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Sample records for marketing michigan apples

  1. Processed Apple Product Marketing Analysis: Hard Cider and Apple Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Rowles, Kristin

    2000-01-01

    Hard cider and apple wine offer new value-added marketing opportunities to the apple industry. Both products are situated in rapidly growing categories of the beverage industry. The development of effective marketing strategies for these products requires an understanding of the forces driving competition in these markets. This paper provides background information to support competitive analysis and strategy development. Development of these markets will be positive for the apple industry, b...

  2. Market Barriers to Solar in Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, E.; Nobler, E.; Wolf, C.; Doris, E.

    2012-08-01

    The solar industry in the United States is at a turning point; the cost of PV hardware has declined substantially in recent years, placing new attention on reducing the balance of system (BOS) costs of solar that now contribute to a growing percentage of installation expenses. How states address these costs through the creation of a favorable policy and regulatory environment is proving to be a critical determinant of a thriving statewide solar market. This report addresses the permitting and tax issues that may stimulate the solar market growth in Michigan. By making PV installations easier to complete through reduced BOS costs, Michigan would become a more attractive location for manufacturers and installers. As PV module costs decline and BOS costs make up a greater share of the cost of solar, action taken today on these issues will prove beneficial in the long term, providing Michigan an opportunity to establish a leadership position in the solar industry.

  3. Market Segmentation and Conjoint Analysis for Apple Family Design

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Al-Refaie; Nour Bata

    2016-01-01

    A distributor of Apple products' experiences numerous difficulties in developing marketing strategies for new and existing mobile product entries that maximize customer satisfaction and the firm's profitability. This research, therefore, integrates market segmentation in platform-based product family design and conjoint analysis to identify iSystem combinations that increase customer satisfaction and business profits. First, the enhanced market segmentation grid is created. Then, the estimate...

  4. Thinking Afresh About Processing: An Exploration of New Market Opportunities for Apple Products

    OpenAIRE

    Rowles, Kristin; Henehan, Brian M.; White, Gerald B.

    2001-01-01

    This report compiles the results of several studies focused on the markets for processed apple products. These studies were conducted as part of a multidisciplinary project examining the processing apple industry in the Northeastern United States. The purpose of the studies was to explore the potential for new products and new marketing strategies that might bring innovation to the apple industry. In the global and highly competitive markets in which apple products fight for shelf space and c...

  5. APPLE IS TRYING TO RESOLVE MANY OF THEIR MARKETING AND MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Ayse

    2017-01-01

    This studymainly focusing on Apple marketing, sailing products and Apples customer’sfeedback. It could be successful in terms of business that innovate from Applecompany to its customers yet the most important assets of the organizationrelationships with the media across all the productions units of apple.However, apple is facing poor human resources and procedures. In this study weare mainly focusing on SWOT analysis which innovates products and diversified portfolioof apple to show the stre...

  6. Linking apple farmers to markets: Determinants and impacts of marketing contracts in China

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Wanglin; Abdulai, Awudu

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the determinants of marketing contract choices and the related impact on farm net returns of apple farmers in China. We employ a two-stage selection correction approach (BFG) for the multinomial logit model. On the basis of the BFG estimation, we also use an endogenous switching regression model and a propensity score matching technique to estimate the causal effects of marketing contract choices on net returns. The empirical results reveal that written contracts incre...

  7. Consumer acceptance of irradiated food products: an apple marketing study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, D.E.; Tabor, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    This study was exploratory in nature, with emphasis on initial purchases and not repeat purchases or long-term loyalties to either irradiated or non-irradiated produce. The investigation involved the actual sale of irradiated and non-irradiated apples to consumers. Limited information about the process was provided, and apples were sold at roadside stands. Prices for the irradiated apples were varied while the price for the non-irradiated apples was held constant. Of these 228 West-Central Missouri shoppers, 101 (44%) bought no irradiated apples, 86 (38%) bought only irradiated apples, and 41 (18%) bought some of both types, Results of probit regressions indicated three significant independent variables. There was an inverse relationship between the price of irradiated apples and the probability of purchasing irradiated apples. There was a positive relationship between the purchasers’ educational level and the probability of purchasing irradiated apples. Predicted probabilities for belonging to categories in probit models were computed. Depending on particular equation specification, correctly placed were approximately 70 percent of the purchasers of the two categories--bought only non-irradiated apples, or bought some of both irradiated and non-irradiated apples or only irradiated apples. This study suggests that consumers may be interested in food irradiation as a possible alternative or supplement to current preservation techniques

  8. CONSUMER PREFERENCES FOR FOOD SAFETY ATTRIBUTES IN FRESH APPLES: MARKET SEGMENTS, CONSUMER CHARACTERISTICS, AND MARKETING OPPORTUNITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Gregory A.

    1999-01-01

    Past research has yielded conflicting results on consumer valuation of food safety characteristics. In this study, conjoint analysis is used to evaluate consumer responses to hypothetical apple products in a nationwide survey. Product characteristics include price, quality, pesticide use levels and the corresponding cancer risk, and type of government inspection. Consumers expressed a broad preference for reduced pesticide usage. Four market segments were identified corresponding to consumers...

  9. Patulin contamination in apple products marketed in Shiraz, Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poostforoushfard, Ali; Pishgar, Ahmad R; Berizi, Enayat; Nouraei, Hasti; Sobhani, Zahra; Mirzaie, Rohallah; Zomorodian, Kamiar

    2017-12-01

    Patulin is one of the important mycotoxins, produced by a wide range of molds, including Penicillium , Aspergillus, and Bysochlamys. Patulin is mainly found in the rotten parts of fruits and vegetables, such as apples, pears, peach, apricots, and grapes. Currently, the Codex Alimentarius and Food and Drug Administration have recommended a maximum level of 50 µg/L patulin for apple products. The purpose of this study was to investigate patulin contamination of apple juice and cans in 75 samples collected from 15 manufacturers in Shiraz, southern Iran. The detection of patulin was accomplished using a high-performance liquid chromatography with an ultraviolet detector. A total of 38 apple juice samples (53%) and 17 apple cans (45%) were contaminated with patulin. Overall 50% and 3% of the apple juice and apple cans samples had a patulin level of > 3 µg/L. Although the maximum level of patulin in our samples was considerably lower than the permitted level established by the European Union (i.e., 50 µg/L), the high incidence of this mycotoxin in our samples should be lessen by improving their good manufacturing practice.

  10. Sustainable apple breedings needs sustainable marketing and management

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, M.

    2008-01-01

    Apple breeding programmes are currently in the middle of transition in terms of ownership and management. Until now most of them were funded by the public. Breeding took place by traditional methods since decades in a very sustainable way to develop better apple varieties. Today, increasing loss of national boundaries and globalisation, less interest by national bodies and institutions and rising cost levels for high tech breeding methods entire programmes are nowadays urged to...

  11. Marketing společnosti Apple a jeho proměna po roce 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Rybář, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Thesis on "The Marketing Strategies of Apple Inc. and Their Change After 2011" deals with the transformation of Apple's marketing strategies after the death of Steve Jobs, who was regarded by many as a key figure in the whole company. The author aims to present the company, products and marketing strategies used by Steve Jobs and then analyze the changes that have been made by new CEO Tim Cook since 2011. The theoretical part is devoted to definitions, which the author will be using in the pr...

  12. Holistic marketing in the function of competitiveness of the apple producers in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    OpenAIRE

    Dončić Dalibor; Perić Nenad; Prodanović Radivoj

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the work is the analysis of current business situation in which the apple producers in Bosnia and Herzegovina are positioned with development and use of holistic marketing concept as a model for improving the competitiveness of apple producers in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The methodology, which is applied in this work, is a combined qualitative and quantitative research technique. The in-depth interview is used for qualitative research, and for quantitative research the analysis of t...

  13. The Numerical Analysis of Monopolistically Competitive Markets: The Case of a New York Fresh Apple Packer

    OpenAIRE

    Starbird, Sterling A.; Milligan, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    The hypothesis is adduced that in some monopolistically competitive markets a firm's demand schedule evolves faster than the firm's marketing policies can adjust. A probabilistic model of this phenomenon is introduced. The numerical analysis of a New York fresh apple packer's inventory control policies illustrates the model's usefulness.

  14. Holistic marketing in the function of competitiveness of the apple producers in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dončić Dalibor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is the analysis of current business situation in which the apple producers in Bosnia and Herzegovina are positioned with development and use of holistic marketing concept as a model for improving the competitiveness of apple producers in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The methodology, which is applied in this work, is a combined qualitative and quantitative research technique. The in-depth interview is used for qualitative research, and for quantitative research the analysis of the import, export, production, trade and the cash flow data, available from statistical agencies, were used. The results showed that the new, developing, apple production strategy is necessary in order to correspond to the business challenges of the 21st century. In the new model of developing, it is suggested that the holistic approach to marketing has the central role. Holistic marketing, with its elements, has a potential to improve competitiveness on the domestic market and to create conditions for stable development of the apple production in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  15. 77 FR 36529 - Apple Group LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-4657-001] Apple Group LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Apple Group LLC...

  16. Occurrence of patulin in organic and conventional apple-based food marketed in Catalonia and exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqué, Ester; Vargas-Murga, Liliana; Gómez-Catalán, Jesús; Lapuente, Joaquin de; Llobet, Joan Maria

    2013-10-01

    In the last years, consumption of organic foods has become increasingly popular. Nevertheless, safety of organic foods is still unclear, and needs to be thoroughly evaluated. Patulin is a mycotoxin mainly present in rotten apples and apple-based products. The aim of this study is to analyse the content of patulin in apple juices and purees derived from organic and conventional production systems, in order to assess the risk to consumers, particularly in children. A total of 93 apple-based products marketed in Catalonia were analysed, 49 of which were derived from conventional and 44 from organic farming. The results showed higher incidence of positive samples and higher concentration of patulin in organic apple purees when comparing with conventional ones. In the case of juices, significant differences were found between conventional and organic samples, but applying a multivariate analysis the type of agriculture did not seem to have a relevant contribution to patulin occurrence, being cloudiness the main factor involved. The estimated daily intake of patulin for infants and young children (0-3 years old), children (4-18 years old) and adults (19-66 years old), were below the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) of 0.4 μg/kg bw in all scenarios considered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole apples...

  18. Golden Haidegg, a new apple mutant clone with improved marketing value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strempl, F.; Keppl, H.; Brunner, H.

    1988-01-01

    Full text: Golden Delicious and its derivatives are the leading apple cultivars in Austria. Traits limiting the economic yield are susceptibility to russeting, a heterogenous fruit assortment score and consumer preferences. Mutation breeding was started in 1972. Dormant five bud scions of Golden Delicious were irradiated with 40, 50 or 60 Gy gamma rays at a dose rate of 20 Gy min -1 and grafted on rootstocks M9. M 1 V 1 survival rates were 78% (40 Gy), 36% (50 Gy) and 6% (60 Gy). Surviving scions produced, on the average, two primary shoots from which three to five buds were used for summer budding. Primary shoots were pruned back to force M 1 V 2 shoots from the lower secondary buds. An incidental occurrence of viruses and mycoplasms was overcome by thermotherapy, but delayed completing procedures of selection, re-selection and confirmation of the selected traits till the M 1 V 6 generation. Desirable mutations in shoot vigor, growth type, fruit size and fruit quality characters were obtained from the 40 and 50 Gy treatments only, while 60 Gy produced generally grossly aberrant phenotypes. A mutant with smooth sheen fruits associated with a more flat shape and non-russeting was selected from the 50 Gy treatment. Smooth sheen and non-russeting are evidently independent traits. Among 18 different mutant clones tested in microtrials, only the russet-free, smooth sheen clone was superior to the parent cultivar in market value. This clone, named Golden Haidegg, was tested during four years in different environments, compared with other clones derived from Golden Delicious, i.e. Lysgolden, Belgolden, Supergolden, Cloden, Golden 1972, Golden s.r E9, Golden clone A and B, Golden Shay, Golden Missouri, Charden, Mutsu and Smoothe. All trees were virus free, grafted on rootstock M9 and trained as slender spindle; applied field management conditions were identical. The evaluation concerned yield, russeting, fruit-shape, colour, weight, assortment and cold-storability. Clone

  19. Exploring a potential impact of a social marketing campaign on reducing oral cancer incidences in Michigan: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sungwoo; Spavik, Georgia; Ismail, Amid I

    2015-01-01

    The social marketing campaign was launched in 2005-2007 to address excess risk of oral cancer in Detroit tri-county area, Michigan. We assessed the extent to which the campaign might have contributed to decreasing risk of oral cancer using the modified interrupted time-series design. Oral cancer incidence and mortality data came from Michigan Department of Community Health, and trends of age-adjusted rates during 1990-2009 were compared between intervention and comparison counties via joinpoint regression. Although mortality rates in both areas decreased in parallel manner, incidence rates decreased during and after the campaign only in the intervention counties. A similar trend was observed in the race-specific analysis. Alternative explanations, including population profiles, health-care access and pre-existing trends, were examined, and these characteristics were comparable between two areas in 1990s and 2000s. These results suggested that the campaign was more likely to be associated with the decreasing trend of oral cancer incidence in the intervention counties than alternative explanations. Although oral cancer is a deadly disease, its awareness has been relatively low. This study highlights a potential impact of concerted efforts to improve the oral cancer awareness in the high-risk communities.

  20. Volatile response of four apple varieties with different coatings during marketing at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jinhe; Hagenmaier, Robert D; Baldwin, Elizabeth A

    2002-12-18

    Five experimental coatings with different resistance to gas exchange were used with freshly harvested and 20-week commercially stored apples of Delicious, Fuji, Braeburn, and Granny Smith varieties. The coated or noncoated apples were held at 20 degrees C for up to 4 weeks. The gas partial pressures inside the fruits with the various coatings ranged from 1 to 25 kPa CO(2) and from 20 to 1 kPa O(2). Volatile evaporation rates were measured, as also were the volatiles compositions in the fruit. The coatings with intermediate gas resistance (carnauba-shellac mixture and candelilla) gave intermediate values of CO(2) and O(2) in the internal atmosphere in Delicious, Fuji, and Braeburn apples and the highest concentrations of butyl acetate and 2-methylbutyl acetate in the fruits. The coatings with the highest gas resistance (shellac and shellac-protein) caused high internal CO(2) and low O(2), resulting in anaerobic fermentation in Braeburn and Granny Smith apples and relatively high amounts of low-molecular-weight ethyl esters trapped within the fruit. A small portion of the alcohols were evaporated from fruits compared to esters, this attributed to their high Henry's law coefficients.

  1. Markets, Marx, Modernity and Mathematics Education: A Response to Michael Apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Peter

    This paper is a response to Michael Apple's paper, "What Postmodernists Forget: Cultural Capital and Official Knowledge." The paper advocates Michael's identification of the current dangers and processes of the growth of new right ideologies in the development of subjectivity, society, and education. The differences in success in the education…

  2. Data Driven Marketing in Apple and Back to School Campaign 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Bernátek, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Out of the campaign analysis the most important contribution is that Data-Driven Marketing makes sense only once it is already part of the marketing plan. So the team preparing the marketing plan defines the goals and sets the proper measurement matrix according to those goals. It enables to adjust the marketing plan to extract more value, watch the execution and do adjustments if necessary and evaluate at the end of the campaign.

  3. Experiential Marketing On Brand Advocacy: A Mixed-Method Approach On Global Apple Product Users

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Machado; Michael C. Cant; Helen Seaborne

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, marketing was about delivering the right product to the consumer at the right place and set at the right price. In recent years, experiential marketing has increased in popularity among companies that aim at delivering holistic experiences to be enjoyed by their consumers. With the technology explosion and the level of development the past number of years, marketers have become more and more focussed on different ways and methods to reach consumers. The use of experiential mark...

  4. Patulin in apple leather in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaseri, H; Eskandari, M H; Yeganeh, A T; Karami, S; Javidnia, K; Dehghanzadeh, G R; Mesbahi, G R; Niakousari, M

    2014-01-01

    Apple leather is made by dehydration of cooked fruit into leathery sheets. Mould growth and patulin production can occur in damaged apples or when fallen fruit is collected for apple leather processing. A survey was conducted to determine levels and dietary intake of patulin from apple leather marketed in Iran. Patulin was detected in all samples at concentrations ranging from leather.

  5. The microbiology of apples and apple products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doores, S

    1983-01-01

    The apple industry has reached an annual production level of 8.5 billion pounds. CA storage of 25% of this crop has enabled a fresh market on a year-round basis. To achieve high quality in raw fruit and processed apple products, careful attention must be paid to maintaining a microbiologically stable environment. The ecology of the microflora associated with the apple is a reflection of the orchard, handling, harvesting, and storage practices. Yeasts predominate on orchard fruit, molds may become a storage problem, and bacteria cause spoilage, off flavors, and loss of quality in juice products. Despite the microbial problems inherent in producing of quality product, the apple industry is faced with the occurrence of patulin. Patulin, a mycotoxin produced by Penicillium and Aspergillus species, has been associated with damaged fruit. Decreased temperatures, coupled with CA storage; can deter mold growth and patulin production. Laboratory detection methods for derivations of patulin are able to detect microgram quantities. Means to eliminate patulin formed in apple products include addition of ascorbate and SO2, extending fermentation, or charcoal filtering. However, degradation products of patulin have not been evaluated toxicologically.

  6. Apple founder targets healthcare as NeXT market. Interview by Carolyn Dunbar and Michael L. Laughlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobs, S

    1992-12-01

    Cofounder and former chairman of the board of Apple Computer Steven Jobs looks beyond the 1980s image of a petulant, embittered young man, fighting with all who failed to share his vision, and many who did. Today, as a founder, president and chairman of NeXT, Inc., he looks to more high-minded applications of his computer genius.

  7. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The...

  8. Apples: Safe Methods to Store, Preserve, and Enjoy

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Linda J; Yada, Sylvia; Mitcham, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Apples are generally abundant and inexpensive, and they add a healthy component to a well-balanced diet. Learn how to get the most out of the apples you buy at market or from a U-Pick farm or grow in your own garden. Contains detailed instructions for freezing, drying and canning, including recipes for Applesauce, Apple Butter, Apple Chutney, and Sweet Apple Relish.

  9. Newton's Apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Archibald W.

    2007-01-01

    Isaac Newton may have seen an apple fall, but it was Robert Hooke who had a better idea of where it would land. No one really knows whether or not Isaac Newton actually saw an apple fall in his garden. Supposedly it took place in 1666, but it was a tale he told in his old age more than 60 years later, a time when his memory was failing and his…

  10. Marketing de relacionamento com a Apple: o papel do julgamento e significado de produto na escolha do iPhone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Demo

    Full Text Available Em um cenário de competitividade recrudescente, a gestão de relacionamento com clientes (CRM apresenta-se como profícuo diferencial organizacional. A maneira pela qual os consumidores processam seu julgamento, passo-a-passo ou afetivo, e atribuem significados, utilitário ou simbólico, a produtos é particularmente relevante para entender seu comportamento de consumo e seu relacionamento com as marcas. Igualmente importante é a tomada de decisões realizada com base nesse processo. Haja vista a escassez na literatura de estudos científicos que relacionem o CRM a variáveis de comportamento do consumidor, esse estudo, de natureza quantitativa, teve como objetivo identificar se o relacionamento dos consumidores com a Apple pode ser influenciado pelo julgamento e significado que eles atribuem ao produto iPhone. Os resultados mostraram a influência do julgamento afetivo no estabelecimento do relacionamento com a marca. Além disso, foi possível concluir que os usuários pesquisados são influenciados mormente pelo julgamento passo-a-passo e dão mais importância ao significado utilitário no processo de escolha e compra do iPhone. Quanto à percepção do relacionamento com a Apple, os respondentes demonstraram que a alta qualidade dos smartphones vendidos pela marca e a confiança na marca são os fatores mais preponderantes na sua escolha. A contribuição acadêmica deste trabalho reside em preencher a lacuna na literatura ao identificar antecedentes do CRM. Outrossim, em uma perspectiva gerencial, tanto para a Apple como para outras fabricantes de smartphones, os resultados por ora obtidos podem ser utilizados como diagnóstico para auxiliar os gestores em suas estratégias de promoção de produtos e fidelização de clientes.

  11. What would Apple do? how you can learn from Apple and make money

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, Apple officially became the most valuable company of all time. iPod, iPad, iTunes, App Store? the list goes on. Apple's must-have products add up to one giant success story. So what's their secret? What makes Apple the most innovative company on the planet? The answer: Apple does exactly the opposite of what any other company would do. Unlike the competition, Apple develops devices and programs by concentrating on a small number of functions. Forget complex market analyses. Forget asking customers to help develop products. And, unlike Google and other internet giants, it wants y

  12. Knowing Apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Shannon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay employs a first-person fictional narrator to explore the nature of human-plant relations through the example of Thoreau’s Wild Apples and enacts the transformational process necessary to write in conjunction with non-conscious vegetal life by paying attention to the unthought known of the vegetative soul.

  13. Cancer chemopreventive potential of apples, apple juice, and apple components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhauser, Clarissa

    2008-10-01

    Apples ( MALUS sp., Rosaceae) are a rich source of nutrient as well as non-nutrient components and contain high levels of polyphenols and other phytochemicals. Main structural classes of apple constituents include hydroxycinnamic acids, dihydrochalcones, flavonols (quercetin glycosides), catechins and oligomeric procyanidins, as well as triterpenoids in apple peel and anthocyanins in red apples. Several lines of evidence suggest that apples and apple products possess a wide range of biological activities which may contribute to health beneficial effects against cardiovascular disease, asthma and pulmonary dysfunction, diabetes, obesity, and cancer (reviewed by Boyer and Liu, Nutr J 2004). The present review will summarize the current knowledge on potential cancer preventive effects of apples, apple juice and apple extracts (jointly designated as apple products). In brief, apple extracts and components, especially oligomeric procyanidins, have been shown to influence multiple mechanisms relevant for cancer prevention in IN VITRO studies. These include antimutagenic activity, modulation of carcinogen metabolism, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory mechanisms, modulation of signal transduction pathways, antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing activity, as well as novel mechanisms on epigenetic events and innate immunity. Apple products have been shown to prevent skin, mammary and colon carcinogenesis in animal models. Epidemiological observations indicate that regular consumption of one or more apples a day may reduce the risk for lung and colon cancer.

  14. Thinning 'Elstar' apple with benzyladenine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    ‘Elstar’, the main apple cultivar grown in the Netherlands, requires adequate thinning to reach marketable fruit sizes and to achieve regular yields by preventing alternate bearing. At the moment, chemical thinning of ‘Elstar’ is the only economically feasible way of thinning. Thinning by hand is

  15. Apples for Teachers Pay Off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Irving, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews current trends in the educational market for microcomputers and software. As of June 1982, about 214,000 microcomputers were installed in schools, with Apple Computer (followed by Radio Shack and others) leading the field. A new federal program virtually eliminating how schools use funds may benefit computer assisted instruction. (JN)

  16. Marketingové strategie firmy APPLE

    OpenAIRE

    Preněk, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis is a definition of marketing goals and strategies of the Apple company on the basis of the complex positional analysis, whose output is the SWOT analysis. For purpose of using theoretical knowledge in praxis one part is devoted to the marketing instruments, which are used by the analyzed company. This part leads to analysis of the company's marketing mix of one of the product made by Apple. This thesis includes also results of the market research which was focused...

  17. Are Red Apples Sweeter Than Green Apples?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Chris

    1999-01-01

    Describes how a classroom observation of apples led to the development of a science project. Discusses the correlation between the greenness and the acidity of apples. Finds that the greener the apple, the lower its pH, and thus the more acidic and less sweet it tastes. (Author/CCM)

  18. 75 FR 52218 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Apple Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    .... Section 1--Definitions Comment: A few commenters stated the definition of ``damaged apple production... Grade, marketing orders, etc.). Response: The definition of ``grade standards'' has language referencing... definition of ``fresh apple production'' stating policyholders must ``follow the recommended cultural...

  19. Value innovations in accordance to Apple

    OpenAIRE

    Mertl, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor's thesis is aimed at comparison of value management way of innovations and innovations according to Apple. At the first part there are analyzed theoretical, methodical and practical aspects of both of ways. Key theme for value innovation is value for customer, which is analyzed from both points of view value management and Apple. Except of product innovations there are mentioned for example marketing innovations or process innovations. In last part of the thesis there are demons...

  20. Apple Coffee Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/applecoffeecake.html Apple Coffee Cake To use the sharing features on ... time: 50 minutes Number of Servings: 20 Tart apples and raisins make for a moist, delicious cake. ...

  1. Boron in combination with calcium reduces sunburn in apple fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Lötze, Elmi; Daiber, Stephan H.; Midgley, Stephanie J. E.

    2018-01-01

    Sunburn damage on apple fruit has been reported widely [1]. Sunburnincidence is expected to increase in future, specifically in the Western Capein South Africa, with very clear climate change predictions [2]. Sunburn thus hassignificant financial implications on profitability for the South Africanexport dominated apple industry, as sunburnt fruit is not accepted in the mainexport markets. In the United Kingdom, no visible sunburn on apples is allowed,whereas only fruit with class 1 sunburn (S...

  2. Apple : CGN downloadable dataset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Centrum voor genetische bronnen (CGN) in Nederland- -,

    2014-01-01

    By 2014-14-07 data on experiments was available for the following traits. / Acid/sugar ratio 102 observations on 102 accessions / Apple canker (Neonectria galligena) 169 observations on 169 accessions / Apple powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) 169 observations on 169 accessions / Apple scab

  3. Bathymetry of Lake Michigan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Michigan has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  4. Would You Like that iPhone Locked or Unlocked?: Reconciling Apple's Anticircumvention Measures with the DMCA

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel J. Corbett

    2008-01-01

    When Apple's iPhone first hit the stores it was an epochal media event.2 Apple, long a leader in high-end computers and personal electronics, was poised to make its entry into ahighly-competitive market with a new mobile phone that promised groundbreaking technological capabilities in a sleek, ergonomic package. Apple's CEO, Steve Jobs, extolled the iPhone's virtues to an eager press, and, shortly thereafter, Apple's stock jumped dramatically.3 Apple's loyal devotees lined up in anticipation ...

  5. QTL analysis of soft scald in two apple populations

    OpenAIRE

    McClure, Kendra A; Gardner, Kyle M; Toivonen, Peter MA; Hampson, Cheryl R; Song, Jun; Forney, Charles F; DeLong, John; Rajcan, Istvan; Myles, Sean

    2016-01-01

    The apple (Malus?domestica Borkh.) is one of the world?s most widely grown and valuable fruit crops. With demand for apples year round, storability has emerged as an important consideration for apple breeding programs. Soft scald is a cold storage-related disorder that results in sunken, darkened tissue on the fruit surface. Apple breeders are keen to generate new cultivars that do not suffer from soft scald and can thus be marketed year round. Traditional breeding approaches are protracted a...

  6. The Apple Phenomenon: the Impact of Modern Technologies on Subject

    OpenAIRE

    Kuldová, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    The Apple Phenomenon: the Impact of Modern Technologies on Subject Abstract The goal of the submitted thesis is the study of the company Apple Inc. in the context of how it is percieved by subjects. After a brief introduction of the company Apple Inc. we will focus on semiotic analysis of the brand Apple, its products and marketing strategies. The object of study will be also a present society, whose distinguishing feature is a consumption, and brand perception of a subject in connection with...

  7. Aim of this research is to analyze if the success of the apple iPhone should be credited wholly or partially to its marketing strategy adopted by the heads at apple. The research will go further in depth into analyzing why and how the strategy worked for the company as the iPhone is one of the only products that managed to create a massive hype before its launch that made people wait impatiently for its launch in most of the countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Adhiya, Archisha

    2010-01-01

    This research study was conducted in order to explore the Iphone market. The main aim of this study was to find out whether or not the heads at the Apple Company were wholly responsible for the hype created for the phone. Conducting this research interests me because from my understanding Apple Iphone is the only product that could create such a massive hype, a hype that persists even today. My study is ‘for’ the topic and it further goes into talking about what marketing strategies were ...

  8. Importance-performance analysis: an application to Michigan's natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria Sanders; Erin White; Lori Pennington-Gray

    2001-01-01

    In the state of Michigan, the nature-based tourist is becoming an increasingly important target market for providers of natural resources. To meet the demands of this growing market segment, evaluation strategies for nature-based sites are needed to maintain and improve customer satisfaction and loyalty. Evaluation strategies that incorporate consumer input can help to...

  9. Empirical yield tables for Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerold T. Hahn; Joan M. Stelman

    1984-01-01

    Describes the tables derived from the 1980 Forest Survey of Michigan and presents ways the tables can be used. These tables are broken down according to Michigan's four Forest Survey Units, 14 forest types, and 5 site-index classes.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF SLOVENIAN APPLE JUICE WITH RESPECT TO ITS GEOGRAPHICAL ORIGIN AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION PRACTICE

    OpenAIRE

    Bizjak Bat, Karmen

    2016-01-01

    Determination of food authenticity is an important issue in quality control and food safety. Recent studies predict a growing demand for natural and more authentic food and beverage products. The quality and authenticity of apple juice is also of a great economic importance since the popularity and demand for apple juice consumption has increased. The growth of the market for organically produced apples and apple juice is due to the increasing demand for healthy food requirements, protection ...

  11. TECHNICAL EQUIPMENT FOR SORTING APPLES BY SIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilica Ştefan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Need to increase the competitiveness of semi-subsistence farms, by valorisation of the fruits, led to research for designing of an equipment for sorting apples by size, in order to meet market requirement, pricing according to the size of the fruits.

  12. Melatonin in Apples and Juice: Inhibition of Browning and Microorganism Growth in Apple Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haixia; Liu, Xuan; Chen, Ting; Ji, Yazhen; Shi, Kun; Wang, Lin; Zheng, Xiaodong; Kong, Jin

    2018-02-27

    Synthetic melatonin ( N -acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, MT) is popular in the US and Asian markets as a health supplement. Here, we identified a naturally occurring melatonin source in apple juice. Melatonin was present in all 18 apple cultivars tested. The highest melatonin level of the edible part of apple was detected in the apple peel. The melatonin content in 'Fuji' apple juice is comparable to the level of its flesh. Melatonin was consumed during the process of juicing due to its interaction with the oxidants. Melatonin addition significantly reduced the juice color change to brown (browning). The mechanism is that melatonin scavenges the free radicals, which was indicated by the ASBT analysis; therefore, inhibiting the conversion of o -diphenolic compounds into quinones. Most importantly, melatonin exhibited powerful anti-microorganism activity in juice. The exact mechanisms of this action are currently unknown. These effects of melatonin can preserve the quality and prolong the shelf life of apple juice. The results provide valuable information regarding commerciall apple juice processing and storage.

  13. Melatonin in Apples and Juice: Inhibition of Browning and Microorganism Growth in Apple Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixia Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, MT is popular in the US and Asian markets as a health supplement. Here, we identified a naturally occurring melatonin source in apple juice. Melatonin was present in all 18 apple cultivars tested. The highest melatonin level of the edible part of apple was detected in the apple peel. The melatonin content in ‘Fuji’ apple juice is comparable to the level of its flesh. Melatonin was consumed during the process of juicing due to its interaction with the oxidants. Melatonin addition significantly reduced the juice color change to brown (browning. The mechanism is that melatonin scavenges the free radicals, which was indicated by the ASBT analysis; therefore, inhibiting the conversion of o-diphenolic compounds into quinones. Most importantly, melatonin exhibited powerful anti-microorganism activity in juice. The exact mechanisms of this action are currently unknown. These effects of melatonin can preserve the quality and prolong the shelf life of apple juice. The results provide valuable information regarding commerciall apple juice processing and storage.

  14. Michigan forest statistics, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard K. Raile; W. Brad Smith

    1983-01-01

    The fourth inventory of the timber resource of Michigan shows a 7% decline in commercial forest area and a 27% gain in growing-stock volume between 1966 and 1980. Highlights and statistics are presented on area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, and biomass.

  15. Notes on Michigan Boletaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Alexander H.

    1973-01-01

    Studies have continued on the diversity of the Michigan bolete flora. During the season of 1972 a variety of Boletus affinis Peck having a reticulate stipe was discovered and abundant material of Boletus bicolor var. subreticulatus Smith & Thiers was obtained. Boletus hortonii Smith & Thiers was

  16. Apple cuticle: the perfect interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Eric; Arey, Bruce

    2010-06-01

    The domestic apple might well be called an 'extreme' fruit. In the arid Northwest United States, the fruit often tolerates surface temperatures ranging from -2 °C in the early spring to 50 °C in the heat of summer, and again to -2 °C during controlled postharvest storage for up to 12 months. During its 18-month existence, the apple maintains a cuticle that is dynamic and environmentally responsive to protect against 1) cellular water loss during desiccation stress and 2) excessive uptake of standing surface moisture. Physiological disorders of the peel such as russeting, cracking, splitting, flecking and lenticel marking, develop as epidermal cells respond to rapid changes in ambient conditions at specific developmental stages during the growing season. Resultant market losses underlie research investigating the nature of apple cuticle growth and development. Ultrastructural analysis of the pro-cuticle using scanning electron microscopy indicates an overlapping network of lipid-based distally-elongating microtubules--produced by and connected to epidermal cells--which co-polymerize to form an organic solvent-insoluble semi-permeable cutin matrix. Microtubule elongation, aggregation, and polymerization function together as long as the fruit continues to enlarge. The nature of lipid transport from the epidermal cells through the cell wall to become part of the cuticular matrix was explored using an FEI Helios NanoLabTM DualBeamTM focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope on chemically- and cryo-fixed peel tissue from mature or freshly harvested apples. Based on microtubule dimensions, regular projections found at the cell/cuticle interface suggest an array of microtubule-like structures associated with the epidermal cell.

  17. MATURITY AND QUALITY OF APPLE FRUIT DURINIG THE HARVEST PERIOD AT APPLE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCOS WESTPHAL GONÇALVES

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A database of maturity and quality indices was built by analysis of 62,807 samples of 100 ‘Gala’ apples and 29,053 samples of 100 ‘Fuji’ apples at harvest, over 11 years (2005-2015 in an apple industry warehouse. Apple fruit were harvested in Fraiburgo (SC, São Joaquim (SC and Vacaria (RS. Data on firmness, starch index (SI, soluble solid content (SS, titratable acidity (TA, size and grades (external appearance of apple fruit were submitted to linear and nonlinear regression analyses. Each fruit was graded by analysis of external qualities (color and surface blemishes following Brazilian legal standards. At apples industry, the harvest period extended from 3rd to 15th week of the year for ‘Gala’ and from 10th to 22nd week of the year for ‘Fuji’ apples, although approximately 70% of total production for ‘Gala’ and ‘Fuji’ apples was harvested in a period of 4 and 6 weeks, respectively. Average maturity of 11 years varied from the 1st to the last week of harvest as follows: ‘Gala’ apples: 17.9 to 14.2 pounds (firmness, 4.0 to 6.1 (SI, 12.2 to 13.1% (SS and 5.7 to 3.9 meq 100 mL-1 (TA. ‘Fuji’ apples: 17.1 to 14.3 pounds (firmness, 3.9 to 6.4 (SI, 12.9 to 14.4% (SS, 6.2 to 3.8 meq 100 mL-1 (TA. Approximately 48% of ‘Gala’ samples and 45% of ‘Fuji’ samples had firmness higher than 17 and 16 pounds, respectively, intended for long term storage, while 6% of ‘Gala’ samples and 8.5% of ‘Fuji’ samples had firmness lower than 14 pounds, intended for marketing shortly after harvest. The frequency of apple samples graded as Extra, Cat1, Cat2, Cat3 and out of category were 6%, 32%, 34% and 6% for ‘Gala’ apples and 5%, 39%, 33%, 18%, 5% for ‘Fuji’ apples.

  18. Michigan's Forests 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott A. Pugh; Lawrence D. Pedersen; Douglas C. Heym; Ronald J. Piva; Christopher W. Woodall; Charles J. Barnett; Cassandra M. Kurtz; W. Keith. Moser

    2012-01-01

    The seventh inventory of Michigan's forests, completed in 2009, describes more than 19.9 million acres of forest land. The data in this report are based on visits to 7,516 forested plots from 2005 to 2009. Timberland accounts for 97 percent of this forest land, and 62 percent is privately owned. The sugar maple/beech/yellow birch forest type accounts for 18...

  19. Michigan's forests 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott A. Pugh; Mark H. Hansen; Lawrence D. Pedersen; Douglas C. Heym; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Dacia Meneguzzo; Charles H. Perry; David E. Haugen; Christopher Woodall; Ed Jepsen

    2009-01-01

    The first annual inventory of Michigan's forests, completed in 2004, covers more than 19.3 million acres of forest land. The data in this report are based on visits to 10,355 forested plots from 2000 to 2004. In addition to detailed information on forest attributes, this report includes data on forest health, biomass, land-use change, and timber-product outputs....

  20. Whiting in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Satellites provide a view from space of changes on the Earth's surface. This series of images from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) aboard the Orbview-2 satellite shows the dramatic change in the color of Lake Michigan during the summer. The bright color that appears in late summer is probably caused by calcium carbonate-chalk-in the water. Lake Michigan always has a lot of calcium carbonate in it because the floor of the lake is limestone. During most of the year the calcium carbonate remains dissolved in the cold water, but at the end of summer the lake warms up, lowering the solubility of calcium carbonate. As a result, the calcium carbonate precipitates out of the water, forming clouds of very small solid particles that appear as bright swirls from above. The phenomenon is appropriately called a whiting event. A similar event occured in 1999, but appears to have started later and subsided earlier. It is also possible that a bloom of the algae Microcystis is responsible for the color change, but unlikely because of Lake Michigan's depth and size. Microcystis blooms have occured in other lakes in the region, however. On the shore of the lake it is possible to see the cities of Chicago, Illinois, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Both appear as clusters of gray-brown pixels. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  1. Bioanalytical characterization of apple juice from 88 grafted and nongrafted apple varieties grown in Upper Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzerstorfer, Peter; Wruss, Jürgen; Huemer, Stefan; Steininger, Andrea; Müller, Ulrike; Himmelsbach, Markus; Borgmann, Daniela; Winkler, Stephan; Höglinger, Otmar; Weghuber, Julian

    2014-02-05

    The compositional characteristics of untreated pure juice prepared from 88 apple varieties grown in the region of Eferding/Upper Austria were determined. Many of the analyzed varieties are noncommercial, old varieties not present in the market. The aim of the study was to quantitate the mineral, phosphate, trace elements, and polyphenolic content in order to identify varieties that are of particular interest for a wider distribution. Great variations among the investigated varieties could be found. This holds especially true for the total polyphenolic content (TPC) ranging from 103.2 to 2,275.6 mg/L. A clear dependence of the antioxidant capacity on the TPC levels was detected. Bioinformatics was employed to find specific interrelationships, such as Mg²⁺/Mn²⁺ and PO₄³⁻/K⁺, between the analyzed bio- and phytochemical parameters. Furthermore, special attention was drawn on putative effects of grafting on the phytochemical composition of apple varieties. By grafting 27 different apple varieties on two trees grown close to each other, it could be shown that the apple fruits remain their characteristic phytochemical composition. Finally, apple juice prepared from selected varieties was further characterized by additional biochemical analysis including cytotoxicity, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition, and α-amylase activity tests. Cytotoxicity and inhibition of EGFR activation were found to be dependent on the TPC, while α-amylase activity was reduced by the apple juices independent of the presence of polyphenolic substances. Taken together selected apple varieties investigated within this study might serve as preferable sources for the development of apple-based food with a strong focus on health beneficial effects.

  2. Apple tree production in Italy: rootstocks, cultivars, fertilization, and irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovambattista Sorrenti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Italy is one of the main apple producers in Europe, primarily intended for fresh consumption, both in the domestic and foreign markets. Fruit yield and quality depends on the cultivar, rootstock, and management practices, such as the fertilization and irrigation adopted in the orchard. This review aims at reporting the main apple cultivars and rootstocks, the management of fertilization and irrigation, as well as their adaptation to apple tree orchards in Italy. The programs for genetic improvement carried out in this country involved the selection of apple tree cultivars and rootstocks which enable a high fruit yield and quality, in order to meet the requirements from the consumer market. In the fertilization and irrigation management, nutrients and water are supplied in amounts next to the actual need of the plants, providing an adequate nutrition, a satisfactory yield, and high quality fruits, besides preventing, whenever possible, nutrients and water losses in the environment.

  3. The changing veneer and plywood industry of Michigan and Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary R. Lindell; Lewis T. Hendricks

    1972-01-01

    Analyzes trends in the hardwood veneer and plywood industry of Michigan and Wisconsin between 1964 and 1969. In that period, red oak and hard maple replaced yellow birch as the major species used. Log supplies were adequate. Wall paneling was the major end market with doorskins next. Excess plywood producing capacity is a chronic problem.

  4. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER...

  5. Michigan E85 Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, Matthew M.

    2012-03-30

    This is the final report for a grant-funded project to financially assist and otherwise provide support to projects that increase E85 infrastructure in Michigan at retail fueling locations. Over the two-year project timeframe, nine E85 and/or flex-fuel pumps were installed around the State of Michigan at locations currently lacking E85 infrastructure. A total of five stations installed the nine pumps, all providing cost share toward the project. By using cost sharing by station partners, the $200,000 provided by the Department of Energy facilitated a total project worth $746,332.85. This project was completed over a two-year timetable (eight quarters). The first quarter of the project focused on project outreach to station owners about the incentive on the installation and/or conversion of E85 compatible fueling equipment including fueling pumps, tanks, and all necessary electrical and plumbing connections. Utilizing Clean Energy Coalition (CEC) extensive knowledge of gasoline/ethanol infrastructure throughout Michigan, CEC strategically placed these pumps in locations to strengthen the broad availability of E85 in Michigan. During the first and second quarters, CEC staff approved projects for funding and secured contracts with station owners; the second through eighth quarters were spent working with fueling station owners to complete projects; the third through eighth quarters included time spent promoting projects; and beginning in the second quarter and running for the duration of the project was spent performing project reporting and evaluation to the US DOE. A total of 9 pumps were installed (four in Elkton, two in Sebewaing, one in East Lansing, one in Howell, and one in Whitmore Lake). At these combined station locations, a total of 192,445 gallons of E85, 10,786 gallons of E50, and 19,159 gallons of E30 were sold in all reporting quarters for 2011. Overall, the project has successfully displaced 162,611 gallons (2,663 barrels) of petroleum, and reduced

  6. MICHIGAN: Cyclotron conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    A sense of excitement was in the air as cyclotron physicists and engineers from 17 countries convened on 30 April for the opening of the Tenth International Conference on Cyclotrons and Their Applications. Some 50 years after its invention, the redoubtable cyclotron remains a topic of compelling current interest. Cyclotron experts gathered at Michigan State University's Kellogg Center to hear of latest developments, of progress and successes on new machines which had come into operation, of new projects which were underway, and of dreams which lay ahead

  7. MICHIGAN: Cyclotron conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1984-10-15

    A sense of excitement was in the air as cyclotron physicists and engineers from 17 countries convened on 30 April for the opening of the Tenth International Conference on Cyclotrons and Their Applications. Some 50 years after its invention, the redoubtable cyclotron remains a topic of compelling current interest. Cyclotron experts gathered at Michigan State University's Kellogg Center to hear of latest developments, of progress and successes on new machines which had come into operation, of new projects which were underway, and of dreams which lay ahead.

  8. Apple otsib kohta mobiiliturul / Lauri Matsulevitsh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matsulevitsh, Lauri

    2005-01-01

    Apple tahab siseneda mobiiliturule, demonstreeriti Motorola mudelit Rokr, mis mängib lugusid Apple'i Tunes'i online-muusikapoest. Diagramm: Apple'i aktsia. Vt. samas: Apple on Eesti investorite meelisaktsiaid

  9. Apple IOS Devices for Network Administrators

    OpenAIRE

    Mirzoev, Timur; Gingo, Gerard; Stawchansky, Mike; White, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    As tablet devices continue to gain market share at the expense of the traditional PC, they become a more integral part of the corporate landscape. Tablets are no longer being utilized only by sales executives for presentation purposes, or as addition to the traditional laptop. Users are attempting to perform significant amounts of their daily work on tablet devices, some even abandoning the ubiquitous laptop or desktop entirely. Operating exclusively from a tablet device, specifically Apple I...

  10. Nondestructive Detection of the Internalquality of Apple Using X-Ray and Machine Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fuzeng; Yang, Liangliang; Yang, Qing; Kang, Likui

    The internal quality of apple is impossible to be detected by eyes in the procedure of sorting, which could reduce the apple’s quality reaching market. This paper illustrates an instrument using X-ray and machine vision. The following steps were introduced to process the X-ray image in order to determine the mould core apple. Firstly, lifting wavelet transform was used to get a low frequency image and three high frequency images. Secondly, we enhanced the low frequency image through image’s histogram equalization. Then, the edge of each apple's image was detected using canny operator. Finally, a threshold was set to clarify mould core and normal apple according to the different length of the apple core’s diameter. The experimental results show that this method could on-line detect the mould core apple with less time consuming, less than 0.03 seconds per apple, and the accuracy could reach 92%.

  11. Distribution and molecular detection of apple mosaic virus in apple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-30

    Jul 30, 2014 ... Apple mosaic virus (ApMV) is one of the most important diseases limiting the production of hazelnut and apple in Turkey ... success of those programs depends on specific and sensitive ..... Applied Biostatistics Inc. Rott ME ...

  12. Performance of Wild Fruit Marketing in Nigeria: A Case Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of Wild Fruit Marketing in Nigeria: A Case Study of African Star Apple ( Chrysophllum ... This study examined marketing of wild fruits in Nigeria using African Star Apple as a case study. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  13. Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  14. 75 FR 41895 - Inteva Products, LLC Adrian, Michigan; Inteva Products, LLC Troy, Michigan; Amended Certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... Products, LLC Adrian, Michigan; Inteva Products, LLC Troy, Michigan; Amended Certification Regarding... time period at the Troy, Michigan location of Inteva Products, LLC. The Troy, Michigan location.... Accordingly, the Department is amending the certification to include workers of the Troy, Michigan location of...

  15. Development of a protocol that allows safe consumption of the hypoallergenic apple cultivar Santana

    OpenAIRE

    Maas, van der, M.P.; Schenk, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    The apple (Malus ×domestica) cultivar Santana was shown to have a low allergenicity in a previously reported clinical trial. A protocol was developed to validate these results outside a clinical setting and to market the Santana as a hypoallergenic apple for large-scale consumption. This protocol was designed to ensure safe consumption of the Santana by consumers suffering from apple allergy. We tested the protocol in a pilot in 100 supermarket stores and evaluated in an internet-based survey...

  16. Apple Watch for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Saltzman, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Your all-encompassing guide to the Apple Watch Are you an Apple Watch enthusiast and want to master all of its features to impress friends and intimidate enemies? Or perhaps you're a less-than-tech-savvy newcomer to the ""wearable"" craze and want to get the most out of it? In Apple Watch For Dummies, you'll discover how this incredible device does way more than simply tell time. Through hands-on, easy-to-follow instruction, you'll find out how to send and receive text messages and emails, use Siri, find movie times, access your favorite apps and get directions]. Plus, you'll get a handle on

  17. About APPLE II Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-01

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180 deg. requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented

  18. New Insights on the Apple and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bügel, Susanne; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Poulsen, Morten

    Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risks of certain cancers, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, Alzheimer disease etc. In this project, we focused on apples as a model fruit for some of this research due to its high contents of soluble and insoluble fibers......, flavonoids and phenolic acids and because of the high intakes of apples in northern parts of Europe. A series of 4-16 w rat feeding studies with fresh whole apples, dried apple, apple puree, clear and cloudy apple juices, apple pomace, and apple pectins have been conducted. A human cross-over dietary...... intervention study in 24 healthy volunteers with apple and apple products has also been performed. They supplemented a polyphenol and pectin restricted diet with whole apples, apple pomace, cloudy or clear apple juices or nothing for 4 weeks. Feeding rats with 10g apple/d reduced plasma total, HDL cholesterol...

  19. Composition of apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattick, L R; Moyer, J C

    1983-09-01

    Thirty-one samples from 8 geographic growing regions of the United States and 15 varieties common to these areas were converted to apple juice and analyzed for their attributes over the 3 year period 1979, 1980, and 1981. The total of 93 samples were analyzed for ash, brix, pH, proline, specific gravity, total acid, sorbitol, sucrose, fructose, and glucose. The elements cadmium, calcium, iron, lead, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and zinc were also determined. These data are presented to serve as a data base for the detection of fraudulent or adulterated apple juice.

  20. Danish apple cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne; Pedersen, Carsten; Ørgaard, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We made a genetic analysis of about 500 apple cultivars, which either originate from Denmark or have been of greater importance in Denmark. To study the diversity and parentage among the cultivars, 15 SSR markers were used. A new PCR-based protocol for identification of S-alleles was dev......Abstract We made a genetic analysis of about 500 apple cultivars, which either originate from Denmark or have been of greater importance in Denmark. To study the diversity and parentage among the cultivars, 15 SSR markers were used. A new PCR-based protocol for identification of S...

  1. Considerations for implementing machine vision for detecting watercore in apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upchurch, Bruce L.; Throop, James A.

    1993-05-01

    Watercore in apples is a physiological disorder that affects the internal quality of the fruit. Growers can experience serious economic losses due to internal breakdown of the apple if watercored apples are placed unknowingly into long term storage. Economic losses can also occur if watercore is detected and the entire `lot' is downgraded; however, a gain can be obtained if watercored fruit is segregated and marketed as a premium apple soon after harvest. Watercore is characterized by the accumulation of fluid around the vascular bundles replacing air spaces between cells. This fluid reduces the light scattering properties of the apple. Using machine vision to measure the amount of light transmitted through the apple, watercored apples were segregated according to the severity of damage. However, the success of the method was dependent upon two factors. First, the sensitivity of the camera dictated the classes of watercore that could be detected. A highly sensitive camera could separate the less severe classes at the expense of not distinguishing between the more severe classes. A second factor which is common to most quality attributes in perishable commodities is the elapsed time after harvest at which the measurement was made. At the end of the study, light transmission levels decreased to undetectable levels with the initial camera settings for all watercore classes.

  2. Apple mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), a member of the ilarvirus group, naturally infects Betula, Aesculus, Humulus, and several crop genera in the family Rosaceae (Malus, Prunus, Rosa and Rubus). ApMV was first reported in Rubus in several blackberry and raspberry cultivars in the United States and subsequentl...

  3. 'Braeburn' apple culti

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... and orderly function of most physical and chemical reactions occurring in a functional fruit cell (Song and. Bangerth, 2003). Fatty acids are one of major precursors representing ... constituents synthesized in apple fruits (Ackermann et al.,. 1992; Wu et al., 2007). Especially, genetic structure controls enzyme ...

  4. APPLE PHYTOCHEMICALS FOR HUMAN BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Chakole

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals

  5. Advances in apple culture worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence Robinson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 60 years, planting densities for apple have increased as improved management systems have been developed. Dwarfing rootstocks have been the key to the dramatic changes in tree size, spacing and early production. The Malling series of dwarfing rootstocks (M.9 and M.26 have been the most important dwarfing rootstocks in the world but are poorly adapted in some areas of the world and they are susceptible to the bacterial disease fire blight and the soil disease complex, apple replant disease which limits their uses in some areas. Rootstock breeding programs in several parts of the world are developing improved rootstocks with resistance to fire blight, and replant disease, and improved cold hardiness and yield efficiency. A second important trend has been the increasing importance of new cultivars. New cultivars have provided opportunities for higher prices until they are over-produced. A new trend is the "variety club" in which variety owners manage the production and marketing of a new unique cultivar to bring higher prices to the growers and variety owners. This has led to many fruit growers being unable to plant or grow some new cultivars. Important rootstock and cultivar genes have been mapped and can be used in marker assisted selection of future rootstock and cultivar selections. Other important improvements in apple culture include the development of pre-formed trees, the development of minimal pruning strategies and limb angle bending which have also contributed to the dramatic changes in early production in the 2nd-5th years after planting. Studies on light interception and distribution have led to improved tree forms with better fruit quality. Simple pruning strategies and labor positioning platform machines have resulted in partial mechanization of pruning which has reduced management costs. Improved plant growth regulators for thinning and the development of a thinning prediction model based on tree carbohydrate balance

  6. Strategic analysis and marketing manage-ment in smartphone market. iPhone case

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Thao; Truong, Khoa

    2014-01-01

    The smartphone industry is increasing sharply. In mobile industry, Apple is well-estimated in both the quality of product and strategic marketing. That explained why Apple has been the most valuable brand of the world for some recent years (interbrand, 2013). The research of Apple in smartphone industry: how iPhone become the most symbol for innovation and how Apple built its strategy will be the practical application for the theoretical part of my thesis. The concentration of our thesis...

  7. Apple and peach consumption habits across European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopacka, D; Jesionkowska, K; Kruczyńska, D; Stehr, R; Schoorl, F; Buehler, A; Egger, S; Codarin, S; Hilaire, C; Höller, I; Guerra, W; Liverani, A; Donati, F; Sansavini, S; Martinelli, A; Petiot, C; Carbó, J; Echeverria, G; Iglesias, I; Bonany, J

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to gain information concerning apple and peach consumption frequency within different European countries in relation to age and gender. The survey was a part of a complex experiment with the aim of evaluating consumers' preferences towards new varieties, and the data is based on the self-reported declarations of respondents, male and female, between 15 and 70 years old. 4271 consumers from 7 European countries were invited to supply information about their apple consumption habits, whereas 499 respondents from 5 countries answered questions relating to frequency of peach and nectarine consumption. In both, the apple and the peach surveys, data analysis of declared intake showed significant differences between nationalities. The highest apple consumption was in Poland, where over 55% declared a consumption of more than 5 apples per week. In comparison, Italian consumers most often indicated eating 3-5 apples per week (39.3%). The lowest apple consumption was in the Netherlands and Spain. In the case of peaches, the highest consumption was indicated in France where 48% of respondents declared a peach consumption of 3-5 per week with 40% eating more than 5 fruits per week. The lowest peach intake was declared in Germany. Irrespective of country women were shown to eat more apples that men. Furthermore, the group of older people (61-70 years) consume apples more often than the adult group (36-60), while within the youngest group of consumers (16-35) eating apples was not at all popular. As with apples females declared a higher peach consumption, and again significantly lower fruit consumption by the youngest group (16-35) was indicated. Although the availability of fruit at the market remains a prime factor in determining apple and peach consumption, our survey confirmed the trends of declining this popular fruit intake by the younger generation, as well as the persistent tendency of lower frequency of fruit consumption among men than women

  8. Apple mango value chain in northern Ethiopia: case study of Mereb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apple mango value chain in northern Ethiopia: case study of Mereb-Leke District. ... From the analysis of costs and margins the value added by farmers, ... of market information, shortage of transportation facility and road infrastructure, farmers' ...

  9. Biogas generation apple pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llaneza Coalla, H; Blanco Fernández, J M; Morís Morán, M A; López Bobo, M R

    2009-09-01

    In view of the pressing problem that appears in our region (Asturias, north of Spain) with the residues from the cider production, it was decided to test this kind of material as a co-substrate joint with slaughterhouse waste in a laboratory unit. The anaerobic digestion of apple pulp was investigated for biogas production. This paper presents the results where apple pulp was co-digested with slaughterhouse waste (pig intestine and bovine stomach content) in a biogas laboratory unit (10 l CSTR reactor). The production of biogas has reached very satisfactory values during the whole test (0.8m(3)kg(-1)OTS), verifying that the process is kept in stable conditions of pH (near 8.0), and the volatile fatty acids was always underneath 3000 mg/l, when the pulp amount was lower than 100g in mesophilic conditions. The fat concentration into the digester remained always below the value that causes inhibition of the methanogenic bacteria, 500 mg/l. Finally, methane concentration (77-80%) and H(2)S concentration (400 ppm) in the biogas, they were similar to those obtained when the test was run out in the absence of apple pulp. The process efficiency with respect to COD removal was high, near 80% of the total COD. Finally, inhibitory effects of methanogenic bacteria were observed when pulp concentration was around 10% in the input material.

  10. Modeling Apple Surface Temperature Dynamics Based on Weather Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed was recorded for seven hours between 11:00–18:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of “Fuji” apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 °C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management.

  11. Modeling apple surface temperature dynamics based on weather data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Peters, Troy; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Jingjin; Huang, Danfeng

    2014-10-27

    The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST) dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed) was recorded for seven hours between 11:00-18:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of "Fuji" apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 °C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management.

  12. 基于种群竞争模型的移动操作系统市场预测研究--以苹果公司为例%Study on the Mobile OS Market Based on Population Competition Model---with the Apple Company as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任娟娟

    2015-01-01

    以苹果公司为例分析了移动操作系统为提高移动设备的市场占有率,而将 IOS 操作系统免费化,向消费者无偿提供系统的使用权后对公司造成的影响的基础上,建立了基于种群竞争的市场占有率预测模型,并采用此模型分析了各个公司未来的发展前景。即:苹果公司推行的新策略能使 IOS 系统的市场占有率更为突出,五年内呈现稳定增长的态势,其它移动操作系统的市场占有率随着苹果公司的发展会日益减少,由此提出了我国手机行业在未来的发展中应采取的对策。%In this paper,we studied the impact on the corporate development if Apple chooses to free the IOS to in-crease the market share of its mobile devices.A market share prediction model based on population competition model is established.Using analytic hierarchy process,the solution result is obtained and some related figures are presented.Finally,the following result is obtained:the new strategy will give IOS outstanding performance in its market share.The market share of IOS will increase steadily in five years.At the same time,the market share of other mobile OS will decrease along with the development of Apple.

  13. Apple As A Functional Food

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZDEMIR, Yasin; AKÇAY, M. Emin; ÖZKAN, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    Many studies are being carried out in order to expose and determine the beneficial health effects of fresh fruits and vegetables. Together with these activities, there is an increased consumer interest on fresh fruits and vegetables. Among the fruits, apple has come into prominence because of its beneficial effects. Apple is known since ancient times and praised in inscriptions for its therapeutic properties. Apple contains valuable compounds especially phenolics and flavonoids. Latest resear...

  14. Differential partitioning of triterpenes and triterpene esters in apple peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple peel functions as a protective barrier against biotic and abiotic stresses, and preserving the integrity and appearance of peel critical for market acceptance. Peel epidermal cells and epicuticular wax are a rich source of secondary metabolites, including triterpenes. Several studies have ou...

  15. 7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... through an on-farm or roadside stand, or a farmer's market, and permitting the general public to enter the... B; or (3) 200 bushels of apples per acre in Area C; and (c) That are grown in an orchard that, if... from the orchard; (3) Insects, but not damage due to insufficient or improper application of pest...

  16. Teach yourself visually Apple Watch

    CERN Document Server

    Hart-Davis, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Master your new smartwatch quickly and easily with this highly visual guide Teach Yourself VISUALLY Apple Watch is a practical, accessible guide to mastering the powerful features and functionality of your new smartwatch. For Apple devotees and new users alike, this easy-to-follow guide features visually rich tutorials and step-by-step instructions that show you how to take advantage of all of the Apple watch's capabilities. You'll learn how to track your health, control household devices, download and install apps, sync your music, sync other Apple devices, and efficiently use the current O

  17. Creating a Better Funding System for Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    In 1994, Michigan voters approved a ballot initiative that transferred the power in Michigan's education system from local communities to the state. Proposal A succeeded in slowing the growth of local property taxes and narrowing the gap between the richest and poorest districts in Michigan. However, due to a decade of sluggish economic growth,…

  18. A reactive nitrogen budget for Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reactive nitrogen budget for Lake Michigan was reviewed and updated, making use of recent estimates of watershed and atmospheric nitrogen loads. The updated total N load to Lake Michigan was approximately double the previous estimate from the Lake Michigan Mass Balance study ...

  19. Consumer attitudes towards hypoallergenic apples that alleviate mild apple allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, M.F.; Maas, van der M.P.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Lans, van der I.A.; Jacobsen, E.; Frewer, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    The development of genetically modified (GM) foods with benefits for consumers may be more acceptable than GM foods with benefits that accrue to industry or producers. The Santana apple is a novel hypoallergenic product suitable for many apple allergic consumers with mild symptomology. The Santana

  20. The gravity apple tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldama, Mariana Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    The gravity apple tree is a genealogical tree of the gravitation theories developed during the past century. The graphic representation is full of information such as guides in heuristic principles, names of main proponents, dates and references for original articles (See under Supplementary Data for the graphic representation). This visual presentation and its particular classification allows a quick synthetic view for a plurality of theories, many of them well validated in the Solar System domain. Its diachronic structure organizes information in a shape of a tree following similarities through a formal concept analysis. It can be used for educational purposes or as a tool for philosophical discussion. (paper)

  1. At PS170 (APPLE)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    APPLE stands for Antiproton-Proton to Pair of LEptons (an acronym of the ancestor experiment PAPLEP), the PS170 experiment setup at LEAR to study e+e-pair production in antiproton-proton annihilation by Padova-(CEN) Saclay- Torino Collaboration. It consisted of a liquid hydrogen target surrounded by several layers of proportional chambers in the vertical field of a C-magnet (this photo), a gas Cerenkov counter, wire chambers, hodoscopes, and an electromagnetic calorimeter (see photo 8302539X, 8302540X). See also photo 8301539X for the setup assembly at an early stage.

  2. The position of Apple Incorporated in the World Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Marahimi, Narmin

    2011-01-01

    My Diploma Thesis is aimed to clarify the position of the Apple Incorporated in the world economy, as well as expectations and anticipations for future. I decided to write about Apple not only because it's one of the leading company in the technology Market, but because interest to its production is increasing day by day, making it highly competitive. Coming to the content of my work: It consists of 3 chapters, with several subchapters being included into each chapter. The first chapter is an...

  3. Display Apple M7649Zm

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    It was Designed for the Power Mac G4. This Apple studio display gives you edge-to-edge distortion-free images. With more than 16.7 million colors and 1,280 x 1,024 dpi resolution, you view brilliant and bright images on this Apple 17-inch monitor.

  4. Management of apple anthracnose canker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple anthracnose (caused by Neofabraea malicorticis anamorph Cryptosporiopsis curvispora) is a fungal disease that causes cankers on trees and ‘Bull’s-eye rot’ on fruit. In western Washington, it is the canker phase of apple anthracnose that is considered most serious as it can result in death of ...

  5. Pollutant transformations over Lake Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkezweeny, A.J.; Arbuthnot, D.R.; Busness, K.M.; Easter, R.C.; Hales, J.M.; Lee, R.N.; Young, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    An aircraft, a chartered boat, and a constant altitude balloon were used to study pollutant transformations over Lake Michigan in a Lagrangian frame of reference. The experiments were conducted during the summer under strong atmospheric stability where diffusion and dry deposition of pollutants can be neglected

  6. Michigan School Privatization Survey 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman, James M.; Fryzelka, Evan E.

    2014-01-01

    Many of Michigan's public school districts are under substantial fiscal pressures from a combination of declining enrollment and increasing costs, particularly related to employee benefits, but most districts are responding to these challenges. One of the ways that districts can stretch their resources further is through competitive contracting…

  7. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-22

    Energy used by Michigan single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  8. Smartphone-based grading of apple quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianglin; Li, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Apple quality grading is a critical issue in apple industry which is one economical pillar of many countries. Artificial grading is inefficient and of poor accuracy. Here we proposed to develop a portable, convenient, real-time, and low cost method aimed at grading apple. Color images of the apples were collected with a smartphone and the grade of sampled apple was assessed by a customized smartphone app, which offered the functions translating RGB color values of the apple to color grade and translating the edge of apple image to weight grade. The algorithms are based on modeling with a large number of apple image at different grades. The apple grade data evaluated by the smartphone are in accordance with the actual data. This study demonstrated the potential of smart phone in apple quality grading/online monitoring at gathering and transportation stage for apple industry.

  9. The copper deposits of Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, B.S.; Burbank, W.S.

    1929-01-01

    The copper district of Keweenaw Point, in the northern peninsula of Michigan, is the second largest producer of copper in the world.  The output of the district since 1845 has been more than 7,500,000,000 pounds and showed a rather steady and consistent increase from the beginning of production to the end of the World War in 1918, since which there has been a marked decrease.

  10. Active Traffic Management in Michigan

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Pat

    2018-01-01

    The US 23 Flex Route is the first active traffic management (ATM) project in the state of Michigan. This route utilizes overhead lane control gantries equipped with various intelligent transportation system (ITS) equipment to facilitate the following ATM strategies: dynamic shoulder use, dynamic lane control, variable speed advisories, and queue warning. The focus of this presentation is how the project team overcame several challenges during the planning, design, and system management phases...

  11. Electric industry restructuring in Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This Staff Report suggests a modified approach designed to significantly increase the ability of all customer classes to participate and share in the benefits of competition. The concepts discussed in this Report are designed to ensure that rates are not increased for any customers as a result of restructuring and, where possible, rates are reduced through the use of rate reduction bonds. The program outlined in this Report is designed to fulfill five objectives. First, it protects the interests of smaller customers, including low-income residential customers and senior citizens. Second, the program provides opportunities to strengthen Michigan's business community. Third, the program includes funding for employee retraining to assure that utility employees are not negatively impacted by restructuring. Fourth, the phase-in program provides the utilities with the opportunity to prepare for competition so that they remain Michigan-based companies. Fifth, the program is designed to foster competition upon a level playing field. The Commission has jurisdiction over all investor electric utilities and rural electric cooperatives in Michigan. Municipal electric utilities are not subject to Commission jurisdiction. Although this Report discusses details regarding Consumers Power and Detroit Edison, its concepts and principles are intended to apply to all jurisdictional electric utilities

  12. Apple juice composition: sugar, nonvolatile acid, and phenolic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H S; Wrolstad, R E

    1988-01-01

    Apples from Michigan, Washington, Argentina, Mexico, and New Zealand were processed into juice; the 8 samples included Golden Delicious, Jonathan, Granny Smith, and McIntosh varieties. Liquid chromatography was used for quantitation of sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, and sorbitol), nonvolatile acids (malic, quinic, citric, shikimic, and fumaric), and phenolics (chlorogenic acid and hydroxymethylfurfural [HMF]). Other determinations included pH, 0Brix, and L-malic acid. A number of compositional indices for these authentic juices, e.g., chlorogenic acid content, total malic - L-malic difference, and the HMF:chlorogenic ratio, were at variance with recommended standards. The phenolic profile was shown to be particularly influenced by gelatin fining, with peak areas decreasing by as much as 50%. The L-malic:total malic ratio serves as a better index for presence of synthetic malic acid than does the difference between the 2 determinations. No apparent differences in chemical composition could be attributed to geographic origin.

  13. Effects of Ethephon Application on Color Development of ‘Gala Must’ Apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananie PESTEANU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fruit peel color is an important quality parameter and marketing attribute that influences consumer acceptance. Red color development in apples is due to the formation of anthocyanin pigments in the apple skin. Anthocyanin production, and therefore apple color is influenced by a range of environmental and management factors in the orchard. Ethephon is a compound that slowly releases ethylene which in turn can stimulate anthocyanin accumulation in apples. The aims was to evaluate the influence of ethephon to the color development of Gala Must apple variety. The study subject of the experience was Gala Must apple variety grafted on M 9. The trees were trained as slender spindles. The distance of plantation is 3.5 x 1.2 m. To study color development of the apple fruits were experimented the following variants of treatment: 1. Witness - no treatment; 2. Ethephon - 300 ppm; 3. Ethephon - 400 ppm. Ethephon were sprayed one time 2 - 3 weeks before commercial harvest. The research was conducted during the period of 2013 year. During the research, it was studied the amount and average of fruits, tree production, quality, firmness of fruits, hydrolysis and color index. Color of fruits was estimated at harvest using a scale of grading described by Alina Basak. In the present research work, we demonstrated that ethephon may be included in the system of color development of “Gala Must” apple variety fruits, the dose of 400 ppm, applied one spray 2 - 3 weeks before commercial harvest.

  14. Analysis Method for Pesticides Residues by GC/MS in Lebanese Apple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaber, F.; Al Iskandarani, M.

    2008-01-01

    The apple's crop can be affected by many pests during the growing season, which requires careful monitoring. Both apple fruit and apple tree need to be treated by pesticides in order to protect them from pests. Such treatment often leads to the accumulation of stable pesticides inside the fruit. The local market provides a large variety of pesticides allowing farmers to use more than one active substance in order to protect their crop, often without proper advice. Monitoring pesticides on apples and other agricultural crops is the best way to protect consumers health from the hazards of pesticides residues. The development of new, rapid and effective method to analyze the multi pesticides residues at trace levels in apple samples is essential. This work describes the extraction procedure and the analytical method developed to detect the pesticide residues using the gas-chromatographic-mass spectrometric approach (GC-MS). The developed method was successfully applied to analyze apple samples collected from different Lebanese markets for a one year period in order to monitor the presence of pesticides and their stability in apple fruits during storage. (author)

  15. Kepentingan Amerika Serikat dalam Mempertahankan Perdagangan Produk Apple Inc di Korea Selatan

    OpenAIRE

    ", Pazli; Asri, Melda

    2015-01-01

    This research explain about interest United State comerce product ofApple Inc at South Korean. Which South Korean have a product of smarthphonehas been to being the world. But, half of South Korean€™s people more to useproduct of Apple Inc. At market, Apple Inc have more importent relation withUnited State. Other that relation, United State also have interest at South Koreanin econmic and politic. One of strategy United State to relaize the interest atSouth Korean are with defend comerce prod...

  16. Ethıcal ıssues ın marketıng: An applıcatıon for understandıng ethıcal decısıon makıng

    OpenAIRE

    PARILTI, Nurettin; KÜLTER DEMİRGÜNEŞ, Banu; ÖZSAÇMACI, Bülent

    2014-01-01

    In recent years business ethics and social responsibility have gained great importance in marketing practices, especially in societal marketing practices. Businesses infinitely struggle to indicate their contributions to society. Consumers consciously evaluate this contribution. Manipulated consumer choices and unethical marketing applications can affect purchasing behavior. Particularly intense competition, globalization and societal consciousness transform businesses into soc...

  17. Using multilevel systematic sampling to study apple fruit (Malus domestica Borkh.) quality and its variability at the orchard scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez Vega, Mabel V.; Wulfsohn, Dvoralai; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2013-01-01

    sample of ‘Granny Smith’ (Malus x domestica cv. ‘Granny Smith’) apples obtained from a 17 ha orchard based on a final sample of 74 fruit. Estimates of fruit marketable yield and fruit size distribution agreed well with packing house records. The estimated marketable yield was 356.6 ± 89.2 t compared...... recommended sample sizes to accurately describe the distribution of various quality variables of apples at the orchard scale....

  18. APPLE VINEGAR PRODUCTION BY FERMENTATION IN PILOT SCALE

    OpenAIRE

    Reyna M., Leoncio; Robles, R.; Huamán R., M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Vinegar has been elaborated from apple juice by inmersed fermentation at room temperature. The process was developed in two stages, firstly, the alcoholic termentation was carried out using Saccharomyces Cerevísíae yeast, Ellipsoideus variety. Secondly, an acetic fermentation was carried out using acetobacter. The global yield of the process, based on row material usage was around 52%. The product obtained has an acidity of 6,8% in acetic acid and fulfill the market requirements. Se ha ela...

  19. It was easy, when apples and blackberries were only fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Yerva, Surender Reddy; Miklós, Zoltán; Aberer, Karl

    2010-01-01

    Ambiguities in company names are omnipresent. This is not accidental, companies deliberately chose ambiguous brand names, as part of their marketing and branding strategy. This procedure leads to new challenges, when it comes to finding information about the company on the Web. This paper is concerned with the task of classifying Twitter messages, whether they are related to a given company: for example, we classify a set of twitter messages containing a keyword apple, whether a message is re...

  20. Economic impacts of wine tourism in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi-Kyung Kim; Seung Hyun Kim

    2003-01-01

    In Michigan, wine tourism is perceived as increasingly important concept because more and more tourists visit wineries and wine tasting rooms annually. However there have been few studies conducted concerning the economic impacts of wineries in Michigan even though the industry has been recognized as having significant economic impact potential. The primary purpose of...

  1. Možnosti využití více smyslové in-store marketingové komunikace v prodejnách firmy Apple

    OpenAIRE

    Lišková, Iva

    2014-01-01

    The Bachelor's thesis entitled "Opportunities for Implementing Multisensory In-store Marketing, Demonstrated by Apple In-store Communication" addresses the marketing possibilities for including all of our senses in a retail store experience. It illustrates those marketing possibilities with current examples of Apple in-store communication. The first theoretical part defines in-store marketing communication, its terminology, provides information about multi sensory marketing and subsequently a...

  2. Cell biology apps for Apple devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Louisa A

    2012-01-01

    Apps for touch-pad devices hold promise for guiding and supporting learning. Students may use them in the classroom or on their own for didactic instruction, just-in-time learning, or review. Since Apple touch-pad devices (i.e., iPad and iPhone) have a substantial share of the touch-pad device market (Campbell, 2012), this Feature will explore cell biology apps available from the App Store. My review includes iPad and iPhone apps available in June 2012, but does not include courses, lectures, podcasts, audiobooks, texts, or other books. I rated each app on a five-point scale (1 star = lowest; 5 stars = highest) for educational and production values; I also provide an overall score.

  3. SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING APPLE PRODUCTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Research Organisation scientists working directly with apple farmers ... be productive up to 40 years, it was more realistic to consider .... to determine the factors that affect apple production. ..... profit maximising model using flexible production ...

  4. Cryptosporidiosis associated with ozonated apple cider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Brian G; Mazurek, Jacek M; Hlavsa, Michele; Park, Jean; Tillapaw, Matt; Parrish, MaryKay; Salehi, Ellen; Franks, William; Koch, Elizabeth; Smith, Forrest; Xiao, Lihua; Arrowood, Michael; Hill, Vince; da Silva, Alex; Johnston, Stephanie; Jones, Jeffrey L

    2006-04-01

    We linked an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis to ozonated apple cider by using molecular and epidemiologic methods. Because ozonation was insufficient in preventing this outbreak, its use in rendering apple cider safe for drinking is questioned.

  5. Cryptosporidiosis Associated with Ozonated Apple Cider

    OpenAIRE

    Blackburn, Brian G.; Mazurek, Jacek M.; Hlavsa, Michele; Park, Jean; Tillapaw, Matt; Parrish, MaryKay; Salehi, Ellen; Franks, William; Koch, Elizabeth; Smith, Forrest; Xiao, Lihua; Arrowood, Michael; Hill, Vince; da Silva, Alex; Johnston, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    We linked an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis to ozonated apple cider by using molecular and epidemiologic methods. Because ozonation was insufficient in preventing this outbreak, its use in rendering apple cider safe for drinking is questioned.

  6. 75 FR 23667 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Association on behalf of apple producers in Michigan. A public hearing to... marketing years. The petition maintains that Michigan apple producers have suffered primarily due to... determine within 40 days whether or not increasing imports of apple juice contributed to a greater than 15...

  7. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT PROTECTION TREATMENTS IN APPLE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Tomaš

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Apple is the most represented fruit species in Croatia. Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L, is one of the most important apple pests whose population is growing from year to year. The aim of this study was to determine the economic effectiveness of four treatments against codling moth (1 - based on baculovirus; 2 - based on the group of synthetic pyrethroid; 3 - based on kaolin, 4 - control treatment, on the three apple varieties. The experiment was performed at the Agricultural Institute Osijek, Croatia, during three years (2012-2014. In order to analyze the results of apple production it was necessary to calculate production efficiency, labor productivity, and profitability of production. The results of the research of economic efficiency according to market prices treatment 1 and treatment 2 had economic coefficient above 1 with tendency of significant growth, while treatment 3 and 4 were uneconomical. The treatment 1showed advantage over the treatment 2 because of its positive effects on human health and biodiversity, as well as satisfactory economic efficiency.

  8. Assessment of Shelf-Life Ability of Apples cv. ‘Auksis’ after Long-term Storage Under Different Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhņeviča-Radenkova Karina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current research was to ascertain the shelf-life ability of apple ‘Auksis’ after 6 months of cold storage under different conditions. The effect of storage conditions such as: cold storage under normal atmosphere (NA, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP + cold storage, and ultra-low oxygen (ULO-controlled atmosphere (CA [2.0% CO2 and 1.0% O2 (ULO1 and 2.5% CO2 and 1.5% O2 (ULO2] on the quality of apples during shelf-life was evaluated. Apple fruits immediately after cold storage and after 25 days of maintaining at market condition had been evaluated. The physical (firmness, weight losses, chemical (total soluble solids and acid contents, and sensory (aroma, taste, acidity, sweetness, juiciness, and color characteristics of apples had been evaluated after 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 days to ascertain maximal shelf-life. Results from sensory evaluation indicated that apples treated with 1-MCP and stored at NA were characterized with distinctive aroma, whereas apples stored under CA were poor in sweetness and had remarkable acidity and juiciness. Apples that were stored in cold had pronounced aroma and color but without taste. Based on the evaluation by panelist, maximum shelf-life of apples that were kept under cold storage and ULO1 was 15 days, whereas that of apples that had been treated with 1-MCP and stored at NA and those stored in ULO2 was 25 days.

  9. Towards sustainable intensification of apple production in China - Yield gaps and nutrient use efficiency in apple farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Na; Wolf, Joost; Zhang, Fu Suo

    2016-01-01

    China is in a dominant position in apple production globally with both the largest apple growing area and the largest export of fresh apple fruits. However, the annual productivity of China's apple is significantly lower than that of other dominant apple producing countries. In addition, apple

  10. Marketing marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Karel Jan van Alsem

    2013-01-01

    In deze installatierede betoogt Karel Jan Alsem dat marketing een grotere strategische rol in organisaties zou moeten krijgen. Want marketing is bij uitstek de verbinding tussen klantwensen en het DNA van een organisatie. Doordat merken gemiddeld voor mensen niet heel belangrijk zijn, is goede

  11. Information Security of Apple Pay

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xinru

    2016-01-01

    In the era of high-tech, the mode of payment is no longer just use cash or credit card. There are various payments come to our daily life. Online payment and other kinds of electronic payments are wildly in use by people. Apple Pay is a tool that provides easier and safer payment service for consumer. The main objective of this thesis is to understand deeply and analyze how easy and convenient Apple Pay is to use and why it is known as most secure form of payment. Besides that, there is a ...

  12. What's an Adam's Apple? (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español What's an Adam's Apple? KidsHealth / For Kids / What's an Adam's Apple? Print You're at the high school baseball ... the throat. This is what's called an Adam's apple. Everyone's larynx grows during puberty, but a girl's ...

  13. The domestication and evolutionary ecology of apples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornille, A.; Giraud, T.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Roldán-Ruiz, I.; Gladieux, P.

    2014-01-01

    The cultivated apple is a major fruit crop in temperate zones. Its wild relatives, distributed across temperate Eurasia and growing in diverse habitats, represent potentially useful sources of diversity for apple breeding. We review here the most recent findings on the genetics and ecology of apple

  14. Apple vs. Android

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelland, Johannes; Canright, Geoff; Engø-Monsen, Kenth

    It has long been known among marketers that our social network matters when we make purchasing decisions, and that having positive word of mouth about a product can be a key to success; see e.g. [1] for a review of studies on social networks within marketing. Traditionally, data on social networks...... have been difficult to collect, but in recent years researchers have gained access to massive social network data from e.g. online instant messaging services [8][5] and phone log data [2][4][3][6][9]. Such data has made it possible to study e.g. social churn [3], service uptake [2] among telecom...... customers, and product adoption on an Instant Messaging network [8].These studies confirm that consumer behavior is dependent on the communication network. We have in a recent study [6] shown how the structure of the adopter network—the social network of adopters—develops over time, and how social spreading...

  15. Distribution and molecular detection of apple mosaic virus in apple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... pair for real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection of coat protein gene for Turkish ApMV isolates. Apple mosaic virus isolates were collected in 2007 to 2010 and the presence of the pathogen was detected by double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) and RT-PCR tests.

  16. THE OCCURRENCE OF MICROMYCETES IN APPLES AND THEIR POTENTIAL ABILITY TO PRODUCE MYCOTOXINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Tančinová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determinate microscopic fungi involved in rot of apples in market and to test isolated potentially toxigenic species for ability to produce chosen mycotoxins in conditions in vitro. From 30 apples with rotting were isolated and identificated 8 genera (Penicillium, Monilinia, Botrytis, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Fusarium and Geotrichum of filamentous fungi. The most frequent (40% rot apples was Penicillium expansum, the most important producer of rotting during storage of apples. For the ability to produce mycotoxins in vitro were tested isolates, potential producers of mycotoxins. All tested isolates were determinated as producers of mycotoxins: Penicillium expansum (patulin and citrinin, 12 isolates, Penicillium citrinum (citrinin, 1 isolate, Penicillium roqueforti (roquefotin C, 1 isolate and Aspergillus versicolor (sterigmatocystin, 1 isolate.

  17. Fish impingement at Lake Michigan power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.K.; Freeman, R.F.; Spigarelli, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    A study was initiated in 1974 to survey the magnitude and to evaluate the impact of fish impingement at 20 power plants on the Great Lakes. Data on impingement rates, site characteristics, intake designs and operational features have been collected and analyzed. Interpretive analyses of these data are in progress. The objectives of this study were: to summarize fish impingement data for Lake Michigan (16/20 plants surveyed are on Lake Michigan); to assess the significance of total and source-related mortalities on populations of forage and predator species; and to expand the assessment of power plant impingement to include all water intakes on Lake Michigan. Data are tabulated

  18. Kei Apple Plant Thorn Synovitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We noted 2 visible pieces of broken thorn within the joint space (Figure. 1). The pieces were retrieved and upon examination found to be thorns of Kei apple plant .The child was allowed home on the 3rd post operative day on antibiotics for 6 weeks. He has been reviewed 2 weeks post operatively with better range of motion.

  19. METAMITRON REPLACING CARBARYL IN POST BLOOM THINNING OF APPLE TREES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ LUIZ PETRI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Carbaryl or the mixture of carbaryl with NAA (naphthalene acetic acid or BA (benzyladenine are the post-bloom chemical thinners most widely used in apple thinning in Brazil. The marketing restriction of carbaryl demands new options of apple post-bloom thinners, requiring the evaluation of others compounds for this purpose. Metamitron is one of the substances that may be used in chemical thinning of apples. Metamitron was evaluated at two concentrations, alone or in mixture with BA, in ‘MaxiGala’, ‘Fuji Suprema’ and ‘Fred Hough’ apple cultivars. Applications of metamitron at 384 mg L-1 and at 768 mg L-1 in a mixture with BA, ranging from 40 mg L-1 to 80 mg L-1, sprayed on fruits with diameter ranging from 5 to 25 mm were compared with the standard treatment and hand thinning. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with 4-6 repetitions of a single plant. The variables analyzed were: fruit set (%; percentage of floral clusters with 1, 2, 3, 4 or more fruits; fruit yield (kg; average fruit fresh mass (g and percentage of dropped fruit after thinning. Metamitron alone or in combination with BA reduced production per plant and significantly increased the fresh weight of fruits in all cultivars tested. Metamitron at 800 mg L-1 resulted in excessive fruit thinning, especially in ‘MaxiGala’ cultivar. Metamitron or metamitron + BA have potential to compose the program of chemical thinning of apple trees to replace carbaryl.

  20. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Rui

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals.

  1. Sensory and metabolic profiles of "Fuji" apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) grown without synthetic agrochemicals: the role of ethylene production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Fukuyo; Miyazawa, Toshio; Okazaki, Keiki; Tatsuki, Miho; Ito, Tsutae

    2015-01-01

    Flavors of "Fuji" apple cultivated with or without synthetic agrochemicals were compared using quantitative descriptive analyses (QDA) and metabolite profiling for 3 seasons. Experimental plots included conventional crops (with agrochemicals) and organic crops (without agrochemicals) at our institute and organic and conventional farms. Additionally, mass market samples were analyzed. Organic apples were weak in sweetness and floral characteristics and had enhanced green and sour flavors. Most esters and sugars were present in lower concentrations in organic than in conventional apples. Close relation of principal component 1 of QDA and metabolite profiles, to ethylene production suggested that ethylene is considerably involved in flavor synthesis. Reduced ethylene associated with immaturity accounted for insufficient flavor synthesis and weak aroma and flavor attributes of organic apples. Furthermore, organic apples from the farm were more flavorsome than those from the institute in 2012, suggesting possible recovery of ethylene production after a long organic cultivation period.

  2. Michigan transportation facts & figures : public transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-16

    This on-line document is part of a series, Transportation Facts & Figures, by the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT). The Public Transit section of Transportation Facts & Figures cover such topics as intercity bus service, intercity rail se...

  3. MICHIGAN FARM DATABASE NEW DIRECTIONS FOR 1995

    OpenAIRE

    Nott, Sherrill B.; Hepp, Ralph E.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide financial and production performance data for Michigan farms in 1995. Separate sections report on the farm types of Cash Grain, Dairy, Fruit, General Crop, General Livestock, and Swine. This data can be used as a comparative data base for individual farmers to conduct a financial analysis of their own farm to identify strengths and weaknesses. This report can also provide information to those interested in the financial well being of Michigan agricultur...

  4. Experience in open markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachman, G.; Way, R.; O'Donnell, J.

    1997-01-01

    The topic of discussion in this session was experience in open markets. The session was led by Guido Bachman, President of the Independent Power Producers' Society of Alberta (IPPSA), assisted by panel members Richard Way, Director of Energy Risk Management at TransAlta, John O'Donnell, Professor of Finance at Michigan State University, and Kelly Lail, Manager of Power Acquisition at B.C. Hydro. Way spoke of the experiences with market restructuring in Alberta, describing the consultative and legislative process which determined the structure of the Alberta Power Pool (APP). The Pool began operations in January 1996. Currently there are 33 participants from generators, to distributors and marketers. Supply and demand are managed by APP by setting an hourly price based on offers and bids. Both generators and distributors get the hourly pool price, so the input price and export price of the pool are the same, however, generators and distributors are free to enter into 'contract for difference' agreements. O'Donnell discussed the status of competition in Michigan. He stressed the importance of Ontario to the Michigan market, echoing the conviction of U.S. regulators that a freer economy works better. Kelly Lail spoke of the unbundling of B.C. Hydro into several generating, transmission and distribution companies in preparation for moving from exclusive service to exclusive wholesale competition. He predicted that the fierce competition will lead to a an industry shakeout, leaving only one big (B.C. Hydro) and a few niche players

  5. Non-invasive estimation of firmness in apple fruit using VIS/NIR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez, M.; Wulfsohn, Dvora-Laio; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo

    2012-01-01

    Better and steady fruit quality evaluation at harvest is a major challenge for commercial growers of apples in Denmark. Those fruits not meeting the requirements for the fresh market traditionally go to the juice concentrate industry where low cost products are obtained. Special fruit qualities...... are needed to develop commodities that can obtain a premium added value on the market. Nowadays in the food industry, quality evaluation is commonly performed non-destructively by means of optical sensors such as spectrometers, hyperspectral and multispectral cameras, that allow rapid measurements of fruit...... as for eating apples. Invasive and non-invasive measurements of firmness, on the shaded and exposed side of the fruits were carried out for three Danish apple cultivars of known commercial usage. Resulting data determined wavelengths between 415 to 715 nm to be predictive for firmness. A PLS model for all three...

  6. Non-invasive estimation of firmness in apple using VIS/NIR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Vega, Mabel Virginia; Wulfsohn, Dvora-Laio; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo

    2012-01-01

    Better and steady fruit quality evaluation at harvest is a major challenge for commercial growers of apples in Denmark. Those fruits not meeting the requirements for the fresh market traditionally go to the juice concentrate industry where low cost products are obtained. Special fruit qualities...... are needed to develop commodities that can obtain a premium added value on the market. Nowadays in the food industry, quality evaluation is commonly performed non-destructively by means of optical sensors such as spectrometers, hyperspectral and multispectral cameras, that allow rapid measurements of fruit...... as for eating apples. Invasive and non-invasive measurements of firmness, on the shaded and exposed side of the fruits were carried out for three Danish apple cultivars of known commercial usage. Resulting data determined wavelengths between 415 to 715 nm to be predictive for firmness. A PLS model for all three...

  7. FACTORS EFFECTING TO THE AMOUNT OF PATULIN IN APPLE AND APPLE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çetin KADAKAL

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by several species of Penicillium, Aspergillus and Byssochlamys. In nature, it is found diffusely at various products and also in apple and apple products. Because of the negative effects of patulin on human health, ıt ıs started to be used as an important quality parameter especially in apple juice and various apple products. On the other hand, having water solubility and stability to the heat treatment properties acquired another importance to the patulin in apple juice and apple juice concentrate. Removal of rotten parts of apples that will be processed to the apple juice and apple juice concentrate made the end product reliable in view of patulin. At apple juice and apple juice concentrate factories, activated charcoal is used diffusely for the removal of patulin passed to the apple juice. Exterior of activated charcoal, with the addition of ascorbic acid and/or sorbates, sulfhydryl (SH components or different food ingredients (cinnamon oil, potassium sorbate e.t.c and treatment of low dose radiation and modified atmosphere to the apple juice were being effective at the reduction of patulin. There are contradictory results about the inactivation of patulin with heat treatment and storage.

  8. Evaluation of Off-season Potential Breeding Sources for Spotted Wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii Matsumura) in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Harit K; Adams, Christopher; Grieshop, Matthew

    2017-12-05

    It has been suggested that fruit wastes including dropped and unharvested fruits, and fruit byproducts (i.e., pomace) found in fruit plantings and cideries or wine-making facilities could serve as potential off-season breeding sites for spotted wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae)). This idea, however, has yet to be widely tested. The goal of our study was to determine the potential of dropped fruit and fruit wastes as Fall spotted wing Drosophila breeding resources in Michigan, USA. Fruit waste samples were collected from 15 farms across the lower peninsula of Michigan and were evaluated for spotted wing Drosophila and other drosophilid emergence and used in host suitability bioassays. All of the dropped apples, pears, grapes, and raspberries and 40% of apple and 100% of grape fruit pomace evaluated were found to contain spotted wing Drosophila with the highest numbers collected from dropped grapes and pears. Greater spotted wing Drosophila recovery was found in fruit wastes at sites attached with cideries and wine-making facilities and with multiple cultivated fruit crops than sites with no cideries and only one crop. Females oviposited in raspberry, pear, apple, grape, apple pomace and grape pomace samples with the highest rates of reproduction in raspberries. Our results demonstrate that fruit wastes including dropped berry, pomme and stone fruits, as well as fruit compost may be important late season reproductive resources for spotted wing Drosophila. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Assessment of the reduced allergenic properties of the Santana apple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, Helmi S.; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber J.; Dubois, Anthony E. J.

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 2% of the Northern and Central European population is allergic to apples. Because of symptoms of oral allergy syndrome, many individuals avoid eating fresh apples. A strategy to allow apple allergic individuals to eat apples is the development of hypoallergenic apple varieties. To

  10. Assessment of the reduced allergenic properties of the Santana apple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, Helmi S.; Vlleg-Boerstra, Berber J.; Dubois, Anthony E. J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Approximately 2% of the Northern and Central European population is allergic to apples. Because of symptoms of oral allergy syndrome, many individuals avoid eating fresh apples. A strategy to allow apple allergic individuals to eat apples is the development of hypoallergenic apple

  11. Association Between Apple Consumption and Physician Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Matthew A.; Bynum, Julie P.W.; Sirovich, Brenda E.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Fruit consumption is believed to have beneficial health effects, and some claim, “An apple a day keeps the doctor away.” OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between eating an apple a day and keeping the doctor away. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the noninstitutionalized US adult population. A total of 8728 adults 18 years and older from the 2007–2008 and 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey completed a 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire and reported that the quantity of food they ate was reflective of their usual daily diet. EXPOSURES Daily apple eaters (consuming the equivalent of at least 1 small apple daily, or 149 g of raw apple) vs non–apple eaters, based on the reported quantity of whole apple consumed during the 24-hour dietary recall period. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome measure was success at “keeping the doctor away,” measured as no more than 1 visit (self-reported) to a physician during the past year; secondary outcomes included successful avoidance of other health care services (ie, no overnight hospital stays, visits to a mental health professional, or prescription medications). RESULTS Of 8399 eligible study participants who completed the dietary recall questionnaire, we identified 753 adult apple eaters (9.0%)—those who typically consume at least 1 small apple per day. Compared with the 7646 non–apple eaters (91.0%), apple eaters had higher educational attainment, were more likely to be from a racial or ethnic minority, and were less likely to smoke (P Apple eaters were more likely, in the crude analysis, to keep the doctor (and prescription medications) away: 39.0% of apple eaters avoided physician visits vs 33.9%of non–apple eaters (P = .03). After adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, however, the association was no longer statistically significant (OR, 1.19; 95%CI, 0.93–1

  12. Effects of apples and specific apple components on the cecal environment of conventional rats: role of apple pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Tine R; Hansen, Max; Bergström, Anders; Poulsen, Morten; Krath, Britta N; Markowski, Jaroslaw; Dragsted, Lars O; Wilcks, Andrea

    2010-01-20

    Our study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal microbial community in rats, as well as on a number of cecal parameters, which may be influenced by a changed microbiota. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of cecal microbiota profiles obtained by PCR-DGGE targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed an effect of whole apples in a long-term feeding study (14 weeks), while no effects of apple juice, purée or pomace on microbial composition in cecum were observed. Administration of either 0.33 or 3.3% apple pectin in the diet resulted in considerable changes in the DGGE profiles.A 2-fold increase in the activity of beta-glucuronidase was observed in animals fed with pectin (7% in the diet) for four weeks, as compared to control animals (P apple-fed rats in the four-week study (P apple pectin (7% in the diet) increases the population of butyrate- and beta-glucuronidase producing Clostridiales, and decreases the population of specific species within the Bacteroidetes group in the rat gut. Similar changes were not caused by consumption of whole apples, apple juice, purée or pomace.

  13. Kaolin particle films suppress many apple pests, disrupt natural enemies and promote woolly apple aphid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markó, V.; Blommers, L.H.M.; Bogya, S.; Helsen, H.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple applications of hydrophobic kaolin particle film in apple orchards suppressed numbers of blossom weevil (Anthonomus pomorum), brown leaf weevil (Phyllobius oblongus), attelabid weevil (Caenorhinus pauxillus), leafhoppers (Empoasca vitis and Zygina flammigera) and green apple aphid (Aphis

  14. 77 FR 791 - Kasugamycin; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption for Use on Apples in Michigan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ..., or pesticide manufacturer. Potentially affected entities may include, but are not limited to: Crop... kasugamycin is needed to control streptomycin-resistant strains of Erwinia amylovora, the causal pathogen of...

  15. 76 FR 11454 - Kasugamycin; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption for Use on Apples in Michigan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ..., or pesticide manufacturer. Potentially affected entities may include, but are not limited to: Crop...-resistant strains of Erwinia amylovora, the causal pathogen of fire blight, due to the lack of available...

  16. 78 FR 11173 - Kasugamycin; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption for Use on Apples in Michigan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    .... Environmental justice. EPA seeks to achieve environmental justice, the fair treatment and meaningful involvement... high and adverse human health impacts or environmental effects from exposure to the pesticide discussed..., Ottawa, and Van Buren counties. As currently proposed, the maximum amount of product to be applied would...

  17. Analýza akcie Apple

    OpenAIRE

    Kereibayev, Alisher

    2014-01-01

    Bachelor thesis is dedicated to the analysis of Apple stock title. Analysis of stock title is provided on the basis of methods of fundamental and technical analysis, taking into account sectoral and fundamental analysis. The main objective of this thesis is to derive investment recommendations in relation to the stock Apple title, based on the evaluation of the related fundamental and technical factors on the price of the shares it operates. The hypothesis is the following statement: Apple sh...

  18. Apples in the Alps aid atomic research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, M.

    1983-01-01

    The use of 2 Apple microcomputers by the radiation protection group working with CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is described. The first Apple is used primarily to process the data from the radiation monitoring system around the ring before the maintenance engineers can commence work on the SPS. The second Apple is being developed to help in the calibration of the ring's 1,100 monitors. (U.K.)

  19. Gazlı İçecek Sektörü ve Gazoz Pazarındaki KOBİ’ler İçin Niş Pazarlamasına Bir Örnek(A Sample of The Applıcatıon of Niche Marketing by SMEs In The Soda and Carbonated Beverages Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan AY

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SME rarely find themselves in distress like the ones do in carbonated beverages market. The reasons for that may be the market dominance of a few gigantic firms in terms of control and market share, and the disability of resource-limited SMEs in responding to market needs due to the competitive structure of the industry. In this paper we try to show how a local soda pop company can better deal with the challenges in its market through niche marketing.

  20. First report of Apple necrotic mosaic virus infecting apple trees in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2016, two apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh) cv. Shinano Sweet showing bright cream spot and mosaic patterns on leaves were observed in Pocheon, South Korea. Mosaic symptoms are common on leaves of apple trees infected with Apple mosaic virus (ApMV). Symptomatic leaves were tested by e...

  1. Tissue location of resistance in apple to the rosy apple aphid established by electrical penetration graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchetti, E.; Civolani, S.; Leis, M.; Chicca, M.; Tjallingii, W.F.; Pasqualini, E.; Baroni, P.

    2009-01-01

    A study of the constitutive resistance of the apple cultivar Florina, Malus domestica Borkh. (Rosaceae), to the rosy apple aphid, Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini) (Homoptera Aphididae), was performed for the first time by the electrical penetration graph (DC-EPG) system, using the susceptible apple

  2. Seasonal variation in food allergy to apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, K; Vieths, S; Vestergaard, H

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the possibility of a seasonal variation in reactivity to apples in 27 birch pollen allergic patients. Before and during the birch pollen season 1998, the patients were subjected to double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFCs) with grated fresh...... Golden Delicious apple followed by an open food challenge with whole fresh apple. The clinical reactions elicited during the challenges were evaluated both by the patients and the investigators. Moreover, the skin reactivity and the in vitro reactivity to apple were evaluated by skin prick test (SPT...

  3. A review of cashew (Anacardiumoccidentale L.) apple: Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2015-09-17

    Sep 17, 2015 ... cashew apples, drying kinetics, and product quality were investigated. It was found ..... Cashew apple residues from fruit juice industry as dehydrated fruit ... surface tension of both media (Rocha et al., 2006). Cashew apple ...

  4. Modified atmosphere efficiency in the quality maintenance of Eva apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Argenta Fante

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Modified atmosphere is a method of food preservation that provides increased lifetime, decreases deterioration losses, and facilitates marketing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of different plastic films in modifying the atmosphere around Eva apples to assure quality maintenance during postharvest storage. The fruits were cleaned and separated into three treatment groups: polypropylene, low density polyethylene, and high density polyethylene packing with a total of 5 fruits per package for each evaluation period. A group of control apples was not submitted to atmospheric modification. After the treatment, all fruits were stored at 0.5±0.5°C (cold storage for up to 225 days. The analyses were performed at 45, 135, and 225 days after cold storage. Respiration, ethylene production, firmness, mass loss, total pectin, soluble pectin, soluble solids, total acidity, and epidermis background color of each treatment group were evaluated. The high density polyethylene film treatment did not show a decrease in ethylene production during storage and allowed the fruits to maintain a greater firmness and smaller percentage of mass loss during the study period. Moreover, the storage of the Eva apple cultivar under modified atmosphere allowed the preservation of quality for up to seven months.

  5. The atractiveness of apple production in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Kudová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with evaluation of attractiveness of apple production in the Czech Republic using the Industry attractiveness evaluation matrix according to the methodology of Higgins and Vincze (1989. It identifies the key criteria for evaluation of attractiveness from five fields: market factors, competition factors, financial and economic factors, technological factors, and socio-political factors. The key criteria are described in detail and evaluated from the viewpoint of a producer operating in the apple production industry. The text comes from the papers from the field of fruit production and apple production published by Kudová (2003, 2004, 2005 and Chládková (2003. Application of these methods on other industries was applied by Žufan et al. (2001 and Tomšík, and Žufan (2004.According to the data of the Division of Perennial Plants of the Central Institutte for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture (CISTA, the number of subjects (firms and growers operating intensive orchards reaches 1 238 on the area of 18 998 ha. In 2003 the number of subjects was 1 243 on the area of 19 514 ha. The total sales in fruit production were in decline from 1999 to 2005, and the decline of sales of apples grown in intensive orchards in 2005 was 34% in comparison with 2004. In the foreign trade, there significantly prevail imports above exports, and from 2002 to 2004 the imports of apples grew by 220%. The biggest growth of area of orchards was in 2004 – by 211 ha of mature apple-trees, which amounts only for 2% of the total area. In connection with this growth, there grew also the yield. Diversity of the market is based on varietal structure of apple-trees grown. According to the data of CISTA, the current varietal structure is not suitable and its change is very slow. Most of apples are grown in Central Bohemia, which amounts for 11% of the total area, which is more than 2000 ha. We can conclude, that even though the average market price of

  6. Developing Representative Michigan Truck Configurations for Bridge Load Rating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-28

    The objective of this study is to recommend a rating process representative of Michigan load effects for legal and extended permit vehicles. For this study, high fidelity WIM data from 20 Michigan sites were analyzed. Using vehicle weight and configu...

  7. 27 CFR 9.79 - Lake Michigan Shore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Michigan Shore. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lake Michigan... southeast along the winding course of the Kalamazoo River for approximately 35 miles until it intersects the...

  8. Effects of apples and specific apple components on the cecal environment of conventional rats: Role of apple pectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Hansen, Max; Bergström, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Background: Our study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal...... microbial community in rats, as well as on a number of cecal parameters, which may be influenced by a changed microbiota. Results: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of cecal microbiota profiles obtained by PCR-DGGE targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed an effect of whole apples in a long-term feeding...... study (14 weeks), while no effects of apple juice, puree or pomace on microbial composition in cecum were observed. Administration of either 0.33 or 3.3% apple pectin in the diet resulted in considerable changes in the DGGE profiles. A 2-fold increase in the activity of beta-glucuronidase was observed...

  9. Alternaria leaf spot in Michigan and fungicide sensitivity issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 2010 there has been an increase in identification of Alternaria leaf spot on sugar beet in Michigan and other growing regions in the US and Canada. In 2016, the disease was severe enough to cause economic losses in the Michigan growing region. Michigan isolates from sugar beet were examined ...

  10. Effect of apple varieties and irradiation on the quality of explosion puffed apple slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Jinfeng; Ding Yuanyuan; Wang Pei; Bai Shasha

    2009-01-01

    Many factors affect the quality of explosion puffed apple slices. Apple varieties of Guoguang, Fuji, Hongxiangjiao and Huangxiangjiao were used as materal, the quality of fresh apple and explosion puffed products were analyzed based on the data of their physical and chemical characteristics and flavor. The results showed that Guoguang apple had the optimal flavor and Huangxiangjiao apple had the optimal product quality. So the Guoguang apple was selected as the material for the following results showed that irradiation could soften apple tissue, improve the pre-drying rate, increase products crispness, and also reduce the products hardness, but the irradiation of 2 and 5 kGy could turn products brown seriously, which reduced the product quality. (authors)

  11. Columnar apple tree named 'Moonlight'

    OpenAIRE

    Tupý, J. (Jaroslav); Louda, O. (Otto); Zima, J. (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    A new and distinct Malus domestica (Borkh.) apple tree variety is provided which exhibits a columnar tree type, weakly vigorous compact growth, predominant bearing on spurs and V.sub.f-resistance against scab. The new variety yields late maturing, medium-sized, globose-conical to conical fruits having good storage quality. The fruit color is yellow-green to yellow with a partial red to orange blush. The fruits have a yellow-colored firm flesh that is crisp and juicy with a good sweet/sour bal...

  12. Apple Configurator 2 (version 2.3)

    OpenAIRE

    Lara Lasner-Frater

    2018-01-01

    Apple Configurator 2 (AC2) is a free mass-deployment utility that allows you to update multiple iPads, iPhones, iPod Touch devices, and Apple TVs at the same time, including apps, website links, iBooks, and software updates.

  13. "Cox orange\\" and \\"Elstar\\" Apple Cultivars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thinning trials were conducted in the apple orchards of Klein Altendorf experimental station near Bonn, Germany, using 7 year old CV, \\'Cox orange\\' in the year 2001 and 8 year old \\'Elstar\\' apple trees in 2002. The objective was to reduce the number of fruits per tree, yield, improve fruit quality, overcome alternate bearing ...

  14. Preference mapping of apple varieties in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonany, J.; Buehler, A.; Carbó, J.; Codarin, C.; Donati, F.; Echeverria, G.; Egger, S.; Guerra, W.; Hilaire, C.; Höller, I.; Iglesias, I.; Jesionkowska, K.; Konopacka, D.; Kruczynska, D.; Martinelli, A.; PItiot, C.; Sansavini, S.; Stehr, R.; Schoorl, F.W.

    2014-01-01

    A consumer test carried out in 7 different European countries compared 3 standard apple varieties to 8 new ones. A total of 4290 consumers took part in the test. Data from this test was used to develop a preference map for apple. The preference map was constructed with 3 main dimensions (1 –

  15. SED/Apple Computer, Inc., Partnership Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Peter F.

    1991-01-01

    In 1990, the New York State Education Department (SED), Apple Computer, Inc., Boards of Cooperative Educational Services (BOCES), and school districts formed a partnership to explore the contribution technology can make to schools based on Apple Computer's Learning Society and SED's Long-Range Plan for Technology in Elementary and Secondary…

  16. [Toxicity and apple production in southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klanovicz, Jó

    2010-03-01

    The article explores the links between the controversial apprehension of contaminated apples in southern Brazil in 1989 and the reactions of the apple industry to press reports on the use of pesticides in Brazilian orchards. The issue is framed within a broader analysis of the notions of toxicity and 'danger' surrounding the consumption of healthier food and the idea of 'food security,' notions that have begun taking hold in public and private life. It is argued that apple growers' responses to the problem can be better understood through a historical reading of the interactions between the biology of the apple tree, the agroecology of this monoculture, and the structures, actors, and discourses of the human and non-human groups in Brazil's apple-producing region.

  17. Apple wine processing with different nitrogen contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Alberti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the nitrogen content in different varieties of apple musts and to study the effect of different nitrogen concentrations in apple wine fermentation. The average total nitrogen content in 51 different apples juices was 155.81 mg/L, with 86.28 % of the values above 100 mg/L. The apple must with 59.0, 122.0 and 163.0 mg/L of total nitrogen content showed the maximum population of 2.05x 10(7; 4.42 x 10(7 and 8.66 x 10(7 cell/mL, respectively. Therefore, the maximum fermentation rates were dependent on the initial nitrogen level, corresponding to 1.4, 5.1 and 9.2 g/L.day, respectively. The nitrogen content in the apple musts was an important factor of growth and fermentation velocity.

  18. The University of Michigan, Kellogg Building Expansion & Renovation, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Design Cost Data, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents design, construction, and cost data for the University of Michigan's Kellogg Building expansion and renovation project. A list of project manufacturers and suppliers is provided along with four photographs and four floor plans. (GR)

  19. Operability and location of Michigan's timber resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark H. Hansen; Jerold T. Hahn

    1987-01-01

    Operability is the ease or difficulty of managing or harvesting timber because of physical conditions in the stand or on the site. Data collected during the 1980 Michigan statewide forest inventory were used to examine operability of the timber resource based on seven operability components.

  20. Michigan's forests, 2004: statistics and quality assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott A. Pugh; Mark H. Hansen; Gary Brand; Ronald E. McRoberts

    2010-01-01

    The first annual inventory of Michigan's forests was completed in 2004 after 18,916 plots were selected and 10,355 forested plots were visited. This report includes detailed information on forest inventory methods, quality of estimates, and additional tables. An earlier publication presented analyses of the inventoried data (Pugh et al. 2009).

  1. Trypanosomes of Bufo americanus from northern Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, J K; Davis, J S; Slaght, K S

    1988-10-01

    Two hundred one American toads (Bufo americanus) from northern Michigan were examined for blood trypanosomes. Three species, Trypanosoma bufophlebotomi, T. schmidti-like sp. and T. pseudopodia, had prevalences of 27, 16 and 1%, respectively. Cross experimental inoculations showed that T. bufophlebotomi from toads is not the same as T. ranarum found in frogs of the family Ranidae of this region.

  2. Private timberland owners of Michigan, 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl C. Leatherberry; Neal P. Kingsley; Thomas W. Birch

    1998-01-01

    Identifies and profiles Michigan's private timberland owners. Estimates the number and distribution of private timberland owners by owner attitudes and objectives concerning forest ownership, management, and use. Provides 45 tables relating to owner and property characteristics for the state and its four survey units.

  3. Demographic characteristics and motivations of Michigan agritourists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah Che; Ann Veeck; Gregory Veeck

    2007-01-01

    Michigan agricultural producers, faced with declining commodity prices, rising production costs, and increased global competition, have looked at agritourism as a way to save the farm as well as provide customers with personalized service; high-quality, fresh food; and farm, nature, and family experiences. While previous research on agritourism indicates that it taps...

  4. Strengthening Building Retrofit Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templeton, Mary [Michigan Saves; Jackson, Robert [Michigan Energy Office

    2014-04-15

    The Business Energy Financing (BEF) program offered commercial businesses in Michigan affordable financing options and other incentives designed to support energy efficiency improvements. We worked through partnerships with Michigan utilities, lenders, building contractors, trade associations, and other community organizations to offer competitive interest rates and flexible financing terms to support energy efficiency projects that otherwise would not have happened. The BEF program targeted the retail food market, including restaurants, grocery stores, convenience stores, and wholesale food vendors, with the goal of achieving energy efficiency retrofits for 2 percent of the target market. We offered low interest rates, flexible payments, easy applications and approval processes, and access to other incentives and rebates. Through these efforts, we sought to help customers strive for energy savings retrofits that would save 20 percent or more on their energy use. This program helped Michigan businesses reduce costs by financing energy efficient lighting, heating and cooling systems, insulation, refrigeration, equipment upgrades, and more. Businesses completed the upgrades with the help of our authorized contractors, and, through our lending partners, we provided affordable financing options.

  5. Sony vs. Apple - iPod launching, a case study of leadership and innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Cojocaru

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1979, Sony launched a portable Walkman range. For nearly a quarter of century, the Sony Walkman was the undisputed market leader and Sony was considered a top innovative company. Then, in 2001, Apple decided to launch the iPod, a new portable player. About 80% of the iPod technical components (e.g. memory, storage media were produced by various companies within the Sony group. In 2004, iPod sales overtake Sony Walkman globally and become the new market leader in portable players. How was this possible? Theoretically, Sony held all conditions for launching the new generation of portable players, but instead, a new company – Apple – completely changed the market.

  6. German Consumers’ Attitude towards Selenium-Biofortified Apples and Acceptance of Related Nutrition and Health Claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Wortmann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates consumers’ acceptance of Se-biofortified apples, as well as Se health and nutrition claims that have been approved by the European Commission. Despite indications that such statements are more likely to be accepted if the carrier product itself has a healthy image, unprocessed fruits biofortified with Se have not been investigated in this context yet. Apples as the most frequently-consumed type of fresh fruit in Germany may offer the potential to improve the Se status of consumers when the produce is enriched with Se. Therefore, an online survey of 356 German adults was conducted to analyze different aspects that could affect the perception of and preference for the proposed product concept by consumers. The findings indicate a moderate acceptance of Se-biofortified apples, as well as of Se health and nutrition claims among the participants. Additional information about beneficial health effects of Se had a significant impact on consumer acceptance. People who regularly eat convenience food and prefer to buy apples at supermarkets were particularly attracted by the product idea. In conclusion, the results of the study indicate good prospects for a successful introduction of Se-rich apples in the German food market, if the produce is advertised with approved health and nutrition claims.

  7. Double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge with apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, K; Vestergaard, H; Stahl Skov, P

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate different methods of double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) with apple. Three different DBPCFC models were evaluated: fresh apple juice, freshly grated apple, and freeze-dried apple powder. All challenges were performed outside...... frequency of reactions to placebo, probably due to the ingredients used for blinding. The sensitivity of the models with freshly grated apple and freeze-dried apple powder was 0.74/0.60. An increase in sensitivity is desirable. The freeze-dried apple powder proved to be useful for SPT, HR, and oral...

  8. SandBlaster: Reversing the Apple Sandbox

    OpenAIRE

    Deaconescu, Răzvan; Deshotels, Luke; Bucicoiu, Mihai; Enck, William; Davi, Lucas; Sadeghi, Ahmad-Reza

    2016-01-01

    In order to limit the damage of malware on Mac OS X and iOS, Apple uses sandboxing, a kernel-level security layer that provides tight constraints for system calls. Particularly used for Apple iOS, sandboxing prevents apps from executing potentially dangerous actions, by defining rules in a sandbox profile. Investigating Apple's built-in sandbox profiles is difficult as they are compiled and stored in binary format. We present SandBlaster, a software bundle that is able to reverse/decompile Ap...

  9. Characterization of apple stem grooving virus and apple chlorotic leaf spot virus identified in a crab apple tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongqiang; Deng, Congliang; Bian, Yong; Zhao, Xiaoli; Zhou, Qi

    2017-04-01

    Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), and prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) were identified in a crab apple tree by small RNA deep sequencing. The complete genome sequence of ACLSV isolate BJ (ACLSV-BJ) was 7554 nucleotides and shared 67.0%-83.0% nucleotide sequence identity with other ACLSV isolates. A phylogenetic tree based on the complete genome sequence of all available ACLSV isolates showed that ACLSV-BJ clustered with the isolates SY01 from hawthorn, MO5 from apple, and JB, KMS and YH from pear. The complete nucleotide sequence of ASGV-BJ was 6509 nucleotides (nt) long and shared 78.2%-80.7% nucleotide sequence identity with other isolates. ASGV-BJ and the isolate ASGV_kfp clustered together in the phylogenetic tree as an independent clade. Recombination analysis showed that isolate ASGV-BJ was a naturally occurring recombinant.

  10. Optimization of medium composition for apple rootstocks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-02

    May 2, 2011 ... Key words: Apple rootstocks, medium composition, multiplication rate, plant growth regulators (PGRs). ... be extrapolated with the same success for another .... Analysis System (SAS) software program (SAS Institute Inc. 1999).

  11. Quanto Jobs c'è in Apple?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Tommasi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ItMolti vizi e virtù di Apple hanno le radici in vizi e virtù di Steve Jobs. Questi a loro volta derivano dalla spiccata originalità del suo percorso creativo e professionale e dai problemi piuttosto pressanti che questa ha creato. Ad essi egli ha reagito secondo la sua natura, determinando, in ultima analisi, la fisionomia caratteristica di Apple. Il testo seguente cercherà di illustrare alcuni punti di questa tesi.EnVices and virtues of Apple are rooted in vices and virtues of Steve Jobs. These, in turn, stem from the striking uniqueness of his creative path and from the severe problems it brought about. To them, he reacted following his own nature, eventually shaping the peculiar personality of Apple. The following paper will try to clarify such notion.

  12. Baked Pork Chops With Apple Cranberry Sauce

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bakedporkchopswithapplecranberrysauce.html Baked Pork Chops With Apple Cranberry Sauce To use the sharing features on this page, ... minutes Number of Servings: 4 A wonderful fruit sauce adds the perfect touch to these pork chops— ...

  13. Micropropagation of apple--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobránszki, Judit; da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira

    2010-01-01

    Micropropagation of apple has played an important role in the production of healthy, disease-free plants and in the rapid multiplication of scions and rootstocks with desirable traits. During the last few decades, in apple, many reliable methods have been developed for both rootstocks and scions from a practical, commercial point of view. Successful micropropagation of apple using pre-existing meristems (culture of apical buds or nodal segments) is influenced by several internal and external factors including ex vitro (e.g. genotype and physiological state) and in vitro conditions (e.g., media constituents and light). Specific requirements during stages of micropropagation, such as the establishment of in vitro cultures, shoot multiplication, rooting of microshoots and acclimatization are summarized in this review. New approaches for increasing shoot multiplication and rooting for apple and current use of micropropagated plantlets as tools in basic and applied research are also discussed.

  14. Biochemistry of Apple Aroma: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Espino-Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavour is a key quality att ribute of apples defined by volatile aroma compounds. Biosynthesis of aroma compounds involves metabolic pathways in which the main precursors are fatty and amino acids, and the main products are aldehydes, alcohols and esters. Some enzymes are crucial in the production of volatile compounds, such as lipoxygenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and alcohol acyltransferase. Composition and concentration of volatiles in apples may be altered by pre- and postharvest factors that cause a decline in Apple flavour. Addition of biosynthetic precursors of volatile compounds may be a strategy to promote aroma production in apples. The present manuscript compiles information regarding the biosynthesis of volatile aroma compounds, including metabolic pathways, enzymes and substrates involved, factors that may affect their production and also includes a wide number of studies focused on the addition of biosynthetic precursors in their production.

  15. Troubleshooting: Dealing with a Misbehaving Apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Patrick B.; Howell, Richard D.

    1984-01-01

    Presents troubleshooting suggestions specifically intended for the Apple II microcomputer which have been developed from experiences working with children and pre- and inservice teachers. Guidelines for diagnosing problems focus on the mechanical functions of the microcomputer hardware. (MBR)

  16. Biochemistry of Apple Aroma: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espino-Díaz, Miguel; Sepúlveda, David Roberto; González-Aguilar, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Summary Flavour is a key quality attribute of apples defined by volatile aroma compounds. Biosynthesis of aroma compounds involves metabolic pathways in which the main precursors are fatty and amino acids, and the main products are aldehydes, alcohols and esters. Some enzymes are crucial in the production of volatile compounds, such as lipoxygenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and alcohol acyltransferase. Composition and concentration of volatiles in apples may be altered by pre- and postharvest factors that cause a decline in apple flavour. Addition of biosynthetic precursors of volatile compounds may be a strategy to promote aroma production in apples. The present manuscript compiles information regarding the biosynthesis of volatile aroma compounds, including metabolic pathways, enzymes and substrates involved, factors that may affect their production and also includes a wide number of studies focused on the addition of biosynthetic precursors in their production. PMID:28115895

  17. Production of apple snail for space diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Motoki, Shigeru; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi

    For food production in space at recycling bio-elements under closed environment, appropriate organisms should be chosen to drive the closed materials recycle loop. We propose a combination of green algae, photosynthetic protozoa, and aquatic plants such as Wolffia spp., for the primary producer fixing solar energy to chemical form in biomass, and apple snail, Pomacea bridgesii, which converts this biomass to animal meat. Because of high proliferation rate of green algae or protozoa compared to higher plants, and direct conversion of them to apple snail, the efficiency of food production in this combination is high, in terms of energy usage, space for rearing, and yield of edible biomass. Furthermore, green algae and apple snail can form a closed ecological system with exchanging bio-elements between two member, i.e. excreta of snail turn to fertilizer of algae, and grown algae become feed for snail. Since apple snail stays in water or on wet substrate, control of rearing is easy to make. Mass production technology of apple snail has been well established to utilize it as human food. Nutrients of apple snail are also listed in the standard tables of food composition in Japan. Nutrients for 100 g of apple snail canned in brine are energy 340 kJ, protein 16.5 g, lipid 1.0 g, cholesterol 240 mg, carbohydrate 0.8 g, Ca 400 mg, Fe 3.9 mg, Zn 1.5 mg. It is rich in minerals, especially Ca and Fe. Vitamin contents are quite low, but K 0.005 mg, B2 0.09 mg, B12 0.0006 mg, folate 0.001 mg, and E 0.6 mg. The amino acid score of apple snail could not be found in literature. Overall, apple snail provides rich protein and animal lipid such as cholesterol. It could be a good source of minerals. However, it does not give enough vitamin D and B12 , which are supposed to be supplemented by animal origin foods. In terms of acceptance in food culture, escargot is a gourmet menu in French dishes, and six to ten snail, roughly 50 g, are served for one person. Apple snail reaches to 30 g

  18. Latest Apple Drying Technologies: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZDEMİR, Yasin; SAYIN, Emir Olcay; KURULTAY, Şefik

    2009-01-01

    Drying is known as one of the oldest preservation methods and can be applicable to many fruits. Sun drying of apple has been known from ancient times. However, this technique is weather-dependent and has contamination problems such as dust, soil, sand particles and insects. Hot air drying of apples has low energy efficiency and requires longer drying period. The desire to eliminate these problems, prevent quality loss, and achieve fast and effective thermal processing has resulted in an incre...

  19. A HISTÓRIA DA APPLE COMPUTER

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Franco; Carlos Henrique Cirino Lacerda; Carlos Filipe de Oliveira Pedrosa; Bruno da Silva Chiriu; Antonio Marcos Pereira; Sergio Luiz; Vinícius José Andrade Silveira

    2006-01-01

    Este artigo pretende mostrar os fatos e caminhos seguidos pela empresa de computadores Apple e seus fundadores no decorrer de sua história. Tem também o objetivo de relatar os desfechos e as grandes idéias que fizeram da Apple uma das maiores empresas fabricantes de softwares e computadores pessoais, desde sua criação em 1976.

  20. Mapping Lake Michigan Fish Catch Data

    OpenAIRE

    Wodd, Jacob; Doucette, Jarrod; Höök, Tomas O.

    2014-01-01

    The only Great Lake completely contained in the U.S., Lake Michigan offers an abundance of recreational fishing. This project takes 20 years’ worth of salmonid fish catch data, and uses GIS to organize and visually represent the data in a way that is meaningful and helpful to local fisherman and researchers. Species represented included Brown Trout, Lake Trout, Rainbow Trout, Chinook Salmon, and Coho Salmon. The species are organized by both decadal and yearly spans, as well as catch per t...

  1. Improving Postharvest Storage of Apple Cv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Etemadi Nasab

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Apple is one of the important fruit in Iran. according to respiration and ethylene production behaviors, apple classified as a climacteric fruit. Therefore, any treatments, which can inhibit or prevent the action of ethylene, they can increase the postharvest life of horticultural production. 1-methylcyclopropane (1-MCP is one of the chemical which is environmental save and use as a very small concentrations. In this experiment, the effects of 1-MCP at concentrations of 0 (as a control, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 µl.l-1 were used in apple cv. "Golab Kohanz", a land race fruits which is cultivated from long times ago in Iran. After the 1-MCP treatment, they were moved to cold room at 2 ºC and RH of ca 90% for 60 days. Samples were removed from the cold room and analysis for physicochemical characteristics. "Golab Kohanz" apples treated with 1-MCP showed improved fruit firmness, titratable acidity (TA, and total soluble solid after 147 days at 2ºC , compared to the control non-treated fruits. Also, treatment with 1-MCP significantly reduced the incidence of superficial scald in "Golab Kohanze". In general, 1-MCP-treated apples delay ripening during storing in cold room and increased shelf life. Overall, the results indicate that 1-MCP has tremendous potential for maintaining apple quality during storage and post storage.

  2. INTERNATIONAL MARKETING ACTIVITIES OF MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES IN CONDITIONS OF INSTABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    N. V. Lyasnikov; Yu. V. Lyasnikova

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the conceptual basis for the formation of international marketing, the characteristic of the main exit strategies on the world market, revealed features of international marketing that national companies are obliged to take into account the examples of international marketing strategies of international companies such as Apple, Google, Nike, the Russian company Natura Siberica.The purpose of this paper is to analyze the international marketing activities of multinationa...

  3. Plutonium and americium in Lake Michigan sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgington, D.N.; Alberts, J.J.; Wahlgren, M.A.; Karttunen, J.O.; Reeve, C.A.

    1975-01-01

    The vertical distributions of 239 , 240 Pu, 238 Pu, and 137 Cs have been measured in sediment cores taken from Lake Michigan. Sections from a limited number of cores have been analyzed for 241 Am. In addition, grab samples from ten locations in the southern basin of the lake have been analyzed for phase distribution of 239 , 240 Pu using a sequential extraction technique. The results indicate that the 239 , 240 Pu, 238 Pu, and 137 Cs from weapons testing, and the 241 Am formed in situ are concentrated in the sediments. A comparison of the total deposition of 239 , 240 Pu and 137 Cs indicates that 137 Cs may be valuable as a monitor for 239 , 240 Pu deposition in the sediments. Values of the 238 Pu/ 239 , 240 Pu ratio are in agreement with values reported in Lake Ontario sediments (and Lake Michigan plankton) and show little variation with depth. 241 Am data support the concept of in situ production with little preferential mobility after formation. Studies of sedimentary phase distributions show that 239 , 240 Pu is associated with hydrous oxide phases which are chemically stable under the prevailing conditions in lake sediments. Since Lake Michigan sediments remain aerobic, relatively little 239 , 240 Pu is available for chemical mobilization from the hydrous oxide or organic phases present in the sediments

  4. Synthetic musk fragrances in Lake Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Aaron M; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2004-01-15

    Synthetic musk fragrances are added to a wide variety of personal care and household products and are present in treated wastewater effluent. Here we report for the first time ambient air and water measurements of six polycyclic musks (AHTN, HHCB, ATII, ADBI, AHMI, and DPMI) and two nitro musks (musk xylene and musk ketone) in North America. The compounds were measured in the air and water of Lake Michigan and in the air of urban Milwaukee, WI. All of the compounds except DPMI were detected. HHCB and AHTN were found in the highest concentrations in all samples. Airborne concentrations of HHCB and AHTN average 4.6 and 2.9 ng/m3, respectively, in Milwaukee and 1.1 and 0.49 ng/m3 over the lake. The average water concentration of HHCB and AHTN in Lake Michigan was 4.7 and 1.0 ng/L, respectively. A lake-wide annual mass budget shows that wastewater treatment plant discharge is the major source (3470 kg/yr) of the synthetic musks while atmospheric deposition contributes less than 1%. Volatilization and outflow through the Straits of Mackinac are major loss mechanisms (2085 and 516 kg/yr for volatilization and outflow, respectively). Concentrations of HHCB are about one-half the predicted steady-state water concentrations in Lake Michigan.

  5. Growth, Flowering Time and Quality of Twelve Apple Varieties under Urmia Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Rezaee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Apple is a major commercial fruit crop grown in Iran. The country produces approximately 1.6 - 2.7 million tonnes of apples and was one of the top 10 apple producing countries in the world during the last decade. West Azerbaijan province, with more than 50,000 hectare of apple orchards and by producing of approximately one million tonne of fresh apple, is one of the main regions of apple production in Iran. In this region, two common apple cultivars Red Delicious and Golden Delicious are dominant (>90%, which needs to be updated by new apple cultivars to satisfy different technical/management as well as worldwide marketing requirements. Apple cultivars evaluations was started in Iran since 1953 and a lot of apple collection were established, but and until new apple cultivar was not introduced to farmers, As a first step for introduction of alternative cultivars, in this study, vegetative growth, flowering time, fruit ripening time as well as fruit quality of 12 apple (Malus pumilla Mill cultivars were evaluated under Urmia climatic conditions. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to evaluate vegetative growth, quality and compatibility of some apple cultivars to allow selection of alternative cultivars for commercial apple production in the northwest province of Iran. Materials and methods: This experiment was conducted at the Kahriz Horticultural Research Station located in Urmia-Iran (latitude 44°07' E; 37º 53' N.; altitude, 1325 m above sea level. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks, with 12 treatments (cultivars and three replications. The apple cultivars including Golden Delicious, Red Delicious, Red Spur, Fuji, Delbar Stival, Golden Smothee, Jonagold, Gholab-Kohanz, Golab-Kermanshah, Mahali Shikhi and Shafie Abadi were grafted on MM 111 rootstock. Trees were 10-year-old with a planting distance of 3 x 4 m and were trained as modified leader system. Data collected for annual shoot growth, time

  6. Fast-Food Consumption and Obesity Among Michigan Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Beth; Lyon-Callo, Sarah; Fussman, Christopher; Imes, Gwendoline; Rafferty, Ann P.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Consumption of meals eaten away from home, especially from fast-food restaurants, has increased in the United States since the 1970s. The main objective of this study was to examine the frequency and characteristics of fast-food consumption among adults in Michigan and obesity prevalence. Methods We analyzed data from 12 questions about fast-food consumption that were included on the 2005 Michigan Behavioral Risk Factor Survey, a population-based telephone survey of Michigan adul...

  7. Positron Emission Tomography-Scanner at Children`s Hospital of Michigan at Detroit, Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    The Department of Energy has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0795, to support the DOE decision to provide a grant of $7,953,600 to be used in support of a proposed Positron Emission Tomography Scanner at Children`s Hospital of Michigan at Detroit, Michigan. Based upon the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affected the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  8. Positron Emission Tomography-Scanner at Children's Hospital of Michigan at Detroit, Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Energy has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0795, to support the DOE decision to provide a grant of $7,953,600 to be used in support of a proposed Positron Emission Tomography Scanner at Children's Hospital of Michigan at Detroit, Michigan. Based upon the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affected the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  9. Lake Michigan Offshore Wind Feasibility Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boezaart, Arnold [GVSU; Edmonson, James [GVSU; Standridge, Charles [GVSU; Pervez, Nahid [GVSU; Desai, Neel [University of Michigan; Williams, Bruce [University of Delaware; Clark, Aaron [GVSU; Zeitler, David [GVSU; Kendall, Scott [GVSU; Biddanda, Bopi [GVSU; Steinman, Alan [GVSU; Klatt, Brian [Michigan State University; Gehring, J. L. [Michigan State University; Walter, K. [Michigan State University; Nordman, Erik E. [GVSU

    2014-06-30

    The purpose of this project was to conduct the first comprehensive offshore wind assessment over Lake Michigan and to advance the body of knowledge needed to support future commercial wind energy development on the Great Lakes. The project involved evaluation and selection of emerging wind measurement technology and the permitting, installation and operation of the first mid-lake wind assessment meteorological (MET) facilities in Michigan’s Great Lakes. In addition, the project provided the first opportunity to deploy and field test floating LIDAR and Laser Wind Sensor (LWS) technology, and important research related equipment key to the sitting and permitting of future offshore wind energy development in accordance with public participation guidelines established by the Michigan Great Lakes Wind Council (GLOW). The project created opportunities for public dialogue and community education about offshore wind resource management and continued the dialogue to foster Great Lake wind resource utilization consistent with the focus of the GLOW Council. The technology proved to be effective, affordable, mobile, and the methods of data measurement accurate. The public benefited from a substantial increase in knowledge of the wind resources over Lake Michigan and gained insights about the potential environmental impacts of offshore wind turbine placements in the future. The unique first ever hub height wind resource assessment using LWS technology over water and development of related research data along with the permitting, sitting, and deployment of the WindSentinel MET buoy has captured public attention and has helped to increase awareness of the potential of future offshore wind energy development on the Great Lakes. Specifically, this project supported the acquisition and operation of a WindSentinel (WS) MET wind assessment buoy, and associated research for 549 days over multiple years at three locations on Lake Michigan. Four research objectives were defined for the

  10. 76 FR 36152 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ...: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI; Correction AGENCY: National Park... human remains and associated funerary objects. Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology... may contact the Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology. Disposition of the human...

  11. 76 FR 28077 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ...: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology, has completed... contact the Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology. Disposition of the human remains to...

  12. 76 FR 36149 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ...: Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology, Kalamazoo, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology, has completed... contact the Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology. Disposition of the human remains and...

  13. Construction design of apple sorter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieoczym Aleksander

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available When assessing the quality of fruit and packaging process, fruit-producing farms owners decide to evaluate fruit by people or automated sorting lines. The purchase of an automated sorting line generates high costs for the company, but it brings benefits in the form of increased work efficiency, and the better organization of fruit packaging and storage processes. The use of that machinery and equipment is common in agricultural farms as well as in fruit and vegetable processing companies. Despite the widespread use of various types of fruit sorters, the analysis of the operation of the designed device and the study of its technological parameters is still a current research problem. During operation of the devices for sorting fruit there are many technical problems affecting technological processes and quality of fruits. In order to improve the efficiency of sorting fruit, this process should be quickly and accurately. The purpose of this paper is to present the automated apple sorter line construction design, and software for quality controlling fruits. Selected elements of the sorter structure including endurance calculation using the Finite Element Method (FEM and fruit control system using image analysis were presented.

  14. Biomarker Identification in Metabolomics of Dietary Studies on Apple and Apple Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rago, Daniela

    at once it, and therefore, it allows exploring the effect of food in a more global way compared to traditional techniques. The aim of this PhD project was to uncover the effect of consumption of apple or apple products on biochemical mechanisms and explore health related associations by using an LC...... with a diet supplemented with two dosages (5 g/day and 10g/day) of whole fresh apple pieces through 16 weeks (PAPER I). Plasma samples were analysed by LC-MS. Due to the complexity of the design of the study, several chemometric analyses have been employed. Initially, ASCA was applied in order to isolate...... the metabolic variations related to the consumption of fresh apples, successively PLS-DA to reveal discriminative metabolites in control vs. apple fed rats and finally PLS analysis to investigate possible dose-responses. Findings are related to a decrease in toxic catabolic products produced by protein...

  15. Effects of apples and specific apple components on the cecal environment of conventional rats: role of apple pectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markowski Jaroslaw

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal microbial community in rats, as well as on a number of cecal parameters, which may be influenced by a changed microbiota. Results Principal Component Analysis (PCA of cecal microbiota profiles obtained by PCR-DGGE targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed an effect of whole apples in a long-term feeding study (14 weeks, while no effects of apple juice, purée or pomace on microbial composition in cecum were observed. Administration of either 0.33 or 3.3% apple pectin in the diet resulted in considerable changes in the DGGE profiles. A 2-fold increase in the activity of beta-glucuronidase was observed in animals fed with pectin (7% in the diet for four weeks, as compared to control animals (P Bacteroidetes, whereas bands that became more prominent represented mainly Gram-positive anaerobic rods belonging to the phylum Firmicutes, and specific species belonging to the Clostridium Cluster XIVa. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed a lower amount of given Bacteroidetes species in the pectin-fed rats as well as in the apple-fed rats in the four-week study (P Clostridium coccoides (belonging to Cluster XIVa, as well as of genes encoding butyryl-coenzyme A CoA transferase, which is involved in butyrate production, was detected by quantitative PCR in fecal samples from the pectin-fed animals. Conclusions Our findings show that consumption of apple pectin (7% in the diet increases the population of butyrate- and β-glucuronidase producing Clostridiales, and decreases the population of specific species within the Bacteroidetes group in the rat gut. Similar changes were not caused by consumption of whole apples, apple juice, purée or pomace.

  16. Apple scab is a challenge to prevent and to predict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Maren

    2017-01-01

    Preventing apple scab infections by strategic irrigation is possible but only at a low level. The strategic irrigation alone does not sufficiently prevent apple scab, but might be a good supplement to fungicide sprays. The apple scab warning programmes might need an adjustment for Danish conditions......, with more focus on the earliest infection periods before flowering. Apple cultivars like ‘Red Aroma’, ‘Alkmene’ and ‘Holsteiner Cox’ are very robust against apple scab, with a maximum of 4% apple scab infection during 4 years of trial in an unsprayed orchard....

  17. Cisgenic apple trees; development, characterization and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans A. Krens

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Two methods were developed for the generation of cisgenic apples. Both have been successfully applied producing trees. The first method avoids the use of any foreign selectable marker genes; only the gene-of-interest is integrated between the T-DNA border sequences. The second method makes use of recombinase-based marker excision. For the first method we used the MdMYB10 gene from a red-fleshed apple coding for a transcription factor involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. Red plantlets were obtained and presence of the cisgene was confirmed. Plantlets were grafted and grown in a greenhouse. After three years, the first flowers appeared, showing red petals. Pollination led to production of red-fleshed cisgenic apples. The second method used the pM(arkerF(ree vector system, introducing the scab resistance gene Rvi6, derived from apple. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, followed by selection on kanamycin, produced genetically modified apple lines. Next, leaves from in vitro material were treated to activate the recombinase leading to excision of selection genes. Subsequently, the leaf explants were subjected to negative selection for marker-free plantlets by inducing regeneration on medium containing 5-fluorocytosine. After verification of the marker-free nature, the obtained plants were grafted onto rootstocks. Young trees from four cisgenic lines and one intragenic line, all containing Rvi6, were planted in an orchard. Appropriate controls were incorporated in this trial. We scored scab incidence for three consecutive years on leaves after inoculations with Rvi6-avirulent strains. One cisgenic line and the intragenic line performed as well as the resistant control. In 2014 trees started to overcome their juvenile character and formed flowers and fruits. The first results of scoring scab symptoms on apple fruits were obtained. Apple fruits from susceptible controls showed scab symptoms, while fruits from cisgenic and intragenic

  18. The impact of 4Ps on Purchase Decision: A case of Apple in Hanoi, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Bui Trung Thieu

    2016-01-01

    By using quantitative research methods and deductive reasoning, this research paper aims to address the importance of four marketing mix components (4Ps) on purchase decisions of customers of Apple Inc., by launching a survey in Hanoi, Vietnam, to generate primary data. The chosen sampling technique is quota sampling and several “quotas” were built. Descriptive analysis and hypothetical analysis (t-test, one-way ANOVA and Regression) using SPSS 20.0 are applied. Other implications of the rese...

  19. Patulin contamination in apple products marketed in Shiraz, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Poostforoushfard

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Although the maximum level of patulin in our samples was considerably lower than the permitted level established by the European ::::union:::: (i.e., 50 μg/L, the high incidence of this mycotoxin in our samples should be lessen by improving their good manufacturing practice.

  20. Antioxidant activity of polyphenol-enriched apple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šumić Zdravko M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that it is possible to improve antioxidant activity of apple juice by extraction of polyphenolic compounds from apple pomace, as waste, and their addition to the apple juice. Raw apple juice was prepared by pressing of apple mash. After thermal treatment of raw apple juice, depectinisation, additional clarification and filtration, the clarified juice was obtained. In raw and clarified apple juice soluble solids, acidity, reducing sugar, total sugars and brown component content were determined, as well as total dry matter, ash, acidity, reducing sugar, total sugars, total pectins, cellulose and starch content in apple mash and pomace. The total cotent of phenolics in clarified apple juice and apple pomace extract, determined spectrophotometrically using the Folin- Ciocalteu reagent, was 0.496 mg/ml and 6.505 mg/g, respectively. The antioxidant activity of clarified and polyphenol-enriched clarified juice (with addition of apple pomace extract in the concentrations 0.05 g, 0.1 g, 0.5 g and 1 g of phenolic compounds per liter of clarified apple juice was examined on stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radicals. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that polyphenol-enriched clarified juice was more effective on DPPH radicals than the clarified apple juice.

  1. Evaluating the economic and noneconomic impacts of the veterinary medical profession in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, J W; Dartt, B A

    2000-01-01

    continue to make a highly valued societal contribution. Pets, equines, and food animals will continue to have prominent roles in Michigan for the foreseeable future, as will the human-animal bond, food safety, and medical research. Clearly, for economic and noneconomic reasons, it will be in the interest of the people of Michigan to seek opportunities to maintain and enhance the vitality of the state's veterinary medical profession. It was our hope that results of this study would provide university administrators, legislators, MVMA executives, and others with information needed to justify the ongoing provision of public support for the veterinary medical profession. In addition, we expect that the results will supply useful material for public relations and marketing campaigns by the MVMA and the Michigan State University College of Veterinary Medicine and will provide the media with public interest stories to promote the veterinary profession. Although this study considered the economic and noneconomic impacts of the veterinary medical profession only in Michigan, the results can provide an important reference point for educators, policy markers, and legislators in other states. In addition, this study could serve as a methodologic model for veterinary organizations in other states, or at the national level, to emulate.

  2. Biotechnology and apple breeding in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Megumi; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Harada, Takeo; Fukasawa-Akada, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Apple is a fruit crop of significant economic importance, and breeders world wide continue to develop novel cultivars with improved characteristics. The lengthy juvenile period and the large field space required to grow apple populations have imposed major limitations on breeding. Various molecular biological techniques have been employed to make apple breeding easier. Transgenic technology has facilitated the development of apples with resistance to fungal or bacterial diseases, improved fruit quality, or root stocks with better rooting or dwarfing ability. DNA markers for disease resistance (scab, powdery mildew, fire-blight, Alternaria blotch) and fruit skin color have also been developed, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been employed in breeding programs. In the last decade, genomic sequences and chromosome maps of various cultivars have become available, allowing the development of large SNP arrays, enabling efficient QTL mapping and genomic selection (GS). In recent years, new technologies for genetic improvement, such as trans-grafting, virus vectors, and genome-editing, have emerged. Using these techniques, no foreign genes are present in the final product, and some of them show considerable promise for application to apple breeding. PMID:27069388

  3. Pollination deficits in UK apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Paul Douglas Garratt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Apple production in the UK is worth over £100 million per annum and this production is heavily dependent on insect pollination. Despite its importance, it is not clear which insect pollinators carry out the majority of this pollination. Furthermore, it is unknown whether current UK apple production, in terms of both yield and quality, suffers pollination deficits and whether production value could be increased through effective management of pollination services. The present study set out to address some of these unknowns and showed that solitary bee activity is high in orchards and that they could be making a valuable contribution to pollination. Furthermore, fruit set and apple seed number were found to be suffering potential pollination deficits although these were not reflected in apple quality. Deficits could be addressed through orchard management practices to improve the abundance and diversity of wild pollinators. Such practices include provision of additional floral resources and nesting habitats as well as preservation of semi-natural areas. The cost effectiveness of such strategies would need to be understood taking into account the potential gains to the apple industry.

  4. Application of molecular markers in apple breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Slađana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Apple is economically the most important species of genus Malus Miller. In respect of production, trade and consumption, it ranks first among deciduous fruit and third on a global scale among all fruit species. Apple breeding is carried out on a large scale in several scientific institutes throughout the world. Due to this activity, apple is a fruit species with the highest number of described monogenic traits; 76 genes, encoding morphological traits, pest and disease resistance, as well as 69 genes encoding enzymes. The development of molecular markers (RFLPs, AFLPs, SCARs and SSRs has allowed the mapping of the apple genome and the development of several saturated genetic maps, to which genes controlling important traits are assigned. Markers flanking these genes not only play an important role in selecting parental combinations and seedlings with positive traits, but they are also particularly important in detecting recessive traits, such as seedless fruit. In addition they enable pre-selection for polygenic quantitative traits. In recent years, particular attention has been paid to biochemical and physiological processes involved in the pathway of important traits e.g., ripening and the storage capability of apple fruit.

  5. Pollination deficits in UK apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Potts

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Apple production in the UK is worth over £100 million per annum and this production is heavily dependent on insect pollination. Despite its importance, it is not clear which insect pollinators carry out the majority of this pollination. Furthermore, it is unknown whether current UK apple production, in terms of both yield and quality, suffers pollination deficits and whether production value could be increased through effective management of pollination services. The present study set out to address some of these unknowns and showed that solitary bee activity is high in orchards and that they could be making a valuable contribution to pollination. Furthermore, fruit set and apple seed number were found to be suffering potential pollination deficits although these were not reflected in apple quality. Deficits could be addressed through orchard management practices to improve the abundance and diversity of wild pollinators. Such practices include provision of additional floral resources and nesting habitats as well as preservation of semi-natural areas. The cost effectiveness of such strategies would need to be understood taking into account the potential gains to the apple industry.

  6. Carbon isotope analysis in apple nectar beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Figueira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to use the isotope analysis method to quantify the carbon of C3 photosynthetic cycle in commercial apple nectars and to determine the legal limit to identify the beverages that do not conform to the safety standards established by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply. These beverages (apple nectars were produced in the laboratory according to the Brazilian legislation. Adulterated nectars were also produced with an amount of pulp juice below the permitted threshold limit value. The δ13C values of the apple nectars and their fractions (pulp and purified sugar were measured to quantify the C3 source percentage. In order to demonstrate the existence of adulteration, the values found were compared to the limit values established by the Brazilian Law. All commercial apple nectars analyzed were within the legal limits, which enabled to identify the nectars that were in conformity with the Brazilian Law. The isotopic methodology developed proved efficient to quantify the carbon of C3 origin in commercial apple nectars.

  7. Comparative analysis of discharges into Lake Michigan, Phase I - Southern Lake Michigan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Elcock, D.; Gasper, J. R.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-06-30

    BP Products North America Inc. (BP) owns and operates a petroleum refinery located on approximately 1,700 acres in Whiting, East Chicago, and Hammond, Indiana, near the southern tip of Lake Michigan. BP provided funding to Purdue University-Calumet Water Institute (Purdue) and Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct studies related to wastewater treatment and discharges. Purdue and Argonne are working jointly to identify and characterize technologies that BP could use to meet the previous discharge permit limits for total suspended solids (TSS) and ammonia after refinery modernization. In addition to the technology characterization work, Argonne conducted a separate project task, which is the subject of this report. In Phase I of a two-part study, Argonne estimated the current levels of discharge to southern Lake Michigan from significant point and nonpoint sources in Illinois, Indiana, and portions of Michigan. The study does not consider all of the chemicals that are discharged. Rather, it is narrowly focused on a selected group of pollutants, referred to as the 'target pollutants'. These include: TSS, ammonia, total and hexavalent chromium, mercury, vanadium, and selenium. In Phase II of the study, Argonne will expand the analysis to cover the entire Lake Michigan drainage basin.

  8. Project '80, Rural Michigan Now and in 1980; Michigan's Outdoor Recreation and Tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milstein, David N.

    Michigan is widely recognized as a traditional leader in outdoor recreation and tourism. Its location and resources provide many comparative advantages toward attracting visitors. State spending for outdoor recreation amounted to $95 million over the decade ending in 1960. State and Federal policies and programs are likely to emphasize outdoor…

  9. 77 FR 11531 - Electric Quarterly Reports, Acacia Energy, Inc., et al.; Notice of Revocation of Market-Based...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ...-000 Nordic Marketing of Illinois, Docket No. ER03-888-000 L.L.C. Nordic Marketing of Michigan, Docket No. ER04-264-000 L.L.C. Nordic Marketing, L.L.C Docket No. ER00-774-000 Pirin Solutions, Inc Docket... (including market-based power sales, cost-based power sales, and transmission service) and providing...

  10. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering more...

  11. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products is...

  12. Evaporite karst of northern lower Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Michigan has three main zones of evaporite karst: collapse breccia in Late Silurian deposits of the Mackinac Straits region; breccia, collapse sinks, and mega-block collapse in Middle Devonian deposits of Northern Lower Michigan, which overlaps the preceding area; and areas of soil swallows in sinks of Mississippian deposits between Turner and Alabaster in Arenac and Iosco counties, and near Grand Rapids in Kent County. The author has focused his study on evaporite karst of the Middle Devonian deposits. The Middle Devonian depos its are the Detroit River Group: a series consisting of limestone, dolomite, shale, salt, gypsum, and anhydrite. The group occurs from subcrop, near the surface, to nearly 1400 feet deep from the northern tip of the Southern Peninsula to the south edge of the "solution front" Glacial drift is from zero to 350 feet thick. Oil and gas exploration has encountered some significant lost-circulation zones throughout the area. Drilling without fluid returns, casing-seal failures, and lost holes are strong risks in some parts of the region. Lost fluid returns near the top of the group in nearby areas indicate some karst development shortly after deposition. Large and irregular lost-circulation zones, linear and patch trends of large sink holes, and 0.25 mile wide blocks of down-dropped land in the northern Lower Peninsula of Michigan were caused by surface- and ground-water movement along faults into the Detroit River Group. Glaciation has removed some evidence of the karst area at the surface. Sinkhole development, collapse valleys, and swallows developed since retreat of the glacier reveal an active solution front in the Detroit River Group.

  13. Double-blind, placebo controlled food challenge with apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K.S.; Vestergaard, H.S.; Skov, P.S.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate different methods of double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) with apple. Three different DBPCFC models were evaluated: fresh apple juice, freshly grated apple, and freeze-dried apple powder. All challenges were performed outside...... the pollen season and took place from 1997 to 1999. The freeze-dried apple material was characterized by means of leukocyte histamine release (HR), skin prick test (SPT), and immunoblotting experiments. The study population consisted of birch pollen-allergic patients with a history of rhinitis in the birch......-pollen season and positive specific IgE to birch. For comparison of the DBPCFC models, 65 patients with a positive open oral challenge with apple were selected. In the characterization of the freeze-dried apple material, 46 birch pollen-allergic patients were included. The IgE reactivity to apple was evaluated...

  14. Production of fuels and chemicals from apple pomace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hang, Y.D.

    1987-03-01

    Nearly 36 million tons of apples are produced annually in the US. Approximately 45% of the total US apple production is used for processing purposes. The primary by-product of apple processing is apple pomace. It consists of the presscake resulting from pressing apples for juice or cider, including the presscake obtained in pressing peel and core wastes generated in the manufacture of apple sauce or slices. More than 500 food processing plants in the US produce a total of about 1.3 million metric tons of apple pomace each year, and it is likely that annual disposal fees exceed $10 million. Apple pomace has the potential to be used for the production of fuels (ethanol and biogas containing 60% methane) and food-grade chemicals. These uses will be reviewed in this article.

  15. Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope System Theory of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, George R.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this learning module is to enable learners to describe how the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) system functions in support of Apple Valley Science and Technology Center's (AVSTC) client schools' radio astronomy activities.

  16. A review of cashew (Anacardiumoccidentale L.) apple: Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2015-09-17

    Sep 17, 2015 ... the apple juice or powder with other tropical food to increase it vitamins and .... MANAGEMENT AND SPACING ON CASHEW APPLE. QUALITY. The quality ..... of beverages prepared from fruit and vegetable juices. (Gao and ...

  17. Apple based agroforestry in Dendi Woreda, Oromiya Region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In agri-horticulture agroforestry approach apple trees were integrated with vegetables at ... activities incorporating their own farm resources to minimize input costs. ... Keywords: Agri-horticulture system; Apple tree adoption; Household income ...

  18. Mortality Rates Among Arab Americans in Michigan

    OpenAIRE

    Dallo, Florence J.; Schwartz, Kendra; Ruterbusch, Julie J.; Booza, Jason; Williams, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) calculate age-specific and age-adjusted cause-specific mortality rates for Arab Americans; and (2) compare these rates with those for blacks and whites. Mortality rates were estimated using Michigan death certificate data, an Arab surname and first name list, and 2000 U.S. Census data. Age-specific rates, age-adjusted all-cause and cause-specific rates were calculated. Arab Americans (75+) had higher mortality rates than whites and blacks. Among men, ...

  19. Creating Safe and Healthy Futures: Michigan Youth Violence Prevention Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Reischl, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Youth are in the cross-fire of gun violence, and the highest rate in the nation is in Flint, Michigan. This article highlights six innovative strategies that prepare youth to solve problems at home and in their communities in peaceful ways. The Michigan Youth Violence Prevention Center (MI-YVPC) works with community groups to strengthen…

  20. Education Inputs, Student Performance and School Finance Reform in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Latika

    2009-01-01

    This paper estimates the impact of the Michigan school finance reform, "Proposal A," on education inputs and test scores. Using a difference-in-difference estimation strategy, I find that school districts in Michigan used the increase in educational spending generated through "Proposal A" to increase teacher salaries and reduce…

  1. Lake Michigan lake trout PCB model forecast post audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scenario forecasts for total PCBs in Lake Michigan (LM) lake trout were conducted using the linked LM2-Toxics and LM Food Chain models, supported by a suite of additional LM models. Efforts were conducted under the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study and the post audit represents th...

  2. Estimating Cause: Teacher Turnover and School Effectiveness in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesler, Venessa; Schneider, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is investigate issues related to within-school teacher supply and school-specific teacher turnover within the state of Michigan using state administrative data on Michigan's teaching force. This paper 1) investigates the key predictors of teacher turnover and mobility, 2) develops a profile of schools that are likely to…

  3. Unemployment Insurance Fund Insolvency and Debt in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaustein, Saul J.

    Without changes in Michigan's unemployment insurance law, the state's unemployment insurance debt will probably reach $3.8 billion by the end of 1985. Currently, Michigan's employers pay unemployment insurance tax rates that vary from 1 to 9 percent, depending upon the amount of benefits charged against their accounts. Beginning with the federal…

  4. Apple's dehydration by the irradiation pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Junjie; Chao Yan; Shen Weiqiao; Wang Jun

    2001-01-01

    "6"0 Co γ-ray irradiation was used as a pre-treatment method to dry the apple. The aim of this study was to discover the effect factor concerning the change of the apple cell structure which would affect the speed of drhydration and the relation between the speed of hot air dehydration and the irradiation dose. The results demonstrated that with the increasing of irradiation dose. The damage of apple's vacuole membrane increased. The positive correlation was shown in slice thickness and dehydration rate, the relation of the irradiation dose and the temperature of hot air was negatively correlated. The optimum of pre-treatment was gained for slice thickness, the irradiation dose and dry temperature of hot air. (authors)

  5. Towards durabale resistance to apple scab using cisgenes

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, S.G.

    2010-01-01

    Apple (Malus x domestica) is one of the important fruit crops of the world. It is mainly cultivated in temperate regions. Apple fruit contains many health beneficial compounds which may play an important role in reducing cancer cell proliferation and lowering the level of cholesterol. Apple production can suffer from several pests and diseases and among them scab is very important. Apple scab is a fungal disease caused by Venturia inaequalis. The pathogen is a facultative saprophyte that gro...

  6. Sony vs. Apple - iPod launching, a case study of leadership and innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia Cojocaru; Silviu Cojocaru

    2014-01-01

    In 1979, Sony launched a portable Walkman range. For nearly a quarter of century, the Sony Walkman was the undisputed market leader and Sony was considered a top innovative company. Then, in 2001, Apple decided to launch the iPod, a new portable player. About 80% of the iPod technical components (e.g. memory, storage media) were produced by various companies within the Sony group. In 2004, iPod sales overtake Sony Walkman globally and become the new market leader in portable players. How was ...

  7. Take control of Apple Mail in Leopard

    CERN Document Server

    Kissell, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Go under the hood with new (and old) features in Apple Mail in Leopard! Are you using Apple Mail in Leopard effectively? In this book, completely updated from its previous Panther and Tiger editions, author Joe Kissell provides comprehensive guidance, with a focus on new and updated features. You'll learn how to use and customize the Mail window, control the size and styling of incoming messages, and make rules to move messages into different mailboxes automatically. The book covers outgoing mail, showing you smart ways to address messages, send attachments, and send HTML-based messages. Bu

  8. Stable-isotope composition of the water of apple juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricout, Jacques; Merlivat, Liliane

    1973-01-01

    By deuterium and oxygen 18 analysis, it was shown that apples' water is enriched in heavier isotopes as compared to rain water. The isotopic composition of the water of reconstituted apple juice is closed to the isotopic content of the rain water used for dilution. Thus, deuterium and oxyden 18 analysis allows a good analytical distinction between natural apple juice and reconstituted juices [fr

  9. Genetic analysis of wild apple resources in Shandong province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... Apple (malus domestica Borkh.), which is a widely cultivated, important and economic fruit crop with nutritive and medicinal importance, has emerged as a model horticultural crop in this post-genomic era. Wild apple resources are important and they develop gradually in apple industry and genetic diversity.

  10. Genetic analysis of wild apple resources in Shandong province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apple (malus domestica Borkh.), which is a widely cultivated, important and economic fruit crop with nutritive and medicinal importance, has emerged as a model horticultural crop in this post-genomic era. Wild apple resources are important and they develop gradually in apple industry and genetic diversity. In this study, two ...

  11. A review of cashew ( Anacardiumoccidentale L.) apple: Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review including the processing techniques, properties and uses of cashew apple juice is reported. Cashew apple has multi-purpose; it can be processed to obtain human food. The process of cashew apple into several by-products can affect its nutritional, microbiological, and sensorial quality attributes. Therefore ...

  12. Towards durabale resistance to apple scab using cisgenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, S.G.

    2010-01-01

    Apple (Malus x domestica) is one of the important fruit crops of the world. It is mainly cultivated in temperate regions. Apple fruit contains many health beneficial compounds which may play an important role in reducing cancer cell proliferation and lowering the level of cholesterol.
    Apple

  13. Purification and characterisation of relevant natural and recombinant apple allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberhuber, Christina; Ma, Yan; Marsh, Justin; Rigby, Neil; Smole, Ursula; Radauer, Christian; Alessandri, Stefano; Briza, Peter; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Maderegger, Bernhard; Himly, Martin; Sancho, Ana I.; van Ree, Ronald; Knulst, André; Ebner, Christof; Shewry, Peter; Mills, E. N. Clare; Wellner, Klaus; Breiteneder, Heimo; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Bublin, Merima

    2008-01-01

    Apple (Malus domestica) is the most widely cultivated fruit crop in Europe and frequently causes allergic reactions with a variable degree of severity. So far, four apple allergens Mal d 1, Mal d 2, Mal d 3 and Mal d 4 have been identified. Mal d 1, a Bet v 1 related allergen, and Mal d 4, apple

  14. Symptoms on apple and pear indicators after back-transmission from Nicotiana occidentalis confirm the identity of apple stem pitting virus with pear vein yellows virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leone, G.; Lindner, J.L.; Meer, van der F.A.; Schoen, C.D.; Jongedijk, G.

    1998-01-01

    Isolates of apple stem pitting virus (ASPV) from diseased apple trees were maintained in Nicotiana occidentalis then back-transmitted mechanically from the herbaceous host to apple seedlings and indexed by double budding on apple and pear indicators for the following syndromes: apple stem pitting,

  15. APPL proteins FRET at the BAR: direct observation of APPL1 and APPL2 BAR domain-mediated interactions on cell membranes using FRET microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi J Chial

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Human APPL1 and APPL2 are homologous RAB5 effectors whose binding partners include a diverse set of transmembrane receptors, signaling proteins, and phosphoinositides. APPL proteins associate dynamically with endosomal membranes and are proposed to function in endosome-mediated signaling pathways linking the cell surface to the cell nucleus. APPL proteins contain an N-terminal Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR domain, a central pleckstrin homology (PH domain, and a C-terminal phosphotyrosine binding (PTB domain. Previous structural and biochemical studies have shown that the APPL BAR domains mediate homotypic and heterotypic APPL-APPL interactions and that the APPL1 BAR domain forms crescent-shaped dimers. Although previous studies have shown that APPL minimal BAR domains associate with curved cell membranes, direct interaction between APPL BAR domains on cell membranes in vivo has not been reported.Herein, we used a laser-scanning confocal microscope equipped with a spectral detector to carry out fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET experiments with cyan fluorescent protein/yellow fluorescent protein (CFP/YFP FRET donor/acceptor pairs to examine interactions between APPL minimal BAR domains at the subcellular level. This comprehensive approach enabled us to evaluate FRET levels in a single cell using three methods: sensitized emission, standard acceptor photobleaching, and sequential acceptor photobleaching. We also analyzed emission spectra to address an outstanding controversy regarding the use of CFP donor/YFP acceptor pairs in FRET acceptor photobleaching experiments, based on reports that photobleaching of YFP converts it into a CFP-like species.All three methods consistently showed significant FRET between APPL minimal BAR domain FRET pairs, indicating that they interact directly in a homotypic (i.e., APPL1-APPL1 and APPL2-APPL2 and heterotypic (i.e., APPL1-APPL2 manner on curved cell membranes. Furthermore, the results of our experiments

  16. Agreement Between Michigan State University and Lodge 141, Fraternal Order of Police, Michigan State University Division, July 1, 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing.

    This agreement, entered into July 1, 1974, is between the Board of Trustees of Michigan State University and Lodge 141 of the Fraternal Order of Police, Michigan State University Division. It is the intent and purpose of this agreement to assure sound and mutually beneficial working and economic relationships between the parties, to provide an…

  17. Recruitment variability of alewives in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, C.P.; Hook, T.O.; Rutherford, E.S.; Mason, D.M.; Croley, T.E.; Szalai, E.B.; Bence, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    We used a long-term series of observations on alewife Alosa pseudoharengus abundance that was based on fall bottom-trawl catches to assess the importance of various abiotic and biotic factors on alewife recruitment in Lake Michigan during 1962–2002. We first fit a basic Ricker spawner–recruit model to the lakewide biomass estimates of age-3 recruits and the corresponding spawning stock size; we then fit models for all possible combinations of the following four external variables added to the basic model: an index of salmonine predation on an alewife year-class, an index for the spring–summer water temperatures experienced by alewives during their first year in the lake, an index of the severity of the first winter experienced by alewives in the lake, and an index of lake productivity during an alewife year-class's second year in the lake. Based on an information criterion, the best model for alewife recruitment included indices of salmonine predation and spring–summer water temperatures as external variables. Our analysis corroborated the contention that a decline in alewife abundance during the 1970s and early 1980s in Lake Michigan was driven by salmonine predation. Furthermore, our findings indicated that the extraordinarily warm water temperatures during the spring and summer of 1998 probably led to a moderately high recruitment of age-3 alewives in 2001, despite abundant salmonines.

  18. Building Parts Inventory Files Using the AppleWorks Data Base Subprogram and Apple IIe or GS Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for building database files using the AppleWorks program with an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS Computer with Duodisk or two disk drives and an 80-column card. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 25 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of the database file…

  19. Developing Inventory Records Using the AppleWorks Data Base Subprogram and Apple IIe or GS Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for developing inventory records in the AppleWorks program using an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS Computer with Duodisk or two disk drives and an 80-column card. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 17 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of the inventory…

  20. Evaluation of grapefruit seed extract as natural fungicide to control apple scab in organic apple growing

    OpenAIRE

    Trapman, Marc

    2004-01-01

    C-pro, an experimental fungicide based on grapefruit seed extract was compared to copper oxychloride for the control of apple scab in a field trial. Efficacy and possible phytotoxic effects where accessed. The C-pro formulation was analysed for possible chemical additives by HPTLC. C-pro proved tot be more effective in controlling apple scab then the standard rate of 300 gram copper oxychloride per ha, and gave a better leaf quality and less fruit skin russeting then the sta...

  1. Control of green apple aphid (Aphis pomi De Geer) in organic apple production

    OpenAIRE

    Milenković Slobodan; Marčić Dejan; Ružičić Lazar

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of different methods for controlling populations of green apple aphid (Aphis pomi De Geer) in organic apple orchard was compared over three consecutive years. The following three control methods were tested: a) predator activity (Coccinela septempunctata), b) predator activity (C. septempunctata) + selective spraying of trees with infestation level exceeding 10% with a botanical insecticide (NeemAzal T/S), and c) predator activity (C. septempun...

  2. Computer vision-based apple grading for golden delicious apples based on surface features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payman Moallem

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a computer vision-based algorithm for golden delicious apple grading is proposed which works in six steps. Non-apple pixels as background are firstly removed from input images. Then, stem end is detected by combination of morphological methods and Mahalanobis distant classifier. Calyx region is also detected by applying K-means clustering on the Cb component in YCbCr color space. After that, defects segmentation is achieved using Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP neural network. In the next step, stem end and calyx regions are removed from defected regions to refine and improve apple grading process. Then, statistical, textural and geometric features from refined defected regions are extracted. Finally, for apple grading, a comparison between performance of Support Vector Machine (SVM, MLP and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN classifiers is done. Classification is done in two manners which in the first one, an input apple is classified into two categories of healthy and defected. In the second manner, the input apple is classified into three categories of first rank, second rank and rejected ones. In both grading steps, SVM classifier works as the best one with recognition rate of 92.5% and 89.2% for two categories (healthy and defected and three quality categories (first rank, second rank and rejected ones, among 120 different golden delicious apple images, respectively, considering K-folding with K = 5. Moreover, the accuracy of the proposed segmentation algorithms including stem end detection and calyx detection are evaluated for two different apple image databases.

  3. MARKETING STRATEGIES OF SMARTPHONES PRODUCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markova V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones global market is one of the most dynamically developing markets that can be characterized by high level of competition. The growth of smartphones homogeneity, which is a reduction in difference between technical and functional parameters of smartphones produced by various manufacturers, can be considered the market’s specific feature. The unique situation of high-tech product homogeneity in a fast-growing market is scantily described in specialized literature. The article shows changeability of smartphones global market leaders and explains that the key success factor in such a mature market is marketing. Based on secondary information, marketing strategies of long standing market leader in sales Samsung and overtaking Apple companies are determined as well as strategies of contenders for leadership - Chinese companies Huawei and Lenovo. It is shown on Lenovo case that inexplicit positioning leads to a loss of the growing market share due to offensive marketing strategies of other Chinese companies. The research results broaden the knowledge of methodical potential of marketing strategies in companies’ activities in competitive markets of homogeneous high-tech products.

  4. Evaluation of Rheological Properties of Apple Mass Based Desserts

    OpenAIRE

    Sigita Boca; Ruta Galoburda; Inta Krasnova; Dalija Seglina; Aivars Aboltins; Imants Skrupskis

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of texturizers on the rheological properties of the apple mass and desserts made from various raw materials. The apple varieties - ‘Antonovka’, ‘Baltais Dzidrais’, and ‘Zarja Alatau’ harvested in Latvia, were used for the experiment. The apples were processed in a blender unpeeled for obtaining a homogenous mass. The apple mass was analyzed fresh and after storage at –18ºC. Both fresh and thawed apple mass samples with added...

  5. Tracking Steps on Apple Watch at Different Walking Speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerabhadrappa, Praveen; Moran, Matthew Duffy; Renninger, Mitchell D; Rhudy, Matthew B; Dreisbach, Scott B; Gift, Kristin M

    2018-04-09

    QUESTION: How accurate are the step counts obtained from Apple Watch? In this validation study, video steps vs. Apple Watch steps (mean ± SD) were 2965 ± 144 vs. 2964 ± 145 steps; P Apple Watch steps when compared with the manual counts obtained from video recordings. Our study is one of the initial studies to objectively validate the accuracy of the step counts obtained from Apple watch at different walking speeds. Apple Watch tested to be an extremely accurate device for measuring daily step counts for adults.

  6. (PEDOT) composite electrodes for supercapacitor appl

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amrita Centre for Nanosciences and Molecular Medicine, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Ponekkara P. O.,. Kochi 682 041, India .... Deposition was carried out at 1·8 V for different dura- tions. .... ions at the graphene sheet edges acting as co-ordination cen- .... Patra S and Munichandraiah N 2007 J. Appl. Polymer. Sci.

  7. Apple iTunes music store

    OpenAIRE

    Lenzi, R.; Schmucker, M.; Spadoni, F.

    2003-01-01

    This technical report analyses the Apple iTunes Music Store and its success factors. Besides the technical aspects, user and customer aspects as well as content aspects are considered. Furthermore, iTunes Music Store's impact to online music distribution services is analysed and a short outlook to future music online distribution is given.

  8. Transcriptional analysis of apple fruit proanthocyanidin biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry-Kirk, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are products of the flavonoid pathway, which also leads to the production of anthocyanins and flavonols. Many flavonoids have antioxidant properties and may have beneficial effects for human health. PAs are found in the seeds and fruits of many plants. In apple fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.), the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway is most active in the skin, with the flavan-3-ols, catechin, and epicatechin acting as the initiating units for the synthesis of PA polymers. This study examined the genes involved in the production of PAs in three apple cultivars: two heritage apple cultivars, Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden, and a commercial cultivar, Royal Gala. HPLC analysis shows that tree-ripe fruit from Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden had a higher phenolic content than Royal Gala. Epicatechin and catechin biosynthesis is under the control of the biosynthetic enzymes anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR1), respectively. Counter-intuitively, real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of Royal Gala LAR1 and ANR were significantly higher than those of both Devonshire Quarrenden and Hetlina. This suggests that a compensatory feedback mechanism may be active, whereby low concentrations of PAs may induce higher expression of gene transcripts. Further investigation is required into the regulation of these key enzymes in apple. Abbreviations:ANOVAanalysis of varianceANRanthocyanidin reductaseDADdiode array detectorDAFBdays after full bloomDFRdihydroflavonol reductaseLARleucoanthocyanidin reductaseLC-MSliquid chromatography/mass spectrometryPAproanthocyanidinqPCRreal-time quantitative PCR PMID:22859681

  9. Scientific Computing and Apple's Intel Transition

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    Intel's published processor roadmap and how it may affect the future of personal and scientific computing About the speaker: Eric Albert is Senior Software Engineer in Apple's Core Technologies group. During Mac OS X's transition to Intel processors he has worked on almost every part of the operating system, from the OS kernel and compiler tools to appli...

  10. The development of a cisgenic apple plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanblaere, Thalia; Szankowski, Iris; Schaart, Jan; Schouten, Henk; Flachowsky, Henryk; Broggini, Giovanni A L; Gessler, Cesare

    2011-07-20

    Cisgenesis represents a step toward a new generation of GM crops. The lack of selectable genes (e.g. antibiotic or herbicide resistance) in the final product and the fact that the inserted gene(s) derive from organisms sexually compatible with the target crop should rise less environmental concerns and increase consumer's acceptance. Here we report the generation of a cisgenic apple plant by inserting the endogenous apple scab resistance gene HcrVf2 under the control of its own regulatory sequences into the scab susceptible apple cultivar Gala. A previously developed method based on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation combined with a positive and negative selection system and a chemically inducible recombination machinery allowed the generation of apple cv. Gala carrying the scab resistance gene HcrVf2 under its native regulatory sequences and no foreign genes. Three cisgenic lines were chosen for detailed investigation and were shown to carry a single T-DNA insertion and express the target gene HcrVf2. This is the first report of the generation of a true cisgenic plant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Lessons learned from the Apple stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkney, Henry; Baum, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Medical practices have an opportunity to improve the services that they offer their patients. Practices can look at other businesses and industries for examples of outstanding customer service. This article will discuss the services provided by Apple, Inc., and how medical practices can learn from this industry giant and improve the services that they offer patients.

  12. Statement on the identity of apple snails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2012-01-01

    Following a request by the European Commission, EFSA’s Panel on Plant Health was asked to deliver a statement to clarify the current scientific knowledge regarding the identity of the apple snails in the context of the evaluation of the pest risk analysis prepared by the Spanish Ministry of Envir...

  13. Inhibition of biological activity of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) by apple juice and apple polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasooly, Reuven; Do, Paula M; Friedman, Mendel

    2010-05-12

    The foodborne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus produces the virulent staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), a single-chain protein that consists of 233 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 27 078 Da. SEA is a superantigen that is reported to contribute to animal (mastitis) and human (emesis, diarrhea, atopic dermatitis, arthritis, and toxic shock) syndromes. Changes of the native structural integrity may inactivate the toxin by preventing molecular interaction with cell membrane receptor sites of their host cells. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of one commercial and two freshly prepared apple juices and a commercial apple polyphenol preparation (Apple Poly) to inhibit the biological activity of SEA. Dilutions of freshly prepared apple juices and Apple Poly inhibited the biological activity of SEA without any significant cytotoxic effect on the spleen cells. Additional studies with antibody-coated immunomagnetic beads bearing specific antibodies against the toxin revealed that SEA added to apple juice appears to be largely irreversibly bound to the juice constituents. The results suggest that food-compatible and safe anti-toxin phenolic compounds can be used to inactivate SEA in vitro and possibly also in vivo, even after induction of T-cell proliferation by long-term exposure to SEA. The significance of the results for microbial food safety and human health is discussed.

  14. Environmental status of the Lake Michigan region. Volume 6. Zoobenthos of Lake Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozley, S.C.; Howmiller, R.P.

    1977-09-01

    This report summarizes Lake Michigan zoobenthic studies up to 1974, including reports of power-plant surveys. It describes ecologies of macroinvertebrate species and some microfauna, partly through use of data from other Great Lakes. The following are discussed: methodology of field surveys; zoobenthic indicators of pollution; zoobenthic effects on sediment-water exchanges; and numbers, biomass, and production of total macroinvertebrates. Prominent features of Lake Michigan zoobenthos include predominance of the amphipod Pontoporeia affinis, usefulness of tubificid oligochaetes in mapping environmental quality, and pronounced qualitative gradients in zoobenthos in relation to depth. Further research is needed on sampling methods, energy flow rates and pathways through benthic communities, factors limiting distribution of species near shore, and effects of macroinvertebrates on sediment chemistry and structure.

  15. Developing cluster strategy of apples dodol SMEs by integration K-means clustering and analytical hierarchy process method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustaniroh, S. A.; Effendi, U.; Silalahi, R. L. R.; Sari, T.; Ala, M.

    2018-03-01

    The purposes of this research were to determine the grouping of apples dodol small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Batu City and to determine an appropriate development strategy for each cluster. The methods used for clustering SMEs was k-means. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) approach was then applied to determine the development strategy priority for each cluster. The variables used in grouping include production capacity per month, length of operation, investment value, average sales revenue per month, amount of SMEs assets, and the number of workers. Several factors were considered in AHP include industry cluster, government, as well as related and supporting industries. Data was collected using the methods of questionaire and interviews. SMEs respondents were selected among SMEs appels dodol in Batu City using purposive sampling. The result showed that two clusters were formed from five apples dodol SMEs. The 1stcluster of apples dodol SMEs, classified as small enterprises, included SME A, SME C, and SME D. The 2ndcluster of SMEs apples dodol, classified as medium enterprises, consisted of SME B and SME E. The AHP results indicated that the priority development strategy for the 1stcluster of apples dodol SMEs was improving quality and the product standardisation, while for the 2nd cluster was increasing the marketing access.

  16. How to Plant Apple Trees to Reduce Replant Disease in Apple Orchard: A Study on the Phenolic Acid of the Replanted Apple Orchard

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Chengmiao; Xiang, Li; Wang, Gongshuai; Wang, Yanfang; Shen, Xiang; Chen, Xuesen; Mao, Zhiquan

    2016-01-01

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is an important problem in the production of apple. The phenolic acid is one of the causes of ARD. How phenolic acid affects the ARD was not well known. In this study, we analyzed the type, concentration and annual dynamic variation of phenolic acid in soil from three replanted apple orchards using an accelerated solvent extraction system with high performance liquid chromatography (ASE-HPLC). We found that the type and concentration of phenolic acid were significa...

  17. Evaluation of Physical-Chemical Indexes, Sugars, Pigments and Phenolic Compounds of Fruits from Three Apple Varieties at the End of Storage Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andruta Elena Muresan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Apples are the most cultivated and consumed fruits in the world. They not only taste great, but there are also rich sources of monosaccharides, pigments, fibers, functional compounds such as polyphenols which are well-known for their antioxidant action. Due to the high level of apples consumption, it is important to monitor and know the detailed chemical composition of this fruits on the market shelf. The aim of this paper was to study the detailed chemical composition of apples from three varieties. Samples from three varieties (Ionathan, Golden Delicious and Starkrimson were taken from the Romanian market. Individual sugars composition was performed by HPLC, total polyphenols content by Folin Ciocalteu method, antioxidant capacity by using the DPPH test, while pigments were analysed by spectrophotometric specific methods and the total starch content measured by a polarimetric method. Water content, acidity, total soluble solids and pH were also monitored through specific methods. There were found differences between varieties particularly in relation to the polyphenols content, carotenoids and chlorophyll. Regarding the individual sugars composition, fructose and glucose were predominant followed by sucrose for all samples. Values of starch, moisture, acidity, total soluble solids and the pH were according to other apple varieties found in literature. These results provide important information regarding the chemical composition of apple varieties from Romanian market, for both human direct consumption and industrial processing. 

  18. Untargeted NMR Spectroscopic Analysis of the Metabolic Variety of New Apple Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Eisenmann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolome analyses by NMR spectroscopy can be used in quality control by generating unique fingerprints of different species. Hundreds of components and their variation between different samples can be analyzed in a few minutes/hours with high accuracy and low cost of sample preparation. Here, apple peel and pulp extracts of a variety of apple cultivars were studied to assess their suitability to discriminate between the different varieties. The cultivars comprised mainly newly bred varieties or ones that were brought onto the market in recent years. Multivariate analyses of peel and pulp extracts were able to unambiguously identify all cultivars, with peel extracts showing a higher discriminative power. The latter was increased if the highly concentrated sugar metabolites were omitted from the analysis. Whereas sugar concentrations lay within a narrow range, polyphenols, discussed as potential health promoting substances, and acids varied remarkably between the cultivars.

  19. Influence of gamma irradiation and benzyl adenine on keeping quality of custard apple fruits during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouksey, Swati; Singh, Alpana; Thakur, Rajendra Singh; Deshmukh, Reena

    2013-01-01

    The custard apple (Annona squamosa) fruits were procured from local market, irradiated with radiation doses 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75 kGy and then treated with benzyl adenine (50 and 100 part per million) and stored at ambient temperature (25±5 °C, Relative Humidity 90±2%) for 12 days. The treated fruits were evaluated for sensory (viz; flavour, texture, internal and external colour) and chemical constituents (viz; Total Soluble Solids, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid, free soluble sugar, reducing sugar, non reducing sugar, carbohydrate) during storage. The study concluded that radiation dose of 1.5 kilo Gray along with 50 ppm benzyl adenine enhanced in shelf-life of custard apple fruits by 6 days at ambient temperature with good pulp texture, flavour, colour and nutritional quality as compared to control. (author)

  20. An assessment of apple orchard investments in South Africa under uncertainty and irreversibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAG Darroch

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The competitiveness of the South African fresh apple export value chain can be improved if local farmers grow and market more new apple cultivars. An ex ante version of the Dixit-Pindyck investment model is used to assess how uncertainty and irreversibility associated with adopting the new Pink Lady cultivar rather than a traditional Golden Delicious cultivar will raise the hurdle rate required to trigger investment. Modified real hurdle rates reflecting the value of the option to delay investment estimated for both cultivars, are about double the real rate of five per cent that is often used in orthodox investment analyses. The Pink Lady investment seems to be relatively more profitable under the assumed conditions, but it also has a relatively greater variance in expected real annual net returns.

  1. Changes in the taste and textural attributes of apples in response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Toshihiko; Ogawa, Hidekazu; Fukuda, Noriaki; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2013-01-01

    The effects of climate change on the taste and textural attributes of foods remain largely unknown, despite much public interest. On the basis of 30–40 years of records, we provide evidence that the taste and textural attributes of apples have changed as a result of recent global warming. Decreases in both acid concentration, fruit firmness and watercore development were observed regardless of the maturity index used for harvest date (e.g., calendar date, number of days after full bloom, peel colour and starch concentration), whereas in some cases the soluble-solids concentration increased; all such changes may have resulted from earlier blooming and higher temperatures during the maturation period. These results suggest that the qualities of apples in the market are undergoing long-term changes. PMID:23948740

  2. Sarcoptic mange in raccoons in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Scott D; Cooley, Thomas M; Murphy, Alice; Cosgrove, Melinda K; King, Betty A

    2004-04-01

    Sarcoptic mange is a cause of pruritic skin disease in domestic dogs and a wide range of wildlife species. We describe sarcoptic mange in free-ranging raccoons (Procyon lotor). Three adult raccoons from upper Wayne County, Michigan (USA), were captured, killed, and submitted for diagnostic evaluation. The animals were intensely pruritic, and two had advanced alopecic and crusting lesions over their dorsum and hind limbs. Skin scrapings and skin biopsies revealed crusting and hyperkeratotic dermatitis with high numbers of Sarcoptes scabiei adults, larvae, nymphs, and eggs. These raccoons were not otherwise debilitated, with minimal internal parasites, good body condition, and no evidence of infectious bacterial or viral diseases. Because sarcoptic mange is highly contagious and affects many species, including humans, transiently, it is important that wildlife biologists and rehabilitators include sarcoptic mange in their differential list for raccoons exhibiting pruritus and alopecia.

  3. Thermal discharge residence by Lake Michigan Salmonids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romberg, G.P.; Prepejchal, W.

    1975-01-01

    Lake Michigan salmon and trout were tagged with a thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) temperature tag to estimate their thermal exposure and residence time at a warm water discharge. Fish were collected, tagged, and released at the Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Two Rivers, Wisconsin, in the fall of 1973 and 1974. Tags were recovered during the same season, primarily from fish recaptured at Point Beach. Average uniform temperature exposure and maximum possible discharge residence time were determined. Appropriate hourly intake and discharge temperatures were averaged to calculate mean temperature exposure for the case of maximum discharge residence. Lowest discharge temperature not included within the period of maximum residence was identified to serve as a possible indicator of avoidance temperature. Mean values for the above parameters were calculated for fish species for each tagging year and are reported with the accompanying range of intake and discharge temperatures

  4. Field susceptibility of 13 scab-resistant apple cultivars to apple powdery mildew [Podosphaera leucotricha (Ell. et Ev. Salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Borecki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field susceptibility of 13 scab-resistant apple cultivars to apple powdery mildew was evaluated in 1983-1986. Four groups of susceptibility were distinguished. None of the 13 tested scab-resistant apple trees exhibited complete field immunity to apple powdery mildew. Two cultivars, 'Prima' and 'Primula', were practically resistant. 'Liberty' and two numbered selections, NY-140-9 and NY-158-2, belonged to the group of lower susceptibility. Moderate susceptibility was shown by: 'Novamac', 'Freedom', 'Gavin', 'Prima' and 'Florina'. The group of apple trees most susceptible to Podosphaera leucotricha included: 'Macfree', 'Priscilla' and 'Nova Easygro'. It is not necessary to use chemical sprays to control powdery mildew on 'Prima' and 'Primula'. A reduced spraying program may be recommended only under high disease pressure on less susceptible apple cultivars. A regular spray schedule is needed on moderately susceptible apple trees, but improved chemical control is necessary on the most susceptible ones.

  5. Surficial geologic map of Berrien County, Michigan, and the adjacent offshore area of Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Byron D.; Kincare, Kevin A.; O'Leary, Dennis W.; Newell, Wayne L.; Taylor, Emily M.; Williams, Van S.; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Abraham, Jared E.; Powers, Michael H.

    2017-12-13

    The surficial geologic map of Berrien County, southwestern Michigan (sheet 1), shows the distribution of glacial and postglacial deposits at the land surface and in the adjacent offshore area of Lake Michigan. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Drill-hole information correlated in cross sections provides details of typical stratigraphic sequences that compose one or more penetrated geologic map units. A new bedrock geologic map (on sheet 2) includes contours of the altitude of the eroded top of bedrock and shows the distribution of middle Paleozoic shale and carbonate units in the subcrop. A sediment thickness map (also on sheet 2) portrays the extent of as much as 150 meters of surficial materials that overlie the bedrock surface.The major physical features of the county are related principally to deposits of the last Laurentide ice sheet that advanced and then retreated back through the region from about 19,000 to 14,000 radiocarbon years before present. Glacial and postglacial deposits underlie the entire county; shale bedrock crops out only in the adjacent offshore area on the bottom of Lake Michigan. All glacial deposits and glacial meltwater deposits in Berrien County are related to the late Wisconsinan glacial advances of the Lake Michigan ice lobe and its three regional recessional moraines, which cross the county as three north-northeast-trending belts.From east to west (oldest to youngest), the three moraine belts are known as the Kalamazoo, Valparaiso, and Lake Border morainic systems. The till-ridge morainic systems (Lake Border and local Valparaiso morainic systems) consist of multiple, elongate moraine ridges separated by till plains and lake-bottom plains. Tills in ground and end moraines in Berrien County are distinguished as informal units, and are correlated with three proposed regional till units in southwestern Michigan

  6. Lake Michigan Fish Acoustic Data from 2011 to 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Each line in the file “Lake Michigan fish acoustic data from 2011 to 2016.csv” represents the acoustic data and estimated fish density for a single depth layer of...

  7. Michigan 2008 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the MI coasts of Lake Superior, Lake Michigan and...

  8. Pavement subgrade MR design values for Michigan's seasonal changes : appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-22

    The resilient modulus (MR) of roadbed soil plays an integral role in the design of pavement systems. Currently, the various regions of the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT) use different procedures to determine the MR values. Most of these...

  9. Lake-wide distribution of Dreissena in Lake Michigan, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Guy W.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Holuszko, Jeffrey D.

    2001-01-01

    The Great Lakes Science Center has conducted lake-wide bottom trawl surveys of the fish community in Lake Michigan each fall since 1973. These systematic surveys are performed at depths of 9 to 110 m at each of seven index sites around Lake Michigan. Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) populations have expanded to all survey locations and at a level to sufficiently contribute to the bottom trawl catches. The quagga (Dreissena bugensis), recently reported in Lake Michigan, was likely in the catches though not recognized. Dreissena spp. biomass ranged from about 0.6 to 15 kg/ha at the various sites in 1999. Dreissenid mussels were found at depths of 9 to 82 m, with their peak biomass at 27 to 46 m. The colonization of these exotic mussels has ecological implications as well as potential ramifications on the ability to sample fish consistently and effectively with bottom trawls in Lake Michigan.

  10. Willow Run Laboratories: Separating from the University of Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John

    1972-01-01

    Outlines the reasons for, and the problems involved in, separation of a research center from the University of Michigan in order to become an independent research organization contracting for private and military research. (AL)

  11. DETERMINATION OF CHLORPYRIFOS IN APPLE FROM THE RESEN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vezirka JANKULOSKA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the presence of chlorpyrifos in two varieties of apples: Golden Delicious and Idared in two different locations (Evla and Krveni from the Resen region in the country. Chlorpyrifos is organophosphate pesticide (insecticide used to protect apples from insects which can cause significant damage in apple production. The apples are analyzed in four development phases and in each phase the presence of chlorpyrifos is determined. Chlorpiryfos analysis of the apples is performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS followed by an extraction/separation cleansing with acetonitrile and the dispersive SPE - QuEChERS - method. The results are compared with the maximum residue levels (MRL prescribed by the legislation of the Republic of Macedonia. The conclusion is that chlorpyrifos is variously represented in most phases, regardless of the phase and location where the apple is grown. At certain phase the concentration exceedes MRL, however during the harvest, apples are safe to be consumed. Higher presence of chlorpyrifos is found in Idared apples at Kriveni location as compared to Evla. Тhe presence of chlorpyrifos in Golden Delicious is almost equal in both locations. From the statistical analysis of the data it is noticeable that the use of chlorpyrifos does not depend on the (type variety of apple but rather on the location where the apple is grown.

  12. Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Group: The University of Michigan Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    2931 alhawary@umich.edu Stephanie Daignault, MS, Biostatistician, Biostatistics Core University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center NI8D11...Consortium; The Cancer Institute of New Jersey/University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ; Robert Wood Johnson Medical School...University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ; University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI; University of Wisconsin Carbone

  13. Cardiac surgeons and the quality movement: the Michigan experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, Richard L; Armenti, Frederick R; Bassett, Joseph S; Bell, Gail F; Drake, Daniel; Hanson, Eric C; Heiser, John C; Johnson, Scott H; Plasman, F B; Shannon, Francis L; Share, David; Theurer, Patty; Williams, Jaelene

    2009-01-01

    The Michigan Society of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeons created a voluntary quality collaborative with all the cardiac surgeons in the state and all hospitals doing adult cardiac surgery. Utilizing this collaborative over the last 3 years and creating a unique relationship with a payor, an approach to processes and outcomes has produced improvements in the quality of care for cardiac patients in the state of Michigan.

  14. Apple detection using infrared thermal image, 3: Real-time temperature measurement of apple tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S.H.; Takahashi, T.; Fukuchi, H.; Sun, M.; Terao, H.

    1998-01-01

    In Part 1, we reported the thermal distribution characteristics and the identification methods of apples, leaves and branches by using the infrared thermal image at the specific time. This paper reports the temperature changing characteristics and the relationships among apples, leaves and air temperature based on the information measured by the infrared thermal image equipment in the real-time for 24 hours. As a result, it was confirmed that the average temperature of apples was 1 degree C or more higher than the one of the leaves, and the average temperature of the leaves was almost same as the air temperature within daytime and about 3 hours period after sunset. It was also clarified for a remarkable temperature difference not to exist for midnight and the early morning between the apples and the leaves, and both became almost as well as the air temperature. Moreover, a binary image was easily obtained and the apples could be detected by using this temperature difference informat

  15. Apple cultivars resistant to scab (Venturia inaequalis (Cke. Aderh. Part II. Winterhardiness of apple cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Borecki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The severe winter which occurred in Poland in 1986-1987 damaged the most part of scab resistant apple cultivars and selected apple hybrids. Cold hardiness studied in 1987 and 1988 showed significant differences in degree of frost injury on stem, branches, twigs and buds of apple trees. Two scab-resistance cultivars, namely Florina and Sir Prize, as well as two check culuvars, Idared and Golden Delicious, were killed by frost. Strong damages were noted in cultivars: Prima, Primula, and Priam. Lower susceptibility showed: Jonafree, Gavin, Liberty Sister and three hybrids selected from crosses of Bankroft with scab-resistant Primula. Relatively frost resistant was Novamac and three hybrids of U-breeding line: U-1101 and U-50, originated from crosses of polish culrivar Fantazja (McIntosh x Linda with Primula, Highest resistance to frost showed cultivars: Freedom. Liberty. new polish cultivar Witos (Fantazja x Primula and three hybrids: U-337, U-237 and U-1098. During the 1987 and 1988 seasons severe infection of apple trees by numerous fungi was noted. Twelve species of isolated fungi were identified as pathogens of apple trees bark and wood.

  16. Genetic Diversity of a Natural Population of Apple stem pitting virus Isolated from Apple in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Yeon Yoon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV, of the Foveavirus genus in the family Betaflexiviridae, is one of the most common viruses of apple and pear trees. To examine variability of the coat protein (CP gene from ASPV, eight isolates originating from 251 apple trees, which were collected from 22 apple orchards located in intensive apple growing areas of the North Gyeongsang and North Jeolla Provinces in Korea, were sequenced and compared. The nucleotide sequence identity of the CP gene of eight ASPV isolates ranged from 77.0 to 97.0%, while the amino acid sequence identity ranged from 87.7 to 98.5%. The N-terminal region of the viral CP gene was highly variable, whereas the C-terminal region was conserved. Genetic algorithm recombination detection (GARD and single breakpoint recombination (SBP analyses identified base substitutions between eight ASPV isolates at positions 54 and 57 and position 771, respectively. GABranch analysis was used to determine whether the eight isolates evolved due to positive selection. All values in the GABranch analysis showed a ratio of substitution rates at non-synonymous and synonymous sites (dNS/dS below 1, suggestive of strong negative selection forces during ASPV CP history. Although negative selection dominated CP evolution in the eight ASPV isolates, SLAC and FEL tests identified four possible positive selection sites at codons 10, 22, 102, and 158. This is the first study of the ASPV genome in Korea.

  17. Radiation mutagenesis in selection of apple trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolontaev, V.M.; Kolontaev, Yu.V.

    1977-01-01

    After X-radiation of grafts of antonovka apple trees, three groups of morphological mutants, namely, weak-, average- and violently-growing, have been revealed. Although the mutation spectrum has some indefinite character a dose of 6 kR causes, more frequently and in a greater number, the weak-growing mutants, and a dose of 2 kR, the violently-growing ones. Mutants of each group differ in the precociousness (precocious and latefruiting), type of fruiting (nospur and spur) and yield (high- and low-yielding). Using the method of radiation mutagenesis it is possible to rise the frequency and spectrum of somatic mutability of antonovka apple trees and to induce forms having valuable features

  18. Apple - Indian experimental geostationary communication satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, U. R.; Vasagam, R. M.

    Developmental steps, responsibilities, design goals, performance characteristics, and support systems for the ISRO Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment (APPLE) experimental GEO communication satellite are described. The spacecraft underwent structural, thermal, engineering, prototype, and flight qualification tests in India before being shipped to Guyana for launch on the third Ariane test flight. APPLE carries a redundant C-band communication transponder fed by a 900 mm diam parabolic reflector. A 6 GHz uplink and 4 GHz downlink are processed through a diplexer, with the receiver employing a low noise GaAs FET amplifier. In-orbit telemetry is provided by a 4095 MHz beacon with a data rate of 64 bits/sec. Two solar panels supply 210 W of power, while an on-board Ni-Cd storage battery stores 240 Wh for the ascent and during eclipse. Teleconferencing has been successfully performed using the spacecraft link.

  19. CAMAPPLE: CAMAC interface to the Apple computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxoby, G.J.; Trang, Q.H.; Williams, S.H.

    1981-04-01

    The advent of the personal microcomputer provides a new tool for the debugging, calibration and monitoring of small scale physics apparatus, e.g., a single detector being developed for a larger physics apparatus. With an appropriate interface these microcomputer systems provide a low cost (1/3 the cost of a comparable minicomputer system), convenient, dedicated, portable system which can be used in a fashion similar to that of portable oscilloscopes. Here, an interface between the Apple computer and CAMAC which is now being used to study the detector for a Cerenkov ring-imaging device is described. The Apple is particularly well-suited to this application because of its ease of use, hi-resolution graphics, peripheral bus and documentation support

  20. Camapple: CAMAC interface to the Apple computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxoby, G.J.; Trang, Q.H.; Williams, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    The advent of the 'personal' microcomputer provides a new tool for the debugging, calibration and monitoring of small scale physics apparatus, e.g., a single detector being developed for a larger physics apparatus. With an appropriate interface these microcomputer systems provide a low cost (1/3 the cost of a comparable minicomputer system), convenient, dedicated, portable system which can be used in a fashion similar to that of portable oscilliscopes. Here we describe an interface between the Apple computer and CAMAC which is now being used to study the detector for a Cerenkov ring-imaging device. The Apple is particularly well-suited to this application because of its ease of use, hi-resolution graphics, peripheral bus and documentation support. (orig.)

  1. Integrated pest management of "Golden Delicious" apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simončič, A; Stopar, M; Velikonja Bolta, Š; Bavčar, D; Leskovšek, R; Baša Česnik, H

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring of plant protection product (PPP) residues in "Golden Delicious" apples was performed in 2011-2013, where 216 active substances were analysed with three analytical methods. Integrated pest management (IPM) production and improved IPM production were compared. Results were in favour of improved IPM production. Some active compounds determined in IPM production (boscalid, pyraclostrobin, thiacloprid and thiametoxam) were not found in improved IPM production. Besides that, in 2011 and 2012, captan residues were lower in improved IPM production. Risk assessment was also performed. Chronic exposure of consumers was low in general, but showed no major differences for IPM and improved IPM production for active substances determined in both types of production. Analytical results were compared with the European Union report of 2010 where 1.3% of apple samples exceeded maximum residue levels (MRLs), while MRL exceedances were not observed in this survey.

  2. Multivariate analysis for selecting apple mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faedi, W.; Bagnara, G.L.; Rosati, P.; Cecchini, M.

    1992-01-01

    The mutlivariate analysis of four year records on several vegetative and productive traits of twenty-one apple mutants (3 of 'Jonathan', 3 of 'Ozark Gold', 14 of 'Mollie's Delicious', 1 of 'Neipling's Early Stayman)' induced by gamma radiations showed that observation of some traits of one-year-old shoots is the most efficient way to reveal compact growing apple mutants. In particular, basal cross-section area, total length and leaf area resulted the most appropriate parameters, while internode length together with conopy height and width are less appropriate. The most interesting mutants we found are: one of 'Mollie's Delicious for the best balance among tree and fruit traits and for high skin color; one of 'Neipling's Early Stayman' with an earlier and more extensively red colored apple than the original clone. (author)

  3. Arthropod diversity (Arthropoda on abandoned apple trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Šťastná

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 and 2011, the occurrence of arthropods on apple trees without management was monitored near the village of Velké Bílovice, South Moravia, in two selected localities (an abandoned apple tree orchard and a road apple tree alley. Arthropods in tree tops were killed using deltamehtrin applied with a fogger (Puls Fog. Each collection always contained the material from 5 trees in each site. In 2010, three collections were performed (28/4, 20/5, and 9/7, two in 2011 (11/5 and 23/6. Representatives of eleven orders were captured. Of all the orders trapped, Coleoptera was represented most frequently, the Hymenoptera and Diptera followed. In the alley, individuals of the Coleoptera (34% were caught most frequently, the Hymenoptera (19.6% and Hemiptera (17.4% followed. In the orchard, the Coleoptera (41.4% was represented most frequently, followed by the Hymenoptera (21.9% and Diptera (15%. In both the environments, species with negative economic impact were recorded (e.g. Anthonomus pyri, Tatianaerhynchites aequatus, Cydia pomonella, Rhynchites bacchus. However, a greater number of pest antagonists were also found (Scambus pomorum, Coccinella septempunctata, Episyrphus balteatus, Pentatoma rufipes, Orius spp.. Some species were important in faunistic terms, as some critically endangered species were recorded (e.g. Dipoena erythropus, Cryptocephalus schaefferi, and the Plectochorus iwatensis species was recorded for the first time in the Czech Republic.

  4. Compact type mutants in apple and sour cherries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagaja, S.W.; Przybyla, A.

    1976-01-01

    Induction of mutations in deciduous fruits is considered complementary to the conventional breeding methods. Several promissing mutants, particularly in apples, were described and some of them were introduced to commercial orchards. Studies described herein are aimed at developing compact type mutants in apple cultivars, apple rootstocks and in sour cherry cultivars. Data obtained so far confirm the results of the other authors, who developed compact type mutants in apples and sweet cherries. Physiological studies have shown that the leaves of spontaneous apple mutants of compact type are more efficient in photosynthesis than the leaves of respective standards. In spite of this, using branch ringing techniques, it was found that the leaves of compacts and those of standards do not differ in their productivity. There seem to be several advantages in employing tissue culture technique in mutation breeding. That is why a project was started to work out a method of growing apple shoots from adventitious buds developed on sections of roots. (author)

  5. Some properties of kefir enriched with apple and lemon fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busra Goncu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of apple and lemon fiber addition on some properties of kefir were investigated. Five different kefirs were produced (A is control, B, C, D, E, F and G: contain 0.25 % apple fiber, 0.5 % apple fiber, 1 % apple fiber, 0.25 % lemon fiber, 0.5 % lemon fiber and 1 % lemon fiber, respectively and stored for 20 days at 4±1 °C. pH, titratable acidity, dry matter, water activity, water holding capacity, viscosity, L, a and b values, sensorial analysis, total lactic bacteria, Lactococcus spp., Leuconostoc spp. and yeast counts of kefirs were determined at 1st, 10th and 20th days of storage. The addition of apple and lemon fiber enhanced rheological, microbiological and sensorial properties of kefirs (p<0.01. Apple and lemon fiber could be used for kefir production at a rate of 0.25 or 0.5 %.

  6. Analytical characterization of some pasteurized apple juices during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the effect of three weeks of storage on the chemical and rheological properties of apple juices obtained from Idared and Jonatan apples variety. Total antioxidant activity, levels of bio-active compound groups and the viscosity were measured to characterize the investigated juices. The method applied for the determination of ascorbic acid concentration was with 2, 6-diclorophenolindophenol. Total phenols (TP in apple juices were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau method and antioxidant activity by the use of DPPH free radical method. The viscosity of apple juices was investigated by a rotational viscometer, Brookfield viscometer (Brookfield Engineering Inc., Model RV-DV I Prime with RV spindles. During three weeks of storage, different rates of all measured properties have been observed decreasing for both studied apples varieties juices. The juices from Jonatan apples have higher antioxidant activities that are correlated with the higher content in polyphenols and lower values of viscosity.

  7. Quantification Model for Estimating Temperature Field Distributions of Apple Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang , Min; Yang , Le; Zhao , Huizhong; Zhang , Leijie; Zhong , Zhiyou; Liu , Yanling; Chen , Jianhua

    2009-01-01

    International audience; A quantification model of transient heat conduction was provided to simulate apple fruit temperature distribution in the cooling process. The model was based on the energy variation of apple fruit of different points. It took into account, heat exchange of representative elemental volume, metabolism heat and external heat. The following conclusions could be obtained: first, the quantification model can satisfactorily describe the tendency of apple fruit temperature dis...

  8. The Venturia Apple Pathosystem: Pathogenicity Mechanisms and Plant Defense Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopaljee Jha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Venturia inaequalis is the causal agent of apple scab, a devastating disease of apple. We outline several unique features of this pathogen which are useful for molecular genetics studies intended to understand plant-pathogen interactions. The pathogenicity mechanisms of the pathogen and overview of apple defense responses, monogenic and polygenic resistance, and their utilization in scab resistance breeding programs are also reviewed.

  9. Theory of Regression Apple Professional Cooperation Organization Research

    OpenAIRE

    Ouyang Bin

    2013-01-01

    In view of the enterprise ecological apple manor a variety of problems of existence, put forward to the enterprise management transformation, achieve enterprise, collective, individual integrated operation management and the use of regression mathematical model on apple professional cooperation organization analysis. Through the example, Apple professional economic cooperation organization innovation model of the input output ratio than the rural economic cooperation organization is much high...

  10. Classifying apples by the means of fluorescence imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Codrea, Marius C.; Nevalainen, Olli S.; Tyystjärvi, Esa; VAN DE VEN, Martin; VALCKE, Roland

    2004-01-01

    Classification of harvested apples when predicting their storage potential is an important task. This paper describes how chlorophyll a fluorescence images taken in blue light through a red filter, can be used to classify apples. In such an image, fluorescence appears as a relatively homogenous area broken by a number of small nonfluorescing spots, corresponding to normal corky tissue patches, lenticells, and to damaged areas that lower the quality of the apple. The damaged regions appear mor...

  11. Extraction of pectin from apple pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helene Canteri-Schemin

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available As apple-processing units are now in expansion in Brazil, industrial by-products like pomace play an important role in pectin manufacture. The objective of this article was to determine a pratical follow-up to the extraction of pectin from apple pomace and to characterize it in a laboratory, on a small scale, aiming at establishing the optimum conditions for acid extraction. The highest yields were obtained when [1]apple pomace was dried and ground to obtain an apple flour to be used as raw material, [2] citric or nitric acids were used and [3] when the citric acid concentration was 6.2 g/100 ml and the time of reaction was 153 minutes. The apple variety in itself was not significant in pectin yield. The degree of esterification (DE = 68.84 % of the product obtained, as well as its physical looks, show the success of pectin extraction.No aproveitamento de resíduos das indústrias processadoras de maçã, em expansão no Brasil, a pectina alimentícia surge como importante subproduto. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram os seguintes: extração e caracterização da pectina de bagaço de maçã em bancada, em que as condições para maior rendimento de obtenção em relação ao tipo de ácido, ao tamanho das partículas e à variedade de maçã foram estabelecidas. Objetivou-se também a otimização da produção, levando-se em conta o tempo e a concentração do ácido cítrico. Foram considerados métodos de extração mais eficientes quanto ao rendimento: [1] acidificação com ácido cítrico ou ácido nítrico, [2] cominuição do bagaço, usando a farinha como matéria-prima, com partículas retidas no tamis de 106 µm, [3] concentração de ácido de 6,2 g% e tempo de extração de 153 minutos. A variedade da maçã não interferiu significativamente no rendimento. A alta metoxilação (DE= 68,84% das pectinas produzidas em bancada confirma o grau de maturidade das matérias-primas usadas nos experimentos.

  12. Technical and economic feasibility of utilizing apple pomace as a boiler feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sargent, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    Apple pomace or presscake, was evaluated for suitability as a boiler feedstock for Michigan firms processing apple juice. Based upon the physical and chemical characteristics of pomace, handling/direct combustion systems were selected to conform with operating parameters typical of the industry. Fresh pomace flow rates of 29,030 and 88,998 kg/day (64,000 and 194,000 lb/day) were considered as representative of small and large processors, respectively, and the material was assumed to be dried to 15% moisture content (wet basis) prior to storage and combustion. Boilers utilizing pile-burning, fluidized-bed-combustion, and suspension-firing technologies were sized for each flow rate, resulting in energy production of 2930 and 8790 kW (10 and 30 million Btu/h), respectively. A life-cycle cost analysis was performed giving Average Annual Costs for the three handling/combustion system combinations (based on the Uniform Capital Recovery factor). An investment loan at 16% interest with a 5-year payback period was assumed. The break-even period for annual costs was calculated by anticipated savings incurred through reduction of fossil-fuel costs during a 5-month processing season. Large processors, producing more than 88,998 kg pomace/day, could economically convert to a suspension-fired system substituting for fuel oil, with break-even occurring after 4 months of operation of pomace per year. Small processors, producing less than 29,030 kg/day, could not currently convert to pomace combustion systems given these economic circumstances. A doubling of electrical-utility costs and changes in interest rates from 10 to 20% per year had only slight effects on the recovery of Average Annual Costs. Increases in fossil-fuel prices and the necessity to pay for pomace disposal reduced the cost-recovery period for all systems, making some systems feasible for small processors. 39 references, 13 figures, 10 tables.

  13. Some properties of kefir enriched with apple and lemon fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Busra Goncu; Asli Celikel; Mutlu B. Guler-Akin; M. Serdar Akin

    2017-01-01

    The effects of apple and lemon fiber addition on some properties of kefir were investigated. Five different kefirs were produced (A is control, B, C, D, E, F and G: contain 0.25 % apple fiber, 0.5 % apple fiber, 1 % apple fiber, 0.25 % lemon fiber, 0.5 % lemon fiber and 1 % lemon fiber, respectively) and stored for 20 days at 4±1 °C. pH, titratable acidity, dry matter, water activity, water holding capacity, viscosity, L, a and b values, sensorial analysis, total lactic bacteria, Lactococcus ...

  14. Research on the Influencing Factors of China Apple Juice Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Du Juan

    2013-01-01

    China is the first country in the world in which apple juice is produced and exited and the main producing area is concentrated in the north of China. Some domestic companies which export apple juice are founded. China’s apple juice, mainly exported to USA, Japan and the Europe, has a strong international competitiveness. However, due to the breed and raw material, Chinese apple juice export faces some challenge, like the loss happening in the transport process. The objective of this study is...

  15. Studies on apple preservation by 60 -gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chuanyao; Jiang Mengyue; Gao Meixu

    1992-01-01

    Studies on '60'Co-gamma irradiation of Golden Delicious apple have been carried out. The results showed that the optimum irradiation dosage for stored apple was ranged from 0.3-0.5 k Gy, with this dosage, the contents of vitamin c and titratalbe acidity in these apples had no significant change compared with unirradiated apples. The respiratory rate and the amount of ethylene release were decreased after irradiation. The mortality of the verticillate pathogenic fungi was 97% at the dose of 0.5 k Gy

  16. Mortality rates among Arab Americans in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallo, Florence J; Schwartz, Kendra; Ruterbusch, Julie J; Booza, Jason; Williams, David R

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) calculate age-specific and age-adjusted cause-specific mortality rates for Arab Americans; and (2) compare these rates with those for blacks and whites. Mortality rates were estimated using Michigan death certificate data, an Arab surname and first name list, and 2000 U.S. Census data. Age-specific rates, age-adjusted all-cause and cause-specific rates were calculated. Arab Americans (75+) had higher mortality rates than whites and blacks. Among men, all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates for Arab Americans were in the range of whites and blacks. However, Arab American men had lower mortality rates from cancer and chronic lower respiratory disease compared to both whites and blacks. Among women, Arab Americans had lower mortality rates from heart disease, cancer, stroke, and diabetes than whites and blacks. Arab Americans are growing in number. Future study should focus on designing rigorous separate analyses for this population.

  17. Development of hypo-allergenic apples: silencing of the major allergen Mal d 1 gene in "Elstar" apple and the effect of grafting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krath, Britta; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted; Pedersen, Bjarne H.

    2009-01-01

    Many people who are allergic to birch pollen are also allergic to apple fruit, due to cross-allergenicity. Since apples are the most extensively consumed fruit in Europe, it is highly relevant to develop a hypo-allergenic apple. Apples with significantly reduced levels of the allergen, Mal d 1, may...

  18. Zhodnocení vlivu inovací na úspěšnost společnosti Apple Inc.

    OpenAIRE

    Sedláčková, Hana

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to study the impact of Apple Inc. innovation activities on its successful performance. Specification of this goal implies the existence of a direct relationship between the development of company's net sales and the development of its market value. The thesis is divided into theoretical and practical part where the theoretical part is focused on the issues of invention and innovation, the innovation process and, last but not least, the link between innovat...

  19. Analysis of Brand Personality on Customer Loyalty (Case Study Tablet Computer: Apple Ipad and Samsung Galaxy Tab)

    OpenAIRE

    Andu, Risca A.

    2013-01-01

    Brand personality is a potential marketing strategy to increase the customer loyalty towards the particular brand. Many customers will choose products with a brand that suitable with their personality. It also applies to tablet computer customers. The objectives of this research are to describe the effect of brand personality on customer loyalty in purchasing Apple Ipad and Samsung Galaxy Tab. This research also will analyze the difference in customer loyalty based on brand personality betwee...

  20. Transcriptomic signatures in seeds of apple (Malus domestica L. Borkh) during fruitlet abscission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Sergio; Carretero-Paulet, Lorenzo; Mendes, Marta Adelina; Botton, Alessandro; Eccher, Giulia; Masiero, Simona; Colombo, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Abscission is the regulated process of detachment of an organ from a plant. In apple the abscission of fruits occurs during their early development to control the fruit load depending on the nutritional state of the plant. In order to control production and obtain fruits with optimal market qualities, the horticultural procedure of thinning is performed to further reduce the number of fruitlets. In this study we have conducted a transcriptomic profiling of seeds from two different types of fruitlets, according to size and position in the fruit cluster. Transcriptomic profiles of central and lateral fruit seeds were obtained by RNAseq. Comparative analysis was performed by the functional categorization of differentially expressed genes by means of Gene Ontology (GO) annotation of the apple genome. Our results revealed the overexpression of genes involved in responses to stress, hormone biosynthesis and also the response and/or transport of auxin and ethylene. A smaller set of genes, mainly related to ion transport and homeostasis, were found to be down-regulated. The transcriptome characterization described in this manuscript contributes to unravelling the molecular mechanisms and pathways involved in the physiological abscission of apple fruits and suggests a role for seeds in this process.

  1. Quality comparison of elephant apple juices after high-pressure processing and thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Prakash Kumar; Rayaguru, Kalpana; Radha Krishnan, Kesavan

    2017-03-01

    In the present work, the effect of high pressure processing (HPP) on the quality parameters (pH, °Brix, total acidity, viscosity, colour, antioxidant activity, total phenols, total flavonoids, microbial flora, and sensory analysis) of elephant apple (Dillenia indica) juice was investigated. The juice samples were analysed periodically (0, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 days) during 60 days of storage period and results were compared with thermally processed as well as with untreated (fresh juice) samples. Slight variations had been observed in the quality parameters like pH, °Brix and total acidity. Other parameters like colour values, antioxidant activity, total phenols and total flavonoids were varied significantly (P apple juice was established as 60 days at 4 °C. This study showed that application of HPP effectively maintained quality attributes and extended shelf life of the elephant apple juice. It may be suggested that application of HPP could be considered for commercial application during storage and marketing. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Avoiding a bad apple: Insect pollination enhances fruit quality and economic value☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, M.P.D.; Breeze, T.D.; Jenner, N.; Polce, C.; Biesmeijer, J.C.; Potts, S.G.

    2014-01-01

    Insect pollination is important for food production globally and apples are one of the major fruit crops which are reliant on this ecosystem service. It is fundamentally important that the full range of benefits of insect pollination to crop production are understood, if the costs of interventions aiming to enhance pollination are to be compared against the costs of the interventions themselves. Most previous studies have simply assessed the benefits of pollination to crop yield and ignored quality benefits and how these translate through to economic values. In the present study we examine the influence of insect pollination services on farmgate output of two important UK apple varieties; Gala and Cox. Using field experiments, we quantify the influence of insect pollination on yield and importantly quality and whether either may be limited by sub-optimal insect pollination. Using an expanded bioeconomic model we value insect pollination to UK apple production and establish the potential for improvement through pollination service management. We show that insects are essential in the production of both varieties of apple in the UK and contribute a total of £36.7 million per annum, over £6 million more than the value calculated using more conventional dependence ratio methods. Insect pollination not only affects the quantity of production but can also have marked impacts on the quality of apples, influencing size, shape and effecting their classification for market. These effects are variety specific however. Due to the influence of pollination on both yield and quality in Gala, there is potential for insect pollination services to improve UK output by up to £5.7 million per annum. Our research shows that continued pollinator decline could have serious financial implications for the apple industry but there is considerable scope through management of wild pollinators or using managed pollinator augmentation, to improve the quality of production. Furthermore, we

  3. Avoiding a bad apple: Insect pollination enhances fruit quality and economic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, M P D; Breeze, T D; Jenner, N; Polce, C; Biesmeijer, J C; Potts, S G

    2014-02-01

    Insect pollination is important for food production globally and apples are one of the major fruit crops which are reliant on this ecosystem service. It is fundamentally important that the full range of benefits of insect pollination to crop production are understood, if the costs of interventions aiming to enhance pollination are to be compared against the costs of the interventions themselves. Most previous studies have simply assessed the benefits of pollination to crop yield and ignored quality benefits and how these translate through to economic values. In the present study we examine the influence of insect pollination services on farmgate output of two important UK apple varieties; Gala and Cox. Using field experiments, we quantify the influence of insect pollination on yield and importantly quality and whether either may be limited by sub-optimal insect pollination. Using an expanded bioeconomic model we value insect pollination to UK apple production and establish the potential for improvement through pollination service management. We show that insects are essential in the production of both varieties of apple in the UK and contribute a total of £36.7 million per annum, over £6 million more than the value calculated using more conventional dependence ratio methods. Insect pollination not only affects the quantity of production but can also have marked impacts on the quality of apples, influencing size, shape and effecting their classification for market. These effects are variety specific however. Due to the influence of pollination on both yield and quality in Gala, there is potential for insect pollination services to improve UK output by up to £5.7 million per annum. Our research shows that continued pollinator decline could have serious financial implications for the apple industry but there is considerable scope through management of wild pollinators or using managed pollinator augmentation, to improve the quality of production. Furthermore, we

  4. Environmental status of the Lake Michigan region. Volume 3. Chemistry of Lake Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrey, M S

    1976-05-01

    The report is a synoptic review of data collected over the past twenty years on the chemistry of Lake Michigan. Changes in water quality and sediment chemistry, attributable to cultural and natural influences, are considered in relation to interacting processes and factors controlling the distribution and concentration of chemical substances within the Lake. Temperature, light, and mixing processes are among the important natural influences that affect nutrient cycling, dispersal of pollutants, and fate of materials entering the Lake. Characterization of inshore-offshore and longitudinal differences in chemical concentrations and sediment chemistry for the main body of the Lake is supplemented by discussion of specific areas such as Green Bay and Grand Traverse Bay. Residues, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, major and trace nutrients, and contaminants are described in the following context: biological essentiality and/or toxicity, sources to the Lake, concentrations in the water column and sediments, chemical forms, seasonal variations and variation with depth. A summary of existing water quality standards, statutes, and criteria applicable to Lake Michigan is appended.

  5. Environmental status of the Lake Michigan region. Volume 14. Birds of the Lake Michigan drainage basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, G.J.

    1977-07-01

    This report characterizes the bird life found in 100 counties of the four states peripheral to Lake Michigan. It discusses major habitats (the Lake Michigan shoreline, inland lakes, rivers and streams, marshes, fields and open spaces, and woodlots) and associates specific birds with habitats according to preferences for space and food. It also discusses the special attributes of state parks and lakeshores, refuges and sanctuaries, and other special areas which are attractive to avifauna. Patterns of historical occurrence and abundance, and the influence of pesticides and pollution, disease, and hunting pressure are explored to place present occurrence in a modern perspective. Migration patterns are discussed to explain increases and decreases which occur in nonresident avifauna of the Basin. The distribution and habits of birds that occur regularly in the Basin are described in an annotated list; a more complete list is presented in a table which encapsulates data for rapid and convenient reference. Separate sections deal with extinct, extirpated, and introduced species, and with endangered, threatened, and declining species.

  6. The impact of 4Ps on Purchase Decision: A case of Apple in Hanoi, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui Trung Thieu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By using quantitative research methods and deductive reasoning, this research paper aims to address the importance of four marketing mix components (4Ps on purchase decisions of customers of Apple Inc., by launching a survey in Hanoi, Vietnam, to generate primary data. The chosen sampling technique is quota sampling and several “quotas” were built. Descriptive analysis and hypothetical analysis (t-test, one-way ANOVA and Regression using SPSS 20.0 are applied. Other implications of the research and limitations were also discussed below.

  7. Northeast natural gas market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denhardt, R.

    2001-01-01

    This power point presentation included several charts and graphs depicting the major pipeline projects, including the Alliance Pipeline, to move gas from the U.S. midwest (14.5 Bcfd) to the northeast (11.6 Bcfd). Alliance is expected to add 1.6 Bcfd of capacity and supplies could ultimately expand to 4 Bcfd. The addition of the Vector Pipeline could create excess capacity to eastern Canada. The major cause for increased power demand is power generation. For example, proposed gas combined cycle plants in Ontario equal 3.2 GW about 720 MMcfd at 90 per cent capacity, while environmental regulations have put 9.4 GW of coal at risk in Michigan. It was noted that U.S. northeast market growth is not likely to absorb all the proposed pipeline capacity, but potential capacity additions to the New England market are very significant compared to the market size. tabs., figs

  8. Association between apple consumption and physician visits: appealing the conventional wisdom that an apple a day keeps the doctor away.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Matthew A; Bynum, Julie P W; Sirovich, Brenda E

    2015-05-01

    Fruit consumption is believed to have beneficial health effects, and some claim, "An apple a day keeps the doctor away." To examine the relationship between eating an apple a day and keeping the doctor away. A cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the noninstitutionalized US adult population. A total of 8728 adults 18 years and older from the 2007-2008 and 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey completed a 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire and reported that the quantity of food they ate was reflective of their usual daily diet. Daily apple eaters (consuming the equivalent of at least 1 small apple daily, or 149 g of raw apple) vs non-apple eaters, based on the reported quantity of whole apple consumed during the 24-hour dietary recall period. The primary outcome measure was success at "keeping the doctor away," measured as no more than 1 visit (self-reported) to a physician during the past year; secondary outcomes included successful avoidance of other health care services (ie, no overnight hospital stays, visits to a mental health professional, or prescription medications). Of 8399 eligible study participants who completed the dietary recall questionnaire, we identified 753 adult apple eaters (9.0%)--those who typically consume at least 1 small apple per day. Compared with the 7646 non-apple eaters (91.0%), apple eaters had higher educational attainment, were more likely to be from a racial or ethnic minority, and were less likely to smoke (Paway: 39.0% of apple eaters avoided physician visits vs 33.9% of non-apple eaters (P=.03). After adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, however, the association was no longer statistically significant (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.93-1.53; P=.15). In the adjusted analysis, apple eaters also remained marginally more successful at avoiding prescription medications (odds ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.00-1.63). There were no differences seen in overnight hospital stay or

  9. [Research on Identification and Determination of Pesticides in Apples Using Raman Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Chen; Peng, Yan-kun; Li, Yong-yu; Dhakal, Sagar; Xu, Tian-feng; Guo, Lang-hua

    2015-08-01

    Raman spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods has been thought to an efficient method for identification and determination of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables. In the present research, a rapid and nondestructive method was proposed and testified based on self-developed Raman system for the identification and determination of deltamethrin and acetamiprid remaining in apple. The peaks of Raman spectra at 574 and 843 cm(-1) can be used to identify deltamethrin and acetamiprid, respectively, the characteristic peaks of deltamethrin and acetamiprid were still visible when the concentrations of the two pesticides were 0.78 and 0.15 mg · kg(-1) in apples samples, respectively. Calibration models of pesticide content were developed by partial least square (PLS) algorithm with different spectra pretreatment methods (Savitzky-Golay smoothing, first derivative transformation, second derivative transformation, baseline calibration, standard normal variable transformation). The baseline calibration methods by 8th order polynomial fitting gave the best results. For deltamethrin, the obtained prediction coefficient (Rp) value from PLS model for the results of prediction and gas chromatography measurement was 0.94; and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 0.55 mg · kg(-1). The values of Rp and RMSEP were respective 0.85 and 0.12 mg · kg(-1) for acetamiprid. According to the detect performance, applying Raman technology in the nondestructive determination of pesticide residuals in apples is feasible. In consideration of that it needs no pretreatment before spectra collection and causes no damage to sample, this technology can be used in detection department, fruit and vegetable processing enterprises, supermarket, and vegetable market. The result of this research is promising for development of industrially feasible technology for rapid, nondestructive and real time detection of different types of pesticide with its concentration in apples. This

  10. Physical-Chemical Parameters of Latvian Apple Juices and Their Suitability for Cider Production

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Riekstina-Dolge; Zanda Kruma; Daina Karklina; Fredijs Dimins

    2014-01-01

    Apple juice is the main raw material for cider production. In this study apple juices obtained from 14 dessert and crab variety apples grown in Latvia were investigated. For all samples soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH and sugar content were determined. Crab apples produce more dry matter, total sugar and acid content compared to the dessert apples but it depends on the apple variety. Total sugar content of crab apple juices was 1.3 to 1.8 times larger than in dessert apple juices. Titr...

  11. MICHIGAN/INDIANA: Siberian Snakes strike again

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Siberian snakes are showing themselves to be even more deadly than expected in killing their prey, the depolarizing resonances which would make it very difficult to accelerate polarized protons to TeV energies at accelerators such as the Tevatron, UNK, LHC, and SSC. The snake concept was proposed in the mid-1970s by Siberians Yaroslav Derbenev and Anatoly Kondratenko at Novosibirsk, but the snakes lay almost dormant until Owen Chamberlain, Ernest Courant, Alan Krisch, and the late Kent Terwilliger organized the 1985 Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) polarized beam workshop in Ann Arbor, which highlighted the need to test the concept. The idea is to rotate the spin through 180° on each turn in the ring. With such successive spin flips, the depolarizing effects seen in one turn should be cancelled by an equal and opposite perturbation on the subsequent turn. The new Cooler Ring at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility then seemed an excellent test site for these eager but untested serpents. The Michigan/lndiana/Brookhaven team led by Krisch constructed the world's first snake and found that it could easily overcome its initial enemy, the imperfection depolarizing resonances caused by ring magnet imperfections (January/February 1990, page 20). In the next few years the growing team of ''herpetologists'' showed that Siberian snakes could overcome all kinds of depolarizing resonances, including the intrinsic kind (caused by the vertical betatron oscillations which keep the beam focused) and the synchrotron resonances (caused by synchrotron oscillations in energy). The team also discovered a new type of snake that was inadvertently built into the cooling section. This socalled type-3 snake rotates the spin around the vertical direction. A full type-1 snake (such as the team's superconducting solenoid magnet) rotates the spin by 180° around the beam direction; a type-2 snake rotates the spin around the radial direction

  12. Flood of April 1975 at Williamston, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutilla, R.L.; Swallow, L.A.

    1975-01-01

    On April 18 between 5 p.m. and 12 p.m. the city of Williamston experienced an intense rain storm that caused the Red Cedar River and the many small streams in the area to overflow their banks and resulted in the most devastating flood since at least 1904. Local officials estimated a loss of \\$775,000 in property damage. Damage from flooding by the Red Cedar River was caused primarily by inundation, rather than by water moving at high velocity, as is common when many streams are flooded. During the flood of April 1975 many basements were flooded as well as the lower floors of some homes in the flood plain. Additional damage occurred in places when sewers backed up and flooded basements, and when ground water seeped through basement walls and floors—situations that affected many homes including those that were well outside of the flood plain.During the time of flooding the U.S. Geological Survey obtained aerial photography and data on a streamflow to document the disaster. This report shows on a photomosaic base map the extent of flooding along the Red Cedar River at Williamston, during the flood. It also presents data obtained at stream-gaging stations near Williamston, as well as the results of peak-flow discharge measurements made on the Red Cedar River at Michigan State Highway M-52 east of the city. Information on the magnitude of the flood can guide in making decisions pertaining to the use of flood-plains in the area. It is one of a series of reports on the April 1975 flood in the Lansing metropolitan area.

  13. Apple Trees - A Source of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kricka, T.; Pliestic, S.

    1997-01-01

    There is a large quantity of leftover (cut-off) branches after the trimming of fruit trees, both during in winter or during the vegetation period. In intensive production, trimming most often occurs as a combined cut, which means it is done both manually and with the help of machines. The leftover mass has to be taken care of in both cases. This paper deals with the apple tree biomass in the last 10 years expressed in tons, covering both the winter and vegetation period, and also about the possibility of using this biomass to replace fossil fuels. (author)

  14. Anaerobic digestion of cider apple residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras Lopez, A. (E.T.S.I.I., U.N.E.D., Madrid (Spain). Dept. Quimica Applicada a la Ingenieria); Lopez Bobo, R. (E.T.S. Ingeneiros Industriales, Asturias (Spain). Dept. de Energia)

    1992-12-01

    Apple residue from the cider industry is used here for anaerobic fermentation. The effect of retention time and volatile solids concentration on the production of biogas and methane was investigated by using continuously mixed anaerobic fermentors with a working volume of 1 1. The maximum proportions of biogas and methane obtained were 430 1 biogas/kg per day (12 days' retention time and 3% of volatile solids) and 281 1 of methane per day (a retention time of 30 days and 2% of volatile solids), respectively. (author)

  15. Instant Apple Configurator how-to

    CERN Document Server

    Edge, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. Get the job done and learn as you go. A how-To book with practical recipes accompanied with rich screenshots for easy comprehension.This book follows the Packt How-to approach, offering an informative yet practical guide that is easy to understand. The book takes a meticulous approach to providing quick and simple recipe-based solutions for security and deployment of iOS devices.""Instant Apple iOS Configurator Utility How-to"" book is ideal for anyone with a working knowledge in iO

  16. 76 FR 36145 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ...: Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology, Kalamazoo, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology, has completed..., Department of Anthropology. Disposition of the human remains and associated funerary objects to the Indian...

  17. 75 FR 67998 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... objects in the possession of Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI. The... anthropologist in the Anthropology Department at Western Michigan University, studied the remains. Native...

  18. 75 FR 5105 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... objects in the possession of Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI. The... analysis. Dr. Robert Sundick, a physical anthropologist in the Anthropology Department at Western Michigan...

  19. 76 FR 28078 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ...: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, has completed an... University, Anthropology Department. Disposition of the human remains and associated funerary objects to the...

  20. 75 FR 36671 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... objects in the possession of Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI. The... funerary objects should contact LouAnn Wurst, Department of Anthropology, Western Michigan University, 1005...

  1. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Michigan. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Michigan.

  2. Post-harvest of the Annurca apples in Campania region. Studies by the Istituto Sperimentale per la Frutticoltura [Malus pumila L.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petriccione, M.; Raffone, E.; Rega, P.

    2004-01-01

    The harvest and post-harvest of Annurca apples involves a high utilization of manpower and high production costs. The low yield and the need to also compete on the market, in terms of price, specially in the Spring period, with the fresh apples imported by foreign Countries, has induced the ISF of Caserta, in collaboration with the Istituto per la Valorizzazione dei Prodotti Agricoli of Milan, to promote studies to decrease the costs of production, to improve the quality, to eliminate the necessity of redness or to artificially induce it [it

  3. Community perspectives on public health biobanking: an analysis of community meetings on the Michigan BioTrust for Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Daniel B; Platt, Tevah; Platt, Jodyn; King, Susan B; Kardia, Sharon L R

    2014-04-01

    Biobanks raise challenges for developing ethically sound and practicable consent policies. Biobanks comprised of dried bloodspots (DBS) left over from newborn screening, maintained for long-term storage, and potential secondary research applications are no exception. Michigan has been a leader in transforming its DBS collection, marketing its biobank of de-identified samples for health research use. The Michigan BioTrust for Health includes approximately 4 million unconsented retrospective samples collected as early as 1984 and prospective samples added since the fall of 2010 with blanket parental consent. We engaged Michigan citizens to ascertain public attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs about the BioTrust and informed consent. A convenience sampling of 393 participants from communities around the state of Michigan (oversampling for minority populations) participated in meetings addressing newborn screening, the BioTrust and informed consent, yielding quantitative and qualitative survey and discussion data. Participants affirmed the principle of voluntary informed participation in research and advocated for greater public awareness of the existence of the BioTrust. Most expressed support for the use of DBS for research and a desire for greater involvement in granting permission for research use. Opinions varied as to which specific research uses were acceptable. Participants indicated a desire for greater engagement, public awareness, and more active decision making on the part of biobank participants and parents. Diversity of opinion over which research areas were deemed acceptable problematizes the blanket consent model that currently applies to the BioTrust's prospective DBS collection and that could become the new norm for research using de-identified data under proposed changes to the Common Rule.

  4. Biodeterioration of the African star apple (Chrysophylum albidum) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    naamusa

    The biodeterioration of the African star apple fruits in storage was investigated at Ibadan, southwestern. Nigeria. Eight fungal isolates were ... All the fungal isolates were pathogenic on the star apple fruits with the exception of ..... Mineapolis: Burgress Publishing Company, Minneapolis MN 241 p. Booth C (1971). The genus ...

  5. Interview with Michael Apple: The Biography of a Public Intellectual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Michael W. Apple is the John Bascom Professor of Curriculum and Instruction and Educational Policy Studies in the Departments of Curriculum and Instruction (CI) and Educational Policy Studies (EPS) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Education where he has taught since 1970. Michael Apple is one of the foremost educational theorists…

  6. Where to prick the apple for skin testing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; van de Weg, W. E.; van der Heide, S.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    Mal d 1 is not equally distributed over the apple. We aimed to examine the influence of the location of pricking in the apple on prick-to-prick skin prick test (PTP) results. PTPs were performed in autumn 2007 and spring 2008, before the birch pollen season, in 32 Dutch adults with symptoms of oral

  7. Nursery growing of some apple varieties using different grafting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out at the Eğirdir Horticultural Research Institute, between the years 2006 and 2007. The aim of this study was to investigate the advantages of apple nursery growing greenhouse rather than outdoor medium. Scions of Red Chief (dwarf), Braeburn (semi dwarf) and Mondial Gala (vigorous) apple ...

  8. Cytology of infection of apple leaves by Diplocarpon mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diplocarpon mali, the causal agent of Marssonina leaf blotch of apple, causes severe defoliation during the growing season. Little information is available on the mode of infection and infection process. In this study, the infection strategies of D. mali in apple leaves were investigated using fluor...

  9. Cottage processing of cashew apple juice in Nigeria: physico ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some manually operated equipment were employed for cottage processing of cashew apples into juice. These include an extractor, mixer pasteuriser and a bottling machine. The apples were preheated with steam for 10, 20 and 30 minutes before juice extraction. The average capacity and efficiency of the extractor were ...

  10. Effect of Bioregulators on Apple Yield and Quality Attributes | Ouma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted in 1995 and 1996 to investigate the effect of the two bioregulators; Accel and Carbaryl, sprayed two weeks before bloom on Apple fruit set, yield and quality and to relate the degree of fruit set reduction to the yield of three Apple cultivars namely, \\'Empire`, \\'Jon-A-Red\\' and `Braeburn\\'.

  11. TEXTURE ANALYSIS OF EXTRUDED APPLE POMACE - WHEAT SEMOLINA BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bakalov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Apple pomace - wheat semolina blends were extruded in a laboratory single screw extruder (Brabender 20 DN, Germany. Effects apple pomace content, moisture content, screw speed, and temperature of final cooking zone on texture of extrudates were studied applying response surface methodology. The texture characteristics of the extrudates were measured using a TA.XT Plus Texture Analyser, Stable Micro Systems.

  12. Apple anthracnose canker life cycle and disease cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple anthracnose [caused by Neofabraea malicorticis (H.S. Jacks) anamorph Cryptosporiopsis curvispora (Peck)] is a fungal disease that impacts apple production. The pathogen produces cankers on trees as well as a rot on the fruit known as ‘Bull’s-eye rot’. The cankers cause severe damage to trees...

  13. Vakuuttava teknologia älykelloissa:case Apple Watch

    OpenAIRE

    Laaksoviita, J. (Joonas)

    2016-01-01

    Tiivistelmä Tämä kandidaatintutkielma perehtyi vakuuttavaan teknologiaan Apple Watch -älykellossa. Tutkielman ensimmäisessä osassa esiteltiin kirjallisuuskatsauksen kautta älykellojen taustaa ja tutkittava laite. Sen jälkeen luotiin katsaus vakuuttavan teknologian perusideaan ja esiteltiin Persuasive Systems Design -malli vakuuttavan teknologian sovellusten analysointiin. Toisessa osiossa suoritettiin analyysi Apple Watchin...

  14. Interactions between yeasts, fungicides and apple fruit russeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gildemacher, P.R.; Heijne, B.; Silvestri, M.; Houbraken, J.; Hoekstra, E.; Theelen, B.; Boekhout, T.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of inoculations with yeasts occurring on apple surfaces and fungicide treatments on the russeting of Elstar apples was studied. Captan, dithianon and a water treatment were implemented to study the interaction between the fungicides, the inoculated yeast species and Aureobasidium

  15. Where to prick the apple for skin testing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B.J.; Weg, van de W.E.; Heide, van der S.; Dubois, A.E.J.

    2013-01-01

    Mal d 1 is not equally distributed over the apple. We aimed to examine the influence of the location of pricking in the apple on prick-to-prick skin prick test (PTP) results. PTPs were performed in autumn 2007 and spring 2008, before the birch pollen season, in 32 Dutch adults with symptoms of oral

  16. Time series prediction of apple scab using meteorological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new prediction model for the early warning of apple scab is proposed in this study. The method is based on artificial intelligence and time series prediction. The infection period of apple scab was evaluated as the time series prediction model instead of summation of wetness duration. Also, the relations of different ...

  17. Geology and salt deposits of the Michigan Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.S.; Gonzales, S.

    1976-07-01

    The Silurian-age Salina salt, one of the greatest deposits of bedded rock salt in the world, underlies most of the Michigan basin and parts of the Appalachian basin in Ohio. Pennsylvania, New York, and West Virginia. Interest in this salt deposit has increased in recent years because there may be one or more areas where it could be used safely as a repository for the underground storage of high-level radioactive wastes. The general geology of the Michigan basin is summarized and the major salt deposits are described in the hope that these data will be useful in determining whether there are any areas in the basin that are sufficiently promising to warrant further detailed study. Distribution of the important salt deposits in the basin is limited to the Southern Peninsula of Michigan

  18. A Real-Time Apple Grading System Using Multicolor Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrettin Toylan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on the multicolor space which provides a better specification of the color and size of the apple in an image. In the study, a real-time machine vision system classifying apples into four categories with respect to color and size was designed. In the analysis, different color spaces were used. As a result, 97% identification success for the red fields of the apple was obtained depending on the values of the parameter “a” of CIE L*a*b*color space. Similarly, 94% identification success for the yellow fields was obtained depending on the values of the parameter y of CIE XYZ color space. With the designed system, three kinds of apples (Golden, Starking, and Jonagold were investigated by classifying them into four groups with respect to two parameters, color and size. Finally, 99% success rate was achieved in the analyses conducted for 595 apples.

  19. Differential Partitioning of Triterpenes and Triterpene Esters in Apple Peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Brenton C; Buchanan, David A; Rudell, David R; Mattheis, James P

    2018-02-28

    Apple peel is a rich source of secondary metabolites, and several studies have outlined the dietary health benefits of ursane-type triterpenes in apple. Changes in triterpene metabolism have also been associated with the development of superficial scald, a postharvest apple peel browning disorder, and postharvest applications of diphenylamine and 1-methylcyclopropene. Previously, studies have generated metabolite profiles for whole apple peel or apple wax. In this study, we report separate metabolic analyses of isolated wax fractions and peel epidermis to investigate the spatial distribution of secondary metabolites in peel. In addition to examining previously reported triterpenes, we identified several unreported fatty acid esters of ursane-type triterpenes (C14-C22). All free pentacyclic triterpenes and triterpenic acids, with the exception of β-amyrin, were localized in the wax layer, along with esters of ursolic acid and uvaol. All sterols, sterol derivatives and α-amyrin esters were localized in the dewaxed peel epidermis.

  20. Fast-food consumption and obesity among Michigan adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Beth; Rafferty, Ann P; Lyon-Callo, Sarah; Fussman, Christopher; Imes, Gwendoline

    2011-07-01

    Consumption of meals eaten away from home, especially from fast-food restaurants, has increased in the United States since the 1970s. The main objective of this study was to examine the frequency and characteristics of fast-food consumption among adults in Michigan and obesity prevalence. We analyzed data from 12 questions about fast-food consumption that were included on the 2005 Michigan Behavioral Risk Factor Survey, a population-based telephone survey of Michigan adults, using univariate and bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression, and compared these data with data on Michigan obesity prevalence. Approximately 80% of Michigan adults went to fast-food restaurants at least once per month and 28% went regularly (≥2 times/wk). Regular fast-food consumption was higher among younger adults (mostly men) but was not significantly associated with household income, education, race, or urbanicity (in a multivariate framework). The prevalence of obesity increased consistently with frequenting fast-food restaurants, from 24% of those going less than once a week to 33% of those going 3 or more times per week. The predominant reason for choosing fast food was convenience. Although hypothetically 68% of adults who go to fast-food restaurants would choose healthier fast-food items when available, only 16% said they ever use nutritional information when ordering. The prevalence of fast-food consumption is high in Michigan across education, income, and racial groups and is strongly associated with obesity. Making nutritional information at fast-food restaurants more readily available and easier to use may help consumers to order more healthful or lower-calorie items.

  1. 40 CFR 81.67 - Lake Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.67 Lake Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Menominee-Escanaba (Michigan)-Marinette (Wisconsin) Interstate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Lake Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Wisconsin) and revised to consist of the territorial area...

  2. 76 FR 28068 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Cultural Items: Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI AGENCY: National Park Service... Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, that meet the definition of unassociated... funerary objects should contact Carla Sinopoli, Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor...

  3. 78 FR 45057 - Safety Zone; Alpena Area HOG Rally Fireworks, Alpena, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Alpena Area HOG Rally Fireworks, Alpena, Michigan AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... rally in Alpena, Michigan with a fireworks display. Fireworks will be launched near the end of Mason Street, South of State Avenue, approximately 50 yards west of Thunder Bay in Alpena, Michigan. The...

  4. A review of apple anthracnose canker biology and management in cider apple orchards in the Maritime Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cider apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) is an emerging crop in western Washington and the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region, but a major obstacle to planting new orchards and orchard productivity is the widespread occurrence of apple anthracnose canker, caused by the fungal pathogen Neofabraea malicortic...

  5. Identification of irradiated apples for phytosanitary purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horak, Celina I. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Presb. Juan Gonzalez y Aragon No 15 B1802AYA, Ezeiza, Prov. Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: horak@cae.cnea.gov.ar; Di Giorgio, Marina [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Presb. Juan Gonzalez y Aragon No 15 B1802AYA, Ezeiza, Prov. Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kairiyama, Eulogia [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Presb. Juan Gonzalez y Aragon No 15 B1802AYA, Ezeiza, Prov. Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-07-15

    The irradiation treatment of fresh fruits and vegetables for phytosanitary purposes is a satisfactory alternative method to others like fumigation and cold and hot treatments. Its use is increasing in several countries, and at present its approval is under revision by the National Regulatory Authorities. To verify the control process, apart from irradiation and dosimetry certificates, National Authorities require complementary evidence to show the efficacy of this treatment, especially when the documentation is not clear. The irradiation of fresh fruits produces single and double fragmentation in the DNA molecule, which can be measured using the microgel electrophoresis of individual cell (comet assay). The purpose of this work was to evaluate if it is possible to identify the irradiated apples for phytosanitary purposes from the others that were not treated. The possibility to estimate the absorbed dose was also evaluated. The methodology was carried out on the cell suspension obtained from irradiated seed cells with incremental doses (100, 200 and 300 Gy). The irradiation treatment for phytosanitary purposes to avoid emergency of codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is 200 Gy. The fragmentation produced in the irradiated samples was proportional with the incremental doses applied. These results show that with this methodology it can be determined if the apple was irradiated or not. This comet assay is a simple, economical and interesting method that can be used, in case of necessity, by the National Authorities.

  6. Identification of irradiated apples for phytosanitary purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, Celina I.; Di Giorgio, Marina; Kairiyama, Eulogia

    2009-01-01

    The irradiation treatment of fresh fruits and vegetables for phytosanitary purposes is a satisfactory alternative method to others like fumigation and cold and hot treatments. Its use is increasing in several countries, and at present its approval is under revision by the National Regulatory Authorities. To verify the control process, apart from irradiation and dosimetry certificates, National Authorities require complementary evidence to show the efficacy of this treatment, especially when the documentation is not clear. The irradiation of fresh fruits produces single and double fragmentation in the DNA molecule, which can be measured using the microgel electrophoresis of individual cell (comet assay). The purpose of this work was to evaluate if it is possible to identify the irradiated apples for phytosanitary purposes from the others that were not treated. The possibility to estimate the absorbed dose was also evaluated. The methodology was carried out on the cell suspension obtained from irradiated seed cells with incremental doses (100, 200 and 300 Gy). The irradiation treatment for phytosanitary purposes to avoid emergency of codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is 200 Gy. The fragmentation produced in the irradiated samples was proportional with the incremental doses applied. These results show that with this methodology it can be determined if the apple was irradiated or not. This comet assay is a simple, economical and interesting method that can be used, in case of necessity, by the National Authorities.

  7. Genetic control of biennial bearing in apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitton, Baptiste; Kelner, Jean-Jacques; Velasco, Riccardo; Gardiner, Susan E.; Chagné, David; Costes, Evelyne

    2012-01-01

    Although flowering in mature fruit trees is recurrent, floral induction can be strongly inhibited by concurrent fruiting, leading to a pattern of irregular fruiting across consecutive years referred to as biennial bearing. The genetic determinants of biennial bearing in apple were investigated using the 114 flowering individuals from an F1 population of 122 genotypes, from a ‘Starkrimson’ (strong biennial bearer)בGranny Smith’ (regular bearer) cross. The number of inflorescences, and the number and the mass of harvested fruit were recorded over 6 years and used to calculate 26 variables and indices quantifying yield, precocity of production, and biennial bearing. Inflorescence traits exhibited the highest genotypic effect, and three quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on linkage group (LG) 4, LG8, and LG10 explained 50% of the phenotypic variability for biennial bearing. Apple orthologues of flowering and hormone-related genes were retrieved from the whole-genome assembly of ‘Golden Delicious’ and their position was compared with QTLs. Four main genomic regions that contain floral integrator genes, meristem identity genes, and gibberellin oxidase genes co-located with QTLs. The results indicated that flowering genes are less likely to be responsible for biennial bearing than hormone-related genes. New hypotheses for the control of biennial bearing emerged from QTL and candidate gene co-locations and suggest the involvement of different physiological processes such as the regulation of flowering genes by hormones. The correlation between tree architecture and biennial bearing is also discussed. PMID:21963613

  8. HR diagrams derived from the Michigan Spectral Catalogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houk, N.; Fesen, R.

    1978-01-01

    The authors present some HR diagrams constructed using data from the Michigan Spectral Catalogues. Houk (1975) has been systematically reclassifying the Henry Draper stars on the MK system, from the south pole northward. Objective-prism plates, with a reciprocal dispersion of 108 A/mm, have been taken with the Michigan Curtis Schmidt telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. The spectra are classified visually from the plates, and the results are put onto IBM cards and magnetic tape from which the catalogues are produced. (Auth.)

  9. Marketing; Il marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscigna, M [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    The report discusses marketing strategies oriented to the organizations and analyzes its critical factors, which determine the success of the organization activity. [Italian] Il rapporto analizza i caratteri delle strategie del marketing orientato all'impresa. Vengono infine analizzati i fattori critici che determinano il successo o l'insuccesso delle scelte aziendali.

  10. Marketing; Il marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscigna, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    The report discusses marketing strategies oriented to the organizations and analyzes its critical factors, which determine the success of the organization activity. [Italian] Il rapporto analizza i caratteri delle strategie del marketing orientato all'impresa. Vengono infine analizzati i fattori critici che determinano il successo o l'insuccesso delle scelte aziendali.

  11. Michigan Health & Hospital Association Keystone Obstetrics: a statewide collaborative for perinatal patient safety in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Kathleen Rice; Knox, G Eric; Martin, Morgan; George, Chris; Watson, Sam R

    2011-12-01

    Preventable harm to mothers and infants during labor and birth is a significant patient safety and professional liability issue. A Michigan Health & Hospital Association Keystone Center for Patient Safety & Quality Obstetric Collaborative Project involved perinatal teams from 15 Michigan hospitals during an 11-month period in 2009. The purpose of the project was to promote safe care practices during labor and birth using the Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program (CUSP). Consistent with the CUSP model, this project's components included assessing and promoting a culture of safety; interdisciplinary team building; case review; learning from defects through multiple methods of education; team and individual coaching and peer encouragement; administrative support for the establishment of a fundamental safety infrastructure; and ongoing evaluation of care processes and outcomes. Study measures included 32 components of a perinatal patient infrastructure, 6 care processes during labor and birth, and 4 neonatal outcomes. Significant improvements were found in the safety culture (Safety Attitudes Questionnaire), the perinatal patient safety infrastructure components, and all care processes. Although the project was successful, getting buy-in from all members of the clinical team in each hospital for all of the measures was challenging at times. There was initial resistance to some of the measures and their various expected aspects of care. For example, some of the clinicians were initially reluctant to adopt the recommended standardized oxytocin protocol. Peer encouragement and unit-based feedback on progress in minimizing early elective births proved useful in many hospitals. A CUSP in obstetrics can be beneficial in improving the care of mothers and infants during labor and birth.

  12. Integrated marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    St. John Health consists of nine hospitals throughout southern Michigan. Recently, in an attempt to brand the system as the state's premiere place for medical services, the system launched 'Real Medicine', a campaign that brands all nine hospitals together. Using print, radio, and television spots, the effort also integrates direct mail collateral and brochures to reach consumers.

  13. Intake of whole apples or clear apple juice has contrasting effects on plasma lipids in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Buch-Andersen, Tine

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Fruit consumption is associated with a decreased risk of CVD in cohort studies and is therefore endorsed by health authorities as part of the '5 or more a day' campaigns. A glass of fruit juice is generally counted as one serving. Fruit may cause protection by affecting common risk factors...... of CVD. METHODS: Apples are among the most commonly consumed fruits and were chosen for a comprehensive 5 × 4 weeks dietary crossover study to assess the effects of whole apples (550 g/day), apple pomace (22 g/day), clear and cloudy apple juices (500 ml/day), or no supplement on lipoproteins and blood......-cholesterol concentrations increased by 6.9 % with clear juice compared to whole apples and pomace. There was no effect on HDL-cholesterol, TAG, weight, waist-to-hip ratio, blood pressure, inflammation (hs-CRP), composition of the gut microbiota or markers of glucose metabolism (insulin, IGF1 and IGFBP3). CONCLUSIONS...

  14. Impact of apple cultivar, ripening stage, fermentation type and yeast strain on phenolic composition of apple ciders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Oskar; Kuldjärv, Rain; Paalme, Toomas; Virkki, Mira; Yang, Baoru

    2017-10-15

    Hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids in apple juices and ciders were studied using liquid chromatography. Samples were produced from four different Estonian apple cultivars using unripe, ripe and overripe apples, and six different commercial yeasts including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus, and Torulaspora delbrueckii strains. Part of the samples was additionally inoculated with malolactic bacteria, Oenococcus oeni. The most notable difference among the samples was the appearance of phloretin in malolactic ciders in comparison to conventional ciders and the juices. Furthermore, the apple cultivars were significantly different in their phenolic contents and compositions. Additionally, ciders and juices made from unripe apples contained more phenolic compounds than the ripe or overripe, but the effect was dependent on cultivar. The commercial yeast strains differed in the release of free HCAs, especially p-coumaric acid, during the yeast fermentation. In ciders inoculated with S. bayanus, the content was higher than in ciders fermented with S. cerevisiae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. TRANSACTION COSTS WITHIN THE INDIVIDUAL AND COOPERATIVE APPLE PRODUCERS IN PRESPA REGION, THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra ANGELOSKA

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Apple production in the Republic of Macedonia is an important sector that highly contributes to theeconomy in terms of employment and income, especially for the small farmers in Prespa Region. Despitecooperatives’ efforts and governmental support to attract members through the provision of inputs,technical advices and other incentives to farmers, membership adherence is low and slow. The TransactionCost Economics Theory (TCE provided the basis for this study where the choice is conditioned by relativecomparative advantage in terms of lower transaction costs. Based on the research, following conclusions are underlined: a. from the perspective of farmers andthe cooperatives there are factors that positively influence the choice of cooperative membership; b. fromthe cooperative’s side, some of the positive influences are its regular flow of price information, constanttechnical advices and secured market; c for farmers who aim at increasing production and improving theirincomes, membership to cooperative signifies security of accessing cheaper inputs especially chemicalfertiliser, security of market for the produced apples and higher frequency of transaction cost. Farmers’choices are not exclusive to one type of structure or the other. Farmers can transact with the cooperative andtrader at the same time, influenced by the differences in the price among the “Idared” and “varieties”. Bothof them, members and non-members are limited connected to the “middlemen” in choice of transactions.

  16. Collaboration between the University of Michigan Taubman Health Sciences library and the University of Michigan Medical School Office of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Christine; Harris, Bethany; Mahraj, Katy; Schnitzer, Anna Ercoli; Rosenzweig, Merle

    2013-01-01

    Librarians have traditionally facilitated research development resulting in grants through performing biomedical literature searches for researchers. The librarians at the Taubman Health Sciences Library of the University of Michigan have taken additional steps forward by instituting a proactive approach to assisting investigators. To accomplish this, the librarians have taken part in a collaborative effort with the University of Michigan Medical School Office of Research. Through this partnership, both units have created and adopted various techniques intended to facilitate the submission of grants, thus allowing researchers more time to conduct their primary activities.

  17. Livestock Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futrell, Gene; And Others

    This marketing unit focuses on the seasonal and cyclical patterns of livestock markets. Cash marketing, forward contracting, hedging in the futures markets, and the options markets are examined. Examples illustrate how each marketing tool may be useful in gaining a profit on livestock and cutting risk exposure. The unit is organized in the…

  18. 75 FR 65213 - Removal of Varietal Restrictions on Apples From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ...-0020] RIN 0579-AD08 Removal of Varietal Restrictions on Apples From Japan AGENCY: Animal and Plant... the importation of Fuji variety apples from Japan to allow all varieties of Malus domestica apples... that the risk associated with allowing other varieties of M. domestica apples from Japan into the...

  19. Creating, Storing, and Dumping Low and High Resolution Graphics on the Apple IIe Microcomputer System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Richard K., Jr.

    This description of procedures for dumping high and low resolution graphics using the Apple IIe microcomputer system focuses on two special hardware configurations that are commonly used in schools--the Apple Dot Matrix Printer with the Apple Parallel Interface Card, and the Imagewriter Printer with the Apple Super Serial Interface Card. Special…

  20. Control of Green Apple Aphid (Aphis pomi De Geer in Organic Apple Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Milenković

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of different methods for controlling populations of green apple aphid (Aphis pomi De Geer in organic apple orchard was compared over three consecutive years. The following three control methods were tested: a predator activity (Coccinela septempunctata, b predator activity (C. septempunctata + selective spraying of trees with infestation level exceeding 10% with a botanical insecticide (NeemAzal T/S, and c predator activity (C. septempunctata + total spraying of all orchard trees with the botanical insecticide (NeemAzal T/S. In terms of maintaining a biological balance within an orchard, the combination of natural regulation by C. septempunctata and selective spraying of individual trees with NeemAzal T/S proved to be the most efficient method.

  1. Development of compact mutants in apple and sour cherry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagaja, S.W.; Przybyla, A.; Machnik, B.

    1982-01-01

    During the period 1973 - 79 studies were conducted with the aim of developing compact mutants in apple and cherry cultivars and in apple vegetative rootstocks. During the investigations the effect of the dose of gamma rays on frequency of the mutants was studied. Attempts were also made to evolve a micropropagation technique adapted to propagate P 2 and P 22 apple rootstocks, as an aid in mutation breeding. Several mutants were produced in all the material studied, but none of them have yet reached a sufficient developmental stage to enable their complete assessment. On the basis of the results obtained so far the following conclusions can be drawn: higher doses of irradiation resulted in higher frequency of mutants in most apple cultivars and apple rootstocks; in sour cherries the effect of dose depended on the cultivars. Among V 1 shoots developed from sleeping buds on irradiated scion wood, compact mutants were found; their frequency, however, was about 60% lower than among V 1 shoots developed directly from irradiated dormant buds. In apple rootstocks A 2 and M 26 several dwarfed mutants were found; some of these produced thorny plants and some had lower rooting ability; both these characteristics are inferior from the practical point of view. Multiplication and rooting media for in vitro propagation of apple rootstocks, worked out for M 26, were found unsuitable for the rootstocks P 2 and P 22; modifications made in the growth substance composition of the above media enabled satisfactory propagation to be obtained. (author)

  2. Diagnosis of directed pollination services in apple orchards in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joatan Machado da Rosa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The pollination services performed by Apis mellifera are essential for the high-quality apple production. The aim of this study was to obtain information about the pollination services used in the municipalities of Vacaria-RS e São Joaquim-SC, the main apple-producing regions in Brazil. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with apple growers and technicians responsible for the orchards during 2013 and 2015. The obtained information was: a cropping systems; b use of pollination services; c number of hives per hectare during flowering; d renting value of hives; e mortality of colonies; f agrochemicals used on flowering; g presence of native bees on flowering. In Vacaria and São Joaquim, respectively, 70% and 68.6% of the apple growers use the integrated apple production as their production model. The directed pollination is used by 100% and 90.0% of respondents respectively, from which, 80% and 47.1% opt for the hive rent. On average, three hives were used per hectare in both regions. The average cost is U$ 17.52 and U$ 17.74 per hive, respectively. During the flowering period, insecticides and fungicides are used by 100% and 97.2% of the apple growers. The highest mean percentage of mortality of colonies during flowering was reported in Vacaria, 11.8%. Native bees are often found in apple flowers. The development of management strategies for the conservation of domestic and wild pollinators is essential.

  3. Cryobiotechnology of apple (Malus spp.): development, progress and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min-Rui; Chen, Long; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Volk, Gayle M; Wang, Qiao-Chun

    2018-05-01

    Cryopreservation provides valuable genes for further breeding of elite cultivars, and cryotherapy improves the production of virus-free plants in Malus spp., thus assisting the sustainable development of the apple industry. Apple (Malus spp.) is one of the most economically important temperate fruit crops. Wild Malus genetic resources and existing cultivars provide valuable genes for breeding new elite cultivars and rootstocks through traditional and biotechnological breeding programs. These valuable genes include those resistant to abiotic factors such as drought and salinity, and to biotic factors such as fungi, bacteria and aphids. Over the last three decades, great progress has been made in apple cryobiology, making Malus one of the most extensively studied plant genera with respect to cryopreservation. Explants such as pollen, seeds, in vivo dormant buds, and in vitro shoot tips have all been successfully cryopreserved, and large Malus cryobanks have been established. Cryotherapy has been used for virus eradication, to obtain virus-free apple plants. Cryopreservation provided valuable genes for further breeding of elite cultivars, and cryotherapy improved the production of virus-free plants in Malus spp., thus assisting the sustainable development of the apple industry. This review provides updated and comprehensive information on the development and progress of apple cryopreservation and cryotherapy. Future research will reveal new applications and uses for apple cryopreservation and cryotherapy.

  4. Patulin in apple-based foods: occurrence and safety evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, B; Gaiaschi, A; Galli, C L; Restani, P

    2000-05-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by certain species of Penicillium and Aspergillus, often detectable in mouldy fruits and their derivatives. On the basis of a PMTDI of 0.4 microgram/kg bw, limit values of 50 micrograms/kg or 50 micrograms/l of patulin have been set in fruit derivatives. To estimate the quantity of patulin that can be taken in with the diet, we analysed by HPLC samples of apples and apple derivatives which are most likely to be contaminated with patulin. In apple juices and in homogenized baby-foods, the mycotoxin concentration was always below the established limits, while in some samples of juice with pulp the mycotoxin content exceeded the safe levels. In rotten apples, not only was the amount of patulin extraordinarily high in the rotten area, but the mycotoxin had also spread to the part unaffected by mould. The data presented in this study indicate that the intake of patulin with apple derivatives is usually below the tolerable level of 0.4 microgram/kg bw/day, but since the patulin content in apples can vary considerably, the quality of fruits used in the production of apple derivatives should be strictly controlled in order not to exceed the safe limits.

  5. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of Granny Smith apple pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savatović Slađana M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Granny Smith apple pomace was subjected to evaluation as valuable source of antioxidant and anticancer phytochemicals on the basis of its content in phenolic compounds, antioxidant and antiproliferative activity. The total cotent of phenolics, flavonoids and flavan-3-ols in apple pomace determined spectrophotometrically, was 7.02 mg/g, 0.51 mg/g and 8.80 mg/g. Major phenolics (phenolic acids, flavan-3-ols, flavonoids and dihydrochalcons in apple pomace were identified and quantified by HPLC. The antioxidant activity of apple pomace on stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and reactive hydroxyl radicals, was investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy. The IC50 DPPH and IC50 OH values of Granny Smith apple pomace were 9.51 mg/ml and 29.17 mg/ml, respectively. The antiproliferative activities of apple pomace on cervix epitheloid carcinoma (HeLa, colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29 and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7 cell lines were determined according to the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl- 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay. The IC50 HeLa , IC50 HT-29 and IC50 MCF7 values of Granny Smith apple pomace were 26.40 mg/ml, 22.47 mg/ml and 21.26 mg/ml, respectively. The significant correlations between antioxidant activities and antiproliferative activities were established (p<0.05.

  6. Genome to Phenome Mapping in Apple Using Historical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë Migicovsky

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Apple ( X Borkh. is one of the world’s most valuable fruit crops. Its large size and long juvenile phase make it a particularly promising candidate for marker-assisted selection (MAS. However, advances in MAS in apple have been limited by a lack of phenotype and genotype data from sufficiently large samples. To establish genotype-phenotype relationships and advance MAS in apple, we extracted over 24,000 phenotype scores from the USDA-Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN database and linked them with over 8000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from 689 apple accessions from the USDA apple germplasm collection clonally preserved in Geneva, NY. We find significant genetic differentiation between Old World and New World cultivars and demonstrate that the genetic structure of the domesticated apple also reflects the time required for ripening. A genome-wide association study (GWAS of 36 phenotypes confirms the association between fruit color and the MYB1 locus, and we also report a novel association between the transcription factor, NAC18.1, and harvest date and fruit firmness. We demonstrate that harvest time and fruit size can be predicted with relatively high accuracies ( > 0.46 using genomic prediction. Rapid decay of linkage disequilibrium (LD in apples means millions of SNPs may be required for well-powered GWAS. However, rapid LD decay also promises to enable extremely high resolution mapping of causal variants, which holds great potential for advancing MAS.

  7. Where to prick the apple for skin testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B J; van de Weg, W E; van der Heide, S; Dubois, A E J

    2013-09-01

    Mal d 1 is not equally distributed over the apple. We aimed to examine the influence of the location of pricking in the apple on prick-to-prick skin prick test (PTP) results. PTPs were performed in autumn 2007 and spring 2008, before the birch pollen season, in 32 Dutch adults with symptoms of oral allergy to fresh apple, using apples harvested in autumn 2007. PTPs with fresh intact and unpeeled Pink Lady, Golden Delicious, Elise, Santana and Modi apples were performed using material obtained from approximately 2 cm near the stalk (top), and the middle region. All PTP responses were greater when performed with apple material near the stalk than from the middle region. In 2007, these differences were statistically significant for Pink Lady, Golden Delicious and Elise, and in 2008, for Pink Lady and Modi. When performing PTPs, the apple should be pricked near the stalk rather than in the middle. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Farmers' Market Manager's Level of Communication and Influence on Electronic Benefits Transfer (EBT) Adoption at Midwest Farmers' Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasin, Afroza; Smith, Sylvia

    2018-01-01

    To understand market managers' level of communication and use of technology that might influence decision to adopt Electronic Benefits Transfer (EBT) at farmers' markets. Cross-sectional study using the Theory of Diffusion of Innovation. Electronic survey administered in midwest states of Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin. Farmers' market managers in Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin. Information on EBT adoption, market managers' communication, and technology use. Binary logistic regression analysis with EBT adoption as the dependent variable and frequency of technology use, partnership with organizations, farmers' market association (FMA) membership, Facebook page and Web site for the market, and primary source of information as independent variables. Chi-square tests and ANOVA were used to compare states and adopter categories. Logistic regression results showed that the odds of adopting EBT was 7.5 times higher for markets that had partnership with other organizations. Compared with non-adopters, a significantly greater number of early adopters had partnership, FMA membership, and a Facebook page and Web site for market, and reported to a board of directors. Markets that had partnership, FMA membership, a Facebook page and Web site, and mandatory reporting to a board of directors were important factors that influenced EBT adoption at midwest farmers' markets. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Teaching User-Centered Design in New Product Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Edwin; Stone, Donn E.; Wilton, Taine

    2011-01-01

    Thanks in part to groundbreaking work by companies such as Apple and IDEO, there has been growing interest in design as a way to improve the odds of new product success. This paper describes a user-centered design workshop developed for a new product marketing course. The workshop included exercises designed to explain and illustrate the…

  10. Michigan field artillery's 'Blackjacks' training in Latvia > National Guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles Smith, 1st Battalion, 119th Field Artillery, Michigan Army National Guard, set up the M67 GLPS for 24 years. 1st. Lt. Brice Masterson, and Sgt. 1st Class Charles Smith, 1st Battalion, 119th Field , Lithuania and the United States will participate in the exercise. The exercise takes place at Adazi Training

  11. Commentary on the Discovery of the Beautiful Style Michigan Madonna

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlobil, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 64, 3/4 (2016), s. 256-260 ISSN 0049-5123 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : gothic sculpture * Bohemian Beautiful Style * Madonna-torso * Museum Ann Arbor * Michigan ( USA ) Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  12. Timber resource of Michigan's Southern Lower Peninsula Unit, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerold T. Hahn

    1982-01-01

    The fourth inventory of the timber resource of Michigan's Southern Lower Peninsula Survey Unit shows a 12% decline in commercial forest area and a 26% gain in growing-stock volume between 1966 and 1980. Presented are highlights and statistics on area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, and biomass.

  13. Understanding public opinion regarding transit in southeast Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report presents findings from a study on public opinion regarding transit in Southeast Michigan. The overall goals of this : study were to assess the nature of public opinion regarding regional transit and to understand its relation to socio-dem...

  14. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Iron River Quadrangle, Michigan and Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frishman, D

    1982-09-01

    No area within the Iron River 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ Quadrangle, Michigan and Wisconsin, appears to be favorable for the existence of a minimum of 100 tons of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ at a grade of 0.01 percent or better.

  15. Digital Learning Compass: Distance Education State Almanac 2017. Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Julia E.; Seaman, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This brief report uses data collected under the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Fall Enrollment survey to highlight distance education data in the state of Michigan. The sample for this analysis is comprised of all active, degree-granting…

  16. A post-Calumet shoreline along southern Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, D.K.; Thompson, T.A.; Booth, R.K.

    2007-01-01

    The southern shore of Lake Michigan is the type area for many of ancestral Lake Michigan's late Pleistocene lake phases, but coastal deposits and features of the Algonquin phase of northern Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, and Lake Superior are not recognized in the area. Isostatic rebound models suggest that Algonquin phase deposits should be 100 m or more below modern lake level. A relict shoreline, however, exists along the lakeward margin of the Calumet Beach that was erosional west of Deep River and depositional east of the river. For this post-Calumet shoreline, the elevation of basal foreshore deposits east of Deep River and the base of the scarp west of Deep River indicate a slightly westward dipping water plane that is centered at ???184 m above mean sea level. Basal foreshore elevations also indicate that lake level fell ???2 m during the development of the shoreline. The pooled mean of radiocarbon dates from the surface of the peat below post-Calumet shoreline foreshore deposits indicate that the lake transgressed over the peat at 10,560 ?? 70 years B.P. Pollen assemblages from the peat are consistent with this age. The elevation and age of the post-Calumet shoreline are similar to the Main Algonquin phase of Lake Huron. Recent isostatic rebound models do not adequately address a high-elevation Algonquin-age shoreline along the southern shore of Lake Michigan, but the Goldthwait (1908) hinge-line model does. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  17. An Interdisciplinary International Business Degree at Eastern Michigan University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, David A.

    2008-01-01

    In January 2006, the College of Business at Eastern Michigan University (EMU) instituted a cross-disciplinary program in international business (IB). Business communication is a major component of the program. Moreover, the need for business communication in other languages contributed greatly to the cross-disciplinary nature of the program. This…

  18. Post Audit of Lake Michigan Lake Trout PCB Model Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lake Michigan (LM) Mass Balance Study was conducted to measure and model polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other anthropogenic substances to gain a better understanding of the transport, fate, and effects of these substances within the system and to aid managers in the env...

  19. Michigan Physicians' Conference on Elder Abuse. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengstock, Mary C.; O'Brien, James G.

    The final report describes the Michigan Physicians' Conference on Elder Abuse project. The project conference had four major content areas, including: a general introduction to the problem of elder abuse; clinical symptoms of abuse; legal issues; and referral and case management techniques. Training techniques included lectures, group discussion,…

  20. Grip and Pinch Strength Norms for Michigan Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M. Phillips M.S., OTRL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to create a norm reference of current grip and pinch strength norms for working-age Michigan adults. This normative study included a convenience sample of 179 volunteers who were employees at car plants in South East Michigan or hospital sites in West Michigan. Participants’ ages ranged from between 20 and 62 years of age with a mean age of 49.15 years. There were 78 females (44% and 101 males (56%. Subjects were classified by gender and in the age categories of ages 20 to 49 years and ages 50-62 years. Grip and pinch strength norms were collected following the American Society of Hand Therapy protocol. The norms from these working adults were calculated with descriptive statistics for males and females in two age classifications: ages 20 to 49 and ages 50 to 62 years. Standard Errors (SE are better than the 1985 norms for both males and females ages 20 to 49 years. SEs are higher than the ages 20 to 49 years’ norms for the ages 50 to 62 years age categories in both males and females. These norms offer a point of comparison for clinicians to use for clients in Michigan who are ages 20 to 62 years and who have a goal to improve their grip strength. Clients’ grip and pinch strength could be compared to their age level or gender norms using the comparison for one standard deviation above, below, or at the means.

  1. Selected Collective Bargaining Agreements of Michigan Two-Year Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    Collective bargaining agreements of 19 selected Michigan two-year colleges are presented, representing contracts in effect in 1987. Contracts for the following colleges are included: Alpena Community College, Bay de Noc Community College, Gogebic Community College, Grand Rapids Junior College, Kalamazoo Valley Community College, Kellogg Community…

  2. Telecommuting for Original Cataloging at the Michigan State University Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Leah; Hyslop, Colleen

    1995-01-01

    Working conditions in library technical services departments can be a problem for catalogers in need of a quiet work environment. Based on a successful program for indexers at the National Agriculture Library, a proposal for an experimental telecommuting program for original cataloging at the Michigan State University Libraries was developed and…

  3. Environmental indices for common Michigan trees and shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary J. Brand

    1985-01-01

    Plants are indicators of environmental factors like moisture, nutrients, heat, and light. Semi-quantitative indices for these four factors were developed for 90 Michigan trees and shrubs. The indices and a tally of species present provide a simple evaluation of the environment of a forest stand and a useful management aid.

  4. The University of Michigan's Computer-Aided Engineering Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, D. E.; Olsen, Leslie A.

    1986-01-01

    Presents an overview of the Computer-Aided Engineering Network (CAEN) of the University of Michigan. Describes its arrangement of workstations, communication networks, and servers. Outlines the factors considered in hardware and software decision making. Reviews the program's impact on students. (ML)

  5. Processing United Nations Documents in the University of Michigan Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolper, Gertrude

    This guide provides detailed instructions for recording documents in the United Nations (UN) card catalog which provides access to the UN depository collection in the Harlan Hatcher Graduate Library at the University of Michigan. Procedures for handling documents when they are received include stamping, counting, and sorting into five categories:…

  6. The Apple of the mind's eye: Everyday attention, metamemory, and reconstructive memory for the Apple logo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Adam B; Nazarian, Meenely; Castel, Alan D

    2015-01-01

    People are regularly bombarded with logos in an attempt to improve brand recognition, and logos are often designed with the central purpose of memorability. The ubiquitous Apple logo is a simple design and is often referred to as one of the most recognizable logos in the world. The present study examined recall and recognition for this simple and pervasive logo and to what degree metamemory (confidence judgements) match memory performance. Participants showed surprisingly poor memory for the details of the logo as measured through recall (drawings) and forced-choice recognition. Only 1 participant out of 85 correctly recalled the Apple logo, and fewer than half of all participants correctly identified the logo. Importantly, participants indicated higher levels of confidence for both recall and recognition, and this overconfidence was reduced if participants made the judgements after, rather than before, drawing the logo. The general findings did not differ between Apple and PC users. The results provide novel support for theories of attentional saturation, inattentional amnesia, and reconstructive memory; additionally they show how an availability heuristic can lead to overconfidence in memory for logos.

  7. A Real-Time Apple Grading System Using Multicolor Space

    OpenAIRE

    Toylan, Hayrettin; Kuscu, Hilmi

    2014-01-01

    This study was focused on the multicolor space which provides a better specification of the color and size of the apple in an image. In the study, a real-time machine vision system classifying apples into four categories with respect to color and size was designed. In the analysis, different color spaces were used. As a result, 97% identification success for the red fields of the apple was obtained depending on the values of the parameter “a” of CIE L*a*b*color space. Similarly, 94% identific...

  8. Analysis of Ultrasonic Transmitted Signal for Apple using Wavelet Transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Bok; Lee, Sang Dae; Choi, Man Yong; Kim, Man Soo

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyze the ultrasonic transmitted signal for apple using wavelet transform. Fruit consists of nonlinear visco-elastic properties such as flesh, an ovary and rind and lienee most ultrasonic wave is attenuated and its frequency is shifted during passing the fruit. Thus it is not easy to evaluate the internal quality of the fruit using typical ultrasonic parameters such as wave velocity, attenuation, and frequency spectrum. The discrete wavelet transform was applied to the ultrasonic transmitted signal for apple. The magnitude of the first peak frequency of the wavelet basis from the ultrasonic transmitted signal showed a close correlation to the storage time of apple

  9. Morphological and physiological characteristics of columnar apple trees

    OpenAIRE

    Gelvonauskis, Bronislovas; Brazaitytė, Aušra; Sasnauskas, Audrius; Duchovskis, Pavelas; Gelvonauskienė, Dalia

    2006-01-01

    There were investigated two columnar apple cultivars ‘Arbat’ and No. 24217 and apple cultivar ‘Aldas’ in an orchard at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture. The two latter cultivars were released at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, ‘Arbat’ – in Russia. Cultivars and selections were budded on rootstocks P 60, M.26 and MM.106. In orchard apple trees were spaced at 1.0 x 3.5 m. Tree height, stem diameter, total length of one-year-old shoot, leaf area on a tree was measured and numbe...

  10. Warning: safety risk with some Apple AC Wall Plug Adapters

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN IT department

    2016-01-01

    Dear Mac and iOS Users, Apple has determined that some of its two prong Apple AC wall plug adapters may break and create a risk of electrical shock.   CERN users can now exchange their affected Apple wall plug adapters at the Service Desk. To find out if your adapter is affected and for any further information concerning the procedure to follow to exchange it, please check the following URL: https://cern.service-now.com/service-portal/view-outage.do?n=OTG0028639.

  11. Breeding Potential in Danish Apple Cultivar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne

    The diversity in plant genetic resources is a prerequisite for genetic improvement of cultivated crop species. Lack of in-depth characterization and evaluation of gene bank accessions is a major obstacle for their potential utilization. The Danish apple (Malus domestica L.) gene bank collection...... understanding of the link between phenotypes and the underlying gene-tic background which is crucial in plant breeding. We found a considerable genetic diversity in the collection and no genetic structure. We exposed a high number of accessions in admix and revealed several putative cultivar parentages, never......, including several rare alleles. Using historical gene bank records, including aroma volatile analysis, sugar and acid data and other fruit- and tree character records, we established genotype-phenotype relationships, performing a genome-wide association study. A number of SNP markers are presented that can...

  12. Photoprotective effects of apple peel nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennet D

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Devasier Bennet,1 Se Chan Kang,2 Jongback Gang,3 Sanghyo Kim1,4 1Department of Bionanotechnology, 2Department of Life Science, 3Department of Nano Chemistry, Gachon University, Bokjeong-Dong, Sujeong-Gu, Seongnam-Si, Gyeonggi-Do, Republic of Korea; 4Graduate Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gil Medical Center, Inchon, Republic of Korea Abstract: Plants contain enriched bioactive molecules that can protect against skin diseases. Bioactive molecules become unstable and ineffective due to unfavorable conditions. In the present study, to improve the therapeutic efficacy of phytodrugs and enhance photoprotective capability, we used poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide as a carrier of apple peel ethanolic extract (APETE on permeation-enhanced nanoparticles (nano-APETE. The in vitro toxicity of nano-APETE-treated dermal fibroblast cells were studied in a bioimpedance system, and the results coincided with the viability assay. In addition, the continuous real-time evaluations of photodamage and photoprotective effect of nano-APETE on cells were studied. Among three different preparations of nano-APETE, the lowest concentration provided small, spherical, monodispersed, uniform particles which show high encapsulation, enhanced uptake, effective scavenging, and sustained intracellular delivery. Also, the nano-APETE is more flexible, allowing it to permeate through skin lipid membrane and release the drug in a sustained manner, thus confirming its ability as a sustained transdermal delivery. In summary, 50 µM nano-APETE shows strong synergistic photoprotective effects, thus demonstrating its higher activity on target sites for the treatment of skin damage, and would be of broad interest in the field of skin therapeutics. Keywords: apple peel ethanolic extract, antioxidant, cellular uptake, electric cell-substrate impedance sensing, phyto-drugs, light-induced damage

  13. Traditional versus modern apple cultivars – a comparison of juice composition

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrowolska-Iwanek Justyna; Gąstoł Maciej; Adamska Agnieszka; Krośniak Mirosław; Zagrodzki Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Apples are rich in components that are important for human health, such as polyphenols, organic acids and microelements, but their chemical composition varies with different apple cultivars. We aimed to find out if there is any superiority in traditionally grown apple cultivars in terms of their fruits’ bioactive components content. Juice from two traditionally grown apple cultivars, ‘Mutsu’ and ‘Reinette Simirenko’, was compared to eight popular apple cultivars, ‘Jonagold’, ‘Jonagold Decosta...

  14. Kinetics of patulin degradation in model solution, apple cider and apple juice by ultraviolet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan; Koutchma, Tatiana; Warriner, Keith; Shao, Suqin; Zhou, Ting

    2013-08-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by a wide range of molds involved in fruit spoilage, most commonly by Penicillium expansum and is a health concern for both consumers and manufacturers. The current study evaluated feasibility of monochromatic ultraviolet (UV) radiation at 253.7 nm as a possible commercial application for the reduction of patulin in fresh apple cider and juice. The R-52G MINERALIGHT® UV bench top lamp was used for patulin destruction. It was shown that 56.5%, 87.5%, 94.8% and 98.6% reduction of patulin can be achieved, respectively, in the model solution, apple cider, apple juice without ascorbic acid addition and apple juice with ascorbic acid addition in 2-mm thickness sample initially spiked by 1 mg·L(-1) of patulin after UV exposure for 40 min at UV irradiance of 3.00 mW·cm(-2). A mathematic model to compare the degradation rate and effective UV dose was developed. The effective UV doses that were directly absorbed by patulin for photochemical reaction were 430, 674, 724 and 763 mJ·cm(-3), respectively. The fluence-based decimal reduction time was estimated to 309.3, 31.3, 28.9 and 5.1 mW·cm(-2)·min, respectively, in four media mentioned above. The degradation of patulin followed the first-order reaction model. The time-based and fluence-based reaction rate constants were determined to predict patulin degradation. The time-based reaction rate constant of samples treated in dynamic regime with constant stirring (model solution: 2.95E-4 s(-1), juice: 4.31E-4 s(-1)) were significantly higher than samples treated in static regime (model solution: 2.79E-4 s(-1), juice: 3.49E-4 s(-1), p radiation may be an effective method for treating patulin-containing apple cider and juice.

  15. Intake of whole apples or clear apple juice has contrasting effects on plasma lipids in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Dragsted, Lars O; Buch-Andersen, Tine; Jensen, Eva N; Jensen, Runa I; Németh-Balogh, Mária; Paulovicsová, Brigita; Bergström, Anders; Wilcks, Andrea; Licht, Tine R; Markowski, Jarosław; Bügel, Susanne

    2013-12-01

    Fruit consumption is associated with a decreased risk of CVD in cohort studies and is therefore endorsed by health authorities as part of the '5 or more a day' campaigns. A glass of fruit juice is generally counted as one serving. Fruit may cause protection by affecting common risk factors of CVD. Apples are among the most commonly consumed fruits and were chosen for a comprehensive 5 × 4 weeks dietary crossover study to assess the effects of whole apples (550 g/day), apple pomace (22 g/day), clear and cloudy apple juices (500 ml/day), or no supplement on lipoproteins and blood pressure in a group of 23 healthy volunteers. The intervention significantly affected serum total and LDL-cholesterol. Trends towards a lower serum LDL-concentration were observed after whole apple (6.7%), pomace (7.9%) and cloudy juice (2.2%) intake. On the other hand, LDL-cholesterol concentrations increased by 6.9% with clear juice compared to whole apples and pomace. There was no effect on HDL-cholesterol, TAG, weight, waist-to-hip ratio, blood pressure, inflammation (hs-CRP), composition of the gut microbiota or markers of glucose metabolism (insulin, IGF1 and IGFBP3). Apples are rich in polyphenols and pectin, two potentially bioactive constituents; however, these constituents segregate differently during processing into juice products and clear juice is free of pectin and other cell wall components. We conclude that the fibre component is necessary for the cholesterol-lowering effect of apples in healthy humans and that clear apple juice may not be a suitable surrogate for the whole fruit in nutritional recommendations.

  16. The association of Tarsonemus mites (Acari: Heterostigmata) with different apple developmental stages and apple core rot diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Ueckermann, Edward Albert; Van der Walt, Lené; Spotts, Robert A.; Smit, Francois J.; Jensen, Tamaryn; McLeod, Adéle

    2011-01-01

    Information on the role of mites in the genus Tarsonemus Canestrini and Fanzago, 1876 in the epidemiology of apple core rots (wet and dry) is limited. The aims of this study were to (1) assess the effect of different apple developmental stages (buds, blossoms, 4-cm diameter fruit, mature fruit and mummies) on the relative abundance of Tasonemus mites, (2) determine if there is a tendency of Tarsonemus mites to be associated with wet core rot (WCR) and dry core rot (DCR) apples, and (3) evalua...

  17. An explorative study of the effect of apple and apple products on the human plasma metabolome investigated by LC–MS profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rago, Daniela; Gürdeniz, Gözde; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2015-01-01

    Apple is one of the most commonly consumed fruits worldwide and it has been associated with several health effects, especially on plasma cholesterol and risk of cardiovascular disease both in human and animal studies. By using an untargeted metabolomics approach we wanted to investigate whether...... supplementation of whole apple or processed apple products affect the human plasma metabolome. Therefore, 24 healthy volunteers were recruited for a comprehensive 5 × 4 weeks dietary crossover study and receiving supplement of whole apples (550 g/day), clear and cloudy apple juices (500 ml/day), dried apple...... metabolome than the other apple products. We observed an effect on branched-chain amino acids and aromatic amino acids degradation, and a decreased use of lipid fuels indicating an improvement in glucose utilisation. A reduced level of plasma bile acids after apple consumption may indicate less re...

  18. Storability evaluation of Golab apple with acoustic and penetration methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R Bayati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Apple fruit (Mauls domestica Borkh, Rosaceae after citrus fruits, grape and banana, is the fourth important fruit in the world and is considered the most important fruit of temperate regions. In terms of trade volume, Iran is fourth producer and 17th exporter in the world. Among Iranian cultivars of apple fruit, known as “Golab apple”. Golab apple is one of the fragrant and tasty varieties and meanwhile is very sensitive and also its period of the postharvest shelf life is very short. In a study, the firmness of pear fruit during 4 weeks of storage was monitored using non-destructive impulse response (I-R and destructive Magness-Taylor (M-T puncture tests. The results of this study showed that the dominant frequency, stiffness coefficient and elasticity coefficient as a function of time could be expressed as a decreasing linear function (Gómez et al., 2005. Tiplica et al., (2010, showed that acoustic measurement can be a useful tool to discriminate different apple batches with a low error rate. Starting from the spectrum of the signal recorded by a microphone after the impact of a small hammer on the fruit, 18 key features were identified and used for the classification of apples belonging to 10 different varieties. The study aimed to evaluate apple firmness measured using both the penetrometer and acoustic methods. The methodologies were applied to Royal Gaya and Golden Smoothee apples harvested from 12 different orchards in Catalonia (Spain, on six different dates, and over three seasons. The results obtained showed a noticeable correlation between Magness Taylor firmness and acoustic measurements in Royal Gala, but no correlation was found for Golden Smoothee. In this study, also, acoustic measurements seemed to be a good tool for evaluating changes in tissue firmness during long-term storage (Molina-Delgado et al., 2009. In another study, it was presented a novel approach based on the simultaneous profiling of the

  19. Nursery growing of some apple varieties using different grafting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-21

    Dec 21, 2011 ... conditions differences were been determinated according to rootstocks ... been grown since pre-historic times in Asia and Europe ... apple growing country after China and the USA. ... He also pointed out that high cost of work.

  20. ENERGY USE IN APPLE PRODUCTION IN THE ESFAHAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    journal

    Apple production needs to improve the efficiency of energy consumption and to employ renewable energy. ... derived from Neyman method (Ozkan et al.,. 2004). .... management might reduce the indirect energy .... Handbook of Energy.

  1. Studying apple bruise using a finite element method analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoal-Faria, P.; Alves, N.

    2017-07-01

    Apple bruise damage from harvesting, handling, transporting and sorting is considered to be the major source of reduced fruit quality, resulting in a loss of profits for the entire fruit industry. Bruising is defined as damage and discoloration of fruit flesh, usually with no breach of the skin. The three factors which can physically cause fruit bruising are vibration, compression load and impact. The last one is the main source of bruise damage. Therefore, prediction of the level of damage, stress distribution and deformation of the fruits under external force has become a very important task. To address these problems a finite element analysis has been developed for studying Portuguese Royal Gala apple bruise. The results obtained will be suitable to apple distributors and sellers and will allow a reduction of the impact caused by bruise damage in apple annual production.

  2. Radiation measurement of apples produced in Aomori prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarusawa, Kohetsu; Kudo, Kohsei; Yamadera, Akira

    2003-01-01

    The activities of seven kinds of apples produced in Aomori prefecture were measured with a high pure Ge detector set in a 15 cm-thick lead shield. The activities of 40 K were detected in all samples, but an artificial radioactive nuclide was not detected. The slices of an apple were contacted to an imaging plate for 15 days in a 15 cm-thick lead shield and cross sectional activity distributions were measured. By using the distribution map, the activities of skin, flesh and lead portion of an apple 'Ohrin' were calculated to 0.041, 0.032 and 0.046 Bq/g, respectively. This measuring system will be used for the activity estimations of the farm products, specially apples, because of that many atomic institutions are in operation and in the planning stage on Aomori prefecture. (author)

  3. Apple Can Act as Anti-Aging on Yeast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Palermo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, epidemiological and biochemical studies have shown that eating apples is associated with reduction of occurrence of cancer, degenerative, and cardiovascular diseases. This association is often attributed to the presence of antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C and polyphenols. The substances that hinder the presence of free radicals are also able to protect cells from aging. In our laboratory we used yeast, a unicellular eukaryotic organism, to determine in vivo efficacy of entire apples and their components, such as flesh, skin and polyphenolic fraction, to influence aging and oxidative stress. Our results indicate that all the apple components increase lifespan, with the best result given by the whole fruit, indicating a cooperative role of all apple components.

  4. AppleTalk Routing: Phase-Out 30 September 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    IT/Communications Systems Group

    2005-01-01

    AppleTalk is a legacy MacOS protocol for discovering network file, print and other services. IP (Internet Protocol) has become a global standard for networking, replacing non-IP networks, like DECnet, IPX, AppleTalk and others. Following this evolution, support for AppleTalk on the CERN network infrastructure ceases on 30 September 2005. The replacement solutions are: * SMB or HTTP for file services * LPR for print services. We invite all users who haven't done so already to switch to the replacement solutions. Instructions on how to do so are on the Web at: http://cern.ch/it/gencomputing/mac-support/AppleTalk.htm IT/Communications Systems Group

  5. AppleTalk Routing: Phase-Out 30 September 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    AppleTalk is a legacy MacOS protocol for discovering network file, print and other services. IP (Internet Protocol) has become a global standard for networking, replacing non-IP networks, like DECnet, IPX, AppleTalk and others. Following this evolution, support for AppleTalk on the CERN network infrastructure ceases on 30 September 2005. The replacement solutions are: SMB or HTTP for file services LPR for print services. We invite all users who haven't done so already to switch to the replacement solutions. Instructions on how to do so are on the Web at: http://cern.ch/it/gencomputing/mac-support/AppleTalk.htm IT/Communications Systems Group

  6. Differential dependence of apple ( Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Golden Delicious' and 'Topred' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) peel on the xanthophyll cycle for photoprotection was studied under laboratory conditions. Mature fruit peel was either treated with 1 mm dithiothreitol (DTT) to inhibit the ...

  7. Apple Based Agroforestry in Dendi Woreda, Oromiya Region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    advised to follow integration of apple fruit trees in their food production ... growing demands of increasing population, to compensate forests in the wake of fast .... Programme for the Sustainable Utilization of Natural Resource for Food Security.

  8. Zoning Of Apple Trees In Province Of Khorasan Razavi Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar Karami

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of prone areas for apple cultivation in Razavi Khorasan province. Therefore in this study criteria and sub criteria were considered to determine suitable areas for growing apple trees and due to the importance of data integration Analytic Hierarchy Process AHP was selected to determine the weight of layers. The software ArcGIS version 10.2.2 was used to analyze the spatial and overlapping layers after data analysis in terms of growing apple trees Razavi Khorasan province was divided into four levels very good good average and bad. The results showed that suitable areas for growing apple trees in the studied area are located in the south east northeast and center of the province including Sarakhs Neyshaboor Gonabad and Kashmar stations with an area of over 4364789.32 hectares which is about 48.34 of the total area of the province.

  9. "You've Got to Know Your Apples."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettre, Judith

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a satire on employee training, retraining, efficiency experts, consultants, team training, peer teaching, and behavioral objectives--based on the training of apple sorters at the Fantabalous Fruit Farm. (KC)

  10. How to Plant Apple Trees to Reduce Replant Disease in Apple Orchard: A Study on the Phenolic Acid of the Replanted Apple Orchard.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengmiao Yin

    Full Text Available Apple replant disease (ARD is an important problem in the production of apple. The phenolic acid is one of the causes of ARD. How phenolic acid affects the ARD was not well known. In this study, we analyzed the type, concentration and annual dynamic variation of phenolic acid in soil from three replanted apple orchards using an accelerated solvent extraction system with high performance liquid chromatography (ASE-HPLC. We found that the type and concentration of phenolic acid were significantly differed among different seasons, different sampling positions and different soil layers. Major types of phenolic acid in three replanted apple orchards were phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde. The concentration of phenolic acid was highest in the soil of the previous tree holes and it was increased from the spring to autumn. Moreover, phenolic acid was primarily distributed in 30-60 cm soil layer in the autumn, while it was most abundant in 0-30 cm soil layer in the spring. Our results suggest that phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde may be the key phenolic acid that brought about ARD in the replanted apple orchard.

  11. Apple juice inhibits human low density lipoprotein oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, D A; Tan, C H; German, J B; Davis, P A; Gershwin, M E

    1999-01-01

    Dietary phenolic compounds, ubiquitous in vegetables and fruits and their juices possess antioxidant activity that may have beneficial effects on human health. The phenolic composition of six commercial apple juices, and of the peel (RP), flesh (RF) and whole fresh Red Delicious apples (RW), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and total phenols were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. HPLC analysis identified and quantified several classes of phenolic compounds: cinnamates, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols and flavonols. Phloridzin and hydroxy methyl furfural were also identified. The profile of phenolic compounds varied among the juices. The range of concentrations as a percentage of total phenolic concentration was: hydroxy methyl furfural, 4-30%; phloridzin, 22-36%; cinnamates, 25-36%; anthocyanins, n.d.; flavan-3-ols, 8-27%; flavonols, 2-10%. The phenolic profile of the Red Delicious apple extracts differed from those of the juices. The range of concentrations of phenolic classes in fresh apple extracts was: hydroxy methyl furfural, n.d.; phloridzin, 11-17%; cinnamates, 3-27%; anthocyanins, n.d.-42%; flavan-3-ols, 31-54%; flavonols, 1-10%. The ability of compounds in apple juices and extracts from fresh apple to protect LDL was assessed using an in vitro copper catalyzed human LDL oxidation system. The extent of LDL oxidation was determined as hexanal production using static headspace gas chromatography. The apple juices and extracts, tested at 5 microM gallic acid equivalents (GAE), all inhibited LDL oxidation. The inhibition by the juices ranged from 9 to 34%, and inhibition by RF, RW and RP was 21, 34 and 38%, respectively. Regression analyses revealed no significant correlation between antioxidant activity and either total phenolic concentration or any specific class of phenolics. Although the specific components in the apple juices and extracts that contributed to antioxidant activity have yet to be identified, this study

  12. Kui suudab Steve, suudab ka Apple / Tarvo Vaarmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarmets, Tarvo

    2008-01-01

    Ehkki Apple'i kolmanda kvartali kasum kasvas kolmandiku võrra ja oli oodatust kümnendiku jagu suurem, langes ettevõtte aktsia hind börsil. Investoreid teeb rahutuks nii ettevõtte juhi Steve Jobsi tervis kui ka Apple'i majandusprognoos neljandaks kvartaliks. Lisa: Analüütikud on aktsia suhtes üksmeelel. Diagramm: Aktsia hinnal taas suund alla

  13. Apple phenolics and their contribution to enzymatic browning reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Oleszek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, procyanidin B2 and C1 were isolated from apple skin. These compounds as well as quercetine and phloretine glycosides isolated from apples were studied individually and as mixtures for their participation in the enzymatic browning reactions. The importance of quercetine glycosides and the synergistic effect of phloridzin and phloretine xyloglucoside with chlorogenic acid and flavans in the browning reaction are reported.

  14. Outsourcing and corporate social responsibility : Apple in China

    OpenAIRE

    Urakami, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Electronics industry has seen a tremendous industry shift from the developed countries to the emerging regions such as East and South Asia, particularly during the past four decades. And we can now see a huge industrial capability accumulation in Asia. This research note aims at, firstly, describing basic nature and structure of outsourcing business in Asia, and, secondly, we look into Apple Inc.'s supply chain to examine Apple supplier factory operations in Mainland China from, primarily, an...

  15. Pectin methyl esterase activity in apple and orange pulps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullaev, A.; Djumaev, B.B.; Djumaev, N.B.; Mukhidinov, Z.K.

    2008-01-01

    The results of pectin methyl esterase activity from apple, orange pulp and orange peel depending of ph and temperature are discussed. It's shown that the methyl esterase activity form apple and orange pulps higher in range of temperatures from +37...+60 d ig C . The analysis of dependence of its activity from ph has shown that in both case the enzyme activity increase with increase of ph

  16. Carbon footprint of apple and pear : orchards, storage and distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, F.; Castanheira, E.G.; Feliciano, M.; Rodrigues, M.A.; Peres, A.; Maia, F.; Ramos, A.; Carneiro, J.P.; Coroama, V.C.; Freire, F.

    2013-01-01

    Apple and pear represent 51% of fresh fruit orchards in Portugal. This paper presents a life-cycle (LC) greenhouse gas (GHG) assessment (so-called carbon footprint) of 3 apple and 1 pear Portuguese production systems. An LC model and inventory were implemented, encompassing the farm stage (cultivation of fruit trees in orchards), storage and distribution (transport to retail). The functional unit considered in this study was 1 kg of distributed fruit (at retail). Four different LC inventories...

  17. Use of genetic resources and partial resistances for apple breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Kellerhals, Markus; Duffy, Brion

    2006-01-01

    Modern apple breeding strategies are mainly considering the most advanced selections and culti-vars as parents. This tends to lead to a narrowed genetic basis. The introgression of traditional va-rieties and accessions of the gene pool is often feared due to undesirable characteristics that might be incorporated. However, there is scope for considering a wider genetic basis in apple breeding to support sustainable fruit production systems. The focus at Agroscope Changins-Wädenswil (ACW) is p...

  18. Hydrolysis-extraction of apple proto pectins in dynamic mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobodzhonova, G.N.; Gorshkova, R.M.; Makhkamov, Kh.K.

    2013-01-01

    The article describes a hydrolysis process of apple husks by using dynamics regime of hydrolysis. It's shown that application of dynamics method positively influences on the pectin yields and its main parameters. It was defined that by dynamics regime of hydrolysis-extraction of apple husks it is possible to obtain qualitative products with high yield at a mild ph value of medium of hydrolysing agent.

  19. Market, Regulation, Market, Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian; Galland, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    barriers to trade in Europe, realized the free movement of products by organizing progressively several orders of markets and regulation. Based on historical and institutional documents, on technical publications, and on interviews, this article relates how the European Commission and the Member States had......This paper focuses on the European Regulatory system which was settled both for opening the Single Market for products and ensuring the consumers' safety. It claims that the New Approach and Standardization, and the Global Approach to conformity assessment, which suppressed the last technical...... alternatively recourse to markets and to regulations, at the three main levels of the New Approach Directives implementation. The article focuses also more specifically on the Medical Devices sector, not only because this New Approach sector has long been controversial in Europe, and has recently been concerned...

  20. Cryotherapy by encapsulation-dehydration is effective for in vitro eradication of latent viruses from ‘Marubakaido’ apple rootstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) and Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) are several major viral pathogens of apple trees, responsible for substantial damage to the world's apple industry. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of encapsulation-dehydratio...

  1. FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT FOR FORESTRY BIOFUEL STATEWIDE COLLABORATION CENTER (MICHIGAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaCourt, Donna M.; Miller, Raymond O.; Shonnard, David R.

    2012-04-24

    A team composed of scientists from Michigan State University (MSU) and Michigan Technological University (MTU) assembled to better understand, document, and improve systems for using forest-based biomass feedstocks in the production of energy products within Michigan. Work was funded by a grant (DE-EE-0000280) from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and was administered by the Michigan Economic Development Corporation (MEDC). The goal of the project was to improve the forest feedstock supply infrastructure to sustainably provide woody biomass for biofuel production in Michigan over the long-term. Work was divided into four broad areas with associated objectives: • TASK A: Develop a Forest-Based Biomass Assessment for Michigan – Define forest-based feedstock inventory, availability, and the potential of forest-based feedstock to support state and federal renewable energy goals while maintaining current uses. • TASK B: Improve Harvesting, Processing and Transportation Systems – Identify and develop cost, energy, and carbon efficient harvesting, processing and transportation systems. • TASK C: Improve Forest Feedstock Productivity and Sustainability – Identify and develop sustainable feedstock production systems through the establishment and monitoring of a statewide network of field trials in forests and energy plantations. • TASK D: Engage Stakeholders – Increase understanding of forest biomass production systems for biofuels by a broad range of stakeholders. The goal and objectives of this research and development project were fulfilled with key model deliverables including: 1) The Forest Biomass Inventory System (Sub-task A1) of feedstock inventory and availability and, 2) The Supply Chain Model (Sub-task B2). Both models are vital to Michigan’s forest biomass industry and support forecasting delivered cost, as well as carbon and energy balance. All of these elements are important to facilitate investor, operational and policy decisions. All

  2. The Effect of Apple Feeding on Markers of Colon Carcinogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Mortensen, Alicja; Binderup, Mona-Lise

    2011-01-01

    Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risks of certain cancers and other diseases in observational studies and animal models of human diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feeding of rats with whole raw apple has potentially chemopreve......Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risks of certain cancers and other diseases in observational studies and animal models of human diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feeding of rats with whole raw apple has potentially...... chemopreventive properties by affecting markers of colon cancer. The end-point was preneoplastic changes in the colon known as aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Rats initiated with the colon carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) were given 0, 5, or 10 g apple/day for 13 wk. The group fed 5 g apple...... but not 10 g had a significantly lower number of ACF (P = 0.009) compared to the initiated control. DNA damage evaluated by the comet assay was significantly increased in leucocytes of DMH-treated animals (P = 0.021). No antigenotoxic effect of apple feeding was apparent in the colon. Apple feeding tended...

  3. Effect of probiotics on patulin removal from synbiotic apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoghi, Alaleh; Khosravi-Darani, Kianoush; Sohrabvandi, Sara; Attar, Hosein; Alavi, Sayed Abolhasan

    2017-06-01

    Studies have reported the occurrence of the mycotoxin patulin in apple products. The aim of this study was to produce synbiotic apple juice and investigate the detoxification of patulin by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum as probiotic strains. The impact of seven process variables on efficiency of toxin removal was investigated using Plackett-Burman design and presence of the surface-layer proteins as binding site of probiotics to patulin was confirmed during 6 weeks of cold storage. Results showed that the removal of patulin by probiotic bacteria from apple juice depends significantly (P apple juice. In the best conditions, 91.23% of initial patulin concentration was removed from juice during 6 weeks refrigerated storage. No significant difference was observed in organoleptic properties of the synbiotic apple juice and raw sample. In the best condition reported in this study, contaminated synbiotic apple juice by patulin will be safe for consumers after the first day of probiotic inoculation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Back-transmission of a virus associated with apple stem pitting and pear vein yellows from Nicotiana occidentalis to apple and pear indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leone, G.; Lindner, J.L.; Jongedijk, G.; Meer, van der F.

    1995-01-01

    The successful back-transmission of the mechanically transmissible virus associated with apple stem pitting and pear vein yellows, from Nicotiana occidentalis to apple seedlings "Golden Delicious" under greenhouse conditions is reported. This result enabled a field experiment where isolates of apple

  5. Vacuum drying of apples (cv. Golden Delicious): drying characteristics, thermodynamic properties, and mass transfer parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadi, Fatemeh; Tzempelikos, Dimitrios

    2018-01-01

    In this work, apples of cv. Golden Delicious were cut into slices that were 5 and 7 mm thick and then vacuum dried at 50, 60 and 70 °C and pressure of 0.02 bar. The thin layer model drying kinetics was studied, and mass transfer properties, specifically effective moisture diffusivity and convective mass transfer coefficient, were evaluated using the Fick's equation of diffusion. Also, thermodynamic parameters of the process, i.e. enthalpy (ΔH), entropy (ΔS) and Gibbs free energy (ΔG), were determined. Colour properties were evaluated as one of the important indicators of food quality and marketability. Determination of mass transfer parameters and thermodynamic properties of vacuum dried apple slices has not been discussed much in the literature. In conclusion, the Nadi's model fitted best the observed data that represent the drying process. Thermodynamic properties were determined based on the dependence of the drying constant of the Henderson and Pabis model on temperature, and it was concluded that the variation in drying kinetics depends on the energy contribution of the surrounding environment. The enthalpy and entropy diminished, while the Gibbs free energy increased with the increase of the temperature of drying; therefore, it was possible to verify that variation in the diffusion process in the apple during drying depends on energetic contributions of the environment. The obtained results showed that diffusivity increased for 69%, while the mass transfer coefficient increase was even higher, 75%, at the variation of temperature of 20 °C. The increase in the dimensionless Biot number was 20%.

  6. The Scholarly Communication Process within the University Research Corridor (Michigan State University, the University of Michigan, and Wayne State University): A Case Study in Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Timothy; Holley, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    The growth of open access publishing, the development of institutional repositories, and the availability of millions of digitized monographs and journals are rapidly changing scholarly communication. This case study looks at the current and possible uses of these tools by Michigan's three largest universities: Michigan State University, the…

  7. Inbound marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Popek, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    In my work I focus on Inbound Marketing, which represents a new perspective on marketing, that has not been given the attention it deserves. It is a combination of existing and proven marketing methods that are used to obtain new customers with minimal marketing costs to the organization. The first section of my work is devoted to defining the concept of Inbound Marketing definitions and explanations. Furthermore, I present a list of instruments used in Inbound Marketing, and showcase the def...

  8. Consumer behaviour in Apple's App Store

    OpenAIRE

    Ayalew, Romel

    2011-01-01

    Mobile applications stores such as Apple’s App Store and Google’s Android Market revolutionized the distribution of applications for mobile devices. However, with thousands of application submissions, limited testing resources and the lack of an effective filtering mechanism, application stores suffer from information overload and a risk of releasing poor quality applications that could create confusion to consumers and may seriously affect the App store markets. Thus concern has been raised ...

  9. Wild-harvested venison yields and sharing by Michigan deer hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goguen, Amber D.; Riley, Shawn J.; Organ, John F.; Rudolph, Brent A.

    2018-01-01

    An increased societal focus on wildlife as food and recent policy deliberations regarding legal markets for wild-harvested meat are encouraging wildlife managers and researchers to examine the amount, use, and distribution of meat yielded through recreational hunting. We used responses to questions on the Michigan Deer Harvest Study to estimate the maximum yield of edible venison and assess hunters’ sharing behaviors. We estimated 11,402–14,473 metric tons of edible venison were procured during the 2013 hunting season. Of hunters who harvested a deer, 85% shared their venison. Hunters who shared did so with an average of 5.6 people (SD = 4.5). Sharing occurred most frequently within tight social networks: members of hunters’ households (69%), relatives (52%), and friends, neighbors, or coworkers (50%). In the absence of legal markets, venison is distributed widely by hunters and greatly amplifies the number of people benefiting from hunting. Nonetheless, we also identified the potential breadth of exposure to disease or contaminants from wild-harvested meat.

  10. Water resources of the Flint area, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiitala, Sulo Werner; Vanlier, K.E.; Krieger, Robert A.

    1964-01-01

    sand and gravel also fill some of the valleys in the bedrock surface and yield moderate to large supplies of water. Production from public supply wells tapping the drift aquifers in the area ranges from about 50 to 1,200 gpm. The water from the drift aquifer is hard or very hard and commonly contains objectionable amounts of iron.The Saginaw formation is a source of water to wells supplying some of the small communities and industries in the county. The Saginaw, which is the uppermost bedrock formation in the area, underlies most of the county. It is composed of layers of sandstone, shale, and limestone and some beds of coal. The formation is composed principally of sandstone in some areas of the county, and shale in others. Production from wells tapping the Saginaw ranges from a few to about 500 gpm. The water produced is generally moderately hard or hard and commonly contains objectionable amounts of chloride. The quality of the water limits its development for water supply. Overdrafts from the Saginaw result in a lowering of the piezometric surface and commonly cause an upward migration of water high in chloride.The Michigan and Marshall formations are generally not sources of fresh water where they are overlain by the Saginaw formation. In the southern and eastern parts of the county where they are overlain by glacial deposits, they are a source of water of good quality. The quantity of water obtainable from these formations is not fully known. However, the Marshall may be a source of large supplies of water in the southeastern part of the county.An ample supply of water is available in lakes, ponds, and streams in the metropolitan area of Flint to meet requirements for domestic, sanitary, and firefighting use in civil defense emergencies. The extent of emergency use of water from these sources would depend upon the pumping, distribution, and treatment facilities available. Enough private industrial and commercial, and public wells are present in the area normally

  11. Recent geologic development of Lake Michigan (U.S.A.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, D.L.; Cahill, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The stresses placed on Lake Michigan since the advent of industrialization require knowledge of the sedimentology of the whole lake in order to make informed decisions for environmental planning. Sediment accumulation rates are low: areas of the lake receiving the most sediment average only 1 mm a-1; deep-water basins average 0.1 to 0.5 mm a-1; and large areas are not receiving any sediment. Sediment was deposited rapidly (typically 5 mm a-1), in the form of rock flour, during the deglaciation of both Lake Michigan and Lake Superior Basins. Then the rate of accumulation decreased by 80-90% and has remained relatively constant since final deglaciation. Because active sedimentation occurs mostly in the deep water areas of the lake, the sediment remains undisturbed and contains a record of the chemical history of the lake. ?? 1983 Dr W. Junk Publishers.

  12. Impact of cooling systems on Lake Michigan fishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spigarelli, S.A.; Romberg, G.P.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of data on fish mortalities due to impingement at thermal power plant water intakes on Lake Michigan with available estimates of standing crop biomass, commercial and sport fishery catches, and estimated predation mortality is presented. The striking features of these data are the proportions of total mortality due to predation and the lack of accurate basic population statistics such as standing crop biomass and natural mortality for important forage and human food fishes in Lake Michigan. Although this preliminary assessment would indicate that power plant and total impingement losses constitute an insignificant fraction of total forage biomass, the potentially unstable forage-predator ratios and the apparent high degree of annual fluctuations (year-classes) in alewife, smelt, and perch indicate the need for a more detailed assessment of cooling-system related impact on selected populations

  13. Acid rain stimulation of Lake Michigan phytoplankton growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manny, Bruce A.; Fahnenstiel, G.L.; Gardner, W.S.

    1987-01-01

    Three laboratory experiments demonstrated that additions of rainwater to epilimnetic lake water collected in southeastern Lake Michigan stimulated chlorophyll a production more than did additions of reagent-grade water during incubations of 12 to 20 d. Chlorophyll a production did not begin until 3–5 d after the rain and lake water were mixed. The stimulation caused by additions of rain acidified to pH 3.0 was greater than that caused by additions of untreated rain (pH 4.0–4.5). Our results support the following hypotheses: (1) Acid rain stimulates the growth of phytoplankton in lake water; (2) phosphorus in rain appears to be the factor causing this stimulation. We conclude that acid rain may accelerate the growth of epilimnetic phytoplankton in Lake Michigan (and other similar lakes) during stratification when other sources of bioavailable phosphorus to the epilimnion are limited

  14. 239 240Pu in Lake Michigan: 1971 to 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlgren, M.A.; Nelson, D.M.; Orlandini, K.A.; Kucera, E.T.

    1978-01-01

    The plutonium concentration data presented previously have consisted primarily of results from studies of short-term variations, i.e., the annual plutonium cycle conducted at Lake Michigan station ANL-5, 12 km SW of Grand Haven, Michigan. In this report, mean annual concentrations of total plutonium in unfiltered water from far off-shore (> 30 km) stations for the period 1971 through 1977, and from station ANL-5 (1975 through 1978) are summarized to establish the long-term trend in plutonium concentration in Lake Michigan. The results presented show that the mean annual concentration in the water column is similar at ANL-5 and at offshore stations and has decreased at the rate of only 6% per year during the period 1972 through 1978. The nearly constant concentration indicates that steady-state equilibria exist between plutonium inputs to the lake and the loss of plutonium from the water column. Observations suggest the existence of an active redox cycle for Pu in Lake Michigan. In this cycle, Pu IV atoms in solution are continually taken up by particulate materials but may be oxidized within microzones of the particles such as freshly deposited manganese coatings and also in solution by agents such as dissolved oxygen. In turn, the concentration of Pu VI in solution may be limited by reaction with reducing constituents of the coloidal-sized fraction (or decomposer organisms such as bacteria or fungi, which might have been present after filtration) and with planktonic organisms in the environment to produce Pu IV and thus maintain the cycle

  15. Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Group: The University of Michigan Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Michigan Cancer Center, Ann Arbor, MI Abstract Disclosures Abstract: Background: Cabozantinib ( Cabo ) is an inhibitor of MET and VEGFR2. MET signaling...promotes tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. Methods: mCRPC patients (pts) with progressive measurable disease (mRECIST) received Cabo at 100 mg...qd PO over a 12 week (wk) lead-in stage. Response was assessed q6 wks. Treatment ≥ wk 12 was based on response: pts with PR continued open-label Cabo

  16. Output formatting in Apple-Soft Basic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navale, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    Personal computers are being used extensively in various fields. BASIC is a very popular and widely used language in personal computers. Apple computer is one of the popular machines used for scientific and engineering applications. Presenting output from computers in a neat and easy to read form is very important. Languages like FORTRAN have utility command 'FORMAT' which takes care of the formatting of the output in user-defined form. In some versions of BASIC a PRINT USING facility is available but it is not as powerful as the FORTRAN statement 'FORMAT'. Applesoft basic does not have even this PRINT USING command. Programmers have to write their own program segments to handle output formatting in Applesoft BASIC. Generally, such user written programs are of limited use as they cannot be used easily with other programs. A general purpose and easily transportable subroutine in Applesoft BASIC is presented here for handling output formatting in user-defined structure. The subroutine is nearly as powerful as the FORMAT statement in FORTRAN. It can also be used in other versions of BASIC with very little modifications. 3 tables, 4 refs. (author)

  17. Influence of gamma irradiation and benzyl adenine on keeping quality of custard apple fruits during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouksey, Swati; Singh, Alpana; Thakur, Rajendra Singh; Deshmukh, Reena

    2013-10-01

    The custard apple (Annona squamosa) fruits were procured from local market, irradiated with radiation doses 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75 kGy and then treated with benzyl adenine (50 and 100 part per million) and stored at ambient temperature (25 ± 5 °C, Relative Humidity 90 ± 2%) for 12 days. The treated fruits were evaluated for sensory (viz; flavour, texture, internal and external colour) and chemical constituents (viz; Total Soluble Solids, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid, free soluble sugar, reducing sugar. non reducing sugar, carbohydrate) during storage. The study concluded that radiation dose of 1.5 kilo Gray along with 50 ppm benzyl adenine enhanced in shelf-life of custard apple fruits by 6 days at ambient temperature with good pulp texture, flavour, colour and nutritional quality as compared to control.

  18. Economic analysis of different mulch applications and irrigation programs in apple production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Karamürsel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic analysis of different mulch materials and irrigation programs on Fuji apple variety grafted onto M9 rootstock was made in this study. Mulch treatments consisted of four different mulch materials including black textile, wheat straw, rose oil processing wastes and no mulch. There were three different irrigation programs for each mulch treatment. Irrigation programs also consisted of three different programs including starting irrigation when available water holding capacity of 20%, 40% and 60% at the effective root zone. Total production costs had fluctuating according to treatments. While rose oil processing and the program starting irrigation when available water holding capacity of 60% at the root zone was used had the lowest total production costs, wheat straw and the program starting irrigation when available water holding capacity of 20% at the root zone was used had the highest values. But, black textile mulch and the program which starting at irrigation when available water holding capacity of 20% at the root zone was used had the lowest unit production cost with 0.39 TL kg-1 highest yield, extra and class I fruits. Furthermore, according to apple marketing prices of 2014, considering yield and fruit quality, the highest gross profit with 51 223 TL ha-1 was obtained from black textile mulch and the program starting irrigation when available water holding capacity of 20% at the root zone was used.

  19. Effect of different post harvest treatments on physical characteristics of custard apple fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Alpana; Chouksey, Swati; Deshmukh, Reena; Thakur, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    The study was conducted with the objective to see the effect of different post harvest treatments on physical characteristics of custard apple fruits. Fruits were treated with different doses of gamma radiation ranging from 0.25 to 1.75 kGy in combination with antioxidant i.e. Benzyl Adenine (BA) at the rate of 50 and 100 ppm and stored for 12 days at ambient temperature (25 ± 5 deg C, RH 90 ± 2 %) during winter season. Fruits treated with low doses of gamma radiation i.e. upto 1.00 kGy along with 50 ppm benzyl adenine extended the shelf life of fruits up to 6 days as compared to untreated fruits as well as fruits treated with higher doses of radiation. A decreasing trend in physiological weight loss (PLW) and percentage of marketable fruits was observed with increase in radiation doses. This promises to provide advantage to producers for transhipment of custard apple fruits in good and acceptable condition. (author)

  20. Effect of ionizing radiation on the texture of minimally processed apples for a fruit salad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Sabato, Susy F., E-mail: adrianafabbri@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Brazil is the third largest producer of fruits (43 million tons), being preceded only by China (175 million tons) and India (57 million tons). Regular consumption of fruit is associated with a better quality of life and is pointedly recommended by their high fiber content, water, vitamins and organic salts, as well as being tasty and quick digestion. Currently, the fresh market has grown significantly, especially the segment washed, peeled, cut or sliced, raw packaged and stored under refrigeration, known as minimally processed and / or ready for consumption. Apples in addition to several important nutritional characteristics are widely consumed fresh and are used as important components of desserts in Brazil, for example, fruit salads. Considering the many benefits demonstrated by the application of food irradiation, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the texture of minimally processed apples submitted to doses of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 2.0 kGy in multipurpose irradiator located at IPEN / CNEN-SP during the 10 days after irradiation. The results indicated that radiation was beneficial for all treatments and that the presented statistical differences were more due to the intrinsic factors of the fruit, than the day or dose. These results were evaluated using Statistica 8.0, by tukey's test and two-way ANOVA. (author)

  1. Effect of ionizing radiation on the texture of minimally processed apples for a fruit salad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Sabato, Susy F.

    2011-01-01

    Brazil is the third largest producer of fruits (43 million tons), being preceded only by China (175 million tons) and India (57 million tons). Regular consumption of fruit is associated with a better quality of life and is pointedly recommended by their high fiber content, water, vitamins and organic salts, as well as being tasty and quick digestion. Currently, the fresh market has grown significantly, especially the segment washed, peeled, cut or sliced, raw packaged and stored under refrigeration, known as minimally processed and / or ready for consumption. Apples in addition to several important nutritional characteristics are widely consumed fresh and are used as important components of desserts in Brazil, for example, fruit salads. Considering the many benefits demonstrated by the application of food irradiation, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the texture of minimally processed apples submitted to doses of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 2.0 kGy in multipurpose irradiator located at IPEN / CNEN-SP during the 10 days after irradiation. The results indicated that radiation was beneficial for all treatments and that the presented statistical differences were more due to the intrinsic factors of the fruit, than the day or dose. These results were evaluated using Statistica 8.0, by tukey's test and two-way ANOVA. (author)

  2. Sugar apple (Annona squamosa L., Annonaceae seed germination: morphological and anatomical changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Ernesto Martínez-Maldonado

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The anon or sugar apple is a species of the Annona genus, widely distributed in the world and in Colombia and a fruit with great potential in domestic and international markets. However, the technical information related to the aspects of propagation and production is limited. In the present study, the morphological and anatomical changes during seed germination of the sugar apple were determined using histological techniques and photographic records. The results show that seed germination is a process that takes place in two stages: testa rupture and endosperm rupture-radicle protrusion. In the post-germination stages, the induction and formation of lateral roots that were endogenously produced from the primary root from the pericycle were seen. The endosperm underwent morphological changes that increased its volume during imbibition and degraded in the final stages of germination, which could be indicative of endosperm weakening and reduction of mechanical strength imposed by embryo growth, which was required to complete germination in A. squamosa

  3. Physicochemical and enzimatic transformations of "eva" apples stored under modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariela Betsy Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The need for a permanent market supply of fresh fruit has generated great interest in postharvest techniques that can promote useful life and quality of the fruit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of atmospheric modification using different polymeric films in maintaining postharvest quality and prolonging the shelf life of Eva (Mallus sp apples. For this, fruits from the city of Barbacena - MG, selected and sanitized were packed in plastic trays and wrapped in the corresponding films. The films used were: polypropylene - 20 µm, low-density polyethylene - 14 µm and high-density polyethylene - 7 µm. Another group of fruits (control was not submitted to a modified atmosphere. Subsequently, all the the packages were stored under refrigeration (0 ° C ± 0.5 for 210 days and the evaluations of the following variables were performed every 30 days of storage: hydrogen potential (pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, weight loss, firmness, total pectin, soluble pectin, pectin methyl esterase and polygalacturonase. The work was conducted in a completely randomized design (4x8, with 4 treatments and 8 experimental times. Each treatment consisted of three replicates and each experimental unit consisted of six fruits. The results were submitted to variance analysis and means were compared by the Tukey test at 5% probability and regression analysis. The low density polyethylene (14 µm packaging provided the best conservation of the Eva cultivar apple textural characteristics.

  4. Passive solar homes in Michigan's Upper Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindred, G.F. [Garfield Kindred Associates, Hancock, MI (United States)

    2001-07-01

    This paper discussed the construction and design of 3 affordable passive solar homes located in high latitudes: (1) the Kindred house located in a wooded subdivision in Hancock, Michigan; (2) the Autio house located in Laurium, Michigan; and the Mikkola house located in South Range, Michigan. The award-winning houses were part of the United States federal government's Energy Star program. The houses were constructed with common building materials in order to introduce the general public to the principles of energy-conscious passive solar design strategies and sustainable construction technologies. Super-insulation was used to retain solar heat gain in the houses. Air infiltration was minimized through the use of an airtight drywall sealing technique. Large windows were a prominent feature of the southern facades of the houses. The windows used fixed and casement low-e argon-filled insulated glazing. Average bills for the Kindred home are US$960 per year. It was concluded that passive solar design and construction strategies are now being used more often in the area as a result of the positive media coverage that the homes has received. 5 refs.

  5. Trace Elements in Apple Fruits of Several Regions in the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boev, Blazho; Lepitkova, Sonja; Paneva-Zajkova, Vesna; Georgiev, Lazar

    2006-01-01

    Determination of macro elements and trace elements in apple fruits was carried out by ICP-AES method. Apples were picked up fresh in December 2005. Seven different types of apples from different parts of the country were selected. Apples were sliced into large pieces, dried, and after grinding were dissolved in nitric acid (HNO 3 ) and hydroperoxide (H 2 O 2 ). After digestion, multi-element analysis was carried out. Data obtained were compared to published values for trace elements in apples in other regions of the world. Data obtained indicated that the concentration of trace elements in apples were within the values and data in other regions of the world. (Author)

  6. The Impact of the Agricultural Trade Liberalization on the Elements of the Marketing Mix of Fruit and Vegetables in BIH

    OpenAIRE

    Dončić, Dalibor; Nastić, Rade

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyzed in detail elements of the marketing mix of fruit and vegetables, therefore this product, price, distribution, promotion and people in Bosnia and Herzegovina, after seven years of liberal market within CEFTA. Each element of the marketing mix is analyzed for the most important vegetable species (cabbage, onions, peppers, tomatoes) and fruit species (apple, pear, plum). The analyzed elements of the marketing mix are compared with the characteristics of the elements of...

  7. Early Yield Prediction Using Image Analysis of Apple Fruit and Tree Canopy Features with Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Since early yield prediction is relevant for resource requirements of harvesting and marketing in the whole fruit industry, this paper presents a new approach of using image analysis and tree canopy features to predict early yield with artificial neural networks (ANN; (2 Methods: Two back propagation neural network (BPNN models were developed for the early period after natural fruit drop in June and the ripening period, respectively. Within the same periods, images of apple cv. “Gala” trees were captured from an orchard near Bonn, Germany. Two sample sets were developed to train and test models; each set included 150 samples from the 2009 and 2010 growing season. For each sample (each canopy image, pixels were segmented into fruit, foliage, and background using image segmentation. The four features extracted from the data set for the canopy were: total cross-sectional area of fruits, fruit number, total cross-section area of small fruits, and cross-sectional area of foliage, and were used as inputs. With the actual weighted yield per tree as a target, BPNN was employed to learn their mutual relationship as a prerequisite to develop the prediction; (3 Results: For the developed BPNN model of the early period after June drop, correlation coefficients (R2 between the estimated and the actual weighted yield, mean forecast error (MFE, mean absolute percentage error (MAPE, and root mean square error (RMSE were 0.81, −0.05, 10.7%, 2.34 kg/tree, respectively. For the model of the ripening period, these measures were 0.83, −0.03, 8.9%, 2.3 kg/tree, respectively. In 2011, the two previously developed models were used to predict apple yield. The RMSE and R2 values between the estimated and harvested apple yield were 2.6 kg/tree and 0.62 for the early period (small, green fruit and improved near harvest (red, large fruit to 2.5 kg/tree and 0.75 for a tree with ca. 18 kg yield per tree. For further method verification, the cv.

  8. Answers to questions posed by the Michigan Governor's Nuclear Waste Disposal Task Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A general presentation of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program was given on July 26, 1976, to the Michigan Environmental Review Board and the Michigan Governor's Nuclear Waste Disposal Task Force. Following the presentation, Dr. William G. Taylor, Chairman of the Task Force, provided ERDA with a listing of questions which pertained to the NWTS program and ERDA/OWI's interest in northeast Michigan. This document contains copies of the information which was provided to Dr. Taylor in response to his inquiry

  9. Sustainable Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the

  10. Language, copyright and geographic segmentation in the EU Digital Single Market for music and film

    OpenAIRE

    Estrella Gomez Herrera; Bertin Martens

    2015-01-01

    The EU seeks to create a seamless online Digital Single Market for media products such as digital music and film. The territoriality of the copyright regime is often perceived as an obstacle that induces geographical segmentation. This paper provides empirical evidence on the extent of market segmentation in the EU on the supply and demand side and measures the contribution of several drivers of this market segmentation. We use data from the Apple iTunes country stores in 27 EU Member States ...

  11. Environmental status of the Lake Michigan region. Volume 16. Amphibians and reptiles of the Lake Michigan drainage basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pentecost, E.D.; Vogt, R.C.

    1976-07-01

    The focus of this report is on regional distribution of the herpetofauna of the Lake Michigan Drainage Basin. The introduction includes a brief discussion of plant communities and their associated herpetofauna, and the importance of hibernacula and migration routes. Some aspects of the status, distribution, habitat, and life history of the amphibians and reptiles of the Basin are described in an annotated checklist. Special attention is given to uncommon and endangered species. Species range is shown on distribution maps.

  12. Environmental status of the Lake Michigan region. Volume 16. Amphibians and reptiles of the Lake Michigan drainage basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentecost, E.D.; Vogt, R.C.

    1976-07-01

    The focus of this report is on regional distribution of the herpetofauna of the Lake Michigan Drainage Basin. The introduction includes a brief discussion of plant communities and their associated herpetofauna, and the importance of hibernacula and migration routes. Some aspects of the status, distribution, habitat, and life history of the amphibians and reptiles of the Basin are described in an annotated checklist. Special attention is given to uncommon and endangered species. Species range is shown on distribution maps

  13. Ground-water contamination and legal controls in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Morris

    1963-01-01

    The great importance of the fresh ground-water resources of Michigan is evident because 90 percent of the rural and about 70 percent of the total population of the State exclusive of the Detroit metropolitan area are supplied from underground sources. The water-supply and public-health problems that have been caused by some cases of ground-water contamination in the State illustrate the necessity of protecting this vital resource.Manmade and natural contaminants, including many types of chemical and organic matter, have entered many of the numerous aquifers of the State. Aquifers have been contaminated by waste-laden liquids percolating from the surface or from the zone of aeration and by direct injection to the aquifer itself. Industrial and domestic wastes, septic tanks, leaking sewers, flood waters or other poor quality surface waters, mine waters, solids stored or spread at the surface, and even airborne wastes all have been sources of ground-water contamination in Michigan. In addition, naturally occurring saline waters have been induced into other aquifers by overpumping or unrestricted flow from artesian wells, possibly by dewatering operations, and by the deepening of surface stream channels. Vertical migration of saline waters through open holes from formations underlying various important aquifers also has spoiled some of the fresh ground waters in the State. In spite of the contamination that has occurred, however, the total amount of ground water that has been spoiled is only a small part of the total resource. Neither is the contamination so widespread as that of the surface streams of Michigan.Overall legal authority to control most types of ground-water contamination in the State has been assigned by the Michigan Legislature to the Water Resources Commission, although the Department of Conservation and the Health Department also exercise important water-pollution control functions. The Michigan Supreme Court, in an important case upholding the power

  14. Lake Michigan Wind Assessment Analysis, 2012 and 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R Standridge

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to address the wind energy potential over Lake Michigan to support a commercial wind farm.  Lake Michigan is an inland sea in the upper mid-western United States.  A laser wind sensor mounted on a floating platform was located at the mid-lake plateau in 2012 and about 10.5 kilometers from the eastern shoreline near Muskegon Michigan in 2013.  Range gate heights for the laser wind sensor were centered at 75, 90, 105, 125, 150, and 175 meters.  Wind speed and direction were measured once each second and aggregated into 10 minute averages.  The two sample t-test and the paired-t method were used to perform the analysis.  Average wind speed stopped increasing between 105 m and 150 m depending on location.  Thus, the collected data is inconsistent with the idea that average wind speed increases with height. This result implies that measuring wind speed at wind turbine hub height is essential as opposed to using the wind energy power law to project the wind speed from lower heights.  Average speed at the mid-lake plateau is no more that 10% greater than at the location near Muskegon.  Thus, it may be possible to harvest much of the available wind energy at a lower height and closer to the shoreline than previously thought.  At both locations, the predominate wind direction is from the south-southwest.  The ability of the laser wind sensor to measure wind speed appears to be affected by a lack of particulate matter at greater heights.   Keywords: wind assessment, Lake Michigan, LIDAR wind sensor, statistical analysis. Article History: Received June 15th 2016; Received in revised form January 16th 2017; Accepted February 2nd 2017 Available online How to Cite This Article: Standridge, C., Zeitler, D., Clark, A., Spoelma, T., Nordman, E., Boezaart, T.A., Edmonson, J.,  Howe, G., Meadows, G., Cotel, A. and Marsik, F. (2017 Lake Michigan Wind Assessment Analysis, 2012 and 2013. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development

  15. Consumer Perception Concerning Apple Fruit Quality, Depending on Cultivars and Hedonic Scale of Evaluation - a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina DAN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse fruit quality through consumers’ perceptions and their preferences revealed by two panel questionnaires. Among the most common apple cultivars on the Romanian markets, were chosen the ones existing simultaneously and continuously (over two-years, during January-March: ‘Golden Delicious’, ‘Braeburn’, ‘Granny Smith’, ‘Red Delicious’, ‘Jonagold’, ‘Jonathan’, ‘Florina’, ‘Idared’. The consumers’ panel for sensory evaluation was represented by students, who completed two types of questionnaires. Both questionnaires refer to foremost traits for dessert apple, such as fruit appearance (size, shape, color and intrinsic peculiarities (pulp consistency, juiciness, taste, flavor. First questionnaire comprised different scales for the traits (1-3, 1-5 or 1-15, while the second one consisted of the hedonic scale (1-9 for all traits. For commercial appearance of the fruits were highlighted ‘Idared’, ‘Granny Smith’, ‘Braeburn’ and especially ‘Jonagold’. ‘Braeburn’ was distinct by the highest quality taste (average grade 13.9 on the scoring taste scale 1-15 and also for fruit flavor. ‘Granny Smith’, a commercially attractive-looking fruit, received only an average of 6.2 for taste and 2.6 for flavor. ‘Granny Smith’ presented the largest value for the coefficients of variation for taste, this variety being preferred less by female than male tasters. Inconsistency of the market, prices and foreign assortment on Romanian market was illustrated by the lack of statistical correlations between commercial fruit quality and price. The study could provide useful background information for apples breeders, farmers and marketing fruits strategy. The use of different scales for panel evaluation, dependent on the relevance of traits, might be a proper solution for reducing bias. In this case, the 1-15 large scale for apple taste compared with lower ones for other traits

  16. 76 FR 56635 - Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... second zone, which is classified as modified accredited, comprises Alcona, Alpena, Montmorency, Oscoda...) A zone in Michigan that comprises Alcona, Alpena, Montmorency, and Oscoda Counties. * * * * * [[Page...

  17. TRICARE Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-21

    definitive. It stated that: Marketing is much more than advertising or promotion materials. Marketing is a foundation for building a business strategy ; it...objectives, and strategies for marketing TRICARE. However, the Director provided the plan for information; none of the recipients of the plan were...overarching goal and extensively in the marketing strategies section. Specifically, the Marketing Plan states that strategies employed to accomplish

  18. Hospital marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation.

  19. Internet marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Zelený, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In the bachelor thesis are introduced theoretical concepts of the Internet and marketing, accented the need of marketing mix along with its specifics of the internet environment. Next is interpreted which tools can be used for marketing of firms and which marketing instruments are to be deployed. Final chapter illustrates socio-demographics of Czech internet users along with media market allocation from the perspective of all media as well as in the segment of the Internet.

  20. Money Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Marvin Goodfriend

    2011-01-01

    Money markets offer monetary services and short-term finance in the capital market with the credit support of institutional sponsors. Investors finance money market instruments at low interest because their salability on short notice confers an implicit monetary services yield. Low interest attracts borrowers to money markets. The fragile equilibrium depends on collective confidence in the credit quality of instruments supplied to the market. Federal Reserve monetary and credit policies have ...

  1. Stingless bees further improve apple pollination and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blandina Felipe Viana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of Africanised honeybee (Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier hives to increase pollination success in apple orchards is a widespread practice. However, this study is the first to investigate the number of honeybee hives ha-1 required to increase the production of fruits and seeds as well as the potential contribution of the stingless bee Mandaçaia (Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lepeletier. We performed tests in a 43-ha apple orchard located in the municipality of Ibicoara (13º24’50.7’’S and 41º17’7.4’’W in Chapada Diamantina, State of Bahia, Brazil. In 2011, fruits from the Eva variety set six seeds on average, and neither a greater number of hives (from 7 to 11 hives ha-1 nor a greater number of pollen collectors at the honeybee hives displayed general effects on the seed number. Without wild pollinators, seven Africanised honeybee hives ha-1 with pollen collectors is currently the best option for apple producers because no further increase in the seed number was observed with higher hive densities. In 2012, supplementation with both stingless bees (12 hives ha-1 and Africanised honeybees (7 hives ha-1 provided higher seed and fruit production than supplementation with honeybees (7 hives ha-1 alone. Therefore, the stingless bee can improve the performance of honeybee as a pollinator of apple flowers, since the presence of both of these bees results in increases in apple fruit and seed number.

  2. Food allergy to apple and specific immunotherapy with birch pollen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K.S.; Khinchi, M.S.; Skov, P.S.

    2004-01-01

    Conflicting results concerning the effect of specific pollen immunotherapy (SIT) on allergy to plant foods have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SIT using a birch pollen extract on food allergy with focus on allergy to apple. Seventy-four birch pollen-allergic......Conflicting results concerning the effect of specific pollen immunotherapy (SIT) on allergy to plant foods have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SIT using a birch pollen extract on food allergy with focus on allergy to apple. Seventy-four birch pollen......-allergic patients were included in a double-blind, double-dummy, and placebo-controlled comparison of sublingual-swallow (SLIT) and subcutaneous (SCIT) administration of a birch pollen extract. Sixty-nine percent of these patients reported allergy to apple. The clinical reactivity to apple was evaluated by open...... oral challenges with fresh apple and a questionnaire. The immunoglobulin E (IgE)-reactivity was assessed by skin prick test (SPT), specific IgE, and leukocyte histamine release (HR). Forty patients were included in the final evaluation of the effect of SIT. The challenges were positive in 9 (SCIT), 6...

  3. Novel 1,3-dioxanes from apple juice and cider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvadias, D; Beuerle, T; Wein, M; Boss, B; König, T; Schwab, W

    1999-12-01

    Extracts obtained by XAD solid-phase extraction of apple juice and cider were separated by liquid chromatography on silica gel. Several new 1,3-dioxanes including the known 2-methyl-4-pentyl-1,3-dioxane and 2-methyl-4-[2'(Z)-pentenyl]-1,3-dioxane, were identified in the nonpolar fractions by GC/MS analysis and confirmed by chemical synthesis. The enantioselective synthesis of the stereoisomers of the 1,3-dioxanes was performed using (R)- and (R,S)-octane-1,3-diol and (R)- and (R,S)-5(Z)-octene-1,3-diol as starting material. Comparison with the isolated products indicated that the natural products consisted of a mixture of (2S,4R) and (2R,4R) stereoisomers in the ratio of approximately 10:1, except for 1,3-dioxanes generated from acetone and 2-butanone. It is assumed that the 1, 3-dioxanes are chemically formed in the apples and cider from the natural apple ingredients (R)-octane-1,3-diol, (R)-5(Z)-octene-1, 3-diol, (3R,7R)- and (3R,7S)-octane-1,3,7-triol, and the appropriate aldehydes and ketones, which are produced either by the apples or by yeast during fermentation of the apple juice.

  4. Nitrogen availability in an apple orchard with weed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Brunetto

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Weed management in apple orchards (Malus domestica can affect the leaching of nitrogen (N in soil. The study aimed to evaluate the potential leaching of N forms in soil of an apple orchard with different weed management treatments. The experiment was conducted in an apple orchard implanted in 2008. In October 2011, 80 plants were selected and the following treatments were implemented: no weed management (NM, desiccation of weeds on the tree row with herbicide use (DR and mechanical mowing of weeds on the tree row (MR. Yield was evaluated in the 2011/2012, 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 crop seasons. In May 2012 porous cup lysimeters were installed in the NM, DR and MR treatments. In the solution collected at 0.20m, NH4 +-N and NO3 --N were analyzed sixteen times and mineral N concentration was calculated. The highest concentrations of NO3 --N and mineral N occurred in soil solution with DR, which increases availability of the nutrient to apple trees, but also enhances the potential losses. Weed management and N flow in the solution did not affect apple yield.

  5. Investigation of Apple Vibration Characteristics Using Finite Element Modal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Mirzaei

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The most important quality indicator of fruits is the flesh firmness which is well correlated to their young’s modulus. In this research variation of vibration characteristics (shape modes, natural frequency of apple due to change of material characteristics (density, young's models, Poisson ratio and apple volume was investigated using Finite Element simulation. An image processing technique was used to obtain an unsymmetrical and non-spherical geometric model of apple. The exact three-dimensional shape of the fruit was created by determining the coordinates of apple surface and forming uneven rotational curvatures. Modal analysis with no boundary constraints has been applied. The first 20 Eigen frequencies and the corresponding mode shape were determined. Six rigid body modes possess zero resonant frequency which is related to the degree of freedom of a rigid body in space indicated the validity of finite element model. The modal analysis results showed that resonant frequency increased by increasing young's modulus of the fruit, while it decreased by increasing apple density. First mode torsion has a mean resonant frequency of 584 Hz. Variations of natural frequency due to change in young's modulus, density, and Poisson ratio were 80%, 11% and 4%, respectively. Coefficient of variation of resonant frequency in response to changing young's modulus was 2-3 times of that of density which shows the greatest effect of young modulus changes on natural frequency of fruits. Consequently with determination of fruits' natural frequency, their young modulus and firmness can be estimated.

  6. BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF APPLE JUICE ENRICHED BY HERBAL EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbal phytochemicals have recently become an attractive subject for scientists in many different research areas. The aim of this study was to determine antioxidant activity, total polyphenol and flavonoid content of apple juice enriched by water herbal extracts. Secondary was to evaluate sensory characteristic of enriched apple juice. It was found that applications of water herbal extracts to apple juice increase antioxidant activities, and also total polyphenol and flavonoid content with compare to pure apple juice. The highest biological activities were detected in apple juice with addition of lemon balm (14.42 mg TEAC/L; 84.38 mg TEAC/L; 50.88 mg GAE/L; 36.26 μg QE/L, oregano (14.92 mg TEAC/L; 79.97 mg TEAC/L; 50.51 mg GAE/L; 31.02 μg QE/L and salvia (8.40 mg TEAC/L; 30.40 mg TEAC/L; 23.33 mg GAE/L; 27.67 μg QE/L water extract. Sensorial analysis of samples showed, that enriched juices had better properties for evaluators with compared to pure juice. The aim of this study was also to mention the potential use of medicinal herbs in food industry, because plant bioactive compounds can play an important role in preventing cardiovascular diseases, cancers and reduction inflammatory action.

  7. Suppression subtractive hybridization as a tool to identify anthocyanin metabolism-related genes in apple skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Yusuke; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2010-01-01

    The pigmentation of anthocyanins is one of the important determinants for consumer preference and marketability in horticultural crops such as fruits and flowers. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the physiological process leading to the pigmentation of anthocyanins, identification of the genes differentially expressed in response to anthocyanin accumulation is a useful strategy. Currently, microarrays have been widely used to isolate differentially expressed genes. However, the use of microarrays is limited by its high cost of special apparatus and materials. Therefore, availability of microarrays is limited and does not come into common use at present. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) is an alternative tool that has been widely used to identify differentially expressed genes due to its easy handling and relatively low cost. This chapter describes the procedures for SSH, including RNA extraction from polysaccharides and polyphenol-rich samples, poly(A)+ RNA purification, evaluation of subtraction efficiency, and differential screening using reverse northern in apple skin.

  8. Postharvest behaviour of two Sardinian apple varieties following immersion in heated sodium bicarbonate solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, T; Molinu, M G; Dore, A; Agabbio, M; D'Hallewin, G

    2010-01-01

    'Miali' and 'Caddina' are apple varieties of Sardinian germplasm, mainly produced under sustainable conditions. Fruit is rarely subjected to cold storage and postharvest losses are generally high. In order to prolong the marketing period and contain postharvest decay of these local varieties, we investigated on their storage behaviour and on the efficacy of combined alternative postharvest treatments. Pre-climateric fruit was harvested and immersed for 0 (control), 15, 30, 45 or 60 sec. in water at 20, 50, 55 or 60 degrees C with or without 2% (W/V) NaHCO3 (SBC). Then, fruit was stored for 4 months at 5 degrees C and 90% RH followed by a 6 day simulated marketing period (SMP) at 10 degrees C and 75% RH. Decay was monitored at the end of storage and after the SMP, while appearance and physiological disorders were evaluated after SMP. During storage 56 and 62% of the untreated 'Caddina' and 'Miali' apples rotted, respectively. During the SMP, an additional 3% of 'Caddina' and 5% of 'Miali' was lost. Among the treatments the best decay control, for both varieties, was attained when fruit was immersed in the SBC solution at 55 degrees C for 60 sec. Compared to control, decay was reduced by 91 and 95% for 'Caddina' and 'Miali', respectively. This combination induced some rind damage, mainly on 'Caddina' fruit. Superficial scald was evident on 'Caddina' and scored as medium while, cold storage induced a significant deposition of epicuticular wax in 'Miali' fruit, affecting significantly fruit appearance. A significant reduction of decay was also achieved when fruit was immersed at 60 degrees C for 30 or 45 sec., attaining for 'Caddina' a reduction of 82 and 88% of decay, respectively. Other combinations were lesser effective or produced rind damages and most decay was caused by Penicillium expansum.

  9. Análisis de la comunicación publicitaria de Apple: La construcción de imagen de marca a través de la creatividad

    OpenAIRE

    Senovilla Rodríguez, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    La imagen de marca de Apple Inc. es uno de los pilares más fuertes que sostienen a la empresa estadounidense. Esta sólida imagen de marca, se ha construido a lo largo de los años y desde 1976 a través de una amplia política de comunicación. Esta mezcla de promoción se nutre de diversas herramientas como la venta personal, la promoción de ventas, las relaciones públicas, el marketing directo, el merchandising o la publicidad y, sin duda, en el caso de Apple Inc. debemos subrayar...

  10. Exogenous melatonin improves Malus resistance to Marssonina apple blotch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lihua; Wang, Ping; Li, Mingjun; Ke, Xiwang; Li, Cuiying; Liang, Dong; Wu, Shan; Ma, Xinli; Li, Chao; Zou, Yangjun; Ma, Fengwang

    2013-05-01

    We examined whether exogenously applied melatonin could improve resistance to Marssonina apple blotch (Diplocarpon mali) by apple [Malus prunifolia (Willd.) Borkh. cv. Donghongguo]. This serious disease leads to premature defoliation in the main regions of apple production. When plants were pretreated with melatonin, resistance was increased in the leaves. We investigated the potential roles for melatonin in modulating levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), as well the activities of antioxidant enzymes and pathogenesis-related proteins during these plant-pathogen interactions. Pretreatment enabled plants to maintain intracellular H2O2 concentrations at steady-state levels and enhance the activities of plant defence-related enzymes, possibly improving disease resistance. Because melatonin is safe and beneficial to animals and humans, exogenous pretreatment might represent a promising cultivation strategy to protect plants against this pathogen infection. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Comparison of cultivable acetic acid bacterial microbiota in organic and conventional apple cider vinegar

    OpenAIRE

    Mori Štornik, Aleksandra; Skok, Barbara; Trček, Janja

    2017-01-01

    Organic apple cider vinegar is produced from apples that go through very restricted treatment in orchard. During the first stage of the process, the sugars from apples are fermented by yeasts to cider. The produced ethanol is used as a substrate by acetic acid bacteria in a second separated bioprocess. In both, the organic and conventional apple cider vinegars the ethanol oxidation to acetic acid is initiated by native microbiota that survived alcohol fermentation. We compared the cultivable ...

  12. Identification of gamma irradiated apples by the half-embryo test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Gabriel C.; Bujan, Alfonso; Leiva, Carlos H.; Yusef, Maria V.

    2003-01-01

    The half-embryo test was applied to irradiated apples (var. Red delicious).The irradiation of apples caused obvious changes in the growth of the half-embryo. A dose of 100 Gy or more, inhibits the epicotyl development and with 50 Gy dose is possible to observe a great contrast with the non-irradiated apples. If the epicotyl development is less than 4 cm., the apples are identified as irradiated. The assessment can be made after 7 days. (author)

  13. Antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content in different apple varieties cultivated in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Quitral, Vilma; Sepulveda, Marcela; Schwartz, Marco; Kern, Werther

    2014-01-01

    Three apple varieties cultivated in Chile were studied in total polyphenol content by Folin Ciocalteu method and antioxidant capacity by FRAP method: Granny Smith, Royal Gala and Fuji (whole and peeled apples). The total polyphenol content in whole and peeled apples do not show significant differences. The antioxidant capacity of the Granny Smith variety is significantly higher than Royal Gala and Fuji. Apple dehydration at 60 oC for 4 hours to obtain flakes keeps polyphenol content high. The...

  14. Marketing fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, W H

    2001-01-01

    This chapter outlines current marketing practice from a managerial perspective. The role of marketing within an organization is discussed in relation to efficiency and adaptation to changing environments. Fundamental terms and concepts are presented in an applied context. The implementation of marketing plans is organized around the four P's of marketing: product (or service), promotion (including advertising), place of delivery, and pricing. These are the tools with which marketers seek to better serve their clients and form the basis for competing with other organizations. Basic concepts of strategic relationship management are outlined. Lastly, alternate viewpoints on the role of advertising in healthcare markets are examined.

  15. Politisk marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Disciplinen politisk marketing er udbredt i mange vestlige lande. Imidlertid er kendskabet til politisk marketing i Danmark bemærkelsesværdigt lavt. I det lys er denne bog Politisk Marketing: Personer, Partier & Praksis den første bog i Danmark, som -ud fra marketing- indkredser de sidste mange års...... brudflader i dansk politik. Gennem ti bidrag fra forskere og praktikere udskraber forfatterne et DNA for feltet politisk marketing. Kort sagt kan du i denne bog finde svarene på: Hvad er politisk marketing? Hvordan har det udviklet sig? Og hvilke konsekvenser har dette fænomen for vælgere, partier og...

  16. To market, to market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieberman, J.I.

    1992-01-01

    Senator Lieberman and three fellow members of Congress introduced the CO 2 Offset Policy Efficiency Act (COPE), which incorporates the use of marketable permits to reduce CO 2 emissions. For COPE to be fully effective, however, several key criteria must be met: (1) establishing initial baselines will be critical to ensure that emission reductions are credited properly; (2) accurate plant-by-plant monitoring must be in place to ensure that claimed reductions have actually occurred; (3) the program must include a strong enforcement provision to prevent evasion and to punish violators with substantial automatic fines. COPE imposes a sanction equal to roughly four times the estimated cost of offsets; the sanctions would be paid before enforcement proceedings commence. The urgency and complexity of global warming requires us to break with the past and develop new ways of delaying with pollution, Senator Lieberman feels by giving the market a chance to work on behalf of the environment, the sale of emission allowance will reduce CO 2 emissions in the most-efficient cost-effective way possible

  17. Patulin reduction in apple juice by inactivated Alicyclobacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Y; Wang, X; Hatab, S; Wang, Z; Wang, Y; Luo, Y; Yue, T

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the reduction of patulin (PAT) in apple juice by 12 inactivated Alicyclobacillus strains. The reduction rate of PAT by each strain was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results indicated that the removal of PAT was strain specific. Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris 92 and A. acidoterrestris 96 were the most effective ones among the 12 tested strains in the removal of PAT. Therefore, these two strains were selected to study the effects of incubation time, initial PAT concentration and bacteria powder amount on PAT removal abilities of Alicyclobacillus. The highest PAT reduction rates of 88·8 and 81·6% were achieved after 24-h incubation with initial PAT concentration of 100 μg l(-1) and bacteria powder amount of 40 g l(-1) , respectively. Moreover, it was found that the treatment by these 12 inactivated Alicyclobacillus strains had no negative effect on the quality parameters of apple juice. Similar assays were performed in supermarket apple juice, where inactivated Alicyclobacillus cells could efficiently reduce PAT content. Taken together, these data suggest the possible application of this strategy as a means to detoxify PAT-contaminated juices. Inactivated Alicyclobacillus cells can efficiently reduce patulin concentration in apple juice. It provides a theoretical foundation for recycling of Alicyclobacillus cells from spoiled apple juice to reduce the source of pollution and the cost of juice industry. This is the first report on the use of Alicyclobacillus to remove patulin from apple juice. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Evaluation of winter temperatures on apple budbreak using grafted twigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José Hawerroth

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is the main climate factor related to induction, maintenance and dormancy release in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.. The inadequate chilling exposure in apples causes budbreak problems, resulting in decrease in yield potential. Thus, the knowledge of physiological principles and environmental factors determining the dormancy phenomenon, especially winter temperature effects, it is necessary for the efficient selection of cultivars in a productive region. In addition, it is indispensable to adapt the orchard management aiming to decrease the problems caused by lack chilling during winter. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different thermal conditions during the dormancy period on budbreak of apple cultivars. One-year-old twigs of 'Castel Gala' and 'Royal Gala' cultivars, grafted on M7 rootstock, were submitted to temperatures of 5, 10 and 15ºC for different exposure periods (168; 336; 672; 1,008 and 1,344 hours. After treatments execution, the plants were kept in a greenhouse at 25ºC. Budbreak was quantified when accumulated 3,444; 6,888; 10,332; 13,776; 17,220 and 20,664 GDHºC after temperature treatments. The cultivars responded differently to temperature effect during the winter period. The temperature of 15ºC during winter shows a greater effectiveness on 'Castel Gala' apple budbreak while in the 'Royal Gala' apples the temperatures of 5 and 10ºC show better performance. 'Castel Gala' cultivar (low chilling requirement may supply its physiological necessities, may be capable to budburst, even when subjected to higher temperatures in relation to 'Royal Gala' apples (high chilling requirement.

  19. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increase salt tolerance of apple seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shou-Jun; Zhang, Zhong-Lan; Xue, Yuan-Xia; Zhang, Zhi-Fen; Shi, Shu-Yi

    2014-12-01

    Apple trees are often subject to severe salt stress in China as well as in the world that results in significant loss of apple production. Therefore this study was carried out to evaluate the response of apple seedlings inoculated with abuscular mycorrhizal fungi under 0, 2‰, 4‰ and 6‰ salinity stress levels and further to conclude the upper threshold of mycorrhizal salinity tolerance. The results shows that abuscular mycorrhizal fungi significantly increased the root length colonization of mycorrhizal apple plants with exposure time period to 0, 2‰ and 4‰ salinity levels as compared to non-mycorrhizal plants, however, percent root colonization reduced as saline stress increased. Salinity levels were found to negatively correlate with leaf relative turgidity, osmotic potential irrespective of non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal apple plants, but the decreased mycorrhizal leaf turgidity maintained relative normal values at 2‰ and 4‰ salt concentrations. Under salt stress condition, Cl - and Na + concentrations clearly increased and K + contents obviously decreased in non-mycorrhizal roots in comparison to mycorrhizal plants, this caused mycorrhizal plants had a relatively higher K + /Na + ratio in root. In contrast to zero salinity level, although ascorbate peroxidase and catalase activities in non-inoculated and inoculated leaf improved under all saline levels, the extent of which these enzymes increased was greater in mycorrhizal than in non-mycorrhizal plants. The numbers of survived tree with non-mycorrhization were 40, 20 and 0 (i.e., 66.7%, 33.3% and 0) on the days of 30, 60 and 90 under 4‰ salinity, similarly in mycorrhization under 6‰ salinity 40, 30 and 0 (i.e., 66.7%, 50% and 0) respectively. These results suggest that 2‰ and 4‰ salt concentrations may be the upper thresholds of salinity tolerance in non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal apple plants, respectively.

  20. Regional somatic embryogenesis from in vitro apple leaf and artificial seed of apple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Kedong; Li Yazhi; Shu Huairui; Wang Bin

    1998-01-01

    First three open leaves of in vitro apple (Malus domastica Borkh.) shoots were used as explants. Each leaf was divided into three regions (upper, middle and lower) from tip to base and each region was composed of two sub-regions (leaf and right) along the main vain. Every explant was pricked with a dissector at the center of one sub-region before inoculated on MS + BA 1 mg/L + NAA 4 mg/L + 2,4-D 0.5 mg/L medium and incubated in darkness for 7 days, then transferred to MS + BA 1 mg/L medium. 85% of the explants regenerated somatic embryos directly around the prick after 40 days. The embryos were encapsulated in 4% sodium alginate and 2% CaCl 2 as artificial seeds, which could germinate and grow into plantlets under aseptic condition