WorldWideScience

Sample records for marketing materials designed

  1. Designing Material Materialising Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Designing Material Materialising Design documents five projects developed at the Centre for Information Technology and Architecture (CITA) at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture. These projects explore the idea that new designed materials might require new design methods....... Focusing on fibre reinforced composites, this book sustains an exploration into the design and making of elastically tailored architectural structures that rely on the use of computational design to predict sensitive interdependencies between geometry and behaviour. Developing novel concepts...

  2. Marketing in Game Design

    OpenAIRE

    Nurminen, Emilia

    2013-01-01

    In my thesis, Marketing in Game Design, I wanted to inspect how developing a game from a purely commercial perspective affects on the game design. The purpose of this thesis is to define the valid aspects of product marketing for games, how they are perceived in game industry and how those aspects affect to the game design. The question I am asking is how to make marketing a fluent part of indie game development process. Through my thesis project, Puzzleplatform, I study how the marketing asp...

  3. Optimal Market Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; Goeree, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces three methodological advances to study the optimal design of static and dynamic markets. First, we apply a mechanism design approach to characterize all incentive-compatible market equilibria. Second, we conduct a normative analysis, i.e. we evaluate alternative competition and

  4. Design for Global Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boztepe, Suzan

    2009-01-01

    In a global economy, no company can safely assume that their products will be accepted in foreign markets. One key issue is to understand and meet the latent needs of culturally diverse target markets. This book examines from a user perspective the issue of developing new products for global...... markets. Given that main goal of any design is to create value for users, Boztepe argues that the concept of user value could be a driving force in design decision-making regarding product development for global markets. Through interviews with women about their kitchen practices and observations...... framework to assists marketers, product designers and managers to deal with the complex issue of designing and tailoring products for local needs....

  5. Essays on Market Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yun

    market mechanisms; in addition, how to design alternative mechanisms that can more effectively allocate scarce resources with diverse economic and social goals. Chapter 1 studies the impact of affirmative action policies in the context of school choice. It addresses the following two questions: what...... that bidders’ strategic behavior essentially comes from their diverse market positions (i.e., the winning probability and the probability of deciding the market-clearing price). That is, if a bidder has a relatively strong market position, she has less incentive to shade her bid for the second unit in a UPA...

  6. Designing competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, H.P.; Huntington, H.

    1998-01-01

    This volume of papers, originally presented at Stanford in March 1997 in a conference sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute, examines several questions about the restructuring and deregulation of electricity markets. Its stated goal is to present guiding principles for evaluating proposals to restructure the US electric power industry. While a collection of essays is perhaps not the best place to lay out guiding principles, the volume does contain a great deal of learning about restructuring. The first essay is a reprint of Paul Joskow's excellent article in the ''Journal of Economic Perspectives''. An essay by William Hogan on the debate between zonal and locational pricing is next. Paul Kleindorfer lists the various governance schemes which other countries that have restructured have used to govern system operation, access to the market for power, and transmission ownership and pricing. One difficulty with the book, as well as the debate in the US, is that it fails to draw adequately upon the international experience. Shmuel Oren lays out the potential areas over which an ISO could have authority. The chapter by Stephen Rassenti and Vernon Smith that bilateral trading should never be allowed, implying that a mandatory pool should be established. A reduction in regulation may increase the incentives for technological innovation. Martin Baughman suggests a number of ways by which costs of transmitting and storing electricity may be reduced. Robert Wilson returns to the volume with a chapter on institutional design. To end the volume, Hung-Po Chao and Stephen Peck present an extension of their earlier work in the ''Journal of Regulatory Economics'' showing how markets for transmission rights would work in a transmission grid of three points

  7. The art of designing markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Alvin E

    2007-10-01

    Traditionally, markets have been viewed as simply the confluence of supply and demand. But to function properly, they must be able to attract a sufficient number of buyers and sellers, induce participants to make their preferences clear, and overcome congestion by providing both enough time to make choices and a speedy means of registering them. Solutions to these challenges are the province of market design--a blend of game theory and experimental economics. Roth, a professor of both business and economics at Harvard, is a leading market designer. He and his colleagues have rescued failing markets by, for example, designing labor clearinghouses through which U.S. doctors get their first jobs and auctions through which the Federal Communications Commission sells licenses for parts of the radio broadcast spectrum. They have also created marketlike allocation procedures that involve neither prices nor an exchange of money; these include systems for assigning children to schools in Boston and New York and for facilitating exchanges of kidneys. Computers enable the design of "smart markets" that combine the inputs of users in complex ways: In kidney exchange, they run through every possible match of donors and recipients to arrange the greatest possible number of transplants. In the future, computers may make it possible to auction bundled goods, such as airport takeoff and landing slots. As online markets--like those for jobs and dating--proliferate, a growing understanding of markets in general will provide virtually limitless opportunities for market design.

  8. Design choices for electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vries, Laurens

    2007-07-01

    Ten years after the first European Electricity Directive, the goal of creating a single European electricity market has not been reached, despite concerted efforts by the EU and certain member states to continue with the reforms. The policy of subsidiarity for many aspects of market design has as a consequence that member countries are implementing a variety of different market designs and are implementing the reforms at varying speeds. The Florence regulatory process, which was intended to provide a bottom-up approach for coordination and harmonization, has effectively stalled and been replaced by a series of 'mini fora' in which smaller groups of countries work on integrating their markets. At the same time, the European electricity supply industry is facing some significant challenges. This paper investigates the different choices that can be made in the design of electricity markets, how they relate to each other and how they relate to the policy goals. (auth)

  9. Raw Materials Market of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Alexandrovich Izotov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Deficit of raw materials is becoming an important concern for the Chinese economy as it continues to grow. This deficit is amended with imports, which – in their own turn – are limited by the high level of global prices. The build-up issue of raw materials imports is going to solve by the measures of monetary policy (RMB’s revaluation against the USD. Analysis of China’s market of raw materials reveals that the largest increase in the physical volume of imports is concentrated in crude oil, LNG, iron ore and coal. As for Russia, its supplies and share in total Chinese imports of raw materials tend to increase. Author employs regression equations based on international statistics data to show that RMB’s revaluation, ceteris paribus, increases physical volumes of raw materials imports. However, the main factor of coal and LNG imports growth is energy consumption by Chinese heavy industry; imports of oil products – producers’ prices; meanwhile imports of steel products tend to decrease with the growth of steel exports. RMB’s revaluation increases physical volumes of imports of low value added raw materials from Russia (coal, crude oil, iron ore

  10. INDUSTRIAL DESIGN ELEMENTS IN MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TOCARIU Liliana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Industrial design represents an important 20th century phenomenon, which contributed to the spectacular development of human society. There are a lot of domains in which the insertion of the industrial design methods and theories is extremely necessary, becoming common practice. Marketing uses industrial design elements in order to draw up advertisements for products, to develop logos or packaging with all its attached factors, to organise promotional sales with the view of penetrating a certain market or of appealing to a large number of consumers.

  11. 7 CFR 29.37 - Designated market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designated market. 29.37 Section 29.37 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.37 Designated market. An auction market designated by the Secretary...

  12. Market Design and Supply Security in Imperfect Power Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwenen, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Supply security in imperfect power markets is modelled under different market designs. In a uniform price auction for electricity with two firms, strategic behaviour may leave firms offering too few capacities and unable to supply all realized demand. Market design that relies oncapacity markets...... increases available generation capacities for sufficiently high capacity prices and consequently decreases energy prices. However, equilibrium capacity prices are non-competitive. Capacity markets can increase security of supply, but cannot mitigate market power, which is exercised in the capacity market...

  13. Designing with residual materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhout, W.; Wever, R.; Blom, E.; Addink-Dölle, L.; Tempelman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Many entrepreneurial businesses have attempted to create value based on the residual material streams of third parties. Based on ‘waste’ materials they designed products, around which they built their company. Such activities have the potential to yield sustainable products. Many of such companies

  14. On the Design of Artificial Stock Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Boer-Sorban (Katalin); A. de Bruin (Arie); U. Kaymak (Uzay)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractArtificial stock markets are designed with the aim to study and understand market dynamics by representing (part of) real stock markets. Since there is a large variety of real stock markets with several partially observable elements and hidden processes, artificial markets differ

  15. Market design and supply security in imperfect power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenen, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Supply security in imperfect power markets is modelled under different market designs. In a uniform price auction for electricity with two firms, strategic behaviour may leave firms offering too few capacities and unable to supply all realized demand. Market design that relies on capacity markets increases available generation capacities for sufficiently high capacity prices and consequently decreases energy prices. However, equilibrium capacity prices are non-competitive. Capacity markets can increase security of supply, but cannot mitigate market power, which is exercised in the capacity market instead of the energy market. - Highlights: • I model two power generating firms who compete to serve stochastic demand in a multiunit uniform price auction. • In equilibrium, blackout probabilities can arise through capacity withholding. • Capacity mechanisms decrease capacity withholding and the expected energy price. • With dominant firms, capacity mechanisms are only effective if capacity prices are non-competitive and include a mark-up for leaving the energy-only market optimum

  16. Allocation Problems and Market Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    The thesis contains six independent papers with a common theme: Allocation problems and market design. The first paper is concerned with fair allocation of risk capital where independent autonomous subunits have risky activities and together constitute the entity's total risk, whose associated risk...... at a certain point in time involves countries that have excess demand and countries that have surplus of green energy. The problem addressed here is how the gains from trade ought to influence the way that members of the grid share common costs. The fifth paper extends the classical two-sided one...

  17. Globalization determinants of raw materials markets development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yatsenko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The determinants of development of raw materials markets and the peculiarities of their formation in the terms of world economy globalization have been researched. The empirical base of research is the agricultural food market as one of the most important bases in the sphere of material production and provision of food security of the country. The important social and economic mission of the agricultural sector has been highlighted, along with the export competitiveness and import dependence of agricultural food products in the international trade. The imperative norms have been substantiated and conclusions have been drawn regarding the establishment of respective conditions for the operation of globally integrated markets in Ukraine.

  18. Designing carbon markets, Part II: Carbon markets in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fankhauser, Samuel; Hepburn, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the design of carbon markets in space (i.e., geographically). It is part of a twin set of papers that, starting from first principles, ask what an optimal global carbon market would look like by around 2030. Our focus is on firm-level cap-and-trade systems, although much of what we say would also apply to government-level trading and carbon offset schemes. We examine the 'first principles' of spatial design to maximise flexibility and to minimise costs, including key design issues in linking national and regional carbon markets together to create a global carbon market.

  19. Essays on market design and strategic behaviour in energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenczik, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The thesis at hand consists of four essays which are divided into two parts. In the first part, consisting of the first two essays, market design issues in electricity markets are discussed. More precisely, it deals with concerns regarding security of supply: First, the concerns regarding the availability of sufficient flexibility to cope with intermittent renewable energy electricity generation. And second, the consequences of insufficient investments signals in energy only markets in interconnected electricity markets. Part two deals with strategic behaviour in spatial natural resource markets. Strategic behaviour and the exertion of market power have always been a matter of concern in energy markets, especially in natural resource markets. The exertion of market power can result in deadweight losses - regulatory bodies try to address this by market regulations aiming for a welfare maximising market outcome. The first problem is to detect collusive behaviour as available data is frequently limited. The second question is how regulatory decisions may influence the market outcome. Both topics are investigated by using the example of the international metallurgical coal market.

  20. Essays on market design and strategic behaviour in energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenczik, Stefan

    2017-11-13

    The thesis at hand consists of four essays which are divided into two parts. In the first part, consisting of the first two essays, market design issues in electricity markets are discussed. More precisely, it deals with concerns regarding security of supply: First, the concerns regarding the availability of sufficient flexibility to cope with intermittent renewable energy electricity generation. And second, the consequences of insufficient investments signals in energy only markets in interconnected electricity markets. Part two deals with strategic behaviour in spatial natural resource markets. Strategic behaviour and the exertion of market power have always been a matter of concern in energy markets, especially in natural resource markets. The exertion of market power can result in deadweight losses - regulatory bodies try to address this by market regulations aiming for a welfare maximising market outcome. The first problem is to detect collusive behaviour as available data is frequently limited. The second question is how regulatory decisions may influence the market outcome. Both topics are investigated by using the example of the international metallurgical coal market.

  1. Design of energy markets and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birk Mortensen, J.; Olsen, O.J.; Skytte, K.

    1999-01-01

    The introduction of competition in electricity and gas markets has necessitated the creation of new markets, power pools and financial markets. Such markets are well known from other industries (e.g. oil) but have not been applied for the gas and electricity industries during the monopoly era. To which extent can market design applied elsewhere be transferred to gas and electricity and to which extent must they be modified? The interest in new market designs has recently been extended to environmentally goals, but existing policies to encourage them are considered inefficient and a burden for the state budget. This conference brings some of these subjects into focus. (au)

  2. Electricity market design for the future

    OpenAIRE

    robinson, david; Keay, Malcolm

    2017-01-01

    This paper explains why current electricity markets are not fit for purpose and propose a new market design. Electricity markets operating today were designed for the technical and economic conditions of the 1990's. These conditions have changed substantially, especially with increased penetration of intermittent renewables and the growing potential for distributed energy resources and consumer involvement. Today's markets are incompatible with these trends. They do not provide h...

  3. New Brunswick Market Design Committee : market design issues paper : choice of market model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    A model for the competitive electricity market in New Brunswick was not specified by the White Paper: New Brunswick Energy Policy, published in March 2001. One of the tasks of the Market Design Committee (MDC) is to select a market model for the province. This report was prepared with this objective in mind. It begins by providing a description of the basic functions that must be performed by any electricity system. Different market models will function differently, and a descriptions of how the functions would be performed under each model is presented. Considering the specific size and geographic location of New Brunswick, a number of actual markets that could be of interest are presented. The various electricity markets normally use one of four market models: vertically integrated monopoly utility, a competitive pool market, a bilateral contract market, and a single-buyer market. The first model was not explained as it represents the existing, non-competitive model whereby the government owns and/or regulates price and investment decision. The case where a market operator receives bids and offers from buyers and sellers and matches them to derive a price and schedule for the spot market is what is called the competitive pool market. When electricity trade takes place through a series of contracts between individual buyers and sellers, it is referred to as a bilateral contract market. Finally, the single-buyer market is defined as a monopoly where the buyer purchases from multiple sellers based on competition amongst them. Different examples are provided of applications of the three markets described in the paper. Both New England and New Zealand were chosen to better illustrate the concepts of a fully competitive pool-based market, as they either have close ties to New Brunswick, or share physical similarities. The single-buyer model is illustrated by the case of Northern Ireland where size is similar. The choices made in Quebec were described in the final

  4. Market Aspects of an Interior Design Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Judy E.

    A project was conducted to evaluate a proposed interior design program in order to determine the marketability (job availability in the field of interior design and home furnishings merchandising) and the feasibility (educational requirements for entrance into the interior design and home furnishings merchandising job market) of the program. To…

  5. Electricity market design and risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boschi, Federico; Cervigni, Guido

    2005-01-01

    We show that each wholesale electricity market design trades-off between efficiency and liquidity. Efficiency requires that the product traded in the wholesale market closely reflect the physical features of electricity. Liquidity requires standardization of the products that ore traded on the wholesale market. We stress that Iiquidity comes at a cost since an excessive degree of standardization may lead to significant inefficiencies and forge wealth transfers among market participants [it

  6. Electricity Market Manipulation: How Behavioral Modeling Can Help Market Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, Giulia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-12-18

    The question of how to best design electricity markets to integrate variable and uncertain renewable energy resources is becoming increasingly important as more renewable energy is added to electric power systems. Current markets were designed based on a set of assumptions that are not always valid in scenarios of high penetrations of renewables. In a future where renewables might have a larger impact on market mechanisms as well as financial outcomes, there is a need for modeling tools and power system modeling software that can provide policy makers and industry actors with more realistic representations of wholesale markets. One option includes using agent-based modeling frameworks. This paper discusses how key elements of current and future wholesale power markets can be modeled using an agent-based approach and how this approach may become a useful paradigm that researchers can employ when studying and planning for power systems of the future.

  7. Design and Operation of Distribution Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhizi, Sina

    in the electricity markets, and an analytical model is presented for design and operation of such markets.

  8. Materials by design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhardt, J.; Hay, P.J.; Carpenter, J.A. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Major developments in materials characterization instrumentation over the past decade have helped significantly to elucidate complex processes and phenomena connected with the microstructure of materials and interfacial interactions. Equally remarkable advances in theoretical models and computer technology also have been taking place during this period. These latter now permit, for example, in selected cases the computation of material structures and bonding and the prediction of some material properties. Two assessments of the state of the art of instrumental techniques and theoretical methods for the study of material structures and properties have recently been conducted. This paper discusses aspects from these assessments of computational theoretical methods apply to materials

  9. 42 CFR 423.2260 - Definitions concerning marketing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., yellow pages, or the Internet. (ii) Marketing representative materials such as scripts or outlines for... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions concerning marketing materials. 423... Marketing Requirements § 423.2260 Definitions concerning marketing materials. As used in this subpart...

  10. Computational materials design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Trial and error experimentation is an extremely expensive route to the development of new materials. The coming age of reduced defense funding will dramatically alter the way in which advanced materials have developed. In the absence of large funding we must concentrate on reducing the time and expense that the R and D of a new material consumes. This may be accomplished through the development of computational materials science. Materials are selected today by comparing the technical requirements to the materials databases. When existing materials cannot meet the requirements we explore new systems to develop a new material using experimental databases like the PDF. After proof of concept, the scaling of the new material to manufacture requires evaluating millions of parameter combinations to optimize the performance of the new device. Historically this process takes 10 to 20 years and requires hundreds of millions of dollars. The development of a focused set of computational tools to predict the final properties of new materials will permit the exploration of new materials systems with only a limited amount of materials characterization. However, to bound computational extrapolations, the experimental formulations and characterization will need to be tightly coupled to the computational tasks. The required experimental data must be obtained by dynamic, in-situ, very rapid characterization. Finally, to evaluate the optimization matrix required to manufacture the new material, very rapid in situ analysis techniques will be essential to intelligently monitor and optimize the formation of a desired microstructure. Techniques and examples for the rapid real-time application of XRPD and optical microscopy will be shown. Recent developments in the cross linking of the world's structural and diffraction databases will be presented as the basis for the future Total Pattern Analysis by XRPD. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  11. Materials in Participatory Design Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Nicolai Brodersen

    This dissertation presents three years of academic inquiry into the question of what role materials play in interaction design and participatory design processes. The dissertation aims at developing conceptual tools, based on Deweys pragmatism, for understanding how materials aid design reflection....... It has been developed using a research-through-design approach in which the author has conducted practical design work in order to investigate and experiment with using materials to scaffold design inquiry. The results of the PhD work is submitted as seven separate papers, submitted to esteemed journals...... and conferences within the field of interaction design and HCI. The work is motivated both by the growing interest in materials in interaction design and HCI and the interest in design processes and collaboration within those fields. At the core of the dissertation lies an interest in the many different materials...

  12. Designing through Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2014-01-01

    as an opportunity to connect the digital environment with the reality of materials – and use realisation and materialisation to generate architectural developments and findings through an iterative mode of thinking about the dialogue between drawing, materials and fabrication. Consequently the interest and mind...

  13. Designing carbon markets. Part I: Carbon markets in time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fankhauser, Samuel; Hepburn, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the design of carbon markets in time (i.e., intertemporally). It is part of a twin set of papers that ask, starting from first principles, what an optimal global carbon market would look like by around 2030. Our focus is on firm-level cap-and-trade systems, although much of what we say would also apply to government-level trading and carbon offset schemes. We examine the 'first principles' of temporal design that would help to maximise flexibility and to minimise costs, including banking and borrowing and other mechanisms to provide greater carbon price predictability and credibility over time.

  14. Electricity market design of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peek, Markus; Diels, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The transformation of the power generation system, to one in which renewable energies will form a cornerstone, will change the requirements for all market actors. To achieve the goals of the German Energiewende ('energy transition'), greater flexibility in production and consumption is of particular importance. Flexibility enables the cost-effective integration of the fluctuating actual feed-in of renewable energies. On the one hand, the technical options for reducing existing technical inflexibilities are given to a considerable extent. On the other hand, analyses of the transnational compensation effects of load and renewable energy supply (RES) feed-in show that flexibility requirements can be reduced significantly in a common electricity market. Electricity markets in which there is open technological competition are an appropriate instrument for the flexibilization of the power supply system. In the short term, the mechanisms of competitive electricity markets ensure an efficient synchronization of supply and demand. Over the medium and long term, the market creates efficient incentives to adapt the generation system and the behavior of consumers to future needs, resulting from the changes in the residual load structure. But at the same time, in recent years the occurrence of negative electricity prices in situations with significantly positive residual loads show that flexibility restraints exist. The causes of these restraints are at least partly due to the market design or the regulatory framework. On the one hand, there are barriers to market entry and, on the other hand, price signals from the electricity markets do not reach all market actors or reach them distortedly. To enable the cost effective development of the different flexibility options in an open technology competition, restraints resulting from market design and the regulatory framework (e. g. in the framework of grid charges, the market and product design of control power markets

  15. Design and analysis of electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioshansi, Ramteen Mehr

    Restructured competitive electricity markets rely on designing market-based mechanisms which can efficiently coordinate the power system and minimize the exercise of market power. This dissertation is a series of essays which develop and analyze models of restructured electricity markets. Chapter 2 studies the incentive properties of a co-optimized market for energy and reserves that pays reserved generators their implied opportunity cost---which is the difference between their stated energy cost and the market-clearing price for energy. By analyzing the market as a competitive direct revelation mechanism we examine the properties of efficient equilibria and demonstrate that generators have incentives to shade their stated costs below actual costs. We further demonstrate that the expected energy payments of our mechanism is less than that in a disjoint market for energy only. Chapter 3 is an empirical validation of a supply function equilibrium (SFE) model. By comparing theoretically optimal supply functions and actual generation offers into the Texas spot balancing market, we show the SFE to fit the actual behavior of the largest generators in market. This not only serves to validate the model, but also demonstrates the extent to which firms exercise market power. Chapters 4 and 5 examine equity, incentive, and efficiency issues in the design of non-convex commitment auctions. We demonstrate that different near-optimal solutions to a central unit commitment problem which have similar-sized optimality gaps will generally yield vastly different energy prices and payoffs to individual generators. Although solving the mixed integer program to optimality will overcome such issues, we show that this relies on achieving optimality of the commitment---which may not be tractable for large-scale problems within the allotted timeframe. We then simulate and compare a competitive benchmark for a market with centralized and self commitment in order to bound the efficiency

  16. Spanish generation market: structure, design and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agosti, L.; Padilla, A. J.; Requejo, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the structure, design and outcome of the Spanish generation market from 1998, when the market was liberalised, to date. More precisely, this paper reviews the history of the liberalisation process; describes the structure of the generation market and its evolution over time; analyses the existence of market power; and evaluates the outcome of the liberalisation process from the viewpoint of its impact on al locative efficiency, productive efficiency and dynamic efficiency. The paper concludes with a brief summary of recent regulatory reforms. (Author)

  17. Designing Instructional Materials: Some Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbank, Lucille; Pett, Dennis

    Guidelines for the design of instructional materials are outlined in this paper. The principles of design are presented in five major categories: (1) general design (structural appeal and personal appeal); (2) instructional design (attention, memory, concept learning, and attitude change); (3) visual design (media considerations, pictures, graphs…

  18. New Materials Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Voth, Gregory

    1999-01-01

    Progress has been made on several projects under the Challenge Project award. In the area of high energy density materials, calculations are under way on Al atoms embedded in clusters of H2 molecule...

  19. Capacity subscription and its market design impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doorman, Gerard; Solem, Gerd

    2005-04-01

    Capacity Subscription (CS) implies that consumers buy (subscribe to) a certain amount of capacity. Their demand is limited to this capacity when the total power system is short of capacity and the System Operator activates controllable Load Limiting Devices (LLDs). The objective is to maintain system security by avoiding involuntary load shedding. The report describes a market design with CS. As a case study, an analysis is made of the changes in the market design of the Nordic system that would be necessary to implement CS. First the present Nordic market design is described. Focus is on the various market participants, their roles within various time horizons and their interactions. So it is described how CS works, why it works and what is necessary to make it work. Subsequently the necessary changes in the Nordic market structure are described. The major changes are the installation of the LLDs, the establishment of the necessary infrastructure to control the LLDs and the rules governing their control and the establishment of a capacity market. The major rule is that the System Operator announces LLD activation when a shortage situation is expected. In the capacity market generators offer available capacity during system peak conditions, while consumers bid their need for capacity. Market participants are the same as on the spot market, while small consumers buy through retailer. Generators are obliged to offer the capacity sold on the capacity market on the spot market during LLD activation. Failure to do so results in a penalty payment. The report further discusses issues like the need for verification procedures, import and export, generation pooling, the handling of small consumers, reserves and a possible implementation path of CS. With respect to transmission constraints it is argued that market splitting can be a viable option. It is concluded that CS can be a possible solution to maintain generation adequacy, but there are some serious challenges. The

  20. Market design for rapid demand response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kurt; Tamirat, Tseganesh Wubale

    We suggest a market design for rapid demand response in electricity markets. The solution consists of remotely controlled switches, meters, forecasting models as well as a flexible auction market to set prices and select endusers job by job. The auction market motivates truth-telling and makes...... it simple to involve the endusers in advance and to activate demand response immediately. The collective solution is analyzed and economic simulations are conducted for the case of Kenya. Kenya has been su ering from unreliable electricity supply for many years and companies and households have learned...... to adjust by investments in backup generators. We focus on turning the many private backup generators into a demand response system. The economic simulation focuses on possible distortion introduced by various ways of splitting the generated surplus from the demand response system. An auction run instantly...

  1. Using forward markets to improve electricity market design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ausubel, Lawrence M.; Cramton, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Forward markets, both medium term and long term, complement the spot market for wholesale electricity. The forward markets reduce risk, mitigate market power, and coordinate new investment. In the medium term, a forward energy market lets suppliers and demanders lock in energy prices and quantities for one to three years. In the long term, a forward reliability market assures adequate resources are available when they are needed most. The forward markets reduce risk for both sides of the market, since they reduce the quantity of energy that trades at the more volatile spot price. Spot market power is mitigated by putting suppliers and demanders in a more balanced position at the time of the spot market. The markets also reduce transaction costs and improve liquidity and transparency. Recent innovations to the Colombia market illustrate the basic elements of the forward markets and their beneficial role. (author)

  2. Using forward markets to improve electricity market design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ausubel, Lawrence M.; Cramton, Peter [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Forward markets, both medium term and long term, complement the spot market for wholesale electricity. The forward markets reduce risk, mitigate market power, and coordinate new investment. In the medium term, a forward energy market lets suppliers and demanders lock in energy prices and quantities for one to three years. In the long term, a forward reliability market assures adequate resources are available when they are needed most. The forward markets reduce risk for both sides of the market, since they reduce the quantity of energy that trades at the more volatile spot price. Spot market power is mitigated by putting suppliers and demanders in a more balanced position at the time of the spot market. The markets also reduce transaction costs and improve liquidity and transparency. Recent innovations to the Colombia market illustrate the basic elements of the forward markets and their beneficial role. (author)

  3. Optimal Design of Porous Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Erik

    The focus of this thesis is topology optimization of material microstructures. That is, creating new materials, with attractive properties, by combining classic materials in periodic patterns. First, large-scale topology optimization is used to design complicated three-dimensional materials......, throughout the thesis extra attention is given to obtain structures that can be manufactured. That is also the case in the final part, where a simple multiscale method for the optimization of structural damping is presented. The method can be used to obtain an optimized component with structural details...

  4. New Brunswick Market Design Committee : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    This report presents a plan for implementing New Brunswick's electricity restructuring. It includes two resolutions and 95 recommendations to help achieve the main policy objectives of the White Paper, the New Brunswick Energy Policy. The most significant policy goal outlined in the White Paper is the restructuring of the electricity sector, with initial competition being only at the wholesale and large industrial retail level. The Board of Commissioners of Public Utilities will regulate many aspects of the new electricity market. In addition, green pricing options will be made available. The Market Design Committee recommends that the government set up a bilateral contract market for wholesale and large industrial customers to contract with alternate providers for electrical power. Power generators would have the freedom to sell by contract to customers both within and outside the province. The report describes the requirements for establishing a bilateral contract market and how it functions. The Committee also recommends designating a Heritage Pool of electricity available from the existing generation assets in the province. Other recommendations include the creation of programs that will help meet environmental protection goals. The programs include net metering, support of embedded generation, renewable portfolio standards, energy efficiency programs, green pricing, broad-based carbon dioxide emissions trading, emission performance standards, and the promotion of cogeneration. 37 refs., 2 figs

  5. Eco-marketing and eco-design of products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Jovan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental marketing (Eco-marketing, as a relatively new movement, emerged at the beginning of the 20th century, is in the growing phase of its development. Eco-labeling and other ways/types of eco-marketing are attracting more attention of consumers, since they are aware of the necessity of nature conservation and environmental protection. There has been a lot of misunderstanding and miss leadings in interpretation and substantiation of ecomarketing claims in previous period of time. One of the most concrete improvements in eco-marketing was appearance and establishment of ISO 14020 guidelines. ISO 14020 guidelines are integral part of ISO 14000 series of standards, which could be implemented in eco-marketing. At the same time, development of "green" products and marketing of "green" products, are direct positive contributions to resources reduction, environmental protection and sustainable economic development. Companies designing this kind of products can expect better position on the market, improvement of competitiveness, reduction of expenses (less raw materials, less waste, less harmful effects on the environment, raising corporate social responsibility, higher export.

  6. Composite materials design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gay, Daniel; Tsai, Stephen W

    2002-01-01

    PART ONE. PRINCIPLES OF CONSTRUCTIONCOMPOSITE MATERIALS, INTEREST AND PROPERTIESWhat is Composite Material Fibers and MatrixWhat can be Made Using Composite Materials?Typical Examples of Interest on the Use of Composite MaterialsExamples on Replacing Conventional Solutions with CompositesPrincipal Physical PropertiesFABRICATION PROCESSESMolding ProcessesOther Forming ProcessesPractical Hints in the Manufacturing ProcessesPLY PROPERTIESIsotropy and AnisotropyCharacteristics of the Reinforcement-Matrix MixtureUnidirectional PlyWoven FabricsMats and Reinforced MatricesMultidimensional FabricsMetal Matrix CompositesTestsSANDWICH STRUCTURES:What is a Sandwich Structure?Simplified FlexureA Few Special AspectsFabrication and Design ProblemsNondestructive Quality ControlCONCEPTION AND DESIGNDesign of a Composite PieceThe LaminateFailure of LaminatesSizing of LaminatesJOINING AND ASSEMBLYRiveting and BoltingBondingInsertsCOMPOSITE MATERIALS AND AEROSPACE CONSTRUCTIONAircraftHelicoptersPropeller Blades for AirplanesTur...

  7. Auction design for the wireless spectrum market

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Peng; Zhang, Qian

    2014-01-01

    This Brief introduces the wireless spectrum market and discusses the current research for spectrum auctions. It covers the unique properties of spectrum auction, such as interference relationship, reusability, divisibility, composite effect and marginal effect, while also proposing how to build economic incentives into the network architecture and protocols in order to optimize the efficiency of wireless systems.Three scenarios for designing new auctions are demonstrated. First, a truthful double auction scheme for spectrum trading considering both the heterogeneous propagation properties of c

  8. Economics and Design of Capacity Markets for the Power Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Cramton; Axel Ockenfels

    2012-01-01

    Capacity markets are a means to assure resource adequacy. The need for a capacity market stems from several market failures the most prominent of which is the absence of a robust demand-side. Limited demand response makes market clearing problematic in times of scarcity. We present the economic motivation for a capacity market, present one specific market design that utilizes the best design features from various resource adequacy approaches analyzed in the literature, and we discuss other in...

  9. Translating material and design space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Joseffson, Kristoffer

    2009-01-01

    This paper shares findings from the project DevA (Developable surfaces in Architecture), a research by design based project developed a collaboration between academic and industry partners. The project aims to investigate the use of curved sheet material in architecture using hybridised 3D...

  10. Designed materials: what and how

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Jyotirmoy; Dutta, Debasish; Ghosh, Amit K.; Kikuchi, Noboru

    2003-03-01

    Quest for a material to suit the service performance is almost as old as human civilization. So far materials engineers have developed a series of alloys, polymers, ceramics, and composites to serve many of the performance requirements in a modern society. However, challenges appear when one needs to satisfy more than one boundary condition. For example, a component with negative Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) using a ductile metal was almost impossible until recently. Synthesis of various technologies such as Direct Metal Deposition (DMD) Homogenization Design Method (HDM) and mutli material Computer Aided Design (CAD) was necessary to achieve this goal. Rapid fabrication of three-dimensional shapes of engineering materials such as H13 tool steel and nickel super alloys are now possible using Direct Materials Deposition (DMD) technique as well as similar techniques such as Light Engineered New Shaping (LENS) or Directed Light Fabrication (DLF). However, DMD has closed loop capability that enables better dimension and thermal cycle control. This enables one to deposit different material at different pixels with a given height directly from a CAD drawing. The feedback loop also controls the thermal cycle. H13 tool steel is one of the difficult alloys for deposition due to residual stress accumulation from martensitic transformation. However, it is the material of choice for the die and tool industry. DMD has demonstrated successful fabrication of complicated shapes and dies and tools, even with H13 alloys. This process also offers copper chill blocks and water-cooling channels as the integral part of the tool. On the other hand ZrO2 was co-deposited with nickel super alloys using DMD. Flexibility of the process is enormous and essentially it is an enabling technology to marterialize many a design. Using DMD in conjunction with HDM and multi-material CAD, one can produce components with predetermined performance such as negative co-efficient of expansion, by

  11. Subjective evaluation of chosen typographical characteristics in marketing materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Talandová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrates on the problems of marketing materials quality evaluation and their formal aspect and also customers’ marketing materials evaluation. This area has not been concentrated on very much and nor in the literature is described. The paper presents the results of our own research which queries how the customers subjectively perceive and evaluate the marketing materials. The emphasis was put on the materials quality i.e. on what materials are considered as quality materials by the customers and which attributes mainly influence the quality. The results were aggregated on the basis of customers’ responses an also on the basis of practical examples evaluation which included intentional mistakes. The subjects of the evaluation were marketing materials quality as a general feature, the attributes influencing the quality and marketing materials quality and company quality relation. Also the exam­ples including mistakes were evaluated. According to the questioning results, the respondents’ answers vary much. It is not possible to find unambiguously right or wrong marketing materials eva­lua­tion. This area will be developed in further research which will be concentrated mainly on the typographical aspects.The aim of this paper is to delimit and to define the present situation through the research result exa­mi­na­tion, to define ‘quality’ and to describe the way how marketing materials are perceived by the customers.

  12. Combined cycle design flexibility in today's market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeRidder, W.N.; Knott, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    In the power generation industry, non utility generators (NUG's) comprise a significant portion of new generation growth as electricity demands exceed existing utility capacities. These NUG's are developed by customers with widely varying experiences; bankers, lawyers, architect engineers, original equipment manufacturers, and other organizations involved in such diverse industries as petrochemical, pulp and paper, and steel making. The demands of these customers can be significantly varied in terms of features such as capacity factor, operability, maintainability, equipment redundancy, acceptable design practices, and many others. In addition, both the utility and NUG industries demand flexibility due to external influences such as regulatory policies, environmental conditions new design technologies, and emerging global markets. All of these factors are subject to wide variation across different market regions and even within a given region. This paper discusses the development of a reference plant design approach which focuses on customer flexibility while maximizing the use of proven designs. This approach allows basic system designs to be modified in a modular fashion to meet the differing demands of utility and NUG customers

  13. OLED microdisplay design and materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacyk, Ihor; Prache, Olivier; Ali, Tariq; Khayrullin, Ilyas; Ghosh, Amalkumar

    2010-04-01

    AMOLED microdisplays from eMagin Corporation are finding growing acceptance within the military display market as a result of their excellent power efficiency, wide operating temperature range, small size and weight, good system flexibility, and ease of use. The latest designs have also demonstrated improved optical performance including better uniformity, contrast, MTF, and color gamut. eMagin's largest format display is currently the SXGA design, which includes features such as a 30-bit wide RGB digital interface, automatic luminance regulation from -45 to +70°C, variable gamma control, and a dynamic range exceeding 50:000 to 1. This paper will highlight the benefits of eMagin's latest microdisplay designs and review the roadmap for next generation devices. The ongoing development of reduced size pixels and larger format displays (up to WUXGA) as well as new OLED device architecture (e.g. high-brightness yellow) will be discussed. Approaches being explored for improved performance in next generation designs such as lowpower serial interfaces, high frame rate operation, and new operational modes for reduction of motion artifacts will also be described. These developments should continue to enhance the appeal of AMOLED microdisplays for a broad spectrum of near-to-the-eye applications such as night vision, simulation and training, situational awareness, augmented reality, medical imaging, and mobile video entertainment and gaming.

  14. Future market material recognition and separation; Zukunftsmarkt Stofferkennung und -trennung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schug, Hartmut; Eickenbusch, Heinz; Zweck, Axel [VDI Technologiezentrum GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany); Marscheider-Weidemann, Frank [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    This case study on ''Closed-loop economy, waste, recycling'' which focuses on ''Technologies for material detection and separation'' was done within the scope of the research project ''Future markets - innovative environmental policy in important fields of action''. Material detection and separation processes make it possible to accumulate specific materials based on uniform characteristics. Automatic processes accelerate separation and allow higher levels of purity. The processes are integrated as modules into the sorting plants and designed to be material-specific according to the fractions to be separated or the level of purity or pollution. Automatic processes increase recycling rates (qualitatively and quantitatively): The recovered secondary raw materials can be used as raw materials, materials or energetically as substitute fuels. Residues that are hazardous to nature, the climate or human health can be removed from the cycle using these technologies. The consumption of primary raw materials and fossil energy sources is reduced by the increased use of secondary raw materials which results in avoiding waste and saving resources. Furthermore, the complete and environmentally-compatible recycling of municipal solid waste is supported (''Ziel 2020'', which is the specific strategy of the German government for the future of the municipal solid waste management). Besides optoelectronic, sensor-based sorting processes (e. g. near infrared technology, NIR) large development potentials are attributed to new technologies such as RFID technology. The innovation dynamics are (still) closely linked with political regulations (environmental legislation, recycling/reuse targets). An increased market-driven development can be expected in the wake of price increases of primary raw materials. The turnover on the market for waste and recycling services in the EU is estimated at approx. 55 billion

  15. Economics and design of capacity markets for the power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramton, Peter [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Economics; Ockenfels, Axel [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics

    2012-06-15

    Capacity markets are a means to assure resource adequacy. The need for a capacity market stems from several market failures the most prominent of which is the absence of a robust demand-side. Limited demand response makes market clearing problematic in times of scarcity. We present the economic motivation for a capacity market, present one specific market design that utilizes the best design features from various resource adequacy approaches analyzed in the literature, and we discuss other instruments to deal with the problems. We then discuss the suitability of the market for Europe and Germany in particular. (orig.)

  16. The marketing implications of affective product design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seva, Rosemary R; Duh, Henry Been-Lirn; Helander, Martin G

    2007-11-01

    Emotions are compelling human experiences and product designers can take advantage of this by conceptualizing emotion-engendering products that sell well in the market. This study hypothesized that product attributes influence users' emotions and that the relationship is moderated by the adherence of these product attributes to purchase criteria. It was further hypothesized that the emotional experience of the user influences purchase intention. A laboratory study was conducted to validate the hypotheses using mobile phones as test products. Sixty-two participants were asked to assess eight phones from a display of 10 phones and indicate their emotional experiences after assessment. Results suggest that some product attributes can cause intense emotional experience. The attributes relate to the phone's dimensions and the relationship between these dimensions. The study validated the notion of integrating affect in designing products that convey users' personalities.

  17. 42 CFR 422.2260 - Definitions concerning marketing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...; changes in providers, premiums, benefits, plan procedures etc. (vii) Membership activities (for example... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions concerning marketing materials. 422... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Medicare Advantage Marketing...

  18. New content, design, and marketing trends in commercial publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Blažević

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyse the actual status of book publishing in Croatia, envisage the trends of its future development and, by analyzing the current state of affairs and new book marketing trends, draw conclusions as to which directions the publishing companies should take in order to survive on the market. The aims stated as such result from the author’s research and review of the business operations of the ‘Naklada Ljevak’ publishing company, and from the monitoring of relevant home and foreign literature in the field of marketing in general as well as specialized book marketing literature. In the introductory part the author defines publishing and its amphibious nature that lies in the fact that publishing is at the same time the process of creation and distribution of knowledge and culture, as well as a business resulting in education, as well as in entertainment. The following chapter offers an explanation of the most important facts required to understand the current publishing marketing (globalization, huge sales chains, fierce competition, ever lower standard of living in Croatia… and lists the marketing programme elements applicable to publishing. Further on, the focus shifts on the book as a product and a part of publishing marketing. It mentions the economic and business trends that have affected the development of publishing as an industry over the past sixty years, and the book as a product. New book content trends have been elaborated as well: novels on exotic countries, current affairs issues, autobiographies and biographies, self-help manuals and titles offering ‘instant-knowledge’. There is a definition and explanation of trends that relate to the book as a material product such as cover design, format, binding, types of print paper and technical features such as layout, margins, font size and spacing. 

  19. Computational Materials Program for Alloy Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    The research program sponsored by this grant, "Computational Materials Program for Alloy Design", covers a period of time of enormous change in the emerging field of computational materials science. The computational materials program started with the development of the BFS method for alloys, a quantum approximate method for atomistic analysis of alloys specifically tailored to effectively deal with the current challenges in the area of atomistic modeling and to support modern experimental programs. During the grant period, the program benefited from steady growth which, as detailed below, far exceeds its original set of goals and objectives. Not surprisingly, by the end of this grant, the methodology and the computational materials program became an established force in the materials communitiy, with substantial impact in several areas. Major achievements during the duration of the grant include the completion of a Level 1 Milestone for the HITEMP program at NASA Glenn, consisting of the planning, development and organization of an international conference held at the Ohio Aerospace Institute in August of 2002, finalizing a period of rapid insertion of the methodology in the research community worlwide. The conference, attended by citizens of 17 countries representing various fields of the research community, resulted in a special issue of the leading journal in the area of applied surface science. Another element of the Level 1 Milestone was the presentation of the first version of the Alloy Design Workbench software package, currently known as "adwTools". This software package constitutes the first PC-based piece of software for atomistic simulations for both solid alloys and surfaces in the market.Dissemination of results and insertion in the materials community worldwide was a primary focus during this period. As a result, the P.I. was responsible for presenting 37 contributed talks, 19 invited talks, and publishing 71 articles in peer-reviewed journals, as

  20. The economic analysis of power market architectures: application to real-time market design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saguan, M.

    2007-04-01

    This work contributes to the economic analysis of power market architectures. A modular framework is used to separate problems of market design in different modules. The work's goal is to study real-time market design. A two-stage market equilibrium model is used to analyse the two main real-time designs: the 'market' and the 'mechanism' (with penalty). Numerical simulations show that design applied in real-time is not neutral vis-a-vis of energy markets sequence and the competition dynamic. Designs using penalty (mechanisms) cause distortions, inefficiencies and can create barriers to entry. The size of distortions is given by the temporal position of the gate that closure the forward markets. This model has also allowed us to show the key role of real-time integration between zones and the importance of good harmonization between real-time designs of each zone. (author)

  1. Virtual Reality for Materials Design Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose is to research and develop materials through applied virtual reality to enable interactive "materials-by-design." Extensive theoretical and computational...

  2. The specific features of marketing channel design

    OpenAIRE

    Gudonavičienė, Rasa; Alijošienė, Rasa

    2008-01-01

    […] Distribution as one of four elements of marketing complex is inseparable part of marketing decisions, which involves all the decisions about distribution of products to the end user. […] Every enterprise that acts at the conditions of market economy pays a big attention to organization and optimisation of the process of product distribution to the end user. The production performance, success of sales programme and position of the enterprise in the target market depends on product realiza...

  3. Materials selection in mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, M.F.; Cebon, D.

    1993-01-01

    A novel materials-selection procedure has been developed and implemented in software. The procedure makes use of Materials Selection Charts: a new way of displaying material property data; and performance indices: combinations of material properties which govern performance. Optimisation methods are employed for simultaneous selection of both material and shape. (orig.)

  4. Materials selection in mechanical design

    OpenAIRE

    Ashby , M.; Cebon , D.

    1993-01-01

    A novel materials-selection procedure has been developed and implemented in software. The procedure makes use of Materials Selection Charts: a new way of displaying material property data; and performance indices: combinations of material properties which govern performance. Optimisation methods are employed for simultaneous selection of both material and shape.

  5. How to benefit from a common European electricity market design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringler, Philipp; Keles, Dogan; Fichtner, Wolf

    2017-01-01

    The realization of an Internal Electricity Market in Europe is currently, on the one hand, progressing, in particular thanks to the wide-spread implementation of market coupling solutions for cross-border congestion management. On the other hand, diverging national market designs pose a threat to the continuation of this process. Given the challenges to electricity market design in a multi-regional context, we analyze how different design aspects, namely cross-border congestion management and capacity mechanisms, affect welfare and generation adequacy in Europe. In doing so, we rely on an agent-based simulation model for electricity wholesale markets which we apply within several numerical, computational case studies for the region of Central Western Europe (2012–2030). Our results confirm the benefits of market coupling in terms of welfare as well as generation adequacy. Furthermore, we find indications that coordinating market designs across regions supports these targets. Therefore, we recommend that European energy policy forms a stable, transparent regulatory framework with cross-border market coupling as an integral component. In this context, energy policy targets should be clearly defined and operationalized, which also needs to consider potential conflicts between them. Finally, electricity market designs need to be coordinated among states to benefit most from a common European market. - Highlights: • European electricity markets at crossroads given diverging market designs • Simulation of CWE Market Coupling using an agent-based model. • Welfare and adequacy gains from European market coupling and new interconnections. • Conflicts between energy policy targets to be considered in market design. • Coordination key to further strengthen integration of electricity markets in Europe.

  6. Cybermaterials: materials by design and accelerated insertion of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Olson, Gregory B.

    2016-02-01

    Cybermaterials innovation entails an integration of Materials by Design and accelerated insertion of materials (AIM), which transfers studio ideation into industrial manufacturing. By assembling a hierarchical architecture of integrated computational materials design (ICMD) based on materials genomic fundamental databases, the ICMD mechanistic design models accelerate innovation. We here review progress in the development of linkage models of the process-structure-property-performance paradigm, as well as related design accelerating tools. Extending the materials development capability based on phase-level structural control requires more fundamental investment at the level of the Materials Genome, with focus on improving applicable parametric design models and constructing high-quality databases. Future opportunities in materials genomic research serving both Materials by Design and AIM are addressed.

  7. What is materialism? Testing two dominant perspectives on materialism in the marketing literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manchiraju Srikant

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Materialism is defined as the importance an individual attaches to worldly possessions, which has been considered as an important construct in consumer behavior and marketing literature. There are two dominant perspectives on individual materialism in the marketing literature that focus on (1 personality traits or (2 individual personal values. However, several scholars have questioned the aforementioned materialism conceptualizations. Therefore, the present study directly compares the constructs of personality materialism and value materialism. Structural equation modeling was employed to address the following issues: (1 what are the key conceptual dimensions of materialism, (2 how much do they overlap, and (3 what is their discriminant validity in predicting outcomes linked to materialism. We suggest these two dominant perspectives on individual materialism are two distinct constructs, as they shared only 21 percent of common variance. Furthermore, we stress the multi-faceted nature of materialism, with an emphasis on future research directions related to materialism in marketing.

  8. New wholesale power market design using linked forward markets :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William; Ellison, James F.; Elliott, Ryan Thomas; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Guttromson, Ross; Tesfatsion, Leigh S.

    2013-04-01

    This report proposes a reformulation of U.S. ISO/RTO-managed wholesale electric power mar- kets for improved reliability and e ciency of system operations. Current markets do not specify or compensate primary frequency response. They also unnecessarily limit the participation of new technologies in reserve markets and o er insu cient economic inducements for new capacity invest- ment. In the proposed market reformulation, energy products are represented as physically-covered rm contracts and reserve products as physically-covered call option contracts. Trading of these products is supported by a backbone of linked ISO/RTO-managed forward markets with planning horizons ranging from multiple years to minutes ahead. A principal advantage of this reformulation is that reserve needs can be speci ed in detail, and resources can o er the services for which they are best suited, without being forced to conform to rigid reserve product de nitions. This should improve the business case for electric energy storage and other emerging technologies to provide reserve. In addition, the facilitation of price discovery should help to ensure e cient energy/reserve procurement and adequate levels of new capacity investment.

  9. Incentivizing secondary raw material markets for sustainable waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreck, Maximilian; Wagner, Jeffrey

    2017-09-01

    Notwithstanding several policy initiatives in many countries over a number of years, there remains a general sense that too much municipal solid waste is generated and that too much of the waste that is generated is landfilled. There is an emerging consensus that a sustainable approach to waste management requires further development of secondary raw material markets. The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical economic model that focuses upon this stage of a sustainable waste management program and explores policy options that could motivate efficiency in secondary raw material markets. In particular, we show how firm profit and social welfare optimizing objectives can be reconciled in a two-product market of waste management processes: landfilling and material reclamation. Our results provide theoretical support for building out recent Circular Economy initiatives as well as for the relatively recent emergence of landfill mining as a means for procuring secondary raw materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sustainable design options for the German electricity market. A comparison of the energy-only market with capacity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keles, Dogan; Renz, Lea; Bublitz, Andreas; Zimmermann, Florian; Genoese, Massimo; Fichtner, Wolf

    2016-01-01

    This study intensively discusses the further developments of the electricity market design in Germany based on substantial scientific insights. For this purpose, an agent-based simulation model is applied to evaluate the operability of the energy only market extended with a strategic reserve. Furthermore, the effects of the implementation of a centralized or decentralized capacity market are analyzed.

  11. Design and computation of modern engineering materials

    CERN Document Server

    Altenbach, Holm

    2014-01-01

     The idea of this monograph is to present the latest results related to design and computation of engineering materials and structures. The contributions cover the classical fields of mechanical, civil and materials engineering up to biomechanics and advanced materials processing and optimization. The materials and structures covered can be categorized into modern steels and titanium alloys, composite materials, biological and natural materials, material hybrids and modern joining technologies. Analytical modelling, numerical simulation, the application of state-of-the-art design tools and sophisticated experimental techniques are applied to characterize the performance of materials and to design and optimize structures in different fields of engineering applications.

  12. Shape Does Matter : Designing materials in products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saakes, D.P.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis I investigate how to support designing the appearance of materials in products, specifically how to search for new materials and to explore the interactions between materials and shape. Central in this thesis is a novel design called Skin 2.0. Skin allows designers in the early

  13. Market design : Common Nordic end-user market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    No later than 2015, suppliers in the Nordic countries should be able to offer electricity to consumers in any Nordic country on equal terms. In this report NordREG has analyzed the present situation in the Nordic countries and identified the issues that should be harmonised in order to establish a common Nordic end-user market. In this report NordREG also suggests an indicative road map for the implementation process. (Author)

  14. Designing a Marketing Analytics Course for the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xia; Burns, Alvin C.

    2018-01-01

    Marketing analytics is receiving great attention because of evolving technology and the radical changes in the marketing environment. This study aims to assist the design and implementation of a marketing analytics course. We assembled a rich data set from four sources: business executives, 400 employers' job postings, one million tweets about…

  15. How to Shape Markets Through Design Elements Such as Logos?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Tore; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    In this paper, we use logo design as means of showing how variation it the consumer’s perceptions can influence the effectiveness of a market. It is often assumed that consumers perceive the same message when they explore options in a market. If they actually see different things in a logo, like ...... the effectiveness of communication through the market....

  16. Fashion designers on the Czech market

    OpenAIRE

    Hinková, Barbora

    2014-01-01

    This Master's Thesis deals with the Czech fashion scene. Development of fashion is outlined in the introduction. It should help to understand the whole market. The work deals with marketing of fashion brands and focuses primarily on marketing Czech fashion brands offering fashions for women. Czech fashion scene is analyzed in detail and pointed out the weaknesses that need to be improved. In connection with the findings outlined here is a solution that should help Czech fashion scene.

  17. New Brunswick Market Design Committee : First interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    In June 2001, a Market Design Committee was appointed by the Government of New Brunswick tp provide some advice on the best ways to implement the electricity restructuring initiatives detailed in a White Paper on energy policy in New Brunswick. The Market Design Committee is a very technical committee that was set up with a number of goals in mind: make recommendations concerning all codes and operating protocols, make recommendations on market surveillance and the establishment of a workable competitive market, take into account the reliability of supply for New Brunswick, address ways by which to avoid rate shock to existing self-generators, make recommendations for mitigation of market power in the wholesale and large retail markets, evaluate methods of stranded cost recovery, make recommendations on the requirement for reciprocity in New Brunswick electricity market design, and review the role and treatment of small-scale, on-site electricity generation and make recommendations. The final recommendations are set to be presented in April 2002. This document details the progress realized to date and outlines the plans made for the subsequent phases of the work. The different topics discussed in this document each form the basis for one section of the report. They are: market design committee constitution and process, basic market model, market power issues, transmission issues, environment and renewables, and next steps for the market design committee

  18. Demand Response Within Current Electricity Wholesale Market Design

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Gutierrez, Ariana Isabel; De Jonghe, Cedric; Six, Daan; Belmans, Ronnie

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of intermittent energy resources calls for the ability to modulate consumption patterns according to electricity availability. This paper provides a brief overview of the main electricity market design characteristics and places demand response within the framework of the existing timeline of market operation. The main differences between electricity markets lie in the price formation mechanisms where some markets pay-as- cleared and some pay- as- bid for the electricity tran...

  19. Market Design for Rapid Demand Response - The Case of Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt Nielsen; Tseganesh Wubale Tamirat

    2014-01-01

    We suggest a market design for rapid demand response in electricity markets. The solution consists of remotely controlled switches, meters, forecasting models as well as a flexible auction market to set prices and select endusers job by job. The auction market motivates truth-telling and makes it simple to involve the endusers in advance and to activate demand response immediately. The collective solution is analyzed and economic simulations are conducted for the case of Kenya. Kenya has been...

  20. Alternate Materials In Design Of Radioactive Material Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of design and testing of material and composites for use in radioactive material packages. These materials provide thermal protection and provide structural integrity and energy absorption to the package during normal and hypothetical accident condition events as required by Title 10 Part 71 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Testing of packages comprising these materials is summarized.

  1. Designing Biomimetic, Dissipative Material Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balazs, Anna C. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Whitesides, George M. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Biology; Brinker, C. Jeffrey [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering. Dept. of Chemistry. Dept. of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology. Center for Micro-Engineered Materials; Aranson, Igor S. [UChicago, LLC., Argonne, IL (United States); Chaikin, Paul [New York Univ. (NYU), NY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Dogic, Zvonimir [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Glotzer, Sharon [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering. Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering. Dept. of Macromolecular Science and Engineering Physics; Hammer, Daniel [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). School of Engineering and Applied Science; Irvine, Darrell [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering and Biological Engineering; Little, Steven R. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Parikh, Atul N. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Biomedical Engineering. Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Stupp, Samuel [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering. Dept. of Chemistry. Dept. of Medicine. Dept. of Biomedical Engineering; Szostak, Jack [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Biology

    2016-01-21

    Throughout human history, new materials have been the foundation of transformative technologies: from bronze, paper, and ceramics to steel, silicon, and polymers, each material has enabled far-reaching advances. Today, another new class of materials is emerging—one with both the potential to provide radically new functions and to challenge our notion of what constitutes a “material”. These materials would harvest, transduce, or dissipate energy to perform autonomous, dynamic functions that mimic the behaviors of living organisms. Herein, we discuss the challenges and benefits of creating “dissipative” materials that can potentially blur the boundaries between living and non-living matter.

  2. Moving toward New Horizons for Marketing Education: Designing a Marketing Training for the Poor in Developing and Emerging Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklehaimanot, Mebrahtu L.; Ingenbleek, Paul T. M.; Tessema, Workneh K.; van Trijp, Hans C. M.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, marketing education has broadened to poor people in developing and emerging countries. In this article, the authors use four empirical studies that apply well-established training design procedures to design a marketing training program for Ethiopian pastoralists. Because pastoralists operate in extremely remote, traditional, and…

  3. Market designs for a completely renewable power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Jenny [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Altmann, Matthias [Ludwig-Boelkow-Systemtechnik GmbH, Ottobrunn (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    The article discusses whether the current German electricity market design is suitable for an electricity system completely based on renewable sources, and analyzes alternatives. Such a system becomes ever more likely due to the phase-out of nuclear power and the carbon reduction targets. Various existing scenarios for a completely renewable electricity system are analyzed and compared with respect to the contribution of different renewable technologies. Challenges for the market design arising from the differences between the current and a completely renewable system are identified - notably problems with cost recovery and investment incentives, an increased need for balancing and/or intraday adjustments, an increased diversity of actors, grid congestion and the continuing occurrence of market power. The current market design's ability to solve these issues is assessed with the result that all but the critical problem of investment incentives and cost recovery can be solved by adapting certain rules. A comparison with other suggested market designs reveals that some designs could ensure cost recovery and investment incentives. However, these market designs have other drawbacks. Therefore, the identification of the optimal market design for a completely renewable electricity system requires further research regarding the qualitative and quantitative effects of different changes to the current market design. The article concludes by developing concrete policy recommendations. (orig.)

  4. Capacity Market Design: Motivation and Challenges in Alberta’s Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Brown

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Alberta’s electricity market is currently undergoing a period of substantial transition. The province should proceed with caution as it switches from an energy-only electricity market to a capacity market by 2021. Many other jurisdictions have already made the changeover and Alberta can learn from their experiences in order to avoid common mistakes and pitfalls that can arise with the deployment of a capacity market.There were growing concerns that the existing electricity market structure would not attract sufficient investment from conventional generation (e.g., natural gas due to the increased penetration of zero marginal cost renewable generation. As a result, the Alberta government has chosen to transition to a capacity market. For consumers, a capacity market aims to ensure there is sufficient investment in new generation capacity to “keep the lights on” and reduce price swings in the wholesale market. The capacity market will also help the province meet its goals for attracting investors and transitioning away from its dependence on coal-fired electricity generation.However, a switchover is not as simple as it sounds. In an energy-only market, firms are paid solely based on the provision of electricity in hourly wholesale markets. In capacity markets, electricity-generating firms are also paid for providing generation capacity, reflecting the potential to provide electricity at some point in the future. While capacity markets can help ensure there is a reliable supply of electricity, there are several challenges in the implementation of capacity markets. This paper discusses the motivation for the adoption of capacity markets, highlights challenges regulators face when implementing this market design in the context of Alberta, and summarizes the key trade-offs associated with energy-only versus capacity market designs.Relative to an energy-only market, a capacity market is more complex and requires that regulators specify numerous

  5. Free Material Design with Multiple Load Cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pauli; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2012-01-01

    Multiple load cases and the consideration of strength is a reality that most structural designs are exposed to. Improved possibility to produce specific materials, say by fiber lay-up, put focus on research on free material optimization. A formulation for such design problems together with a prac......Multiple load cases and the consideration of strength is a reality that most structural designs are exposed to. Improved possibility to produce specific materials, say by fiber lay-up, put focus on research on free material optimization. A formulation for such design problems together...... with a practical recursive design procedure is presented and illustrated with examples. The presented finite element analysis involve many elements as well as many load cases. Separating the local amount of material from a description with unit trace for the local anisotropy, gives the free materials formulation...... a more physical interpretation of the material constraint....

  6. Evaluation of Market Design Programme - Phase IV; Utvaerdering av Market Designprogrammet - etapp IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Tomas

    2013-08-15

    The Market Design program was established in year 2000 to study issues related to markets, regulations and policy instruments related to the deregulation of the Swedish electricity market. Through the years, the focus has widened to include not only Sweden but also international cooperation on these issues. The fourth phase of the program is now underway between the years 2010 and 2013. The overall project objective of this fourth phase is to increase knowledge about the Nordic and North European electricity market. Specific objective is to create new knowledge that affects market design of the single market area (Nordic, EU) and to contribute to constructive meetings between researchers, energy companies and government agencies on Market Design Issues. The purpose of the evaluation of the Market Design Program phase IV has been to investigate the results and benefits of the program in relation to the program's original objectives and to examine the need for and areas of further research and possible ways for the research in Market Design. The evaluation has been carried through in four phases during spring and summer 2013. The work has included reading, interviews with program stakeholders, analysis and reporting.

  7. Setting priorities for the evolution of the market design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This report, which examines the forces that will influence the evolution of the Ontario electric power market over the next 4 or 5 years, is intended for market participants and other stakeholders. It sets priorities for the next phase of market development. Some of the market rules that need more work were identified and participants and stakeholders were invited to present their comments on whether the list accurately reflects the critical market development issues that need to be addressed after market opening. The report also discusses criteria that can be used to evaluate market design changes and their relative priorities. The list of potential high priority issues include: the energy forward market; the capacity reserve market; locational marginal pricing; a capability for full assignment of physical bilateral contracts; the export of operating reserve; moving to real time bidding; encouraging dispatchability and demand side responsiveness; transmission expansion; and, introducing markets in ancillary services. This list includes the main market design issues that need to be addressed over the next several years. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  8. Virtual materials design using databases of calculated materials properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munter, T R; Landis, D D; Abild-Pedersen, F; Jones, G; Wang, S; Bligaard, T

    2009-01-01

    Materials design is most commonly carried out by experimental trial and error techniques. Current trends indicate that the increased complexity of newly developed materials, the exponential growth of the available computational power, and the constantly improving algorithms for solving the electronic structure problem, will continue to increase the relative importance of computational methods in the design of new materials. One possibility for utilizing electronic structure theory in the design of new materials is to create large databases of materials properties, and subsequently screen these for new potential candidates satisfying given design criteria. We utilize a database of more than 81 000 electronic structure calculations. This alloy database is combined with other published materials properties to form the foundation of a virtual materials design framework (VMDF). The VMDF offers a flexible collection of materials databases, filters, analysis tools and visualization methods, which are particularly useful in the design of new functional materials and surface structures. The applicability of the VMDF is illustrated by two examples. One is the determination of the Pareto-optimal set of binary alloy methanation catalysts with respect to catalytic activity and alloy stability; the other is the search for new alloy mercury absorbers.

  9. Identifying and Managing Engineering Design Requirements for Emerging Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xuemeng

    , especially for those companies originally from developed markets, to acquire an in-depth understanding of particular design requirements in emerging markets in order to adapt both company products and approaches in such contexts. Prior studies on the identification and management of design requirements have...... predominantly been conducted in the context of developed countries and relatively affluent markets. Emerging markets are distinct from developed markets in terms of numerous contextual factors, e.g., regulatory environments and competitive landscapes. These factors influence the requirement identification...... attention. There is a need for an overview of different perspectives in requirement identification for manufacturing companies and their corresponding assessments in the context of emerging markets. Therefore, this research project is motivated to 1) investigate the process of identifying and managing...

  10. Food Marketing: Cashier-Checker. Student Material. Competency Based Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froelich, Larry; And Others

    This curriculum for food marketing (cashier-checking) is designed to provide entry-level employment skills. It is organized into 13 units which contain one to ten competencies. A student competency sheet provided for each competency is organized into this format: unit and competency number and name, learning steps, learning activities, and…

  11. Market Segmentation and Conjoint Analysis for Apple Family Design

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Al-Refaie; Nour Bata

    2016-01-01

    A distributor of Apple products' experiences numerous difficulties in developing marketing strategies for new and existing mobile product entries that maximize customer satisfaction and the firm's profitability. This research, therefore, integrates market segmentation in platform-based product family design and conjoint analysis to identify iSystem combinations that increase customer satisfaction and business profits. First, the enhanced market segmentation grid is created. Then, the estimate...

  12. Design and analysis of post-marketing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Hua Andrew; Yang, Wei

    2013-07-01

    A post-marketing study is an integral part of research that helps to ensure a favorable risk-benefit profile for approved drugs used in the market. Because most of post-marketing studies use observational designs, which are liable to confounding, estimation of the causal effect of a drug versus a comparative one is very challenging. This article focuses on methodological issues of importance in designing and analyzing studies to evaluate the safety of marketed drugs, especially marketed traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) products. Advantages and limitations of the current designs and analytic methods for postmarketing studies are discussed, and recommendations are given for improving the validity of postmarketing studies in TCM products.

  13. Resilient design in the conservation of Johar market heritage building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesmanto, Totok

    2017-12-01

    Johar Market building based on Law of Repubic of Indonesia No.11 of 2010 is a heritage building. It was built in 1936 located near traditional square of Pasebaan and Aloon- Aloon was built by Dutch merchants union in 1678. Semarang based on decentralized policy by the Dutch Government in 1906 became a trading city. Rapid development of trading activities has caused the city planning policy by Semarang Government since 1970 made Aloon-Aloon become market buildings. Johar Market and market buildings in surrounding were on fire in 2015. Basing on Law No.11 of 2010 Semarang Government plans to conserve Johar Market heritage building and reconstruct Aloon-Aloon based on proposal of Roesmanto in 2016. The architect bureau assigned by the Semarang Government designed a new building in the middle of South-Johar Market to accommodate Johar merchants. This study aims to evaluate the design of new building by the architect bureau considering that since 2012 the city of Semarang including earthquake prone areas. The revitalization of Johar Market should use resilient design in order to prevent future damages to heritage buildings located nearby and new building must be spaced sufficiently against surrounding heritage buildings. This research uses descriptive qualitative method base on the field data after Johar Market burned and design planned bureau architect. The results of this study found that the distance between new building and heritage building is less wide.

  14. Electricity market design for the prosumer era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parag, Yael; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2016-04-01

    Prosumers are agents that both consume and produce energy. With the growth in small and medium-sized agents using solar photovoltaic panels, smart meters, vehicle-to-grid electric automobiles, home batteries and other ‘smart’ devices, prosuming offers the potential for consumers and vehicle owners to re-evaluate their energy practices. As the number of prosumers increases, the electric utility sector of today is likely to undergo significant changes over the coming decades, offering possibilities for greening of the system, but also bringing many unknowns and risks that need to be identified and managed. To develop strategies for the future, policymakers and planners need knowledge of how prosumers could be integrated effectively and efficiently into competitive electricity markets. Here we identify and discuss three promising potential prosumer markets related to prosumer grid integration, peer-to-peer models and prosumer community groups. We also caution against optimism by laying out a series of caveats and complexities.

  15. Electricity market design of the future; Strommarktdesign der Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peek, Markus; Diels, Robert [r2b energy consulting GmbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    The transformation of the power generation system, to one in which renewable energies will form a cornerstone, will change the requirements for all market actors. To achieve the goals of the German Energiewende ('energy transition'), greater flexibility in production and consumption is of particular importance. Flexibility enables the cost-effective integration of the fluctuating actual feed-in of renewable energies. On the one hand, the technical options for reducing existing technical inflexibilities are given to a considerable extent. On the other hand, analyses of the transnational compensation effects of load and renewable energy supply (RES) feed-in show that flexibility requirements can be reduced significantly in a common electricity market. Electricity markets in which there is open technological competition are an appropriate instrument for the flexibilization of the power supply system. In the short term, the mechanisms of competitive electricity markets ensure an efficient synchronization of supply and demand. Over the medium and long term, the market creates efficient incentives to adapt the generation system and the behavior of consumers to future needs, resulting from the changes in the residual load structure. But at the same time, in recent years the occurrence of negative electricity prices in situations with significantly positive residual loads show that flexibility restraints exist. The causes of these restraints are at least partly due to the market design or the regulatory framework. On the one hand, there are barriers to market entry and, on the other hand, price signals from the electricity markets do not reach all market actors or reach them distortedly. To enable the cost effective development of the different flexibility options in an open technology competition, restraints resulting from market design and the regulatory framework (e. g. in the framework of grid charges, the market and product design of control power markets

  16. Marketing and Product Design: A Rocky Love Affair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landwehr Jan R.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The success stories of design-oriented companies like Apple, Audi or Nike have put design on the agenda in many marketing departments. Consumers cannot elude the effect of aesthetics and therefore design is a major factor for business success. Typically consumers choose the product with the best design, all other aspects being equal. Only when the interplay of product characteristics, brand and design is carefully coordinated can successful products be created. This requires an integrated approach to design, one which is applied right at the beginning of the value chain. Product development, marketing and design need to work in close cooperation, communicate well and frequently, and collect feedback from the market. Superior aesthetics are always important but should be a top priority in cases where efficiency-oriented Asian competitors are able to offer functionally similar products at much lower prices.

  17. Photovoltaic materials: An analysis of emerging technology and markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Solar power has been around for more than a century, and photovoltaic cells have supplied power to US space flights and satellites since Vanguard I. Innovative materials, new processes, and new manufacturing techniques are bringing the price of PV power down to earth--opening up substantial opportunities to profit from this environmentally friendly energy source. This report from Technical Insights, takes a hard look at this rapidly emerging field. It discusses the current state-of-the-art in photovoltaic materials; what new processes and applications are showing the greatest commercial promise; what new markets are opening up; and who the key players are in the growing PV industry

  18. Teaching User-Centered Design in New Product Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Edwin; Stone, Donn E.; Wilton, Taine

    2011-01-01

    Thanks in part to groundbreaking work by companies such as Apple and IDEO, there has been growing interest in design as a way to improve the odds of new product success. This paper describes a user-centered design workshop developed for a new product marketing course. The workshop included exercises designed to explain and illustrate the…

  19. Marketing and product design: a rocky love affair

    OpenAIRE

    Landwehr, Jan Rüdiger; Herrmann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The success stories of design-oriented companies like Apple, Audi or Nike have put design on the agenda in many marketing departments. Consumers cannot elude the effect of aesthetics and therefore design is a major factor for business success. Typically consumers choose the product with the best design, all other aspects being equal. Only when the interplay of product characteristics, brand and design is carefully coordinated can successful products be created. This requires an integrated app...

  20. Materials Driven Architectural Design and Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to outline a framework for a deeper connection between experimentally obtained material knowledge and architectural design. While materials and architecture in the process of realisation are tightly connected, architectural design and representation are often distanced from...... another role in relation to architectural production. It is, in this paper, the intention to point at material research as an active initiator in explorative approaches to architectural design methods and architectural representation. This paper will point at the inclusion of tangible and experimental...... material research in the early phases of architectural design and to that of the architectural set of tools and representation. The paper will through use of existing research and the author’s own material research and practice suggest a way of using a combination of digital drawing, digital fabrication...

  1. Materials design and development of functional materials for industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asahi, Ryoji; Morikawa, Takeshi; Hazama, Hirofumi; Matsubara, Masato

    2008-01-01

    It is now well recognized that we are witnessing a golden age of innovation with novel materials, with discoveries that are important for both basic science and industry. With the development of theory along with computing power, quantum materials design-the synthesis of materials with the desired properties in a controlled way via materials engineering on the atomic scale-is becoming a major component of materials research. Computational prediction based on first-principles calculations has helped to find an efficient way to develop materials that are much needed for industry, as we have seen in the successful development of visible-light sensitized photocatalysts and thermoelectric materials. Close collaboration between theory and experiment is emphasized as an essential for success

  2. Design Concepts. Teacher Edition. Marketing Education LAPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Jana

    This learning activity packet is designed to help prepare students to acquire a competency: how to use design concepts in preparation for a career in the fashion industry. The unit consists of the competency, four objectives, suggested learning activities, transparency masters, and a pretest/posttest with answer keys. Activities include a…

  3. Materials design data for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavassoli, A.A.F.

    1998-01-01

    Design data needed for fusion reactors are characterized by the diversity of materials and the complexity of loading situations found in these reactors. In addition, advanced fabrication techniques, such as hot isostatic pressing, envisaged for fabrication of single and multilayered in-vessel components, could significantly change the original materials properties for which the current design rules are written. As a result, additional materials properties have had to be generated for fusion reactors and new structural design rules formulated. This paper recalls some of the materials properties data generated for ITER and DEMO, and gives examples of how these are converted into design criteria. In particular, it gives specific examples for the properties of 316LN-IG and modified 9Cr-1Mo steels, and CuCrZr alloy. These include, determination of tension, creep, isochronous, fatigue, and creep-fatigue curves and their analysis and conversion into design limits. (orig.)

  4. Materials design data for fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavassoli, A.A.F. [CEA Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Gif sur Yvette (France). CEREM

    1998-10-01

    Design data needed for fusion reactors are characterized by the diversity of materials and the complexity of loading situations found in these reactors. In addition, advanced fabrication techniques, such as hot isostatic pressing, envisaged for fabrication of single and multilayered in-vessel components, could significantly change the original materials properties for which the current design rules are written. As a result, additional materials properties have had to be generated for fusion reactors and new structural design rules formulated. This paper recalls some of the materials properties data generated for ITER and DEMO, and gives examples of how these are converted into design criteria. In particular, it gives specific examples for the properties of 316LN-IG and modified 9Cr-1Mo steels, and CuCrZr alloy. These include, determination of tension, creep, isochronous, fatigue, and creep-fatigue curves and their analysis and conversion into design limits. (orig.) 19 refs.

  5. Structural and microstructural design in brittle materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.G.

    1979-12-01

    Structural design with brittle materials requires that the stress level in the component correspond to a material survival probability that exceeds the minimum survival probability permitted in that application. This can be achieved by developing failure models that fully account for the probability of fracture from defects within the material (including considerations of fracture statistics, fracture mechanics and stress analysis) coupled with non-destructive techniques that determine the size of the large extreme of critical defects. Approaches for obtaining the requisite information are described. The results provide implications for the microstructural design of failure resistant brittle materials by reducing the size of deleterious defects and enhancing the fracture toughness

  6. Design tools and materials in creative work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Nicolai Brodersen; Dalsgaard, Peter; Halskov, Kim

    2017-01-01

    -oriented perspectives, we wish to examine the potentials and limitations in current uses of design tools and materials, and discuss and explore when and how we can introduce ones. Participation in the workshop requires participants to document and analyse central themes in a case, and the resulting material will serve......This workshop aims to examine and discuss the role and nature of design tools and materials in creative work, and to explore how novel tools can meaningfully combine existing and novel tools to support and augment creative work. By exploring and combining methodological, theoretical, and design...

  7. Methanol market slowly tightens as Brazil starts soaking up material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, I.

    1992-01-01

    Although the US methanol market's response to mandated oxygen requirements in reformulated gasoline has been disappointing, the European market has surprisingly been tightening in recent weeks and looks set for a price rise in first-quarter 1993. The tightness is being felt mainly in the Mediterranean market, where the Libyan methanol plant is running at only 70% because of problems with gas feedstock supplies. More significantly, the Brazilian government has now given the go-ahead for a yearlong extension on imports of methanol for use as an ethanol replacement in fuel blending. The new authorization sets a monthly import limit of 48,000 m.t. during that period. Libya is an important supplier of methanol to the Brazilian market and has already shipped about 20,000 m.t. since the authorization was given. Another major supplier to Brazil is Russia, from its two giant 750,000-m.t./year plants at Gubakha and Tomsk. The material is shipped from the terminal at Yuzhnyy on the Black Sea, in Ukrainian territory since the collapse of the Soviet Union

  8. Design and Promotion Strategy of Marketing Platform of Aquatic Auction based on Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jianliang

    For the online trade and promotion of aquatic products and related materials through the network between supply and demand, the design content and effective promotional strategies of aquatic auctions online marketing platform is proposed in this paper. Design elements involve the location of customer service, the basic function of the platform including the purchase of general orders, online auctions, information dissemination, and recommendation of fine products, human services, and payment preferences. Based on network and mobile e-commerce transaction support, the auction platform makes the transaction of aquatic products well in advance. The results are important practical value for the design and application of online marketing platform of aquatic auction.

  9. Friction material composites copper-metal-free material design perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Sundarkrishnaa, K L

    2015-01-01

    This book examines material composites used in connection with brake friction, their design and safety. To aid in understanding, the essentials of friction are explained. This second edition was extended to include friction material composites without copper, as they offer an environmentally friendlier option. The second edition is intended to support beginners by offering insights into the essentials of friction material composites, helping them to develop a broader understanding of brake friction materials. Friction materials find wide-ranging applications in household and industrial appliances, brake pads for automotive applications, rail brake friction pads and composition brake blocks. This second edition is an introductory volume to a set of related books, and is based on the author’s experience and expertise with various material manufacturers, brake manufacturers, vehicle manufacturers, researchers and testing labs around the world with which the author has been associated for the past 28 years.

  10. Thermoelectric nanomaterials materials design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Koumoto, Kunihito

    2014-01-01

    Presently, there is an intense race throughout the world to develop good enough thermoelectric materials which can be used in wide scale applications. This book focuses comprehensively on very recent up-to-date breakthroughs in thermoelectrics utilizing nanomaterials and methods based in nanoscience. Importantly, it provides the readers with methodology and concepts utilizing atomic scale and nanoscale materials design (such as superlattice structuring, atomic network structuring and properties control, electron correlation design, low dimensionality, nanostructuring, etc.). Furthermore, also

  11. The role of power exchanges for the creation of a single European electricity market: market design and market regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisseleau, F.

    2004-01-01

    The electricity sector worldwide is undergoing a fundamental transformation of its institutional structure as a consequence of the complex interactions of political, economic and technological forces. The way the industry is organized is changing from vertically integrated monopolies to unbundled structures that favor market mechanisms. This process in Europe, known as the liberalization process, has had a wide impact on the European electricity industry. The focus of this dissertation is an analysis of the role of electricity power exchanges in the recently liberalized electricity markets of Europe. In the context of creating a competitive electricity market at a European level, the key questions considered are the functioning of these power exchanges with respect to electricity characteristics, market design and regulatory framework. In Europe, very little attention has been paid to the role of these new marketplaces and to the issue of market design in general. Hence the main purpose of this work was to analyze how these marketplaces facilitate the trading of electricity and the role they can play in the construction of a pan-European competitive electricity market. An analysis of power exchange requires taking into account the 'double-duality' of such institutions. One, power exchanges are both a market and an institution. As a market they facilitate the trading of electricity and determine an equilibrium price. As an institution power exchanges have their own objectives and constraints, and play a role in the market design of the overall electricity market. Two, the relationship between electricity power exchanges and liberalization is neither linear nor one way: liberalization encourages the birth of such marketplaces yet marketplaces are more than the results of such process, they are also a driving force of the liberalization process. This thesis is divided into three parts. The current situation in Europe and different existing theoretical approaches in

  12. Report on IPPSO Market Design Workshops, May 26, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Reports of each of the five break-out group sessions each one dealing with one of the following issues of (1) transitional issues, (2) reserve, peak and new load capacity, (3) congestion management, (4) renewables and environmental issues, and (5) stranded debt and vesting, were summarized. The reports summarized the discussions, and consensus decisions reached during the sessions. Common themes that emerged during each of the group's deliberation included recognition of the complexity of issues before the Market Design Committee (MDC), the need for flexibility, the need for a level playing field, the critical nature of the transparency of information for investment decision making, the necessity of managing and regulating Ontario Hydro's market power to ensure the viability of a competitive market and to minimize abuses of the corporation's existing monopoly position, broad support for a vibrant renewable energy industry and for enshrining the protection of the environment in the design of the new market

  13. Analysis of the impact of imbalance settlement design on market behaviour in electricity balancing markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Veen, R.A.C.; Abbasy, A.; Hakvoort, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    The imbalance settlement design is the part of an electricity balancing market design that stimulates so-called Balance Responsible Parties (BRPs) to balance their electricity production and consumption portfolio and to stick to their energy schedules by penalizing any deviations from these

  14. Design and market considerations for axial flux superconducting electric machine design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainslie, M. D.; George, A.; Shaw, R.; Dawson, L.; Winfield, A.; Steketee, M.; Stockley, S.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, the authors investigate a number of design and market considerations for an axial flux superconducting electric machine design that uses high temperature superconductors. The axial flux machine design is assumed to utilise high temperature superconductors in both wire (stator winding) and bulk (rotor field) forms, to operate over a temperature range of 65-77 K, and to have a power output in the range from 10s of kW up to 1 MW (typical for axial flux machines), with approximately 2-3 T as the peak trapped field in the bulk superconductors. The authors firstly investigate the applicability of this type of machine as a generator in small- and medium-sized wind turbines, including the current and forecasted market and pricing for conventional turbines. Next, a study is also carried out on the machine's applicability as an in-wheel hub motor for electric vehicles. Some recommendations for future applications are made based on the outcome of these two studies. Finally, the cost of YBCO-based superconducting (2G HTS) wire is analysed with respect to competing wire technologies and compared with current conventional material costs and current wire costs for both 1G and 2G HTS are still too great to be economically feasible for such superconducting devices.

  15. Effect of Market Price Uncertainties on the Design of Optimal Biorefinery Systems—A Systematic Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Quaglia, Alberto; Gernaey, Krist V.

    2014-01-01

    the design space, generic but simple models describing the processing tasks, and the formulation and solution of an MINLP problem under deterministic and stochastic conditions to identify the optimal processing route for multiple raw materials and products. Furthermore, we evaluate the impact of market price...... uncertainties on the optimal solutions and calculate the associated risk to enable informed and risk-aware decisions....

  16. The German electricity market. Does the present market design provide security of supply?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, Matthias; Peichert, Patrick; Perner, Jens; Riechmann, Christoph; Niedrig, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A heated discussion is being waged in Germany and large parts of Europe over the introduction of what are referred to as capacity mechanisms, whose purpose is to provide security of supply in the electricity sector. In this context two consulting firms have undertaken a both qualitative and quantitative study of the fitness of the present market design, which is based on the ''Energy-Only Market'' (EOM), to provide security of supply in the German electricity market. The authors come to the conclusion that, if suitably framed, the EOM can continue to provide a secure electricity supply in accordance with consumer preferences and at the lowest possible cost.

  17. DESIGN OF PARTICULATE MATERIAL COMPACTOR ROLLS DIAMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Peciar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available At present, in a period of an industrial expansion great emphasis is placed on the environment. That means aiming for a reduced energy consumption, and also lessening dustiness from very fine powder material. This category also includes particulate material agglomeration processes. Because this process is very energy-intensive, it is necessary to correctly design these devices. The aim of this paper is to focus on a theoretical design of a production compactor with the rolls diameter for an experimental particulate material, based on Johanson’s theory and experimentally measured material properties. The material used for experimental measurements was an NPK-based industrial fertilizer consisting of several components. The results of this paper is the dependence of the ratio of the maximum compression pressure to the initial compression pressure from the rolls diameter of the proposed compactor.

  18. The role of graphic design in marketing communications

    OpenAIRE

    Praznik, Daša

    2014-01-01

    Well designed visual image is the first step of advertising that has an impact on our business partners and consumers. According to Slovenian proverb that "clothes make the man" we could say the same for graphic design and marketing. Well executed graphic design and visual communications enable the communication of our product with a customer. This could be also a communication with artistic approach and a special connection. In order to obtain good results, advertisers use techniques to get...

  19. Battery designs with high capacity anode materials and cathode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masarapu, Charan; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Han, Yongbong; Deng, Haixia; Kumar, Sujeet; Lopez, Herman A.

    2017-10-03

    Improved high energy capacity designs for lithium ion batteries are described that take advantage of the properties of high specific capacity anode active compositions and high specific capacity cathode active compositions. In particular, specific electrode designs provide for achieving very high energy densities. Furthermore, the complex behavior of the active materials is used advantageously in a radical electrode balancing design that significantly reduced wasted electrode capacity in either electrode when cycling under realistic conditions of moderate to high discharge rates and/or over a reduced depth of discharge.

  20. Implications of materials behavior on design codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, D.I.

    1981-01-01

    In the U.S., the design of Class 1 elevated-temperature components of reactor systems is governed by the rules of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Cases N47 (design) and N48 (construction). The rules of Case N47, in particular, are sophisticated and complex, and a substantial quantity of materials behavior data is needed to design to these rules. Requirements include a detailed knowledge of creep, rupture, creep-fatigue, etc. In addition, many other factors, including such aspects as the influence on service performance of environment, welds, and fabrication-induced cold work, must be considered in the design. This paper reviews the impact of some recent HTGR materials data on design rules and approaches. (Auth.)

  1. Market Designs for High Levels of Variable Generation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Orths, A.; Lynch, M.; Soder, L.

    2014-10-01

    Variable renewable generation is increasing in penetration in modern power systems, leading to higher variability in the supply and price of electricity as well as lower average spot prices. This raises new challenges, particularly in ensuring sufficient capacity and flexibility from conventional technologies. Because the fixed costs and lifetimes of electricity generation investments are significant, designing markets and regulations that ensure the efficient integration of renewable generation is a significant challenge. This papers reviews the state of play of market designs for high levels of variable generation in the United States and Europe and considers new developments in both regions.

  2. Design element analysis on juice market Case study: Prigat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Andreea NEACŞU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available : If at the beginning package was considered simply a package that contained a product, now due to the development and modernization of the trade, it is a very valuable component of the marketing policy, being a carrier of messages to the consumer. Classic design elements that are included in any packaging refer to shape, color and graphics. The Romanian Juices Market was marked by originality and innovation in terms of packaging design elements. Thus, from 1998 until now the following have appeared: the first wide mouth square bottle, the first sport opening head PET bottle for Prigat Active, the first opening gable top box produced in our country.

  3. Rational design of reconfigurable prismatic architected materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overvelde, Johannes T. B.; Weaver, James C.; Hoberman, Chuck; Bertoldi, Katia

    2017-01-01

    Advances in fabrication technologies are enabling the production of architected materials with unprecedented properties. Most such materials are characterized by a fixed geometry, but in the design of some materials it is possible to incorporate internal mechanisms capable of reconfiguring their spatial architecture, and in this way to enable tunable functionality. Inspired by the structural diversity and foldability of the prismatic geometries that can be constructed using the snapology origami technique, here we introduce a robust design strategy based on space-filling tessellations of polyhedra to create three-dimensional reconfigurable materials comprising a periodic assembly of rigid plates and elastic hinges. Guided by numerical analysis and physical prototypes, we systematically explore the mobility of the designed structures and identify a wide range of qualitatively different deformations and internal rearrangements. Given that the underlying principles are scale-independent, our strategy can be applied to the design of the next generation of reconfigurable structures and materials, ranging from metre-scale transformable architectures to nanometre-scale tunable photonic systems.

  4. Extending ITER materials design to welded joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavassoli, A.-A.F. [DMN/Dir, CEA/Saclay, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France)]. E-mail: tavassoli@cea.fr

    2007-08-01

    This paper extends the ITER materials properties documentation to weld metals and incorporates the needs of Test Blanket Modules for higher temperature materials properties. Since the main structural material selected for ITER is type 316L(N)-IG, the paper is focused on weld metals and joining techniques for this steel. Materials properties data are analysed according to the French design and construction rules for nuclear components (RCC-MR) and design allowables are equally derived using the same rules. Particular attention is paid to the type of weld metal, to the type and position of welding and their influence on the materials properties data and design allowables. The primary goal of this work, starting with 19-12-2 weld metal, is to produce comprehensive materials properties documentations that when combined with codification and inspection documents would satisfy ITER licensing needs. As a result, structural stability and capability of welded joints during manufacturing of ITER components and their subsequent service, including the effects of irradiation and eventual incidental or accidental situations, are also covered.

  5. Market Evolution: Wholesale Electricity Market Design for 21st Century Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Jaquelin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ela, Erik [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, Douglas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bloom, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Futch, Matthew [IBM, Northcastle, NY (United States); Kiviluoma, Juha [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espo (Finland); Holtinnen, Hannele [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espo (Finland); Orths, Antje [Energinet.dk (Denmark); Gomez-Lazaro, Emilio [University of Castilla-La Mancha, Real (Spain); Martin-Martinez, Sergio [University of Castilla-La Mancha, Real (Spain); Kukoda, S. [International Copper Association, New York, NY (United States); Garcia, Glycon [International Copper Association, New York, NY (United States); Mikkelsen, Kim M. [Global Green Growth Inst., Seoul (Korea); Yongqiang, Zhao [China National Renewable Energy Center, Beijing (China); Sandholt, Kaare [China National Renewable Energy Center, Beijing (China)

    2013-10-01

    Demand for affordable, reliable, domestically sourced, and low-carbon electricity is on the rise. This growing demand is driven in part by evolving public policy priorities, especially reducing the health and environmental impacts of electricity service and expanding energy access to under-served customers. Consequently, variable renewable energy resources comprise an increasing share ofelectricity generation globally. At the same time, new opportunities for addressing the variability of renewables are being strengthened through advances in smart grids, communications, and technologies that enable dispatchable demand response and distributed generation to extend to the mass market. A key challenge of merging these opportunities is market design -- determining how to createincentives and compensate providers justly for attributes and performance that ensure a reliable and secure grid -- in a context that fully realizes the potential of a broad array of sources of flexibility in both the wholesale power and retail markets. This report reviews the suite of wholesale power market designs in use and under consideration to ensure adequacy, security, and flexibilityin a landscape of significant variable renewable energy. It also examines considerations needed to ensure that wholesale market designs are inclusive of emerging technologies, such as demand response, distributed generation, and storage.

  6. New Brunswick Market Design Committee : Congestion management issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The restructuring of the New Brunswick wholesale power market comprises a number of issues that need to be resolved concerning transmission system related policy decisions and detailed design issues. The wholesale market structure, ownership structure, and means of preventing market power abuses all have an impact on the resolution of many of those issues. Some transmission related decisions regarding congestion management must be made, and they are examined in this document. The report includes a discussion of the issues related to congestion on the transmission system, a review of the decisions that remain to be made while proposing a number of alternatives, reviews decisions that other jurisdictions have made in somewhat similar circumstances. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of each alternative are identified. Several high level transmission tariff design issues requiring to be addressed later in greater detail are listed in this document. 1 tab

  7. Molecular designing of nanoparticles and functional materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Nenad L.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The interdisciplinary research team implemented the program titled “Molecular designing of nanoparticles with controlled morphological and physicochemical characteristics and functional materials based on them” (MODENAFUNA, between 2011 and 2016, gaining new knowledge significant to the further improvement of nanomaterials and nanotechnologies. It gathered under its umbrella six main interrelated topics pertaining to the design and control of morphological and physicochemical properties of nanoparticles and functional material based on them using new methods of synthesis and processing: 1 inorganic nanoparticles, 2 cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries, 3 functional ceramics with improved electrical and optical properties, 4 full density nanostructured calcium phosphate and functionally-graded materials, 5 nano-calcium phosphate in bone tissue engineering and 6 biodegradable micro- and nano-particles for the controlled delivery of medicaments. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III45004: Molecular designing of nanoparticles with controlled morphological and physicochemical characteristics and functional materials based on them

  8. Design of POLCA material control systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezebos, J.

    2010-01-01

    POLCA is a material control system designed for make-to-order or engineer-to-order companies. These firms have to cope with a high variety of customised products, and strong pressure to provide short throughput times. POLCA constrains the amount of work in progress on the shop floor in order to

  9. Core designs for the de-regulated market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almberger, J.; Bernro, R.; Pettersson, H.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows: The electricity market deregulation in the Nordic countries encourages innovations and cost reductions for power production in the Vattenfall reactors. The competition on the electricity market is strong, electricity price reductions dramatic and uncertainties about the future power demand is large. In the fuel area this situation has given increased attention to traditional areas like flexibility in power production, improved core designs, need for margins (improved fuel designs), improved surveillance, decreased lead times. At Vattenfall new fuel designs are already being implemented following the last fuel purchase, for which flexibility and margins, were given high values in the evaluations with the multipurpose task of eliminating fuel related problems and meeting the future market situation. This strategy has given Vattenfall a flying start to meeting the demands of the de-regulated market. What has been added are broad studies undertaken to investigate the various route into the future with respect to finding the most effective strategies for fuel and core design and optimization. In the present paper the Vattenfall priorities for fuel designs and margins are presented in a schematic manner summarizing the results of the last fuel purchase and also presenting the current program for LFAs. Technical limitations, licensing and R and D aspects, with respect to improving the fuel utilization will be mentioned. The main focus in the paper is on the broad study carried out in the PWR core design area. Driven by the relatively low power demand various possibilities for higher production flexibility have been investigated specifically extended coast-down, coast-up and yearly load follow. Further to reduce the costs for fuel consumption improvements in core designs have been studied: improved low leakage loading patterns, low enriched end zones, improved Gd designs etc. Main results and conclusions of the core design studies will

  10. Implications of materials behavior on design codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, D.I.

    1981-04-01

    In the US, the design of Class 1 elevated-temperature components of reactor systems is governed by the rules of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Cases N47 (design) and N48 (construction). The rules of Case N47, in particular, are sophisticated and complex, and a substantial quantity of materials behavior data is needed to design to these rules. Requirements include a detailed knowledge of creep, rupture, creep-fatigue, etc. In addition, many other factors, including such aspects as the influence on service performance of environment, welds, and fabrication-induced cold work, must be considered in the design. This paper reviews the impact of some recent HTGR materials data on design rules and approaches. In the construction area, for example, recent data regarding the elevated-temperature properties and behavior of cold-formed austenitic materials such as Alloy 800H have resulted in rule changes. Observed creep-fatigue behavior of Alloy 800H and 2-1/4Cr to 1Mo steel is causing active review of the pertinence of linear damage summation approaches

  11. Designing an Energy Drink: High School Students Learn Design and Marketing Skills in This Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Doug

    2008-01-01

    A decade ago, energy drinks were almost nonexistent in the United States, but in the past five years they've become wildly popular. In fact, the $3.4 billion energy-drink market is expected to double this year alone, and the younger generation is the market targeted by manufacturers. This article presents an energy-drink designing activity. This…

  12. Timber Curtain: Designing with material capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahmy, Maya; Larsen, Niels Martin

    2015-01-01

    of the generative phase to fabrication of the artefact. Brought together by various conceptual and structural elements the Timber Curtain forms a 4.5 x 2.5 x 0.5 m construct of assembled wood components, digitally crafted through advanced production techniques. Concerned with materiality and processing of the wood......Timber Curtain explores relations between digital precision and material indeterminacy. It is an installation engaging spatially through its presence as a 1:1 architectural component as well as it is exploring novel technologies in the architectural design process from the very beginning...... an associative digital model that could gather and compute in put from material behaviour and out put manufacturing data was scripted. This method enables material capacity to be pushed to the limit of its performance allowing novel sensuous and structural qualities to emerge. The method is developed with use...

  13. The materials challenge for LFR core design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasso, Giacomo; Agostini, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    LFR share the main issues of all Fast Reactors, while presenting specific issues due to the use of lead as coolant. A number of constraints impairs the design of a LFR core, possibly resulting in a viability domain not exploitable for producing electricity in an efficient (hence economic) way. In particular, the most restrictive issues to be faced pend on the cladding. The selection of proper cladding materials provides the solution for the issues impairing the resistance of the cladding against stresses and irradiation effects. On the other hand, the protection of the cladding requires surface protections like oxide scales (passivation) or adherent layers (coating). Oxide scales seem not sufficient for a stable and effective protection of the base material. The application of adherent layers seems the only promising solution for protecting the cladding against corrosion. For the short term (i.e.: ALFRED), advanced 15/15Ti with coating is the reference solution for the cladding, allowing a core design complying with all the design constraints and goals. The candidate coatings are already being tested under irradiation to proceed towards qualification. In parallel, new base materials and/or coatings are presently under investigation. For the long term (i.e.: ELFR), the availability of such advanced materials/coatings might allow the extension of the viability domain towards higher and broader ranges (temperature, dpa, etc.), extending the fields of applications of LFRs and resulting in higher performances

  14. Material selection for design, manufacturing and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.

    2011-01-01

    Developing a new engineering material product or changing an existing one requires new design selecting material and choosing appropriate and economical manufacturing processes. These three main factors play a great role on the performance of the product in service. These items are independent and should not be performed in isolation from each other. With the great advancement of technology in the last decade and with the greater number of engineering materials which are now available, together with the increasing pressure to produce more economic and get reliable products an integrated approach which considers design, material selection and the appropriate manufacturing process makes it easier to achieve the optimum product that combines the functional requirements with the reliability at competitive cost. These diverse activities or items are interdependent; therefore should not be considered in isolation from each other, for example, it is not sufficient that design of the product should satisfy the technical, safety and legal requirements, it must also be possible to be manufactured economically and to be sold at a competitive price and easily disposed at the end of its working life cycle. In this paper, the interaction of these items together in order to arrive to the optimum solution for a particular application are given and discussed. (author)

  15. ITER status, design and material objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aymar, R.

    2002-01-01

    During the ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA), completed in July 2001, the Joint Central Team and Home Teams developed a robust design of ITER, summarised in this paper, with parameters which fully meet the required scientific and technological objectives, construction costs and safety requirements, with appropriate margins. The design is backed by R and D to qualify the technology, including materials R and D. Materials for ITER components have been selected largely because of their availability and well-established manufacturing technologies, taking account of the low fluence experienced during neutron irradiation, and the experimental nature of the device. Nevertheless, for specific needs relevant to a future fusion reactor, improved materials, in particular for magnet structures, in-vessel components, and joints between the different materials needed for plasma facing components, have been successfully developed. Now, with the technical readiness to decide on ITER construction, negotiations, supported by coordinated technical activities of an international team and teams from participant countries, are underway on joint construction of ITER with a view to the signature/ratification of an agreement in 2003

  16. Computer aided materials design; Keisanki zairyo sekkei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The questionnaire survey on the computer aided materials design (CAMD), and the survey of current domestic and overseas software concerned were carried out to clarify developmental issues. The current elementary technology of CAMD was also surveyed to study its several problems caused with a progress of material design technology due to drastic diffusion of CAMD. This project aims at establishment of a new demanded software, computer chemistry, focusing attention on functional materials such as catalyst, polymer and non-linear electronic materials. Microscopic simulation technology was mainly surveyed in fiscal 1996. Although some fruitful results have been obtained in the fields of medical and agricultural chemicals, organic compounds, proteins, catalysts and electronic materials, such some problems are pointed out as `CAMD cannot handle an actual size of the target system` and `commercially available software are very expensive.` Reliable tool development as elementary technology, and the verification of its applications are thus required. Meso-dynamics, polymers, surface reaction and integrated technological environment attract users` attention. 27 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. The evolving design of RTO ancillary service markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isemonger, Alan G.

    2009-01-01

    Although the markets for ancillary services at the North American Independent System Operators are often structured in quite different ways there is an emerging set of core design elements that represent a rough consensus as to what the optimal design configuration for ancillary services should be, albeit with some regional variation. This paper looks back at how the design of ancillary services markets has recently evolved to put this development in context. Thereafter it examines the methods by which ancillary services are procured by highlighting the procurement practices at a number of different Independent System Operators, principally those in California, New York, New England, Texas and the PJM Interconnection, in an attempt to tease out the remaining reasons why the ancillary service markets are still so different. This is important as there are many innovations that are not rooted in regional differences but reflect genuine technical advances and economic efficiency gains and can be replicated across other ISOs to produce more efficient designs, greater reliability and lower costs. (author)

  18. Urban public space materials. Maintenance and design?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Iglesias Campos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, certain aspects related to the conservation of materials commonly used in the design of public spaces are analysed and discussed from a starting point of maintenance definition. The main area of discussion is whether materials selection for pavements and urban furniture, and their placement in the designed space, take into account their maintenance needs. Here the definition of maintenance is the cleaning and repair done by municipal services that is always necessary after construction. From certain examples it can be concluded that, in several cases, the form, the organization and the distribution of the different elements within the public space can cause difficulties for its appropriate conservation, giving rise to alterations and consequently having a negative impact on the durability of this space.

  19. Materials design for electrocatalytic carbon capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Tan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We discuss our philosophy for implementation of the Materials Genome Initiative through an integrated materials design strategy, exemplified here in the context of electrocatalytic capture and separation of CO2 gas. We identify for a group of 1:1 X–N graphene analogue materials that electro-responsive switchable CO2 binding behavior correlates with a change in the preferred binding site from N to the adjacent X atom as negative charge is introduced into the system. A reconsideration of conductive N-doped graphene yields the discovery that the N-dopant is able to induce electrocatalytic binding of multiple CO2 molecules at the adjacent carbon sites.

  20. Computational Chemistry Toolkit for Energetic Materials Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    industry are aggressively engaged in efforts to develop multiscale modeling and simulation methodologies to model and analyze complex phenomena across...energetic materials design. It is hoped that this toolkit will evolve into a collection of well-integrated multiscale modeling methodologies...Experimenta Theoreticala This Work 1-5-Diamino-4- methyl- tetrazolium nitrate 8.4 41.7 47.5 1-5-Diamino-4- methyl- tetrazolium azide 138.1 161.6

  1. Material constraints on high-speed design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucur, Diana; Militaru, Nicolae

    2015-02-01

    Current high-speed circuit designs with signal rates up to 100Gbps and above are implying constraints for dielectric and conductive materials and their dependence of frequency, for component elements and for production processes. The purpose of this paper is to highlight through various simulation results the frequency dependence of specific parameters like insertion and return loss, eye diagrams, group delay that are part of signal integrity analyses type. In low-power environment designs become more complex as the operation frequency increases. The need for new materials with spatial uniformity for dielectric constant is a need for higher data rates circuits. The fiber weave effect (FWE) will be analyzed through the eye diagram results for various dielectric materials in a differential signaling scheme given the fact that the FWE is a phenomenon that affects randomly the performance of the circuit on balanced/differential transmission lines which are typically characterized through the above mentioned approaches. Crosstalk between traces is also of concern due to propagated signals that have tight rise and fall times or due to high density of the boards. Criteria should be considered to achieve maximum performance of the designed system requiring critical electronic properties.

  2. Market Design. Evaluation of the third phase 2006-2009; Market Design. Utvaerdering av den tredje etappen 2006-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, Carl (Global to Local Sweden AB, Raaaa (Sweden))

    2009-10-15

    Market Design started 2001 and has since then supported more than 50 projects. During phase III, i.e. 2006 - 2009, 18 project were supported with a total programme budget of 18 MSEK. Market Design has focused on issues related to the deregulated electricity market primarily in Sweden. The aims have been to improve the performance of the market, to develop knowledge and support research groups. The analysis in this report is limited to phase III of the programme. It is based on almost 40 interviews with stakeholders close to the programme such as the board, contractors and programme officers as well as others with thorough insight into issues of importance to the electricity market. Furthermore, a number of relevant documents related to Market Design have been analyzed. The focus of the evaluation has been to address the following issues; relevance, benefits of the programme and the projects, dissemination of results, programme administration and the achievement of programme goals. The interviews reveal that some additional issues need to be addressed further. The evaluation shows that the programme has a clearly identified role in relation to other RandD programmes. No duplicate work has been identified. The board of the programme provides a sufficient guarantee. The results of the analyses are as fellows: The interviews show that all relevant research areas have been dealt with. Nothing of significance (research areas or projects) has been omitted. The time gap between program definition and execution might require a larger budget reserve to deal with unforeseen circumstances especially in view of rapidly changing market conditions. Market Design has provided a common basis for decision making amongst governmental bodies and utilities regarding the development of the Nordic electricity market. A network of key officials working in the area, not the least the board, has been established to the benefit of regulatory aspects of market development. The value of this

  3. On the Market Aspect of Product Program Design: Towards a Definition of an Architecture of the Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Lindschou; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars

    2012-01-01

    an architecture of the market. This is to be interpreted as the ‘market perspective’ of the product family referring to the design of the product family from the market’s point of view. The main result of this paper is the suggestion of a definition of a market architecture with an articulation of its elements...

  4. Design of Molecular Materials: Supramolecular Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jacques; Bassoul, Pierre

    2001-02-01

    This timely and fascinating book is destined to be recognised as THE book on supramolecular engineering protocols. It covers this sometimes difficult subject in an approachable form, gathering together information from many sources. Supramolecular chemistry, which links organic chemistry to materials science, is one of the fastest growth areas of chemistry research. This book creates a correlation between the structure of single molecules and the physical and chemical properties of the resulting materials. By making systematic changes to the component molecules, the resulting solid can be engineered for optimum performance. There is a clearly written development from synthesis of designer molecules to properties of solids and further on to devices and complex materials systems, providing guidelines for mastering the organisation of these systems. Topics covered include: Systemic chemistry Molecular assemblies Notions of symmetry Supramolecular engineering Principe de Curie Organisation in molecular media Molecular semiconductors Industrial applications of molecular materials This superb book will be invaluable to researchers in the field of supramolecular materials and also to students and teachers of the subject.

  5. Reliability and standard market design : a square plug and a round socket, the fundamental flaw of the market design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekman, K.

    2003-01-01

    A electricity power system is designed and built to deliver reliable power supplies. A failure of a single component should not lead to the failure of the entire system. Oversupply results in prices at marginal cost of production, inadequate return on capital investment and economic failure of supplies. Uneconomic sources of supply would pull out in cases of oversupply. Competitive markets need flexible supply and demand and scarcity pricing in order to promote new investment. The problem with such a scenario is that scarcity reduces the level of reliability. An oversupply, while ensuring reliability, offers an inadequate return on capital. This presentation included several graphs depicting results of market failure with reference to NYMEX analysis of credit quality, NEPOOL summer capacity 2001, NYS summer capacity 2001, and PJM summer capacity 2001. A graph illustrating a New England 2002 load duration curve and its analysis was also included. According to the author, the market design is flawed because it does not pay for reliability. It fails to compensate generation for capital at risk, and it fails to address the fact that nearly half of the capacity supplies less than 10 per cent energy. He notes that the liquidity crisis will continue and grow unless changes are made and new entrants come into the market. 8 figs

  6. Bremsstrahlung convertors: materials design and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allred, R.E.

    1976-03-01

    An improved bremsstrahlung convertor for use at high electron beam energies was developed. The convertor consists of three main components: (1) conversion foil; (2) electron scavenger; and (3) impulse shield. Structural failures of the impulse shield were experimentally determined to be caused by shock wave interactions. Convertor materials and design modifications were aimed at attenuation of the magnitude of the shock and maximization of energy absorption by the convertor materials. Techniques proven successful included the introduction of porosity into electron scavenger and impulse shield materials, the use of a standoff between the conversion foil and the electron scavenger, the insertion of a gap between the scavenger and impulse shield, and the use of advanced composite materials for the impulse shield. These modifications have increased the convertor operating range from 4 cal/gm Au to over 8 cal/gm Au. Kevlar 49 reinforced-resin composites have proven to have the best combination of strength, stiffness, toughness, and x-ray transport properties for use as bremmstrahlung convertor impulse shields

  7. Industrial aspects: materials, designing and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, M.

    2008-01-01

    First, this article reviews the evolution of the PWR fuel assembly manufactured by Westinghouse over 30 years and secondly gives a glimpse of the industrial organization of Westinghouse. The progressive changes in the design of the fuel assembly can be illustrated by the materials used: first Inconel then zircaloy-4, zirlo and now the optimized zirlo. The Westinghouse nuclear fuel destined to French pressurized reactors is fabricated in either Sweden (Vasteras) or in Spain (Juzbado). Fuel tubes are produced in Usa (Blairsville) or in Sweden (Sandvik). In the last 5 years Westinghouse has launched important programs for improving industrial processes and final products to reach customer satisfaction. (A.C.)

  8. Designing incentive market mechanisms for improving restructured power system reliabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob; Wu, Qiuwei

    2011-01-01

    state. The reliability management of producers usually cannot be directly controlled by the system operators in a restructured power system. Producers may have no motivation to improve their reliabilities, which can result in serious system unreliability issues in the new environment. Incentive market...... mechanisms for improving the restructured power system reliabilities have been designed in this paper. In the proposed incentive mechanisms, penalty will be implemented on a producer if the failures of its generator(s) result in the variation of electricity prices. Incentive market mechanisms can motivate......In a restructured power system, the monopoly generation utility is replaced by different electricity producers. There exists extreme price volatility caused by random failures by generation or/and transmission systems. In these cases, producers' profits can be much higher than those in the normal...

  9. Market Mechanism Design for Renewable Energy based on Risk Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wu; Bo, Wang; Jichun, Liu; Wenjiao, Zai; Pingliang, Zeng; Haobo, Shi

    2018-02-01

    Generation trading between renewable energy and thermal power is an efficient market means for transforming supply structure of electric power into sustainable development pattern. But the trading is hampered by the output fluctuations of renewable energy and the cost differences between renewable energy and thermal power at present. In this paper, the external environmental cost (EEC) is defined and the EEC is introduced into the generation cost. At same time, the incentive functions of renewable energy and low-emission thermal power are designed, which are decreasing functions of EEC. On these bases, for the market risks caused by the random variability of EEC, the decision-making model of generation trading between renewable energy and thermal power is constructed according to the risk theory. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model are verified by simulation results.

  10. Two-Sided Matching Agents for Electronic Employment Market Design: Social Welfare Implications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gates, William

    2002-01-01

    ... employment market designs. Using a quasi-price measure for comparison and examining social welfare as a basis for assessing market-design alternatives, we provide novel insight into the balance required between technologically...

  11. Hybrid materials science: a promised land for the integrative design of multifunctional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole, Lionel; Laberty-Robert, Christel; Rozes, Laurence; Sanchez, Clément

    2014-06-21

    For more than 5000 years, organic-inorganic composite materials created by men via skill and serendipity have been part of human culture and customs. The concept of "hybrid organic-inorganic" nanocomposites exploded in the second half of the 20th century with the expansion of the so-called "chimie douce" which led to many collaborations between a large set of chemists, physicists and biologists. Consequently, the scientific melting pot of these very different scientific communities created a new pluridisciplinary school of thought. Today, the tremendous effort of basic research performed in the last twenty years allows tailor-made multifunctional hybrid materials with perfect control over composition, structure and shape. Some of these hybrid materials have already entered the industrial market. Many tailor-made multiscale hybrids are increasingly impacting numerous fields of applications: optics, catalysis, energy, environment, nanomedicine, etc. In the present feature article, we emphasize several fundamental and applied aspects of the hybrid materials field: bioreplication, mesostructured thin films, Lego-like chemistry designed hybrid nanocomposites, and advanced hybrid materials for energy. Finally, a few commercial applications of hybrid materials will be presented.

  12. Hybrid materials science: a promised land for the integrative design of multifunctional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole, Lionel; Laberty-Robert, Christel; Rozes, Laurence; Sanchez, Clément

    2014-05-01

    For more than 5000 years, organic-inorganic composite materials created by men via skill and serendipity have been part of human culture and customs. The concept of ``hybrid organic-inorganic'' nanocomposites exploded in the second half of the 20th century with the expansion of the so-called ``chimie douce'' which led to many collaborations between a large set of chemists, physicists and biologists. Consequently, the scientific melting pot of these very different scientific communities created a new pluridisciplinary school of thought. Today, the tremendous effort of basic research performed in the last twenty years allows tailor-made multifunctional hybrid materials with perfect control over composition, structure and shape. Some of these hybrid materials have already entered the industrial market. Many tailor-made multiscale hybrids are increasingly impacting numerous fields of applications: optics, catalysis, energy, environment, nanomedicine, etc. In the present feature article, we emphasize several fundamental and applied aspects of the hybrid materials field: bioreplication, mesostructured thin films, Lego-like chemistry designed hybrid nanocomposites, and advanced hybrid materials for energy. Finally, a few commercial applications of hybrid materials will be presented.

  13. Customer Relationship within the Furniture Design Market : A qualitative study of how companies within the furniture design market relate to the challenges connected to customer loyalty

    OpenAIRE

    Wahlström, Marie-Louise; Bergström, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Background: The customer relationship is becoming more important for companies within the Swedish furniture design industry due to competition for market shares. The market is getting more crammed while the interest for furniture design amongst people is increasing, therefore furniture design companies need to find effective ways to attract loyal customers. Research has been made to show the importance of collaboration between companies and this is something that can increase the market share...

  14. Materials design principles of ancient fish armour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruet, Benjamin J. F.; Song, Juha; Boyce, Mary C.; Ortiz, Christine

    2008-09-01

    Knowledge of the structure-property-function relationships of dermal scales of armoured fish could enable pathways to improved bioinspired human body armour, and may provide clues to the evolutionary origins of mineralized tissues. Here, we present a multiscale experimental and computational approach that reveals the materials design principles present within individual ganoid scales from the `living fossil' Polypterus senegalus. This fish belongs to the ancient family Polypteridae, which first appeared 96 million years ago during the Cretaceous period and still retains many of their characteristics. The mechanistic origins of penetration resistance (approximating a biting attack) were investigated and found to include the juxtaposition of multiple distinct reinforcing composite layers that each undergo their own unique deformation mechanisms, a unique spatial functional form of mechanical properties with regions of differing levels of gradation within and between material layers, and layers with an undetectable gradation, load-dependent effective material properties, circumferential surface cracking, orthogonal microcracking in laminated sublayers and geometrically corrugated junctions between layers.

  15. Photovoltaics for professionals solar electric systems marketing, design and installation

    CERN Document Server

    Falk, Antony; Remmers, Karl-Heinz

    2007-01-01

    For the building industry, the installation of photovoltaic systems has become a new field of activity. Interest in solar energy is growing and future business prospects are excellent. Photovoltaics for Professionals describes the practicalities of marketing, designing and installing photovoltaic systems, both grid-tied and stand-alone. It has been written for electricians, technicians, builders, architects and building engineers who want to get involved in this expanding industry. It answers all the beginner's questions as well as serving as a textbook and work of reference

  16. Game Design Jomblo Keren As a Startup Marketing Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celvin Laviano

    2018-01-01

    ability to be able to take advantage of opportunities with the best. Bill Gates once quoted a word from Don Corleone that we must keep our friend close but our enemies even closer. Because of these competitors we will see various types of opportunities and opportunities that exist. The creation of "Jomblo Keren" game design will look at different types of aspects that can be used to get the right predictions to make the games acceptable by the market. These aspects include themes, games platform, visuals, gameplay, and stories.

  17. Economic market design and planning for electric power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mili, Lamine

    2010-01-01

    Discover cutting-edge developments in electric power systems. Stemming from cutting-edge research and education activities in the field of electric power systems, this book brings together the knowledge of a panel of experts in economics, the social sciences, and electric power systems. In ten concise and comprehensible chapters, the book provides unprecedented coverage of the operation, control, planning, and design of electric power systems. It also discusses:. A framework for interdisciplinary research and education;. Modeling electricity markets;. Alternative economic criteria and proactiv.

  18. Electric market models, competitive model and alternative design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnedillo, O.

    2007-01-01

    Almost ten years after the liberalization of the Spanish electric system, its market design has remained basically unchanged. Therefore, it is reasonable to consider whether the current model continues to be adequate or whether it should be changed. However, although the current model is far from the absolute optimum, it is suited to the current state of the Spanish system. Only some improvements, such as the reform of the capacity guarantee payment can be undertaken immediately. It will only be possible to undertake other improvements as distribution companies cover all of their electricity needs in forward contracts acquired through a competitive process. (Author)

  19. Evaluation of Market Design Agents: The Mertacor Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrogiannis, Lampros C.; Mitkas, Pericles A.

    The annual Trading Agent Competition for Market Design, CAT, provides a testbed to study the mechanisms that modern stock exchanges use in their effort to attract potential traders while maximizing their profit. This paper presents an evaluation of the agents that participated in the 2008 competition. The evaluation is based on the analysis of the CAT finals as well as on the results obtained from post-tournament experiments. We present Mertacor, our entrant for 2008, and compare it with the other available agents. In addition, we introduce a simple yet effective way of computing the global competitive equilibrium that Mertacor utilizes and discuss its importance for the game.

  20. Support schemes and market design in international offshore grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    International offshore grids can combine the grid connection of offshore wind parks with the possibility for international power trading in the future. This paper investigates the choice of support scheme and power market design in international offshore grids and derives resulting incentives...... support. For a stable investment framework in the near future, a tendering/feed-in tariff may be the best choice. It avoids exposing wind farms to balancing with multiple countries. In the long run, also other support scheme options may be of interest....

  1. Linking Design, Marketing, and Innovation: Managing the Connection for Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Yen Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Marketing should closely coordinate with product innovation. Not only will an effective connection of the marketing activity and design trigger product innovation in enterprises, it is a key factor to the product success in the market place. In practice, how to process product design so as to reach the goal of marketing during the innovation procedure? In the past, enterprises did have some concrete actions but empirical studies regarding the correlation model between marketing strategy and d...

  2. Enhanced wood fuel handling: market and design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landen, R.; Rippengal, R.; Redman, A.N.

    1997-09-01

    This report examines the potential for the manufacture and sale of novel wood fuel handling systems as a means of addressing users' concerns regarding current capital costs and potential high labour costs of non-automated systems. The report considers fuel handling technology that is basically appropriate for wood-fired heating systems of between c.100kW and c.1MW maximum continuous rating. This report details work done by the project collaborators in order to: (1) assess the current status of wood fuel handling technology; (2) evaluate the market appetite for improved wood fuel handling technology; (3) derive capital costs which are acceptable to customers; (4) review design options; and (5) select one or more design options worthy of further development. The current status of wood fuel handling technology is determined, and some basic modelling to give guidance on acceptable capital costs of 100-1000kW wood fuel handling systems is undertaken. (author)

  3. Mechanical and materials engineering of modern structure and component design

    CERN Document Server

    Altenbach, Holm

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the latest findings on mechanical and materials engineering as applied to the design of modern engineering materials and components. The contributions cover the classical fields of mechanical, civil and materials engineering, as well as bioengineering and advanced materials processing and optimization. The materials and structures discussed can be categorized into modern steels, aluminium and titanium alloys, polymers/composite materials, biological and natural materials, material hybrids and modern nano-based materials. Analytical modelling, numerical simulation, state-of-the-art design tools and advanced experimental techniques are applied to characterize the materials’ performance and to design and optimize structures in different fields of engineering applications.

  4. Adopting a Design-Thinking Multidisciplinary Learning Approach: Integrating Mobile Applications into a Marketing Research Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzosa, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    This article seeks to address the gap between marketing education and marketing practice by integrating a design-thinking (DT) methodology to the marketing research (MR) framework to achieve learning objectives that will enhance cross-functional, collaborative, conceptual, and technical skills. The mobile application marketing research project…

  5. A theory of planning horizons (1: market design in a post-neoclassical world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic B. Jennings, Jr.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The neoclassical case supporting competitive frames and market solutions has failed to promote stable world-wide economic development. Other approaches in economics incorporate social culture, increasing returns, market power, ecological limits and complementarity, yielding broader applications for development theory. In this paper a theory of planning horizons is introduced to raise some meaningful questions about the traditional view with respect to its substitution, decreasing returns and independence assumptions. Suppositions of complementarity, increasing returns and interdependence suggest that competition is inefficient by upholding a myopic culture resistant to learning. Growth – though long believed to rise from markets and competitive values – may not derive from these sources. Instead, as civilizations advance, shifting from material wants to higher-order intangible output, they evolve from market tradeoffs (substitution and scarcity into realms of common need (complementarity and abundance. The policy implications of horizonal theory are explored, with respect to regulatory aims and economic concerns. Such an approach emphasizes strict constraints against entry barriers, ecological harm, market power abuse and ethical lapses. Social cohesion – not competition – is sought as a means to extend horizons and thereby increase efficiency, equity and ecological health. The overriding importance of horizon effects for regulatory assessment dominates other orthodox standards in economics and law. Reframing economics along horizonal lines suggests some meaningful insight on the proper design of economic systems.

  6. Tools for Material Design and Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehage, Kristopher

    The present thesis focuses on applications of numerical methods to create tools for material characterization, design and selection. The tools generated in this work incorporate a variety of programming concepts, from digital image analysis, geometry, optimization, and parallel programming to data-mining, databases and web design. The first portion of the thesis focuses on methods for characterizing clustering in bimodal 5083 Aluminum alloys created by cryomilling and powder metallurgy. The bimodal samples analyzed in the present work contain a mixture of a coarse grain phase, with a grain size on the order of several microns, and an ultra-fine grain phase, with a grain size on the order of 200 nm. The mixing of the two phases is not homogeneous and clustering is observed. To investigate clustering in these bimodal materials, various microstructures were created experimentally by conventional cryomilling, Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP), Extrusion, Dual-Mode Dynamic Forging (DMDF) and a new 'Gradient' cryomilling process. Two techniques for quantitative clustering analysis are presented, formulated and implemented. The first technique, the Area Disorder function, provides a metric of the quality of coarse grain dispersion in an ultra-fine grain matrix and the second technique, the Two-Point Correlation function, provides a metric of long and short range spatial arrangements of the two phases, as well as an indication of the mean feature size in any direction. The two techniques are implemented on digital images created by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Electron Backscatter Detection (EBSD) of the microstructures. To investigate structure--property relationships through modeling and simulation, strategies for generating synthetic microstructures are discussed and a computer program that generates randomized microstructures with desired configurations of clustering described by the Area Disorder Function is formulated and presented. In the computer program, two

  7. A modelling breakthrough for market design analysis to test massive intermittent generation integration in markets results of selected OPTIMATE studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beaude, Francois; Atayi, A.; Bourmaud, J.-Y.

    2013-01-01

    The OPTIMATE1 platform focuses on electricity system and market designs modelling in order to assess current and innovative designs in Europe. The current paper describes the results of the first validation studies' conducted with the tool. These studies deal with day-ahead market rules, load...... flexibility, cross-border management and intermittent renewable support schemes with a view to better integrating large amounts of renewable energy in Europe. Market and system designs were assessed based on economic efficiency, security of supply2 and environmental impact3 indicators. These results give...

  8. 77 FR 64311 - Potential Market Impact of the Proposed Fiscal Year 2014 Annual Materials Plan; National Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... actually be associated with the two material research and development projects will depend on the market... Market Impact of the Proposed Fiscal Year 2014 Annual Materials Plan; National Defense Stockpile Market... Stockpile Market Impact Committee, co-chaired by the Departments of Commerce and State, is seeking public...

  9. Capacity Market Design: Motivation and Challenges in Alberta’s Electricity Market

    OpenAIRE

    David Brown

    2018-01-01

    Alberta’s electricity market is currently undergoing a period of substantial transition. The province should proceed with caution as it switches from an energy-only electricity market to a capacity market by 2021. Many other jurisdictions have already made the changeover and Alberta can learn from their experiences in order to avoid common mistakes and pitfalls that can arise with the deployment of a capacity market.There were growing concerns that the existing electricity market structure wo...

  10. The Plastic Bakery : A Case of Material Driven Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majumdar, P.; Karana, E.; Sonneveld, M.H.; Karana, E.; Giaccardi, E.; Nimkulrat, N.; Niedderer, K.; Camere, S.

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of scholars argue that understanding how people experience materials in products, i.e. Materials Experience, is essential in
    designing meaningful material applications. Material Driven Design (MDD) has been developed as the method to understand these experiential traits
    of

  11. The economic analysis of power market architectures: application to real-time market design; L' analyse economique des architectures de marche electrique: application au market design du temps reel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saguan, M

    2007-04-15

    This work contributes to the economic analysis of power market architectures. A modular framework is used to separate problems of market design in different modules. The work's goal is to study real-time market design. A two-stage market equilibrium model is used to analyse the two main real-time designs: the 'market' and the 'mechanism' (with penalty). Numerical simulations show that design applied in real-time is not neutral vis-a-vis of energy markets sequence and the competition dynamic. Designs using penalty (mechanisms) cause distortions, inefficiencies and can create barriers to entry. The size of distortions is given by the temporal position of the gate that closure the forward markets. This model has also allowed us to show the key role of real-time integration between zones and the importance of good harmonization between real-time designs of each zone. (author)

  12. 46 CFR 58.05-1 - Material, design and construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Material, design and construction. 58.05-1 Section 58.05... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Main Propulsion Machinery § 58.05-1 Material, design and construction. (a) The material, design, construction, workmanship, and arrangement of main propulsion machinery...

  13. Designing an Incentive Contract Menu for Sustaining the Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper designs an incentive contract menu to achieve long-term stability for electricity prices in a day-ahead electricity market. A bi-level Stackelberg game model is proposed to search for the optimal incentive mechanism under a one-leader and multi-followers gaming framework. A multi-agent simulation platform was developed to investigate the effectiveness of the incentive mechanism using an independent system operator (ISO and multiple power generating companies (GenCos. Further, a Q-learning approach was implemented to analyze and assess the response of GenCos to the incentive menu. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the incentive contract.

  14. Wood as Energy--Production and Marketing. Instructional Materials Developed for Iowa Teachers of Vocational Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    Instructional materials are provided for a unit dealing with production and marketing of wood as an energy source. Unit objectives and a list of visual masters appear first. Content is arranged by six topics: introduction, pre-cutting activities (planning a fuelwood cutting, marketing, chain saw safety), cutting activities, post-cutting…

  15. Designing a carbon market that protects forests in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesten, Eduard; Frumhoff, Peter C; Manion, Michelle; Hardner, Jared J

    2002-08-15

    incentives to clear natural forests through CDM crediting for afforestation and reforestation, we recommend for the first commitment period that policymakers establish an early base year, such as 1990, such that lands cleared after that year would be ineligible for crediting. We further recommend an exception to this rule for CDM projects that are explicitly designed to promote natural forest restoration and that pass rigorous environmental impact review. Restoration efforts are typically most effective on lands that are adjacent to standing forests and hence likely to have been recently cleared. Thus, we recommend for these projects establishing a more recent base year, such as 2000. For the second and subsequent commitment periods, we recommend that climate policymakers act to restrain inter-annex leakage and its impacts by ensuring that crediting for forest management in industrialized countries is informed by modelling efforts to anticipate the scale of leakage associated with different Annex I 'Land use, land-use change and forestry' policy options, and coupled with effective measures to protect natural forests in developing countries. The latter should include expanding the options permitted under the CDM to carbon crediting for projects that protect threatened forests from deforestation and forest degradation. Ultimately, carbon market incentives for forest clearing can be reduced and incentives for forest conservation most effectively strengthened by fully capturing carbon emissions associated with deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries under a future emissions cap. Finally, we note that these recommendations have broader relevance to any forest-based measures to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions developed outside of the specific context of the Kyoto Protocol.

  16. Case-Based Instructional Practices: A Multiple-Case Study from Torts, Marketing, and Online Instructional Design Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ji yoon

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive account on case-based instructional practices. Semester-long participant observation records in torts, marketing, and online instructional design classes, instructor interviews, course syllabi and teaching materials were used to describe the within-class complexity of the practices in terms…

  17. Designing Online Marketplace To Resolve Marketing Problem For Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs)

    OpenAIRE

    Aditya Hermawan; Aniek Murniati

    2017-01-01

    The study aims to design an online marketplace to provide solutions to problems faced by Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), the difficulty to market their products online. One of the problems faced by SMEs is difficult to market their products online. One of the solutions that we provide is by designing an online marketplace to solve marketing problems effectively. We found that SMEs have attempted to market their products through social media such as facebook, twitter and others. In additi...

  18. Providing Market Information for Ethiopian Farmers: Extending Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zewge, Amanuel; Dittrich, Yvonne; Bekele, Rahel

    In a developing country like Ethiopia, marketing of agricultural products is influenced by local, socioeconomic, cultural and IT infrastructure characteristics. ICT-based agriculture information systems have been proposed to support farmers with market information. However, such initiatives have...

  19. Mass of materials: the impact of designers on construction ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, John

    2012-01-01

    Many construction injuries are musculoskeletal related in the form of sprains and strains arising from the handling of materials, which are specified by designers. The paper presents the results of a study conducted among delegates attending two 'designing for H&S' (DfH&S) seminars using a questionnaire. The salient findings include: the level of knowledge relative to the mass and density of materials is limited; designers generally do not consider the mass and density of materials when designing structures and elements and specifying materials; to a degree designers appreciate that the mass and density of materials impact on construction ergonomics; designers rate their knowledge of the mass and density of materials as limited, and designers appreciate the potential of the consideration of the mass and density of materials to contribute to an improvement in construction ergonomics. Conclusions include: designers lack the requisite knowledge relative to the mass and density of materials; designers are thus precluded from conducting optimum design hazard identification and risk assessments, and tertiary built environment designer education does not enlighten designers relative to construction ergonomics. Recommendations include: tertiary built environment designer education should construction ergonomics; professional associations should raise the level of awareness relative to construction ergonomics, and design practices should include a category 'mass and density of materials' in their practice libraries.

  20. Advanced power plant materials, design and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roddy, D. (ed.) [Newcastle University (United Kingdom). Sir Joseph Swan Institute

    2010-07-01

    The book is a comprehensive reference on the state of the art of gas-fired and coal-fired power plants, their major components and performance improvement options. Selected chapters are: Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant design and technology by Y. Zhu, and H. C. Frey; Improving thermal cycle efficiency in advanced power plants: water and steam chemistry and materials performance by B. Dooley; Advanced carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) gas separation membrane development for power plants by A. Basile, F. Gallucci, and P. Morrone; Advanced flue gas cleaning systems for sulphur oxides (SOx), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and mercury emissions control in power plants by S. Miller and B.G. Miller; Advanced flue gas dedusting systems and filters for ash and particulate emissions control in power plants by B.G. Miller; Advanced sensors for combustion monitoring in power plants: towards smart high-density sensor networks by M. Yu and A.K. Gupta; Advanced monitoring and process control technology for coal-fired power plants by Y. Yan; Low-rank coal properties, upgrading and utilisation for improving the fuel flexibility of advanced power plants by T. Dlouhy; Development and integration of underground coal gasification (UCG) for improving the environmental impact of advanced power plants by M. Green; Development and application of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage for improving the environmental impact of advanced power plants by B. McPherson; and Advanced technologies for syngas and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) production from fossil-fuel feedstocks in power plants by P. Chiesa.

  1. Fuel cells niche market applications and design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Mainstream fuel cell markets such as stationary power and transport propulsion have already received considerable attention. However, the niche areas considered in this report also offer considerable markets that are considered potentially ready for exploitation. This report examines those markets and considers the broad issues for exploitation. This programme of work has been funded under the DTI's Advanced Fuel Cell Programme. The overall aim of this project was to identify and evaluate niche market applications that have the potential to provide early commercially competitive market opportunities for fuel cell systems. Battery replacement, portable, mobile auxiliary power and stationary applications for non-standard generation are covered. (author)

  2. Market orientated design studies for SOFC based systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nietsch, T.; Clark, J.

    1999-07-01

    This report examines the development status of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology, assesses its commercial potential for heat and power generation in the UK and identifies key development areas for both the SOFC stack and associated system components. A range of Distributed Generation (DG) and Combined Heat and Power (CHP) applications were considered in arriving at these recommendations. The project commenced with initial surveys of leading SOFC technology companies and centres world-wide. These surveys were conducted in parallel with consultations with key operator organisations in the UK which enabled the requirements of these organisations within the UK Energy Supply Industry to be identified. As a result of the initial survey, over 30 fuel cell based power plants, of size ranging from 1 kW{sub e} to 20 MW{sub e} for both DG and CHP applications, were identified. Outline designs of these applications were then set up and simulated. These candidate systems were then assessed against each other in terms of efficiency, cost of electricity, specific costs, technical risk and market potential for the UK industry. The final ranking obtained was then confirmed with the key operator organisations. On the basis of the ranking process noted above, nine SOFC based power generation/CHP applications were chosen for more detailed investigation in terms of their potential in both UK and overseas markets. Detailed simulations were conducted for each application to allow study of: the influence of efficiency on the economics of the different plants/stacks; the combination of stack and Balance of Plant (BoP) costs; and the cost and availability of key balance of plant devices. These systems were then again assessed in terms of the criteria noted for the outline stage. Finally key development areas for both SOFC stacks and associated Balance of Plant devices were identified. (author)

  3. New ways of integrating material knowledge into the design process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højris, Anders; Nielsen, Louise Møller

    2013-01-01

    – based on technical performance, no longer apply. Accordingly the approach in this paper is to view information and knowledge about materials through the perspective of organizational memory and technology brokering. This paper is build upon two cases from the German based design studio: designaffairs...... libraries and thereby access to information on new material possibilities has also changed the way designers integrate knowledge about materials into the design process. This means that the traditional design process model, where the selection of materials takes place after the design of form and function...... in order to help clients to find the right material among hundreds of samples. Furthermore a number of material libraries have also been developed into online database, which provides detailed information about new material and makes the information accessible from almost everywhere. The access to material...

  4. Material, Structural Design of Armour Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.

    Stone and concrete are two materials generally used for the construction of rubble mound breakwaters. This paper deals with concrete only.......Stone and concrete are two materials generally used for the construction of rubble mound breakwaters. This paper deals with concrete only....

  5. Design and analysis of novel photocatalytic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boppana, Venkata Bharat Ram

    The development of sustainable sources of energy to decrease our dependence on non-renewable fossil fuels and the reduction of emissions causing global warming are important technological challenges of the 21st century. Production of solar fuels by photocatalysis is one potential route to reduce the impact of those problems. The most widely applied photocatalyst is TiO2 because it is stable, non-toxic and inexpensive. Still, it cannot utilize the solar spectrum efficiently as its band gap is 3.2 eV thus able to absorb only 3% of sun light. This thesis therefore explores multiple avenues towards improving the light absorption capability of semiconductor materials without loss in activity. To achieve this objective, the valence band hybridization method of band gap reduction was utilized. This technique is based on introducing new orbitals at the top of valence band of the semiconductor that can then hybridize with existing orbitals. The hybridization then raises the maximum of the valence band thereby reducing the band gap. This technique has the added advantage of increasing the mobility of oxidizing holes in the now dispersed valence band. In practice, this can be achieved by introducing N 2p or Sn 5s orbitals in the valence band of an oxide. We initially designed novel zinc gallium oxy-nitrides, with the spinel structure and band gaps in the visible region of the solar spectrum, by nitridation of a zinc gallate precursor produced by sol-gel synthesis. These spinel oxy-nitrides have band gaps of 2.5 to 2.7 eV, surface areas of 16 to 36 m 2/g, and nitrogen content less than 1.5%. They are active towards degradation of organic molecules in visible light. Density functional theory calculations show that this band gap reduction in part is associated with hybridization between the dopant N 2p states with Zn 3d orbitals at the top of the valence band. While spinel oxy-nitrides are produced under nitridation at 550°C, at higher temperatures they are consumed to form

  6. The Importance of Course Design on Classroom Performance of Marketing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Gregory S.; Daughtrey, Clayton L.; Lewis, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the impact of course design on marketing student outcomes by examining data gathered over several semesters from 563 undergraduate students enrolled in marketing classes at a major university. During this period of time, respondents were enrolled in one of four marketing courses, each of which…

  7. Designing Teaching Materials for Learning Problem Solving in Technology Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornekamp, B.G.

    In the process of designing teaching materials for learning problem solving in technology education, domain-specific design specifications are considered important elements to raise learning outcomes with these materials. Two domain-specific design specifications were drawn up using a four-step

  8. Transforming the market for residential windows: design considerations for DOE's Efficient Window Collaborative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, J.; Arasteh, D.; Selkowitz, S.

    1998-08-01

    Market adoption of recent, commercially available technological advances that improve the energy performance of windows will lead to immediate economic and energy savings benefits to the nation. This paper is a scoping study intended to inform the design of a major DOE initiative to accelerate market adoption of these windows in the residential sector. We describe the structure of the US residential window market and the interests of the various market players. We then briefly review five recent market transformation initiatives. Finally, we summarize our findings in a list of considerations we believe will be important for the DOE's initiative to transform the US residential window market.

  9. Synthesis and design of silicide intermetallic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, J.J.; Castro, R.G.; Butt, D.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop structural silicide-based materials with optimum combinations of elevated temperature strength/creep resistance, low temperature fracture toughness, and high temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance for applications of importance to the U.S. processing industry. A further objective is to develop silicide-based prototype industrial components. The ultimate aim of the program is to work with industry to transfer the structural silicide materials technology to the private sector in order to promote international competitiveness in the area of advanced high temperature materials and important applications in major energy-intensive U.S. processing industries. The program presently has a number of developing industrial connections, including a CRADA with Schuller International Inc. targeted at the area of MoSi{sub 2}-based high temperature materials and components for fiberglass melting and processing applications. The authors are also developing an interaction with the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) to develop silicides for high temperature radiant gas burner applications, for the glass and other industries. Current experimental emphasis is on the development and characterization of MoSi{sub 2}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and MoSi{sub 2}-SiC composites, the plasma spraying of MoSi{sub 2}-based materials, and the joining of MoSi{sub 2} materials to metals.

  10. Design and Fabrication of Aerospace-Grade Digital Composite Materials

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project aims to advance design rules and fabrication approaches to create aerospace-grade structures from digital composite materials. Digital materials are...

  11. Design for containment of hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.C.; McDonald, J.R.

    1991-03-01

    Department of Energy, (DOE), facilities across the United States, use wind and tornado design and evaluation criteria based on probabilistic performance goals. In addition, other programs such as Advanced Light Water Reactors, New Production Reactors, and Individual Plant Examinations for External Events for commercial nuclear power plants utilize design and evaluation criteria based on probabilistic performance goals. The use of probabilistic performance goals is a departure from design practice for commercial nuclear power plants which have traditionally been designed utilizing a conservative specification of wind and tornado loading combined with deterministic response evaluation methods and permissible behavior limits. Approaches which utilize probabilistic wind and tornado hazard curves for specification of loading and deterministic response evaluation methods and permissible behavior limits are discussed in this paper. Through the use of such design/evaluation approaches, it may be demonstrated that there is high likelihood that probabilistic performance goals can be achieved. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  12. Design to Robotic Production for Informed Materialization Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Mostafavi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Design to Robotic Production (D2RP establishes links between digital design and production in order to achieve informed materialization at an architectural scale. D2RP research is being discussed under the computation, automation and materialization themes, by reference to customizable digital design means, robotic fabrication setups and informed materialization strategies implemented by the Robotic Building group at Hyperbody, TU Delft.

  13. Agora Energiewende (2016). The power market pentagon. A pragmatic power market design for Europe's energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, Matthias; Redl, Christian; Steigenberger, Markus; Graichen, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    As consequence of Europe's climate and energy agenda, the European Union will generate some 50 percent of its electricity from renewables by 2030. By 2050, the EU's power system will have to be completely carbon-free. Solar photovoltaics and wind power - driven by significant cost reductions - will almost certainly contribute the biggest share of the zero-carbon technologies. Given the specific characteristics of wind power and photovoltaics (intermittent generation, high capital costs, very low variable costs), they will fundamentally change both market operations and the market design framework. Decarbonisation rests on continuous investments in these technologies. Usually it is expected that the energy market will deliver these investments, in combination with the emissions trading system. But is this view, based on simple textbook economics, enough to enable the required investments under real world conditions? In this paper, we argue that this rather theoretical view to power market design is not the way forward. Instead, a more pragmatic approach is needed, that takes into account the complex practical, political, and economic challenges of the transition towards a carbon-free power system. Thus, we propose to think of the future European market design as a Power Market Pentagon.

  14. Agora Energiewende (2016). The power market pentagon. A pragmatic power market design for Europe's energy transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Matthias; Redl, Christian; Steigenberger, Markus; Graichen, Patrick

    2016-04-15

    As consequence of Europe's climate and energy agenda, the European Union will generate some 50 percent of its electricity from renewables by 2030. By 2050, the EU's power system will have to be completely carbon-free. Solar photovoltaics and wind power - driven by significant cost reductions - will almost certainly contribute the biggest share of the zero-carbon technologies. Given the specific characteristics of wind power and photovoltaics (intermittent generation, high capital costs, very low variable costs), they will fundamentally change both market operations and the market design framework. Decarbonisation rests on continuous investments in these technologies. Usually it is expected that the energy market will deliver these investments, in combination with the emissions trading system. But is this view, based on simple textbook economics, enough to enable the required investments under real world conditions? In this paper, we argue that this rather theoretical view to power market design is not the way forward. Instead, a more pragmatic approach is needed, that takes into account the complex practical, political, and economic challenges of the transition towards a carbon-free power system. Thus, we propose to think of the future European market design as a Power Market Pentagon.

  15. Design of reactive power procurement in deregulated electricity market

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reactive power management is different in the deregulated electricity market of various countries. In this paper, a novel reactive power procurement model is proposed, which ensure secure and reliable operation of deregulated electricity market. Various issues of reactive power management in the deregulated electricity ...

  16. Publicizing Your Program: Website Evaluation, Design, and Marketing Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroeder, Barbara A.

    2007-01-01

    This research was undertaken to study and improve the marketing efforts of the Department of Educational Technology (EDTECH) at Boise State University, recognizing the need to generate revenues based upon the new self-support structure instituted at the university and EDTECH Department. In investigating the marketing opportunities for the…

  17. Market design for generation adequacy: Healing causes rather than symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roques, Fabien A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that electricity market reform - particularly the need for complementary mechanisms to remunerate capacity - need to be analysed in the light of the local regulatory and institutional environment. If there is a lack of investment, the priority should be to identify the roots of the problem. The lack of demand-side response, short-term reliability management procedures and non-market ancillary services provision often undermine market reflective scarcity pricing and distort long-term investment incentives. The introduction of a capacity mechanism should come as an optional supplement to wholesale and ancillary markets improvements. Priority reforms should focus on encouraging demand-side responsiveness and reducing scarcity price distortions introduced by balancing and congestion management through better dialog between network engineers and market operators. (author)

  18. Designing Reading Materials for the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Yusnita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to design reading materials for the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, UIN Syarif HIdayatullah Jakarta, due to the absence of such specific materials in the market. To produce satisfactory teaching materials, the researcher did some steps i.e. doing needs analysis, reviewing the principles of materials design and reading strategies, designing course framework, designing syllabus, designing the reading materials, and implementing the sample lessons. The needs analysis was intended to find out what the students needed and to find out the subjects the students learned from the institution in order to produce adequate reading materials. Based on the needs analysis, the researcher then identified the global aims of the course, thereby, the writer designed course framework. This course framework contained general points of reading themes and topics, information of classroom activities that followed up reading, the length of study session, the number of the course meetings, and the number of participants. The course framework became the basis to write the syllabus. Finally the syllabus became the basis for designing reading materials.

  19. Design concepts for improved thermoelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slack, G A

    1997-07-01

    Some new guidelines are given that should be useful in the search for thermoelectric materials that are better than those currently available. In particular, clathrate and cryptoclathrate compounds with filler atoms in their cages offer the ability to substantially lower the lattice thermal conductivity.

  20. Bionic Design, Materials and Performance of Bone Tissue Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Design, materials, and performance are important factors in the research of bone tissue scaffolds. This work briefly describes the bone scaffolds and their anatomic structure, as well as their biological and mechanical characteristics. Furthermore, we reviewed the characteristics of metal materials, inorganic materials, organic polymer materials, and composite materials. The importance of the bionic design in preoperative diagnosis models and customized bone scaffolds was also discussed, addressing both the bionic structure design (macro and micro structure and the bionic performance design (mechanical performance and biological performance. Materials and performance are the two main problems in the development of customized bone scaffolds. Bionic design is an effective way to solve these problems, which could improve the clinical application of bone scaffolds, by creating a balance between mechanical performance and biological performance.

  1. Properties of New Glass Ionomer Restorative Materials Marketed for Stress Bearing Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-22

    REPORT TYPE 22/03/2018 Poster 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Prope1iies of New Glass-Ionomer Restorative Materials Marketed for Stress -Bearing Areas 6...Adobe Professional 7 .0 INTRODUCTION Equia Forte is a new GIC which is marketed for posterior stress bearing restorations due to its newer...research on this and other newer glass ionomer systems being indicated for use in class II posterior stress - bearing preparations. OBJECTIVE The

  2. Relationship on the Price Sensitivity and Actual Market Acceptance Degree of Metallic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Muxue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to find out the relationship between the price sensitivity and actual market acceptance degree of metallic materials, the database ensemble learning model is proposed in this paper. Due to the variety and class imbalance of customers, a database marketing model based on supervised clustering and ensemble learning is used for the model. The results show that the database ensemble learning model can thus improve the calculation accuracy and time-efficiency substantially.

  3. 78 FR 32988 - Core Principles and Other Requirements for Designated Contract Markets; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 38 RIN 3038-AD09 Core Principles and Other... regarding Core Principles and Other Requirements for Designated Contract Markets by inserting a missing... regarding Core Principles and Other Requirements for Designated Contract Markets (77 FR 36612, June 19, 2012...

  4. Voice user interface design for emerging multilingual markets

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Huyssteen, G

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Multilingual emerging markets hold many opportunities for the application of spoken language technologies, such as automatic speech recognition (ASR) or test-to-speech (TTS) technologies in interactive voice response (IVR) systems. However...

  5. Design of reactive power procurement in deregulated electricity market

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    novel reactive power procurement model is proposed, which ensure secure and ..... The simulation is performed in the Matlab. .... focus of this paper is a reactive procurement market model, which is a basically two-step optimization process.

  6. Adequate intraday market design to enable the integration of wind energy into the European power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Christoph [University Duisburg-Essen, Chair for Energy Economics and Management Sciences, Universitaetsstrasse 12, 45 117 Essen (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    This contribution analyses the European electricity markets with respect to their aptitude to absorb large amounts of wind energy. Thereby in a first step the market designs of the major European power markets in France, Germany, Scandinavia, Spain and UK are reviewed, with a particular focus on liquidity in the spot and intraday markets. Then some key features of the short-term adjustments required by wind energy are discussed and the necessity of sufficient liquidity in intraday markets is highlighted. For the example of the German market subsequently the discrepancy between the physical short-term adjustment needs and the traded volumes on the intraday market is analyzed. This leads to an evaluation of proposals for improving the liquidity on the short-term market, including the use of continuous spot trading like in UK or the use of intraday auctions like in Spain. (author)

  7. Structural optimization for materially informed design to robotic production processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.H.; Mostafavi, S.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperbody’s materially informed Design-to-Robotic-Production (D2RP) processes for additive and subtractive manufacturing aim to achieve performative porosity in architecture at various scales. An extended series of D2RP experiments aiming to produce prototypes at 1:1 scale wherein design materiality

  8. Computational materials design for energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozolins, Vidvuds

    2013-03-01

    General adoption of sustainable energy technologies depends on the discovery and development of new high-performance materials. For instance, waste heat recovery and electricity generation via the solar thermal route require bulk thermoelectrics with a high figure of merit (ZT) and thermal stability at high-temperatures. Energy recovery applications (e.g., regenerative braking) call for the development of rapidly chargeable systems for electrical energy storage, such as electrochemical supercapacitors. Similarly, use of hydrogen as vehicular fuel depends on the ability to store hydrogen at high volumetric and gravimetric densities, as well as on the ability to extract it at ambient temperatures at sufficiently rapid rates. We will discuss how first-principles computational methods based on quantum mechanics and statistical physics can drive the understanding, improvement and prediction of new energy materials. We will cover prediction and experimental verification of new earth-abundant thermoelectrics, transition metal oxides for electrochemical supercapacitors, and kinetics of mass transport in complex metal hydrides. Research has been supported by the US Department of Energy under grant Nos. DE-SC0001342, DE-SC0001054, DE-FG02-07ER46433, and DE-FC36-08GO18136.

  9. Data Science and Optimal Learning for Material Discovery and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    ; Optimal Learning for Material Discovery & Design Data Science and Optimal Learning for Material inference and optimization methods that can constrain predictions using insights and results from theory directions in the application of information theoretic tools to materials problems related to learning from

  10. Workshop on materials control and accounting system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1989-01-01

    The chapter describes the workshop aimed at reinforcing, through participation in the design exercise, the concepts of nuclear materials control and accountability. Topics include: workshop format; key elements of a materials management and accounting (MC and A) system; and MC and A system design including safeguards organization and management, material access areas, key measurement points, nuclear materials measurements, physical inventory, material balance closings, and internal controls. Appended to this chapter is a detailed description of a facility that produces metallic plutonium and the safeguards requirements for this facility

  11. A Market Model for Evaluating Technologies That Impact Critical-Material Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Ananth V.; Vedantam, Aditya

    2016-07-01

    A recent Critical Materials Strategy report highlighted the supply chain risk associated with neodymium and dysprosium, which are used in the manufacturing of neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnets (PM). In response, the Critical Materials Institute is developing innovative strategies to increase and diversify primary production, develop substitutes, reduce material intensity and recycle critical materials. Our goal in this paper is to propose an economic model to quantify the impact of one of these strategies, material intensity reduction. Technologies that reduce material intensity impact the economics of magnet manufacturing in multiple ways because of: (1) the lower quantity of critical material required per unit PM, (2) more efficient use of limited supply, and (3) the potential impact on manufacturing cost. However, the net benefit of these technologies to a magnet manufacturer is an outcome of an internal production decision subject to market demand characteristics, availability and resource constraints. Our contribution in this paper shows how a manufacturer's production economics moves from a region of being supply-constrained, to a region enabling the market optimal production quantity, to a region being constrained by resources other than critical materials, as the critical material intensity changes. Key insights for engineers and material scientists are: (1) material intensity reduction can have a significant market impact, (2) benefits to manufacturers are non-linear in the material intensity reduction, (3) there exists a threshold value for material intensity reduction that can be calculated for any target PM application, and (4) there is value for new intellectual property (IP) when existing manufacturing technology is IP-protected.

  12. Materiality and Visualization in Hospital Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harty, Chris; Tryggestad, Kjell

    healthcare systems, single bed rooms are being seen as the preferred alternative to more traditional ward-style accommodation, as it has advantages for privacy and dignity for patients, less disruption to other patients and better control of hospital acquired infections. But fundamentally, single rooms mean...... of different representations and visualizations – economic calculations, drawings, and virtual and physical models. We use these cases to discuss the roles of different sorts of representations and visualizations in design process, in terms of opening up and settling controversies (such as room size), in terms...

  13. A sustainable energy market design for Germany. A capacity market with decentralized demand structure; Der Leistungsmarkt mit dezentraler Nachfrage. Ein zukunftsfaehiges Energiemarktdesign fuer Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecke, Julius; Herrmann, Nicolai [enervis energy advisors GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-09-01

    The German energy policy debate is currently focusing on different design options for a capacity mechanism. With VKU and BDEW, two leading associations in which almost all German energy market actors are represented, have positioned themselves in favor of a decidedly market-based capacity mechanism. The position of the VKU is based on the study ''A sustainable energy market design for Germany'', which was presented in March 2013. The following article describes the state of the energy market design debate in Germany and summarizes the proposed market design resulting from the VKU study. (orig.)

  14. Game design as marketing: How game mechanics create demand for virtual goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehdonvirta, V.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Selling virtual goods for real money is an increasingly popular revenue model for massively-multiplayer online games (MMOs, social networking sites (SNSs and other online hangouts. In this paper, we argue that the marketing of virtual goods currently falls short of what it could be. Game developers have long created compelling game designs, but having to market virtual goods to players is a relatively new situation to them. Professional marketers, on the other hand, tend to overlook the internal design of games and hangouts and focus on marketing the services as a whole. To begin bridging the gap, we propose that the design patterns and game mechanics commonly used in games and online hangouts should be viewed as a set of marketing techniques designed to sell virtual goods. Based on a review of a number of MMOs, we describe some of the most common patterns and game mechanics and show how their effects can be explained in terms of analogous techniques from marketing science. The results provide a new perspective to game design with interesting implications to developers. Moreover, they also suggest a radically new perspective to marketers of ordinary goods and services: viewing marketing as a form of game design.

  15. Impact of schoolchildren's involvement in the design process on the effectiveness of healthy food promotion materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Christopher R; Abbey, Bryce M; Heelan, Kate A

    2017-06-01

    Marketing techniques may improve children's vegetable consumption. However, student participation in the design of marketing materials may increase the material's salience, while also improving children's commitment and attitudes towards healthy eating. The impact of student-led design of vegetable promotional materials on choice and consumption was investigated using 1614 observations of students' vegetable choice and plate waste in four public elementary schools in Kearney, Nebraska. Data were collected on children's vegetable choice and consumption in four comparison groups: 1) control; 2) students designed materials only; 3) students were exposed to promotional materials only; and 4) students designed materials that were then posted in the lunchroom. Vegetable choice and consumption data were collected through a validated digital photography-based plate-waste method. Multivariate linear regression was used to estimate average treatment effects of the conditions at various time periods. Dependent variables were vegetable choice and consumption, and independent variables included the condition, time period, and interaction terms, as well as controls for gender and grade. Relative to baseline, students in group 4 doubled their vegetable consumption ( p  < 0.001) when materials were posted. Vegetable consumption remained elevated at a follow-up 2-3 months later ( p  < 0.05). Students in group 3 initially increased the quantity of vegetables selected ( p  < 0.05), but did not increase consumption. In the follow-up period, however, students in group 3 increased their vegetable consumption ( p  < 0.01). Involving elementary-aged students in the design of vegetable promotional materials that were posted in the lunchroom increased the amount of vegetables students consumed.

  16. Project To Design a Marketing Plan for Promoting Educators' Awareness of and Access to ERIC Products. Proposed Marketing Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contemporary Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The proposed strategy, which is designed to maximize the effectiveness and minimize the costs of marketing the Information Analysis Products (IAPs) produced by the 16 ERIC Clearinghouses, is based on a study of the concept of centralized versus decentralized ordering of selected ERIC products. The experiment measured four variables--postage,…

  17. Synthesis and Materials Design for Heteroanion Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, K.

    2011-02-01

    Oxynitride phosphors, SrSi2O2N2:Eu2+ were synthesized through a conventional solid state reaction between Sr2SiO4:Eu2+ precursor and Si3N4 by using NH4Cl flux, and their luminescence properties were characterized from a viewpoint of the ionic and covalent bond natures as the "heteroanion compound" containing O2- and N3- anions. The structural framework of host lattice is constructed by covalently bonded layers of SiON3 units, suggesting that the rearrangement of O2- and N3- anions effectively takes place between isolated SiO44-anions of the Sr2SiO4:Eu2+ precursor and SiN4 units of the Si3N4 raw material. Furthermore, the layered structure consisting of (Si2O2N2)n2n- polyanions as tightly connected by Si-N-Si covalent bonds depresses the lattice vibration of Sr(Eu)-O or Si-O bond, so that the temperature quenching effect is lowered to give the intense emission for LED-based illumination lamps.

  18. Synthesis and Materials Design for Heteroanion Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, K

    2011-01-01

    Oxynitride phosphors, SrSi 2 O 2 N 2 :Eu 2+ were synthesized through a conventional solid state reaction between Sr 2 SiO 4 :Eu 2+ precursor and Si 3 N 4 by using NH 4 Cl flux, and their luminescence properties were characterized from a viewpoint of the ionic and covalent bond natures as the 'heteroanion compound' containing O 2- and N 3- anions. The structural framework of host lattice is constructed by covalently bonded layers of SiON 3 units, suggesting that the rearrangement of O 2- and N 3- anions effectively takes place between isolated SiO4 4- anions of the Sr 2 SiO 4 :Eu 2+ precursor and SiN 4 units of the Si 3 N 4 raw material. Furthermore, the layered structure consisting of (Si 2 O 2 N 2 )n 2n- polyanions as tightly connected by Si-N-Si covalent bonds depresses the lattice vibration of Sr(Eu)-O or Si-O bond, so that the temperature quenching effect is lowered to give the intense emission for LED-based illumination lamps.

  19. A Flex-market Design for Flexibility Services through DERs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    services of DERs are stipulated accommodating the various requirements of DSOs. The trading setups and processes are illustrated in details as well. Additionally, the demonstration diagram of Flex-market is also introduced in this paper. The diagram is utilized to test the feasibility and robustness......The high penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs) will significantly challenge the power system operation due to their intermittent characteristic. In order to utilize the DERs as economically efficient as possible in the distribution grid, an Aggregator-based Flex-market is proposed...... in this paper. With the brand new notion of Flexibility Clearing House (FLECH), the proposed Flex-market has the ability to promote small scale DERs (up to 5MW) to participate in flexibility services trading. Accordingly, efforts to relieve the congestions in local grid areas, the contractual flexibility...

  20. Capacity payments in imperfect electricity markets: Need and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joskow, Paul L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that a variety of imperfections in wholesale 'energy-only' electricity markets lead to generators earning net revenues that are inadequate to support investment in a least cost portfolio of generating capacity and to satisfy consumer preferences for reliability. Theoretical and numerical examples are used to illustrate the sources of this 'missing money' problem. Improvements in 'energy-only' wholesale electricity markets, especially those that improve pricing when capacity is fully utilized, can reduce the magnitude of the missing money problem. However, these improvements are unlikely to fully ameliorate it. Forward capacity obligations and associated auction mechanisms to determine capacity prices are necessary to restore appropriate wholesale market prices and associated investment incentives to support the optimal portfolio of generating investments. The deficiencies of the original capacity payment mechanisms adopted in the US are discussed and the necessary improvements identified. (author)

  1. Material mediation and embodied actions in collaborative design process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henna Lahti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Material and embodied practices are an intrinsic part of craft and design education. This article reports a study in which textile teacher-students designed three-dimensional toys based on children’s drawings. Three students in each team worked on the given materials and designed the shape of the toy together. Materials for designing were either: 1 pen and paper, 2 masking tape and thin cardboard, or 3 wire and non-woven interfacing fabric. After the modelling phase, the final toys were created by sewing. Research data consisted of the video recordings of three design sessions representing the various design materials given to the students. By conducting multiple levels of analysis, we examined how the participants used materials and gestures to support their communication. The results highlight the strengths of 3D modelling techniques, particularly through comparison with the drawing technique undertaken by one design team. We found that simple material tools support students’ design process and suggest this could be applied to other design settings.

  2. Papers of a Canadian Institute conference : Western electricity markets forum : Are you prepared for regulatory restructuring and standard market design?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This forum on western electricity markets presented the latest information concerning several challenges facing the electricity markets of both Western Canada and the United States. Corporate leaders and industry regulators addressed a number of issues. Among them, the California Independent System Operator presented its views on the Standard Market Design initiative which has the potential to alter the dynamics of power markets in Canada and the United States. The creation of a new International Organization for Standardization (ISO) structure for Alberta's deregulated power markets was discussed by both the Power Pool of Alberta and the Alberta Department of Energy. The outlook for electricity price volatility in the west was examined in a presentation by BP Energy Canada. The prospect for transmission links between Alberta and other western states and provinces was the topic of presentations made by ATCO Electric and AltaLink. The future of the power generation in Alberta was discussed by TransAlta, EPCOR, and ENMAX. In addition, there were two case studies presented from the California Energy Commission and the Independent Electricity Market Operator (IMO) of Ontario concerning the progress made to date on electricity deregulation. A look at lessons to be learned from other jurisdictions was also included. A total of sixteen presentations were made at this forum, of which five have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  3. Designing Online Marketplace To Resolve Marketing Problem For Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Hermawan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to design an online marketplace to provide solutions to problems faced by Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs, the difficulty to market their products online. One of the problems faced by SMEs is difficult to market their products online. One of the solutions that we provide is by designing an online marketplace to solve marketing problems effectively. We found that SMEs have attempted to market their products through social media such as facebook, twitter and others. In addition, some SMEs also have a website and advertise their products through online advertising. However, many of those who did not know how to market products online in order to increase sales. We designed an online marketplace for SMEs based on the concept of e-commerce to resolve the problems faced by SMEs, the effective marketing. The online market design is made taking into account the needs of SMEs as well as customer needs. Therefore, this study was conducted to SMEs in Malang, East Java, Indonesia  and the people who often make purchases online.With the existence of the online market, SMEs can increase sales lead to increased profits for SMEs. Keyword: Online market, E-Commerce, Maketing

  4. Corporate social marketing: message design to recruit program participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, David R; Blue, Carolyn L; Coster, Daniel C; Chrysler, Lisa M

    2002-01-01

    To identify variables for a corporate social marketing (SM) health message based on the 4 Ps of SM in order to recruit future participants to an existing national, commercial, self-administered weight-loss program. A systematically evaluated, author-developed, 310-response survey was administered to a random sample of 270 respondents. A previously established research plan was used to empirically identify the audience segments and the "marketing mix" appropriate for the total sample and each segment. Tangible product, pertaining to the unique program features, should be emphasized rather than positive core product and outcome expectation related to use of the program.

  5. Cultivating Design Thinking in Students through Material Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Helene

    2014-01-01

    Design thinking is a way of understanding and engaging with the world that has received much attention in academic and business circles in recent years. This article examines a hands-on learning model as a vehicle for developing design thinking capacity in students. An overview of design thinking grounds the discussion of the material-based…

  6. Designing Educative Curriculum Materials: A Theoretically and Empirically Driven Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elizabeth A.; Palincsar, Annemarie Sullivan; Arias, Anna Maria; Bismack, Amber Schultz; Marulis, Loren M.; Iwashyna, Stefanie K.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue for a design process in the development of educative curriculum materials that is theoretically and empirically driven. Using a design-based research approach, they describe their design process for incorporating educative features intended to promote teacher learning into existing, high-quality curriculum…

  7. European electricity markets - policy deficiencies, design deficiencies, and opportunities for policy-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettzuge, Marc Oliver

    2013-11-01

    Paraphrasing a well-known dictum, one can say that 'design follows policies'. Therefore, before discussing questions of market design, one has to clarify the policies which the desired market design is supposed to implement. Hence, this paper starts by briefly reviewing the status of current policies for the electricity sector. Specifically, it will discuss political objectives, the choice of the basic regulatory paradigm, and the issue of subsidiarity between the EU and the member states

  8. Marketing information system online design for craftsmen small medium enterprises (case study: craftsmen ac)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriana, Rina; Kurniawan, Wawan; Barlianto, Anung; Adriansyah Putra, Rizki

    2016-02-01

    AC is small and medium enterprises which is engaged in the field of crafts. This SME (Small Medium Enterprise) didn't have an integrated information system for managing sales. This research aims to design a marketing Information system online as applications that built as web base. The integrated system is made to manage sales and expand its market share. This study uses a structured analysis and design in its approach to build systems and also implemented a marketing framework of STP (Segmentation, Targeting, Positioning) and 4P (Price, Product, Place, Promotion) to obtain market analysis. The main market target customer craftsmen AC is women aged 13 years to 35 years. The products produced by AC are shoes, brooch, that are typical of the archipelago. The prices is range from Rp. 2000 until Rp. 400.000. Marketing information system online can be used as a sales transaction document, promoting the goods, and for customer booking products.

  9. The Consumer’s Experience of Design Influences How Markets Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabrielsen, Gorm; Kristensen, Tore

    2016-01-01

    Most studies in marketing operate at a market level, which also becomes frequently the condition for design work. This means that the aggregate or weighted average consumer is the focus. Having already made this aggregation as the “top-down approach” indicates, it is not feasible to take...... the consequences at a market level. We explore a procedure that enables the marketer to estimate the effect of a marketing message like a mission statement in a logo at the level of a single individual. This is a prior to market test, with its own realism. The procedure can easily be extended to products, where...... the trace of the individual. In the bottom up approach we measure how much the influence of a treatment like that of facing a particular design influences each human being. Successively, one may see if other behavioural characteristics also unite for instance those who are heavily affected or those who...

  10. Sales and marketing's partnership role in class A MRP II (material requirements planning).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, J R; Lerner, W

    1994-08-01

    As the material and requirements planning (MRP) II process has evolved, many companies have discovered that the process is greatly enhanced when the entire business participates. The sales and operations planning process is the forum for the businesswide decisions concerning sales, production, and inventory. Sales and marketing must be integral parts of these decision-making activities.

  11. Designing a decision support model for the LNG market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, Steve; Dullaert, Wout

    2010-01-01

    As the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) market is supply-driven and subject to longterm contracts, both liquefaction companies and shipowners need to make strategic decisions on fleet chartering requirements. These planning decisions become ever more difficult in light of the transformations permeating

  12. Decisions about design and selection of marketing channels

    OpenAIRE

    Marjanova Jovanov, Tamara; Temjanovski, Riste

    2016-01-01

    The significance of the distribution strategy stems from its participation in the costs included in the price, the conditioning of the information in the promotional message, the connection with the desired market position of the product. The distribution includes management of all functions (physical flow, promotion, ordering and payment information, negotiation, risk taking) involved in the channel. Distribution channel...

  13. Design of advanced materials for linear and nonlinear dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Niels Morten Marslev

    to reveal the fundamental dynamic characteristics and thus the relevant design parameters.The thesis is built around the characterization of two one-dimensional, periodic material systems. The first is a nonlinear mass-spring chain with periodically varying material properties, representing a simple......The primary catalyst of this PhD project has been an ambition to design advanced materials and structural systems including, and possibly even exploiting, nonlinear phenomena such as nonlinear modal interaction leading to energy conversion between modes. An important prerequisite for efficient...... but general model of inhomogeneous structural materials with nonlinear material characteristics. The second material system is an “engineered” material in the sense that a classical structural element, a linear elastic and homogeneous rod, is “enhanced” by applying a mechanism on its surface, amplifying...

  14. Photovoltaic module encapsulation design and materials selection, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddihy, E.; Carroll, W.; Coulbert, C.; Gupta, A.; Liang, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    Encapsulation material system requirements, material selection criteria, and the status and properties of encapsulation materials and processes available are presented. Technical and economic goals established for photovoltaic modules and encapsulation systems and their status are described. Available encapsulation technology and data are presented to facilitate design and material selection for silicon flat plate photovoltaic modules, using the best materials available and processes optimized for specific power applications and geographic sites. The operational and environmental loads that encapsulation system functional requirements and candidate design concepts and materials that are identified to have the best potential to meet the cost and performance goals for the flat plate solar array project are described. Available data on encapsulant material properties, fabrication processing, and module life and durability characteristics are presented.

  15. The automated design of materials far from equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskin, Marc Z.

    Automated design is emerging as a powerful concept in materials science. By combining computer algorithms, simulations, and experimental data, new techniques are being developed that start with high level functional requirements and identify the ideal materials that achieve them. This represents a radically different picture of how materials become functional in which technological demand drives material discovery, rather than the other way around. At the frontiers of this field, materials systems previously considered too complicated can start to be controlled and understood. Particularly promising are materials far from equilibrium. Material robustness, high strength, self-healing and memory are properties displayed by several materials systems that are intrinsically out of equilibrium. These and other properties could be revolutionary, provided they can first be controlled. This thesis conceptualizes and implements a framework for designing materials that are far from equilibrium. We show how, even in the absence of a complete physical theory, design from the top down is possible and lends itself to producing physical insight. As a prototype system, we work with granular materials: collections of athermal, macroscopic identical objects, since these materials function both as an essential component of industrial processes as well as a model system for many non-equilibrium states of matter. We show that by placing granular materials in the context of design, benefits emerge simultaneously for fundamental and applied interests. As first steps, we use our framework to design granular aggregates with extreme properties like high stiffness, and softness. We demonstrate control over nonlinear effects by producing exotic aggregates that stiffen under compression. Expanding on our framework, we conceptualize new ways of thinking about material design when automatic discovery is possible. We show how to build rules that link particle shapes to arbitrary granular packing

  16. Inverse design of dielectric materials by topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otomori, M.; Andkjær, Jacob Anders; Sigmund, Ole

    2012-01-01

    The capabilities and operation of electromagnetic devices can be dramatically enhanced if artificial materials that provide certain prescribed properties can be designed and fabricated. This paper presents a systematic methodology for the design of dielectric materials with prescribed electric...... permittivity. A gradient-based topology optimization method is used to find the distribution of dielectric material for the unit cell of a periodic microstructure composed of one or two dielectric materials. The optimization problem is formulated as a problem to minimize the square of the difference between...

  17. FOREWORD: Computational methodologies for designing materials Computational methodologies for designing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Talat S.

    2009-02-01

    It would be fair to say that in the past few decades, theory and computer modeling have played a major role in elucidating the microscopic factors that dictate the properties of functional novel materials. Together with advances in experimental techniques, theoretical methods are becoming increasingly capable of predicting properties of materials at different length scales, thereby bringing in sight the long-sought goal of designing material properties according to need. Advances in computer technology and their availability at a reasonable cost around the world have made tit all the more urgent to disseminate what is now known about these modern computational techniques. In this special issue on computational methodologies for materials by design we have tried to solicit articles from authors whose works collectively represent the microcosm of developments in the area. This turned out to be a difficult task for a variety of reasons, not the least of which is space limitation in this special issue. Nevertheless, we gathered twenty articles that represent some of the important directions in which theory and modeling are proceeding in the general effort to capture the ability to produce materials by design. The majority of papers presented here focus on technique developments that are expected to uncover further the fundamental processes responsible for material properties, and for their growth modes and morphological evolutions. As for material properties, some of the articles here address the challenges that continue to emerge from attempts at accurate descriptions of magnetic properties, of electronically excited states, and of sparse matter, all of which demand new looks at density functional theory (DFT). I should hasten to add that much of the success in accurate computational modeling of materials emanates from the remarkable predictive power of DFT, without which we would not be able to place the subject on firm theoretical grounds. As we know and will also

  18. Capacity market design and renewable energy: Performance incentives, qualifying capacity, and demand curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botterud, Audun; Levin, Todd; Byers, Conleigh

    2018-01-01

    A review of capacity markets in the United States in the context of increasing levels of variable renewable energy finds substantial differences with respect to incentives for operational performance, methods to calculate qualifying capacity for variable renewable energy and energy storage, and demand curves for capacity. The review also reveals large differences in historical capacity market clearing prices. The authors conclude that electricity market design must continue to evolve to achieve cost-effective policies for resource adequacy.

  19. Evolution of Wholesale Electricity Market Design with Increasing Levels of Renewable Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Bloom, A.; Botterud, A.; Townsend, A.; Levin, T.

    2014-09-01

    Variable generation such as wind and photovoltaic solar power has increased substantially in recent years. Variable generation has unique characteristics compared to the traditional technologies that supply energy in the wholesale electricity markets. These characteristics create unique challenges in planning and operating the power system, and they can also influence the performance and outcomes from electricity markets. This report focuses on two particular issues related to market design: revenue sufficiency for long-term reliability and incentivizing flexibility in short-term operations. The report provides an overview of current design and some designs that have been proposed by industry or researchers.

  20. Evaluation of materials and design modifications for aircraft brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, T. L.; Kennedy, F. E.; Peterson, M. B.

    1975-01-01

    A test program is described which was carried out to evaluate several proposed design modifications and several high-temperature friction materials for use in aircraft disk brakes. The evaluation program was carried out on a specially built test apparatus utilizing a disk brake and wheel half from a small het aircraft. The apparatus enabled control of brake pressure, velocity, and braking time. Tests were run under both constant and variable velocity conditions and covered a kinetic energy range similar to that encountered in aircraft brake service. The results of the design evaluation program showed that some improvement in brake performance can be realized by making design changes in the components of the brake containing friction material. The materials evaluation showed that two friction materials show potential for use in aircraft disk brakes. One of the materials is a nickel-based sintered composite, while the other is a molybdenum-based material. Both materials show much lower wear rates than conventional copper-based materials and are better able to withstand the high temperatures encountered during braking. Additional materials improvement is necessary since both materials show a significant negative slope of the friction-velocity curve at low velocities.

  1. Experiential Marketing A Designer of Pleasurable and Memorable Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Muthiah, Dr. Krishnaveni; Suja, S

    2013-01-01

    The rapid growth of globalisation, economic crisis and the change in the lifestyle of consumers poses a challenge for the marketers in the present era. Todays consumers have an insight beyond satisfying their needs and wants. Business firms today need to create long lasting impressions on their clients which are converted into memorable experiences as a result of the pleasures derived. An experience occurs when consumers become involved to such an extent that a lasting impression is made on t...

  2. Materials Process Design Branch. Work Unit Directive (WUD) 54

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LeClair, Steve

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of the Manufacturing Research WUD 54 are to 1) conduct in-house research to develop advanced materials process design/control technologies to enable more repeatable and affordable manufacturing capabilities and 2...

  3. Performance evaluation of seal coat materials and designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    "This project presents an evaluation of seal coat materials and design method. The primary objectives of this research are 1) to evaluate seal coat performance : from various combinations of aggregates and emulsions in terms of aggregate loss; 2) to ...

  4. Candidate container materials for Yucca Mountain waste package designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCright, R.D.; Halsey, W.G.; Gdowski, G.E.; Clarke, W.L.

    1991-09-01

    Materials considered as candidates for fabricating nuclear waste containers are reviewed in the context of the Conceptual Design phase of a potential repository located at Yucca Mountain. A selection criteria has been written for evaluation of candidate materials for the next phase -- Advanced Conceptual Design. The selection criteria is based on the conceptual design of a thin-walled container fabricated from a single metal or alloy; the criteria consider the performance requirements on the container and the service environment in which the containers will be emplaced. A long list of candidate materials is evaluated against the criteria, and a short list of materials is proposed for advanced characterization in the next design phase

  5. Using learning materials for design-based interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, Stig Toke

    2015-01-01

    This article considers a methodological issue concerning the use of learning materials for interventions in design-based research. When the researcher uses existing or creates new didacticised learning materials for research purposes and tests their applicability in authentic contexts, many...... variables are in play. When using or designing a learning material a lot of choices have to be made and effects are difficult to isolate. The advantage of using learning materials for interventions is that results could have high ecological validity. In the article this methodological issue is exemplified...... through a research project using and developing digital learning materials for developing literacy in the early grades. One of many important choices to be made in elaborating this learning material concerns which texts should be used for supporting students’ literacy development in the lower grades...

  6. Designing with Matter: From Programmable Materials to Processual Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Andreoletti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the potential of active matter, from a practical exploration of the concept to a theoretical discussion based on the material findings. It begins by addressing the ideas of materiality and material performance through the project “Chrysalis Gemini” and then provides an overview of the notion of programmability.To this end, we move to the description and analysis of programming, focusing on its relationship with hardware, software and material. In particular, we address the idea of programmable matter, and we introduce the term processuality. We consider the importance of adaptability, analysing the experience of humans, their interaction with the environment, with artefacts and with material within a design context.In this manner this study seeks to highlight how contextualisation and interconnected processes become relevant as a design argument. This is achieved by presenting the relational potential of processual material and things and their ongoing transformation. 

  7. The socio-materiality of designing organizational change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang Våland, Marianne; Georg, Susse

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the managerial implications of adopting a design attitude to organizational change. Design/methodology/approach – Based on an ethnographic study of a merger, the paper investigates the intricate interplay between architectural design...... and organizational change in the context of physically relocating an organization to a new office building. Emphasis is given to the socio-materiality of this double design process. Findings – The data suggests that taking a design attitude toward managing organizational change can allow different actors...... to participate in organizational design processes, releasing management from its traditional role as the keeper of the design solution. Research limitations/implications – Although based on a single case, the paper provides insights into the socio-materiality of organizational change that is relevant in other...

  8. DESIGNING ENGLISH LEARNING MATERIALS TO FOSTER CHILDREN‟S CREATIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Murni Wahyanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Learning materials form an important part of English teaching-learning processes in Elementary schools. In many cases, teachers and students rely on the learning materials available and the materials dictate teachers‘ strategies. Despite the availability of commercially produced materials, it is considered necessary for teachers to construct or adapt learning materials. Teachers know better about their students‘ ability, needs and interests. In addition, the materials can be more contextual. Good materials should foster children‘s creative thinking since creativity is one of the important skills children need to develop. Features of creativity involve using imagination, generating ideas and questions, experimenting with alternatives, being original and making judgment. This presentation will focus on how to develop learning materials that can foster children‘s creativity. It will discuss about why teachers need to design their own materials, principles for designing effective English learning materials, the concepts and components of creativity and the importance of creativity in language learning. Examples of how to apply features of creativity in the English learning materials for children will be provided.

  9. Implications of material selection on the design of packaging machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, J P

    2009-01-01

    Material selection has significant implications on the design and cost of horizontal-form-fill-seal packaging machinery. To avoid excessive costs, machine redesigns and project delays, material selection must be reconciled early in the project and revisited throughout the construction of the machine.

  10. Revolutionising catenary design: the use of new materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, H.W.M.; Wouters, P.A.A.F.; Minkman, J.A.; Waes, van J.B.M.

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally materials used for catenary support structures are steel, concrete or even wood, in combination with the use of insulators. The development of new materials such as Fibre Reinforced Plastics (FRP) makes a new revolutionary design possible. The use of FRP is expanding rapidly at the

  11. Material and design considerations of FBGA reliability performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Teck Kheng; Ng, T.C.; Chai, Y.M.

    2004-01-01

    FBGA package reliability is usually assessed through the conventional approaches of die attach and mold compound material optimization. However, with the rapid changes and fast-moving pace of electronic packaging and the introduction of new soldermask and core materials, substrate design has also become a critical factor in determining overall package reliability. The purpose of this paper is to understand the impact design and soldermask material of a rigid substrate on overall package reliability. Three different soldermask patterns with a matrix of different die attach, mold compound, and soldermask materials are assessed using the moisture sensitivity test (MST). Package reliability is also assessed through the use of temperature cycling (T/C) at conditions 'B' and 'C'. For material optimization, three different mold compounds and die attach materials are used. Material adhesion between different die attach materials and soldermask materials are obtained through die shear performed at various temperatures and preset moisture conditions. A study correlating the different packaging material properties and their relative adhesion strengths with overall package reliability in terms of both MST and T/C performance was performed. Soldermask design under the die pads was found to affect package reliability. For example, locating vias at the edge of the die is not desirable because the vias acts as initiation point for delamination and moisture-induced failure. Through die shear testing, soldermask B demonstrated higher adhesion properties compared to soldermask A across several packaging materials and enhanced the overall package reliability in terms of both MST and T/C performance. Both MST JEDEC level 1 and the T/C of 'B' and 'C' at 1000 cycles have been achieved through design and package material optimization

  12. Material and design considerations of FBGA reliability performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Teck Kheng; Ng, T.C.; Chai, Y.M

    2004-09-01

    FBGA package reliability is usually assessed through the conventional approaches of die attach and mold compound material optimization. However, with the rapid changes and fast-moving pace of electronic packaging and the introduction of new soldermask and core materials, substrate design has also become a critical factor in determining overall package reliability. The purpose of this paper is to understand the impact design and soldermask material of a rigid substrate on overall package reliability. Three different soldermask patterns with a matrix of different die attach, mold compound, and soldermask materials are assessed using the moisture sensitivity test (MST). Package reliability is also assessed through the use of temperature cycling (T/C) at conditions 'B' and 'C'. For material optimization, three different mold compounds and die attach materials are used. Material adhesion between different die attach materials and soldermask materials are obtained through die shear performed at various temperatures and preset moisture conditions. A study correlating the different packaging material properties and their relative adhesion strengths with overall package reliability in terms of both MST and T/C performance was performed. Soldermask design under the die pads was found to affect package reliability. For example, locating vias at the edge of the die is not desirable because the vias acts as initiation point for delamination and moisture-induced failure. Through die shear testing, soldermask B demonstrated higher adhesion properties compared to soldermask A across several packaging materials and enhanced the overall package reliability in terms of both MST and T/C performance. Both MST JEDEC level 1 and the T/C of 'B' and 'C' at 1000 cycles have been achieved through design and package material optimization.

  13. CRE answer to the European Commission public consultation on the new electricity market design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladoucette, Philippe de

    2015-01-01

    On July 15, 2015, the European Commission launched a public consultation on the new Electricity Market Design. All National Regulatory Authorities (NRAs), and CRE in particular, contributed to the joint ACER-CEER response to the consultation. CRE supports this joint response, and further develops some topics in this document, building on its particular experience in the implementation of the internal energy market: implementation of the network codes, in particular those regarding the markets, development of demand-side flexibility, development of interconnections, and alignment of fragmented balancing markets

  14. Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind energy is gaining critical ground in the area of renewable energy, with wind energy being predicted to provide up to 8% of the world’s consumption of electricity by 2021. Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials reviews the design and functionality of wind turbine rotor blades...... as well as the requirements and challenges for composite materials used in both current and future designs of wind turbine blades. Part one outlines the challenges and developments in wind turbine blade design, including aerodynamic and aeroelastic design features, fatigue loads on wind turbine blades......, and characteristics of wind turbine blade airfoils. Part two discusses the fatigue behavior of composite wind turbine blades, including the micromechanical modelling and fatigue life prediction of wind turbine blade composite materials, and the effects of resin and reinforcement variations on the fatigue resistance...

  15. DESIGN FOCUSED ORIENTATION PROCESSES FOR MANAGING INVESTMENT COMPANIES IN THE FOREIGN EXCHANGE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анатолий Аркадьевич АНАТОЛЬЕВ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This report examines the investment companies operating in the market Forex. Business process analysis showed the design direction of their activities. Dedicated two groups of projects of investment companies can position them as project-oriented organization.

  16. Raw materials for the energy supply of the future. Geology, markets, environmental influences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagelueken, Christian; Thauer, Rudolf K.; Buchholz, Peter; Gutzmer, Jens; Littke, Ralf; Angerer, Gerhard; Wellmer, Friedrich-Wilhelm

    2015-01-01

    More and more metals are needed to expand modern energy technologies, but we can not completely dispense with fossil raw materials and biomass in the near future either. Are the incidence of the conversion of energy sources sufficient? The analysis of the academy project ''Energy Systems of the Future'' (ESYS) comes to the conclusion that geologically enough raw materials are available. The challenge, however, is to make the supply safe, affordable and environmentally and socially compatible. The analysis explains the mechanisms of action on the global commodity markets and identifies supply risks. These include, for example, sudden demand on the international markets as well as the unequal distribution of the world's raw material reserves. This is followed by the analysis approaches, in order to recognize warning signals for potential raw material bottlenecks in time, to develop evasive strategies and to secure the raw material supply for the energy turnarounds. For example, the expansion of recycling can help to reduce the dependence on metal imports. In mining, on the other hand, innovative technologies have to be developed in order to improve the exploration and utilization of the deposits. By establishing binding environmental and social standards, the extraction of raw materials could also become more sustainable. The analysis also highlights the importance of bioenergy and fossil raw materials, such as oil and natural gas, for energy generation. The authors describe the advantages and disadvantages of these energy carriers and the measures that can be used to reduce environmental pollution such as greenhouse gas emissions. [de

  17. The design paradox: the contribution of in-house and external design activities on product market performance

    OpenAIRE

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Thorwarth, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the contribution of design activities on product market performance of Belgian companies. While there is mounting evidence that design can be seen as a strategic tool to successfully spur sales of new product developments at the firm level, the topic of design innovation has not been linked to the open innovation concept yet. In this paper we empirically test whether design activities conducted in-house differ in their contribution to new product sales from externally acqu...

  18. Do societal values influence financial development? : New evidence on the effects of post materialism and institutions on stock markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordaan, J.A.; Dima, Dogdan; Goleț, Ionuț

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present new evidence on the effects of social values on stock market development. Using panel data for a heterogeneous set of 43 countries, we use the Inglehart post materialism index to identify the relation between the degree of post materialism and the size of stock markets.

  19. Critical plasma-materials issues for fusion reactor designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, K.L.; Bauer, W.

    1983-01-01

    Plasma-materials interactions are a dominant driving force in the design of fusion power reactors. This paper presents a summary of plasma-materials interactions research. Emphasis is placed on critical aspects related to reactor design. Particular issues to be addressed are plasma edge characterization, hydrogen recycle, impurity introduction, and coating development. Typical wall fluxes in operating magnetically confined devices are summarized. Recent calculations of tritium inventory and first wall permeation, based on laboratory measurements of hydrogen recycling, are given for various reactor operating scenarios. Impurity introduction/wall erosion mechanisms considered include sputtering, chemical erosion, and evaporation (melting). Finally, the advanced material development for in-vessel components is discussed. (author)

  20. Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  1. Probabilistic Fatigue Design of Composite Material for Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper a probabilistic design approach to fatigue design of wind turbine blades is presented. The physical uncertainty on the fatigue strength for composite material is estimated using public available fatigue tests. Further, the model uncertainty on Miner rule for damage accumulation...

  2. Materials data base as an interface between fusion reactor designs and materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishino, S.; Iwata, S.

    1983-01-01

    The materials data base is an integrated information system of experimental and/or calculated data of materials being compiled to meet the broad needs for materials data by taking advantage of the data base management systems. In this paper the objective of such computerized data base is described from the viewpoint of materials engineers and fusion system designers. Materials data spread themselves widely from the field that relates fundamental understanding of the behaviors of electrons, atoms, vacancies, dislocations and so on to the performance of components, devices, machines and systems. In our approach this information is described as ''relations'' by a set of tables which comprise related variables, for example, a set of values about essential properties for materials selection. This approach based on the relational model enables relational operations, i.e. SELECTION, PROJECTION, JOIN and so on, to select suitable materials, to set trade-off parameters for system designers and to establish design criteria. Stored data comprise (i) fundamental properties for all elements and potential structural materials, (ii) low cycle fatigue, irradiation creep and swelling data for type 316 stainless steels. These data have been selected and evaluated from critical reviews of existing data base of about 2 mega bytes data, some examples of materials selections and extraction of trade-off parameters are shown as a subject of critical issue concerning how to bridge the large gap between materials developments and system designs. (author)

  3. Nano-Scale Positioning Design with Piezoelectric Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung Yue Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric materials naturally possess high potential to deliver nano-scale positioning resolution; hence, they are adopted in a variety of engineering applications widely. Unfortunately, unacceptable positioning errors always appear because of the natural hysteresis effect of the piezoelectric materials. This natural property must be mitigated in practical applications. For solving this drawback, a nonlinear positioning design is proposed in this article. This nonlinear positioning design of piezoelectric materials is realized by the following four steps: 1. The famous Bouc–Wen model is utilized to present the input and output behaviors of piezoelectric materials; 2. System parameters of the Bouc–Wen model that describe the characteristics of piezoelectric materials are simultaneously identified with the particle swam optimization method; 3. Stability verification for the identified Bouc–Wen model; 4. A nonlinear feedback linearization control design is derived for the nano-scale positioning design of the piezoelectric material, mathematically. One important contribution of this investigation is that the positioning error between the output displacement of the controlled piezoelectric materials and the desired trajectory in nano-scale level can be proven to converge to zero asymptotically, under the effect of the hysteresis.

  4. A design methodology for materials control and accounting information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helman, P.; Strittmatter, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    Modern approaches to nuclear materials safeguards have significantly increased the data processing needs of safeguards information systems. Implementing these approaches will require developing efficient, cost-effective designs. Guided by database design research, we are developing a design methodology for distributed materials control and accounting (MCandA) information systems. The methodology considers four design parameters: network topology, allocation of data to nodes, high-level global processing strategy, and local file structures to optimize system performance. Characteristics of system performance that are optimized are response time for an operation, timeliness of data, validity of data, and reliability. The ultimate goal of the research is to develop a comprehensive computerized design tool specifically tailored to the design of MCandA systems

  5. Elements of design and aesthetics on the beer market in Romania. Case Study: Tuborg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca MADAR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the development and modernization of trade, the packaging is a very valuable component of marketing policy, being a carrier of messages to the consumer. Classic elements of design that include any packaging refer to the shape, colour and graphics. The beer market in Romania was marked by originality and innovation in terms of packaging design elements. Tuborg is the leading brand in the portfolio of URBB and the first Tuborg beer bottle was produced in Romania in 1997. The Tubog beer is identified on the market by a special package that was always improved.

  6. Some design lessons from market-based greenhouse gas regulation in the restructured Australian electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGill, Iain; Outhred, Hugh; Nolles, Karel

    2006-01-01

    There is growing worldwide interest in the use of market-based policy instruments for climate change regulation in the electricity sector. These mechanisms would seem to offer some efficiency and flexibility advantages over more traditional regulatory approaches, while being highly compatible with competitive market-based electricity industries. Australia has been an early and enthusiastic adopter of both electricity industry restructuring and market-based environmental instruments. This paper first outlines some of these recent policy developments. In particular, we describe the objectives, design and outcomes to date of electricity industry restructuring, the Mandatory Renewable Energy Target, the NSW Greenhouse Benchmarks, the Queensland 13% Gas scheme and Government accredited Green Power. From this, we draw some key design lessons for such market-based instruments. These include the perils of abstraction in scheme design, the vital importance of setting appropriate baselines in 'baseline and credit' schemes, the possibility that such measures may interact in ways that reduce their environmental effectiveness, 'market for lemon' risks with tradable instruments that have measurement, verification or 'additionality' difficulties, and the challenges of creating transparent liquid markets for these mechanisms. The mixed performance of these Australian schemes to date illustrates the need for great care in designing such market-based approaches

  7. Some design lessons from market-based greenhouse gas regulation in the restructured Australian electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacGill, Iain [School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia)] e-mail: i.macgill@unsw.edu.au; Outhred, Hugh [School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia); Nolles, Karel [School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2006-01-01

    There is growing worldwide interest in the use of market-based policy instruments for climate change regulation in the electricity sector. These mechanisms would seem to offer some efficiency and flexibility advantages over more traditional regulatory approaches, while being highly compatible with competitive market-based electricity industries. Australia has been an early and enthusiastic adopter of both electricity industry restructuring and market-based environmental instruments. This paper first outlines some of these recent policy developments. In particular, we describe the objectives, design and outcomes to date of electricity industry restructuring, the Mandatory Renewable Energy Target, the NSW Greenhouse Benchmarks, the Queensland 13% Gas scheme and Government accredited Green Power. From this, we draw some key design lessons for such market-based instruments. These include the perils of abstraction in scheme design, the vital importance of setting appropriate baselines in 'baseline and credit' schemes, the possibility that such measures may interact in ways that reduce their environmental effectiveness, 'market for lemon' risks with tradable instruments that have measurement, verification or 'additionality' difficulties, and the challenges of creating transparent liquid markets for these mechanisms. The mixed performance of these Australian schemes to date illustrates the need for great care in designing such market-based approaches.

  8. Some design lessons from market-based greenhouse gas regulation in the restructured Australian electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iain MacGill; Hugh Outhred; Karel Nolles [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Electrical Engineering & Telecommunications

    2006-01-01

    There is growing worldwide interest in the use of market-based policy instruments for climate change regulation in the electricity sector. These mechanisms would seem to offer some efficiency and flexibility advantages over more traditional regulatory approaches, while being highly compatible with competitive market-based electricity industries. Australia has been an early and enthusiastic adopter of both electricity industry restructuring and market-based environmental instruments. This paper first outlines some of these recent policy developments. It then describes the objectives, design and outcomes to date of electricity industry restructuring, the Mandatory Renewable Energy Target, the NSW Greenhouse Benchmarks, the Queensland 13% Gas scheme and Government accredited Green Power. From this, some key design lessons are drawn for such market-based instruments. These include the perils of abstraction in scheme design, the vital importance of setting appropriate baselines in 'baseline and credit' schemes, the possibility that such measures may interact in ways that reduce their environmental effectiveness, 'market for lemon' risks with tradable instruments that have measurement, verification or 'additionality' difficulties, and the challenges of creating transparent liquid markets for these mechanisms. The mixed performance of these Australian schemes to date illustrates the need for great care in designing such market-based approaches. 36 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Multi-material topology design of laminates with strength criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a novel approach for multi-material topology optimization of laminated composite structures where strength constraints are taken into account together with other global structural performance measures. The topology design problem considered contains very...... many design variables, and when strength criteria are included in the problem, a very large number of criteria functions must be considered in the optimization problem to be solved. Thus, block aggregation methods are introduced, such that global strength measures are obtained. These formulations...... are illustrated for multi-material laminated design problems where the maximum failure index is minimized while compliance and mass constraints are taken into account....

  10. Fiber-reinforced composites materials, manufacturing, and design

    CERN Document Server

    Mallick, P K

    2007-01-01

    The newly expanded and revised edition of Fiber-Reinforced Composites: Materials, Manufacturing, and Design presents the most up-to-date resource available on state-of-the-art composite materials. This book is unique in that it not only offers a current analysis of mechanics and properties, but also examines the latest advances in test methods, applications, manufacturing processes, and design aspects involving composites. This third edition presents thorough coverage of newly developed materials including nanocomposites. It also adds more emphasis on underlying theories, practical methods, and problem-solving skills employed in real-world applications of composite materials. Each chapter contains new examples drawn from diverse applications and additional problems to reinforce the practical relevance of key concepts. New in The Third Edition: Contains new sections on material substitution, cost analysis, nano- and natural fibers, fiber architecture, and carbon-carbon composites Provides a new chapter on poly...

  11. Differences in regulation and efficiency on the electricity market. A preliminary study in the Market Design program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergendahl, Goeran; Lindblom, Ted; Olsson, Sven-Olof; Sandoff, Anders

    2001-05-01

    This paper reports the outcome of a pilot study focusing on corporate governance and mechanism design issues concerning the electricity industry. With respect to the on-going deregulation, enlargement and internationalisation of electricity markets, especial emphasis is put on exploring the importance of the regulatory environment for accomplishing overall market efficiency. Throughout this preliminary study a central assumption has been that the actors on electricity markets are trying to maximise profits under conditions of uncertainty and asymmetric information. This means that transaction costs should be taken into consideration when studying and analysing the efficiency of electricity markets. Accordingly, the theoretical framework of this paper is resting largely on information theories, like 'Transaction Cost Economics', 'Agency Theory', 'Public Choice and Regulation' and 'Information Economics'. The pilot study consists of three parts. The first part is focusing on the development of a relevant theoretical framework. This part is demonstrating important pricing principles and regulatory incentives for accomplishing an efficient electricity market and, thus, a fair competition between electricity actors, i.e. power companies and other traders of electricity. In such a market design we have distinguished three cornerstones: 1. Marginal cost based electricity pricing, both for energy and capacity. 2. Long-range planning of production and transmission expansions. 3. Transparent transmission pricing and open access to all regional and local transmission grids. The following areas are examples of theoretical research issues that are of a particular interest in practice: The production and transmission of electricity is characterised by considerable economies of scale. The financing of new production and transmission capacity is, however, hard to manage with internal funding when electricity prices are based on marginal costs. What methods or (pricing) strategies

  12. Market Design Project. Demand Response Resources in Sweden - a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, Peter

    2006-06-01

    An important discussion in later years has been whether the necessary reserves in the electricity market are to be generated through normal market mechanisms, i.e. with the price as the primary controlling parameter, or if it requires a collectively financed capacity reserve and how regulations in such a case should be shaped. The issue is first and foremost a matter of where the line is drawn between that which 'the market' should handle and that which can be assured through regulation. Autumn 2002 Svenska Kraftnaet (the Swedish TSO) presented an investigation to the government in which it was suggested that the capacity balance should primarily be managed through the use of normal pricing mechanisms, but that the state should strengthen responsibility for the nation's capacity balance in the period up until 2008. When approaching an effect loss situation, spot prices and balancing power prices will skyrocket. Today, most people are in agreement that a condition for maintained delivery safety is that normal pricing mechanisms are in place and that consumption actually is affected by high prices. The main reason for this conclusion is that it is very expensive to keep production facilities in reserve for situations that are expected to occur very seldom - it is cheaper to encourage large customers to reduce their consumption. The other reason is that increased price sensitivity creates conditions for a more stable and more predictable pricing development in strained situations. While being aware that a response to increased demand is needed, we see too little of that on the market today. The aim of this project is to present concrete measures that will awaken this slumbering resource. In order to judge how much demand response that can reasonably be expected and if there is any financial gain for customers, electricity suppliers and grid operators; it has been necessary to cast a few predictions about future price peaks. We estimate price peaks in the 3-10 SEK

  13. Global electricity transformation: The critical need for integrated market design and risk management research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung-po Chao

    2006-01-01

    The past three decades transformed the electricity industry. The essential goals of liberalization have been to lower costs, improve reliability, and stimulate investment and innovations through establishment of competitive electricity markets, while also relying on market mechanisms to provide creative solutions to environmental and security problems. In many instances, these goals have been achieved, but the occurrence of some spectacular market failures have brought into question the whole restructuring effort. This paper reviews recent experiences with market reform and concludes that a significant cause of failure has been the rush to unbundle vertically integrated utilities without sufficient consideration of alternative ways to manage the risk of electricity market restructuring. In particular, there is a critical need for integrated market design and risk management research to improve the process of market transformation by taking a more evolutionary approach to discover a 'Third Way' above vertical integration and full unbundling. Such research can offer a crucial feedback link to the restructuring process by identifying important lessons to be learned from past experience and developing new analytical tools to help introduce more successful market designs for the future. (author)

  14. Choice Experiment Analysis of Outdoor Decking Material Selection in E-Commerce Market in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Holopainen, Jani Markus; Toppinen, Anne Maarit Kristiina; Lähtinen, Katja Päivikki; Rekola, Mika Olavi

    2017-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, there has been hope that the uptake of certified forest products would ensure more sustainable forest management and also deliver business benefits along the value chain. Our study applies a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) to model an e-commerce purchase in the case of multiple products with various attribute and certification combinations in the Finnish retail outdoor decking material market. We received 2772 responses from 231 participants in an online survey. Applyi...

  15. Materials for construction and civil engineering science, processing, and design

    CERN Document Server

    Margarido, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    This expansive volume presents the essential topics related to construction materials composition and their practical application in structures and civil installations. The book's diverse slate of expert authors assemble invaluable case examples and performance data on the most important groups of materials used in construction, highlighting aspects such as nomenclature, the properties, the manufacturing processes, the selection criteria, the products/applications, the life cycle and recyclability, and the normalization. Civil Engineering Materials: Science, Processing, and Design is ideal for practicing architects; civil, construction, and structural engineers, and serves as a comprehensive reference for students of these disciplines. This book also: ·       Provides a substantial and detailed overview of traditional materials used in structures and civil infrastructure ·       Discusses properties of natural and synthetic materials in construction and materials' manufacturing processes ·  �...

  16. Perspective: Role of structure prediction in materials discovery and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Needs

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Materials informatics owes much to bioinformatics and the Materials Genome Initiative has been inspired by the Human Genome Project. But there is more to bioinformatics than genomes, and the same is true for materials informatics. Here we describe the rapidly expanding role of searching for structures of materials using first-principles electronic-structure methods. Structure searching has played an important part in unraveling structures of dense hydrogen and in identifying the record-high-temperature superconducting component in hydrogen sulfide at high pressures. We suggest that first-principles structure searching has already demonstrated its ability to determine structures of a wide range of materials and that it will play a central and increasing part in materials discovery and design.

  17. Designing health promotion programs by watching the market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelb, B D; Bryant, J M

    1992-03-01

    More health care providers and payors are beginning to see health promotion programs as a significant tool for attracting patients, reducing costs, or both. To help design programs that take into account the values and lifestyles of the target group, naturalistic observation can be useful. The authors illustrate the approach in a study of pipeline workers that provided input for the design of nutrition and smoking cessation programs.

  18. Lightweight structure design for wind energy by integrating nanostructured materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ying; Lu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrate high-strength nano-materials into lightweight design. • Lightweight design scheme for wind turbine tower application. • Expand the bending formulae for tapered tubular structures with varying thickness. • We rewrite the Secant Formula for a tapered beam under eccentric compression. - Abstract: Wind power develops very fast nowadays with high expectation. Although at the mean time, the use of taller towers, however, smacks head-on into the issue of transportability. The engineering base and computational tools have to be developed to match machine size and volume. Consequently the research on the light weight structures of tower is carrying out in the main countries which are actively developing wind energy. This paper reports a new design scheme of light weight structure for wind turbine tower. This design scheme is based on the integration of the nanostructured materials produced by the Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment (SMAT) process. The objective of this study is to accomplish the weight reduction by optimizing the wall thickness of the tapered tubular structure. The basic methods include the identification of the critical zones and the distribution of the high strength materials according to different necessities. The equivalent strength or stiffness design method and the high strength material properties after SMAT process are combined together. Bending and buckling are two main kinds of static loads concerned in consideration. The study results reveal that there is still enough margin for weight reduction in the traditional wind turbine tower design

  19. High-throughput theoretical design of lithium battery materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling Shi-Gang; Gao Jian; Xiao Rui-Juan; Chen Li-Quan

    2016-01-01

    The rapid evolution of high-throughput theoretical design schemes to discover new lithium battery materials is reviewed, including high-capacity cathodes, low-strain cathodes, anodes, solid state electrolytes, and electrolyte additives. With the development of efficient theoretical methods and inexpensive computers, high-throughput theoretical calculations have played an increasingly important role in the discovery of new materials. With the help of automatic simulation flow, many types of materials can be screened, optimized and designed from a structural database according to specific search criteria. In advanced cell technology, new materials for next generation lithium batteries are of great significance to achieve performance, and some representative criteria are: higher energy density, better safety, and faster charge/discharge speed. (topical review)

  20. Materials challenges supporting new sodium fast reactor designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelineau, O.; Goff, S. Dubiez-le; Dubuisson, Ph.; Dalle, F.; Blat, M.

    2009-01-01

    Sodium Fast Reactor is considered in France as the most mature technology of the different Generation IV systems. In the short-term the designing work is focused on the identification of the potential tracks to improve competitiveness, safety, efficiency and to reduce cost. In that frame the materials have a key role to play. This paper is focused on the new materials envisaged and on the Research and Development program launched in France by Areva NP, CEA and EDF in order to sustain the innovative design options: ferritic steels as candidates for exchangers, steam generators and possibly sodium circuits, optimization of materials and fabrication processes to improve safety and risk management, extension of material databases to take into account the 60 years life duration including irradiation and ageing effect. (author)

  1. Soft computing in design and manufacturing of advanced materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cios, Krzysztof J.; Baaklini, George Y; Vary, Alex

    1993-01-01

    The potential of fuzzy sets and neural networks, often referred to as soft computing, for aiding in all aspects of manufacturing of advanced materials like ceramics is addressed. In design and manufacturing of advanced materials, it is desirable to find which of the many processing variables contribute most to the desired properties of the material. There is also interest in real time quality control of parameters that govern material properties during processing stages. The concepts of fuzzy sets and neural networks are briefly introduced and it is shown how they can be used in the design and manufacturing processes. These two computational methods are alternatives to other methods such as the Taguchi method. The two methods are demonstrated by using data collected at NASA Lewis Research Center. Future research directions are also discussed.

  2. Exploring Socio-material Orderings in Ethnography of Architectural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lotz, Katrine; Stang Våland, Marianne

    How can the socio-material assemblages involved in contemporary ‘doings of architecture’ be identified and studied? The paper discusses recent transformations within architectural design practice and the extended network of local actors and technologies mobilized in contemporary building...... construction. Interested in examining how the current requirements in the field are – and can be - handled in architectural production, we aim to contribute to the ongoing development of ethnography of Architectural Design (Yaneva 2008, 2009, 2012). In our research, we focus on recent requirements...... in contemporary architectural design. We attempt to follow the actors in detail through their socio-material involvements and ‘architectural inventions’ such as visualized motives of space, materials, atmospheres, buildingparts and -components, and to explore how relations continuously tie and untie as a means...

  3. Design of an intelligent materials data base for the IFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikaili, R.; Lambert, J.D.B.; Orth, T.D.

    1992-01-01

    In the development of the integral fast reactor (IFR) concept, there is a consensus that materials considerations are an important part of the reactor design, operation, and maintenance and that materials performance is central to liquid-metal reactor reliability and safety. In the design of the IRF materials data base, artificial intelligence techniques are being used to ensure efficient control of information. Intelligent control will provide for the selection of menus to be displayed, efficient data-base searches, and application-dependent guidance through the data base. The development of the IRF data base has progressed to the point of (a) completing the design of the data-base architecture and tables, (b) installing computer hardware for storing large amounts of data, (c) outlining strategies for data transferal, and (d) identifying ways to validate and secure the integrity of data

  4. Conceptual Design Report for the Irradiated Materials Characterization Laboratory (IMCL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephanie Austad

    2010-06-01

    This document describes the design at a conceptual level for the Irradiated Materials Characterization Laboratory (IMCL) to be located at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The IMCL is an 11,000-ft2, Hazard Category-2 nuclear facility that is designed for use as a state of the-art nuclear facility for the purpose of hands-on and remote handling, characterization, and examination of irradiated and nonirradiated nuclear material samples. The IMCL will accommodate a series of future, modular, and reconfigurable instrument enclosures or caves. To provide a bounding design basis envelope for the facility-provided space and infrastructure, an instrument enclosure or cave configuration was developed and is described in some detail. However, the future instrument enclosures may be modular, integral with the instrument, or reconfigurable to enable various characterization environments to be configured as changes in demand occur. They are not provided as part of the facility.

  5. Engaging design materials, formats and Framings in specific, situated co-designing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger Eriksen, Mette

    Engaging co-designers in specific situations of co- designing often also means engaging tangible working materials. However, it can be challenging, so rather than seeing it as applying design methods, the paper propose applying what I call a micro-material perspective. The practical concept captu......-design situations" clustered in three quite well- known types of co-design situations framed for; Exploring Current Use(r) Practices, Mapping Networks and Co-Designing (Possible) Futures.......Engaging co-designers in specific situations of co- designing often also means engaging tangible working materials. However, it can be challenging, so rather than seeing it as applying design methods, the paper propose applying what I call a micro-material perspective. The practical concept...... captures both paying attention to the physical design materials, the formats of their exploration and the framings of focus when understanding and planning such specific co-design situations. To exemplify applying the perspective, the paper describes and discusses six specific examples of "co...

  6. The Market Gate of Miletus: damages, material characteristics and the development of a compatible mortar for restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegesmund, Siegfried; Middendorf, Bernhard

    2008-12-01

    The indoor exhibit of the Market Gate of Miletus is unique for an archaeological monument. The reconstruction of the gate was done in such a way that most marble fragments were removed leaving cored marble columns 3-4 cm in thickness. These cored columns were mounted on a steel construction and filled with different mortars or filled with specially shaped blocks of brick combined with mortar. All the missing marble elements were replaced by copies made of a Portland cement based concrete, which is compositionally similar to the original building materials. During the Second World War the monument was heavily damaged by aerial bombardment. For 2 years the Market Gate of Miletus was exposed to weathering, because a brick wall protecting the gate was also destroyed. The deterioration phenomena observed are microcracks, macroscopic fractures, flaking, sugaring, greying, salt efflorescence, calcitic-sinter layers and iron oxide formation etc. The rapid deterioration seems to be due to indoor atmospheric effects, and also by a combination of incompatible materials (e.g. marble, steel, mortar, concrete, bricks etc.). Compatible building materials like mortars or stone replacing materials have to be developed for the planned restoration. The requirements for restoration mortars are chemical-mineralogical and physical-mechanical compatibilities with the existing building materials. In detail this means that the mortar should ensure good bonding properties, adapted strength development and not stain the marble when in direct contact. The favoured mortar was developed with a hydraulic binder based on iron-free white cement and pozzolana based on activated clay. A special limestone and quartz sand mixture was used as an aggregate. The cement was adjusted using chemical additives. Specially designed tests were applied extensively to prove whether the developed mortar is suitable for the restoration of this precious monument.

  7. Design and construction of the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    Final design is more than 85 percent complete on the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility, the facility for post-irradiation examination of the fuels and materials tests irradiated in the FFTF and for fuel process development, experimental test pin fabrication and supporting storage, assay, and analytical chemistry functions. The overall facility is generally described with specific information given on some of the design features. Construction has been initiated and more than 10% of the construction contracts have been awarded on a fixed price basis

  8. Accelerating the design of biomimetic materials by integrating RNA-seq with proteomics and materials science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerette, Paul A; Hoon, Shawn; Seow, Yiqi; Raida, Manfred; Masic, Admir; Wong, Fong T; Ho, Vincent H B; Kong, Kiat Whye; Demirel, Melik C; Pena-Francesch, Abdon; Amini, Shahrouz; Tay, Gavin Z; Ding, Dawei; Miserez, Ali

    2013-10-01

    Efforts to engineer new materials inspired by biological structures are hampered by the lack of genomic data from many model organisms studied in biomimetic research. Here we show that biomimetic engineering can be accelerated by integrating high-throughput RNA-seq with proteomics and advanced materials characterization. This approach can be applied to a broad range of systems, as we illustrate by investigating diverse high-performance biological materials involved in embryo protection, adhesion and predation. In one example, we rapidly engineer recombinant squid sucker ring teeth proteins into a range of structural and functional materials, including nanopatterned surfaces and photo-cross-linked films that exceed the mechanical properties of most natural and synthetic polymers. Integrating RNA-seq with proteomics and materials science facilitates the molecular characterization of natural materials and the effective translation of their molecular designs into a wide range of bio-inspired materials.

  9. LUTE primary mirror materials and design study report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthven, Greg

    1993-02-01

    The major objective of the Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) Primary Mirror Materials and Design Study is to investigate the feasibility of the LUTE telescope primary mirror. A systematic approach to accomplish this key goal was taken by first understanding the optical, thermal, and structural requirements and then deriving the critical primary mirror-level requirements for ground testing, launch, and lunar operations. After summarizing the results in those requirements which drove the selection of material and the design for the primary mirror are discussed. Most important of these are the optical design which was assumed to be the MSFC baseline (i.e. 3 mirror optical system), telescope wavefront error (WFE) allocations, the telescope weight budget, and the LUTE operational temperature ranges. Mechanical load levels, reflectance and microroughness issues, and options for the LUTE metering structure were discussed and an outline for the LUTE telescope sub-system design specification was initiated. The primary mirror analysis and results are presented. The six material substrate candidates are discussed and four distinct mirror geometries which are considered are shown. With these materials and configurations together with varying the location of the mirror support points, a total of 42 possible primary mirror designs resulted. The polishability of each substrate candidate was investigated and a usage history of 0.5 meter and larger precision cryogenic mirrors (the operational low end LUTE temperature of 60 K is the reason we feel a survey of cryogenic mirrors is appropriate) that were flown or tested are presented.

  10. Hybrid Electricity Markets with Long-Term Risk-Sharing Arrangements: Adapting Market Design to Security of Supply and decarbonization Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROQUES, Fabien; FINON, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    The re-emergence of policy interventionism in electricity markets raises questions as to how market design can best be adapted to meeting the investment challenge associated with security of supply (SoS) and decarbonization objectives. This paper takes an institutionalist approach in terms of modularity of the market design, and reviews the standard historical approach towards competitive markets, in order to analyse the roles and interactions of the initial and additional market 'modules'. We argue that a number of additional modules is required to achieve long-term policy objectives, such as decarbonization and security of supply (SoS). But, in turn, they destabilise the initial modules of the market design, in particular by the entries of renewables. We review the international experience with hybrid market design and draw a number of policy recommendations at to best practices, as well as suggesting ways in which the initial market modules can be improved to prevent inconsistencies with the new modules. The move towards a hybrid market regime, which relies on a combination of planning, long-term risk sharing arrangements and improved markets entrenched in a function of short-term coordination, appears to be unavoidable where decarbonization policies are adopted. (authors)

  11. 75 FR 80571 - Core Principles and Other Requirements for Designated Contract Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... Part II Commodity Futures Trading Commission 17 CFR Parts 1, 16, and 38 Core Principles and Other... CFR Parts 1, 16, and 38 RIN 3038-AD09 Core Principles and Other Requirements for Designated Contract... Principles 1. Subpart B--Designation as Contract Market 2. Subpart C--Compliance With Rules i. Proposed Sec...

  12. Integrating Quality Matters into Hybrid Course Design: A Principles of Marketing Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research supports the idea that the success of hybrid or online delivery modes is more a function of course design than delivery media. This article describes a case study of a hybrid Principles of Marketing course that implemented a comprehensive redesign based on design principles espoused by the Quality Matters Program, a center for…

  13. Students' Preferences and Opinions on Design of a Mobile Marketing Education Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozata, Zeynep; Ozdama Keskin, Nilgun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define and better understand business school students' opinions and preferences on the design of a mobile marketing education application. To accomplish this purpose an explanatory mixed methods study design was used and the data was collected sequentially. First, a questionnaire was conducted with 168 business…

  14. Design guides for radioactive-material-handling facilities and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doman, D.R.; Barker, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    Fourteen key areas relating to facilities and equipment for handling radioactive materials involved in examination, reprocessing, fusion fuel handling and remote maintenance have been defined and writing groups established to prepare design guides for each areas. The guides will give guidance applicable to design, construction, operation, maintenance and safety, together with examples and checklists. Each guide will be reviewed by an independent review group. The guides are expected to be compiled and published as a single document

  15. Construction of irradiated material examination facility-basic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, Seung Gy; Kim, Eun Ka; Hong, Gye Won; Herr, Young Hoi; Hong, Kwon Pyo; Lee, Myeong Han; Baik, Sang Youl; Choo, Yong Sun; Baik, Seung Je

    1989-02-01

    The basic design of the hot cell facility which has the main purpose of doing mechanical and physical property tests of irradiated materials, the examination process, and the annexed facility has been made. Also basic and detall designs for the underground excavation work have been performed. The project management and tasks required for the license application have been carried out in due course. The facility is expected to be completed by the end of 1992, if the budgetary support is sufficient. (Author)

  16. European Medicines Agency Perspective on Oncology Study Design for Marketing Authorization and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, B; Martinalbo, J; Pignatti, F

    2017-05-01

    In the development of highly active anticancer drugs, the European situation may be viewed as paradoxical. Limited data may support marketing authorization, but may be insufficient for the health economic appraisal needed for reimbursement and market uptake. To achieve this, conventional confirmatory studies may be needed. For products of special interest, studies aimed at optimizing cost-effectiveness may be warranted. Efficient designs of studies to meet these objectives constitute challenges to all stakeholders. © 2017 ASCPT.

  17. Market Designs : A Survey and Analysis of Methods to Ensure Peak Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Gullberg, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The production and consumption of electricity must be in balance in order to maintain the frequency in an electrical grid. During peak loads this may be troublesome to achieve due to lack of adequate production capabilities. Competitive electricity markets with price caps have a problem - insufficient revenues for peak production units which lead to mothballing or decommissioning of power plants. Inadequate production capability is solved through design of the electricity markets which render...

  18. Sustainable packaging design for consumer electronics products: Balancing marketing, logistics and environmental requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Wever, R.; Boks, C.B.; Pratama, I.; Stevels, A.L.N.

    2007-01-01

    Packaging design for consumer electronic products is a challenge because contradictory demands from a distribution perspective and a marketing perspective have to be balanced. With several company departments involved and powerful external stakeholders this is a complicated matter. As the level of sophistication of data concerning a packagings marketing performance is limited, decisions are often strongly based on beliefs. This is reflected in inconsistencies in packaging that is currently in...

  19. Conducting wine marketing research with impact in China: Guidelines for design, execution and dissemination

    OpenAIRE

    Justin Cohen; Larry Lockshin

    2017-01-01

    China is the fastest growing wine market, but conducting research there is fraught with a variety of issues. This article explores some of the issues the authors have dealt with in conducting wine marketing research in China over the last five years. We discuss issues with the design of research to focus on important issues for both academics and the industry. We relate the key problems in gaining proper translation and useful sampling procedures. Finally, we provide some guidelines for commu...

  20. Collaborative Decision Model on Stockpile Material of a Traditional Market Infrastructure using Value-Based HBU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utomo, C.; Rahmawati, Y.; Pararta, D. L.; Ariesta, A.

    2017-11-01

    Readiness of infrastructure establishment is needed in the early phase of real estate development. To meet the needs of retail property in the form of traditional markets, the Government prepares to build a new 1300 units. Traditional market development requires infrastructure development. One of it is the preparation of sand material embankment as much as ± 200,000 m3. With a distance of 30 km, sand material can be delivered to the project site by dump trucks that can only be operated by 2 trip per day. The material is managed by using stockpile method. Decision of stockpile location requires multi person and multi criteria in a collaborative environment. The highest and the best use (HBU) criteria was used to construct a value-based decision hierarchy. Decision makers from five stakeholders analyzed the best of three locations by giving their own preference of development cost and HBU function. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) based on satisfying options and cooperative game was applied for agreement options and coalition formation on collaborative decision. The result indicates that not all solutions become a possible location for the stockpile material. It shows the ‘best fit’ options process for all decision makers.

  1. Porsche VDM – Visualization from design to market

    OpenAIRE

    Lluis Llanas, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a study that has been carried out in the context of a master thesis, proposed by the automobile manufacturer Porsche AG and conducted over a period of 24 weeks in the development center of Weissach, more precisely in the Virtual Reality (ESM5) Department. The thesis’ aim, entitled “Porsche VDM – Visualization from Design to Market”, is to harmonize the visualization process goal and to use the greatest possible synergies within the Porsche Departments. Ther...

  2. Present and future trends in pellet markets, raw materials, and supply logistics in Sweden and Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selkimaeki, Mari; Mola-Yudego, Blas; Roeser, Dominik; Prinz, Robert; Sikanen, Lauri

    2010-01-01

    Wood pellets have become an important fuel in heat and power production, and pellet markets are currently undergoing rapid development. In this paper, the pellet markets, raw materials and supply structures are analyzed for Sweden and Finland, based on a database of the current location and production capacity of the pellet producers, complemented with existing reports and literature. In Sweden, a total of 94 pellet plants/producers were identified, producing 1.4 million tonnes of pellets, while the domestic consumption was 1.7 million tonnes, and about 400,000 t of pellets were imported to fulfil the demand in 2007. In Finland, 24 pellet plants/producers were identified and the production was around 330,000 t while the domestic consumption was 117,000 t in 2007. In Finland, pellet market has been long time export oriented, whereas domestic consumption has been growing mainly in the small scale consumer sector, estimated 15,000 households had pellet heating systems in 2008. In the future, the increasing number of pellet users will require a reliable delivery network and good equipment for bulk pellet deliveries. Provision of new raw materials and ensuring the good quality of pellets through the whole production, delivery and handling chain will be fundamental in order to increase the use of pellets and sustain the ability to compete with other fuels. (author)

  3. The role of product design in consumers' choices in the individual insurance market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, M Susan; Buntin, Melinda Beeuwkes; Escarce, José J; Kapur, Kanika

    2007-12-01

    To evaluate the role of health plan benefit design and price on consumers' decisions to purchase health insurance in the nongroup market and their choice of plan. Administrative data from the three largest nongroup insurers in California and survey data about those insured in the nongroup market and the uninsured in California. We fit a nested logit model to examine the effects of plan characteristics on consumer choice while accounting for substitutability among certain groups of products. Product choice is quite sensitive to price. A 10 percent decrease in the price of a product would increase its market share by about 20 percent. However, a 10 percent decrease in prices of all products would only increase overall market participation by about 4 percent. Changes in the generosity of coverage will also affect product choice, but have only small effects on overall participation. A 20 percent decrease in the deductible or maximum out-of-pocket payment of all plans would increase participation by about 0.3-0.5 percent. Perceived information search costs and other nonprice barriers have substantial effects on purchase of nongroup coverage. Modest subsidies will have small effects on purchase in the nongroup market. New product designs with higher deductibles are likely to be more attractive to healthy purchasers, but the new benefit designs are likely to have only small effects on market participation. In contrast, consumer education efforts have a role to play in helping to expand coverage.

  4. Design and selection of materials for sodium cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetal, S.C.

    2011-01-01

    Sodium cooled fast reactors are currently in operation, under construction or under design by a number of countries. The design of sodium cooled fast reactor is covered by French RCC - MR code and ASME code NH. The codes cover rules as regards to materials, design and construction. These codes do not cover the effect of irradiation and environment. Elevated temperature design criteria in nuclear codes are much stringent in comparison to non nuclear codes. Sodium corrosion is not an issue in selection of materials provided oxygen impurity in sodium is controlled for which excellent reactor operating experience is available. Austenitic stainless steels have remained the choice for the permanent structures of primary sodium system. Stabilized austenitic stainless steel are rejected because of poor operating experience and non inclusion in the design codes. Route for improved creep behaviour lies in compositional modifications in 316 class steel. However, the weldability needs to be ensured. For cold leg component is non creep regime, SS 304 class steel is favoured from overall economics. Enhanced fuel burn up can be realized by the use of 9-12%Cr 1%Mo class steel for the wrapper of MOX fuel design, and cladding and wrapper for metal fuel reactors. Minor compositional modifications of 20% cold worked 15Cr-15Ni class austenitic stainless steel will be a strong candidate for the cladding of MOX fuel design in the short term. Long term objective for the cladding will be to develop oxide dispersion strengthened steel. 9%Cr 1%Mo class steel (Gr 91) is an ideal choice for integrated once through sodium heated steam generators. One needs to incorporate operating experience from reactors and thermal power stations, industrial capability and R and D feedback in preparing the technical specifications for procurement of wrought products and welding consumables to ensure reliable operation of the components and systems over the design life. The paper highlights the design approach

  5. An affective e-commerce design for SMEs product marketing based on kansei engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habyba, A. N.; Djatna, T.; Anggraeni, E.

    2018-04-01

    One of the SMEs problems in Indonesia in this information technology era is the inability to control the market. SMEs can use the e-commerce website to improve their competitiveness. It can be used as a marketing tool for SMEs to promote their products and expands the SMEs markets especially for the agroindustry SMEs where located in district area that still rely on local markets to sell their product. Some SMEs e-commerce websites have been developed in Indonesia but can not significantly increased the sales of SMEs product. Furthemore, the design of it is only able to meet the consumer need in function and usability. The development of e-commerce design should pay attention in high affective quality. This is because the affective responses effect the user’s perception of cognitive quality, usability and ease of use of e-commerce. This study is aimed to make e-commerce that can meet the affective needs of users. The result of Kansei words selection and extraction using TF-IDF are four design concepts of e-commerce website. The formulation of new SMEs e-commerce website design is resulted from the integration of four design concepts and four design elements. The “Natural-Formal” concept has the greatest value than other concepts after QTT-1 analysis. This concept can implemented as the new SMEs e-commerce website design.

  6. European DEMO design strategy and consequences for materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, G.; Biel, W.; Gilbert, M. R.; Kemp, R.; Taylor, N.; Wenninger, R.

    2017-09-01

    Demonstrating the production of net electricity and operating with a closed fuel-cycle remain unarguably the crucial steps towards the exploitation of fusion power. These are the aims of a demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO) proposed to be built after ITER. This paper briefly describes the DEMO design options that are being considered in Europe for the current conceptual design studies as part of the Roadmap to Fusion Electricity Horizon 2020. These are not intended to represent fixed and exclusive design choices but rather ‘proxies’ of possible plant design options to be used to identify generic design/material issues that need to be resolved in future fusion reactor systems. The materials nuclear design requirements and the effects of radiation damage are briefly analysed with emphasis on a pulsed ‘low extrapolation’ system, which is being used for the initial design integration studies, based as far as possible on mature technologies and reliable regimes of operation (to be extrapolated from the ITER experience), and on the use of materials suitable for the expected level of neutron fluence. The main technical issues arising from the plasma and nuclear loads and the effects of radiation damage particularly on the structural and heat sink materials of the vessel and in-vessel components are critically discussed. The need to establish realistic target performance and a development schedule for near-term electricity production tends to favour more conservative technology choices. The readiness of the technical (physics and technology) assumptions that are being made is expected to be an important factor for the selection of the technical features of the device.

  7. Designing inclusion and exclusion in labour market governance networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Bodil

    This paper explores the issue of inclusion in governance networks. It shows that mainstream understandings of inclusion in societal steering – perspectives on governance networks, neocorporatism and neopluralism – mainly focus on structural characteristics of potential members of governance...... networks and do not adequately explain who actually gets access to these networks. Instead I argue that we need to analyse actions taken consciously and deliberately to design inclusion – as well as exclusion – in governance networks, i.e. we need to bring agency into the analysis and analyse...

  8. Intercultural design of man-machine systems: Machine design for the Chinese market; Interkulturelles Design fuer Mensch-Maschine-Systeme: Maschinendesign fuer den chinesischen Markt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roese, K.; Zuehlke, D.; Liu, L. [Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    The ongoing globalization trend has imposed great needs on culture-specific machine design. For the expected business success on the foreign market the target user's special requirements should be well addressed. This paper proposes an effective approach to elicit user's culture-specific requirements on different machine design issues, which bases on the analysis of cultural environment and mentality. The approach was practically implemented in one project to elicit the user's requirements on machine design for the Chinese market. The investigation methods are briefly described and some most important culture specific design features for Mainland China are summarized. (orig.)

  9. Physical and Model Uncertainty for Fatigue Design of Composite Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    The main aim of the present report is to establish stochastic models for the uncertainties related to fatigue design of composite materials. The uncertainties considered are the physical uncertainty related to the static and fatigue strength and the model uncertainty related to Miners rule...

  10. Road Materials and Pavement Design volume 17(2)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Materials and Pavement Design Volume 17, 2016 - Issue 2 Editorial Board Page ebi | Published online: 03 Oct 2016  http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14680629.2016.1244475 Editors-in-Chief Hervé DI BENEDETTO - University of Lyon/ENTPE, Vaulx-en-Velin, France...

  11. Designing ICT Training Material for Chinese Language Arts Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Janet Mei-Chuen; Wu, Cheng-Chih; Chen, Hsiu-Yen

    The purpose of this research is to tailor the design of information and communications technology (ICT) training material to the needs of Chinese language arts teachers such that the training they receive will be conducive to effective integration of ICT into instruction. Eighteen experienced teachers participated in a Delphi-like survey that…

  12. Data-driven design optimization for composite material characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    John G. Michopoulos; John C. Hermanson; Athanasios Iliopoulos; Samuel G. Lambrakos; Tomonari Furukawa

    2011-06-01

    The main goal of the present paper is to demonstrate the value of design optimization beyond its use for structural shape determination in the realm of the constitutive characterization of anisotropic material systems such as polymer matrix composites with or without damage. The approaches discussed are based on the availability of massive experimental data...

  13. Materializing a responsive interior: designing minimum energy structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossé, Aurélie; Kofod, Guggi; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses a series of design-led experiments investigating future possibilities for architectural materialization relying on minimum energy structures as an example of adaptive structure. The structures have been made as laminates of elastic membrane under high tension with flexible...... (Lendlein, Kelch 2002) or light (van Oosten, Bastiaansen et al. 2009). All in all, this approach could form a whole new design paradigm, in which efficient 2D-manufacturing can lead to highly flexible, low weight and adaptable 3D-structures. This is illustrated by the design and manufacture of electro...

  14. Efficient Parameter Searches for Colloidal Materials Design with Digital Alchemy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Paul, M.; Geng, Yina; van Anders, Greg; Glotzer, Sharon C.

    Optimal colloidal materials design is challenging, even for high-throughput or genomic approaches, because the design space provided by modern colloid synthesis techniques can easily have dozens of dimensions. In this talk we present the methodology of an inverse approach we term ''digital alchemy'' to perform rapid searches of design-paramenter spaces with up to 188 dimensions that yield thermodynamically optimal colloid parameters for target crystal structures with up to 20 particles in a unit cell. The method relies only on fundamental principles of statistical mechanics and Metropolis Monte Carlo techniques, and yields particle attribute tolerances via analogues of familiar stress-strain relationships.

  15. Designing high-Performance layered thermoelectric materials through orbital engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jiawei; Song, Lirong; Madsen, Georg K. H.

    2016-01-01

    Thermoelectric technology, which possesses potential application in recycling industrial waste heat as energy, calls for novel high-performance materials. The systematic exploration of novel thermoelectric materials with excellent electronic transport properties is severely hindered by limited...... insight into the underlying bonding orbitals of atomic structures. Here we propose a simple yet successful strategy to discover and design high-performance layered thermoelectric materials through minimizing the crystal field splitting energy of orbitals to realize high orbital degeneracy. The approach...... naturally leads to design maps for optimizing the thermoelectric power factor through forming solid solutions and biaxial strain. Using this approach, we predict a series of potential thermoelectric candidates from layered CaAl2Si2-type Zintl compounds. Several of them contain nontoxic, low-cost and earth...

  16. IBARAKI Materials Design Diffractometer for J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishigaki, Toru; Harjo, Stefanus; Yonemura, Masao; Kamiyama, Takashi; Aizawa, Kazuya; Oikawa, Kenichi; Sakuma, Takashi; Morii, Yukio; Arai, Masatoshi; Ebata, Kazuhiro; Takano, Yoshiki; Kasao, Takuro

    2006-01-01

    Ibaraki prefecture, the local government of the area for J-PARC site, has decided to build a versatile powder diffractometer (IBARAKI Materials Design Diffractometer) to promote industrial applications for neutron beams in J-PARC. This diffractometer is designed to be a high throughput one enabling materials scientists to use it like the chemical analytical instruments in their material development processes. It covers in d range 0.18< d(A)<5 with Δd/d=0.16% at the high-resolution scattering detector bank, and covers 5< d(A)<800 with gradually changing resolution. Typical measuring time to obtain a 'Rietveld-quality' data is several minutes for the sample size of laboratory X-ray diffractometer. To promote industrial application, a utilization system for this diffractometer is required. We will establish a support system for both academic and industrial users who are willing to use neutron but have not been familiar with neutron diffraction

  17. The design and modeling of periodic materials with novel properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Jonathan Bernard

    Cellular materials are ubiquitous in our world being found in natural and engineered systems as structural materials, sound and energy absorbers, heat insulators and more. Stochastic foams made of polymers, metals and even ceramics find wide use due to their novel properties when compared to monolithic materials. Properties of these so called hybrid materials, those that combine materials or materials and space, are derived from the localization of thermomechanical stresses and strains on the mesoscale as a function of cell topology. The effects of localization can only be generalized in stochastic materials arising from their inherent potential complexity, possessing variations in local chemistry, microstructural inhomogeneity and topological variations. Ordered cellular materials on the other hand, such as lattices and honeycombs, make for much easier study, often requiring analysis of only a single unit-cell. Theoretical bounds predict that hybrid materials have the potential to push design envelopes offering lighter stiffer and stronger materials. Hybrid materials can achieve very low and even negative coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) while retaining a relatively high stiffness -- properties completely unmatched by monolithic materials. In the first chapter of this thesis a two-dimensional lattice is detailed that possess near maximum stiffness, relative to the tightest theoretical bound, and low, zero and even appreciably negative thermal expansion. Its CTE and stiffness are given in closed form as a function of geometric parameters and the material properties. This result is confirmed with finite elements (FE) and experiment. In the second chapter the compressive stiffness of three-dimensional ordered foams, both closed and open cell, are predicted with FE and the results placed in property space in terms of stiffness and density. A novel structure is identified that effectively achieves theoretical bounds for Young's, shear and bulk modulus

  18. Advanced materials for aqueous supercapacitors in the asymmetric design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muniyandi Rajkumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Supercapacitors have been recognized as one of the promising energy storage devices in the future energy technology. In this perspective, rapid progress is made in the development of fundamental and applied aspects of supercapacitors. Various techniques have been developed specifically to estimate the specific capacitance. Numerous efforts have been made in the literature to increase the specific capacitance of electrode materials. Recently, researchers pay more attention on designing supercapacitors of asymmetric type with extending cell voltage and dissimilar materials with complementary working potentials. Researchers try to increase the specific energy of asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs. Conversely, it is still a challenge to find a suitable operation conditions for ASCs in various designs, especially for the one with battery type electrode. In this review, we describe our recent research works and other reports on the preparation of various nanostructured electrode materials and the performances of both symmetric and asymmetric supercapacitors. Finally, we demonstrate effects of charge balance on the capacitive performances of ASCs which consist of one electrode material of the battery type and one capacitive material. We also demonstrate how to evaluate the charge capacities of both positive and negative electrode materials for this ASC application.

  19. Entombment Using Cementitious Materials: Design Considerations and International Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, Roger Ray

    2002-08-01

    Cementitious materials have physical and chemical properties that are well suited for the requirements of radioactive waste management. Namely, the materials have low permeability and durability that is consistent with the time frame required for short-lived radionuclides to decay. Furthermore, cementitious materials can provide a long-term chemical environment that substantially reduces the mobility of some long-lived radionuclides of concern for decommissioning (e.g., C-14, Ni-63, Ni-59). Because of these properties, cementitious materials are common in low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities throughout the world and are an attractive option for entombment of nuclear facilities. This paper describes design considerations for cementitious barriers in the context of performance over time frames of a few hundreds of years (directed toward short-lived radionuclides) and time frames of thousands of years (directed towards longer-lived radionuclides). The emphasis is on providing an overview of concepts for entombment that take advantage of the properties of cementitious materials and experience from the design of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A few examples of the previous use of cementitious materials for entombment of decommissioned nuclear facilities and proposals for the use in future decommissioning of nuclear reactors in a few countries are also included to provide global perspective.

  20. Entombment Using Cementitious Materials: Design Considerations and International Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, R.R.

    2002-05-15

    Cementitious materials have physical and chemical properties that are well suited for the requirements of radioactive waste management. Namely, the materials have low permeability and durability that is consistent with the time frame required for short-lived radionuclides to decay. Furthermore, cementitious materials can provide a long-term chemical environment that substantially reduces the mobility of some long-lived radionuclides of concern for decommissioning (e.g., C-14, Ni-63, Ni-59). Because of these properties, cementitious materials are common in low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities throughout the world and are an attractive option for entombment of nuclear facilities. This paper describes design considerations for cementitious barriers in the context of performance over time frames of a few hundreds of years (directed toward short-lived radionuclides) and time frames of thousands of years (directed towards longer-lived radionuclides). The emphasis is on providing a n overview of concepts for entombment that take advantage of the properties of cementitious materials and experience from the design of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A few examples of the previous use of cementitious materials for entombment of decommissioned nuclear facilities and proposals for the use in future decommissioning of nuclear reactors in a few countries are also included to provide global perspective.

  1. Entombment Using Cementitious Materials: Design Considerations and International Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, R.R.

    2002-01-01

    Cementitious materials have physical and chemical properties that are well suited for the requirements of radioactive waste management. Namely, the materials have low permeability and durability that is consistent with the time frame required for short-lived radionuclides to decay. Furthermore, cementitious materials can provide a long-term chemical environment that substantially reduces the mobility of some long-lived radionuclides of concern for decommissioning (e.g., C-14, Ni-63, Ni-59). Because of these properties, cementitious materials are common in low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities throughout the world and are an attractive option for entombment of nuclear facilities. This paper describes design considerations for cementitious barriers in the context of performance over time frames of a few hundreds of years (directed toward short-lived radionuclides) and time frames of thousands of years (directed towards longer-lived radionuclides). The emphasis is on providing a n overview of concepts for entombment that take advantage of the properties of cementitious materials and experience from the design of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A few examples of the previous use of cementitious materials for entombment of decommissioned nuclear facilities and proposals for the use in future decommissioning of nuclear reactors in a few countries are also included to provide global perspective

  2. Sustainable design options for the German electricity market. A comparison of the energy-only market with capacity markets; Zukunftsfaehige Designoptionen fuer den deutschen Strommarkt. Ein Vergleich des Energy-only-Marktes mit Kapazitaetsmaerkten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keles, Dogan; Renz, Lea; Bublitz, Andreas; Zimmermann, Florian; Genoese, Massimo; Fichtner, Wolf [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energiewirtschaft; Hoefling, Holger; Sensfuss, Frank; Winkler, Jenny [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-04-01

    This study intensively discusses the further developments of the electricity market design in Germany based on substantial scientific insights. For this purpose, an agent-based simulation model is applied to evaluate the operability of the energy only market extended with a strategic reserve. Furthermore, the effects of the implementation of a centralized or decentralized capacity market are analyzed.

  3. Designing towards the Unknown: Engaging with Material and Aesthetic Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Wilde

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available New materials with new capabilities demand new ways of approaching design. Destabilising existing methods is crucial to develop new methods. Yet, radical destabilisation—where outcomes remain unknown long enough that new discoveries become possible—is not easy in technology design where complex interdisciplinary teams with time and resource constraints need to deliver concrete outcomes on schedule. The Poetic Kinaesthetic Interface project (PKI engages with this problematic directly. In PKI we use unfolding processes—informed by participatory, speculative and critical design—in emergent actions, to design towards unknown outcomes, using unknown materials. The impossibility of this task is proving as useful as it is disruptive. At its most potent, it is destabilising expectations, aesthetics and processes. Keeping the researchers, collaborators and participants in a state of unknowing, is opening the research potential to far-ranging possibilities. In this article we unpack the motivations driving the PKI project. We present our mixed-methodology, which entangles textile crafts, design interactions and materiality to shape an embodied enquiry. Our research outcomes are procedural and methodological. PKI brings together diverse human, non-human, known and unknown actors to discover where the emergent assemblages might lead. Our approach is re-invigorating—as it demands re-envisioning of—the design process.

  4. Materials design data for reduced activation martensitic steel type EUROFER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavassoli, A.-A.F. E-mail: tavassoli@cea.fr; Alamo, A.; Bedel, L.; Forest, L.; Gentzbittel, J.-M.; Rensman, J.-W.; Diegele, E.; Lindau, R.; Schirra, M.; Schmitt, R.; Schneider, H.C.; Petersen, C.; Lancha, A.-M.; Fernandez, P.; Filacchioni, G.; Maday, M.F.; Mergia, K.; Boukos, N.; Baluc,; Spaetig, P.; Alves, E.; Lucon, E

    2004-08-01

    Materials design limits derived so far from the data generated in Europe for the reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel type Eurofer are presented. These data address the short-term needs of the ITER Test Blanket Modules and a DEMOnstration fusion reactor. Products tested include plates, bars, tubes, TIG and EB welds, as well as powder consolidated blocks and solid-solid HIP joints. Effects of thermal ageing and low dose neutron irradiation are also included. Results are sorted and screened according to design code requirements before being introduced in reference databases. From the physical properties databases, variations of magnetic properties, modulus of elasticity, density, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, specific heat, mean and instantaneous linear coefficients of thermal expansion versus temperature are derived. From the tensile and creep properties databases design allowable stresses are derived. From the instrumented Charpy impact and fracture toughness databases, ductile to brittle transition temperature, toughness and behavior of materials in different fracture modes are evaluated. From the fatigue database, total strain range versus number of cycles to failure curves are plotted and used to derive fatigue design curves. Cyclic curves are also derived and compared with monotonic hardening curves. Finally, irradiated and aged materials data are compared to ensure that the safety margins incorporated in unirradiated design limits are not exceeded.

  5. CubeSat Material Limits for Design for Demise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, R. L.; Jarkey, D. R.

    2014-01-01

    The CubeSat form factor of nano-satellite (a satellite with a mass between one and ten kilograms) has grown in popularity due to their ease of construction and low development and launch costs. In particular, their use as student led payload design projects has increased due to the growing number of launch opportunities. CubeSats are often deployed as secondary or tertiary payloads on most US launch vehicles or they may be deployed from the ISS. The focus of this study will be on CubeSats launched from the ISS. From a space safety standpoint, the development and deployment processes for CubeSats differ significantly from that of most satellites. For large satellites, extensive design reviews and documentation are completed, including assessing requirements associated with re-entry survivability. Typical CubeSat missions selected for ISS deployment have a less rigorous review process that may not evaluate aspects beyond overall design feasibility. CubeSat design teams often do not have the resources to ensure their design is compliant with re-entry risk requirements. A study was conducted to examine methods to easily identify the maximum amount of a given material that can be used in the construction of a CubeSats without posing harm to persons on the ground. The results demonstrate that there is not a general equation or relationship that can be used for all materials; instead a limiting value must be defined for each unique material. In addition, the specific limits found for a number of generic materials that have been previously used as benchmarking materials for re-entry survivability analysis tool comparison will be discussed.

  6. Monopolies, liberalization, energy turnaround. (Dis)continuities in the electricity market design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grashof, Katherina; Zipp, Alexander; Jachmann, Henning; Wille-Haussmann, Bernhard; Lechtenboehmer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    After a long period of stability, the electricity industry is in the past 15 years, in a major state of flux. First, the switching of state-monitored and regulated regional monopolies to liberalized producer and consumer markets. At the moment we are in a similar change from conventional to renewable energy production. Below the main question will be addressed whether the paradigms of the individual phases are compatible, which still have their place and which should be modified. Moreover, it is shown that the current market design of the future cannot be designed on a blank sheet, but existing structures have to be considered. Given the stage of monopolies, the liberalization and the started energy turnaround respectively in terms of their sector structure, dominant generation technologies, the interaction between production and load and characteristic elements of market design and regulation are presented. Subsequently, a preliminary answer is given to the question raised. [de

  7. Honeycomb technology materials, design, manufacturing, applications and testing

    CERN Document Server

    Bitzer, Tom

    1997-01-01

    Honeycomb Technology is a guide to honeycomb cores and honeycomb sandwich panels, from the manufacturing methods by which they are produced, to the different types of design, applications for usage and methods of testing the materials. It explains the different types of honeycomb cores available and provides tabulated data of their properties. The author has been involved in the testing and design of honeycomb cores and sandwich panels for nearly 30 years. Honeycomb Technology reflects this by emphasizing a `hands-on' approach and discusses procedures for designing sandwich panels, explaining the necessary equations. Also included is a section on how to design honeycomb energy absorbers and one full chapter discussing honeycomb core and sandwich panel testing. Honeycomb Technology will be of interest to engineers in the aircraft, aerospace and building industries. It will also be of great use to engineering students interested in basic sandwich panel design.

  8. Policy design and performance of emissions trading markets: an adaptive agent-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Zhang; Qinqin, Yu; Jun, Bi

    2010-08-01

    Emissions trading is considered to be a cost-effective environmental economic instrument for pollution control. However, the pilot emissions trading programs in China have failed to bring remarkable success in the campaign for pollution control. The policy design of an emissions trading program is found to have a decisive impact on its performance. In this study, an artificial market for sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions trading applying the agent-based model was constructed. The performance of the Jiangsu SO2 emissions trading market under different policy design scenario was also examined. Results show that the market efficiency of emissions trading is significantly affected by policy design and existing policies. China's coal-electricity price system is the principal factor influencing the performance of the SO2 emissions trading market. Transaction costs would also reduce market efficiency. In addition, current-level emissions discharge fee/tax and banking mechanisms do not distinctly affect policy performance. Thus, applying emissions trading in emission control in China should consider policy design and interaction with other existing policies.

  9. MDTS: automatic complex materials design using Monte Carlo tree search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieb, Thaer M.; Ju, Shenghong; Yoshizoe, Kazuki; Hou, Zhufeng; Shiomi, Junichiro; Tsuda, Koji

    2017-12-01

    Complex materials design is often represented as a black-box combinatorial optimization problem. In this paper, we present a novel python library called MDTS (Materials Design using Tree Search). Our algorithm employs a Monte Carlo tree search approach, which has shown exceptional performance in computer Go game. Unlike evolutionary algorithms that require user intervention to set parameters appropriately, MDTS has no tuning parameters and works autonomously in various problems. In comparison to a Bayesian optimization package, our algorithm showed competitive search efficiency and superior scalability. We succeeded in designing large Silicon-Germanium (Si-Ge) alloy structures that Bayesian optimization could not deal with due to excessive computational cost. MDTS is available at https://github.com/tsudalab/MDTS.

  10. The radioactive materials packaging handbook: Design, operations, and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shappert, L.B.; Bowman, S.M.; Arnold, E.D.

    1998-01-01

    As part of its required activities in 1994, the US Department of Energy (DOE) made over 500,000 shipments. Of these shipments, approximately 4% were hazardous, and of these, slightly over 1% (over 6,400 shipments) were radioactive. Because of DOE's cleanup activities, the total quantities and percentages of radioactive material (RAM) that must be moved from one site to another is expected to increase in the coming years, and these materials are likely to be different than those shipped in the past. Irradiated fuel will certainly be part of the mix as will RAM samples and waste. However, in many cases these materials will be of different shape and size and require a transport packaging having different shielding, thermal, and criticality avoidance characteristics than are currently available. This Handbook provides guidance on the design, testing, certification, and operation of packages for these materials

  11. Study of New Materials Design based on Hadoop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of information technology, the scientific research shows that the data mining and other information technology could be used in the design of new materials. It is explicit that Intelligent Materials research focuses on using physical and chemical principles combined with computer techniques such as Big Data, Cloud computing and Intelligent modeling and simulation to solve chemical problems. In this paper, based on the cluster based outlier algorithm as the main body, this paper discusses the definition New Materials research In the Hadoop cloud platform, and the parallel processing of Map-Reduce model. The performance this model of new material was established by using the method of Map-Reduction provided the basis for the performance optimization.

  12. The radioactive materials packaging handbook: Design, operations, and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shappert, L.B.; Bowman, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Arnold, E.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] [and others

    1998-08-01

    As part of its required activities in 1994, the US Department of Energy (DOE) made over 500,000 shipments. Of these shipments, approximately 4% were hazardous, and of these, slightly over 1% (over 6,400 shipments) were radioactive. Because of DOE`s cleanup activities, the total quantities and percentages of radioactive material (RAM) that must be moved from one site to another is expected to increase in the coming years, and these materials are likely to be different than those shipped in the past. Irradiated fuel will certainly be part of the mix as will RAM samples and waste. However, in many cases these materials will be of different shape and size and require a transport packaging having different shielding, thermal, and criticality avoidance characteristics than are currently available. This Handbook provides guidance on the design, testing, certification, and operation of packages for these materials.

  13. Investigation on natural radioactive nuclide contents of rock products in Xi'an construction materials market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chunlin; Han Feng; Shang Aiguo; Li Tiantuo; Guo Huiping; Yie Lichao; Li Guifang

    2001-01-01

    The author reports the investigation results on natural radioactive nuclide contents of rock products from Xi'an construction materials market. The products were classified according to the national standard. The results show that natural radioactive nuclide contents in sampled rock products are in normal radioactive background levels. The radio-activity ranges of 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K are 2.7 - 181.8, 0.92 - 271.0, 0.63 - 148.0, 1.8 - 1245 Bq·kg -1 , respectively. According to the national standard (JC 518-93), the application of some rock products must be limited

  14. Study for material analogs of FeSb2: Material design for thermoelectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chang-Jong; Kotliar, Gabriel

    2018-03-01

    Using the ab initio evolutionary algorithm (implemented in uspex) and electronic structure calculations we investigate the properties of a new thermoelectric material FeSbAs, which is a material analog of the enigmatic thermoelectric FeSb2. We utilize the density functional theory and the Gutzwiller method to check the energetics. We find that FeSbAs can be made thermodynamically stable above ˜30 GPa. We investigate the electronic structure and thermoelectric properties of FeSbAs based on the density functional theory and compare with those of FeSb2. Above 50 K, FeSbAs has higher Seebeck coefficients than FeSb2. Upon doping, the figure of merit becomes larger for FeSbAs than for FeSb2. Another material analog FeSbP, was also investigated, and found thermodynamically unstable even at very high pressure. Regarding FeSb2 as a member of a family of compounds (FeSb2, FeSbAs, and FeSbP) we elucidate what are the chemical handles that control the gaps in this series. We also investigate solubility (As or P for Sb in FeSb2) we found As to be more soluble. Finally, we study a two-band model for thermoelectric properties and find that the temperature dependent chemical potential and the presence of the ionized impurities are important to explain the extremum in the Seebeck coefficient exhibited in experiments for FeSb2.

  15. The next generation of CANDU: reactor design to meet future energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopwood, J.M.; Love, J.W.; Wren, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear power plant designs for the future must respond to increasingly demanding market requirements. This means that value can be gained from substantial product development directed at these requirements. For the CANDU system, AECL has adopted the revolutionary approach, accommodating significant changes to design while retaining traditional CANDU strengths. The focus of the new design is to achieve a 40% reduction in capital cost, quicken construction time and higher efficiency. Key aspects of the new design include: light water coolant, smaller core, slightly enriched fuel, higher temperature and pressure coolant. Work is well advanced on the preliminary design

  16. Bioinspired Design of Building Materials for Blast and Ballistic Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yan Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nacre in abalone shell exhibits high toughness despite the brittle nature of its major constituent (i.e., aragonite. Its specific structure is a major contributor to the energy absorption capacity of nacre. This paper reviews the mechanisms behind the performance of nacre under shear, uniaxial tension, compression, and bending conditions. The remarkable combination of stiffness and toughness on nacre can motivate the development of bioinspired building materials for impact resistance applications, and the possible toughness designs of cement-based and clay-based composite materials with a layered and staggered structure were discussed.

  17. Bioinspiration from fish for smart material design and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauder, G V; Madden, P G A; Tangorra, J L; Anderson, E; Baker, T V

    2011-01-01

    Fish are a potentially rich source of inspiration for the design of smart materials. Fish exemplify the use of flexible materials to generate forces during locomotion, and a hallmark of fish functional design is the use of body and fin deformation to power propulsion and maneuvering. As a result of nearly 500 million years of evolutionary experimentation, fish design has a number of interesting features of note to materials engineers. In this paper we first provide a brief general overview of some key features of the mechanical design of fish, and then focus on two key properties of fish: the bilaminar mechanical design of bony fish fin rays that allows active muscular control of curvature, and the role of body flexibility in propulsion. After describing the anatomy of bony fish fin rays, we provide new data on their mechanical properties. Three-point bending tests and measurement of force inputs to and outputs from the fin rays show that these fin rays are effective displacement transducers. Fin rays in different regions of the fin differ considerably in their material properties, and in the curvature produced by displacement of one of the two fin ray halves. The mean modulus for the proximal (basal) region of the fin rays was 1.34 GPa, but this varied from 0.24 to 3.7 GPa for different fin rays. The distal fin region was less stiff, and moduli for the different fin rays measured varied from 0.11 to 0.67 GPa. These data are similar to those for human tendons (modulus around 0.5 GPa). Analysis of propulsion using flexible foils controlled using a robotic flapping device allows investigation of the effect of altering flexural stiffness on swimming speed. Flexible foils with the leading edge moved in a heave show a distinct peak in propulsive performance, while the addition of pitch input produces a broad plateau where the swimming speed is relatively unaffected by the flexural stiffness. Our understanding of the material design of fish and the control of tissue

  18. Tunable structural color in organisms and photonic materials for design of bioinspired materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fudouzi, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the key topics of tunable structural color in biology and material science are overviewed. Color in biology is considered for selected groups of tropical fish, octopus, squid and beetle. It is caused by nanoplates in iridophores and varies with their spacing, tilting angle and refractive index. These examples may provide valuable hints for the bioinspired design of photonic materials. 1D multilayer films and 3D colloidal crystals with tunable structural color are overviewed from the viewpoint of advanced materials. The tunability of structural color by swelling and strain is demonstrated on an example of opal composites. (topical review)

  19. Tunable structural color in organisms and photonic materials for design of bioinspired materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Fudouzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the key topics of tunable structural color in biology and material science are overviewed. Color in biology is considered for selected groups of tropical fish, octopus, squid and beetle. It is caused by nanoplates in iridophores and varies with their spacing, tilting angle and refractive index. These examples may provide valuable hints for the bioinspired design of photonic materials. 1D multilayer films and 3D colloidal crystals with tunable structural color are overviewed from the viewpoint of advanced materials. The tunability of structural color by swelling and strain is demonstrated on an example of opal composites.

  20. Tunable structural color in organisms and photonic materials for design of bioinspired materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudouzi, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the key topics of tunable structural color in biology and material science are overviewed. Color in biology is considered for selected groups of tropical fish, octopus, squid and beetle. It is caused by nanoplates in iridophores and varies with their spacing, tilting angle and refractive index. These examples may provide valuable hints for the bioinspired design of photonic materials. 1D multilayer films and 3D colloidal crystals with tunable structural color are overviewed from the viewpoint of advanced materials. The tunability of structural color by swelling and strain is demonstrated on an example of opal composites. PMID:27877454

  1. Exascale Co-design for Modeling Materials in Extreme Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germann, Timothy C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-07-08

    Computational materials science has provided great insight into the response of materials under extreme conditions that are difficult to probe experimentally. For example, shock-induced plasticity and phase transformation processes in single-crystal and nanocrystalline metals have been widely studied via large-scale molecular dynamics simulations, and many of these predictions are beginning to be tested at advanced 4th generation light sources such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS) and Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). I will describe our simulation predictions and their recent verification at LCLS, outstanding challenges in modeling the response of materials to extreme mechanical and radiation environments, and our efforts to tackle these as part of the multi-institutional, multi-disciplinary Exascale Co-design Center for Materials in Extreme Environments (ExMatEx). ExMatEx has initiated an early and deep collaboration between domain (computational materials) scientists, applied mathematicians, computer scientists, and hardware architects, in order to establish the relationships between algorithms, software stacks, and architectures needed to enable exascale-ready materials science application codes within the next decade. We anticipate that we will be able to exploit hierarchical, heterogeneous architectures to achieve more realistic large-scale simulations with adaptive physics refinement, and are using tractable application scale-bridging proxy application testbeds to assess new approaches and requirements. Such current scale-bridging strategies accumulate (or recompute) a distributed response database from fine-scale calculations, in a top-down rather than bottom-up multiscale approach.

  2. Design of a materials testing experiment for the INTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, M.A.; Opperman, E.K.

    1981-01-01

    The United States, Japan, USSR and the European community are jointly participating in the design of an International Tokamak Reactor called INTOR. In support of the US contribution to the INTOR design, the features of an experiment for bulk neutron irradiation damage studies were developed. It is anticipated that materials testing will be an important part of the programmatic mission of INTOR and consequently the requirements for materials testing in INTOR must be identified early in the reactor design to insure compatibility. The design features of the experiment, called a Channel Test, are given in this paper. The major components of the channel test are the water cooled heat sink (channel module) and the specimen capsule. The temperature within each of the 153 specimen capsules is predetermined by engineering the thermal barrier between the specimen capsule and heat sink. Individual capsules can be independently accessed and are designed to operate at a predetermined temperature within the range of 50 to 700 0 C. The total irradiation volume within a single channel test is 45 liters. Features of the channel test that result in experimental versatility and simplified remote access and handling are discussed

  3. Computational Design of Batteries from Materials to Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kandler A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Santhanagopalan, Shriram [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yang, Chuanbo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Graf, Peter A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Usseglio Viretta, Francois L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Li, Qibo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Finegan, Donal [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pesaran, Ahmad A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yao, Koffi (Pierre) [Argonne National Laboratory; Abraham, Daniel [Argonne National Laboratory; Dees, Dennis [Argonne National Laboratory; Jansen, Andy [Argonne National Laboratory; Mukherjee, Partha [Texas A& M University; Mistry, Aashutosh [Texas A& M University; Verma, Ankit [Texas A& M University; Lamb, Josh [Sandia National Laboratories; Darcy, Eric [NASA

    2017-09-01

    Computer models are helping to accelerate the design and validation of next generation batteries and provide valuable insights not possible through experimental testing alone. Validated 3-D physics-based models exist for predicting electrochemical performance, thermal and mechanical response of cells and packs under normal and abuse scenarios. The talk describes present efforts to make the models better suited for engineering design, including improving their computation speed, developing faster processes for model parameter identification including under aging, and predicting the performance of a proposed electrode material recipe a priori using microstructure models.

  4. How to solve materials and design problems in solar heating and cooling. Energy technology review No. 77

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, D.S.; Oberoi, H.S.; Weinstein, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    A broad range of difficulties encountered in active and passive solar space heating systems and active solar space cooling systems is covered. The problems include design errors, installation mistakes, inadequate durability of materials, unacceptable reliability of components, and wide variations in performance and operation of different solar systems. Feedback from designers and manufacturers involved in the solar market is summarized. The designers' experiences with and criticisms of solar components are presented, followed by the manufacturers' replies to the various problems encountered. Information is presented on the performance and operation of solar heating and cooling systems so as to enable future designs to maximize performance and eliminate costly errors. (LEW)

  5. Material control system design: Test Bed Nitrate Storage Area (TBNSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.A.; Da Roza, R.A.; Dunn, D.R.; Sacks, I.J.; Harrison, W.; Huebel, J.G.; Ross, W.N.; Salisbury, J.D.; Sanborn, R.H.; Weissenberger, S.

    1978-05-01

    This report provides an example of a hypothetical Special Nuclear Material (SNM) Safeguard Material Control and Accounting (MC and A) System which will be used as a subject for the demonstration of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory MC and A System Evaluation Methodology in January 1978. This methodology is to become a tool in the NRC evaluation of license applicant submittals for Nuclear Fuel Cycle facilities. The starting point for this test bed design was the Allied-General Nuclear Services--Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant Reprocessing plant as described in the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), of August 1975. The test bed design effort was limited to providing an SNM safeguard system for the plutonium nitrate storage area of this facility

  6. Enclosed mechanical seal face design for brittle materials copyright

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsi, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Metal carbides are widely used as seal face material due to their hardness and wear resistance. Silicon carbide (SiC) has excellent performance as a seal face material, but it is relatively brittle and may break due to accidental overloads outside the boundary of normal operating conditions. In mechanical seals for nuclear primary coolant pumps, the shattered SiC pieces can get into the reactor system and cause serious damage. The conventional method of containing an SiC seal face is to shrink-fit it in a holder, which may lead the seal designer to contend with unwanted seal face deflections. This paper presents a successful, tested design which does not rely on shrink-fits. 5 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Marketing and materiality in the popular music transmedia of Gorillaz’ Plastic Beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex JEFFERY

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The entertainment complexes of narrative transmedia contain few instances based in popular music. However, those that exist provide intriguing case studies, highly distinct from those based in film and television. The most fully realized of these, Gorillaz’ Plastic Beach (2010, is rich in visual media typical of popular music culture, including sleeve art, animated music videos. The tangible materiality foregrounded in these visuals stems from the main ecological theme of the album: the disposability of plastic waste. Using methods of analysis of the original texts, and a survey of the networked fan practices that respond to them, the essay theorizes that the material and haptic invitation in these visuals is at odds with the diminishing presence of physical consumables within popular music culture. It then argues that fans enter into this gap with their own creative practices, making and playing with hand-made or customized objects inspired by Plastic Beach, activating unexploited, marketing potential within the album. Although current applications of this research are limited due to the low frequency of popular music transmedia case studies, it points the way forward to theoretically more successful marketing strategies in the future.

  8. High-performance green semiconductor devices: materials, designs, and fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yei Hwan; Zhang, Huilong; Gong, Shaoqin; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2017-06-01

    From large industrial computers to non-portable home appliances and finally to light-weight portable gadgets, the rapid evolution of electronics has facilitated our daily pursuits and increased our life comforts. However, these rapid advances have led to a significant decrease in the lifetime of consumer electronics. The serious environmental threat that comes from electronic waste not only involves materials like plastics and heavy metals, but also includes toxic materials like mercury, cadmium, arsenic, and lead, which can leak into the ground and contaminate the water we drink, the food we eat, and the animals that live around us. Furthermore, most electronics are comprised of non-renewable, non-biodegradable, and potentially toxic materials. Difficulties in recycling the increasing amount of electronic waste could eventually lead to permanent environmental pollution. As such, discarded electronics that can naturally degrade over time would reduce recycling challenges and minimize their threat to the environment. This review provides a snapshot of the current developments and challenges of green electronics at the semiconductor device level. It looks at the developments that have been made in an effort to help reduce the accumulation of electronic waste by utilizing unconventional, biodegradable materials as components. While many semiconductors are classified as non-biodegradable, a few biodegradable semiconducting materials exist and are used as electrical components. This review begins with a discussion of biodegradable materials for electronics, followed by designs and processes for the manufacturing of green electronics using different techniques and designs. In the later sections of the review, various examples of biodegradable electrical components, such as sensors, circuits, and batteries, that together can form a functional electronic device, are discussed and new applications using green electronics are reviewed.

  9. 14 CFR 25.613 - Material strength properties and material design values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... statistical basis. (b) Material design values must be chosen to minimize the probability of structural... following probability: (1) Where applied loads are eventually distributed through a single member within an... probability with 95 percent confidence. (2) For redundant structure, in which the failure of individual...

  10. Safety design of the international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Satoshi; Yamaki, Daiju; Katsuta, Hiroji; Moeslang, Anton; Jameson, R.A.; Martone, Marcello; Shannon, T.E.

    1997-11-01

    In the Conceptual Design Activity of the IFMIF, major subsystems, as well as the entire facility is carefully designed to satisfy the safety requirements for any possible construction sites. Each subsystem is qualitatively analyzed to identify possible hazards to the workers, public and environments using Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA). The results are reflected in the design and operation procedure. Shielding of radiation, particularly neutron around the test cell is one of the most important issue in normal operation. Radiation due to beam halo and activation is a hazard for operation personnel in the accelerator system. For the maintenance, remote handling technology is designed to be applied in various facilities of the IFMIF. Lithium loop and target system hold the majority of the radioactive material in the facility. Tritium and beryllium-7 are generated by the nuclear reaction during operation and thus needed to be removed continuously. They are also the potential hazards of airborne source in off-normal events. Minimization of inventory, separation and immobilization, and multiple confinement are considered in the design. Generation of radioactive waste is anticipated to be minor, but waste treatment systems for gas, liquid and solid wastes are designed to minimize the environmental impact. Lithium leak followed by a fire is a major concern, and extensive prevention plan is made in the target design. One of the design option considered is composed of; primary enclosure of the lithium loop, secondary containment filled with positive pressure argon, and an air tight lithium cell made of concrete with a steel lining. This study will report some technical issues considered in the design of IFMIF. It was concluded that the IFMIF can be designed and constructed to meet or exceed current safely standards for workers, public and the environment with existing technology and reasonable construction cost. (J.P.N.)

  11. Sustainable packaging design for consumer electronics products : Balancing marketing, logistics and environmental requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.; Boks, C.B.; Pratama, I.; Stevels, A.L.N.

    2007-01-01

    Packaging design for consumer electronic products is a challenge because contradictory demands from a distribution perspective and a marketing perspective have to be balanced. With several company departments involved and powerful external stakeholders this is a complicated matter. As the level of

  12. Designing the marketing-sales interface in B2B firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, W.G.; Makovec Brencic, M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - This paper explores the marketing-sales interface in Dutch and Slovenian B2B firms. Design/methodology/approach - The study included 11 Dutch firms and ten Slovenian firms, with both samples as closely matched as possible. The firms were all manufacturers of physical products that operate

  13. 76 FR 17047 - Authority To Designate Financial Market Utilities as Systemically Important

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... functioning is integral to the soundness of the financial system and the overall economy. The importance of... Council to apply a transparent and clear communication strategy surrounding all designation decisions. The..., Better Markets, The Clearing House, Debevoise & Plimpton, The Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation...

  14. Chalcogenide Glass Radiation Sensor; Materials Development, Design and Device Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitkova, Maria; Butt, Darryl; Kozicki, Michael; Barnaby, Hugo

    2013-04-30

    studied the effect of x-rays and γ-rays, on thin film chalcogenide glasses and applied them in conjunction with film incorporating a silver source in a new type of radiation sensor for which we have an US patent application [3]. In this report, we give data about our studies regarding our designed radiation sensor along with the testing and performance at various radiation doses. These studies have been preceded by materials characterization research related to the compositional and structural characteristics of the active materials used in the radiation sensor design. During the work on the project, we collected a large volume of material since every experiment was repeated many times to verify the results. We conducted a comprehensive material research, analysis and discussion with the aim to understand the nature of the occurring effects, design different structures to harness these effects, generated models to aid in the understanding the effects, built different device structures and collected data to quantify device performance. These various aspects of our investigation have been detailed in previous quarterly reports. In this report, we present our main results and emphasize on the results pertaining to the core project goals materials development, sensor design and testing and with an emphasis on classifying the appropriate material and design for the optimal application. The report has three main parts: (i) Presentation of the main data; (ii) Bulleted summary of the most important results; (iii) List of the patent, journal publications, conference proceedings and conferences participation, occurring as a result of working on the project.

  15. Generic market design issues highlighted: prices soar in Alberta as capacity tightens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    Many Alberta consumers, alarmed by enormous price increases, are asking questions about whether electric sector restructuring in the province has progressed far enough. The average cost of power in Alberta's spot market in October were $70.46 per MWH above the $20-$30 that consumers had paid in recent years. It is widely admitted that the high prices reflect an increasingly tight supply situation in which construction of new capacity has not kept pace with growth in demand. It is a standard case of what happens when the market design focuses on promoting short-term price competition to the detriment of creating compeition in the forward markets. A debate has been produced in Alberta with major power consumers calling for a breakup of the three major generators, and the government suggesting that such intervention would be like returning to the days before competition when government tried to control everything. Competition may not work unless divestiture is revisited. There is a hard time seeing the light at the end of the restructuring tunnel for industrial consumers. Ontario's Market Design Committee struggled with the same issue, believing that an industry composed of many smaller independent generating companies was the only way to achieve lasting and meaningful price competition. The best price protection for consumers is an active and competitive investment market for new capacity, and Alberta should not repeat Ontario's mistake and leave the work until price problems develop

  16. New approach to design of ceramic/polymer material compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todt, A; Nestler, D; Trautmann, M; Wagner, G

    2016-01-01

    The damage tolerance of carbon fibre-reinforced ceramic-matrix composite materials depends on their porosity and can be rather significant. Complex structures are difficult to produce. The integration of simple geometric structures of ceramic-matrix composite materials in complex polymer-based hybrid structures is a possible approach of realising those structures. These hybrid material compounds, produced in a cost-efficient way, combine the different advantages of the individual components in one hybrid material compound. In addition the individual parts can be designed to fit a specific application and the resulting forces. All these different advantages result in a significant reduction of not only the production costs and the production time, but also opens up new areas of application, such as the large-scale production of wear-resistant and chemically inert, energy dampening components for reactors or in areas of medicine. The low wettability of the ceramic component however is a disadvantage of this approach. During the course of this contribution, different C/C composite materials with a specific porosity were produced, while adjusting the resin/hardening agent-ratio, as well as the processing parameters. After the production, different penetration tests were conducted with a polymer component. The final part of the article is comprised of the microstructural analysis and the explanation of the mechanical relationships. (paper)

  17. TFTR materials issues and problems during design and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabado, M.; Little, R.

    1984-01-01

    TFTR as well as its contemporaries, T15, JT60, and JET, have important contributions to make towards our understanding of plasma conditions in the thermonuclear regime. One of the main objectives of TFTR is to produce fusion power densities approaching those in a fusion reactor, approx.= 1 Wcm -3 at Q approx.= 1-2. TFTR will be the first tokamak to routinely use deuterium tritium, and produce approx.= 10 19 fusion neutrons per pulse. With startup of TFTR on December 24, 1982, the demonstration of physics feasibility of 'breakeven' is close at hand. Since TFTR performance will be reactor relevant, the capability of materials/components to withstand the hostile effects of a plasma environment will be presented. It is intended that designers of future fusion devices benefit from the materials technology developments and applications on TFTR. In an attempt to comply with this mandate, this paper will describe TFTR issues on materials, their developments, selections, problems, and solutions. Special emphasis will be given, in particular, to the impurity control devices in TFTR, namely, the limiter and surface pumping system located inside the vacuum vessel. The plasma will interact with these components and they will be subjected to disruptions, a vacuum of 10 -6 to 10 -8 torr and a nominal temperatures of 0 C. 'Painful' materials development problems encountered will be reviewed, as well as important 'lessons learned'. A briefing on the materials of construction will be given, with some comments on the problems that developed and their solutions. (orig.)

  18. Designing Next Generation Rechargeable Battery Materials from First-Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo

    Technology has advanced rapidly, especially in the twenty-first century, influencing our day-to-day life on unprecedented levels. Most such advances in technology are closely linked to, and often driven by, the discovery and design of new materials. It follows that the discovery of new materials can not only improve existing technologies but also lead to revolutionary ones. In particular, there is a growing need to develop new energy materials that are reliable, clean, and affordable for emerging applications such as portable electronics, electric vehicles, and power grid systems. Many researchers have been actively searching for more cost-effective and clean electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) during the last few decades. These new electrode materials are also required to achieve higher electrochemical performance, compared to the already commercialized electrodes. Unfortunately, discovering the next sustainable energy materials based on a traditional 'trial-and-error' method via experiment would be extremely slow and difficult. In the last two decades, computational compilations of battery material properties such as voltage, diffusivity, and phase stability against irreversible phase transformation(s) using first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations have helped researchers to understand the underlying mechanism in many oxide materials that are used as LIB electrodes. Here, we have examined the (001) and (111) surface structures of LiMn2O4 (LMO) spinel cathode materials using DFT calculations within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) + U approach. Our theoretical results explain the observation of a wide spectrum of polyhedral shapes between (001)- and (111)-dominated LMO particles in experiments, which can be described by the narrow range of surface energies and their sensitivity to synthesis conditions. We further show that single-layer graphene coatings help suppress manganese dissolution in LMO by chemically

  19. Proposal for a market design featuring privatised capacity coverage; Vorschlag fuer ein Marktdesign der privatisierten Leistungsversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, Clemens [EnBW Trading GmbH, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    An intensive discussion is currently waging in Germany about the necessity and possible designs of capacity mechanisms. Price-inelastic demand increases the risk of market failure, as does the policy of managing capacity coverage as if it were a public good. By privatising capacity management it becomes possible to solve problems of security of supply by market means. This involves charging the supplier with the ultimate responsibility of providing its customers with just the capacity they need at any given moment in time.

  20. Design considerations of the World Bank-assisted $55 million photovoltaic market development project in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabraal, A.; Bradley, J.

    1993-01-01

    The World Bank's first loan for photovoltaic (PV) power systems was approved on December 17, 1992. The $55-million project will offer concessional financing through the Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA) for the purchase of PV systems. The objective of the PV Market Development Project is to encourage the establishment of sustainable product supply, delivery, after-sales service, and financing mechanisms to support marketing PV products on a commercial basis. This paper outlines the issues and steps involved in the project design including: (1) technical viability, (2) financial and economic viability, (3) infrastructure issues, and (4) the economic and financial viability of the project as a whole

  1. Conducting wine marketing research with impact in China: Guidelines for design, execution and dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Cohen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available China is the fastest growing wine market, but conducting research there is fraught with a variety of issues. This article explores some of the issues the authors have dealt with in conducting wine marketing research in China over the last five years. We discuss issues with the design of research to focus on important issues for both academics and the industry. We relate the key problems in gaining proper translation and useful sampling procedures. Finally, we provide some guidelines for communicating results effectively to different members of the wine trade.

  2. System design for safe robotic handling of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drotning, W.; Wapman, W.; Fahrenholtz, J.; Kimberly, H.; Kuhlmann, J.

    1996-01-01

    Robotic systems are being developed by the Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center at Sandia National Laboratories to perform automated handling tasks with radioactive nuclear materials. These systems will reduce the occupational radiation exposure to workers by automating operations which are currently performed manually. Because the robotic systems will handle material that is both hazardous and valuable, the safety of the operations is of utmost importance; assurance must be given that personnel will not be harmed and that the materials and environment will be protected. These safety requirements are met by designing safety features into the system using a layered approach. Several levels of mechanical, electrical and software safety prevent unsafe conditions from generating a hazard, and bring the system to a safe state should an unexpected situation arise. The system safety features include the use of industrial robot standards, commercial robot systems, commercial and custom tooling, mechanical safety interlocks, advanced sensor systems, control and configuration checks, and redundant control schemes. The effectiveness of the safety features in satisfying the safety requirements is verified using a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis. This technique can point out areas of weakness in the safety design as well as areas where unnecessary redundancy may reduce the system reliability

  3. Auction Design for the Allocation of Emission Permits in the Presence of Market Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunnevaag, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    To the extent that emission permits have been allocated using market mechanisms, this has been done using a sealed-bid auction design, typically with discriminatory prices. However, several authors have recommended the ascending auction format. Basically, two 'competing' ascending auction designs have been suggested, the standard ascending auction (with clock or demand schedules), or an alternative ascending-clock implementation of Vickrey-pricing. The latter design was introduced as a response to problems of bid shading under the sealed-bid and the standard ascending auction format. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the allocation of permits under these two alternative mechanisms. The auction process and the resulting market outcome in the presence of oligopolistic competition are simulated. In this setting, it is not obvious that bid shading is the optimal strategy under the standard design, nor is it obvious that sincere bidding is the optimal strategy under the alternative ascending auction design. The alternative auction format makes it less costly to pursue a strategy to increase market shares through the acquisition of emission permits, thus increasing the competitor's costs, leading to overbidding as the optimal strategy

  4. Development of integrated platform for computational material design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyoshi, Matsubara; Kumi, Itai; Nobutaka, Nishikawa; Akifumi, Kato [Center for Computational Science and Engineering, Fuji Research Institute Corporation (Japan); Hideaki, Koike [Advance Soft Corporation (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    The goal of our project is to design and develop a problem-solving environment (PSE) that will help computational scientists and engineers develop large complicated application software and simulate complex phenomena by using networking and parallel computing. The integrated platform, which is designed for PSE in the Japanese national project of Frontier Simulation Software for Industrial Science, is defined by supporting the entire range of problem solving activity from program formulation and data setup to numerical simulation, data management, and visualization. A special feature of our integrated platform is based on a new architecture called TASK FLOW. It integrates the computational resources such as hardware and software on the network and supports complex and large-scale simulation. This concept is applied to computational material design and the project 'comprehensive research for modeling, analysis, control, and design of large-scale complex system considering properties of human being'. Moreover this system will provide the best solution for developing large and complicated software and simulating complex and large-scaled phenomena in computational science and engineering. A prototype has already been developed and the validation and verification of an integrated platform will be scheduled by using the prototype in 2003. In the validation and verification, fluid-structure coupling analysis system for designing an industrial machine will be developed on the integrated platform. As other examples of validation and verification, integrated platform for quantum chemistry and bio-mechanical system are planned.

  5. Development of integrated platform for computational material design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyoshi, Matsubara; Kumi, Itai; Nobutaka, Nishikawa; Akifumi, Kato; Hideaki, Koike

    2003-01-01

    The goal of our project is to design and develop a problem-solving environment (PSE) that will help computational scientists and engineers develop large complicated application software and simulate complex phenomena by using networking and parallel computing. The integrated platform, which is designed for PSE in the Japanese national project of Frontier Simulation Software for Industrial Science, is defined by supporting the entire range of problem solving activity from program formulation and data setup to numerical simulation, data management, and visualization. A special feature of our integrated platform is based on a new architecture called TASK FLOW. It integrates the computational resources such as hardware and software on the network and supports complex and large-scale simulation. This concept is applied to computational material design and the project 'comprehensive research for modeling, analysis, control, and design of large-scale complex system considering properties of human being'. Moreover this system will provide the best solution for developing large and complicated software and simulating complex and large-scaled phenomena in computational science and engineering. A prototype has already been developed and the validation and verification of an integrated platform will be scheduled by using the prototype in 2003. In the validation and verification, fluid-structure coupling analysis system for designing an industrial machine will be developed on the integrated platform. As other examples of validation and verification, integrated platform for quantum chemistry and bio-mechanical system are planned

  6. Evaluation of aluminum drill-pipe material and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placido, Joao C. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lourenco, Marcelo I.; Netto, Theodoro Antoun [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2008-07-01

    Experimental program and numerical analyses were carried out to investigate the fatigue mechanisms of aluminum drill pipes designed and manufactured in compliance with ISO 15546. The main objective is to improve the fatigue performance of these components by selecting the appropriate aluminum alloy and by enhancing the mechanical design of the threaded steel connector. This paper presents the experimental test program and numerical analyses conducted on a drill-pipe of different materials (Al-Cu-Mg and Al-Zn-Mg system aluminum alloys) and geometry. Material mechanical properties, including S-N curve, were determined through small-scale tests on specimens cut from actual drill pipes. Full-scale experiments were also performed in laboratory. A finite element model of the drill pipe, including the tool-joint region, was developed. The model simulates, through different load steps, the tool-joint hot assembly, and then reproduces the physical experiments numerically in order to obtain the actual stress distribution. Good correlation between full-scale and small-scale fatigue tests was obtained by adjusting the strain/stress levels monitored in the full-scale tests in light of the numerical simulations and performing fatigue life calculations via multiaxial fatigue models. The weak points of the current practice design are highlighted for further development. (author)

  7. Design of facilities for processing pyrophoric radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bristow, H.A.S.; Hunter, S.D.

    1976-01-01

    The safe processing of large quantities of plutonium-bearing material poses difficult problems the solution of which sometimes involves conflicting requirements. The difficulties are increased when plutonium of a high burnup is used and the position becomes considerably more complicated when the chemical nature of the material being handled is such that it is pyrophoric. This paper describes the design principles and methods used to establish a facility capable of manufacturing large quantities of mixed plutonium/uranium carbide. The facility which included process stages such as milling, granulation, pellet pressing, furnacing and pin filling, was largely a conversion of an existing processing line. The paper treats the major plant hazards individually and indicates the methods used to counter them, outlining the main design principles employed and describing their application to selected items of equipment. Examples of the problems encountered with typical items of equipment are discussed. Some guide-lines are listed which should be of general value to designers and developers working on equipment for processing plutonium-bearing solids. The methods described have been successfully employed to provide a plant for the manufacture of mixed plutonium/uranium carbide on a scale of many hundreds of kilograms with no serious incident.(author)

  8. Small Business Conformity with Quality Website Design Criteria in a Marketing Communication Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Robinson Beachboard

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: Professional companies selling persuasive-communication services via the World Wide Web need to be exemplars of effective informing practices. Their credibility is at risk if their websites do not excel in marketing message and use of medium. Their unique brands need to be expressed through website technology and content, or they cannot compete successfully. Background: Compares marketing communication consultants’ websites with expert criteria. Methodology: Content analysis of 40 advertising agency websites. Contribution: Links an evaluation of advertising agency compliance with expert website criteria to established branding constructs. Findings: Most small advertising agencies could improve their brand reputations through better compliance with experts’ recommended website design and content criteria. Recommendations for Practitioners: A hierarchy of recommendations for practitioners is offered, addressing ease and importance. Impact on Society: Clarity and credibility of message and medium improve our ability to practice effective informing. Future Research: Explore online communications of specialized populations such as digital marketing experts.

  9. New ceramic material specially designed to optimise the output of the heating systems; Nuevo material ceramico disenado especificamente para optimizar el rendimiento de los sistemas de calefaccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This article sets out the main features of Dual Kherr, its development and uses. Dual Kherr(reg.) is a ceramic composite based on porcelain clay. It has been specially designed to work as a storage heater and a radiant heating system. Jointly developed by the R and D departments of both companies, PAMESA and CLIMASTAR, this new material optimises the output of any heating system and it has been specially conceived to save energy. It is a great revolution, mainly due to the following: On the one hand, Dual Kherr incorporates ceramic to the heating business, opening a new and important market. On the other hand, this new material adds the aesthetics proper of the ceramic material to the design of the heating systems. It even allows the development of artistic collections. (Author)

  10. High-Pressure Design of Advanced BN-Based Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr O. Kurakevych

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present review is to highlight the state of the art in high-pressure design of new advanced materials based on boron nitride. Recent experimental achievements on the governing phase transformation, nanostructuring and chemical synthesis in the systems containing boron nitride at high pressures and high temperatures are presented. All these developments allowed discovering new materials, e.g., ultrahard nanocrystalline cubic boron nitride (nano-cBN with hardness comparable to diamond, and superhard boron subnitride B13N2. Thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of high-pressure synthesis are described based on the data obtained by in situ and ex situ methods. Mechanical and thermal properties (hardness, thermoelastic equations of state, etc. are discussed. New synthetic perspectives, combining both soft chemistry and extreme pressure–temperature conditions are considered.

  11. Calculations to support design of a nuclear material tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, L.L.; Eggers, R.F.; Williams, T.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company is developing a nuclear material tracking system called NTRAK for the US Department of Energy at the Savannah River site. The NTRAK system is designed to determine the position and approximate magnitude of packages of special nuclear material (SNM) moving through a nuclear plant. The NTRAK accomplishes this by using special assemblies of detectors called modules to measure the gamma radiation emitted by the SNM. After measurement, raw data are processed to determine the direction to and position of the gamma-ray source. In order for the NTRAK method of SNM tracking to work, the gamma-ray signal at the detector modules must be at least four standard deviations above background. This paper addresses the use of the Monte Carlo computer code for neutron and photon transport (MCNP) to (a) predict the radiation emitted by plutonium oxide sources and (b) predict the counting rate of NaI detectors measuring those sources

  12. Pelamis WEC - main body structural design and materials selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, C.

    2003-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study evaluating the potential use of rolled steel, glass reinforced plastic, wood-epoxy laminate, and different forms of concrete as primary structural materials for the Pelamis Wave Energy Converter (WEC) as part of a strategy to refine the design by highlighting cost savings for long-term manufacture. Details are given of the drawing up of a load spectrum in order to assess the candidate structures, the choice of glass reinforced plastic, concrete, and steel for further evaluation based on preliminary screening, the assessment of the material requirements for each candidate structure, and cost estimates. The advantages of the use of concrete are discussed and recommendations are presented.

  13. Design and Implementation of Company Tailored Automated Material Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Gilad; Bilberg, Arne

    1996-01-01

    This article focuses on the problems of analysing automation of material handling systems in order to develop an efficient automated solution that is specifically tailored to the company. The research has resulted in development of new methods for evaluating factory automation from design...... to implementation. The goals of the research were to analyse and evaluate automation in order to obtain an advantageous combination of human and automated resources. The idea is to asses different solutions in a virtual environment, where experiments and analyses can be performed so that the company can justify...... for their application with computer aided information processing tools. The framework is named the "Automated Material Handling (AMH) Preference GuideLine". The research has been carried out in close co-operation with Danish and European industry, where implementations of automation can be referred to. It is our...

  14. Materials for Hydrogen Storage in Nanocavities: Design criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reguera, E. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada del IPN, Unidad Legaria, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion (Mexico)

    2009-11-15

    The adsorption potential for a given adsorbate depends of both, material surface and adsorbate properties. In this contribution the possible guest-host interactions for H{sub 2} within a cavity or on a surface are discussed considering the molecule physical properties. Five different interactions contribute to the adsorption forces for this molecule: 1) quadrupole moment interaction with the local electric field gradient; 1) electron cloud polarization by a charge center; 3) dispersive forces (van der Waals); 4) quadrupole moment versus quadrupole moment between neighboring H{sub 2} molecules, and, 5) H{sub 2} coordination to a metal center. The relative importance of these five interactions for the hydrogen storage in nanocavities is discussed from experimental evidences in order to extract materials design criteria for molecular hydrogen storage. (author)

  15. The paradoxical marketing of sports equipment brands. [El marketing paradójico de las marcas de material deportivo].

    OpenAIRE

    José A. Martínez

    2014-01-01

    As Ko (2013) pointed out, the sport industry is a large and fast growing business. The U.S. market accounted for as much as $400-435 billion in 2012. Sports equipment companies provide the products required to practice and enjoy sports: clothing, footwear, and other apparel and gear. Therefore, sports equipment brands surround all the aspects shaping the sports industry. In addition, they extend their arms to also embrace the fashion market. A few equipment brands, such as Nike and Adidas are...

  16. Sustainable hydrogen - A challenge for materials science and equipment design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duta, Anca; Enesca, Alexandru Ioan; Perniu, Dana

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Hydrogen is the ideal fuel, considering its fully non-polluting by-products. Still, in discussions on 'sustainable hydrogen', there must be considered all the steps implied in hydrogen production, storage and use and the overall energy balance represents the real starting point of evaluating the sustainability. So far, hydrogen production is related to rather energy-consuming processes; extended research is devoted to develop high efficiency processes, but the industrial hydrogen production makes use of either large electrical or thermal energy amounts. Hydrogen production via water photolysis represents, consequently a viable alternative although many steps have to be elaborated to reached the industrial scale of these processes. Hydrogen storing represents another problem that affects its application; a safe storage way, in metal hydrides, is still under intensive research all over the world. The group of the Centre of Product Design for Sustainable Development is engaged in research for developing a laboratory photolyser, able to produce hydrogen and to offer an efficient storage alternative. The photolyser is a photo-electrochemical cell, and the efficiency of the photolysis process depends on several factors: - the photo-electrodes: thin films of wide band gap semiconductors with tailored properties; - the aqueous environment, with effect on the electrode materials properties and stability; - the external bias; - the cell design. The paper focuses mainly on the photo-electrode materials that were tested. The influence of the composition, crystalline and defect structure, of the morphology and of the interfaces on the photolysis process are reviewed. The effect of the pH in the aqueous media is discussed along with the stability of the materials and the reversibility of the adsorption/desorption processes. The design criteria that must be fulfilled in developing the photolyser are also discussed. (authors)

  17. Design of a real time market for regulating power. FlexPower WP1 - Report 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, C.; Fock, F.; Togeby, M.

    2011-12-15

    The FlexPower project investigates the possibility of using broadcasted dynamic electricity prices as a simple and low cost means to activating a large number of flexible small-scale power units. The aim is to provide regulating power via an aggregated response from the numerous units on a volunteer basis. The power units could for example be electrical heating and cooling units, electrical vehicles, industrial demand and micro generation. Each power unit can have its own local controller and individual business model and objective function. The optimisation of the local controls may require forecasts of the services requested by the customer (such as heat for a house or charging power for an electrical vehicle) - in terms of quantity, timing and flexibility - and forecasts of the electricity prices. Based on international 'real-time' power market experiences, new dynamic FlexPower market mechanisms to perform regulating power are designed and tested via simulations, under laboratory conditions and in the field. A dedicated simulation tool is developed for this purpose. The FlexPower regulation can never be perfect, but is expected to be able to meet some of the present and future growing demand for regulating power. As a starting point, a 5-minute power price signal, based on the actual regulation power prices, is tested. WP1 addresses the following question: 1) How could a system with a one-way price be designed? How can the FlexPower mechanism be integrated into the present electricity market, including the market for regulating power? This report describes the FlexPower concept, and gives one suggestion as to how this new market could work. How this will affect the different stakeholders is discussed, and risks and opportunities in the new market are presented. (LN)

  18. Technical Meeting on Liquid Metal Reactor Concepts: Core Design and Structural Materials. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the TM on “Liquid metal reactor concept: core design and structural materials” was to present and discuss innovative liquid metal fast reactor (LMFR) core designs with special focus on the choice, development, testing and qualification of advanced reactor core structural materials. Main results arising from national and international R&D programmes and projects in the field were reviewed, and new activities to be carried out under the IAEA aegis were identified on the basis of the analysis of current research and technology gaps

  19. Road Materials and Pavement Design Volume 17(1)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Materials and Pavement Design Volume 17, 2016 - Issue 1 Editorial Board Page ebi | Published online: 03 Oct 2016  http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14680629.2016.1244475 Editors-in-Chief Hervé DI BENEDETTO - University of Lyon/ENTPE, Vaulx-en-Velin, France... Andrew Charles COLLOP - De Montfort University, Leicester, UK William G. BUTTLAR - University of Missouri, Urbana-Champaign, USA Editor-in-Chief at Large Jorge B. Sousa - Consulpav, Oeiras, Portugal Associate Editors Morris de Beer - CSIR Built...

  20. Design of materials configurations for enhanced phononic and electronic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daraio, Chiara

    The discovery of novel nonlinear dynamic and electronic phenomena is presented for the specific cases of granular materials and carbon nanotubes. This research was conducted for designing and constructing optimized macro-, micro- and nano-scale structural configurations of materials, and for studying their phononic and electronic behavior. Variation of composite arrangements of granular elements with different elastic properties in a linear chain-of-sphere, Y-junction or 3-D configurations led to a variety of novel phononic phenomena and interesting physical properties, which can be potentially useful for security, communications, mechanical and biomedical engineering applications. Mechanical and electronic properties of carbon nanotubes with different atomic arrangements and microstructures were also investigated. Electronic properties of Y-junction configured carbon nanotubes exhibit an exciting transistor switch behavior which is not seen in linear configuration nanotubes. Strongly nonlinear materials were designed and fabricated using novel and innovative concepts. Due to their unique strongly nonlinear and anisotropic nature, novel wave phenomena have been discovered. Specifically, violations of Snell's law were detected and a new mechanism of wave interaction with interfaces between NTPCs (Nonlinear Tunable Phononic Crystals) was established. Polymer-based systems were tested for the first time, and the tunability of the solitary waves speed was demonstrated. New materials with transformed signal propagation speed in the manageable range of 10-100 m/s and signal amplitude typical for audible speech have been developed. The enhancing of the mitigation of solitary and shock waves in 1-D chains were demonstrated and a new protective medium was designed for practical applications. 1-D, 2-D and 3-D strongly nonlinear system have been investigated providing a broad impact on the whole area of strongly nonlinear wave dynamics and creating experimental basis for new

  1. Shield design for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, L.L.; Mann, F.M.; Morford, R.J.; Wilcox, A.D.; Johnson, D.L.; Huang, S.T.

    1983-03-01

    The shield design for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test facility is based upon one-, two- and three-dimensional transport calculations with experimental measurements utilized to refine the nuclear data including the neutron cross sections from 20 to 50 MeV and the gamma ray and neutron source terms. The high energy neutrons and deuterons produce activation products from the numerous reactions that are kinematically allowed. The analyses for both beam-on and beam-off (from the activation products) conditions have required extensive nuclear data libraries and the utilization of Monte Carlo, discrete ordinates, point kernel and auxiliary computer codes

  2. Designing a water leasing market for the Mimbres River, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reno-Trujillo, Marissa Devan; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Broadbent, Craig; Brookshire, David; Coursey, Don; Jackson, Charles.; Polley, Adam; Stevenson, Bryan

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a conceptual framework for establishing water leasing markets in New Mexico using the Mimbres River as a test case. Given the past and growing stress over water in New Mexico and the Mimbres River in particular, this work will develop a mechanism for the short term, efficient, temporary transfer of water from one user to another while avoiding adverse effects on any user not directly involved in the transaction (i.e., third party effects). Toward establishing a water leasing market, five basic tasks were performed, (1) a series of stakeholder meetings were conducted to identify and address concerns and interests of basin residents, (2) several gauges were installed on irrigation ditches to aid in the monitoring and management of water resources in the basin, (3) the hydrologic/market model and decision support interface was extended to include the Middle and Lower reaches of the Mimbres River, (4) experiments were conducted to aid in design of the water leasing market, and (5) a set of rules governing a water leasing market was drafted for future adoption by basin residents and the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer.

  3. LICENCE, DESIGN AND MARKETING EXPERIENCE RELATING TO A PRODUCT OR PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU NEAMŢU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Contracting a licence is buying or selling contract of technology, design and marketing experiencerelating to a product or process, and involves the contracting of knowledge and know-how. The granting of aninternational licence takes place when a company provides, in return for a fee or royalties, technology needed byanother firm to run business operations on a foreign market. When in this form, the granting of the licencerequires at least one of the following items: a brand name; operating experience; manufacturing technology;access to patents and trade secrets/industrial. Company that grants the licence get access on a foreign marketwith very low investment and, in many cases, the benefits of investment and market knowledge of a competentlocal firms. The company that received the licence get access to foreign technology, with a very smallinvestment. There are several very obvious advantages of activity under the license on international markets.The granting of a licence can improve cash flow situation for the company that attaches. Because the license ontechnology allows companies to bring products to market faster, the company enjoys early advantage of apositive balance of cash flow. In addition, obtaining a license means lower development costs. The licensedactivity may mean fewer profits in the long run. Immediate benefits of easy access to new technology, lower costsand the development of an early cash flow are attractive advantages of contracting a licence.

  4. Using tobacco-industry marketing research to design more effective tobacco-control campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2002-06-12

    To improve tobacco-control efforts by applying tobacco-industry marketing research and strategies to clinical and public health smoking interventions, we analyzed previously secret tobacco-industry marketing documents. In contrast to public health, the tobacco industry divides markets and defines targets according to consumer attitudes, aspirations, activities, and lifestyles. Tobacco marketing targets smokers of all ages; young adults are particularly important. During the 1980s, cost affected increasing numbers of young and older smokers. During the 1990s, eroding social acceptability of smoking emerged as a major threat, largely from increasing awareness of the dangers of secondhand smoke among nonsmokers and smokers. Physicians and public health professionals should use tobacco-industry psychographic approaches to design more relevant tobacco-control interventions. Efforts to counter tobacco marketing campaigns should include people of all ages, particularly young adults, rather than concentrating on teens and young children. Many young smokers are cost sensitive. Tobacco-control messages emphasizing the dangers of secondhand smoke to smokers and nonsmokers undermine the social acceptability of smoking.

  5. Connecting drug delivery reality to smart materials design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, David W

    2013-09-15

    Inflated claims to both design and mechanistic novelty in drug delivery and imaging systems, including most nanotechnologies, are not supported by the generally poor translation of these systems to clinical efficacy. The "form begets function" design paradigm is seductive but perhaps over-simplistic in translation to pharmaceutical efficacy. Most innovations show few clinically important distinctions in their therapeutic benefits in relevant preclinical disease and delivery models, despite frequent claims to the contrary. Long-standing challenges in drug delivery issues must enlist more realistic, back-to-basics approaches to address fundamental materials properties in complex biological systems, preclinical test beds, and analytical methods to more reliably determine fundamental pharmaceutical figures of merit, including drug carrier purity and batch-batch variability, agent biodistribution, therapeutic index (safety), and efficacy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Aerogel Hybrid Composite Materials: Designs and Testing for Multifunctional Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha K.; Fesmire, James E.

    2016-01-01

    This webinar will introduce the broad spectrum of aerogel composites and their diverse performance properties such as reduced heat transfer to energy storage, and expands specifically on the aerogel/fiber laminate systems and testing methodologies. The multi-functional laminate composite system, AeroFiber, and its construction is designed by varying the type of fiber (e.g. polyester, carbon, Kevlar®, Spectra® or Innegral(TradeMark) and combinations thereof), the aerogel panel type and thickness, and overall layup configuration. The combination and design of materials may be customized and tailored to achieve a range of desired properties in the resulting laminate system. Multi-functional properties include structural strength, impact resistance, reduction in heat transfer, increased fire resistance, mechanical energy absorption, and acoustic energy dampening. Applications include aerospace, aircraft, automotive, boating, building and construction, lightweight portable structures, liquefied natural gas, cryogenics, transportation and energy, sporting equipment, and military protective gear industries.

  7. Advanced composite structures. [metal matrix composites - structural design criteria for spacecraft construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    A monograph is presented which establishes structural design criteria and recommends practices to ensure the design of sound composite structures, including composite-reinforced metal structures. (It does not discuss design criteria for fiber-glass composites and such advanced composite materials as beryllium wire or sapphire whiskers in a matrix material.) Although the criteria were developed for aircraft applications, they are general enough to be applicable to space vehicles and missiles as well. The monograph covers four broad areas: (1) materials, (2) design, (3) fracture control, and (4) design verification. The materials portion deals with such subjects as material system design, material design levels, and material characterization. The design portion includes panel, shell, and joint design, applied loads, internal loads, design factors, reliability, and maintainability. Fracture control includes such items as stress concentrations, service-life philosophy, and the management plan for control of fracture-related aspects of structural design using composite materials. Design verification discusses ways to prove flightworthiness.

  8. Advances in design and modeling of porous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayral, André; Calas-Etienne, Sylvie; Coasne, Benoit; Deratani, André; Evstratov, Alexis; Galarneau, Anne; Grande, Daniel; Hureau, Matthieu; Jobic, Hervé; Morlay, Catherine; Parmentier, Julien; Prelot, Bénédicte; Rossignol, Sylvie; Simon-Masseron, Angélique; Thibault-Starzyk, Frédéric

    2015-07-01

    This special issue of the European Physical Journal Special Topics is dedicated to selected papers from the symposium "High surface area porous and granular materials" organized in the frame of the conference "Matériaux 2014", held on November 24-28, 2014 in Montpellier, France. Porous materials and granular materials gather a wide variety of heterogeneous, isotropic or anisotropic media made of inorganic, organic or hybrid solid skeletons, with open or closed porosity, and pore sizes ranging from the centimeter scale to the sub-nanometer scale. Their technological and industrial applications cover numerous areas from building and civil engineering to microelectronics, including also metallurgy, chemistry, health, waste water and gas effluent treatment. Many emerging processes related to environmental protection and sustainable development also rely on this class of materials. Their functional properties are related to specific transfer mechanisms (matter, heat, radiation, electrical charge), to pore surface chemistry (exchange, adsorption, heterogeneous catalysis) and to retention inside confined volumes (storage, separation, exchange, controlled release). The development of innovative synthesis, shaping, characterization and modeling approaches enables the design of advanced materials with enhanced functional performance. The papers collected in this special issue offer a good overview of the state-of-the-art and science of these complex media. We would like to thank all the speakers and participants for their contribution to the success of the symposium. We also express our gratitude to the organization committee of "Matériaux 2014". We finally thank the reviewers and the staff of the European Physical Journal Special Topics who made the publication of this special issue possible.

  9. Modeling Materials: Design for Planetary Entry, Electric Aircraft, and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Alexander; Lawson, John W.

    2014-01-01

    NASA missions push the limits of what is possible. The development of high-performance materials must keep pace with the agency's demanding, cutting-edge applications. Researchers at NASA's Ames Research Center are performing multiscale computational modeling to accelerate development times and further the design of next-generation aerospace materials. Multiscale modeling combines several computationally intensive techniques ranging from the atomic level to the macroscale, passing output from one level as input to the next level. These methods are applicable to a wide variety of materials systems. For example: (a) Ultra-high-temperature ceramics for hypersonic aircraft-we utilized the full range of multiscale modeling to characterize thermal protection materials for faster, safer air- and spacecraft, (b) Planetary entry heat shields for space vehicles-we computed thermal and mechanical properties of ablative composites by combining several methods, from atomistic simulations to macroscale computations, (c) Advanced batteries for electric aircraft-we performed large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of advanced electrolytes for ultra-high-energy capacity batteries to enable long-distance electric aircraft service; and (d) Shape-memory alloys for high-efficiency aircraft-we used high-fidelity electronic structure calculations to determine phase diagrams in shape-memory transformations. Advances in high-performance computing have been critical to the development of multiscale materials modeling. We used nearly one million processor hours on NASA's Pleiades supercomputer to characterize electrolytes with a fidelity that would be otherwise impossible. For this and other projects, Pleiades enables us to push the physics and accuracy of our calculations to new levels.

  10. From molecular design and materials construction to organic nanophotonic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuang; Yan, Yongli; Zhao, Yong Sheng; Yao, Jiannian

    2014-12-16

    CONSPECTUS: Nanophotonics has recently received broad research interest, since it may provide an alternative opportunity to overcome the fundamental limitations in electronic circuits. Diverse optical materials down to the wavelength scale are required to develop nanophotonic devices, including functional components for light emission, transmission, and detection. During the past decade, the chemists have made their own contributions to this interdisciplinary field, especially from the controlled fabrication of nanophotonic molecules and materials. In this context, organic micro- or nanocrystals have been developed as a very promising kind of building block in the construction of novel units for integrated nanophotonics, mainly due to the great versatility in organic molecular structures and their flexibility for the subsequent processing. Following the pioneering works on organic nanolasers and optical waveguides, the organic nanophotonic materials and devices have attracted increasing interest and developed rapidly during the past few years. In this Account, we review our research on the photonic performance of molecular micro- or nanostructures and the latest breakthroughs toward organic nanophotonic devices. Overall, the versatile features of organic materials are highlighted, because they brings tunable optical properties based on molecular design, size-dependent light confinement in low-dimensional structures, and various device geometries for nanophotonic integration. The molecular diversity enables abundant optical transitions in conjugated π-electron systems, and thus brings specific photonic functions into molecular aggregates. The morphology of these micro- or nanostructures can be further controlled based on the weak intermolecular interactions during molecular assembly process, making the aggregates show photon confinement or light guiding properties as nanophotonic materials. By adoption of some active processes in the composite of two or more

  11. The market for green building in developed Asian cities. The perspectives of building designers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Edwin H.W.; Qian, Queena K.; Lam, Patrick T.I.

    2009-01-01

    Green building (GB) is part of the concept of promoting sustainability. Although GB and the concept of sustainability are well studied for environmental concerns, their business rationale and related social concerns have not been fully explored or widely accepted by the parties involved in the building sector. In this study, the situation of GB market in relation to the general building market is reviewed and the business rationales of stakeholders to invest in the GB market have been investigated from the perspective of building designers. In addition, the factors that enhance the popularity of GB have been explored and the obstacles that hinder its market have been examined. The data are collected by a questionnaire survey covering building designers in Hong Kong and Singapore, the cities that are categorized as economically developed cities in Asia. After data analysis of the survey, this paper presents the findings of the business reasons for stakeholders to be involved in GB, the most favorable conditions required to promote GB business and the important obstacles that hinder its popularity. Based on the findings, recommendations and policy implications are tendered. (author)

  12. Competitive Supply Chain Network Design Considering Marketing Strategies: A Hybrid Metaheuristic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Hasani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comprehensive model is proposed to design a network for multi-period, multi-echelon, and multi-product inventory controlled the supply chain. Various marketing strategies and guerrilla marketing approaches are considered in the design process under the static competition condition. The goal of the proposed model is to efficiently respond to the customers’ demands in the presence of the pre-existing competitors and the price inelasticity of demands. The proposed optimization model considers multiple objectives that incorporate both market share and total profit of the considered supply chain network, simultaneously. To tackle the proposed multi-objective mixed-integer nonlinear programming model, an efficient hybrid meta-heuristic algorithm is developed that incorporates a Taguchi-based non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II and a particle swarm optimization. A variable neighborhood decomposition search is applied to enhance a local search process of the proposed hybrid solution algorithm. Computational results illustrate that the proposed model and solution algorithm are notably efficient in dealing with the competitive pressure by adopting the proper marketing strategies.

  13. Computational design of surfaces, nanostructures and optoelectronic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Kamal

    Properties of engineering materials are generally influenced by defects such as point defects (vacancies, interstitials, substitutional defects), line defects (dislocations), planar defects (grain boundaries, free surfaces/nanostructures, interfaces, stacking faults) and volume defects (voids). Classical physics based molecular dynamics and quantum physics based density functional theory can be useful in designing materials with controlled defect properties. In this thesis, empirical potential based molecular dynamics was used to study the surface modification of polymers due to energetic polyatomic ion, thermodynamics and mechanics of metal-ceramic interfaces and nanostructures, while density functional theory was used to screen substituents in optoelectronic materials. Firstly, polyatomic ion-beams were deposited on polymer surfaces and the resulting chemical modifications of the surface were examined. In particular, S, SC and SH were deposited on amorphous polystyrene (PS), and C2H, CH3, and C3H5 were deposited on amorphous poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) using molecular dynamics simulations with classical reactive empirical many-body (REBO) potentials. The objective of this work was to elucidate the mechanisms by which the polymer surface modification took place. The results of the work could be used in tailoring the incident energy and/or constituents of ion beam for obtaining a particular chemistry inside the polymer surface. Secondly, a new Al-O-N empirical potential was developed within the charge optimized many body (COMB) formalism. This potential was then used to examine the thermodynamic stability of interfaces and mechanical properties of nanostructures composed of aluminum, its oxide and its nitride. The potentials were tested for these materials based on surface energies, defect energies, bulk phase stability, the mechanical properties of the most stable bulk phase, its phonon properties as well as with a genetic algorithm based evolution theory of

  14. Ferroelectric materials for piezoelectric actuators by optimal design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayachandran, K.P.; Guedes, J.M.; Rodrigues, H.C.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Microstructure optimization of ferroelectric materials by stochastic optimization. → Polycrystalline ferroelectrics possess better piezo actuation than single crystals. → Randomness of the grain orientations would enhance the overall piezoelectricity. - Abstract: Optimization methods provide a systematic means of designing heterogeneous materials with tailored properties and microstructures focussing on a specific objective. An optimization procedure incorporating a continuum modeling is used in this work to identify the ideal orientation distribution of ferroelectrics (FEs) for application in piezoelectric actuators. Piezoelectric actuation is dictated primarily by the piezoelectric strain coefficients d iμ . Crystallographic orientation is inextricably related to the piezoelectric properties of FEs. This suggests that piezoelectric properties can be tailored by a proper choice of the parameters which control the orientation distribution. Nevertheless, this choice is complicated and it is impossible to analyze all possible combinations of the distribution parameters or the angles themselves. Stochastic optimization combined with a generalized Monte Carlo scheme is used to optimize the objective functions, the effective piezoelectric coefficients d 31 and d 15 . The procedure is applied to heterogeneous, polycrystalline, FE ceramics which are essentially an aggregate of variously oriented grains (crystallites). Global piezoelectric properties are calculated using the homogenization method at each grain configuration chosen by the optimization algorithm. Optimal design variables and microstructure that would generate polycrystalline configurations that multiply the macroscopic piezoelectricity are identified.

  15. Transitioning from Marketing-Oriented Design to User-Oriented Design: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laster, Shari; Stitz, Tammy; Bove, Frank J.; Wise, Casey

    2011-01-01

    The transition to a new architecture and design for an academic library Web site does not always proceed smoothly. In this case study, a library at a large research university hired an outside Web development contractor to create a new architecture and design for the university's Web site using dotCMS, an open-source content management system. The…

  16. Micro-/nanostructured multicomponent molecular materials: design, assembly, and functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dongpeng

    2015-03-23

    Molecule-based micro-/nanomaterials have attracted considerable attention because their properties can vary greatly from the corresponding macro-sized bulk systems. Recently, the construction of multicomponent molecular solids based on crystal engineering principles has emerged as a promising alternative way to develop micro-/nanomaterials. Unlike single-component materials, the resulting multicomponent systems offer the advantages of tunable composition, and adjustable molecular arrangement, and intermolecular interactions within their solid states. The study of these materials also supplies insight into how the crystal structure, molecular components, and micro-/nanoscale effects can influence the performance of molecular materials. In this review, we describe recent advances and current directions in the assembly and applications of crystalline multicomponent micro-/nanostructures. Firstly, the design strategies for multicomponent systems based on molecular recognition and crystal engineering principles are introduced. Attention is then focused on the methods of fabrication of low-dimensional multicomponent micro-/nanostructures. Their new applications are also outlined. Finally, we briefly discuss perspectives for the further development of these molecular crystalline micro-/nanomaterials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Materials and design concepts for space-resilient structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Mohannad Z.; Chehab, Alaa I.

    2018-04-01

    Space exploration and terraforming nearby planets have been fascinating concepts for the longest time. Nowadays, that technological advancements with regard to space exploration are thriving, it is only a matter of time before humans can start colonizing nearby moons and planets. This paper presents a state-of-the-art literature review on recent developments of "space-native" construction materials, and highlights evolutionary design concepts for "space-resilient" structures (i.e., colonies and habitats). This paper also details effects of harsh (and unique) space environments on various terrestrial and extraterrestrial construction materials, as well as on space infrastructure and structural systems. The feasibility of exploiting available space resources in terms of "in-situ resource utilization" and "harvesting of elements and compounds", as well as emergence of enabling technologies such as "cultured (lab-grown)" space construction materials are discussed. Towards the end of the present review, number of limitations and challenges facing Lunar and Martian exploration, and venues in-need for urgent research are identified and examined.

  18. Design of multi materials combining crystalline and amorphous metallic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volland, A.; Ragani, J.; Liu, Y.; Gravier, S.; Suéry, M.; Blandin, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Elaboration of multi materials associating metallic glasses and conventional crystalline alloys by co-deformation performed at temperatures close to the glass transition temperature of the metallic glasses. ► Elaboration of filamentary metal matrix composites with a core in metallic glass by co extrusion. ► Sandwich structures produced by co-pressing. ► Detection of atomic diffusion from the glass to the crystalline alloys during the processes. ► Good interfaces between the metallic glasses and the crystalline alloys, as confirmed by mechanical characterisation. - Abstract: Multi materials, associating zirconium based bulk metallic glasses and crystalline metallic alloys like magnesium alloys or copper are elaborated by co-deformation processing performed in the supercooled liquid regions (SLR) of the bulk metallic glasses. Two processes are investigated: co-extrusion and co-pressing. In the first case, filamentary composites with various designs can be produced whereas in the second case sandwich structures are obtained. The experimental window (temperature, time) in which processing can be carried out is directly related to the crystallisation resistance of the glass which requires getting information about the crystallisation conditions in the selected metallic glasses. Thermoforming windows are identified for the studied BMGs by thermal analysis and compression tests in their SLR. The mechanical properties of the produced multi materials are investigated thanks to specifically developed mechanical devices and the interfaces between the amorphous and the crystalline alloys are characterised.

  19. Nonlinear machine learning in soft materials engineering and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Andrew

    The inherently many-body nature of molecular folding and colloidal self-assembly makes it challenging to identify the underlying collective mechanisms and pathways governing system behavior, and has hindered rational design of soft materials with desired structure and function. Fundamentally, there exists a predictive gulf between the architecture and chemistry of individual molecules or colloids and the collective many-body thermodynamics and kinetics. Integrating machine learning techniques with statistical thermodynamics provides a means to bridge this divide and identify emergent folding pathways and self-assembly mechanisms from computer simulations or experimental particle tracking data. We will survey a few of our applications of this framework that illustrate the value of nonlinear machine learning in understanding and engineering soft materials: the non-equilibrium self-assembly of Janus colloids into pinwheels, clusters, and archipelagos; engineering reconfigurable ''digital colloids'' as a novel high-density information storage substrate; probing hierarchically self-assembling onjugated asphaltenes in crude oil; and determining macromolecular folding funnels from measurements of single experimental observables. We close with an outlook on the future of machine learning in soft materials engineering, and share some personal perspectives on working at this disciplinary intersection. We acknowledge support for this work from a National Science Foundation CAREER Award (Grant No. DMR-1350008) and the Donors of the American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund (ACS PRF #54240-DNI6).

  20. Materials for Consideration in Standardized Canister Design Activities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R.; Ilgen, Anastasia Gennadyevna; Enos, David George; Teich-McGoldrick, Stephanie; Hardin, Ernest

    2014-10-01

    This document identifies materials and material mitigation processes that might be used in new designs for standardized canisters for storage, transportation, and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. It also addresses potential corrosion issues with existing dual-purpose canisters (DPCs) that could be addressed in new canister designs. The major potential corrosion risk during storage is stress corrosion cracking of the weld regions on the 304 SS/316 SS canister shell due to deliquescence of chloride salts on the surface. Two approaches are proposed to alleviate this potential risk. First, the existing canister materials (304 and 316 SS) could be used, but the welds mitigated to relieve residual stresses and/or sensitization. Alternatively, more corrosion-resistant steels such as super-austenitic or duplex stainless steels, could be used. Experimental testing is needed to verify that these alternatives would successfully reduce the risk of stress corrosion cracking during fuel storage. For disposal in a geologic repository, the canister will be enclosed in a corrosion-resistant or corrosion-allowance overpack that will provide barrier capability and mechanical strength. The canister shell will no longer have a barrier function and its containment integrity can be ignored. The basket and neutron absorbers within the canister have the important role of limiting the possibility of post-closure criticality. The time period for corrosion is much longer in the post-closure period, and one major unanswered question is whether the basket materials will corrode slowly enough to maintain structural integrity for at least 10,000 years. Whereas there is extensive literature on stainless steels, this evaluation recommends testing of 304 and 316 SS, and more corrosion-resistant steels such as super-austenitic, duplex, and super-duplex stainless steels, at repository-relevant physical and chemical conditions. Both general and localized corrosion testing methods would be used to

  1. Students’ Preferences And Opinions On Design 
Of A Mobile Marketing Education Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zeynep OZATA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to define and better understand business school students’ opinions and preferences on the design of a mobile marketing education application. To accomplish this purpose an explanatory mixed methods study design was used and the data was collected sequentially. First, a questionnaire was conducted with 168 business school students from Anadolu University to define their learning styles. The learning orientation questionnaire produced five factors: visual, auditory, dependent, collaborative, and reading & writing learning styles. In the second phase of the study, semi-structured in depth interviews were conducted with nine graduate students at Anadolu University to better understand their preferences and explore their opinions on the mobile application. After the coding process three themes emerged: learning styles, content, and tools. Added to these themes, eight motives for the use of a mobile marketing education application were also identified.

  2. Harvesting bioenergy with rationally designed complex functional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Liangju

    A key challenge in renewable energy is to capture, convert and store solar power with earth-abundant materials and environmentally benign technologies. The goal of this thesis is to develop rationally designed complex functional materials for bio-renewable energy applications. On one hand, photoconversion membrane proteins (MPs) are nature's nanoengineering feats for renewable energy management. Harnessing their functions in synthetic systems could help understand, predict, and ultimately control matter and energy at the nanoscale. This is particularly enticing in the post-genome era as recombinant or cell-free expression of many MPs with high yields becomes possible. However, the labile nature of lipid bilayers renders them unsuitable for use in a broad range of engineered systems. A knowledge gap exists about how to design robust synthetic nanomembranes as lipid-bilayer-mimics to support MP functions and how to direct hierarchical MP reconstitution into those membranes to form 2-D or 3-D ordered proteomembrane arrays. Our studies on proteorhodopsin (PR) and bacterial reaction center (BRC), the two light-harvesting MPs, reveal that a charge-interaction-directed reconstitution (CIDR) mechanism induces spontaneous reconstitution of detergent-solubilized MPs into various amphiphilic block copolymer membranes, many of which have far superior stability than lipid bilayers. Our preliminary data also suggest MPs are not enslaved by the biological membranes they derive from; rather, the chemically nonspecific material properties of MP-supporting membranes may act as allosteric regulators. Versatile chemical designs are possible to modulate the conformational energetics of MPs, hence their transport performance in synthetic systems. On the other hand, microalgae are widely regarded as a sustainable feedstock for biofuel production. Microalgae-derived biofuels have not been commercialized yet because current technologies for microalgae dewatering add a huge cost to the

  3. Marketing and design of residential energy conservation programs for the elderly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, L.; Schweitzer, M.; Freeman, E.

    1988-02-01

    This report describes barriers to energy conservation by the elderly. Because of these barriers, they have a greater need for programs that assist with the installation of energy-efficiency improvements. In response to this need, a number of specialized programs are operated for the elderly. This report contains descriptions of 39 energy conservation programs for the elderly. Telephone interviews were conducted with the managers of these programs to identify marketing techniques and organizational structures. Interagency networking, presentations and referrals are the most common methods of recruiting clients. Other marketing techniques in order of the frequency of use are: direct mail, bill inserts, television, radio, printed materials, and telemarketing. Many managers consider word-of-mouth advertising from satisfied clients the most effective form of marketing. Interagency networking and support (financial, structural and in-kind) can offer real advantages in the operation of conservation programs for the elderly. The use of specific marketing techniques is probably less important to success in recruiting clients than the degree of trust potential clients have in the sponsoring organization(s). 4 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. Process design of press hardening with gradient material property influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neugebauer, R.; Schieck, F.; Rautenstrauch, A.

    2011-01-01

    Press hardening is currently used in the production of automotive structures that require very high strength and controlled deformation during crash tests. Press hardening can achieve significant reductions of sheet thickness at constant strength and is therefore a promising technology for the production of lightweight and energy-efficient automobiles. The manganese-boron steel 22MnB5 have been implemented in sheet press hardening owing to their excellent hot formability, high hardenability, and good temperability even at low cooling rates. However, press-hardened components have shown poor ductility and cracking at relatively small strains. A possible solution to this problem is a selective increase of steel sheet ductility by press hardening process design in areas where the component is required to deform plastically during crash tests. To this end, process designers require information about microstructure and mechanical properties as a function of the wide spectrum of cooling rates and sequences and austenitizing treatment conditions that can be encountered in production environments. In the present work, a Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) diagram with corresponding material properties of sheet steel 22MnB5 was determined for a wide spectrum of cooling rates. Heating and cooling programs were conducted in a quenching dilatometer. Motivated by the importance of residual elasticity in crash test performance, this property was measured using a micro-bending test and the results were integrated into the CCT diagrams to complement the hardness testing results. This information is essential for the process design of press hardening of sheet components with gradient material properties.

  5. RF structure design of the China Material Irradiation Facility RFQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenxing; He, Yuan; Xu, Xianbo; Zhang, Zhouli; Wang, Fengfeng; Dou, Weiping; Wang, Zhijun; Wang, Tieshan

    2017-10-01

    The radio frequency structure design of the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) for the front end of China Material Irradiation Facility (CMIF), which is an accelerator based neutron irradiation facility for fusion reactor material qualification, has been completed. The RFQ is specified to accelerate 10 mA continuous deuteron beams from the energies of 20 keV/u to 1.5 MeV/u within the vane length of 5250 mm. The working frequency of the RFQ is selected to 162.5 MHz and the inter-vane voltage is set to 65 kV. Four-vane cavity type is selected and the cavity structure is designed drawing on the experience of China Initiative Accelerator Driven System (CIADS) Injector II RFQ. In order to reduce the azimuthal asymmetry of the field caused from errors in fabrication and assembly, a frequency separation between the working mode and its nearest dipole mode is reached to 17.66 MHz by utilizing 20 pairs of π-mode stabilizing loops (PISLs) distributed along the longitudinal direction with equal intervals. For the purpose of tuning, 100 slug tuners were introduced to compensate the errors caused by machining and assembly. In order to obtain a homogeneous electrical field distribution along cavity, vane cutbacks are introduced and output endplate is modified. Multi-physics study of the cavity with radio frequency power and water cooling is performed to obtain the water temperature tuning coefficients. Through comparing to the worldwide CW RFQs, it is indicated that the power density of the designed structure is moderate for operation under continuous wave (CW) mode.

  6. "Intelligent" design of molecular materials: Understanding the concepts of design in supramolecular synthesis of network solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Brian D.

    This work endeavors to delineate modern paradigms for crystal engineering, i.e. the design and supramolecular synthesis of functional molecular materials. Paradigms predicated on an understanding of the geometry of polygons and polyhedra are developed. The primary focus is on structural determination by single crystal X-ray crystallography, structural interpretation using a suite of graphical visualization and molecular modeling software, and on the importance of proper graphical representation in the presentation and explanation of crystal structures. A detailed analysis of a selected series of crystal structures is presented. The reduction of these molecular networks to schematic representations that illustrate their fundamental connectivity facilitates the understanding of otherwise complex supramolecular solids. Circuit symbols and Schlafli notation are used to describe the network topologies, which enables networks of different composition and metrics to be easily compared. This reveals that molecular orientations in the crystals and networks are commensurate with networks that can be derived from spherical close packed lattices. The development of a logical design strategy for a new class of materials based on our understanding of the chemical composition and topology of these networks is described. The synthesis and crystal structure of a series of new materials generated by exploitation of this design strategy is presented, in addition to a detailed analysis of the topology of these materials and their relationship to a 'parent' structure. In summary, this dissertation demonstrates that molecular polygons can self-assemble at their vertexes to produce molecular architectures and crystal structures that are consistent with long established geometric dogma. The design strategy represents a potentially broad ranging approach to the design of nanoporous structures from a wide range of chemical components that are based on molecular shape rather than chemical

  7. Market Opportunity of Some Aluminium Silicon Alloys Materials through Changing the Casting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfim SOARES

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue is considered to be the most common mechanism by which engineering components fail, and it accounts for at least 90% of all service failures attributed to mechanical causes. Mechanical properties (tensile strength, tensile strain, Young modulus, etc as well as fatigue properties (fatigue life are very dependent on casting method. The most direct effects of casting techniques are on the metallurgical microstructure that bounds the mechanical properties. One of the important variables affected by the casting technique is the cooling rate which is well known to strongly restrict the microstructure. In the present research has been done a comparison of fatigue properties of two aluminum silicon alloys obtained by two casting techniques. It was observed that the fatigue life is increasing with 24% for Al12Si and 31% for AL18Si by using centrifugal casting process instead of gravity casting. This increasing in fatigue life means that a component tailored from materials obtained by centrifugal casting will stay longer in service. It was made an estimation of the time required to recover the costs of technology in order to use the centrifuge process that will allow to obtain materials with improved properties. The amortization can be achieved by using two different marketing techniques: through the release of the product at the old price and with much longer life of the component which means "same price - longer life", or increasing price, by highlighting new product performance which means "higher price - higher properties".

  8. A systematic analysis of online marketing materials used by providers of expanded carrier screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokoshvili, Davit; Borry, Pascal; Vears, Danya F

    2017-12-14

    PurposeExpanded carrier screening (ECS) for a large number of recessive disorders is available to prospective parents through commercial providers. This study aimed to analyze the content of marketing materials on ECS providers' websites.MethodsTo identify providers of ECS tests, we undertook a comprehensive online search, reviewed recent academic literature on commercial carrier screening, and consulted with colleagues familiar with the current ECS landscape. The identified websites were archived in April 2017, and inductive content analysis was performed on website text, brochures and educational materials, and video transcripts.ResultsWe identified 18 ECS providers, including 16 commercial genetic testing companies. Providers typically described ECS as an important family planning tool. The content differed in both the tone used to promote ECS and the accuracy and completeness of the test information provided. We found that most providers offered complimentary genetic counseling to their consumers, although this was often optional, limited to the posttest context, and, in some cases, appeared to be available only to test-positive individuals.ConclusionThe quality of ECS providers' websites could be improved by offering more complete and accurate information about ECS and their tests. Providers should also ensure that all carrier couples receive posttest genetic counseling to inform their subsequent reproductive decision making.Genet Med advance online publication, 14 December 2017; doi:10.1038/gim.2017.222.

  9. The paradoxical marketing of sports equipment brands. [El marketing paradójico de las marcas de material deportivo].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As Ko (2013 pointed out, the sport industry is a large and fast growing business. The U.S. market accounted for as much as $400-435 billion in 2012. Sports equipment companies provide the products required to practice and enjoy sports: clothing, footwear, and other apparel and gear. Therefore, sports equipment brands surround all the aspects shaping the sports industry. In addition, they extend their arms to also embrace the fashion market. A few equipment brands, such as Nike and Adidas are listed among the most powerful brands in the world (Badenhausen, 2012. Data about some giant brands of this industry reflect the relevance of this business. For example, Nike global sales were to $21 billion in 2011, (Cendrowski, 2012; Under Armour spent $205.4 million on marketing in 2012 (Lambert, 2013 and Nike $2.4 billion in 2011 (Cendrowski, 2012; The football teams Real Madrid and Barcelona get an average of $49 million a year from Adidas and $43 million from Nike, respectively (Ozanian, 2012; and Adidas paid $130 million to become the official sportswear provider of London 2012 summer Olympics (Anderson, 2013.

  10. Covalent Organic Frameworks: From Materials Design to Biomedical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuli Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Covalent organic frameworks (COFs are newly emerged crystalline porous polymers with well-defined skeletons and nanopores mainly consisted of light-weight elements (H, B, C, N and O linked by dynamic covalent bonds. Compared with conventional materials, COFs possess some unique and attractive features, such as large surface area, pre-designable pore geometry, excellent crystallinity, inherent adaptability and high flexibility in structural and functional design, thus exhibiting great potential for various applications. Especially, their large surface area and tunable porosity and π conjugation with unique photoelectric properties will enable COFs to serve as a promising platform for drug delivery, bioimaging, biosensing and theranostic applications. In this review, we trace the evolution of COFs in terms of linkages and highlight the important issues on synthetic method, structural design, morphological control and functionalization. And then we summarize the recent advances of COFs in the biomedical and pharmaceutical sectors and conclude with a discussion of the challenges and opportunities of COFs for biomedical purposes. Although currently still at its infancy stage, COFs as an innovative source have paved a new way to meet future challenges in human healthcare and disease theranostic.

  11. Materials modelling - a possible design tool for advanced nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffelner, W.; Samaras, M.; Bako, B.; Iglesias, R.

    2008-01-01

    The design of components for power plants is usually based on codes, standards and design rules or code cases. However, it is very difficult to get the necessary experimental data to prove these lifetime assessment procedures for long-term applications in environments where complex damage interactions (temperature, stress, environment, irradiation) can occur. The rules used are often very simple and do not have a basis which take physical damage into consideration. The linear life fraction rule for creep and fatigue interaction can be taken as a prominent example. Materials modelling based on a multi-scale approach in principle provides a tool to convert microstructural findings into mechanical response and therefore has the capability of providing a set of tools for the improvement of design life assessments. The strength of current multi-scale modelling efforts is the insight they offer as regards experimental phenomena. To obtain an understanding of these phenomena it is import to focus on issues which are important at the various time and length scales of the modelling code. In this presentation the multi-scale path will be demonstrated with a few recent examples which focus on VHTR applications. (authors)

  12. Design-based modeling of magnetically actuated soft diaphragm materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaneththi, V. R.; Aw, K. C.; McDaid, A. J.

    2018-04-01

    Magnetic polymer composites (MPC) have shown promise for emerging biomedical applications such as lab-on-a-chip and implantable drug delivery. These soft material actuators are capable of fast response, large deformation and wireless actuation. Existing MPC modeling approaches are computationally expensive and unsuitable for rapid design prototyping and real-time control applications. This paper proposes a macro-scale 1-DOF model capable of predicting force and displacement of an MPC diaphragm actuator. Model validation confirmed both blocked force and displacement can be accurately predicted in a variety of working conditions i.e. different magnetic field strengths, static/dynamic fields, and gap distances. The contribution of this work includes a comprehensive experimental investigation of a macro-scale diaphragm actuator; the derivation and validation of a new phenomenological model to describe MPC actuation; and insights into the proposed model’s design-based functionality i.e. scalability and generalizability in terms of magnetic filler concentration and diaphragm diameter. Due to the lumped element modeling approach, the proposed model can also be adapted to alternative actuator configurations, and thus presents a useful tool for design, control and simulation of novel MPC applications.

  13. The impact of electricity market design upon investment under uncertainty: The effectiveness of capacity mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, Laurens de; Heijnen, Petra

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of different market designs under uncertainty about the future growth rate of demand. Markets for electricity generation appear to be prone to an investment cycle due to their capital-intensiveness and the long lead time of new generation facilities. We tested the stability of different capacity mechanisms in the presence of uncertainty regarding the demand growth rate with a stochastic dynamic model. Investment decisions were assumed to maximize profit, based on an assumed growth rate of demand that was equal to the rolling average of the previous five years. All capacity mechanisms proved effective in reducing the tendency towards an investment cycle, but to different degrees. Interestingly, an oligopoly that is able to raise average prices by 10% would also be able to substantially reduce price volatility and decrease the risk of shortages by increasing the reserve margin. Benefits of such a strategy for the generating companies could be that it would deter new market entrants and stave off the political attention that shortages and price spikes would bring about. However, the benefits to consumers are compromised by the lack of economic efficiency and distributional effects of an oligopoly, while the stability of such an oligopolistic strategy can be questioned. The most attractive solution is a system of reliability contracts, which can be used to stabilize both investment and prices, while reducing market power and providing more efficient operational incentives to generating companies. (author)

  14. An Integrated Design approach to Power Systems: from Power Flows to Electricity Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Subhonmesh

    Power system is at the brink of change. Engineering needs, economic forces and environmental factors are the main drivers of this change. The vision is to build a smart electrical grid and a smarter market mechanism around it to fulfill mandates on clean energy. Looking at engineering and economic issues in isolation is no longer an option today; it needs an integrated design approach. In this thesis, I shall revisit some of the classical questions on the engineering operation of power systems that deals with the nonconvexity of power flow equations. Then I shall explore some issues of the interaction of these power flow equations on the electricity markets to address the fundamental issue of market power in a deregulated market environment. Finally, motivated by the emergence of new storage technologies, I present an interesting result on the investment decision problem of placing storage over a power network. The goal of this study is to demonstrate that modern optimization and game theory can provide unique insights into this complex system. Some of the ideas carry over to applications beyond power systems.

  15. Design of the AM600 Turbine-Generator for NPPs in Emerging Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandru, Bogdan; Abdoelatef, M. Gomaa; Field, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, preliminary analysis related to: (i) the T/G steam flow path, and (ii) the turbine cycle heat balance is examined. Analysis of global electric markets indicates that the current and near term capacity of electrical grids for many developing countries (e.g., Bangladesh, Kenya, Vietnam, Malaysia) is insufficient to reliably incorporate Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) with large unit sizes (e.g., >1000 MWe). Thus a modern NPP design with a smaller output (-600 MWe) is of interest. To address conditions for such markets, the 'AM600' Turbine-Generator (T/G) design proposed here represents a 600 MWe design which is robust and supports a simplified steam cycle. The proposed shaftline starts with a determination of the number of flows, followed by a determination of the number of high and low pressure stages, followed by heat balance analysis. The conceptual design for the AM600 T/G offers the following: • a stiff shaftline which can offer robust performance in smaller grids lacking optimal stability relative to grid disturbances and frequency variation, • a simplified approach to T/G fabrication, installation, operation, testing, inspections, and maintenance due to design with a single LPT cylinder while maintaining high thermal efficiency, and • a reduced component count for MSRs, FWHs, and power train pumps and drivers (and associated support system components) resulting in lower capital outlays, simplified operations, and further reducing the maintenance, testing, and inspection burden

  16. Design of the AM600 Turbine-Generator for NPPs in Emerging Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandru, Bogdan; Abdoelatef, M. Gomaa; Field, Robert [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, preliminary analysis related to: (i) the T/G steam flow path, and (ii) the turbine cycle heat balance is examined. Analysis of global electric markets indicates that the current and near term capacity of electrical grids for many developing countries (e.g., Bangladesh, Kenya, Vietnam, Malaysia) is insufficient to reliably incorporate Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) with large unit sizes (e.g., >1000 MWe). Thus a modern NPP design with a smaller output (-600 MWe) is of interest. To address conditions for such markets, the 'AM600' Turbine-Generator (T/G) design proposed here represents a 600 MWe design which is robust and supports a simplified steam cycle. The proposed shaftline starts with a determination of the number of flows, followed by a determination of the number of high and low pressure stages, followed by heat balance analysis. The conceptual design for the AM600 T/G offers the following: • a stiff shaftline which can offer robust performance in smaller grids lacking optimal stability relative to grid disturbances and frequency variation, • a simplified approach to T/G fabrication, installation, operation, testing, inspections, and maintenance due to design with a single LPT cylinder while maintaining high thermal efficiency, and • a reduced component count for MSRs, FWHs, and power train pumps and drivers (and associated support system components) resulting in lower capital outlays, simplified operations, and further reducing the maintenance, testing, and inspection burden.

  17. Combining theory and experiment in electrocatalysis: Insights into materials design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seh, Zhi Wei; Kibsgaard, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    Electrocatalysis plays a central role in clean energy conversion, enabling a number of sustainable processes for future technologies. This review discusses design strategies for state-of-the-art heterogeneous electrocatalysts and associated materials for several different electrochemical transformations involving water, hydrogen, and oxygen, using theory as a means to rationalize catalyst performance. By examining the common principles that govern catalysis for different electrochemical reactions, we describe a systematic framework that clarifies trends in catalyzing these reactions, serving as a guide to new catalyst development while highlighting key gaps that need to be addressed. Here, we conclude by extending this framework to emerging clean energy reactions such as hydrogen peroxide production, carbon dioxide reduction, and nitrogen reduction, where the development of improved catalysts could allow for the sustainable production of a broad range of fuels and chemicals.

  18. Emerging Semitransparent Solar Cells: Materials and Device Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Qidong; Yan, Feng

    2017-09-01

    Semitransparent solar cells can provide not only efficient power-generation but also appealing images and show promising applications in building integrated photovoltaics, wearable electronics, photovoltaic vehicles and so forth in the future. Such devices have been successfully realized by incorporating transparent electrodes in new generation low-cost solar cells, including organic solar cells (OSCs), dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) and organometal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs). In this review, the advances in the preparation of semitransparent OSCs, DSCs, and PSCs are summarized, focusing on the top transparent electrode materials and device designs, which are all crucial to the performance of these devices. Techniques for optimizing the efficiency, color and transparency of the devices are addressed in detail. Finally, a summary of the research field and an outlook into the future development in this area are provided. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Designing magnetic composite materials using aqueous magnetic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Galicia, J A; Cousin, F; Guemghar, D; Menager, C; Cabuil, V

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we report on how to take advantage of good knowledge of both the chemistry and the stability of an aqueous magnetic colloidal suspension to realize different magnetic composites. The osmotic pressure of the magnetic nanoparticles is set prior to the realization of the composite to a given value specially designed for the purpose for each hybrid material: magnetic particles in polymer networks, particles as probes for studying the structure of clay suspensions and shape modification of giant liposomes. First, we show that the introduction of magnetic particles in polyacrylamide gels enhances their Young modulus and reduces the swelling caused by water. The particles cause both a mechanical and an osmotic effect. The latter is strongly dependent on the ionic strength and is attributed to an attraction between particles and the polymeric matrix. In the second part, we determine the microscopic structure of suspensions of laponite as a function of concentration, by combining SANS and magneto-optica...

  20. Additive manufacturing of metals the technology, materials, design and production

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Li; Baughman, Brian; Godfrey, Donald; Medina, Francisco; Menon, Mamballykalathil; Wiener, Soeren

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a unique guide to the three-dimensional (3D) printing of metals. It covers various aspects of additive, subtractive, and joining processes used to form three-dimensional parts with applications ranging from prototyping to production. Examining a variety of manufacturing technologies and their ability to produce both prototypes and functional production-quality parts, the individual chapters address metal components and discuss some of the important research challenges associated with the use of these technologies. As well as exploring the latest technologies currently under development, the book features unique sections on electron beam melting technology, material lifting, and the importance this science has in the engineering context. Presenting unique real-life case studies from industry, this book is also the first to offer the perspective of engineers who work in the field of aerospace and transportation systems, and who design components and manufacturing networks. Written by the leadin...

  1. Accelerator conceptual design of the international fusion materials irradiation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, M.; Kinsho, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Intense Neutron Source Lab.; Jameson, R.A.; Blind, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Teplyakov, V. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Berwald, D.; Bruhwiler, D.; Peakock, M.; Rathke, J. [Northrop Grumman Corp., Bethpage, NY (United States); Deitinghoff, H.; Klein, H.; Pozimski, Y.; Volk, K. [Johann Wolfgang Goethe Univ., Frankfurt (Germany). Inst. fur Angewandte Phys.; Ferdinand, R.; Lagniel, J.-M. [CEA Saclay LNS, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Miyahara, A. [Teikyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Olivier, M. [CEA DSM, Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Piechowiak, E. [Northrop Grumman Corp., Baltimore, MD (United States); Tanabe, Y. [Toshiba Corp., Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama (Japan)

    1998-10-01

    The accelerator system of the international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF) provides the 250-mA, 40-MeV continuous-wave deuteron beam at one of the two lithium target stations. It consists of two identical linear accelerator modules, each of which independently delivers a 125-mA beam to the common footprint of 20 cm x 5 cm at the target surface. The accelerator module consists of an ion injector, a 175 MHz RFQ and eight DTL tanks, and rf power supply system. The requirements for the accelerator system and the design concept are described. The interface issues and operational considerations to attain the proposed availability are also discussed. (orig.) 8 refs.

  2. Accelerator conceptual design of the international fusion materials irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, M.; Kinsho, M.; Teplyakov, V.; Berwald, D.; Bruhwiler, D.; Peakock, M.; Rathke, J.; Deitinghoff, H.; Klein, H.; Pozimski, Y.; Volk, K.; Miyahara, A.; Olivier, M.; Piechowiak, E.; Tanabe, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The accelerator system of the international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF) provides the 250-mA, 40-MeV continuous-wave deuteron beam at one of the two lithium target stations. It consists of two identical linear accelerator modules, each of which independently delivers a 125-mA beam to the common footprint of 20 cm x 5 cm at the target surface. The accelerator module consists of an ion injector, a 175 MHz RFQ and eight DTL tanks, and rf power supply system. The requirements for the accelerator system and the design concept are described. The interface issues and operational considerations to attain the proposed availability are also discussed. (orig.)

  3. The design, construction and testing of packaging[Radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-07-01

    Essentially uniform regulations, based on the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, have been adopted on a world-wide basis with the aim of ensuring safety in the transport of radioactive and fissile substances by road, rail, sea and air. The application of these regulations over a period of almost 20 years has resulted in practically complete safety in the sense that there has been no evidence of death or injury that could be attributed to the special properties of the material even when consignments were involved in serious accidents. In the regulations, reliance is placed, to the greatest extent possible, on the packaging to provide adequate shielding and containment of the contents under both normal transport and accident conditions. The Agency organized an international seminar in 1971 to consider the performance tests that have to be applied to packaging to demonstrate compliance with the regulatory requirements. The general conclusion was that the testing programme specified in the regulations was adequate for the near future, but that further consideration should be given to assessing the risks presented by the increasing volume of transport. The second international seminar, which is the subject of this report, dealt with all aspects of the design, construction and testing of packaging for the transport both of relatively small quantities of radioactive substances, which are being used to an ever increasing extent for medical and research purposes, and of the much larger quantities arising in various stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. The programme covered the general requirements for packaging; risk assessment for the transport of various radioactive and fissile substances, including plutonium; specific features of the design and construction of packaging; quality assurance; damage simulation tests, including calculational methods and scale-model testing; tests for the retention of shielding and containment after damage; and the

  4. Political and Economic Geomorphology: The Effect of Market Forces on Stream Restoration Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J.; Doyle, M. W.; Lave, R.; Robertson, M.

    2013-12-01

    Stream restoration in the U.S. is increasingly driven by compensatory mitigation; impacts to streams associated with typical land development activities must be offset via restoration of streams elsewhere. This policy application creates conditions in which restored stream ';credits' are traded under market-like conditions, comparable to wetland mitigation, carbon offsets, or endangered species habitat banking. The effect of this relatively new mechanism to finance stream restoration on design and construction is unknown. This research explores whether the introduction of a credit-based mitigation apparatus results in streams designed to maximize credit yields (i.e., ';credit-chasing') rather than focusing on restoring natural systems or functions. In other words, are market-based restored streams different from those designed for non-market purposes? We quantified geomorphic characteristics (e.g. hydraulic geometry, sinuosity, profile, bed sediment, LWD) of three types of streams: (1) a random sample of non-restored reaches, (2) streams restored for compensatory mitigation, and (3) streams restored under alternative funding sources (e.g., government grant programs, non-profit activities). We also compared the location of the types of stream reaches to determine whether there is a spatiality of restored streams. Physical data were complemented with a series of semi-structured interviews with key personnel in the stream restoration industry to solicit information on the influence of policy interpretation and market-driven factors on the design process. Preliminary analysis suggests that restoration is driving a directional shift in stream morphology in North Carolina. As a simple example, in the Piedmont, non-restored and restored channels had mean sinuosity of 1.17 and 1.23, respectively (p sale of restored stream credits, was seen as critically important rather than the marginal gains to be made by manipulating particular stream designs to glean more credits

  5. Positioning Industrial Design Education within Higher Education: How to face increasingly challenging market forces?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Liem

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses how Industrial Design Education should be adapted to pressing future challenges of higher education with respect to promoting high quality mentorship and scholarship, as well as being more economically self-sufficient through stronger collaborative engagements with industry. The four (4 following trends will be presented on how prospective design programs are to be developed: (1 Mass-education and rationalisation, (2 Links between education and research, (3 Globalisation and internationalisation, and (4 Collaboration with industry and research commercialisation.Given the challenges of market forces within academia, a consensus within the design education community should be established in order to expose students more to “active learning” and to vice-versa commute from generic to specialist and from abstract to concrete modes of working. Comprehensive and collaborative studio projects should be implemented as platforms, where social, interdisciplinary and inquiry-based learning can be developed in line with selected design themes, processes and methods.

  6. Mask Materials and Designs for Extreme Ultra Violet Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Sik; Ahn, Jinho

    2018-03-01

    Extreme ultra violet lithography (EUVL) is no longer a future technology but is going to be inserted into mass production of semiconductor devices of 7 nm technology node in 2018. EUVL is an extension of optical lithography using extremely short wavelength (13.5 nm). This short wavelength requires major modifications in the optical systems due to the very strong absorption of EUV light by materials. Refractive optics can no longer be used, and reflective optics is the only solution to transfer image from mask to wafer. This is why we need the multilayer (ML) mirror-based mask as well as an oblique incident angle of light. This paper discusses the principal theory on the EUV mask design and its component materials including ML reflector and EUV absorber. Mask shadowing effect (or mask 3D effect) is explained and its technical solutions like phase shift mask is reviewed. Even though not all the technical issues on EUV mask are handled in this review paper, you will be able to understand the principles determining the performance of EUV masks.

  7. Selected topics in special nuclear materials safeguard system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.L.; Thatcher, C.D.; Clarke, J.D.; Rodriguez, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    During the past two decades the improvements in circuit integration have given rise to many new applications in digital processing technology by continuously reducing the unit cost of processing power. Along with this increase in processing power a corresponding decrease in circuit volume has been achieved. Progress has been so swift that new classes of applications become feasible every 2 or 3 years. This is especially true in the application of proven new technology to special nuclear materials (SNM) safeguard systems. Several areas of application were investigated in establishing the performance requirements for the SNM safeguard system. These included the improvements in material control and accountability and surveillance by using multiple sensors to continuously monitor SNM inventory within the selected value(s); establishing a system architecture to provide capabilities needed for present and future performance requirements; and limiting operating manpower exposure to radiation. This paper describes two selected topics in the application of state-of-the-art, well-proven technology to SNM safeguard system design

  8. Mechanical design of mussel byssus: material yield enhances attachment strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell; Gosline

    1996-01-01

    The competitive dominance of mussels in the wave-swept rocky intertidal zone is in part due to their ability to maintain a secure attachment. Mussels are tethered to the substratum by a byssus composed of numerous extracellular, collagenous threads secreted by the foot. Each byssal thread has three serially arranged parts: a corrugated proximal region, a smooth distal region and an adhesive plaque. This study examines the material and structural properties of the byssal threads of three mussel species: Mytilus californianus, M. trossulus, and M. galloprovincialis. Tensile tests in general reveal similar material properties among species: the proximal region has a lower initial modulus, a lower ultimate stress and a higher ultimate strain than the distal region. The distal region also yields at a stress well below its ultimate value. In whole thread tests, the proximal region and adhesive plaque are common sites of structural failure and are closely matched in strength, while the distal region appears to be excessively strong. We propose that the high strength of the distal region is the byproduct of a material designed to yield and extend before structural failure occurs. Experimental and theoretical evidence is presented suggesting that thread yield and extensibility provide two important mechanisms for increasing the overall attachment strength of the mussel: (1) the reorientation of threads towards the direction of applied load, and (2) the 'recruitment' of more threads into tension and the consequent distribution of applied load over a larger cross-sectional area, thereby reducing the stress on each thread. This distal region yield behavior is most striking for M. californianus and may be a key to its success in extreme wave-swept environments.

  9. Strategic and Tactical Design of Competing Decentralized Supply Chain Networks with Risk-Averse Participants for Markets with Uncertain Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Hafezalkotob, Ashkan; Makui, Ahmad; Sadjadi, Seyed Jafar

    2011-01-01

    An integrated equilibrium model for tactical decisions in network design is developed. We consider a decentralized supply chain network operating in markets under uncertain demands when there is a rival decentralized chain. The primary assumption is that two chains provide partial substitutable products to the markets, and markets' demands are affected by tactical decisions such as price, service level, and advertising expenditure. Each chain consists of one risk-averse manufacturer and a set...

  10. Band Gap Optimization Design of Photonic Crystals Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y.; Yu, B.; Gao, X.

    2017-12-01

    The photonic crystal has a fundamental characteristic - photonic band gap, which can prevent light to spread in the crystals. This paper studies the width variation of band gaps of two-dimension square lattice photonic crystals by changing the geometrical shape of the unit cells’ inner medium column. Using the finite element method, we conduct numerical experiments on MATLAB 2012a and COMSOL 3.5. By shortening the radius in vertical axis and rotating the medium column, we design a new unit cell, with a 0.3*3.85e-7 vertical radius and a 15 degree deviation to the horizontal axis. The new cell has a gap 1.51 percent wider than the circle medium structure in TE gap and creates a 0.0124 wide TM gap. Besides, the experiment shows the first TM gap is partially overlapped by the second TE gap in gap pictures. This is helpful to format the absolute photonic band gaps and provides favorable theoretical basis for designing photonic communication material.

  11. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 1, Design concept. Part 2, Project management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL's weapons research, development, and testing (WRD ampersand T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL's inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for mate rial and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. This document provides Part I - Design Concept which describes the selected solution, and Part II - Project Management which describes the management system organization, the elements that make up the system, and the control and reporting system

  12. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 1, Design concept. Part 2, Project management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-14

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL`s weapons research, development, and testing (WRD&T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL`s inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for mate rial and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. This document provides Part I - Design Concept which describes the selected solution, and Part II - Project Management which describes the management system organization, the elements that make up the system, and the control and reporting system.

  13. The design, marketing, and implementation of online continuing education about computers and nursing informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Nancy M; Saarmann, Lembi; Seidman, Robert; Flagg, Joan

    2006-01-01

    Asynchronous online tutorials using PowerPoint slides with accompanying audio to teach practicing nurses about computers and nursing informatics were designed for this project, which awarded free continuing education units to completers. Participants had control over the advancement of slides, with the ability to repeat when desired. Graphics were kept to a minimum; thus, the program ran smoothly on computers using dial-up modems. The tutorials were marketed in live meetings and through e-mail messages on nursing listservs. Findings include that the enrollment process must be automated and instantaneous, the program must work from every type of computer and Internet connection, marketing should be live and electronic, and workshops should be offered to familiarize nurses with the online learning system.

  14. Supply assurance in the electricity market. Is the investment dilemma the result of inefficient market design?; Versorgungssicherheit auf Elektrizitaetsmaerkten. Investitionsdilemma durch ineffizientes Marktdesign?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buedenbender, Martin [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Genossenschaftswesen; Janssen, Matthias; Wobben, Magnus [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl Volkswirtschaftstheorie

    2009-03-15

    This article addresses the investment dilemma in the area of power generation, which in insufficiently designed, liberalized power markets leads macroeconomically to undesirably low levels of energy supply security. The prime causes for this dilemma in the German power market are rooted first in damages for suppliers which are limited in cases of generation capacity-induced power failures and second in the time delay between the final trading opportunity and the actual power delivery. The latter inhibits the ability to individually balance unexpected changes in rates of power generation and discharge at any time. Furthermore, the following factors contribute to an intensification of the dilemma: insufficient end user participation in the wholesale market, a lack of single end user cut-off options, as well as time lags in the construction of generation capacities combined with various market uncertainties. Potential approaches to a sustainable improvement of supply security include on the one hand an increase in liquidity of intraday trading to align market clearing and power delivery as closely as possible. The promotion of direct marketing for renewable energy along with other strategies will lead to such an improvement. On the other hand, end users' utilization of smart meters should be enhanced. Thus, peak load could be moderated and allows for the inclusion of end users' willingness to pay into the wholesale market. (orig.)

  15. 77 FR 68873 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Designation of Longer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... ``Benchmark Orders'' Under NASDAQ Rule 4751(f) November 9, 2012. On May 1, 2012, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Designation of Longer Period for Commission... proposed rule change to establish various ``Benchmark Orders'' under NASDAQ Rule 4751(f). The proposed rule...

  16. 77 FR 39314 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Designation of a Longer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Designation of a Longer Period for Commission Action on Proposed Rule Change To Establish ``Benchmark Orders'' Under NASDAQ Rule 4751(f) June 26, 2012. On May 1, 2012, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or ``Exchange'') filed with the...

  17. 76 FR 2732 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Designation of Longer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Designation of Longer Period for Commission.... Introduction On June 18, 2010, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``Nasdaq'' or the ``Exchange'') filed with the... change. The Commission may extend the period for issuing an order approving or disapproving the proposed...

  18. Comparison of design, materials selection and characterization of pacifiers produced in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliprandini P

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundA pacifier is an object designed for use by children aged twoweeks to around five years old. Although a convenient andan efficient alternative to children sucking their thumb, itsuse is highly questionable. With the advancement ofmedicine and technology, harms related to its use werediscovered and were related to poor development of theteeth. Furthermore, the use of some industrial rawmaterials may cause damage to the child’s health during thegrowing process.MethodThis study evaluates different models of pacifiers availableon the market, taking into consideration the design,materials and attendance to Brazilian Standards.ResultsThe Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR analysisof the five different models of pacifiers indicates the use ofdifferent materials. For models A, B and E, the nipple isbasically composed of silicone, while the guard is made ofpolycarbonate. For model C and D, the nipple is basicallycomposed of natural rubber, while the guard and the ringare made of polycarbonate. For model D and E, however,the presence of Bisphenol A (BPA was also used incomposition. For the tensile strength tests, only model Cwas disapproved.ConclusionSilicon and natural rubber satisfy the requirements fortechnical performance. However, this does not take intoaccount hygiene and toxicity as parameters for theselection, which are also important when considering childhealth.

  19. Marketing Strategies Based on Consumer Preferences of Karnavas Mullberry Molasses with Protected Designation of Origin (PDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Topcu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to determine the integrated marketing tactic and strategies based on the main factors affecting the preferences and purchase patterns related to Karnavas Mullberry Molasses with PDO of the consumers dwelling in Erzurum. The main material of the study was provided by the primary data obtained from a survey conducted on 401 households residing in Erzurum during 2015, and consuming Karnavas Mullberry Molasses. Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Two-step Cluster Analysis were used to determine the main factors impacting on their purchase decisions, and then to segment homogenous clusters according to their purchase frequencies by taking into consideration the data, respectively. The results of the study indicated that the heavy and medium users who consume Karnavas Mullberry Molasses pointed out the necessity of the augmented and actual product image positioning at retail level under local individual brands considering the attributes of the holistic quality with PDO label and those of the sensory quality obtained from traditional production methods to contribute to rural development under the direct marketing approaches, respectively. On the other hand, the light users also focused on the increase of market penetration effect via promotion mix and the product positioning under the local branded actual product image implementing traditional production method and hedonic quality approaches. It could be applied the positioning and promotion strategies according to the consumers’ utility expectation and the product images, therefore, by considering their requirements and desires in each segment.

  20. Design and evaluation of materials for space reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavassoli, A.A.; Vrillon, B.; Robert, G.

    1990-01-01

    The French programme envisages a 20 kWe reactor, project ERATO, with three technological options. The first option is a sodium cooled reactor, derived from the fast breeder reactor technology, (upper core outlet temperature of 700 0 C). The second option is based on the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor technology (outlet temperature range 700 0 C-900 0 C). The third option is the reference solution, lithium cooled and UN fuelled fast spectrum reactor, (outlet temperature as high as 1200 0 C). The choice is essentially dominated by material considerations, and more specifically by the problems related to the compatibility with the cooling medium and to the high temperature creep resistance. For the first system limited work will be needed as the technology used is well experimented and there is a wealth of information on the austenitic stainless steel Type 316L-SPH. For the second system, most of the work has been concentrated on characterization of existing commercial alloys. This has included the preselection and the testing of a number of superalloys irradiated or not. The results obtained from high temperature tensile and creep tests have allowed selection of Haynes 230 as the primary candidate material and have also permitted calculation of allowable design stresses for this alloy. For the very high temperature system the French R and D programme has focused on Mo-Re alloys. The results obtained to this date from microstructural examinations and mechanical tests performed on different alloy compositions have allowed selection of Mo-25%Re for future optimization work. They have also shown the need for evaluation of creep properties at low stresses where microstructural instabilities are likely to occur as a result of long exposure to high temperature

  1. Target design for materials processing very far from equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, John J.; Schenkel, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Local heating and electronic excitations can trigger phase transitions or novel material states that can be stabilized by rapid quenching. An example on the few nanometer scale are phase transitions induced by the passage of swift heavy ions in solids where nitrogen-vacancy color centers form locally in diamonds when ions heat the diamond matrix to warm dense matter conditions at 0.5 eV. We optimize mask geometries for target materials such as silicon and diamond to induce phase transitions by intense ion pulses (e. g. from NDCX-II or from laser-plasma acceleration). The goal is to rapidly heat a solid target volumetrically and to trigger a phase transition or local lattice reconstruction followed by rapid cooling. The stabilized phase can then be studied ex situ. We performed HYDRA simulations that calculate peak temperatures for a series of excitation conditions and cooling rates of crystal targets with micro-structured masks. A simple analytical model, that includes ion heating and radial, diffusive cooling, was developed that agrees closely with the HYDRA simulations. The model gives scaling laws that can guide the design of targets over a wide range of parameters including those for NDCX-II and the proposed BELLA-i. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE under contracts DE-AC52-07NA27344 (LLNL), DE-AC02-05CH11231 (LBNL) and was supported by the US DOE Office of Science, Fusion Energy Sciences. LLNL-ABS-697271.

  2. Spanish generation market: structure, design and results; El Mercado de Generacion Electrica en Espana: Estructura, Funcionamiento y Resultados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agosti, L.; Padilla, A. J.; Requejo, A.

    2007-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of the structure, design and outcome of the Spanish generation market from 1998, when the market was liberalised, to date. More precisely, this paper reviews the history of the liberalisation process; describes the structure of the generation market and its evolution over time; analyses the existence of market power; and evaluates the outcome of the liberalisation process from the viewpoint of its impact on al locative efficiency, productive efficiency and dynamic efficiency. The paper concludes with a brief summary of recent regulatory reforms. (Author)

  3. Electricity market design for facilitating the integration of wind energy. Experience and prospects with the Australian National Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGill, Iain

    2010-01-01

    Australia has been an early and enthusiastic adopter of both electricity industry restructuring and market-based environmental regulation. The Australian National Electricity Market (NEM) was established in 1999 and Australia also implemented one of the world's first renewable energy target schemes in 2001. With significant recent growth in wind generation, Australia provides an interesting case for assessing different approaches to facilitating wind integration into the electricity industry. Wind project developers in Australia must assess both potential energy market and Tradeable Green Certificate income streams when making investments. Wind-farm energy income depends on the match of its uncertain time varying output with the regional half hourly market price; a price that exhibits daily, weekly and seasonal patterns and considerable uncertainty. Such price signals assist in driving investments that maximize project value to the electricity industry as a whole, including integration costs and benefits for other participants. Recent NEM rule changes will formally integrate wind generation in the market's scheduling processes while a centralized wind forecasting system has also been introduced. This paper outlines experience to date with wind integration in the NEM, describes the evolution of market rules in response and assesses their possible implications for facilitating high future wind penetrations. (author)

  4. Study and characterization of ceramic materials from natural origin for application in jewellery design using laser texturing as innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elesbao, T.R.; Carus, L.A.; Tabarelli, A.C.; Vieira, R.P.; Takimi, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    Technological development has been largely responsible for changes in the jewelry market. Seeking to contribute to the development of new products, this study analyzed the technique of laser texturing, aiming to add commercial and aesthetic values to the mother of pearl, material used in the jewelry field. The methodology was divided into physico-chemical characterization of the mother-of-pearl and of the resulting residue of laser texturing and analysis of the interaction of laser with the surface of the mother-of-pearl. The characterizations carried out were: Infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Results indicate that the studied material is composed mainly by the aragonite crystal phase, different from that resulting residue from texturing process. Although the process remove some of the gem material, the effect water characteristic of the mother-of-pearl is maintained, suggesting that technology combined with research and design can increase the value of this material. (author)

  5. Designing "Real-World" trials to meet the needs of health policy makers at marketing authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Melanie; Wood, John; Freemantle, Nick

    2011-07-01

    There is increasing interest in conducting "Real-World" trials that go beyond traditional assessment of efficacy and safety to examine market access and value for money questions before marketing authorization of a new pharmaceutical product or health technology. This commentary uses practical examples to demonstrate how high-quality evidence of the cost-effectiveness of an intervention may be gained earlier in the development process. Issues surrounding the design and analysis of "Real-World" trials to demonstrate relative cost-effectiveness early in the life of new technologies are discussed. The modification of traditional phase III trial designs, de novo trial designs, the combination of trial-based and epidemiological data, and the use of simulation model-based approaches to address reimbursement questions are described. Modest changes to a phase III trial protocol and case report form may be undertaken at the design stage to provide valid estimates of health care use and the benefits accrued; however, phase III designs often preclude "real-life" practice. Relatively small de novo trials may be used to address adherence to therapy or patient preference, although simply designed studies with active comparators enrolling large numbers of patients may provide evidence on long-term safety and rare adverse events. Practical examples demonstrate that it is possible to provide high-quality evidence of the cost-effectiveness of an intervention earlier in the development process. Payers and decision makers should preferentially adopt treatments with such evidence than treatments for which evidence is lacking or of lower quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Eutectics as improved pharmaceutical materials: design, properties and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherukuvada, Suryanarayan; Nangia, Ashwini

    2014-01-28

    Eutectics are a long known class of multi-component solids with important and useful applications in daily life. In comparison to other multi-component crystalline solids, such as salts, solid solutions, molecular complexes and cocrystals, eutectics are less studied in terms of molecular structure organization and bonding interactions. Classically, a eutectic is defined based on its low melting point compared to the individual components. In this article, we attempt to define eutectics not just based on thermal methods but from a structural organization view point, and discuss their microstructures and properties as organic materials vis-a-vis solid solutions and cocrystals. The X-ray crystal structure of a cocrystal is different from that of the individual components whereas the unit cell of a solid solution is similar to that of one of the components. Eutectics are closer to the latter species in that their crystalline arrangement is similar to the parent components but they are different with respect to the structural integrity. A solid solution possesses structural homogeneity throughout the structure (single phase) but a eutectic is a heterogeneous ensemble of individual components whose crystal structures are like discontinuous solid solutions (phase separated). Thus, a eutectic may be better defined as a conglomerate of solid solutions. A structural analysis of cocrystals, solid solutions and eutectics has led to an understanding that materials with strong adhesive (hetero) interactions between the unlike components will lead to cocrystals whereas those having stronger cohesive (homo/self) interactions will more often give rise to solid solutions (for similar structures of components) and eutectics (for different structures of components). We demonstrate that the same crystal engineering principles which have been profitably utilized for cocrystal design in the past decade can now be applied to make eutectics as novel composite materials, illustrated by

  7. Optimal designs of small CHP plants in a market with fluctuating electricity prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, H.; Andersen, A.N.

    2005-01-01

    Combined Heat and Power production (CHP) are essential for implementation of the climate change response objectives in many countries. In an introduction period, small CHP plants have typically been offered fixed electricity prices, but in many countries, such pricing conditions are now being replaced by spot market prices. Consequently, new methodologies and tools for the optimisation of small CHP plant designs are needed. The small CHP plants in Denmark are already experienced in optimising their electricity production against the triple tariff, which has existed for almost 10 years. Consequently, the CHP plants have long term experience in organising when to switch on and off the CHP units in order to optimise their profit. Also, the CHP owners have long term experience in designing their plants. For instance, small CHP plants in Denmark have usually invested in excess capacity on the CHP units in combination with heat storage capacity. Thereby, the plants have increased their performance in order to optimise revenues. This paper presents the Danish experience with methodologies and software tools, which have been used to design investment and operation strategies for almost all small CHP plants in Denmark during the decade of the triple tariff. Moreover, the changes in such methodologies and tools in order to optimise performance in a market with fluctuating electricity prices are presented and discussed

  8. Integrating Materials, Manufacturing, Design and Validation for Sustainability in Future Transport Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, M. A.; Murphy, A.; Butterfield, J.; McCool, R.; Fleck, R.

    2011-05-01

    The predictive methods currently used for material specification, component design and the development of manufacturing processes, need to evolve beyond the current `metal centric' state of the art, if advanced composites are to realise their potential in delivering sustainable transport solutions. There are however, significant technical challenges associated with this process. Deteriorating environmental, political, economic and social conditions across the globe have resulted in unprecedented pressures to improve the operational efficiency of the manufacturing sector generally and to change perceptions regarding the environmental credentials of transport systems in particular. There is a need to apply new technologies and develop new capabilities to ensure commercial sustainability in the face of twenty first century economic and climatic conditions as well as transport market demands. A major technology gap exists between design, analysis and manufacturing processes in both the OEMs, and the smaller companies that make up the SME based supply chain. As regulatory requirements align with environmental needs, manufacturers are increasingly responsible for the broader lifecycle aspects of vehicle performance. These include not only manufacture and supply but disposal and re-use or re-cycling. In order to make advances in the reduction of emissions coupled with improved economic efficiency through the provision of advanced lightweight vehicles, four key challenges are identified as follows: Material systems, Manufacturing systems, Integrated design methods using digital manufacturing tools and Validation systems. This paper presents a project which has been designed to address these four key issues, using at its core, a digital framework for the creation and management of key parameters related to the lifecycle performance of thermoplastic composite parts and structures. It aims to provide capability for the proposition, definition, evaluation and demonstration of

  9. Integrating Materials, Manufacturing, Design and Validation for Sustainability in Future Transport Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, M. A.; Murphy, A.; Butterfield, J.; McCool, R.; Fleck, R.

    2011-01-01

    The predictive methods currently used for material specification, component design and the development of manufacturing processes, need to evolve beyond the current 'metal centric' state of the art, if advanced composites are to realise their potential in delivering sustainable transport solutions. There are however, significant technical challenges associated with this process. Deteriorating environmental, political, economic and social conditions across the globe have resulted in unprecedented pressures to improve the operational efficiency of the manufacturing sector generally and to change perceptions regarding the environmental credentials of transport systems in particular. There is a need to apply new technologies and develop new capabilities to ensure commercial sustainability in the face of twenty first century economic and climatic conditions as well as transport market demands. A major technology gap exists between design, analysis and manufacturing processes in both the OEMs, and the smaller companies that make up the SME based supply chain. As regulatory requirements align with environmental needs, manufacturers are increasingly responsible for the broader lifecycle aspects of vehicle performance. These include not only manufacture and supply but disposal and re-use or re-cycling. In order to make advances in the reduction of emissions coupled with improved economic efficiency through the provision of advanced lightweight vehicles, four key challenges are identified as follows: Material systems, Manufacturing systems, Integrated design methods using digital manufacturing tools and Validation systems. This paper presents a project which has been designed to address these four key issues, using at its core, a digital framework for the creation and management of key parameters related to the lifecycle performance of thermoplastic composite parts and structures. It aims to provide capability for the proposition, definition, evaluation and demonstration of

  10. Hybrid intelligent methodology to design translation invariant morphological operators for Brazilian stock market prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Ricardo de A

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents a hybrid intelligent methodology to design increasing translation invariant morphological operators applied to Brazilian stock market prediction (overcoming the random walk dilemma). The proposed Translation Invariant Morphological Robust Automatic phase-Adjustment (TIMRAA) method consists of a hybrid intelligent model composed of a Modular Morphological Neural Network (MMNN) with a Quantum-Inspired Evolutionary Algorithm (QIEA), which searches for the best time lags to reconstruct the phase space of the time series generator phenomenon and determines the initial (sub-optimal) parameters of the MMNN. Each individual of the QIEA population is further trained by the Back Propagation (BP) algorithm to improve the MMNN parameters supplied by the QIEA. Also, for each prediction model generated, it uses a behavioral statistical test and a phase fix procedure to adjust time phase distortions observed in stock market time series. Furthermore, an experimental analysis is conducted with the proposed method through four Brazilian stock market time series, and the achieved results are discussed and compared to results found with random walk models and the previously introduced Time-delay Added Evolutionary Forecasting (TAEF) and Morphological-Rank-Linear Time-lag Added Evolutionary Forecasting (MRLTAEF) methods. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Design of the incentive mechanism in electricity auction market based on the signaling game theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Xiliang; Lieu, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    At present, designing a proper bidding mechanism to decrease the generators' market power is considered to be one of the key approaches to deepen the reform of the electricity market. Based on the signaling game theory, the paper analyzes the main electricity bidding mechanisms in the electricity auction markets and considers the degree of information disturbance as an important factor for evaluating bidding mechanisms. Under the above studies, an incentive electricity bidding mechanism defined as the Generator Semi-randomized Matching (GSM) mechanism is proposed. In order to verify the new bidding mechanism, this paper uses the Swarm platform to develop a simulation model based on the multi-agents. In the simulation model, the generators and purchasers use the partly superior study strategy to adjust their price and their electricity quantity. Then, the paper examines a simulation experiment of the GSM bidding mechanism and compares it to a simulation of the High-Low Matching (HLM) bidding mechanism. According to the simulation results, several conclusions can be drawn when comparing the proposed GSM bidding mechanism to the equilibrium state of HLM: the clearing price decreases, the total transaction volume increases, the profits of electricity generators decreases, and the overall benefits of purchasers increases. Index Terms - signaling game; semi-randomized matching; high-low match. (author)

  12. Case study of a traditional material (adobe) for facilities design destined to X-ray equipment emplacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar Serrano, Lola

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work is to use the existent material (adobe) in the national market as an alternative for an optimum design that counts with the conditions for radiological protection as well as an adequate infrastructure to service assistance. Therefore, it gives a tool of professional use for an X-ray installation design, because the adobes represent an adequate protection for employees as Worker occupational exposed (WOE) and for general public, also for economics reasons and construction technical aspects. With the study of above material is demonstrated that in X-ray facilities construction is not always necessary the use of lead sheets or another materials for walls, which are used as shielding elements against ionizing radiation. The adobe election for this study, is because Bolivia counts with a great percentage of constructed areas whit this type of material because is economical and raw material is accessible for users. From the experimental tests we get the graphics that allow to found the half value thickness (HVT) of the half layer (HVL) of this adobe, is that thickness of material with when placed in the path of the radiation will attenuate it to one half its original value. A tenth value thickness (TVT) similarly reduces the radiation to one tenth of its original value. Material which contains heavy atoms and molecules such as steel and lead provide the most effective (thinnest) shields for X-rays. The contribute of this study, carried out with the construction material (adobe) that exists in the national market will be of great utility for society because there is no values recorded in the bibliography. (author)

  13. Designing Neat and Composite Carbon Nanotube Materials by Porosimetric Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobashi, Kazufumi; Yoon, Howon; Ata, Seisuke; Yamada, Takeo; Futaba, Don N; Hata, Kenji

    2017-12-06

    We propose a porosimetry-based method to characterize pores formed by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the CNT agglomerates for designing neat CNT-based materials and composites. CNT agglomerates contain pores between individual CNTs and/or CNT bundles (micropore  50 nm). We investigated these pores structured by CNTs with different diameters and number of walls, clarifying the broader size distribution and the larger volume with increased diameters and number of walls. Further, we demonstrated that CNT agglomerate structures with different bulk density were distinguished depending on the pore sizes. Our method also revealed that CNT dispersibility in solvent correlated with the pore sizes of CNT agglomerates. By making use of these knowledge on tailorable pores for CNT agglomerates, we successfully found the correlation between electrical conductivity for CNT rubber composites and pore sizes of CNT agglomerates. Therefore, our method can distinguish diverse CNT agglomerate structures and guide pore sizes of CNT agglomerates to give high electrical conductivity of CNT rubber composites.

  14. Computational Design and Characterization of New Battery Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mýrdal, Jón Steinar Garðarsson

    . It is hoped that high energy dense Li-air batteries will be able to replace Li-ion batteries in the future. There are however number of challenge that need to be solved before that can happen. We have studied the growth and decomposition of Li2O2, which is the main discharge product of Li-O2batteries......This thesis is dedicated to the investigation and design of new functional materials for energy storage. The focus of the presented work is on components for the successful Li-ion and the promising Li-air batteries. First principle density function theory calculations are applied to screening...... electrolytes are believed to increase safety in Li based batteries as they would prevent metallic growth in the electrolyte. LiBH4 has a solid superionic conducting HT phase that is stable above 390 K. The HT phase can be stabilized at room temperature with substitution of I into the LiBH4 structure. Here we...

  15. Could Black Be the New Gold? Design-Driven Challenges in New Sustainable Luxury Materials for Jewelry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Lerma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Is there a new material for use in jewelry, matching gold and precious stones, capable of maintaining the same perception of “preciousness” but that is also more sustainable, ethical, and inexpensive? This article deals with a case study within the European EcoDesign Network research project, aimed at investigating how sustainable design can help prestigious companies pinpoint new materials for the creation of jewelry, focusing on new and environmentally friendly opportunities while preserving their market position and target audience. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed. Adopting the exploring design path, a jewelry background analysis pointed out both stereotypes and possible innovations in the jewelry field: an analysis was carried out on the perception of jewels by a panel guided by a cognitive ergonomics specialist, also using the eye-tracking machine to examine participants’ reactions to the jewelry involved in the study, and to establish paradigms of sustainability, preciousness, and innovation. Several meta-project proposals regarding innovations in materials and finishing were hypothesized and tested, following the main guidelines and principles of ecodesign. Lastly, a prototyping phase and some mechanical tests were implemented to verify the hypotheses of innovation. The results allowed the creation of a first set of sustainable jewelry, currently on the market.

  16. Design of lightweight multi-material automotive bodies using new material performance indices of thin-walled beams for the material selection with crashworthiness consideration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Xintao; Zhang, Hongwei; Wang, Shuxin; Zhang, Lianhong; Ko, Jeonghan

    2011-01-01

    Currently, automotive bodies are constructed usually using a single material, e.g. steel or aluminum. Compared to single-material automotive bodies, multi-material automotive bodies allow optimal material selection in each structural component for higher product performance and lower cost. This paper presents novel material performance indices and procedures developed to guide systematic material selection for multi-material automotive bodies. These new indices enable to characterize the crashworthiness performance of complex-shaped thin-walled beams in multi-material automotive bodies according to material types. This paper also illustrates the application of these performance indices and procedures by designing a lightweight multi-material automotive body. These procedures will help to design a lightweight and affordable body favored by the automotive industry, thus to reduce fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

  17. Assessments and market design for the water market at Xiying Irrigation, Shiyang River Basin, Gansu Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, T.; Zhao, J.; Zheng, H.

    2016-12-01

    As one of the pilot water markets in China, the market in Xiying Irrigation was built in 2008. Based on the historical trading data, it can be concluded that the studied market is growing but facing quite a few challenges. To solve these challenges, the first step we have done is assessment on the market. Some comparable indices were introduced from network science by us. These indices straightforwardly show the status and major problems in the market. One main problem we have found from surveys and our assessment is that there are barriers between distant seller and buyer. This discovery incentives us to develop a new mechanism for matching sellers and buyers to reduce the loss on social welfare. By modelling the trading barriers between a buyer and a seller as an indicator -- tradable or nontradable, the authors propose a mixed-integer linear programming algorithm to optimize the social welfare. According to the theories on competitive equilibrium, the authors are able to extend the programming to compute a reasonable price profile for each pair of tradable seller and buyer. It can be proved that given the price profile, the optimal strategy for each seller or buyer is to follow the optimal assignment. This mechanism significantly reduces the social welfare loss. However, this study shows that removing the trading barriers can brings more social welfare increments.

  18. Using Social Self-Identification in Social Marketing Materials Aimed at Reducing Violence against Women on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Sharyn J.; Moynihan, Mary M.; Stapleton, Jane G.

    2011-01-01

    Bystander-focused in person sexual violence prevention programs provide an opportunity for skill development among bystanders and for widening the safety net for survivors. A social marketing campaign was designed modeling prosocial bystander behavior and using content familiar to target audience members by staging and casting scenes to look…

  19. Design of online testing system of material radiation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Junsheng; He Shengping; Gao Xinjun

    2014-01-01

    The capability of radiation resistance is important for some material used in some specifically engineering fields. It is the same principal applied in all existing test system that compares the performance parameter after radiation to evaluate material radiation resistance. A kind of new technique on test system of material radiation resistance is put forward in this paper. Experimentation shows that the online test system for material radiation resistance works well and has an extending application outlook. (authors)

  20. Estimation of individual sennosides in plant materials and marketed formulations by an HPTLC method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, S A; Ravishankara, M N; Nirmal, A; Shishoo, C J; Rathod, I S; Suhagia, B N

    2000-04-01

    Senna is a well-known drug, used in the Ayurvedic and Allopathic systems of medicine, and is a treatment for constipation. The purgative action of senna and its formulations is due to the presence of sennosides A and B. An HPTLC method has been developed for the determination of individual sennosides (A, B, C, D) without any derivatization in marketed formulations (three tablet formulations, two granule formulations and one liquid formulation) and plant materials (senna leaf and pod). The methanolic solution of a sample was applied on a pre-coated silica gel G60 F254 TLC plate (E. Merck.) and was developed using n-propanol : ethyl acetate : water : glacial acetic acid (3 : 3 : 2 : 0.1 v/v) as the mobile phase. The relative band speeds (Rf values) obtained were 0.35, 0.25, 0.61, 0.46 for sennosides A, B, C and D, respectively. The densitometric response was monitored at 366nm. Calibration curves were found to be linear in the concentration ranges 193-1356, 402-2817, 71-497 and 132-927 ng per spot for sennosides A, B, C, and D, respectively. The correlation coefficients were found to be 0.9978, 0.9987, 0.9939 and 0.9983 respectively for sennosides A, B, C and D. The result obtained with the HPTLC method for total sennoside content was compared with the results using the pharmacopoeial methods (spectrophotometric (British Pharmacopoeia) and spectrofluorimetric (United States Pharmacopeia) using the 'F' test). The results revealed no significant difference in the three different methods for estimation of total sennoside. The proposed HPTLC method was found to be simple, specific, precise, accurate and rapid. It can be used for routine quality control of sennosides or senna-containing formulations for individual sennosides.

  1. The Analysis and the Design of E-marketing Strategy at Sme's (a Case Study: the Dare to Dream Indonesia Community)

    OpenAIRE

    Ongowarsito, Henkie; Nurcahyani, Kartika; Djoyo, Brata Wibawa

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of the research are to analyze the e-marketing strategy and to design e-marketing application which is a website that is appropriate for SME’S of Dare to Dream Indonesia (D2DI) community. The methodology of analysis used consists of 4 stages from 7 stages of e-marketing and the design method consists of three last stages of e-marketing. The result achieved is a website as an e-marketing application that can support marketing and promoting activities, expanding the target market, ...

  2. Portfolio optimization using Mixture Design of Experiments. Scheduling trades within electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Francisco Alexandre de; Paiva, Anderson Paulo de; Lima, Jose Wanderley Marangon; Balestrassi, Pedro Paulo; Mendes, Rona Rinston Amaury [Federal Univ. of Itajuba, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    Deregulation of the electricity sector has given rise to several approaches to defining optimal portfolios of energy contracts. Financial tools - requiring substantial adjustments - are usually used to determine risk and return. This article presents a novel approach to adjusting the conditional value at risk (CVaR) metric to the mix of contracts on the energy markets; the approach uses Mixture Design of Experiments (MDE). In this kind of experimental strategy, the design factors are treated as proportions in a mixture system considered quite adequate for treating portfolios in general. Instead of using traditional linear programming, the concept of desirability function is here used to combine the multi-response, nonlinear objective functions for mean with the variance of a specific portfolio obtained through MDE. The maximization of the desirability function is implied in the portfolio optimization, generating an efficient recruitment frontier. This approach offers three main contributions: it includes risk aversion in the optimization routine, it assesses interaction between contracts, and it lessens the computational effort required to solve the constrained nonlinear optimization problem. A case study based on the Brazilian energy market is used to illustrate the proposal. The numerical results verify the proposal's adequacy. (author)

  3. Portfolio optimization using Mixture Design of Experiments. Scheduling trades within electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Francisco Alexandre de; Paiva, Anderson Paulo de; Lima, Jose Wanderley Marangon; Balestrassi, Pedro Paulo; Mendes, Rona Rinston Amaury

    2011-01-01

    Deregulation of the electricity sector has given rise to several approaches to defining optimal portfolios of energy contracts. Financial tools - requiring substantial adjustments - are usually used to determine risk and return. This article presents a novel approach to adjusting the conditional value at risk (CVaR) metric to the mix of contracts on the energy markets; the approach uses Mixture Design of Experiments (MDE). In this kind of experimental strategy, the design factors are treated as proportions in a mixture system considered quite adequate for treating portfolios in general. Instead of using traditional linear programming, the concept of desirability function is here used to combine the multi-response, nonlinear objective functions for mean with the variance of a specific portfolio obtained through MDE. The maximization of the desirability function is implied in the portfolio optimization, generating an efficient recruitment frontier. This approach offers three main contributions: it includes risk aversion in the optimization routine, it assesses interaction between contracts, and it lessens the computational effort required to solve the constrained nonlinear optimization problem. A case study based on the Brazilian energy market is used to illustrate the proposal. The numerical results verify the proposal's adequacy. (author)

  4. Korea's emission trading scheme and policy design issues to achieve market-efficiency and abatement targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hojeong; Hong, Won Kyung

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, the government of Republic of Korea (Korea) announced the national abatement target aiming at 30% reductions from the Business-as-Usual projections by 2020. Accordingly, the Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) will be implemented from 2015 onwards. As ETS performance substantially depends on the structural design, it is critically important to examine the details of Korean ETS for the achievement of cost effectiveness and concurrent development of an active emission trading market. This paper addresses several policy design issues for this purpose. After providing an overview on the current framework of Korean ETS, we propose ways to achieve flexibility, consistency and market efficiency of the program in consideration of the preexisting policies. Issues in policy design are discussed by focusing on allowance allocation, market stabilization measures and price mechanism in the emission and energy markets in Korea. This paper will serve as a practical guideline for establishing sustainable and market-efficient Korean ETS that can be compatible with the international standards as in the EU ETS. - Highlights: • Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) will be implemented from 2015 in Korea to reduce CO 2 . • ETS performance substantially depends on structural design. • We provide policy overview on the current framework of Korean ETS. • Several policy design issues are discussed for developing policy consistency. • We focus on allowance allocation, allowance reserve and market stabilization measures

  5. European utility requirements: common rules to design next LWR plants in an open electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berbey, Pierre; Ingemarsson, Karl-Fredrik

    2004-01-01

    The major European electricity producers want to keep able to build new nuclear power plants and they believe 3. generation LWRs would be the most adapted response to their needs in the first decades of this century. Producing a common European Utility Requirement (EUR) document has been one of the basic tasks towards this objective. In this common frame, standardized and competitive LWR NPPs could be developed and offered to the investors. This idea is now well supported by all the other actors on the European electricity market: vendors, regulators, grid managers, administrations although in the competitive and unified European electricity market that is emerging, the electricity producers' stakes are more and more different from the other electricity business actors'. The next term objectives of the electricity producers involved in EUR are focused on negotiating common rules of the game together with the regulators. This covers the nuclear safety approaches, the conditions requested to connect a plant to a HV grid, as well as the design standards. Discussions are going on between the EUR organization and all the corresponding bodies to develop stabilized and predictable design rules that would meet the constraints of nuclear electricity generation in this new environment. Finally there cannot be competition without competitors. The EUR organization has proven to be the right place to establish trustful relationship between the vendors and their potential customers, through fair assessment of the proposed designs performance vs. the utility needs. This will be continued and developed with the main vendors present in Europe, so as to keep alive a list of 4 to 6 designs 'qualified', i.e. showing an acceptable score of non-compliance vs. EUR. (authors)

  6. Bringing in the target audience in bystander social marketing materials for communities: suggestions for practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Sharyn J; Stapleton, Jane G

    2011-06-01

    The Know Your Power™ social marketing campaign images model active bystander behaviors that target audience members can use in situations where sexual and relationship violence and stalking are occurring, have occurred, or have the potential to occur. In this practitioner note, we describe strategies that we have used to engage target audience members in the development of the social marketing campaign that we hope can be used by practitioners. We give examples from the development and evaluation of the Know Your Power(TM) social marketing campaign that used focus group and other types of feedback from the target audience to inform the direction of the campaign.

  7. Materials and design issues for military helmets - Chapter 6

    OpenAIRE

    Hamouda, A.M.S.; Sohaimi, R.M.; Zaidi, A.M.A.; Abdullah, S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: As weaponry technology has advanced, the ballistic threat to humans has increased significantly. As well as the military, civilians who are exposed to these threats as part of their everyday work require adequate protective equipment. This increasing demand for body armour and ballistic helmets is driving the protective equipment industry to create lightweight, reliable protection adapted for specific applications and marketable to a wide range of consumers. This chapter focuses on ...

  8. A Systems Approach to the Design and Operation of Effective Marketing Programs in Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scigliano, John A.

    1983-01-01

    Presents a research-based marketing model consisting of an environmental scanning process, a series of marketing audits, and an information-processing scheme. Views the essential elements of college marketing as information flow; high-level, long-term commitment; diverse strategies; innovation; and a broad view of marketing. Includes a marketing…

  9. The German electricity market. Does the present market design provide security of supply?; Strommarkt in Deutschland. Gewaehrleistet das derzeitige Marktdesign Versorgungssicherheit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, Matthias; Peichert, Patrick; Perner, Jens; Riechmann, Christoph [Frontier Economics, Koeln (Germany); Niedrig, Thomas [Formaet Services GmbH, Rheinbach (Germany)

    2014-09-15

    A heated discussion is being waged in Germany and large parts of Europe over the introduction of what are referred to as capacity mechanisms, whose purpose is to provide security of supply in the electricity sector. In this context two consulting firms have undertaken a both qualitative and quantitative study of the fitness of the present market design, which is based on the ''Energy-Only Market'' (EOM), to provide security of supply in the German electricity market. The authors come to the conclusion that, if suitably framed, the EOM can continue to provide a secure electricity supply in accordance with consumer preferences and at the lowest possible cost.

  10. Logistics: Navy Controls Over Material Sent to Defense Reutilization and Marketing Offices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Shelton R; Wing, Terrance; McDermott, James; Hollister, Paul; Tolbert, Herman; Mansfield, Brett; Talevi, Mike; Cobb, Susann L

    2004-01-01

    The Defense Reutilization and Marketing Service (DRMS) is an organization within the Defense Logistics Agency that is responsible for the reutilization, transfer, donation, sale, and disposal of materiel that is excess to DoD requirements...

  11. Marketing marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Karel Jan van Alsem

    2013-01-01

    In deze installatierede betoogt Karel Jan Alsem dat marketing een grotere strategische rol in organisaties zou moeten krijgen. Want marketing is bij uitstek de verbinding tussen klantwensen en het DNA van een organisatie. Doordat merken gemiddeld voor mensen niet heel belangrijk zijn, is goede

  12. Design, Fabrication, Characterization and Modeling of Integrated Functional Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    activities is expected to lead to new devices/ systems /composite materials useful for the USAMRMC. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Functional materials, integrated...fabrication, nanobiotechnology, multifunctional, dimensional integration, nanocomposites, sensor technology, thermoelectrics, solar cells, photovoltaics ...loop measured in the presence of an AC field, and can be increased by tuning several parameters, such as the nanoparticles’ size , saturation

  13. Computational Design of New Materials for Ammonia Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Bjerre; Quaade, Ulrich

    alkaline-earth mixture, Ba4CaSr3Cl16 wasidentified, and the predicted release was verified experimentally. The two bestfound candidates, Ca4Cu2Y2Cl16 and Sr4Cu2Y2Cl16, are examples of materials,one would not suggest using chemical intuition. This shows that thealgorithm is able to identify new materials...

  14. Design of digital learning material for bioprocess-engineering-education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, van der H.

    2007-01-01

    With the advance of computers and the internet, new types of learning material can be developed: web-based digital learning material. Because many complex learning objectives in the food- and bioprocess technology domain are difficult to achieve in a traditional learning environment, a project was

  15. Materials for Nuclear Plants From Safe Design to Residual Life Assessments

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffelner, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The clamor for non-carbon dioxide emitting energy production has directly  impacted on the development of nuclear energy. As new nuclear plants are built, plans and designs are continually being developed to manage the range of challenging requirement and problems that nuclear plants face especially when managing the greatly increased operating temperatures, irradiation doses and extended design life spans. Materials for Nuclear Plants: From Safe Design to Residual Life Assessments  provides a comprehensive treatment of the structural materials for nuclear power plants with emphasis on advanced design concepts.   Materials for Nuclear Plants: From Safe Design to Residual Life Assessments approaches structural materials with a systemic approach. Important components and materials currently in use as well as those which can be considered in future designs are detailed, whilst the damage mechanisms responsible for plant ageing are discussed and explained. Methodologies for materials characterization, material...

  16. Teaching English Using Video Materials: Design and Delivery of a Practical Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Alvarado, Julio

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a practical course for listening, speaking, reading and writing was designed using authentic video material. The aim of this paper is to offer tools to the TEFL teacher in order to design new course materials using video material. The development procedure is explained in detail, and the underpinning main theories are also…

  17. Material orientation design of planar structures with prescribed anisotropy classes. Study of rhombic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czubacki, Radosław

    2018-01-01

    The paper deals with the minimum compliance problem of 2D structures made of a non-homogeneous elastic material. In the first part of the paper a comparison between solutions of Free Material Design (FMD), Cubic Material Design (CMD) and Isotropic Material Design (IMD) is shown for a simply supported plate in a shape of a deep beam, subjected to a concentrated in-plane force at its upper face. The isoperimetric condition fixes the value of the cost of the design expressed as the integral of the trace of the Hooke tensor. In the second part of the paper the material design approaches are extended to rhombic system in 2D. For the rhombic system the material properties of the structures are set, the design variables being the trajectories of anisotropy directions which in 2D are described by one parameter. In the Orthotropic Orientation Design (OOD) no isoperimetric condition is used.

  18. TRICARE Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-21

    definitive. It stated that: Marketing is much more than advertising or promotion materials. Marketing is a foundation for building a business strategy ; it...objectives, and strategies for marketing TRICARE. However, the Director provided the plan for information; none of the recipients of the plan were...overarching goal and extensively in the marketing strategies section. Specifically, the Marketing Plan states that strategies employed to accomplish

  19. Multi-Material Design Optimization of Composite Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Christian Frier

    properties. The modeling encompasses discrete orientationing of orthotropic materials, selection between different distinct materials as well as removal of material representing holes in the structure within a unified parametrization. The direct generalization of two-phase topology optimization to any number...... of a relaxation-based search heuristic that accelerates a Generalized Benders' Decomposition technique for global optimization and enables the solution of medium-scale problems to global optimality. Improvements in the ability to solve larger problems to global optimality are found and potentially further...... improvements may be obtained with this technique in combination with cheaper heuristics....

  20. Rolled-up nanotechnology: 3D photonic materials by design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Böttner, Stefan; Jorgensen, Matthew R.; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2016-01-01

    Rolled-up nanotechnology involves the deposition of strained material layers for subsequent release and relaxation into functional structures with applications spanning several disciplines. Originally developed for use with semiconductor materials, over the last decade the processes involved in rolled-up nanotechnology have been applied across a wide palette of materials resulting in applications (among others) in micro robotics, energy storage, electronics, and photonics. Here we highlight the key advancements and future directions in rolled-up photonics, focusing on the diverse demonstrations of rolled-up three-dimensional microresonators which enable integrated sensing, micro-lasing, and out-of-plane routing of light.

  1. Analysis and Design of International Emission Trading Markets Applying System Dynamics Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Pickl, Stefan

    2010-11-01

    The design and analysis of international emission trading markets is an important actual challenge. Time-discrete models are needed to understand and optimize these procedures. We give an introduction into this scientific area and present actual modeling approaches. Furthermore, we develop a model which is embedded in a holistic problem solution. Measures for energy efficiency are characterized. The economic time-discrete "cap-and-trade" mechanism is influenced by various underlying anticipatory effects. With a systematic dynamic approach the effects can be examined. First numerical results show that fair international emissions trading can only be conducted with the use of protective export duties. Furthermore a comparatively high price which evokes emission reduction inevitably has an inhibiting effect on economic growth according to our model. As it always has been expected it is not without difficulty to find a balance between economic growth and emission reduction. It can be anticipated using our System Dynamics model simulation that substantial changes must be taken place before international emissions trading markets can contribute to global GHG emissions mitigation.

  2. Towards intelligent microstructural design of Nanocomposite Materials. Lightweight, high strength structural/armor materials for service in extreme environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mara, Nathan Allan; Bronkhorst, Curt Allan; Beyerlein, Irene Jane

    2015-01-01

    The intent of this research effort is to prove the hypothesis that: Through the employment of controlled processing parameters which are based upon integrated advanced material characterization and multi-physics material modeling, bulk nanolayered composites can be designed to contain high densities of preferred interfaces that can serve as supersinks for the defects responsible for premature damage and failure.

  3. Towards intelligent microstructural design of Nanocomposite Materials. Lightweight, high strength structural/armor materials for service in extreme environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mara, Nathan Allan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bronkhorst, Curt Allan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Beyerlein, Irene Jane [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-21

    The intent of this research effort is to prove the hypothesis that: Through the employment of controlled processing parameters which are based upon integrated advanced material characterization and multi-physics material modeling, bulk nanolayered composites can be designed to contain high densities of preferred interfaces that can serve as supersinks for the defects responsible for premature damage and failure.

  4. An efficient descriptor model for designing materials for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Fahhad H.; Rashkeev, Sergey N.; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Lüthi, Hans P.; Tabet, Nouar; Kais, Sabre

    2015-11-01

    An efficient descriptor model for fast screening of potential materials for solar cell applications is presented. It works for both excitonic and non-excitonic solar cells materials, and in addition to the energy gap it includes the absorption spectrum (α(E)) of the material. The charge transport properties of the explored materials are modelled using the characteristic diffusion length (Ld) determined for the respective family of compounds. The presented model surpasses the widely used Scharber model developed for bulk heterojunction solar cells. Using published experimental data, we show that the presented model is more accurate in predicting the achievable efficiencies. To model both excitonic and non-excitonic systems, two different sets of parameters are used to account for the different modes of operation. The analysis of the presented descriptor model clearly shows the benefit of including α(E) and Ld in view of improved screening results.

  5. Design, preparation, and application of ordered porous polymer materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qingquan; Tang, Zhe; Ou, Baoli; Liu, Lihua; Zhou, Zhihua; Shen, Shaohua; Duan, Yinxiang

    2014-01-01

    Ordered porous polymer (OPP) materials have extensively application prospects in the field of separation and purification, biomembrane, solid supports for sensors catalysts, scaffolds for tissue engineering, photonic band gap materials owing to ordered pore arrays, uniform and tunable pore size, high specific surface area, great adsorption capacity, and light weight. The present paper reviewed the preparation techniques of OPP materials like breath figures, hard template, and soft template. Finally, the applications of OPP materials in the field of separation, sensors, and biomedicine are introduced, respectively. - Highlights: • Breath figures involve polymer casting under moist ambience. • Hard template employs monodisperse colloidal spheres as a template. • Soft template utilizes the etched block in copolymers as template

  6. First Materials Science Research Rack Capabilities and Design Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, D.; King, R.; Cobb, S.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The first Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) will accommodate dual Experiment Modules (EM's) and provide simultaneous on-orbit processing operations capability. The first international Materials Science Experiment Module for the MSRR-1 is an international cooperative research activity between NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the European Space Agency's (ESA) European Space Research and Technology Center. (ESTEC). This International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR) will contain the Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) developed by ESA as an Experiment Module. The MSL Experiment Module will accommodate several on-orbit exchangeable experiment-specific Module Inserts. Module Inserts currently planned are a Quench Module Insert, Low Gradient Furnace, Solidification with Quench Furnace, and Diffusion Module Insert. The second Experiment Module for the MSRR-1 configuration is a commercial device supplied by MSFC's Space Products Department (SPD). It includes capabilities for vapor transport processes and liquid metal sintering. This Experiment Module will be replaced on-orbit with other NASA Materials Science EMs.

  7. Shaping of Panel Materials in Light Direction Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urzędowski A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the methodology of the analysis of the materials used in solar energy conversion, and an elaborated example with simulations of obtained results. Material properties are selected in relation to the need of sunlight illumination applications in civil constructions. This process is presented , starting from the analysis of some aspects of solar radiation, through the calculations of lens curvature and leading to the execution of simulations in different conditions. Graphical presentation of the phenomenon, it can visualize the process of shaping curves. The materials such as glass, polymers, metals, and gases have been discussed. Particular attention was paid to the results of the transmission of materials, their reflection and absorption of solar radiation. Moreover, the research problems of illumination and reflection in multi-layer structures used for civil constructions have been presented.

  8. Design and evaluation of foamed asphalt base materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Foamed asphalt stabilized base (FASB) combines reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), recycled : concrete (RC), and/or graded aggregate base (GAB) with a foamed asphalt binder to produce a : partially stabilized base material. The objectives of this study...

  9. Synthesis and design of intermetallic materials - molybdenum disilicide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, J.J.; Castro, R.G.; Butt, D.P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    The objective of this program is to develop structural silicide-based composite materials with optimum combinations of elevated temperature strength/creep resistance, low temperature fracture toughness, and high temperature oxidation resistance for applications of importance to the U.S. processing industry. A further objective is to develop silicide-based prototype industrial components. The ultimate aim of the program is to work with industry to transfer the structural silicide materials technology to the private sector in order to promote international competitiveness in the area of advanced high temperature composite materials and important applications in major energy-intensive U.S. processing industries. The program presently has a number of developing industrial connections, including a CRADA with the advanced materials company Advanced Refractory Technologies Inc. and interactions targeted at developing industrial gas burner and metal and glass melting/processing applications. Current experimental emphasis is on the development and characterization of SiC reinforced-MoSi{sub 2} matrix composites, plasma sprayed MoSi{sub 2}-based materials and microlaminate composites, and MoSi{sub 2} reinforced-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} matrix composites. We are developing processing methods for MoSi{sub 2{minus}}based materials and microlaminate composites, and MoSi{sub 2} reinforced-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} matrix composites. We are developing processing methods for MoSi{sub 2{minus}} based materials, such as plasma spraying/spray forming and electrophoretic deposition. We are also pursuing the fabrication of prototype industrial gas burner and injection tube components of these materials, as well as prototype components for glass processing.

  10. Material design and structural color inspired by biomimetic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Generation of structural color is one of the essential functions realized by living organisms, and its industrial reproduction can result in numerous applications. From this viewpoint, the mechanisms, materials, analytical methods and fabrication technologies of the structural color are reviewed in this paper. In particular, the basic principles of natural photonic materials, the ideas developed from these principles, the directions of applications and practical industrial realizations are presented by summarizing the recent research results. (topical review)

  11. AC Calorimetric Design for Dynamic of Biological Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Shigeo Imaizumi

    2006-01-01

    We developed a new AC calorimeter for the measurement of dynamic specific heat capacity in liquids, including aqueous suspensions of biological materials. This method has several advantages. The first is that a high-resolution measurement of heat capacity, inmillidegrees, can be performed as a function of temperature, even with a very small sample. Therefore, AC calorimeter is a powerful tool to study critical behavior a tphase transition in biological materials. The second advantage is that ...

  12. Advancement of Systems Designs and Key Engineering Technologies for Materials Based Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Hassel, Bart A. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States)

    2015-09-18

    Phase 1 to Phase 2 review in favor of studying the slurry-form of AB as it appeared to be difficult to transport a solid form of AB through the thermolysis reactor. UTRC demonstrated the operation of a compact GLS in the laboratory at a scale that would be required for the actual automotive application. The GLS met the targets for weight and volume. UTRC also reported about the unresolved issue associated with the high vapor pressure of fluids that could be used for making a slurry-form of AB. Work on the GLS was halted after the Phase 2 to Phase 3 review as the off-board regeneration efficiency of the spent AB was below the DOE target of 60%. UTRC contributed to the design of an adsorbent-based hydrogen storage system through measurements of the thermal conductivity of a compacted form of Metal Organic Framework (MOF) number 5 and through the development and sizing of a particulate filter. Thermal conductivity is important for the design of the modular adsorbent tank insert (MATI), as developed by Oregon State University (OSU), in order to enable a rapid refueling process. Stringent hydrogen quality requirements can only be met with an efficient particulate filtration system. UTRC developed a method to size the particulate filter by taking into account the effect of the pressure drop on the hydrogen adsorption process in the tank. UTRC raised awareness about the potential use of materials-based H2 storage systems in applications outside the traditional light-duty vehicle market segment by presenting at several conferences about niche application opportunities in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV), portable power and others.

  13. Bioreceptivity evaluation of cementitious materials designed to stimulate biological growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, Sandra; De Muynck, Willem; Segura, Ignacio; Aguado, Antonio; Steppe, Kathy; Boon, Nico; De Belie, Nele

    2014-05-15

    Ordinary Portland cement (OPC), the most used binder in construction, presents some disadvantages in terms of pollution (CO2 emissions) and visual impact. For this reason, green roofs and façades have gain considerable attention in the last decade as a way to integrate nature in cities. These systems, however, suffer from high initial and maintenance costs. An alternative strategy to obtain green facades is the direct natural colonisation of the cementitious construction materials constituting the wall, a phenomenon governed by the bioreceptivity of such material. This work aims at assessing the suitability of magnesium phosphate cement (MPC) materials to allow a rapid natural colonisation taking carbonated OPC samples as a reference material. For that, the aggregate size, the w/c ratio and the amount of cement paste of mortars made of both binders were modified. The assessment of the different bioreceptivities was conducted by means of an accelerated algal fouling test. MPC samples exhibited a faster fouling compared to OPC samples, which could be mainly attributed to the lower pH of the MPC binder. In addition to the binder, the fouling rate was governed by the roughness and the porosity of the material. MPC mortar with moderate porosity and roughness appears to be the most feasible material to be used for the development of green concrete walls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mechanical design engineering. NASA/university advanced design program: Lunar Bulk Material Transport Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Paul; Griner, Stewart; Hendrix, Alan; Makarov, Chris; Martiny, Stephen; Meyhoefer, Douglas Ralph; Platt, Cody Claxton; Sivak, John; Wheeler, Elizabeth Fitch

    1988-01-01

    The design of a Lunar Bulk Material Transport Vehicle (LBMTV) is discussed. Goals set in the project include a payload of 50 cubic feet of lunar soil with a lunar of approximately 800 moon-pounds, a speed of 15 mph, and the ability to handle a grade of 20 percent. Thermal control, an articulated steering mechanism, a dump mechanism, a self-righting mechanism, viable power sources, and a probable control panel are analyzed. The thermal control system involves the use of small strip heaters to heat the housing of electronic equipment in the absence of sufficient solar radiation and multi-layer insulation during periods of intense solar radiation. The entire system uses only 10 W and weighs about 60 pounds, or 10 moon-pounds. The steering mechanism is an articulated steering joint at the center of the vehicle. It utilizes two actuators and yields a turning radius of 10.3 feet. The dump mechanism rotates the bulk material container through an angle of 100 degree using one actuator. The self-righting mechanism consists of two four bar linkages, each of which is powered by the same size actuator as the other linkages. The LBMTV is powered by rechargeable batteries. A running time of at least two hours is attained under a worst case analysis. The weight of the batteries is 100 pounds. A control panel consisting of feedback and control instruments is described. The panel includes all critical information necessary to control the vehicle remotely. The LBMTV is capable of handling many types of cargo. It is able to interface with many types of removable bulk material containers. These containers are made to interface with the three-legged walker, SKITTER. The overall vehicle is about 15 feet in length and has a weight of about 1000 pounds, or 170 lunar pounds.

  15. Market Design and Strategy Making for Proactive Distribution Grid with DERs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chunyu

    has to make decisions on procuring DERs' portfolios in distribution-level market, and strategically submits oers/bids to the transmission-level markets, simultaneously. Crossing the day-ahead and real-time markets, the transactions between PDISCO and markets are characterized in a bidirectional...... Reforming Energy Vision (NY REV) has addressed the regulatory changes to liberate a distribution-level market for cost-eective use of DERs. To this end, the DISCO gets an opportunity to strategically engage in the transmission-level markets by rationally purchasing electricity from the distribution...

  16. Graded territories: Towards the design, specification and simulation of materially graded bending active structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    these structures, the property of bending is activated and varied through bespoke material means so as to match a desired form. Within the architectural design process, formal control depends upon design approaches for material specification and simulation that consider behavior at the level of the material...... element as well as the structure. We describe an evolving approach to material specification and simulation, and highlight the digital and material considerations that frame the process.......The ability to make materials with bespoke behavior affords new perspectives on incorporating material properties within the design process not available through natural materials. This paper reports the design and assembly of two bending-active, fibre-reinforced composite structures. Within...

  17. Material gap membrane distillation: A new design for water vapor flux enhancement

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem; Amy, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    A new module design for membrane distillation, namely material gap membrane distillation (MGMD), for seawater desalination has been proposed and successfully tested. It has been observed that employing appropriate materials between the membrane

  18. A tangible design tool for sketching materials in products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saakes, D.P.; Stappers, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Industrial designers make sketches and physical models to start and develop ideas and concept designs. Such representations have advantages that they support fast, intuitive, rich, sensory exploration of solutions. Although existing tools and techniques provide adequate support where the shape of

  19. Interrelationship betwen material strength and component design under elevated temperature for FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Y.

    Structural design under elevated temperature for fast breeder reactor plant is very troublesome compared to that of for lower temperature. This difficulty can be mainly discussed from two different stand points. One is design and design code, another is material strength. Components in FBR are operated under creep regime and time dependent creep behaviour should be elevated properly. This means the number and combinations of design code and material strength are significantly large and makes these systems very complicated. Material selection is, in no words, not an easy job. This should be done by not only material development but also component design stand point. With valuable experience of construction and research on FBR, a lot of information on component design and material behaviour is available. And it is a time to choose the ''best material'' from the entire stand points of component construction. (author)

  20. Evaluation of educational materials from a social marketing campaign to promote folic acid use among Hispanic women: insight from Cuban and Puerto Rican ethnic subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Thomas, Kamilah B; Hauser, Kimberlea; Rodríguez, Nydia Y; Rodriguez-Snapp, Nazach

    2009-10-01

    Current data indicate significant disparities in awareness and use of folic acid between Hispanic and non-Hispanic women. Hispanic women are less likely to have heard about folic acid, to know that folic acid can prevent birth defects, to take folic acid daily, and to take folic acid before pregnancy. "Three Sisters/Las Tres Hermanos" is a folic acid social marketing campaign designed for Mexican-American women. To determine the effectiveness of the materials on other Hispanic sub groups, women of childbearing age from Cuba and Puerto Rico were recruited to evaluate the materials. Participants were asked five pre-test questions about folic acid knowledge and were then provided with the folic acid educational materials that included either a photo-novella and a low literacy brochure, or a video-novella in English or Spanish. Once the participants reviewed the materials, they were asked 10 post-test questions about the materials. The results of the evaluation are discussed.