the environmental challenges, to the expectations of producers and to the sustainable development of the society.
Personal experiences in attempting to market photovoltaics and other renewable energy products in Alberta, a province rich in energy sources, are recounted as part of an exploration of ways to help industry to develop strategies that will advance the acceptance of renewable energy products, particularly in areas of the world that are not concerned about energy supply. Social acceptability, emphasis on a healthy and convenient lifestyle associated with renewable energy products, practical, user-friendly products, and competitive prices, are some of the key elements in successfully marketing renewable energy products
Rachmi Rida Utami
Full Text Available Todays situations force telecomunication company to continuously evaluate, select and prioritize its product portfolio in order to determine the strategically important products. An analysis of critical success factors that determine product’s strategic importance acts as a good introduction to review and manage the product portfolio as well as to seek ways to develop the product. To achieve this, the company is required to have good alliances and collaborations between departments, develop a clear focus and seek innovative ways of doing business, particularly between marketing and product divisions. This study analyzed the alignment between product and marketing divisions of a telecommunication company in Indonesia, in determining the company’s strategic products. The results indicated that both divisions agreed on using financial performance and revenue as the most important criteria and sub-criteria for identifying strategic product. However, the divisions also faced some different visions in selecting alternative criteria. The Product divisions were more focused on technical spesification of product, while the Marketing division were more oriented on customer and market conditions. The study reported the consequences of these difference in practice.
Chockalingam Senthil Nathan
Full Text Available The present study was created in order to customise the marketing mix for non-purchasers of eco-friendly products by studying their perspectives on the introduction of eco-friendly variants of the regular products that they are using in particular product categories (personal care and home care. Overall previous literature reviews in this area imply that there is a gap in the scientific literature on the marketing mix formulation for converting non-purchasers into purchasers of eco-friendly products to augment eco-friendly product sales and adopt green marketing. As literature reviews had clearly indicated that green purchasers have a very low percentage when compared to non-purchasers, the purpose is to create new opportunities for successful green marketing as the study tries to convert non-purchasers into purchasers. We used descriptive research design to study a sample of 885 respondents, who were surveyed in 2 cities in the Tamil Nadu state in India, to acquire an in-depth understanding of consumer behaviour that would enable the consumption of eco-friendly products among non-purchasers. The results reveal the marketing mix requirement and the eco-friendly aspects needed by the non-purchasers in order to buy the eco-friendly variants. The research sheds light on the product, price and promotion components that will attract non-purchases of eco-friendly products to buy eco-friendly products, thus facilitating green marketing mix adaptation. The study will provide valuable input for further research in formulating the marketing mix necessary to enable consumption of eco-friendly products in different geographical locations and various product categories.
A disconnect often occurs between the creation of scientific research outputs and their use by intended stakeholders. Even with the diligent efforts of scientists to create products of value, many scientific outputs are underutilized by intended stakeholders. Marketing methods ca...
Liu, Y.M.; Jinsong, C.; Zhang XiaoYong, Xiaoyong; Kamphuis, B.M.
Development of Chinese vegetable industry over the past three decades. The changes of governmental vegetable policy and the major institutions involved. The major production regions in China, their leading vegetable varieties and cultivation technology. The reform of vegetable marketing structure
Daniel Mihai Amariei
Full Text Available In this paper aims the application through the Markov Process mode, within the software product WinQSB, Markov chain in the establishment of the development on the market of five brands of athletic shoes.
Shaw, Eric J.; Hamaker, Joseph W.; Prince, Frank A.
Many exciting new opportunities in space, both government missions and business ventures, could be realized by a reduction in launch prices. Reusable launch vehicle (RLV) designs have the potential to lower launch costs dramatically from those of today's expendable and partially-expendable vehicles. Unfortunately, governments must budget to support existing launch capability, and so lack the resources necessary to completely fund development of new reusable systems. In addition, the new commercial space markets are too immature and uncertain to motivate the launch industry to undertake a project of this magnitude and risk. Low-cost launch vehicles will not be developed without a mature market to service; however, launch prices must be reduced in order for a commercial launch market to mature. This paper estimates and discusses the various benefits that may be reaped from government incentives for a commercial reusable launch vehicle program.
John E. Baumgras; Chris B. LeDoux
Data from 113 sample thinning plots and a microcomputer program called APTHIN were used to demonstrate the impact of mean stand diameter and product markets on revenue gains from multiproduct versus single-product pulpwood harvests in poletimber and small sawtimber stands of Appalachian hardwoods. The analysis of revenue gains included product mix as a function of the...
The introduction of a power exchange in France is a direct response to the opening up of the European electricity markets. Powernext SA is a Multilateral Trading Facility in charge of managing the French power exchange through an optional and anonymous organised exchange offering: - Day-ahead contracts for the management of volume risk on Powernext Day-Ahead TM since 21 November 2001, - Medium term contracts for the management of price risk on Powernext Futures TM since 18 June 2004. This document presents the principle of the trading of hourly contracts on Powernext Day-Ahead TM , the accessibility of the market, the SAPRI trading platform operated by Nord Pool, the Scandinavian power exchange, the validation of the auction results, the collaboration with LCH.Clearnet SA to secure and facilitate the transactions, and the delivery guarantee implemented by RTE (the French energy transport network). (J.S.)
Hossein Rezaie Dolatabadi; Mohammad Hossein Forghani; Seyed Mehdi Tabatabaee; Fatemeh Faghani
The purpose of the present paper is to examine effect of effect of appropriate marketing mix strategies on Iranian protein products export performance. 4P (Price, Product, Place, Promotion) were selected as marketing strategies. The data used to test the hypotheses were collected through an online standard questionnaire. The respondents were asked to rate on the scale between strongly agree and strongly Disagree. Reliability of questionnaire was measured using Cronbach Coefficient Alpha. The ...
Multi Level Marketing Business nowadays is rapidly growing. In recent years, there have been so many new Multi Level Marketing Business coming out with their own specific offers and products. One of the advantages of MLM Business is the contribution it makes to economic growth. It makes it possible for the national income to continuously grow. The objectives can be achieved from this research are to examine product traits and innovation process of Talk Fusion. Theories supporting research are...
By Carolynne Keenan, Guest Writer Every summer, you can shop for fresh fruits, veggies, flowers, honey, and plenty of other homemade goodies at the NCI at Frederick Farmers’ Market. Buying at the Farmers’ Market means you’re supporting a local farmer, crafter, or other type of vendor. The products are brought to you, so you don’t have to drive to get freshly picked produce and handmade products.
Camilleri, Mark Anthony
The demand for tourism products may be affected by the marketing mix elements, including the nature of the product or service, its distribution, its promotional strategies and its price. Price is the only element in the marketing mix which actually produces revenue. However, the setting of a price is not an easy task, as there are a number of pricing strategies which any travel business may apply, including; prestige pricing, penetration pricing; cost-based pricing; differential pricing and u...
Ling, Eu Meng
Structured products are becoming increasingly popular and important to the development of Malaysia’s capital market and had experience impressive growth over the last few years after it was first introduced to the Malaysian market in 2004. Like any industry in its early stage, issues and challenges are expected but for structured products, such challenges require more attention due to the complexity inherent in these instruments. This study uses a qualitative research approach in an attempt t...
Sunday O. E. Ewah; Patrick M. Igbaji; Christian I. Umeh
This is an empirical study of the interplay between consumers' attitude toward marketers’ products and marketers; wish to elicit favourable buying behaviour from the consumer. According to the study the process of this transformation of consumer’s attitude is not quite easy. The marketers have to put their acts together by producing products to match consumers attitude or build a gradual change that will result to favourable buying decision from the consumer.
Cao, Xu-Liang; Corriveau, Jeannette; Popovic, Svetlana
A method based on solid phase extraction followed by derivatization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was validated for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA) in canned food products. This method was used to analyze 78 canned food products for BPA. Concentrations of BPA in canned food products differed considerably among food types, but all were below the specific migration limit of 0.6 mg/kg set by the European Commission Directive for BPA in food or food simulants. Canned tuna products had the highest BPA concentrations in general, with mean and maximum values of 137 and 534 ng/g, respectively. BPA concentrations in the condensed soup products were considerably higher than those in the ready-to-serve soup products, with mean and maximum values of 105 and 189 ng/g, respectively, for the condensed soups and 15 and 34 ng/g, respectively, for the ready-to-serve soups. BPA concentrations in canned vegetable products were relatively low; about 60% of the products had BPA concentrations of less than 10 ng/g. Canned tomato paste products had lower BPA concentrations than did canned pure tomato products. The mean and maximum BPA concentrations were 1.1 and 2.1 ng/g, respectively, for tomato paste products and 9.3 and 23 ng/g, respectively, for the pure tomato products.
Full Text Available Among the tools that are used in promotional activity in tourism, the online marketing opens the possibility to promptly create offers, meet buyers' demands, and strengthen customer relationships. The online marketers consider that the Internet is a modern technology that allows firms to connect business partners, to identify more rapidly the consumers' needs, to understand and answer on individual demand. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the importance of online marketing in the process of promotion and distribution of tourism products, starting from an empirical research conducted among economic sciences faculty students. The results of this work may provide a partial image of the young people's opinion about online marketing as a tool of marketing communication, and may be approached as a modest guide for tourism marketers in the process of creating, promoting and distributing tourism offers.
Hansen, Klaus Reinholdt Nyhuus; Grunow, Martin
uncertainty and the risk of a forced label change and includes solution robustness. While considering limited shelf life of the drug, the supply of packaging material and outsourcing, the objective of our model is to reduce supply chain cost including lost peak sales from delayed market entry....... planning before and during the market entry of the drug after the drug has been approved. Production of the active pharmaceutical ingredient [API] is characterized by long change-over times due to cleaning requirements. Production planning is long term, multiple batches of each drug are produced...... industry, reimbursement negotiations have to be carried out before a drug can be marketed. These negotiations both necessitate time phasing market entries and introduce a series of uncertainties e.g. varying allowed price and awarded subsidy. Also if the label is not approved for marketing, all packaged...
Marquis, M Susan; Buntin, Melinda Beeuwkes; Escarce, José J; Kapur, Kanika
To evaluate the role of health plan benefit design and price on consumers' decisions to purchase health insurance in the nongroup market and their choice of plan. Administrative data from the three largest nongroup insurers in California and survey data about those insured in the nongroup market and the uninsured in California. We fit a nested logit model to examine the effects of plan characteristics on consumer choice while accounting for substitutability among certain groups of products. Product choice is quite sensitive to price. A 10 percent decrease in the price of a product would increase its market share by about 20 percent. However, a 10 percent decrease in prices of all products would only increase overall market participation by about 4 percent. Changes in the generosity of coverage will also affect product choice, but have only small effects on overall participation. A 20 percent decrease in the deductible or maximum out-of-pocket payment of all plans would increase participation by about 0.3-0.5 percent. Perceived information search costs and other nonprice barriers have substantial effects on purchase of nongroup coverage. Modest subsidies will have small effects on purchase in the nongroup market. New product designs with higher deductibles are likely to be more attractive to healthy purchasers, but the new benefit designs are likely to have only small effects on market participation. In contrast, consumer education efforts have a role to play in helping to expand coverage.
Marketing application in banking is dating back to the 50s of 20th century, and since then its role is constantly changing. His modern role of synthesis of analysis, planning and control of the bank in the financial markets, achieved by the use of instruments of marketing mix (product, price, distribution and promotion). The paper is an analysis of the distribution function, and is primarily an overview of the modern distribution channels of banking products and services in the US, as the mos...
Ionescu, Victor; Palade, Lucian
On the background of the electricity market liberalization challenge which Romania responded to without reserve on the edge between centuries by regulatory authority establishing, market opening and unbundling making, a spot market was launched. Taking advantage of generation split, market opening and consumption decline during the years '90, the competition is rising even without privatization, based negotiated contracts and Day Ahead market as spot. Year by year this market matured, asking for relevant changes as switching to multi-market concept. The preparation of related new mechanisms generated long term debates during 2003-2004 but finally the new trading platform was launched in 2005. As a market operator since 2000, based unceasing day ahead operation, OPCOM is making now a review of changes by also providing day ahead market performance coordinates. There are also overviewed the rationales and performance of two new other products offered by OPCOM to support renewable (green certificates market) and bilateral energy contracting through centralized bilateral contracts market. According to the Treaty of the Energy Community in South East Europe and the works of the Forum of Athens, OPCOM gets ready to grow the region of the spot market by using implicit auctions. The paper also provides concepts and principles concerning this initiative.
Harmnd, Y.; Nebas-Hamoudia, C.; Larripa, B.; Neupont, B.
As electricity is a non-storable product in large quantities, generation and consumption have to be balanced at all times. In France, this balancing was historically solely supplied by EDF. Recent legislative changes have opened balancing supplies, thus creating competition. RTE, the electricity transmission system operator, has developed, in consultation with the main market players, the balancing mechanism. This enables available capacities to be merged in order to guarantee this balance. It operates like a permanent bidding system open to producers, industrial consumers and foreign players. Bids submitted by players are selected by RTE depending on the system requirements, taking into account merit order criterion and technical constraints. Prices issued from the balancing mechanism are used to provide a legitimate reference price for the settlement of imbalances between supplies and consumptions of the different electricity market players. Transparency, a crucial element of this mechanism, is ensured by a comprehensive system of open data publication. Since its launch, the balancing mechanism has proven its operational strength. (author)
Ewing, Bradley T.; Thompson, Mark A.
We examine the role proved reserves and production play in the market capitalization of publicly traded oil and gas companies engaged in the exploration and production of hydrocarbons. The paper provides two important contributions to the literature. First, we extend the existing research by utilizing the method of Robust Least Squares to estimate a multivariate market capitalization model that controls for firm type. Second, we document the impacts that oil and gas reserves to production ratios have on market capitalization. This is a key finding in the context of discounted net cash flow models and the findings suggest there is an optimal tradeoff between current and future production, given current volumes of reserves, the latter of which is valued positively by the market. Moreover, this optimal tradeoff or the optimal profit-maximizing intertemporal production choice is unique to the type of hydrocarbon being considered. Additionally, our findings highlight the importance of capital structure in the heavily capital intensive oil and gas industry. The results from this research should benefit both oil and gas companies and investors. Specifically, the results provide new and robust information as to the empirical relationships between key determinants of oil and gas company market valuations. - Highlights: • We utilized Robust Least Squares to estimate a multivariate market capitalization model. • There is a differential impact that oil and gas reserves to production ratios have on market capitalization. • The optimal profit-maximizing intertemporal production choice is unique to the type of hydrocarbon being considered. • Results provide new information as to the relationships between key determinants of oil and gas company market valuations.
Cuevas-Casado, I; Romero-Fernández, M M; Royo-Bordonada, M Á
Nutrition marketing has generated a great amount of consumer interest; however, improper use of this type of marketing could mislead consumers. To describe the frequency and proper use in Spain of nutrition marketing for products advertised on television while analyzing their nutrient profile for comparison. Advertised food and drink products included in the study were selected after watching 80 hours of broadcasting of 4 Spanish television channels during May and June 2008. Upon purchase of the selected items, we estimated the frequency of use of the different nutrition marketing approaches, the proportion of nutritional and health claims meeting European regulations, and the proportion of less healthy products according to the United Kingdom Nutrient Profile Model UKNPM. Of the 88 products examined, 74% used nutrition marketing approaches. Half of the advertisements made nutrition claims and 42% health claims. The majority (89%) of the 83 nutrition claims met European regulations, with the category of "light products" being the least compliant with only 25% of products meeting regulations. Of the 37 product advertisements making health claims, 43% used authorized statements, of which, however, 75% also included unauthorized claims. Nutrient profile was less healthy in 55% of the products resorting to nutrition marketing. Lack of compliance with European regulations regarding nutrition and health claims, combined with the "less healthy" nutrient profile of many of the products marketed using these claims, may mislead Spanish consumers. To avoid this misinformation, it would be beneficial to: a) monitor level of adherence to regulations systematically; and b) introduce the use of nutrient profiles to approve these types of claims.
Vijay S. Reddy; Robert J. Bush; Ronen Roudik
Conjoint analysis, a decompositional customer preference modelling technique, has seen little application to forest products. However, the technique provides useful information for marketing decisions by quantifying consumer preference functions for multiattribute product alternatives. The results of a conjoint analysis include the contribution of each attribute and...
Schneider, H.C.; Van Boetzelaer, J.C.S.
Energy conservation and other options to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases are important aspects in climatic change policy. In order to offer consumers choices for such options the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and Environment (VROM) a number of tools and ideas have been developed. In this report the feasibility of so-called climatic change compensation for consumer products is determined and a marketing communication strategy elaborated for two products: 'green' (i.e. environment-friendly) petrol and a 'climate broker', who can help suppliers of consumer products to buy and sell (marketing) climate compensated products. 13 refs.
Eric Helland; Darius N. Lakdawalla; Anup Malani; Seth A. Seabury
In a complex economy, production is vertical and crosses jurisdictional lines. Goods are often produced by an upstream national or global firm and improved or distributed by local firms downstream. In this context, heightened products liability may have unintended consequences on product sales and consumer safety. Conventional wisdom holds that an increase in tort liability on the upstream firm will cause that firm to (weakly) increase investment in safety or disclosure. However, this may fai...
Atien Priyanti; Yono Cahyo Rahadjo
Rabbit meat is a nutritional food containing high protein and low cholesterol, fat and sodium. Current research in rabbit production is aimed for developing production strategies to increase the nutritional and economic values of rabbit meat products as functional food. Nowadays, producing rabbit is a popular farming activity in many parts of Indonesia as a small and medium scale operation for food security and cash income. Rabbit farming is to produce meat, skin and hides, fur, organic ferti...
ability to be able to take advantage of opportunities with the best. Bill Gates once quoted a word from Don Corleone that we must keep our friend close but our enemies even closer. Because of these competitors we will see various types of opportunities and opportunities that exist. The creation of "Jomblo Keren" game design will look at different types of aspects that can be used to get the right predictions to make the games acceptable by the market. These aspects include themes, games platform, visuals, gameplay, and stories.
In the present paper, we analyse the interaction of a competitive market for emission permits with an oligopolistic product market. It is well known that a competitive permits market achieves the cost minimizing distribution of abatement effort among the polluting firms for a given reduction in emissions. However, when the product market is oligopolistic, it may redistribute production inefficiently among firms. It has been suggested that this inefficiency can outweigh the gains obtained from using emission permits instead of command and control. Although this argument is clearly correct under full information, it is shown in the present paper that it reverses under incomplete information. In particular, it is shown that when tradeable emission permits are specified according to the standard textbook example, they yield higher social welfare than the command and control regulation. 1 fig., 2 appendices, 11 refs
Adina Claudia NEAMŢU
Full Text Available From its appearance until now, marketing has been approached under diverse aspects, from market theories to constituent elements, all being based on the four elements of the marketing mix: product, price, placement and promotion, developing around them specific policies, the inner correlations, investigation methods and techniques, experimental texts and motivation studies. The development of products with special characteristics, highly specialized, but also the ever growing competition between producers and sellers, the more diversified and elaborate options of customers, wanting to satisfy superior needs, like recognition, social status and esteem, safety, appreciation, all lead to the apparition and commercialization of complex product and service packages.48 These cannot be analyzed and reflected in the scientific literature with just the classic elements of the marketing mix. To these, we can add the process, people, tightly linked to the process and the physical evidence, or place where the personnel interacts with the customers.
Following two banner years for the oil service and supply sector, marked by strong activity and a substantial increase in prices, the Exploration and Production market continued at a frenetic pace in 2007, although certain local markets retreated. In 2008, activity should stay high and prices should start stabilizing. With services in short supply, companies in the sector have been able to shift the balance of power with oil firms in their favor.
Pennings, J.M.E.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.
Governments or supranational organizations have begun to introduce environmental rights (such as sulfur dioxide or chlorofluorocarbon rights) and production rights (such as milk and fishery rights) to better link production process costs and results. The authors show that the characteristics of
Robert G. Knutson
Forty-eight million cubic feet of wood products, about 50 million dollars worth, were used in the Nation's highway construction program in 1972. Expenditures for highway construction increased 2½ times from 1954 to 1972. The volume of wood products used in highway construction changed little during this period because other materials were substituted for...
Sarangee, Kumar R.
Understanding the nuances of product line management has been of great interest to business scholars and practitioners. This assumes greater significance for firms conducting business in technologically dynamic industries, where they face certain challenges regarding the management of multiple, overlapping technologies within their product lines.…
Horney, Marc R.
This article offers an example of a database designed to support teaching animal production and husbandry skills in county youth livestock programs. The system was used to manage production goals, animal growth and carcass data, photos and other imagery, and participant records. These were used to produce a variety of customized reports to help…
Sandra Regina Afonso
Full Text Available In this article, we analyze the main non-wood forest products from Brazilian savanna. We studied the behavior and the growth rates of production and prices of almond of babaçu, oil of copaiba, fiber of buriti, leaf of jaborandi, bark of barbatimão, bark of angico, fruit of mangaba, almonds of pequi, from 1982 to 2005. All the products exhibited decreasing production, with exception of the oil of copaiba and almonds of pequi, which showed positive growth rates: 12.9% and 8.5%, respectively. The analysis of prices for most products was not significant, except for barks of barbatimão and angico, and almonds of pequi, which showed positive trends: 10.9%, 6.7%, and 4.6%, respectively. We believe that results were not significant due to the severe variations of the Brazilian currency in the period. We conclude that pequi is the main product from savanna and that oil of copaiba has the biggest increase in the production because most of the production comes from the whole Brazilian Amazon region.
Thrul, Johannes; Lisha, Nadra E; Ling, Pamela M
Use of other tobacco products (smokeless tobacco, hookah, cigarillo, and e-cigarettes) is increasing, particularly among young adults, and there are few regulations on marketing for these products. We examined the associations between tobacco marketing receptivity and other tobacco product (OTP) use among young adult bar patrons (aged 18-26 years). Time-location sampling was used to collect cross-sectional surveys from 7,540 young adult bar patrons from January 2012 through March of 2014. Multivariable logistic regression analyses in 2015 examined if tobacco marketing receptivity was associated (1) with current (past 30 day) OTP use controlling for demographic factors and (2) with dual/poly use among current cigarette smokers (n = 3,045), controlling for demographics and nicotine dependence. Among the entire sample of young adult bar patrons (Mean age = 23.7, standard deviation = 1.8; 48.1% female), marketing receptivity was consistently associated with current use of all OTP including smokeless tobacco (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]= 2.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.08-3.16, p marketing receptivity was significantly associated with use of smokeless tobacco (AOR = 1.63, 95% CI 1.22-2.18, p marketing receptivity. Efforts to limit tobacco marketing should address OTP in addition to cigarettes. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Drozella, Gisela; Krebs, Harald
In its sector-specific investigations in the electricity production and wholesale markets the German Federal Cartel Office continues to apply its concept of what it terms a primary sales market. The authors describe the discrepancy that exists between the beliefs about market action that underlie the Cartel Office's determination of market boundaries and market action as it actually occurs in reality. The legal concept of the exercise of unilateral market control by several companies as developed by the Cartel Office on the basis of an economic instrument appears unsustainable, both legally and economically. This is compounded by methodological shortcomings. It is therefore the authors' opinion that the approach taken by the Cartel Office in its sector-specific investigations does not afford a sustainable basis for its finding of electricity production companies exercising market control.
Environmental protection has been an issue with remarkable staying power on the public agenda in Europe and North America in the past two to three decades (Dunlap, 2002) and many companies have prospered by seizing the opportunities offered by the growing "green" market. However, now...... of drama, and misconduct in businesses with a "green" image has a taste of hypocrisy, both of which make for highly newsworthy events. Hence, despite a large and loyal customer base, many "green" companies now find themselves in a much more hostile environment than a decade ago....... there are signs of a general "counter attack" being or-chestrated against the "greens." In this paper I survey the evidence regarding an "issue-attention" cycle (Downs, 1972) in environmental concern in Western Europe and North America and discus the role of the news media in creating the cycle. It is well...
Full Text Available Background In Turkey, adoption and implementation of MPOWER strategies were accompanied by a neoliberal tobacco policy framework aiming at supply-side growth, initiated in 1980's and culminating in Law No 4733 in 2002, which solidified liberalization, privatization, and market efficiency rules for tobacco manufacturing and trade, and guaranteed oligopoly conditions for transnational tobacco companies (TTCs. This study employs empirical market dynamics data to argue that demand reduction strategies cannot be pursued effectively in tandem with neoliberal policies. Methods Legal market dynamics are gauged with official data (2003-2016 on licenced tobacco products. The magnitude of illicit product market is assessed by employing prevalence data and estimations in secondary sources. Results During 2003-2016, (a Manufacturing and exports of licenced products have risen sharply (Cigarette manufacturing by 3 billion sticks/year; 2 new cigarette brands licenced per month. The declining trend in legal cigarette sales since 1999 was disrupted during last 5 years and was pushed upward. (b In addition to illicit cigarettes (market share 7.5%, the staggering growth in illicit RYO tobacco, estimated at 15,000 tonnes for 2016 by Tobacco Experts Association, represents 20.5 billion cigarette equivalents, which explains legal sales of 19 billion macarons (empty cigarette tubes in 2016. Estimated share of illicit products in total consumption has thus reached unprecedented level of 27%. Furthermore, using prevalence data, WPT market is estimated as 99% illicit. Conclusions Both legal and illicit tobacco product markets are growing in Turkey, indicating neoliberal framework has had far larger de facto impact than demand reduction efforts, and Law No 4733 is failing, given emergent duality between legal and illicit markets epitomised by TTCs and domestic outfits, respectively. This picture is in clear defiance of FCTC objectives, principles, and obligations, and