WorldWideScience

Sample records for marketing authorization application

  1. 77 FR 76013 - Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... marketing supplies of LNG. Sempra is a customer of the Cameron Terminal. On June 22, 2012, FE issued DOE/FE... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [FE Docket No. 12-155-LNG] Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket..., by Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC (Sempra LNG Marketing), requesting blanket authorization to export...

  2. 78 FR 4400 - Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... in the business of purchasing and marketing supplies of LNG, and is a customer of the Cameron... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [FE Docket No. 12-161-LNG] Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket..., by Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC (Eni USA Gas Marketing), requesting blanket authorization to export...

  3. Markets and authorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Jochen; Cecco, Marcello de

    This text addresses the relationship between market authority and political authority - a favourite theme of Susan Strange, to whom the book is dedicated. From a survey of the bias against capital liberalization in economic thought to an analysis of the US role in global monetary affairs, it disc......This text addresses the relationship between market authority and political authority - a favourite theme of Susan Strange, to whom the book is dedicated. From a survey of the bias against capital liberalization in economic thought to an analysis of the US role in global monetary affairs......, it discusses how and why free capital flows contribute to the instability of the global capitalist system. The contributors analyse the history of international capital flows to make sense of contemporary global investments and what they mean for global polity and the economy. They argue over the challenges...... welfare states. They also advance various mechanisms through which they believe greater stability and equity could be introduced into the global financial system and the world economy....

  4. [Reflections about the efficiency criteria for cancer treatments during marketing authorization application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeannin, Noémie; Blois-Da Conceição, Stéphanie; Protière, Christel

    2013-03-01

    Although clear and validated recommendations exist concerning the evaluation of cancer treatments at the international level, the criteria retained to obtain the marketing authorization (MA) are multiple and heterogeneous. This qualitative survey explores the opinion related to the assessment of cancer treatment among the several concerned population. By the way of semi-structured interviews, our aim was to elicit perceptions toward the criteria which should be retained during the process of MA, by patients, oncologists, members of the pharmaceutical industry, health decision-makers and general population. Our survey emphasizes the variability of the significations associated with the criteria of efficiency of cancer treatments according to the characteristics of the respondents. We also have observed some common expectations from patients and oncologists toward the economic and political aspect, but also from the whole respondents toward the importance of the comfort of the patients. Lastly, the necessity to define specific criteria related to clinical cases emerges.

  5. 77 FR 25711 - Cheniere Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... Sabine Pass LNG, L.P., in Cameron Parish, Louisiana, to any country with the capacity to import LNG via... imported from foreign sources to any country with the capacity to import LNG via ocean-going carrier and... the domestic natural gas market contingent on U.S. and global market price signals. CMI states that no...

  6. 75 FR 19954 - Cheniere Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ..., Argentina, Chile, Mexico, the Dominican Republic, Japan, South Korea, India, China, and/or Taiwan over a two... Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, DOE. ACTION: Notice of... authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) that previously had been imported into the United States...

  7. 75 FR 60095 - Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... states that when natural gas supplies are in balance with domestic demand, LNG will be imported and used... prohibited by U.S. law or policy, over a two-year period commencing on the date of the authorization. The... Gas Global Security and Supply, Office of Fossil Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 3E-042, 1000...

  8. Electricity markets theories and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Electricity Markets: Theories and Applications offers students and practitioners a clear understanding of the fundamental concepts of the economic theories, particularly microeconomic theories, as well as information on some advanced optimization methods of electricity markets. The authors--noted experts in the field--cover the basic drivers for the transformation of the electricity industry in both the United States and around the world and discuss the fundamentals of power system operation, electricity market design and structures, and electricity market operations. The text also explores advanced topics of power system operations and electricity market design and structure including zonal versus nodal pricing, market performance and market power issues, transmission pricing, and the emerging problems electricity markets face in smart grid and micro-grid environments. The authors also examine system planning under the context of electricity market regime. They explain the new ways to solve problems with t...

  9. Independent regulatory authorities in European electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, Anders; Pedersen, Lene Holm; Sorensen, Eva Moll; Olsen, Ole Jess

    2006-01-01

    Liberalisation of the electricity market has taken place in most European countries within the last decade. It is considered a precondition of successful liberalisation to establish so-called independent regulatory authorities. In this article, we compare the status and practice of them in 16 European countries, and discuss the relationship between the organisation of the regulation and the market outcome

  10. 77 FR 64964 - Cheniere Marketing, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... states that it proposed the project in part due to the improved outlook for domestic natural gas... regional, state, and national economy through job creation and increased economic activity, (3) Promote the liberalization of contract structures in global LNG markets by lowering the cost of energy in foreign nations...

  11. [History of the evaluation of medicines aiming for marketing authorization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulin, C

    2008-01-01

    The European Directive on Medicines Evaluation and Marketing Authorization were issued in 1975. For more than 30 years, Marketing Authorization criteria have been defined as pharmaceutical and biological quality, therapeutic efficacy, and safety. The application comes from the pharmaceutical company and must include the full data on drug development. French procedures have always included practical assessment of the drug by health practitioners: clinicians, pharmacists, biologists, and specialists in biostatistics.

  12. 76 FR 2093 - Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, DOE. ACTION: Notice of...), requesting blanket authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) that previously had been imported into... (Bcf) of natural gas. The LNG would be exported from the Cameron LNG Terminal (Cameron Terminal), owned...

  13. Independent regulatory authorities in European electricity market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ole Jess; Larsen, Anders; Sørensen, Eva Moll

    2006-01-01

    Liberalisation of the electricity market has taken place in most European countries within the last decade. It is considered a precondition of successful liberalisation to establish so-called independent regulatory authorities. In this article, we compare the status and practice of them in 16...

  14. Market Value Analysis - Urban Redevelopment Authority

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — In late 2016, the URA, in conjunction with Reinvestment Fund, completed the 2016 Market Value Analysis (MVA) for the City of Pittsburgh. The Market Value Analysis...

  15. Dossier for marketing authorization in the European union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maida Todić

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Extensive and complete documentation must be presented for marketing authorization of a medicinal product in the EU. Presented documentation should prove quality, safety and efficacy of the medicinal product. It is ensured that the applicant supplies the authorities with complete information. The legislation in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina has also taken more steps towards those European directions.The presentation and content of the dossier in the European Union has been redefined. The “old” EU format will be replaced with the Common Technical Document (EU CTD format agreed in 2000, within the International Conference on Harmonization framework. These two formats are intended to coexist during the transition period until July 2003. The CTD is an internationally agreed upon format for the preparation of a well structured presentation for applications to be submitted to regulatory authorities in the three ICH regions of Europe, US and Japan.

  16. The Introductory Psychology Textbook Market: Perceptions of Authors and Editors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Richard A.; Jackson, Sherri L.

    1989-01-01

    Surveys psychology textbook authors and editors on their perceptions of the introductory psychology textbook market. Finds that the textbook market is divided into three levels according to quality, and that authors and editors are not familiar with most textbooks. Notes that the growth of used book companies has adversely affected the market.…

  17. Market--what market? A review of Health Authority purchasing in the NHS internal market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, P A

    1998-05-01

    This paper argues that the British NHS Reforms (the 'Reforms') set out in Working for Patients [1] largely failed to create a market, to achieve the changes that market forces might have been expected to achieve or to meet the objectives set for the NHS in Working for Patients. It draws on the available literature and the author's experience of work with the NHS during the 6 years after Working for Patients. It is hampered, as are all such reviews of the UK Reforms, by the lack of a detailed and systematic research appraisal of the internal market. Many small changes, resulting from market mechanisms, may have occurred throughout the NHS without being publicized or well documented. But overall, there is little convincing evidence that the Reforms have achieved their goals or met the objectives of the politicians who initiated them. The argument here is necessarily limited by the space available (but see [2] for a detailed analysis of the NHS Reforms). The initial sections of the paper examine the characteristics of markets and market power and the extent to which the NHS Reforms created a market, with health authorities and fund-holders as its buyers. The paper concentrates in particular on health authorities. Later sections then examine the extent to which the Reforms met the objectives set out in Working for Patients.

  18. Author Affiliation Index: A New Approach to Marketing Journal Ranking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yue; Chen, Carl R.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has adopted various methods to assess the relative quality of academic marketing journals. This study, as a replication and extension of Chen and Huang (2007), introduces the Author Affiliation Index (AAI) as an alternative approach to assessing marketing journal quality. The AAI is defined as the ratio of articles authored by…

  19. MARKETING MODELS APPLICATION EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Rymanov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Marketing models are used for the assessment of such marketing elements as sales volume, market share, market attractiveness, advertizing costs, product pushing and selling, profit, profitableness. Classification of buying process decision taking models is presented. SWOT- and GAPbased models are best for selling assessments. Lately, there is a tendency to transfer from the assessment on the ba-sis of financial indices to that on the basis of those non-financial. From the marketing viewpoint, most important are long-term company activities and consumer drawingmodels as well as market attractiveness operative models.

  20. Establishing a local authority market for green power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnbull, A.; Evans, N.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project examining ways to maximise the potential local authority market for green power by investigating procurement and supply issues, and also surveying local authorities engaged in green power procurement and green electricity suppliers. A review of the local authority procurement process is presented, and the way in which procurement practices had to be adapted to allow local authorities to purchase green power is explored. Appendices give details of the questionnaires used with 22 local authorities, five case study local authorities, and the green suppliers

  1. Establishing a local authority market for green power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnbull, A.; Evans, N.

    1999-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project examining ways to maximise the potential local authority market for green power by investigating procurement and supply issues, and also surveying local authorities engaged in green power procurement and green electricity suppliers. A review of the local authority procurement process is presented, and the way in which procurement practices had to be adapted to allow local authorities to purchase green power is explored. Appendices give details of the questionnaires used with 22 local authorities, five case study local authorities, and the green suppliers .

  2. Distributed Wind Market Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, T.; Baring-Gould, I.

    2007-11-01

    Distributed wind energy systems provide clean, renewable power for on-site use and help relieve pressure on the power grid while providing jobs and contributing to energy security for homes, farms, schools, factories, private and public facilities, distribution utilities, and remote locations. America pioneered small wind technology in the 1920s, and it is the only renewable energy industry segment that the United States still dominates in technology, manufacturing, and world market share. The series of analyses covered by this report were conducted to assess some of the most likely ways that advanced wind turbines could be utilized apart from large, central station power systems. Each chapter represents a final report on specific market segments written by leading experts in this field. As such, this document does not speak with one voice but rather a compendium of different perspectives, which are documented from a variety of people in the U.S. distributed wind field.

  3. Are water markets globally applicable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Takahiro; Kakinuma, Kaoru; Yoshikawa, Sayaka; Kanae, Shinjiro

    2018-03-01

    Water scarcity is a global concern that necessitates a global perspective, but it is also the product of multiple regional issues that require regional solutions. Water markets constitute a regionally applicable non-structural measure to counter water scarcity that has received the attention of academics and policy-makers, but there is no global view on their applicability. We present the global distribution of potential nations and states where water markets could be instituted in a legal sense, by investigating 296 water laws internationally, with special reference to a minimum set of key rules: legalization of water reallocation, the separation of water rights and landownership, and the modification of the cancellation rule for non-use. We also suggest two additional globally distributed prerequisites and policy implications: the predictability of the available water before irrigation periods and public control of groundwater pumping throughout its jurisdiction.

  4. Fuel cells niche market applications and design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Mainstream fuel cell markets such as stationary power and transport propulsion have already received considerable attention. However, the niche areas considered in this report also offer considerable markets that are considered potentially ready for exploitation. This report examines those markets and considers the broad issues for exploitation. This programme of work has been funded under the DTI's Advanced Fuel Cell Programme. The overall aim of this project was to identify and evaluate niche market applications that have the potential to provide early commercially competitive market opportunities for fuel cell systems. Battery replacement, portable, mobile auxiliary power and stationary applications for non-standard generation are covered. (author)

  5. An antibiotic's journey from marketing authorization to use, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Årdal, Christine; Blix, Hege Salvesen; Plahte, Jens; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2017-03-01

    Here we describe in detail marketing authorization and reimbursement procedures for medicinal products in Norway, with particular reference to nine novel antibiotics that received marketing authorization between 2005 and 2015. The description illustrates that, in places like Norway, with effective antibiotic stewardship policies and an associated low prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection, there is little need for newer, more expensive antibiotics whose therapeutic superiority to existing compounds has not been demonstrated. Since resistance begins to emerge as soon as an antibiotic is used, Norway's practice of leaving newer antibiotics on the shelf is consistent with the goal of prolonging the effectiveness of newer antibiotics. An unintended consequence is that the country has signalled to the private sector that there is little commercial value in novel antibiotics, which may nevertheless still be needed to treat rare or emerging infections. Every country aims to improve infection control and to promote responsible antibiotic use. However, as progress is made, antibiotic-resistant bacteria should become less common and, consequently, the need for, and the commercial value of, novel antibiotics will probably be reduced. Nevertheless, antibiotic innovation continues to be essential. This dilemma will have to be resolved through the introduction of alternative reward systems for antibiotic innovation. The DRIVE-AB (Driving re-investment in research and development and responsible antibiotic use) research consortium in Europe has been tasked with identifying ways of meeting this challenge.

  6. Micro-economic analysis of the physical constrained markets: game theory application to competitive electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bompard, E.; Ma, Y.C. [Politecnico di Torino, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Torino (Italy); Ragazzi, E. [CERIS, Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth, CNR, National Research Council, Moncalieri, TO (Italy)

    2006-03-15

    Competition has been introduced in the electricity markets with the goal of reducing prices and improving efficiency. The basic idea which stays behind this choice is that, in competitive markets, a greater quantity of the good is exchanged at a lower price, leading to higher market efficiency. Electricity markets are pretty different from other commodities mainly due to the physical constraints related to the network structure that may impact the market performance. The network structure of the system on which the economic transactions needs to be undertaken poses strict physical and operational constraints. Strategic interactions among producers that game the market with the objective of maximizing their producer surplus must be taken into account when modeling competitive electricity markets. The physical constraints, specific of the electricity markets, provide additional opportunity of gaming to the market players. Game theory provides a tool to model such a context. This paper discussed the application of game theory to physical constrained electricity markets with the goal of providing tools for assessing the market performance and pinpointing the critical network constraints that may impact the market efficiency. The basic models of game theory specifically designed to represent the electricity markets will be presented. IEEE30 bus test system of the constrained electricity market will be discussed to show the network impacts on the market performances in presence of strategic bidding behavior of the producers. (authors)

  7. Mobile Marketing Applications of Travel Agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Selim Selvi

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the use of mobile devices in the marketing world is increasing parallel with technological advances. The main problem of this research is to determine agencies’ use of what type of mobile tools for what type of purposes in the marketing process. The aim of this research is to identify Mobile Marketing (MM) applications used by group A travel agencies, and to describe the attitudes towards MM applications of agencies. According to related law, it is only group A agencies give ...

  8. 78 FR 55057 - Authority To Manufacture Carbon Fiber for the U.S. Market Not Approved; Foreign-Trade Subzone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Order No. 1914] Authority To Manufacture Carbon... behalf of Toho Tenax America, Inc. (TTA), to manufacture carbon fiber under zone procedures for the U.S... approve the application requesting authority to manufacture carbon fiber for the U.S. market under zone...

  9. EU decision-making for marketing authorization of advanced therapy medicinal products: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wilde, Sofieke; Coppens, Delphi G M; Hoekman, Jarno; de Bruin, Marie L; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; Meij, Pauline

    2018-03-21

    A comparative analysis of assessment procedures for authorization of all European Union (EU) applications for advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) shows that negative opinions were associated with a lack of clinical efficacy and identified severe safety risks. Unmet medical need was often considered in positive opinions and outweighed scientific uncertainties. Numerous quality issues illustrate the difficulties in this domain for ATMP development. Altogether, it suggests that setting appropriate standards for ATMP authorization in Europe, similar to elsewhere, is a learning experience. The experimental characteristics of authorized ATMPs urge regulators, industry, and clinical practice to pay accurate attention to post-marketing risk management to limit patient risk. Methodologies for ATMP development and regulatory evaluations need to be continuously evaluated for the field to flourish. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. [EU law on marketing authorization of medicines. History, current state of development and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettesheim, Martin

    2008-07-01

    The article describes the development of EU policies and regulations on the marketing authorization of medicines. First, it describes the changing perspective of the EU towards the regulation of such authorizations. While its original focus was on the liberalization of national markets, it has today assumed overarching political responsibility for the development and marketing of medicines. Second, the article describes the current, rather fragmented regulatory system. Finally, political perspectives on the integration of markets for medicines are developed.

  11. Guidelines for establishing a local authority market for green power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    This project summary considers the UK government's aim of achieving 10% of electricity from renewable energy sources by the year 2010, and its backing of the launch of the ''Future Energy'' accreditation scheme to accredit power derived from renewable energy sources and assist power supply companies to promote green energy. The benefits to local authorities of buying and/or selling green power are highlighted, and the objectives of the guidelines in helping local authorities to buy green power and suppliers to target local authorities are discussed. Five case studies are presented covering the successful purchase of green electricity by 3 local authorities, a local authority currently preparing for green electricity procurement, and 2 local authorities which were unsuccessful in purchasing green power. Issues identified by the project are outlined, and details of the guidelines for local authorities and green electricity suppliers are given

  12. Radiopharmaceutical: options to marketing authorization; Le medicament radiopharmaceutique: les alternatives a l'AMM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilloteau, D.; Valat, Ch. [Centre Hospitalier Regional Universitaire, Service Medecine Nucleaire In Vitro, INSERM U 619, 37 - Tours (France); Verbruggen, A. [University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Lab. of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Leuven (Belgium)

    2005-04-15

    In France, since the law 92-1279 (December 1992) the tracer used in nuclear medicine are considered as medicines, and all the regulations applicable to general medicines have to be followed for radiopharmaceuticals. The best situation in order to use radiopharmaceutical in nuclear medicine center is to use a tracer with a marketing authorization. However due to the very high cost to obtain this authorization, many tracers validated by scientific community will never been sold by pharmaceutical companies. However in respect with legal rules, it is possible to prepare these tracers in the hospital radiopharmacy, under the responsibility of the radio-pharmacist. We discuss here these different possibilities (magistral preparation...) and the conditions for these preparations. (author)

  13. Five Basic Microcomputer Applications for Marketing Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Richard F.

    The microcomputer has five basic applications in marketing education--a remedial/tutorial application, instructional purposes, simulation, the project data base, and classroom management. Examples of word processing applications of a microcomputer are updating annual training plans and producing letters to advisory committee members, parents, and…

  14. A Comparative Review of Marketing Authorization Decisions in Switzerland, the EU, and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Torre Di Sanguinetto, Simon; Heinonen, Esa; Antonov, Janine; Bolte, Claus

    2018-01-01

    In this study we compared Swissmedic's (SMC's) regulatory marketing authorization decisions to those of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European drug regulatory authorities (EU). We investigated the overall similarity of the regulatory decisions, approval, and postmarketing withdrawal rates in the 3 jurisdictions. In case regulatory decisions diverged, we analyzed the reasons for rejection of marketing authorization applications (MAAs). The study comprises 255 new molecular entity (NME) MAAs assessed by SMC by the EU and FDA between 2005 through 2014. Study parameters included the regulatory decision, postmarketing withdrawal rates, and the official reasons for rejection. Regulatory decisions converged to a high degree among all 3 agencies (between 84% and 90%). SMC's average approval rate (84%) was slightly lower than those of the FDA (87%) and the EU (91%). Postmarketing withdrawal rates were generally low (4%-5%) but were 3 to 5 times higher when decisions among the drug regulatory authorities (DRAs) diverged. SMC's primary grounds for rejection were lack of efficacy (45%) and safety (40%). The 3 investigated DRAs adhere largely to the same scientific principles and regulatory guidelines; therefore, remaining disparities ought to be considered in a cultural, legal and public health priority context.

  15. Federal Trade Commission's authority to regulate marketing to children: deceptive vs. unfair rulemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2011-01-01

    Food and beverage marketing directed at children is of increasing concern to the public health and legal communities. The new administration at the Federal Trade Commission and abundant science on the topic make it a particularly opportune time for the government to reconsider regulating marketing directed at youth. This Article analyzes the Commission's authority to regulate food and beverage marketing directed at children under its jurisdiction over unfair and deceptive acts and practices to determine which avenue is most viable. The author finds that the Federal Trade Commission has the authority to regulate deceptive marketing practices directed at vulnerable populations. Although the Commission can issue individual orders, its remedial power to initiate rules would better address the pervasiveness of modern marketing practices. The Commission does not currently have the power to regulate unfair marketing to children; however, even if Congress reinstated this authority, the Commission's authority over deceptive marketing may be preferable to regulate these practices. Deceptive communications are not protected by the First Amendment and the deceptive standard matches the science associated with marketing to children. The Federal Trade Commission has the authority to initiate rulemaking in the realm of food and beverage marketing to children as deceptive communications in interstate commerce, in violation of the Federal Trade Commission Act. However, to effectuate this process, Congress would need to grant the Commission the authority to do so under the Administrative Procedures Act.

  16. Uncooled LWIR imaging: applications and market analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasawa, Satomi

    2015-05-01

    The evolution of infrared (IR) imaging sensor technology for defense market has played an important role in developing commercial market, as dual use of the technology has expanded. In particular, technologies of both reduction in pixel pitch and vacuum package have drastically evolved in the area of uncooled Long-Wave IR (LWIR; 8-14 μm wavelength region) imaging sensor, increasing opportunity to create new applications. From the macroscopic point of view, the uncooled LWIR imaging market is divided into two areas. One is a high-end market where uncooled LWIR imaging sensor with sensitivity as close to that of cooled one as possible is required, while the other is a low-end market which is promoted by miniaturization and reduction in price. Especially, in the latter case, approaches towards consumer market have recently appeared, such as applications of uncooled LWIR imaging sensors to night visions for automobiles and smart phones. The appearance of such a kind of commodity surely changes existing business models. Further technological innovation is necessary for creating consumer market, and there will be a room for other companies treating components and materials such as lens materials and getter materials and so on to enter into the consumer market.

  17. Use of the conditional marketing authorization pathway for oncology medicines in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekman, J; Boon, W P C; Bouvy, J C; Ebbers, H C; de Jong, J P; De Bruin, M L

    2015-11-01

    Conditional marketing authorization (CMA) in the European Union (EU) is an early access pathway for medicines that show promising therapeutic effects, but for which comprehensive data are not available. Using a mixed quantitative-qualitative research design, we evaluated how CMA has been used in marketing authorization of oncology medicines in the period 2006 to 2013. We show that compared to full marketing authorization, CMA is granted based on less comprehensive data. However, this is accompanied by significantly longer assessment times and less consensus among regulators about marketing authorization. Moreover, development time from first-in-human testing to marketing authorization did not differ between full marketing authorization and CMA, but was significantly longer for CMA compared to accelerated approved products in the United States (US). Results indicate that CMA is not used by companies as a prospectively planned pathway to obtain early access, but as a "rescue option" when submitted data are not strong enough to justify full marketing authorization. © 2015, The American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  18. Market Potential for Non-electric Applications of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, T.; Kononov, S.; Kupitz, J.; McDonald, A.; Rogner, H.H.; Nisan, S.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents results of a recent IAEA study to assess the market potential for non-electric applications of nuclear energy in the near (before 2020) and long term (2020-2050). The applications covered are district heating, desalination, industrial heat supply, ship propulsion, energy supply for spacecraft, and, to a lesser extent, 'innovative' applications such as hydrogen production, coal gasification, etc. While technical details are covered only briefly, emphasis is placed on economics and other factors that may promote or hinder the penetration of nuclear options in the markets for non-electric energy services. The study makes a distinction between the market size (demand for a given service) and the market potential for nuclear penetration (which may be smaller because of technical or non-technical constraints). Near-term nuclear prospects are assessed on the basis of on-going projects in the final stages of design or under construction. For the long term, use has been made of a qualitative scale ranging from 0 to 2 for five critical areas: market structure, demand pressure, technical basis, economic competitiveness, and public acceptance. The paper presents the resulting evaluation of long-term prospects for nuclear energy entering into non-electric markets. (authors)

  19. The relationship between the political authorities and the commercial actors in the European natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mjelde, Jarle Christian

    1998-01-01

    In summarizing the reasons for the fall of the Roman empire one has found about 210 significant ones. Without too much comparison the Roman empire and the EU natural gas market have similarities in connections between political authorities and the commercial actors in the European natural gas market. The area has consisted of several independent markets with different solutions that from 1988 has been tried integrated in an inner energy market. Several governmental and private actors have interest in this sector and both inhabitants and businesses are affected by alterations in a national natural gas market. This process is not yet finished. The thesis gives a broad description of the topic by including as many as possible of the EU member states. The topic is large and complex and the author has had to make a choice which parts to emphasize. There are chapters on the theoretical basis, the natural gas industry, what factors may explain the relationship between the political authorities and the commercial actors in the national natural gas market in each EU member and how does the EU Commission goals regarding free competition in the energy market affect the relationship between the political authorities and commercial actors in the national natural gas market

  20. 18 CFR 284.504 - Standard requirements for market-power authorizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Commission within 10 days of acquiring knowledge of significant changes occurring in its market power status... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standard requirements for market-power authorizations. 284.504 Section 284.504 Conservation of Power and Water Resources...

  1. 75 FR 78980 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Direct Energy Marketing, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... Marketing, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Application. SUMMARY: Direct Energy Marketing, Inc. (DEMI) has applied to renew its authority to transmit..., Federal power marketing agencies, and other entities within the United States. The existing international...

  2. 78 FR 65978 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Brookfield Energy Marketing Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... Energy Marketing Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Brookfield Energy Marketing Inc. (BEMI) has applied to renew its authority... President of Legal Services and General Counsel, Brookfield Energy Marketing Inc., 480 de la Cite Blvd...

  3. 75 FR 38514 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Brookfield Energy Marketing LP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... Energy Marketing LP AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Brookfield Energy Marketing LP (BEM LP) has applied for authority to transmit electric... surplus energy purchased from electric utilities, Federal power marketing agencies and other entities...

  4. 75 FR 75994 - Application To Export Electric Energy; NRG Power Marketing LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Marketing LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: NRG Power Marketing LLC (NRGPML) has applied to renew its authority to transmit electric... to Canada would be surplus energy purchased from electric utilities, Federal power marketing agencies...

  5. Neuromarketing and its internal marketing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRAJDIERU (COMAN Ecaterina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to highlight the potential application of neuromarketing techniques in internal marketing, representing a qualitative and exploratory approach of specialized literature. The research results indicate that there are considerable advantages of using neuroscience research in internal marketing activities such as employee motivation, testing the job attractiveness, choosing the best candidates , promoting employer branding, employee retention and organizational career planning. The new field allows in- depth study of employee behaviour and the drawing up of strategies for their retention

  6. Determination of the relevant market as a criterion of assessment of concentration effects in the practice of antitrust authorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Kostecka-Jurczyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Determining the relevant market is the first and the most important step in antimonopoly proceedings due to the fact that the market position of an enterprise is always determined from the relevant market perspective. In respect of mergers, establishing the relevant market is essential in analysing whether the aim of the concentration is to distort and limit competition on the market. The author of the article focuses on describing methods for determining the relevant market applied by antimonopoly authorities.

  7. Marketing plan for a mobile application : Marketing research and a plan for a mobile application of a startup company

    OpenAIRE

    Koljonen, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to provide an insight of the application market and to create a marketing plan for a new mobile application. The client is a startup company and they needed a marketing research and a marketing plan for their mobile application. The company does not have a person working with marketing and therefore they asked for this project. The application itself provides information about local bars and nightclubs. It will be launched first in southern Europe and after world...

  8. THE MAIN APPLICATIONS OF THE INTERNET IN TOURISM MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Beatrice Sion; Cezar Mihălcescu

    2010-01-01

    The Internet as a marketing media can be of great benefit to virtual all areas of marketing, from marketing research, through market segmentation, targeting and positioning, to the effective use of the marketing mix, and marketing organisation and control. The following discussion does not attempt to provide an exhaustive list of the Net's use in tourism; rather, it simply intends to exemplify its common applications in and main implications for tourism marketing.

  9. Smartphone applications in paediatric radiology: availability and authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelmerdine, Susan C.; Lynch, Jeremy O.

    2015-01-01

    With the widespread ownership of smartphones, many health care professionals question the degree to which medically related smartphone applications are reliable. To assess the variety of smartphone applications relating to paediatric radiology and the presence of health care professional involvement in their development. As a secondary objective, we explore whether there are gaps within the paediatric radiology app market. The most popular smartphone marketplaces (Apple iTunes App Store, Blackberry Mobile Market, Google Play Android Market, Nokia Ovi, Samsung and Microsoft Windows Marketplace) were searched for terms relating to paediatric radiology. Cost, review ratings, number of downloads, health care involvement and target audience were recorded. Nine paediatric radiology applications were found in the Apple iTunes App Store and nine in the Google Play Android Market. The target audiences for all applications were health care professionals. None were available for patients or their caregivers. All applications were reported to have medical expertise in their development. All paediatric radiology applications were developed with the aid of a health care professional. Due to the small number available online, there is a potential gap in the marketplace for further applications in this field, possibly aimed at patients and their families. (orig.)

  10. Smartphone applications in paediatric radiology: availability and authority

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelmerdine, Susan C. [Great Ormond Street Hospital, Specialist Registrar in Clinical Radiology, Department of Clinical Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Lynch, Jeremy O. [Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, Specialist Registrar in Clinical Radiology, Department of Clinical Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    With the widespread ownership of smartphones, many health care professionals question the degree to which medically related smartphone applications are reliable. To assess the variety of smartphone applications relating to paediatric radiology and the presence of health care professional involvement in their development. As a secondary objective, we explore whether there are gaps within the paediatric radiology app market. The most popular smartphone marketplaces (Apple iTunes App Store, Blackberry Mobile Market, Google Play Android Market, Nokia Ovi, Samsung and Microsoft Windows Marketplace) were searched for terms relating to paediatric radiology. Cost, review ratings, number of downloads, health care involvement and target audience were recorded. Nine paediatric radiology applications were found in the Apple iTunes App Store and nine in the Google Play Android Market. The target audiences for all applications were health care professionals. None were available for patients or their caregivers. All applications were reported to have medical expertise in their development. All paediatric radiology applications were developed with the aid of a health care professional. Due to the small number available online, there is a potential gap in the marketplace for further applications in this field, possibly aimed at patients and their families. (orig.)

  11. Mobile Marketing Applications of Travel Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Selim Selvi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of mobile devices in the marketing world is increasing parallel with technological advances. The main problem of this research is to determine agencies’ use of what type of mobile tools for what type of purposes in the marketing process. The aim of this research is to identify Mobile Marketing (MM applications used by group A travel agencies, and to describe the attitudes towards MM applications of agencies. According to related law, it is only group A agencies give all agency services. Therefore, it is thought that MM is more widely used by those agencies. Thus, this research was made only on the group A agencies. The population of study was consisted of 675 groups A agencies’ representatives deployed in the European and Asian sides of Istanbul. A questionnaire was used as data collection tool. Questionnaire form consisted of two parts. In the first part, questions concerning MM and in the second part, questions regarding demographic issues to managers and travel agents took place. The results were given as descriptive statistics (frequencies, percentages, mean and standard deviation on the tables. T-test and One Way ANOVA analysis were performed for the differences of mean among groups. In the study it was concluded that agencies use mobile phones mostly and mobile computers for increasing sales firstly and direct marketing. Thus, the main hypothesis established was confirmed partly.

  12. Mobile Marketing Applications of Travel Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Selim Selvi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of mobile devices in the marketing world is increasing parallel with technological advances. The main problem of this research is to determine agencies’ use of what type of mobile tools for what type of purposes in the marketing process. The aim of this research is to identify Mobile Marketing (MM applications used by group A travel agencies, and to describe the attitudes towards MM applications of agencies. According to related law, it is only group A agencies give all agency services. Therefore, it is thought that MM is more widely used by those agencies. Thus, this research was made only on the group A agencies. The population of study was consisted of 675 groups A agencies’ representatives deployed in the European and Asian sides of Istanbul. A questionnaire was used as data collection tool. Questionnaire form consisted of two parts. In the first part, questions concerning MM and in the second part, questions regarding demographic issues to managers and travel agents took place. The results were given as descriptive statistics (frequencies, percentages, mean and standard deviation on the tables. T-test and One Way ANOVA analysis were performed for the differences of mean among groups. In the study it was concluded that agencies use mobile phones mostly and mobile computers for increasing sales firstly and direct marketing. Thus, the main hypothesis established was confirmed partly.

  13. Application of the Social Marketing Model to Unemployment Counseling: A Theoretical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Paul; Sommerville, Susannah; Guenole, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    A. R. Andreasen's (1995) social marketing model (SMM) is applied to structure feedback counseling for individuals who are unemployed. The authors discuss techniques used in commercial marketing and how they are equally applicable to solving societal problems; SMM and its application to social interventions; and structured feedback that moves a…

  14. EVENT-MARKETING – FEATURES OF APPLICATION IN MODERN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Vlasenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article analyzed the modern features of the development and using of event- marketing. Showed the conditions of the essence and characteristics of event management, its principles and methods of application. Characterized the features and importance of tourism and the benefits of application of event marketing as a promising method of indirect marketing communications. Used examples of practical application of event marketing activity. Determined correlation of event management and marketing and its subordination to the event marketing purposes. Key words: tourism, event-tourism, event-management, event-marketing, socio-cultural sphere. JEL: M 31

  15. European Medicines Agency Perspective on Oncology Study Design for Marketing Authorization and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, B; Martinalbo, J; Pignatti, F

    2017-05-01

    In the development of highly active anticancer drugs, the European situation may be viewed as paradoxical. Limited data may support marketing authorization, but may be insufficient for the health economic appraisal needed for reimbursement and market uptake. To achieve this, conventional confirmatory studies may be needed. For products of special interest, studies aimed at optimizing cost-effectiveness may be warranted. Efficient designs of studies to meet these objectives constitute challenges to all stakeholders. © 2017 ASCPT.

  16. 31 CFR 223.2 - Application for certificate of authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application for certificate of authority. 223.2 Section 223.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... BUSINESS WITH THE UNITED STATES § 223.2 Application for certificate of authority. Every company wishing to...

  17. Facebook Marketing Strategy : Case: Pint Please Mobile Application

    OpenAIRE

    Pasma, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    This thesis was made to develop a Facebook marketing strategy for a mobile application start-up company Pint Please Ltd in order to improve their Facebook marketing in the United Kingdom. The aim of this thesis is to help the commissioner plan, implement, measure and improve their marketing activities in Facebook and support their marketing efforts in acquiring users for their craft beer application. The theory introduces marketing strategy development process and focuses on describing Facebo...

  18. 47 CFR 25.115 - Application for earth station authorizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for earth station authorizations. 25.115 Section 25.115 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses General Application Filing Requirements § 25...

  19. Word of mouth marketing applications on the internet

    OpenAIRE

    Gülmez, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Word of mouth marketing, also called WOMM in English, is a marketing strategyform via oral or written in which consumers share&spread other people aboutproduct or firm. Word of mouth marketing is an extremely important factor in theconsumer’s final purchase decision in the conscious societies on the internet. Thispaper aims to evaluate word of mouth marketing applications on the internet.

  20. Choice and Application of Marketing Strategies of Selected Book ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to identity the type of marketing strategies employed by book publishers in Nigeria, the criteria for the choice and application of marketing strategies, being used to reach each segment of the market. The survey research method was adopted for the study. Forty market managers and 60 sales ...

  1. SME-SMI, professionals, territorial authorities: EDF in an open market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    On July 1, 2004, the opening of the electricity market to competition has crossed a new step. In France, more than 2.3 millions of customers - professionals, companies, and territorial authorities - can freely chose their power supplier, which represents 70% of the electricity market. In this open market, Electricite de France (EdF), the French electric utility, has promised to all its clients an optimum security of power supply prices by fixing its price offers with respect to the prices of regulated tariffs and by indexing them with respect to their future evolutions. This document presents the new rules of the electricity market and the different services offered by EdF. (J.S.)

  2. 13 CFR 120.1900 - When does the Secondary Market Lending Authority Program end?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When does the Secondary Market Lending Authority Program end? 120.1900 Section 120.1900 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Establishment of an SBA Direct Loan Program for Systemically Important Secondary...

  3. Use of the conditional marketing authorization pathway for oncology medicines in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoekman, J; Boon, W P C; Bouvy, J C

    2015-01-01

    Conditional marketing authorization (CMA) in the European Union (EU) is an early access pathway for medicines that show promising therapeutic effects, but for which comprehensive data are not available. Using a mixed quantitative-qualitative research design, we evaluated how CMA has been used in ...

  4. 76 FR 20651 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Cargill Power Markets, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... application. SUMMARY: Cargill Power Markets, LLC (CPM) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy... the FPA (16 U.S.C. 824a(e)). On March 22, 2011, DOE received an application from CPM for authority to... international transmission facilities. CPM does not own any electric transmission facilities nor does it hold a...

  5. 76 FR 19069 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Cargill Power Markets, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... application. SUMMARY: Cargill Power Markets, LLC (CPM) has applied to renew its authority to transmit electric... Order No. EA-209, which authorized CPM to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a... CPM export authorization two additional times: On July 3, 2001 in Order No. EA-209-A and on May 31...

  6. Application of relationship marketing in non-profit organisations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of relationship marketing in non-profit organisations involved in the provision of sport and recreational services. ... A variety of factors have over time contributed to a need for marketing in non-profit ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  7. 15 CFR 700.21 - Application for priority rating authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... allocations authorities. (e) Commerce will inform the Department of Energy of the results of its analysis. If... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application for priority rating authority. 700.21 Section 700.21 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign...

  8. Authorization Administration in a Distributed Multi-application Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Sujuan; HONG Fan; LI Xinhua

    2004-01-01

    To meet the authorization administration requirements in a distributed computer network environment, this paper extends the role-based access control model with multiple application dimensions and establishes a new access control model ED-RBAC(Extended Role Based Access Control Model) for the distributed environment. We propose an extendable hierarchical authorization assignment framework and design effective role-registering, role-applying and role-assigning protocol with symmetric and asymmetric cryptographic systems. The model can be used to simplify authorization administration in a distributed environment with multiple applications.

  9. Application scenario analysis of Power Grid Marketing Large Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Qianyu

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, large data has become an important strategic asset in the commercial economy, and its efficient management and application has become the focus of government, enterprise and academia. Power grid marketing data covers real data of electricity and other energy consumption and consumption costs and so on, which is closely related to each customer and the overall economic operation. Fully tap the inherent value of marketing data is of great significance for power grid company to make rapid and efficient response to the market demand and improve service level. The development of large data technology provides a new technical scheme for the development of marketing business under the new situation. Based on the study on current situation of marketing business, marketing information system and marketing data, this paper puts forward the application direction of marketing data and designed typical scenes for internal and external applications.

  10. Schooling and Labor Market Effects of Temporary Authorization: Evidence from DACA

    OpenAIRE

    Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Antman, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the labor market and schooling effects of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) initiative, which provides work authorization to eligible immigrants along with a temporary reprieve from deportation. The analysis relies on a difference-in-differences approach that exploits the discontinuity in program rules to compare eligible individuals to ineligible, likely undocumented immigrants before and after the program went into effect. To address potential endogeneity...

  11. ACHILLES AS A MARKETING TOOL FOR VIRTUAL HERITAGE APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Nabil Arafa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Reality technology has made it possible for people to visit places and enjoy different exciting experiences while remaining at home. It gives an opportunity to enjoy the past at its best. Virtual Reality was introduced in 1929 with interactive training devices that simulated fighter planes. In 1957, the Sensorama simulator was designed which could generate city smells and wind sensations. The need for tourism to become virtual becomes more urgent than ever before. Virtual Reality applications provide this chance, not only in place, but in time as well. This paper presents a guide to the heritage applications' builders and marketers to reach more online users. The paper helps the builder to understand the consumer behaviour for marketing research. The paper illustrates eight levels, with each one leading to the next. The author named the eight levels A.C.H.I.L.L.E.S. Each letter represents a level; beginning with the awareness and ending with the sustainability. ACHILLES represents a sequence that shows three main phases of mobile application usage. It aims for a better management for the online visitors' engagement. This aim can be accomplished through the understanding of the different stages that the online visitors go through. In addition, it shows the correlation between the users and the mobile application.

  12. The Efficient Market Hypothesis: Is It Applicable to the Foreign Exchange Market?

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, James

    2004-01-01

    The study analyses the applicability of the efficient market hypothesis to the foreign exchange market by testing the profitability of the filter rule on the spot market. The significance of the returns was validated by comparing them to the returns from randomly generated shuffled series via bootstrap methods. The results were surprising. For the total period (1984-2003) small filter rules could deliver significant returns indicating an inefficient foreign exchange market. However, once the ...

  13. Micro-economic analysis of the physical constrained markets: game theory application to competitive electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bompard, E.; Ma, Y. C.; Ragazzi, E.

    2006-03-01

    Competition has been introduced in the electricity markets with the goal of reducing prices and improving efficiency. The basic idea which stays behind this choice is that, in competitive markets, a greater quantity of the good is exchanged at a lower price, leading to higher market efficiency. Electricity markets are pretty different from other commodities mainly due to the physical constraints related to the network structure that may impact the market performance. The network structure of the system on which the economic transactions need to be undertaken poses strict physical and operational constraints. Strategic interactions among producers that game the market with the objective of maximizing their producer surplus must be taken into account when modeling competitive electricity markets. The physical constraints, specific of the electricity markets, provide additional opportunity of gaming to the market players. Game theory provides a tool to model such a context. This paper discussed the application of game theory to physical constrained electricity markets with the goal of providing tools for assessing the market performance and pinpointing the critical network constraints that may impact the market efficiency. The basic models of game theory specifically designed to represent the electricity markets will be presented. IEEE30 bus test system of the constrained electricity market will be discussed to show the network impacts on the market performances in presence of strategic bidding behavior of the producers.

  14. Situational Marketing: Application for Higher Education Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Raymond E.; Reed, Rosetta R.

    1995-01-01

    Marketing higher education has been criticized for its consumer (interpreted as student) orientation. An alternative concept, situational marketing, considers the student as one of a number of environmental forces on which the marketing mix focuses. Other forces include funding and regulatory agencies, businesses, alumni, faculty, parents, the…

  15. 47 CFR 76.502 - Time limits applicable to franchise authority consideration of transfer applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time limits applicable to franchise authority... Cable Systems § 76.502 Time limits applicable to franchise authority consideration of transfer applications. (a) A franchise authority shall have 120 days from the date of submission of a completed FCC Form...

  16. Application of Data Mining in direct marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejana Pavlović

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The key to successful business operations lies in good communication with clients. There are a growing number of brokers in the financial market who collect excess funds from the clients and perform transfers to those who need the funds. However, many external and internal factors influence the decision on disposal of available funds. This paper identifies and researches into clients’ satisfaction in the banking system. By application of the disclosure of data legality we will try to point to the factors that influence the clients' decision to invest their long-term deposits in the parent bank. Upon classification and clustering, we will interpret and indentify the strengths and weaknesses of the target results. This analysis provides the guidelines through the use of the decision-making tree, application of data mining and the possibility to use a large set of data increases the value and accuracy of this technique. The problem with this technique is accuracy of the data submitted by the client.

  17. Multivariate analysis of marketing data - applications for bricolage market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FANARU Mihai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available By using concepts and analytical tools for computing, marketing is directly related to the quantitative methods of economic research and other areas where the efficiency of systems performances are studied. Any activity of the company must be programmed and carried out taking into account the consumer. Providing a complete success in business requires the entrepreneur to see the company and its products through the consumers eyes, to act as representative of its clients in order to acquire and satisfy their desires. Through its complex specific activities, marketing aims to provide goods and services the consumers require or right merchandise in the right quantity at the right price at the right time and place. An important consideration in capturing the link between marketing and multivariate statistical analysis is that it provides more powerful instruments that allow researchers to discover relationships between multiple configurations of the relationship between variables, configurations that would otherwise remain hidden or barely visible. In addition, most methods can do this with good accuracy, with the possibility of testing the statistical significance by calculating the level of confidence associated with the link validation to the entire population and not just the investigated sample.

  18. Strategic marketing applications of conjoint analysis: an HMO perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosko, M D; DeVita, M; McKenna, W F; Walker, L R

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how data from a conjoint analysis study can be used to help determine the most appropriate marketing mix for an operational HMO which is entering a new market--the geriatric population. Included are two features which are absent in previous articles on health care applications of conjoint analysis: external validation of results, and a demonstration of how conjoint analysis can be used to simulate market responses to changes in the provider's marketing mix.

  19. The influence of labor market changes on first-time medical school applicant pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cort, David A; Morrison, Emory

    2014-12-01

    To explore whether the number and composition of first-time applicants to U.S. MD-granting medical schools, which have fluctuated over the past 30 years, are related to changes in labor market strength, specifically the unemployment rate and wages. The authors merged time series data from 1980 through 2010 (inclusive) from five sources and used multivariate time series models to determine whether changes in labor market strength (and several other macro-level factors) were related to the number of the medical school applicants as reported by the American Medical College Application Service. Analyses were replicated across specific sex and race/ethnicity applicant pools. Two results surfaced in the analyses. First, the strength of the labor market was not influential in explaining changes in applicant pool sizes for all applicants, but was strongly influential in explaining changes for black and Hispanic males. Increases of $1,000 in prevailing median wages produced a 1.6% decrease in the white male applicant pool, while 1% increases in the unemployment rate were associated with 4.5% and 3.1% increases in, respectively, the black and Hispanic male applicant pools. Second, labor market strength was a more important determinant in applications from males than in applications from females. Although stakeholders cannot directly influence the overall economic market, they can plan and prepare for fewer applications from males, especially those who are black and Hispanic, when the labor market is strong.

  20. THE APPLICATION OF GUERRILLA MARKETING IN KOSOVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaip BYTYÇI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Until the year 2000, the marketing in Kosovo used to be of a traditional form with the main focus on advertisements which can be considered outdated. We are all witnessing a continuous growth of television, radio, and print media; however as consumers we are tired of such communications and readings. We need something that creates immediate movement. In this direction different entrepreneurs in Kosovo have chosen different marketing strategies to meet their needs. Nowadays, when we have a technological development and a high mobility enabling access to Internet through different smart devices (smart phone, i-pad, etc. a more dynamic marketing is required compared to a traditional marketing. The traditional marketing is quite expensive and different organizations have been searching for less expensive forms of marketing, because most of organizations do not have the means to do traditional marketing. A form of marketing that fits well with the now days requirements as well as various economic opportunities to these organizations is "guerrilla marketing" without leaving aside the marketing of social networks. The guerrilla marketing is a marketing technique that does not require a lot of financial means and is suitable for the companies that can not afford to allocate a lot of their budget in marketing. Also, the current trends in line with the technological developments require aspects that are suitable for many enterprises in Kosovo, especially those of the private sector such as small and medium enterprises or organizations, associations and movements, which do not have a sufficient budget to make major traditional marketing campaigns..

  1. 32 CFR 644.166 - Authority and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 10, United States Code, as amended by section 707 of the Act of Congress approved October 27, 1971... parcel of real property before or after its acquisition is authorized by law, if he considers it suitable... options to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives. (b) Applicability...

  2. 50 CFR 216.256 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapon Missions in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.256 Applications for Letters of Authorization. To incidentally take...

  3. Web application for marketing of digital art works and services

    OpenAIRE

    Vatovec, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the diploma thesis is to create a web application for digital artworks and services marketing. The decision to undertake this task is based on the authors’ understanding of the field and assessment that current solutions do not satisfy completely the needs of digital artists who work on the market of online subcultures built on fantasy characters (commercial and artists’ own creations). The final application comprises an interactive web gallery, auction-based marketing system for s...

  4. TEKES Market opportunities for distributed generation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This summary provides the presents status of the Finnish companies, the evaluation of legislative and regulatory issues, main points of the market analysis, case studies of market entry strategies and the strategic direction required for targeted and effective decision-making in the proposed Programme. The items in this executive summary are discussed in more details in the main report. The project was carried out by Electrowatt-Ekono Oy and Frost and Sullivan. Frost and Sullivan undertook the country market analysis and the case studies. Electrowatt-Ekono carried out the legislation parts, the opportunities and barriers of the market in Finland, and the strategic implications

  5. The economic analysis of power market architectures: application to real-time market design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saguan, M.

    2007-04-01

    This work contributes to the economic analysis of power market architectures. A modular framework is used to separate problems of market design in different modules. The work's goal is to study real-time market design. A two-stage market equilibrium model is used to analyse the two main real-time designs: the 'market' and the 'mechanism' (with penalty). Numerical simulations show that design applied in real-time is not neutral vis-a-vis of energy markets sequence and the competition dynamic. Designs using penalty (mechanisms) cause distortions, inefficiencies and can create barriers to entry. The size of distortions is given by the temporal position of the gate that closure the forward markets. This model has also allowed us to show the key role of real-time integration between zones and the importance of good harmonization between real-time designs of each zone. (author)

  6. Applicability Analysis of Bidding Strategy in Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Suyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the electricity market, competition has been introduced in the generation side. It is the overall development trend of the electricity market reformulation to optimize the allocation of different resources through bidding. Therefore, it is significant to research the bidding strategies of the generation companies and the large consumers. This paper reviews the existing research methods of bidding strategy. According to the different market mechanisms, the market participators will choose different bidding strategies based on their own cases. We analyze the applicability of bidding strategies under the different conditions, and give suggestions on how to select bidding strategy for the different market participators under different conditions.

  7. Strategies of bringing drug product marketing applications to meet current regulatory standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Freed, Anita; Lavrich, David; Raghavachari, Ramesh; Huynh-Ba, Kim; Shah, Ketan; Alasandro, Mark

    2015-08-01

    In the past decade, many guidance documents have been issued through collaboration of global organizations and regulatory authorities. Most of these are applicable to new products, but there is a risk that currently marketed products will not meet the new compliance standards during audits and inspections while companies continue to make changes through the product life cycle for continuous improvement or market demands. This discussion presents different strategies to bringing drug product marketing applications to meet current and emerging standards. It also discusses stability and method designs to meet process validation and global development efforts.

  8. Game-theoretic equilibrium analysis applications to deregulated electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Manho

    This dissertation examines game-theoretic equilibrium analysis applications to deregulated electricity markets. In particular, three specific applications are discussed: analyzing the competitive effects of ownership of financial transmission rights, developing a dynamic game model considering the ramp rate constraints of generators, and analyzing strategic behavior in electricity capacity markets. In the financial transmission right application, an investigation is made of how generators' ownership of financial transmission rights may influence the effects of the transmission lines on competition. In the second application, the ramp rate constraints of generators are explicitly modeled using a dynamic game framework, and the equilibrium is characterized as the Markov perfect equilibrium. Finally, the strategic behavior of market participants in electricity capacity markets is analyzed and it is shown that the market participants may exaggerate their available capacity in a Nash equilibrium. It is also shown that the more conservative the independent system operator's capacity procurement, the higher the risk of exaggerated capacity offers.

  9. Schooling and Labor Market Effects of Temporary Authorization: Evidence from DACA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Antman, Francisca

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the labor market and schooling effects of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) initiative, which provides work authorization to eligible immigrants along with a temporary reprieve from deportation. The analysis relies on a difference-in-differences approach that exploits the discontinuity in program rules to compare eligible individuals to ineligible, likely undocumented immigrants before and after the program went into effect. To address potential endogeneity concerns, we focus on youths that likely met DACA's schooling requirement when the program was announced. We find that DACA reduced the probability of school enrollment of eligible higher-educated individuals, as well as some evidence that it increased the employment likelihood of men, in particular. Together, these findings suggest that a lack of authorization may lead individuals to enroll in school when working is not a viable option. Thus, once employment restrictions are relaxed and the opportunity costs of higher-education rise, eligible individuals may reduce investments in schooling.

  10. Push and pull strategies: applications for health care marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, B R

    1987-08-01

    As health care markets mature and expand, strategies available in other industries become useful. This article examines how traditional push-pull strategies apply to health care. Marketers using a push strategy recognize that the sale of their services or goods is dependent upon the endorsement of a middleman and promote their product through the middleman. Those using a pull strategy market directly to the consumer. In this article, the author outlines the advantages and disadvantages of using each strategy.

  11. An antibiotic’s journey from marketing authorization to use, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blix, Hege Salvesen; Plahte, Jens; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Here we describe in detail marketing authorization and reimbursement procedures for medicinal products in Norway, with particular reference to nine novel antibiotics that received marketing authorization between 2005 and 2015. The description illustrates that, in places like Norway, with effective antibiotic stewardship policies and an associated low prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection, there is little need for newer, more expensive antibiotics whose therapeutic superiority to existing compounds has not been demonstrated. Since resistance begins to emerge as soon as an antibiotic is used, Norway’s practice of leaving newer antibiotics on the shelf is consistent with the goal of prolonging the effectiveness of newer antibiotics. An unintended consequence is that the country has signalled to the private sector that there is little commercial value in novel antibiotics, which may nevertheless still be needed to treat rare or emerging infections. Every country aims to improve infection control and to promote responsible antibiotic use. However, as progress is made, antibiotic-resistant bacteria should become less common and, consequently, the need for, and the commercial value of, novel antibiotics will probably be reduced. Nevertheless, antibiotic innovation continues to be essential. This dilemma will have to be resolved through the introduction of alternative reward systems for antibiotic innovation. The DRIVE-AB (Driving re-investment in research and development and responsible antibiotic use) research consortium in Europe has been tasked with identifying ways of meeting this challenge. PMID:28250535

  12. THE ANALYSIS OF THE ART MARKET FROM REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA WITH INNOVATIVE MARKETING ELEMENTS (based on the author's interview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga PERCINSCHI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The actuality of this research consists in the less developed of art market in the Republic of Moldova and lack of researches in this domain. The goal of the article is to analyze the art market of the Republic of Moldova with innovative marketing elements. The method of this article is based on interviews conducted with painters, owners of art galleries, art salons were highlighted barriers that hinder the development of the art market in Moldova. The main results are identified ways to overcome and directions for the development of effective marketing that will enhance the country's competitiveness as a whole.

  13. Conducting field research in subsistence markets, with an application to market orientation in the context of Ethiopian pastoralists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Tessema, W.K.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    The typical characteristics of subsistence markets challenge not only the generalizability of marketing theories but also the applicability and validity of the field researchmethods generally practiced by marketing researchers. This article discusses challenges inherent to field research in

  14. Hedging tools and cross market applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, C.

    1997-01-01

    The nature of the basic tools of the market - put, call, and swap - their various combinations and how they are used in various market transactions were explained. The role and effect of the use of these tools on prices, price fluctuations and risks were outlined. Predictions for the future for producers (reduced use of price optimization and its replacement by price diversification strategies, realignment of risk management tools to be in accord with the changed marketing techniques), and for end users (focus on managing short term fluctuations in input costs, short-term price fixing, more frequent utilization of traditional option strategies and spread options), were summarized. For the electricity market in particular, the prominence of gas-fired generation units as options on the spread between gas and electricity, providing opportunities for outperformance options was predicted

  15. 17 CFR 140.91 - Delegation of authority to the Director of the Division of Trading and Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Director of the Division of Trading and Markets. 140.91 Section 140.91 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND PROCEDURES OF THE COMMISSION Functions § 140.91 Delegation of authority to the Director of the Division of Trading and Markets. (a) The...

  16. Market analysis of APS/SCM applications and technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Prášil, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    The bachelor thesis aims to describe a current worldwide market of APS/SCM technologies and applications , i.e. advanced planned scheduling /supply chain management. In the first part, the APS/SCM is described in theory. The APS/SCM is defined and its benefits and impacts on company are discussed. The next part of the work is focused on the market with APS/SCM and the distribution of forces in the market. The demand and supply of this market segment is analyzed. In the last part, solutions of...

  17. 77 FR 24198 - Notice of Revocation of Market-Based Rate Authority and Termination of Market-Based Rate Tariffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... Innovative Technical Services, LLC....... ER03-763-000 Inupiat Energy Marketing, LLC ER09-1748-000 Kohler Co... Redwood Energy Marketing, LLC ER04-545-000 SF Phosphates Limited Company, LLC....... ER01-1121-000 Sirius... complete picture of a company's tariff, the various provisions need to be integrated into a single system...

  18. A marketing model: applications for dietetic professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, S C; Moody, D L

    1986-01-01

    Traditionally, dietitians have communicated the availability of their services to the "public at large." The expectation was that the public would respond favorably to nutrition programs simply because there was a consumer need for them. Recently, however, both societal and consumer needs have changed dramatically, making old communication strategies ineffective and obsolete. The marketing discipline has provided a new model and new decision-making tools for many health professionals to use to more effectively make their services known to multiple consumer groups. This article provides one such model as applied to the dietetic profession. The model explores a definition of the business of dietetics, how to conduct an analysis of the environment, and, finally, the use of both in the choice of new target markets. Further, the model discusses the major components of developing a marketing strategy that will help the practitioner to be competitive in the marketplace. Presented are strategies for defining and re-evaluating the mission of the profession, for using future trends to identify new markets and roles for the profession, and for developing services that make the profession more competitive by better meeting the needs of the consumer.

  19. The applicability of some marketing principles to the Gospel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Wolfaardt

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study irav to test the applicability of some marketing principles to the Gospel. The secondary objective was to ascertain a correlation between the growing and declining churches and their respective adherence to or rejection of marketing principles. A new concept of marketing - the stewardship marketing concept - had to be formulated to satisfy the unique character of the Gospel. This broadened stewardship marketing concept allows the Gospel to be described as an intangible product which can be promoted, distributed and exchanged for scarce resources. Man's inability to 'sell' an excellent product like the Gospel dearly asks for a new distribution system to promote the Gospel This new distribution system, defined as a multi-channel vertical marketing system, can supplement and does not necessarily become a substitute for existing church structures.

  20. A concept of applications in the electronic commerce market

    OpenAIRE

    Oboyanskiy, Andrey; Shuvalova, Mariya

    2017-01-01

    This article considers the potential of mobile applications in the e-commerce. The current state of e-commerce has been considered. The Internet users' involvement in the e-commerce has been analyzed. Analyzed example of the most popular applications for further analysis sphere of e-commerce. The work analyzes the successful e-commerce site on the market. The different concepts for using mobile applications on e-commerce market. Examples of the use of augmented reality applications aimed at p...

  1. Extent and content of data for regulatory submissions: First-in-human and marketing authorization--Viewpoint of US industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ian Ross

    2015-09-01

    The amount and type of data in regulatory submissions increases dramatically from the first-in-human clinical trials application through to the extensive dossier that is required for marketing authorization. The Pharmaceuticals and Biotechnology industries are very familiar with the requirements and expectations of Health Authorities for small molecule and biologics, but have limited experience for cell-based therapies. Fortunately, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines agency (EMA) Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT) have considerable experience in regulating cell therapies and have provided extensive Guidance documents for developers. The Agencies offers advice to Sponsors through a variety of meetings. However, it is incumbent on the Sponsor to understand the regulations, interpret the Guidance documents and formulate clear company positions to enable the Agency to provide clear feedback. It is important for Sponsors to understand the factors that are critical for the safety and efficacy of their product and to demonstrate to the Health Authorities that they have a control strategy that ensures safety and efficacy during all stages of development. The focus of this paper is to describe some of the challenges for the chemistry manufacturing and controls (CMC) for cell therapies being development internationally. Copyright © 2015.

  2. Oligopolistic concurrence and investment: application to electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meunier, G.

    2008-12-01

    This research aims at analysing investment strategies of firms which are in an oligopolistic situation. After a brief description of the physical characteristics of an electric system, the author describes the reforms and defines the problematic of an investment in electricity production within markets in imperfect concurrence. In a first part, the author analyses the heterogeneity (either exogenous or endogenous) and technology choices of oligopolistic firms. In case of an exogenous heterogeneity, he studies the impact of the number of firms on investment decisions. In the second part, the author examines the regulations introduced in industries in imperfect concurrence: electricity production by a public firm and interaction between emission allowance market and investment

  3. Dynamically Authorized Role-Based Access Control for Grid Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Hanbing; HU Heping; LU Zhengding; LI Ruixuan

    2006-01-01

    Grid computing is concerned with the sharing and coordinated use of diverse resources in distributed "virtual organizations". The heterogeneous, dynamic and multi-domain nature of these environments makes challenging security issues that demand new technical approaches. Despite the recent advances in access control approaches applicable to Grid computing, there remain issues that impede the development of effective access control models for Grid applications. Among them there are the lack of context-based models for access control, and reliance on identity or capability-based access control schemes. An access control scheme that resolve these issues is presented, and a dynamically authorized role-based access control (D-RBAC) model extending the RBAC with context constraints is proposed. The D-RABC mechanisms dynamically grant permissions to users based on a set of contextual information collected from the system and user's environments, while retaining the advantages of RBAC model. The implementation architecture of D-RBAC for the Grid application is also described.

  4. The application of "integrated marketing communications" to social marketing and health communication: organizational challenges and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, G; Cole, G; Kirby, S; Freimuth, V; Caywood, C

    1998-01-01

    Influencing consumer behavior is a difficult and often resource-intensive undertaking, with success usually requiring identifying, describing, and understanding target audiences; solid product and/or service positioning relative to competitors; and significant media and communication resources. Integrated marketing communication (IMC) is a new way of organizing and managing persuasive communication tools and functions which involves realigning communications to consider the flow of information from an organization from the viewpoint of end consumers. Although the application of IMC to social marketing remains relatively unexplored, the IMC literature and recent efforts by the US Centers for Disease Prevention and Control suggest that integrated communication approaches have much to offer social marketing and health communication efforts. IMC, IMC and social marketing, and implications of IMC for public and private sector social marketing programs are discussed.

  5. Designing "Real-World" trials to meet the needs of health policy makers at marketing authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Melanie; Wood, John; Freemantle, Nick

    2011-07-01

    There is increasing interest in conducting "Real-World" trials that go beyond traditional assessment of efficacy and safety to examine market access and value for money questions before marketing authorization of a new pharmaceutical product or health technology. This commentary uses practical examples to demonstrate how high-quality evidence of the cost-effectiveness of an intervention may be gained earlier in the development process. Issues surrounding the design and analysis of "Real-World" trials to demonstrate relative cost-effectiveness early in the life of new technologies are discussed. The modification of traditional phase III trial designs, de novo trial designs, the combination of trial-based and epidemiological data, and the use of simulation model-based approaches to address reimbursement questions are described. Modest changes to a phase III trial protocol and case report form may be undertaken at the design stage to provide valid estimates of health care use and the benefits accrued; however, phase III designs often preclude "real-life" practice. Relatively small de novo trials may be used to address adherence to therapy or patient preference, although simply designed studies with active comparators enrolling large numbers of patients may provide evidence on long-term safety and rare adverse events. Practical examples demonstrate that it is possible to provide high-quality evidence of the cost-effectiveness of an intervention earlier in the development process. Payers and decision makers should preferentially adopt treatments with such evidence than treatments for which evidence is lacking or of lower quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 76 FR 44763 - Authority To Designate Financial Market Utilities as Systemically Important

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... institutions and markets and thereby threaten the stability of the U.S. financial system.\\4\\ \\3\\ See 12 U.S.C... markets, financial institutions, or the broader financial system; and E. Any other factors that the... Markets, Financial Institutions or the Broader Financial System Subcategory (D)(1): Role of an FMU in the...

  7. 75 FR 79982 - Authority To Designate Financial Market Utilities as Systemically Important

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... among financial institutions or markets and thereby threaten the stability of the financial system of... of significant liquidity or credit problems spreading among financial institutions or markets and... would have on critical markets, financial institutions, or the broader financial system; and (E) Any...

  8. 17 CFR 16.07 - Delegation of authority to the Director of the Division of Market Oversight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., the authority to determine whether reporting markets must submit data in hard copy, and the time that... authority to approve the format, coding structure and electronic data transmission procedures used by... supporting data report, and establish the time for the submission of and the manner and format of such...

  9. Comparators (medicinal and non medicinal) for marketing authorization, for public health, for payers and at the European level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdaï, Driss; Hotton, Jean-Michel; Lechat, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Drug evaluation is based on comparison. Thus, the choice of the comparator for any new treatment becomes a key issue, especially when there are great differences in medical practice and of use conditions of the comparators depending on the geographical zones and their evolution with time. The choice of the comparators must satisfy sometimes different expectations from the registration authorities and for insurance coverage. The universal comparator that allows answering all the clinical assessment questions does not exist. Placebo, when it can be used, remains a reference for the MA (marketing authorisation) application, but does not exclude the use of the reference drug available on the market and prescribed under optimal efficacy conditions. The reference treatment is sometimes a difficult choice due to the absence of validated therapeutic recommendations or if the recommendations vary depending on the countries. The expansion and international harmonization of prescription guidelines (clinical practice guidelines) would reinforce the robustness and efficiency of clinical research efforts with respect to the relevance of the comparison to reference treatments. This principle also applies to the use of a non-drug comparator when it has been recognized as the reference comparator in the treatment of the pathology in question. In as much as possible, the search for a consensus must also aim at defining in the clinical development recommendations significant thresholds for the size of evaluated effects. Optimization of the information made available after clinical trials could also be helped by the development of use of methodologies that allow assessing superiority on secondary criteria during a non-inferiority study on the main criterion. Finally, the development of early scientific consultations by the Haute Autorité de Santé (HAS, French Health Authority) would contribute to adapt phase III clinical trials better to questions concerning the assessment of the

  10. Virtual private networks application in Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glidewell, Donnie D.; Smartt, Heidi A.; Caskey, Susan A.; Bonino, Anibal D.; Perez, Adrian C.; Pardo, German R.; Vigile, Rodolfo S.; Krimer, Mario

    2004-01-01

    As the result of the existence of several regional delegations all over the country, a requirement was made to conform a secure data interchange structure. This would make possible the interconnection of these facilities and their communication with the Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN) headquarters. The records these parts exchange are often of classified nature, including sensitive data by the local safeguards inspectors. On the other hand, the establishment of this network should simplify the access of authorized nuclear and radioactive materials users to the ARN databases, from remote sites and with significant trust levels. These requirements called for a network that should be not only private but also secure, providing data centralization and integrity assurance with a strict user control. The first proposal was to implement a point to point link between the installations. This proposal was deemed as economically not viable, and it had the disadvantage of not being easily reconfigurable. The availability of new technologies, and the accomplishment of the Action Sheet 11 under an agreement between Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Authority and the United States Department of Energy (DOE), opened a new path towards the resolution of this problem. By application of updated tunneling security protocols it was possible to project a manageable and secure network through the use of Virtual Private Networking (VPN) hardware. A first trial installation of this technology was implemented between ARN headquarters at Buenos Aires and the Southern Region Office at Bariloche, Argentina. This private net is at the moment under test, and it is planned to expand to more sites in this country, reaching for example to nuclear power plants. The Bariloche installation had some interesting peculiarities. The solutions proposed to them revealed to be very useful during the development of the network expansion plans, as they showed how to adapt the VPN technical requisites to the

  11. Television food marketing to children revisited: the Federal Trade Commission has the constitutional and statutory authority to regulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2010-01-01

    The evidence reveals that young children are targeted by food and beverage advertisers but are unable to comprehend the commercial context and persuasive intent of marketing. Although the First Amendment protects commercial speech, it does not protect deceptive and misleading speech for profit. Marketing directed at children may fall into this category of unprotected speech. Further, children do not have the same First Amendment right to receive speech as adults. For the first time since the Federal Trade Commission's original attempt to regulate marketing to children in the 1970s (termed KidVid), the political, scientific, and legal climate coalesce to make the time well-suited to reevaluate the FTC's authority for action. This paper analyzes the constitutional authority for the FTC to regulate television food marketing directed at children as deceptive in light of the most robust public health evidence on the subject.

  12. European Marketing Authorizations Granted Based on a Single Pivotal Clinical Trial: The Rule or the Exception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morant, Anne Vinther; Vestergaard, Henrik Tang

    2018-07-01

    A minimum of two positive, adequate, and well-controlled clinical trials has historically been the gold standard for providing substantial evidence to support regulatory approval of a new medicine. Nevertheless, the present analysis of European Marketing Authorizations granted between 2012 and 2016 showed that 45% of new active substances were approved based on a single pivotal clinical trial. For therapeutic areas such as oncology and cardiovascular diseases, approvals based on a single pivotal trial are the rule rather than the exception, whereas new medicines within the nervous system area were generally supported by two or more pivotal trials. While overall similar trends have been observed in the US, the recent US Food and Drug Administration approvals of nervous system medicines based on a single pivotal trial suggest that a case-by-case scientific evaluation of the totality of evidence is increasingly applied to facilitate faster access of new medicines to patients suffering from serious diseases. © 2017 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  13. Choice and validation of a near infrared spectroscopic application for the identity control of starting materials. practical experience with the EU draft Note for Guidance on the use of near infrared spectroscopy by the pharmaceutical industry and the data to be forwarded in part II of the dossier for a marketing authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vredenbregt, M J; Caspers, P W J; Hoogerbrugge, R; Barends, D M

    2003-11-01

    Recently the CPMP/CVMP sent out for consultation the draft Note for Guidance (dNfG) on the use of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) by the pharmaceutical industry and the data to be forwarded in part II of the dossier for a marketing authorization. We explored the practicability of this dNfG with respect to the verification of the correct identity of starting materials in a generic tablet-manufacturing site. Within the boundaries of the dNfG, a release procedure was developed for 12 substances containing structurally related compounds and substances differing only in particle size. For the method development literature data were also taken into consideration. Good results were obtained with wavelength correlation (WC), applied on raw spectra or second derivative spectra both without smoothing. The defined threshold of 0.98 for raw spectra differentiated between all molecular structures. Both methods were found to be robust over a period of 1 year. For the differentiation between the different particle sizes a subsequent second chemometric technique had to be used. Soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) with a probability level of 0.01 proved suitable. Internal and external validation I according to the dNfG showed no incorrect rejections or false acceptances. External validation II according to the dNfG was carried out with 95 potentially interfering substances from which 46 were tested experimentally. Macrogol 400 was not distinguished from macrogol 300. For the complete verification of the identity of macrogol 300 test A of the European Pharmacopoeia is needed in addition to the NIRS application. A release procedure developed with WC applied on raw spectra and SIMCA as a second method, which is different from the preferred method of the dNfG, was tested in practice with good results. We conclude that the dNfG has good practicability and that deviations from the preferred methods of the dNfG can also give good differentiation.

  14. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabraal, A.; Delasanta, D.; Rosen, J.; Nolfi, J.; Ulmer, R.

    1981-11-01

    Agricultural sector PV market assessments conducted in the Phillippines, Nigeria, Mexico, Morocco, and Colombia are extrapolated worldwide. The types of applications evaluated are those requiring less than 15 kW of power and operate in a stand alone mode. The major conclusions were as follows: PV will be competitive in applications requiring 2 to 3 kW of power prior to 1983; by 1986 PV system competitiveness will extend to applications requiring 4 to 6 kW of power, due to capital constraints, the private sector market may be restricted to applications requiring less than about 2 kW of power; the ultimate purchase of larger systems will be governments, either through direct purchase or loans from development banks. Though fragmented, a significant agriculture sector market for PV exists; however, the market for PV in telecommunications, signalling, rural services, and TV will be larger. Major market related factors influencing the potential for U.S. PV Sales are: lack of awareness; high first costs; shortage of long term capital; competition from German, French and Japanese companies who have government support; and low fuel prices in capital surplus countries. Strategies that may aid in overcoming some of these problems are: setting up of a trade association aimed at overcoming problems due to lack of awareness, innovative financing schemes such as lease arrangements, and designing products to match current user needs as opposed to attempting to change consumer behavior.

  15. Comparison of Generic Drug Reviews for Marketing Authorization between Japan and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuribayashi, Ryosuke; Appleton, Scott

    2017-09-01

    Generic drugs are assuming an increasingly important role in sustaining modern healthcare systems, as the cost of healthcare, including drug usage, is gradually expanding around the world. To date, published articles comparing generic drug reviews between different countries are scarce. The objective of this study was to examine generic drug reviews in Japan and Canada. We surveyed generic drug reviews from Japan and Canada and compared the following points: general matter (application types, type of partial change or Supplement to an Abbreviated New Drug Submission, application and approval numbers, review period, application format, review report, responsibility for review), bioequivalence studies for solid oral dosage forms, and bioequivalence guidelines, guidance, or basic principles regarding various dosage forms. This survey described the many similarities and differences in generic drug reviews between the two countries and points that should be improved to promote better generic drug reviews. In particular, regulations for the definition of the same or different active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are similar for both authorities. The results clarified the future challenges of generic drug reviews, and the differences highlighted by this survey will be important considerations for the future. This is the first article to present and discuss the details of generic drug reviews between Japan and Canada.

  16. The possibility of obtaining marketing authorization of orphan pharmaceutical compounding preparations: 3,4-DAP for Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wilde, Sofieke; de Jong, Maria G H; Lipka, Alexander F; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; Schimmel, Kirsten J M

    2018-03-01

    Pharmaceutical compounding preparations, produced by (hospital) pharmacies, usually do not have marketing authorization. As a consequence, some of these pharmaceutical compounding preparations can be picked-up by a pharmaceutical company to obtain marketing authorization, often leading to price increases. An example is the 3,4-diaminopyridine slow release (3,4-DAP SR) tablets for Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome (LEMS). In 2009 marketing authorization was given for the commercial immediate release phosphate salt of the drug, including a fifty-fold price increase compared to the pharmaceutical compounding preparation. Obtaining marketing authorization for 3,4-DAP SR by academia might have been a solution to prevent this price increase. To determine whether the available data of a pharmaceutical compounding preparation with long-term experience in regular care are adequate to obtain marketing authorization, 3,4-DAP SR is used as a case study. A retrospective qualitative case-study was performed. Initially, document analysis was executed by collecting the required data for marketing authorization in general and whether data of Firdapse® and 3,4-DAP SR met these requirements. Secondly, the (non-) available data of the two formulations were compared with each other to determine the differences in availability. At the time of approval, almost all data were available for both Firdapse® and 3,4-DAP SR. Conversely, much of the data used for the approval of Firdapse® originated from the 3,4-DAP immediate release (3,4-DAP IR) formulation. Only two bioequivalence studies and one pharmacology safety study was performed with Firdapse® before marketing authorization application. In conclusion, at time Firdapse® obtained approval, the data available did not differ substantially from 3,4-DAP SR, indicating that approval with 3,4-DAP SR would have been possible. We make a plea for approval of orphan medicinal products developed and manufactured by academic institutions as to

  17. Application of marketing mix in public administration

    OpenAIRE

    Szusciková, Kateřina

    2013-01-01

    Bakalářská práce je zaměřena na marketing, konkrétně na marketingový mix v jeho běžné formě a jeho adaptaci na prostředí veřejné správy v rámci samosprávy. Teoretická část se věnuje základním prvkům marketingu, marketingovému prostředí, získávání informací a jejich analýze i komplexnímu marketingovému mixu. Praktická část se zabývá analýzou faktorů v makroprostředí i mikroprostředí a obsahuje průzkum zaměřený na danou problematiku a návrh vhodných nástrojů marketingového mixu pro územní samos...

  18. 75 FR 38516 - Order on Intent To Revoke Market-Based Rate Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ..., Electric Quarterly Reports, Strategic Energy Management Corp., Solaro Energy Marketing Corporation. 1... (including market-based power sales, cost-based power sales, and transmission service) and providing transaction information (including rates) for short-term and long-term power sales during the most recent...

  19. ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS: AN APPLICATION IN GREEN BUILDING MARKET RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmin Attaran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability has become a necessity in the building industry. In recent years, as the general public is more informed and aware of sustainability related issues, they are becoming major players in the decision making process regarding their built environment. However, there are still challenges with how sustainability is communicated to occupants and owners of buildings. As the global economic crisis is continuing, the marketing of green buildings needs to be refined to communicate the lifetime benefits of sustainability. One of the ways to develop effective marketing strategies, is to understand what the occupants value the most among many aspects of green buildings thus develop focused marketing solutions. Authors present a conceptual methodology using Analytic Hierarchy Process toward identifying consumer ranking and weights of a major green building rating system’s categories. Authors use sample non-representative data to illustrate the proposed methodology, while sharing preliminary qualitative data from the research in progress.

  20. Problem Analysis: Application in Developing Marketing Strategies for Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John; Moore, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    The problem analysis technique can help colleges understand students' salient needs in a competitive market. A preliminary study demonstrates the usefulness of the approach for developing strategies aimed at maintaining student loyalty and improving word-of-mouth promotion to other prospective students. (Author/MSE)

  1. Is candlestick continuation patterns applicable in Malaysian stock market?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Chee-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Technical analysis is deemed to be an anathema to the modern finance theory as it contradicts with the efficient market hypothesis, typically the weak form market efficiency which forbids the utilization of past prices and trading volume data to predict future market movement. However, the technical indicator of candlestick trading strategy is widely applied by traders for short term investment. This study thus investigates on the predictive power of candlestick charting which concentrates on the application of continuation patterns in Malaysian stock market from 2000 to 2014. Skewness adjusted t-test is employed to test the statistical significance of candlesticks’ profitability. After taking into account the transaction costs, sub-sample, and out-of-sample test, the findings show that only Falling Window pattern after a prevailing downtrend shows predictive power with bearish signals indicated significantly during the 5-day holding period.

  2. 18 CFR 33.1 - Applicability, definitions, and blanket authorizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... transactions between affiliated companies, value means market value if the securities are widely traded, in... securities are being traded at the time the transaction occurs; if the securities are not widely traded... Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 as amended by the...

  3. 41 CFR 102-75.315 - Are appraisers authorized to consider the effect of historic covenants on the fair market value?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... authorized to consider the effect of historic covenants on the fair market value? 102-75.315 Section 102-75... market value? Yes, appraisers are authorized to consider the effect of historic covenants on the fair market value, if the property is in or eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places. ...

  4. Industrial robots in Europe - market, applications and developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraft, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    Different companies involving a wide range of products and manufacturing processes were studied to define the requirements for industrial robots. A survey of all such automatic units offered on the world market was made to establish a data base. Principal applications include coating, spot welding, and loading and unloading operations.

  5. Non-destructive control: technologies, applications and markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    A description of NDC - nondestructive controls - (acoustic emission, Eddy currents, infrared and thermal, liquid penetrants, magnetic particles, radiographic, ultrasonic, visual and optical techniques) is given with various industrial applications and market trends. Some research projects, contacts and a list of NDC systems main manufacturers are given. (A.B.). 37 figs. and tabs

  6. Market potential for non-electric applications of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this report is to assess the market potential for the non-electric applications of nuclear energy in the near (before 2020) and long (2020-2050) terms. The main non-electric applications are defined here as district heating, desalination (of sea, brackish and waste water), industrial heat supply, ship propulsion and the energy supply for spacecraft. This report is principally devoted to these applications, although a less detailed assessment of some innovative applications (e.g. hydrogen production and coal gasification) is also provided. While the technical details of these applications are covered briefly, emphasis is placed on the economic and other factors that may promote or hinder the penetration of the nuclear option into the market for non-electric energy services. The report is intentionally targeted towards expected demands. It is for this reason that its sections are structured by demand categories and not according to possible reactor types. At the same time, the orientation on the demand side can result in overlaps at the supply side, because the same nuclear reactor can often serve more than one type of demand. Such cases are noted as appropriate. Each section characterizes a specific non-electric application in terms of its market size, its prospects for nuclear technologies and the economic competitiveness of the technologies

  7. Fuel cell added value for early market applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Scott; Chandan, Amrit; Steinberger-Wilckens, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Fuel Cells are often considered in the market place as just power providers. Whilst fuel cells do provide power, there are additional beneficial characteristics that should be highlighted to consumers. Due to the high price premiums associated with fuel cells, added value features need to be exploited in order to make them more appealing and increase unit sales and market penetration. This paper looks at the approach taken by two companies to sell high value fuel cells to niche markets. The first, SFC Energy, has a proven track record selling fuel cell power providers. The second, Bloom Energy, is making significant progress in the US by having sold its Energy Server to more than 40 corporations including Wal-Mart, Staples, Google, eBay and Apple. Further to these current markets, two prospective added value applications for fuel cells are discussed. These are fuel cells for aircraft APUs and fuel cells for fire prevention. These two existing markets and two future markets highlight that fuel cells are not just power providers. Rather, they can be used as solutions to many needs, thus being more cost effective by replacing a number of incumbent systems at the same time.

  8. A PROBABILISTIC DEMAND APPLICATION IN THE AMERICAN CRACKER MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutherford Cd. Johnson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the distribution of consumer buying strategies by producers may permit improved marketing strategies and improved ability to respond to volatile market conditions. In order to investigate potential ways of gaining such knowledge, this study extends the work of Kahneman, Russell, and Thaler through the application of a probabilistic demand framework using Choice Wave theory, based on the Schrödinger Wave Equation in quantum mechanics. Probabilistic variability of response to health information and its potential influence on buying strategies is also investigated, extending the work of Clement, Johnson, Hu, Pagoulatos, and Debertin. In the present study, the domestic cracker market within fourteen U.S. metropolitan areas is segmented, using the Choice Wave Probabilistic Demand approach, into two statistically independent “Consumer Types” of seven metropolitan areas each. The two Consumer Types are shown to have statistically different elasticities than each other and from the combined market as a whole. This approach may provide not only improved marketing strategies through improved awareness of consumer preferences and buying strategies, especially in the volatile agricultural sector, but also may be useful in aiding producers of store brand/private label products in finding desirable markets in which to compete against national brands. The results also suggest that supply/producer-side strategies should take into account the ways in which information, whether under the direct control of the producer or not, may influence and change consumer buying strategies.

  9. 77 FR 39689 - Application To Export Electric Energy; IPR-GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing North America, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-386] Application To Export Electric Energy; IPR-GDF SUEZ... applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico pursuant to section 202... authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico for five years as a power marketer...

  10. 78 FR 53737 - ConocoPhillips Company; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... application, FE applies the principles described in DOE Delegation Order No. 0204-111 which states that... LNG Development, L.P., DOE/FE Order No. 3317 (July 19, 2013); ENI USA Gas Marketing LLC, DOE/FE Order No. 3247 (March 5, 2013); Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC, DOE/FE Order No. 3231 (February 13, 2013...

  11. The regulatory application of authorization in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, T.; Frullani, S.

    2004-01-01

    Authorization is the process used by governments and regulatory authorities to decide what regulatory controls or conditions, if any, should be applied to radioactive sources or radiation exposure situations in order to protect the public, workers and the environment appropriately. Over the years, governments and regulatory authorities have used various approaches to the authorization process under differing circumstances. Now, with the new draft recommendations from the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), there is the prospect of being able to use a single, simple and self-coherent approach for the process of regulatory authorization under all circumstances. Previously, the ICRP recommended the use of various approaches to manage radiological protection situations. For what were called practices, exposures were subject to limits, and optimisation was required below these limits. What were called interventions were subject to intervention levels, above which some action could be considered justified, and which should be optimised based on consideration of how much dose could be averted by the countermeasure considered. Radon in homes was subject to action levels, above which some sort of countermeasure could be recommended. These approaches are all philosophically distinct and logically constructed, but their differences, particularly in the types of numerical criteria used (limits, intervention levels, action levels, etc.) contributed to confusion and misunderstanding. (author)

  12. Value of non-electric applications of nuclear energy beyond market potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamis, I.

    2014-01-01

    Providing process steam at different temperatures, Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) could be coupled to various types of non-electric applications such as seawater desalination, hydrogen production, district heating or cooling, as well as any energy-demanding process heat industrial application. This will not only make nuclear power a more feasible option helping to accelerate its penetration into the the heat and transportation markets, but also helping to improve their overall thermal efficiencies. Typical thermal efficiencies of NPPs are about 33%. All existing reactor types can be coupled to non-electric application based on cogeneration i.e. the production of electricity and process heat. (authors)

  13. 76 FR 17047 - Authority To Designate Financial Market Utilities as Systemically Important

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... functioning is integral to the soundness of the financial system and the overall economy. The importance of... Council to apply a transparent and clear communication strategy surrounding all designation decisions. The..., Better Markets, The Clearing House, Debevoise & Plimpton, The Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation...

  14. 49 CFR 450.11 - Application for delegation of authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... structure, organizational components and directly affiliated agencies and their functions utilized for... to be served. (6) A description of the types of work performed by the applicant in the past, noting...

  15. Shale oil specialty markets: Screening survey for United States applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-12-01

    EG and G requested J. E. Sinor Consultants Inc. to carry out an initial screening study on the possibilities for producing specialty chemicals from oil shale. Raw shale oil is not an acceptable feedstock to refineries and there are not enough user of heavy fuel oil in the western oil shale region to provide a dependable market. The only alternatives are to hydrotreat the oil, or else ship it long distances to a larger market area. Either of these alternatives results in a cost penalty of several dollars per barrel. Instead of attempting to enter the large-volume petroleum products market, it was hypothesized that a small shale oil facility might be able to produce specialty chemicals with a high enough average value to absorb the high costs of shipping small quantities to distant markets and still provide a higher netback to the plant site than sales to the conventional petroleum products market. This approach, rather than attempting to refine shale oil or to modify its characteristics to satisfy the specifications for petroleum feedstocks or products, focuses instead on those particular characteristics which distinguish shale oil from petroleum, and attempts to identify applications which would justify a premium value for those distinctive characteristics. Because byproducts or specialty chemicals production has been a prominent feature of oil shale industries which have flourished for periods of time in various countries, a brief review of those industries provides a starting point for this study. 9 figs., 32 tabs.

  16. Temporary authorization for use: does the French patient access programme for unlicensed medicines impact market access after formal licensing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrassat-Théas, Albane; Paubel, Pascal; Parent de Curzon, Olivier; Le Pen, Claude; Sinègre, Martine

    2013-04-01

    To reach the French market, a new drug requires a marketing authorization (MA) and price and reimbursement agreements. These hurdles could delay access to new and promising drugs. Since 1992, French law authorizes the use of unlicensed drugs on an exceptional and temporary basis through a compassionate-use programme, known as Temporary Authorization for Use (ATU). This programme was implemented to improve early access to drugs under development or authorized abroad. However, it is suspected to be inflationary, bypassing public bodies in charge of health technology assessment (HTA) and of pricing. The aim of this study is to observe the market access after the formal licensing of drugs that went through this compassionate-use programme. We included all ATUs that received an MA between 1 January 2005 and 30 June 2010. We first examined market access delays from these drugs using the standard administrative path. We positioned this result in relation to launch delays observed in France (for all outpatient drugs) and in other major European markets. Second, we assessed the bargaining power of a hospital purchaser after those drugs had obtained an MA by calculating the price growth rate after the approval. During the study period, 77 ATUs were formally licensed. The study concluded that, from the patient's perspective, licensing and public bodies' review time was shortened by a combined total of 36 months. The projected 11-month review time of public bodies may be longer than delays usually observed for outpatient drugs. Nonetheless, the study revealed significant benefits for French patient access based on comparable processing to launch time with those of other European countries with tight price control policies. In return, a 12 % premium, on average, is paid to pharmaceutical companies while drugs are under this status (sub-analysis on 56 drugs). In many instances, the ATU programme responds to a public health need by accelerating the availability of new drugs

  17. Centralization of Authority, Market Orientation, and Customer Relationship Management in the Banking Sector: A Study in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose VARGHESE

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Buyer-seller exchange relationship in the personal selling context is a topic of great interest in the financial services sector. In today’s highly competitive scenario where market offers are largely homogenous, an organization’s relationship orientation is found to have a significant impact on the extent to which relationships are developed between salespeople and the customers. Customer oriented selling approach benefits both the salesperson and the organization since it has got positive associations with customer relationships. The strength of the relationship between market orientation and salesperson’s customer orientation can, however, be affected by the organization’s decision to regulate authority. This paper attempts to understand the influence organization’s regulation of authority on orientation at an individual and organizational level in the financial services industry.

  18. Branded smart phone applications: an efficient marketing strategy?

    OpenAIRE

    Vaddé, Mathilde

    2012-01-01

    Advertising through smart phone applications is one of the fastest growing categories in advertising nowadays. Branded game-apps on mobile phones have several very innovative and attractive aspects, they physically engage their customers into a game, creating on a first level an entertainment but mainly they are advertising their products and the brand’s name. Many studies have been written on gaming, customer engagement and marketing strategies, but only few studies has been written on the c...

  19. Generalized Bogoliubov Polariton Model: An Application to Stock Exchange Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anh, Chu Thuy; Anh, Truong Thi Ngoc; Lan, Nguyen Tri; Viet, Nguyen Ai

    2016-01-01

    A generalized Bogoliubov method for investigation non-simple and complex systems was developed. We take two branch polariton Hamiltonian model in second quantization representation and replace the energies of quasi-particles by two distribution functions of research objects. Application to stock exchange market was taken as an example, where the changing the form of return distribution functions from Boltzmann-like to Gaussian-like was studied. (paper)

  20. 43 CFR 4.1 - Scope of authority; applicable regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Secretary, matters within the jurisdiction of the Department involving hearings, and appeals and other... administrative jurisdiction and special procedural rules as indicated. General rules applicable to all types of... (iii) the conduct of surface coal mining under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977...

  1. The first FDA marketing authorizations of next-generation sequencing technology and tests: challenges, solutions and impact for future assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijwaard, Karen; Dickey, Jennifer S; Kelm, Kellie; Težak, Živana

    2015-01-01

    The rapid emergence and clinical translation of novel high-throughput sequencing technologies created a need to clarify the regulatory pathway for the evaluation and authorization of these unique technologies. Recently, the US FDA authorized for marketing four next generation sequencing (NGS)-based diagnostic devices which consisted of two heritable disease-specific assays, library preparation reagents and a NGS platform that are intended for human germline targeted sequencing from whole blood. These first authorizations can serve as a case study in how different types of NGS-based technology are reviewed by the FDA. In this manuscript we describe challenges associated with the evaluation of these novel technologies and provide an overview of what was reviewed. Besides making validated NGS-based devices available for in vitro diagnostic use, these first authorizations create a regulatory path for similar future instruments and assays.

  2. The gas and electric power markets opening in Europe, the implementation of the regulation authorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    Because the gas and the electric power are not simple goods, the opening of their market needs a whole reflexion where the governments must be involved. To analyse this opening, this report presents in a first part the traditional organization of the gas and electric power sectors marked by the strong presence of the government and the end of this organization at the end of the years 1980. It details then the new regulation, the operators and the effects of the competition. In a last part it provides propositions for the institutional framework in France. (A.L.B.)

  3. 18 CFR 348.1 - Content of application for a market power determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Content of application for a market power determination. 348.1 Section 348.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... OIL PIPELINE APPLICATIONS FOR MARKET POWER DETERMINATIONS § 348.1 Content of application for a market...

  4. Power factor controllers: their markets and performance. Applications and marketing report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rattle, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    The report presents the findings of a UK market investigation into the potential application for three phase power factor controllers (pfc's) in the range 0.375-150 kW. It looks in detail at various pieces of equipment which are commonly driven by case rotor induction motors (eg pumps, fans, compressors, machine tools) and provides estimates of the numbers of each such type of equipment in use in UK industry broken down by power band. It also provides guidelines concerning annual usages of such pieces of equipment and the motor loadings commonly associated with them. The importance of electricity as a source of energy and the pattern and type of motive power usage is then presented for a wide range of industry sectors in an attempt to identify the most promising prima facie markets for the pfc concept of motor control and energy saving. The report is one of a series.

  5. States with stronger health insurance rate review authority experienced lower premiums in the individual market in 2010-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca-Mandic, Pinar; Fulton, Brent D; Hollingshead, Ann; Scheffler, Richard M

    2015-08-01

    States have varying degrees of review authority over health insurance carriers' rates, including prior approval authority over proposed rates and requirements for loss ratios, the proportion of premium revenues spent on medical claims. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires carriers in certain categories of health insurance to provide public justification for rate increases of 10 percent or more. We collected data on how states changed their rate review authority and requirements during 2010-13, the years immediately after enactment of the ACA, and we combined these data with carrier filings. We found that adjusted premiums in the individual market in states that had prior-approval authority combined with loss ratio requirements were lower in 2010-13 ($3,489) than premiums in states with no rate review authority or that had only file-and-use regulations, which gave the states no authority to block rate increases ($3,617). Adjusted premiums declined modestly in prior-approval states with loss ratio requirements, from $3,526 in 2010 to $3,452 in 2013, while premiums increased from $3,422 to $3,683 in states with no rate review authority or file-and-use regulations only. Our findings suggest that states with prior approval authority and loss ratio requirements constrained health insurance premium increases. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  6. APPLICATION OF USABILITY CONCEPTS IN WINE MARKETING: A MULTIDISCIPLINARY REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina CHIVU-DRAGHIA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have shown that the wine consumption decline in young generation could be influenced by the perception of wine as intimidating and difficult to understand, and by the lack of adaptability of the product’s communication strategy and packaging design to their lifestyle. Information available on the packaging is often complex and confusing for novice wine consumers and sometimes even irrelevant in regards to the intrinsic characteristics of the product. Furthermore, wine is seen by young adult consumers as old fashion, formal and mostly not associated with their relaxed attitude and “on the move” lifestyle. The objective of this paper is to analyse the usability key principles and heuristic and their applicability in wine marketing as a mean to improve the perception and increase understanding of wine for the young and/or novice consumers. The paper aims to review the existing knowledge and findings about the concept of usability (with special emphasis on Usability Engineering and Human Computer Interaction (HCI, in order to explore the aspects applicable in wine marketing. The usability concept proves useful in wine marketing to simplify the decision process, to make the meeting with the product less intimidating and more engaging, and to decrease the risk perception for the inexperienced wine consumers.

  7. Strategic Planning and the Marketing Process: Library Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Elizabeth J.

    1983-01-01

    Illustrates how basic principles of marketing and strategic market planning can be applied to libraries and discusses some concepts of strategic planning (organization mission, objectives and goals, growth strategy, program portfolio plan) and marketing (opportunity analysis, target market selection, marketing mix strategy, marketing systems…

  8. NPA applications development in the nuclear safety authority framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maselj, A.; Vojnovic, D.; Gregonc, M.

    1999-01-01

    Due to the present tasks of the SNSA (Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration) there was a need to gain a tool for analysing the transients of the Krsko Nuclear Power Plant at the SNSA. Combining the RELAP5 code with graphical interface NPA (Nuclear Plant Analyzer), the SNSA management saw an opportunity to have a powerful instrument for analyses and assessments on a user friendly basis and without high costs. The Krsko NPP Analyzer is a joint project of the SNSA and the operator, the Krsko NPP. The RELAP5/Mod2.5 input deck was constructed by the Krsko NPP's experts and their subcontractors. In 1996 the work started with translation of input model from RELAP5/Mod2.5 version to Mod3.2. This was done by Tractebel which combined NPA masks with translated input deck and constructed new dynamic function and interactive commands between graphical MMI (Man Machine Interface) and simulation code. Since Tractebel performed similar activities for the Belgian plants, their experience was used through a transfer of knowledge to the SNSA. After this phase of the project, a user of the NPP Analyzer can run accidents as SBLOCA, Main Steam Line Break, Feed Water Break, SGTR, and many other transients activating and combining interactive commands, starting from a full power operation. This project has not been finished yet. Improvements of the input deck should be done. The Critical Safety Function window will be created. The analyzer will be a helpful tool during the training program for Accident Assessment Group, which will give to the experts basic knowledge of plant operation, its systems, and physical phenomena during a steady state and transients or accidents. Also a new dimension is added to the existing safety evaluations at the SNSA to confirm the requested level of nuclear safety at the Krsko NPP. (author)

  9. 47 CFR 2.803 - Marketing of radio frequency devices prior to equipment authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... advised in writing at the time of the offer for sale that the equipment is subject to the FCC rules and... authority of a local FCC licensed service provider. However, the licensee must grant permission to the... party has the product measured to ensure compliance at the end user's location, the product does not...

  10. Photovoltaic battery & charge controller market & applications survey. An evaluation of the photovoltaic system market for 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, R.L.; Turpin, J.F.; Corey, G.P. [and others

    1996-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Battery Analysis and Evaluation Department and the Photovoltaic System Assistance Center of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) initiated a U.S. industry-wide PV Energy Storage System Survey. Arizona State University (ASU) was contracted by SNL in June 1995 to conduct the survey. The survey included three separate segments tailored to: (a) PV system integrators, (b) battery manufacturers, and (c) PV charge controller manufacturers. The overall purpose of the survey was to: (a) quantify the market for batteries shipped with (or for) PV systems in 1995, (b) quantify the PV market segments by battery type and application for PV batteries, (c) characterize and quantify the charge controllers used in PV systems, (d) characterize the operating environment for energy storage components in PV systems, and (e) estimate the PV battery market for the year 2000. All three segments of the survey were mailed in January 1996. This report discusses the purpose, methodology, results, and conclusions of the survey.

  11. Development of Geo-Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Ozhereleva

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the state and development of geo-marketing. The author illustrates the multi-aspectedness of geo-marketing: applied technology and management technology. The article demonstrates that geo-marketing can be viewed as a reflection of the processes of co-evolution in society. The author brings to light the specifics of geo-marketing research and situational analysis in geo-marketing. The article describes applications of geo-marketing

  12. Development of Geo-Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Ozhereleva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the state and development of geo-marketing. The author illustrates the multi-aspectedness of geo-marketing: applied technology and management technology. The article demonstrates that geo-marketing can be viewed as a reflection of the processes of co-evolution in society. The author brings to light the specifics of geo-marketing research and situational analysis in geo-marketing. The article describes applications of geo-marketing

  13. The process of regulatory authorization. A report by the CRPPH expert group on the regulatory application of Authorization (EGRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Governments and regulatory authorities are responsible for the definition of regulatory controls or conditions, if any, that should be applied to radioactive sources or radiation exposure situations in order to protect the public, workers and the environment. Although countries use different policy and structural approaches to fulfill this responsibility, the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) are generally used as at least part of the basis for protection. Previously, the ICRP recommended the use of variable approaches to protection. New ICRP recommendations are proposing a single, conceptually simple and self-coherent approach to defining appropriate protection under all circumstances. While the ICRP has been reviewing the broad principles of protection, the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) has been focusing its efforts on how radiological protection could be better implemented by governments and/or regulatory authorities. To this end, the CRPPH has developed a concept that it calls ''the process of regulatory authorization''. It is described in detail in this report, and is intended to help regulatory authorities apply more transparently, coherently and simply the broad recommendations of the ICRP to the real-life business of radiological protection regulation and application. In developing this concept, the CRPPH recognizes the importance of an appropriate level of stakeholder involvement in the process. (author)

  14. Adopting a Design-Thinking Multidisciplinary Learning Approach: Integrating Mobile Applications into a Marketing Research Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzosa, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    This article seeks to address the gap between marketing education and marketing practice by integrating a design-thinking (DT) methodology to the marketing research (MR) framework to achieve learning objectives that will enhance cross-functional, collaborative, conceptual, and technical skills. The mobile application marketing research project…

  15. Essence of psychological approach application to personal sales in the context of relationship marketing paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiseleva Elena Stanislavovna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the essence of psychological approach application to personal sales in conditions of relationship marketing domination. Defintions of global relationship marketing, marketing of client relations and personal sale are given. New element of marketing system is proposed as well as universal model of competence for personal agents. Technique for psychological image of the client has been developed.

  16. Essence of psychological approach application to personal sales in the context of relationship marketing paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Kiseleva Elena Stanislavovna

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyzes the essence of psychological approach application to personal sales in conditions of relationship marketing domination. Defintions of global relationship marketing, marketing of client relations and personal sale are given. New element of marketing system is proposed as well as universal model of competence for personal agents. Technique for psychological image of the client has been developed.

  17. The role of the Polish Financial Supervision Authority in the new European architecture of supervision over the financial market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Fedorowicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the main provisions of the regulation of European financial supervision from the perspective of the competencies and functions of the Polish Financial Supervision Authority (KNF. It was also considered necessary by the Authors to present the current tasks, aims and competencies of the KNF. The implementation of a new supervisory structure in the EU brought about changes to the functioning of the KNF. These changes are particularly visible in the regulatory functions as domestic supervisory authorities are obliged to introduce uniform supervisory standards defined on a European level. The current reform of the European financial markets has shown that the role of national supervisors in the financial safety net requires a new approach. It is obvious that in these times of financial crisis, national supervisors must incur significant costs, namely the functional reduction of regulatory independence in some matters. This paper is a contribution to the discussion on the course of the development of Polish and EU financial markets supervision.

  18. Application of Markowitz Model on Romanian Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zavera Ioana Coralia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Performance evaluation of financial instruments has become a concern for more and more economists, while security trading activities have developed over time. “Modern portfolio theory” comprises statistical and mathematical models which describe various ways in order to evaluate and especially analyse profitability and risk of these portfolios. This article offers an application of this type of model on Romanian stock market, the Markowitz model, by focusing on portfolios comprising three securities, and determining the efficient frontier and the minimum variance portfolio.

  19. 77 FR 20375 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Rainbow Energy Marketing Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... Rainbow to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a power marketer for a two-year... is a power marketer authorized by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to sell energy, capacity...

  20. Market chances for innovative natural gas applications. The determination of market potential by means of a phase model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoelen, Q.E.J.J.M.; Klootwijk, M.

    2000-01-01

    Innovative applications of natural gas can increase the sale of natural gas, support energy companies in the development of commercial activities, and contribute to energy efficiency measures. The Dutch natural gas trading company Gasunie supports those developments by investigating the market potential of innovative gas appliances. Use is made of the so-called Phase Model for Market Introduction, developed by Kea Consult

  1. Local authorities faced with electricity market liberalization. The role of cities in electricity production and distribution in the Swiss Confederation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storelli, St.

    2008-01-01

    In Switzerland, cities are highly involved in producing and - mainly - distributing electrical power. To those cities, defining what universal service and public interest service are seems essential, when faced with the opening energy markets. Such services can be guaranteed through concession contracts granted to companies conducting business on the city's territory It is the interest of regional distribution companies (one thousand in Switzerland...) to free themselves of local political requirements that could impair their growth. This new independence, combined with the good community service guarantee, should help those companies continue to contribute to the economic and lasting growth of the regions they have always served. (author)

  2. European regulation model for herbal medicine: The assessment of the EU monograph and the safety and efficacy evaluation in marketing authorization or registration in Member States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Liping; Zou, Wenjun; Wang, YiTao; Wang, Mei

    2018-03-15

    The European Union (EU) has created a regulatory framework for herbal medicinal products (HMPs) since the enforcement of Directive 2004/24/EC. Substantial achievements have been made, with 1719 traditional use marketing registrations (TURs) and 859 well-established use marketing authorizations (WEU-MAs) for HMPs granted by the end of 2016. Apparently, the European regulation model has worked out well and in that the essential feature is the use of EU herbal monographs into those granted WEU-MAs and TURs. A systematic analysis of the European regulation model for HMPs and the EU herbal monograph's part of this model are undertaken to assist understanding of the EU legislation particularly for interested parties those from outside EU area, and afterwards, to help in decision-making in the HMPs registration in European market for pharmaceutical companies, as well as in the establishment of legislation in countries with strong traditional use of herbal remedies. A search of PubMed, ScienceDirect, the European Medicines Agency website and the Heads of Medicines Agencies website was conducted (up to December 2017), and the available information on regulation of HMPs in the EU was collected. The evaluation of applications by National Competent Authorities (NCAs) at a national level together with the assessment of EU monographs by the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC) at the European level constitute the European regulation framework for HMPs. As the scientific opinion about the safety and efficacy of HMPs from HMPC, the EU herbal monographs have been given a constitutional-based meaning to the TURs and WEU-MAs of HMPs and play a supportive function in the marketing procedure in Member States. The European framework has provided a powerful regulation model for harmonization of scientific assessment and facilitation of product marketing. For the pharmaceutical industries particularly those outside the EU, optimal use of the EU herbal monograph in their marketing

  3. Small wind power systems: market, applications, architectures and energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roboam, X.

    2005-01-01

    Context and stakes of small wind power systems are described in this paper by situating both supply and demand as well as the main application fields. Technical issues are then concerned in terms of system structure, energy management and network connection. (author)

  4. DATA MINING AND APPLICATION OF IT TO CAPITAL MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk AKKAYA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays with the development of technology importance given to knowledge increases gradually. Data mining enables to form forecasts and models regarding future by making use of past data. Any method which helps to discover data can be used as a data mining method. Enterprises gain important competitive advantage by data mining methods. Data mining is used in different fields. In finance field it is a specially used in financial performance applications, guessing the enterprise bankruptcies and failures, determining transaction manipulation, determining financial risk management, determining customer profile and depth management. It can be costly, risky and time consuming for enterprises to gain knowledge. Thus today enterprises use data mining as an innovative competitive mean. The aim of the study is to determine the importance of data mining applications to capital markets.

  5. Local Authority Residential Mortgage Credit: A Source of Non-Market Sub-Prime Homeloans for Low-Income households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dermot Coates

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As the volume of mortgage credit has risen in tandem with house price inflation, the sub-prime homeloan sector of this market has begun to expand in order to meet demand from those not serviced by the mainstream financial service providers. This article examines the role of local authorities in providing residential mortgages and assesses whether those who have traditionally borrowed from non-market (or public sector lenders would be considered to be sub-prime borrowers by the private sector. It concludes that, in view of the relatively low average incomes of this cohort of borrowers, they represent a higher probability of homeloan default and as a consequence, would be subject to a higher cost of credit in the private sector. However, this paper highlights the favourable terms offered by local authorities and argues that their failure to price according to the risk profile of borrowers exposes the Exchequer to higher – and often unquantified – costs in pursuit of promoting home-ownership.

  6. THE ATTITUDES TOWARD APPLICATION OF VIRAL MARKETING IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY IN SERBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Sudarević, Tomislav; Vlahović, Branislav; Šurjanović, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the attitudes toward application of viral marketing in the food industry in Serbia. The research consisted of both an extensive theory review and empirical research, including case studies, surveys and in-depth interviews. Viral marketing has been defined as any marketing program (online or offline) that is designed to achieve an exponential growth by spreading marketing effects from customer to customer. The paper s hypothesis, stating that marketing managers in Serbia ha...

  7. Advanced secondary batteries: Their applications, technological status, market and opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, M.

    1989-03-01

    Program planning for advanced battery energy storage technology is supported within the NEMO Program. Specifically this study had focused on the review of advanced battery applications; the development and demonstration status of leading battery technologies; and potential marketing opportunity. Advanced secondary (or rechargeable) batteries have been under development for the past two decades in the U.S., Japan, and parts of Europe for potential applications in electric utilities and for electric vehicles. In the electric utility applications, the primary aim of a battery energy storage plant is to facilitate peak power load leveling and/or dynamic operations to minimize the overall power generation cost. In the application for peak power load leveling, the battery stores the off-peak base load energy and is discharged during the period of peak power demand. This allows a more efficient use of the base load generation capacity and reduces the need for conventional oil-fired or gas-fire peak power generation equipment. Batteries can facilitate dynamic operations because of their basic characteristics as an electrochemical device capable of instantaneous response to the changing load. Dynamic operating benefits results in cost savings of the overall power plant operation. Battery-powered electric vehicles facilitate conservation of petroleum fuel in the transportation sector, but more importantly, they reduce air pollution in the congested inner cities.

  8. Applications of NLP Techniques to Computer-Assisted Authoring of Test Items for Elementary Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao-Lin; Lin, Jen-Hsiang; Wang, Yu-Chun

    2010-01-01

    The authors report an implemented environment for computer-assisted authoring of test items and provide a brief discussion about the applications of NLP techniques for computer assisted language learning. Test items can serve as a tool for language learners to examine their competence in the target language. The authors apply techniques for…

  9. Authoring support in concept-based web information systems for educational applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aroyo, L.M.; Dicheva, D.

    2004-01-01

    The increasing complexity of concept-based web information systems (WIS) and their educational applications requires more intelligent support for their authoring. We propose an ontological approach towards a common authoring framework for such systems to formally describe the overall authoring

  10. 75 FR 56985 - Foreign-Trade Zone 104-Savannah, GA Application for Manufacturing Authority Mitsubishi Power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... and the domestic market. Activity would involve receiving foreign-origin, semi-finished nickel alloy..., blades, gears, couplings, airfoils, hubs and stationaries) and generators. Foreign- origin turbines and generators would also be distributed from the MPSA facility. The application indicates that large gas and...

  11. Production of high-quality marketing applications: strategies for biotechnology companies working with contract research organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Sandra J; Preston, Christopher; Foote, MaryAnn

    2003-01-01

    Many biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies use clinical research organizations (CROs) to assist in the writing and preparation of clinical documents intended for submission to health authorities. Start-up companies often require the expertise of a CRO to prepare their first regulatory documents. Larger or more experienced companies often require CRO staff to assist at times of multiple simultaneous submissions. The timely production of high-quality new drug marketing applications requires close collaborations between the drug company and the CRO. The views of both CRO and industry in ensuring best practices are discussed.

  12. Application of the ant colony search algorithm to reactive power pricing in an open electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketabi, Abbas; Alibabaee, Ahmad; Feuillet, R.

    2010-01-01

    Reactive power management is essential to transfer real energy and support power system security. Developing an accurate and feasible method for reactive power pricing is important in the electricity market. In conventional optimal power flow models the production cost of reactive power was ignored. In this paper, the production cost of reactive power and investment cost of capacitor banks were included into the objective function of the OPF problem. Then, using ant colony search algorithm, the optimal problem was solved. Marginal price theory was used for calculation of the cost of active and reactive power at each bus in competitive electric markets. Application of the proposed method on IEEE 14-bus system confirms its validity and effectiveness. Results from several case studies show clearly the effects of various factors on reactive power price. (author)

  13. The spot market and the spot price: applicability and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, G. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The subject of spot prices and their relationship to long-term contracting is addressed. The author is associated with Nuexco, which originally was called the Nuclear Exchange Corporation. They use the term Exchange Value which originated in the idea that Nuexco operated an exchange 'bank' - those with too much uranium could 'bank it', those with short-term needs could borrow from the 'bank'. If the borrower repaid slightly more or less the difference was settled using the 'exchange value'. This became used for longer-term transactions and now settling the monthly value is an important part of Nuexco's activities. The exact nature of the Exchange Value is defined. Now more and more buyers are insisting on spot market related pricing even where this is not meaningfully related to uranium production costs. (U.K.)

  14. Application of integrated data mining techniques in stock market forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Yin Huang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Stock market is considered too uncertain to be predictable. Many individuals have developed methodologies or models to increase the probability of making a profit in their stock investment. The overall hit rates of these methodologies and models are generally too low to be practical for real-world application. One of the major reasons is the huge fluctuation of the market. Therefore, the current research focuses in the stock forecasting area is to improve the accuracy of stock trading forecast. This paper introduces a system that addresses the particular need. The system integrates various data mining techniques and supports the decision-making for stock trades. The proposed system embeds the top-down trading theory, artificial neural network theory, technical analysis, dynamic time series theory, and Bayesian probability theory. To experimentally examine the trading return of the presented system, two examples are studied. The first uses the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC data-set that covers an investment horizon of 240 trading days from 16 February 2011 to 23 January 2013. Eighty four transactions were made using the proposed approach and the investment return of the portfolio was 54% with an 80.4% hit rate during a 12-month period in which the TSMC stock price increased by 25% (from $NT 78.5 to $NT 101.5. The second example examines the stock data of Evergreen Marine Corporation, an international marine shipping company. Sixty four transactions were made and the investment return of the portfolio was 128% in 12 months. Given the remarkable investment returns in trading the example TSMC and Evergreen stocks, the proposed system demonstrates promising potentials as a viable tool for stock market forecasting.

  15. Fuel Cells in Distributed Power Market Applications in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastler, D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews results from EPRI market analysis, which examined the technical and economic market potential of fuel cells in distributed power markets in the United States. A methodology and approach for developing realistic quantitative estimates of market potential in competitive electricity markets is presented. Market size estimates for phosphoric acid, polymer exchange membrane, high temperature fuel cells (carbonate and solid oxide systems) and ultra-high efficient fuel cell hybrids are estimated. Market potentials are reviewed for fuel cells systems ranging in size from 3 kW up to 20-30 MW in scale and underlying assumptions are provided. The results and implications are discussed in relation to the changing U.S. electric utility market structures. Results will be of value to energy companies and to fuel cell developers seeking to understand revenue sales estimates, market size, and most profitable segments for fuel cells in the competitive US electric markets. (author)

  16. Transmission investment in the Peruvian electricity market: Theory and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Erix; Rosellón, Juan

    2012-01-01

    This research presents an application of the mechanism in (HRV) to promote electricity transmission network expansion in the Peruvian electricity transmission system known as SEIN (Sistema Eléctrico Interconectado Nacional). The HRV mechanism combines the merchant and regulatory approaches to promote investment into transmission grids. This mechanism gives incentives for efficient investment in expansion of the network by rebalancing over time the fixed and variable charges of a two-part tariff in the framework of a wholesale electricity market with locational pricing. The expansion of the network is carried out through the sale of Financial Transmission Rights (FTRs) for the congested lines. The mechanism is applied for 103 nodes of the SEIN using detailed characteristics of generators, nodes and transmission lines. Under Laspeyres weights and linear cost of expansion of transmission capacity, it is shown that prices converge to lower price levels as a result of increased transmission capacity.

  17. Marketing Authorization Procedures for Advanced Cancer Drugs: Exploring the Views of Patients, Oncologists, Healthcare Decision Makers, and Citizens in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protiére, Christel; Baker, Rachel; Genre, Dominique; Goncalves, Anthony; Viens, Patrice

    2017-07-01

    The past decades have seen advances in cancer treatments in terms of toxicity and side effects but progress in the treatment of advanced cancer has been modest. New drugs have emerged improving progression free survival but with little impact on overall survival, raising questions about the criteria on which to base decisions to grant marketing authorizations and about the authorization procedure itself. For decisions to be fair, transparent and accountable, it is necessary to consider the views of those with relevant expertise and experience. We conducted a Q-study to explore the views of a range of stakeholders in France, involving: 54 patients (18 months after diagnosis); 50 members of the general population; 27 oncologists; 19 healthcare decision makers; and 2 individuals from the pharmaceutical industry. Three viewpoints emerged, focussing on different dimensions entitled: 1) 'Quality of life (QoL), opportunity cost and participative democracy'; 2)'QoL and patient-centeredness'; and 3) 'Length of life'. Respondents from all groups were associated with each viewpoint, except for healthcare decision makers, who were only associated with the first one. Our results highlight plurality in the views of stakeholders, emphasize the need for transparency in decision making processes, and illustrate the importance of a re-evaluation of treatments for all 3 viewpoints. In the context of advanced cancer, our results suggest that QoL should be more prominent amongst authorization criteria, as it is a concern for 2 of the 3 viewpoints.

  18. How Marketing Academics View A-Level Journals: Psychological Insights into Differences between Published and Striving Authors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Riley G.; Kellaris, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Many colleges of business demand A-level journal publications from marketing faculty as a condition for professional advancement. Yet only around 10 percent of marketing academics ever publish in the "Big 4," A-level journals ("Journal of Marketing," "Journal of Marketing Research," "Journal of Consumer…

  19. EUROPEAN TRADITIONAL FOOD PRODUCERS AND MARKETING CAPABILITIES: AN APPLICATION OF MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Banterle, Alessandro; Cavaliere, Alessia; Stranieri, Stefanella; Carraresi, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the marketing management capabilities of SMEs producing traditional food products, in order to analyse the market orientation of SMEs in the food industry. Following the theoretical approach of Market Orientation, our analysis is based on an assessment of the marketing management process. The methodology refers to a survey developed through a questionnaire published on the web, and a sample of 371 firms based in Belgium, Italy, Spain, the Czech Republi...

  20. Foundations of Constructing a Marketing Data Base; Profitable Applications of the Computer to Marketing Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podell, Harold J.

    An introduction into the foundations of constructing a marketing data base is presented for the systems and marketing executives who are familiar with basic computer technology methods. The techniques and concepts presented are now being implemented by major organizations in the development of Management Information Systems (MIS). A marketing data…

  1. An Application of the Marketing Mix to Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Wray; Hoy, Frank

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the experience of a major university in applying the concept of the marketing mix to an adult education program. The concept requires the understanding of the interdependence of the four Ps of marketing: product, place, price, and promotion. (JOW)

  2. Applicability Analysis of Bidding Strategy in Electricity Market

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Suyan; Chen Fei; Qiao Yahui; Zhang Wenzhe; Zhang Kaifeng; Yuan Kun; Dai Xuemei

    2017-01-01

    With the development of the electricity market, competition has been introduced in the generation side. It is the overall development trend of the electricity market reformulation to optimize the allocation of different resources through bidding. Therefore, it is significant to research the bidding strategies of the generation companies and the large consumers. This paper reviews the existing research methods of bidding strategy. According to the different market mechanisms, the market partic...

  3. Marketing: Exploring Applications for Educational Dissemination. Literature Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Linda

    This synthesis of information about marketing and information dissemination of education-related products is divided into three parts: an overview of major writings, specific marketing strategies, and resources for further study. The first part opens with a definition of marketing as it relates to education. A review of the literature provides…

  4. Is the Marketing Concept Unacceptable for Application in the Classroom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Gordon C. II

    1993-01-01

    It is argued that the marketing concept should be applied to the student-teacher interaction in colleges and universities, focusing on marketing's consumer orientation, whereby the exchange process is driven by the desire of one party to satisfy the needs of the other. Relevant marketing mix variables are outlined. (MSE)

  5. A B2C Digital Media Marketing Communications Plan for a Mobile Application Commercial Launch

    OpenAIRE

    Collin, Markus

    2013-01-01

    The thesis focuses on a B2C Digital Marketing Communications plan on a mobile gamification application. The marketing communications plan takes a clear step away from the traditional views on marketing planning and PR, above all because of the evolvement of social media and the massive cultural shift that has deeply affected the way societies use the most widely spread communications platform ever invented, the Internet. The project for which the marketing communications plan is made, is ...

  6. Applications of the marketing perspective in nutrition education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, P L

    1987-09-01

    The marketing paradigm is based on the premise of exchange of value, that is, value received for value given. The role of the nutrition educator as a marketer is to facilitate exchanges of value with consumers. To carry out this role, a strong orientation to the consumer, what she or he wants and needs and is willing to "pay," guides the development of the nutrition education mission, objectives, and strategies. The marketing paradigm calls for a marketing information system that includes internal record keeping, marketing intelligence gathering, and marketing research. The information is used in the marketing audit, which identifies organizational strengths and weaknesses and marketplace opportunities and barriers. Marketing objectives are formulated, and strategies for segmenting, positioning, and developing the marketing mix follow. These are translated in the marketing plan to an action plan, a budget, and profit and loss projections. Use of the marketing paradigm in nutrition education is not a panacea for organizational ills and marketplace problems. Instead, the paradigm raises issues to which nutrition educators must bring their expertise, commitment, ingenuity, and creativity.

  7. 77 FR 45715 - Application of Key Lime Air Corporation for Commuter Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary [Docket DOT-OST-2009-0116] Application of Key Lime Air Corporation for Commuter Authority AGENCY: Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice of... Lime Air Corporation fit, willing, and able, and awarding it a Commuter Air Carrier Authorization...

  8. 76 FR 76156 - Grand Coulee Project Hydroelectric Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... Project Hydroelectric Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and... Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the Scooteney Outlet Drop Hydroelectric..., Grand Coulee Project Hydroelectric Authority, P.O. Box 219, Ephrata, WA 98823; phone: (509) 754-2227...

  9. 76 FR 76153 - Grand Coulee Project Hydroelectric Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... Project Hydroelectric Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and... Hydroelectric Project (Scooteney Inlet Project or project) to be located on the Potholes East Canal, which is an..., Grand Coulee Project Hydroelectric Authority, P.O. Box 219, Ephrata, WA 98823; phone: (509) 754-2227...

  10. 75 FR 4343 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, IL; Application for Manufacturing Authority; LG Electronics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Docket 3-2010] Foreign-Trade Zone 22--Chicago, IL; Application for Manufacturing Authority; LG Electronics MobileComm USA, Inc. (Cell Phone Kitting... authority on behalf of LG Electronics MobileComm USA, Inc. (LGEMU), located in Bolingbrook, Illinois. The...

  11. 76 FR 20654 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... installation of two new raw water intake structures. The raw water would be sent via a new raw water line to... Authority; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and... Authority. e. Name of Project: Pensacola Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The requested easement will be...

  12. 75 FR 18190 - New Jersey Water Supply Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Contact: Edward Buss, P.E., New Jersey Water Supply Authority, 1851 State Hwy. 31, Clinton, NJ 08800, (908... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13399-000] New Jersey Water Supply Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments...

  13. Multisided Media Markets: Applying the Theory of Multisided Markets to Media Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Nadine Lindstädt

    2009-01-01

    Media markets recently have been identified as multisided markets. The application of the theory of multisided markets provides a better understanding of such markets. It enriched the hitherto economic approach and led to new insights and perspectives especially for the antitrust authorities when evaluating competition constraints and mergers. This paper reviews the theory of multisided markets and subsequently applies it to media markets. Finally the paper draws attention to the new perspect...

  14. A MARKETING VIEW OVER THE ROLE OF THE PUBLIC AUTHORITIES IN THE PROTECTION OF THE CONSUMERS PRIVATE SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veghes Calin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of privacy, seen in connection with the consumer's private space, and defined in terms of the rights the consumer have to disclose or not, respectively to have protected their personal data has gained an increasing importance, as a result of the organizations extended and more and more aggressive attempts, within their marketing efforts, to capture, process and use the consumers personal data. Privacy protection has become an important but, in the same time, extremely sensitive and challenging topic to be taken into consideration by all the stakeholders involved in the processing and employment of the consumers personal data. A key role in this respect is played by the public authorities acting as data controllers the Data Protection Authorities, that have to adopt a more proactive and efficient attitude in adopting and implementing policies and processes aiming to ensure a more effective protection of the personal data and private space, conduct privacy impact assessments and continuously improve the specific activities. Paper presents the opinions of the consumers through the results of an exploratory study regarding the importance given to the protection of the personal data, the area of protection of the specific laws, the need for laws regulating the personal data protection, the balance between the public and private entities in providing a proper protection of the personal data, and the relationship between the domestic, European, and international levels in ensuring the protection of the consumers personal data. Results regarding the role of the public authorities in the protection of the consumers personal data and private space in terms of the most appropriate institution to act as a data controller, the rights consumers consider important in relationship with the protection of their personal data and the risks faced in the context of a less effective protection are also presented.

  15. Potential Applications for Nuclear Energy besides Electricity Generation: AREVA Global Perspective of HTR Potential Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soutworth, Finis; Gauthier, Jean-Claude; Lecomte, Michel; Carre, Franck

    2007-01-01

    Energy supply is increasingly showing up as a major issue for electricity supply, transportation, settlement, and process heat industrial supply including hydrogen production. Nuclear power is part of the solution. For electricity supply, as exemplified in Finland and France, the EPR brings an immediate answer; HTR could bring another solution in some specific cases. For other supply, mostly heat, the HTR brings a solution inaccessible to conventional nuclear power plants for very high or even high temperature. As fossil fuels costs increase and efforts to avoid generation of Greenhouse gases are implemented, a market for nuclear generated process heat will develop. Following active developments in the 80's, HTR have been put on the back burner up to 5 years ago. Light water reactors are widely dominating the nuclear production field today. However, interest in the HTR technology was renewed in the past few years. Several commercial projects are actively promoted, most of them aiming at electricity production. ANTARES is today AREVA's response to the cogeneration market. It distinguishes itself from other concepts with its indirect cycle design powering a combined cycle power plant. Several reasons support this design choice, one of the most important of which is the design flexibility to adapt readily to combined heat and power applications. From the start, AREVA made the choice of such flexibility with the belief that the HTR market is not so much in competition with LWR in the sole electricity market but in the specific added value market of cogeneration and process heat. In view of the volatility of the costs of fossil fuels, AREVA's choice brings to the large industrial heat applications the fuel cost predictability of nuclear fuel with the efficiency of a high temperature heat source free of greenhouse gases emissions. The ANTARES module produces 600 MWth which can be split into the required process heat, the remaining power drives an adapted prorated

  16. Confirmatory versus explorative endpoint analysis: Decision-making on the basis of evidence available from market authorization and early benefit assessment for oncology drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaus, Ines; Dintsios, Charalabos-Markos

    2018-03-26

    The early benefit assessment of pharmaceuticals in Germany and their preceding market authorization pursue different objectives. This is reflected by the inclusion of varying confirmatory endpoints within the evaluation of oncology drugs in early benefit assessment versus market authorization, with both relying on the same evidence. Data from assessments up to July 2015 are used to estimate the impact of explorative in comparison to confirmatory endpoints on market authorization and early benefit assessment by contrasting the benefit-risk ratio of EMA and the benefit-harm balance of the HTA jurisdiction. Agreement between market authorization and early benefit assessment is examined by Cohen's kappa (k). 21 of 41 assessments were considered in the analysis. Market authorization is more confirmatory than early benefit assessment because it includes a higher proportion of primary endpoints. The latter implies a primary endpoint to be relevant for the benefit-harm balance in only 67% of cases (0.078). Explorative mortality endpoints reached the highest agreement regarding the mutual consideration for the risk-benefit ratio and the benefit-harm balance (0.000). For explorative morbidity endpoints (-0.600), quality of life (-0.600) and side effects (-0.949) no agreement is ascertainable. To warrant a broader confirmatory basis for decisions supported by HTA, closer inter-institutional cooperation of approval authorities and HTA jurisdictions by means of reliable joint advice for manufacturers regarding endpoint definition would be favorable. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 9 CFR 201.86 - Brand inspection: Application for authorization, registration and filing of schedules, reciprocal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brand inspection: Application for... STOCKYARDS ACT Inspection of Brands § 201.86 Brand inspection: Application for authorization, registration... in which branding or marking of livestock as a means of establishing ownership prevails by custom or...

  18. Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  19. The author training manual develop marketable ideas, craft books that sell, become the author publishers want, and self-publish effectively

    CERN Document Server

    Amir, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Anyone can publish a book and become an ""author,"" but if you want to become a successful author with a profitable publishing career, you need a clear, step-by-step guide to help you develop book ideas that sell. In The Author Training Manual, expert editor and book coach Nina Amir reveals the exact process successful authors have used to create business plans and proposals for their books and teaches you how to view your ideas through the eyes of acquisitions editors and literary agents. Whether you write fiction or nonfiction, plan to traditionally publish or self-publish, The Author Tra

  20. Market projections of cellulose nanomaterial-enabled products- Part 1: Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo Anne Shatkin; Theodore H. Wegner; E.M. (Ted) Bilek; John Cowie

    2014-01-01

    Nanocellulose provides a new materials platform for the sustainable production of high-performance nano-enabled products in an array of applications. In this paper, potential applications for cellulose nanomaterials are identified as the first step toward estimating market volume. The overall study, presented in two parts, estimates market volume on the basis of...

  1. What marketing scholars should know about time series analysis : time series applications in marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horváth, Csilla; Kornelis, Marcel; Leeflang, Peter S.H.

    2002-01-01

    In this review, we give a comprehensive summary of time series techniques in marketing, and discuss a variety of time series analysis (TSA) techniques and models. We classify them in the sets (i) univariate TSA, (ii) multivariate TSA, and (iii) multiple TSA. We provide relevant marketing

  2. The strategic use of forward contracts: Applications in power markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Jeffrey Scott

    This dissertation develops three theoretical models that analyze forward trading by firms with market power. The models are discussed in the context of recently restructured power markets, but the results can be applied more generally. The first model considers the profitability of large firms in markets with limited economies of scale and free entry. When large firms apply their market power, small firms benefit from the high prices without incurring the costs of restricted output. When entry is considered, and profit opportunity is determined by the cost of entry, this asymmetry creates the "curse of market power;" the long-run profits of large firms are reduced because of their market power. I suggest ways that large power producers can cope with the curse of market power, including the sale of long-term forward contracts. Past research has shown that forward contracts can demonstrate commitment to aggressive behavior to a competing duopolist. I add explicitly modeled entry to this literature, and make the potential entrants the audience of the forward sale. The existence of a forward market decreases equilibrium entry, increases the profits of large firms, and enhances economic efficiency. In the second model, a consumer representative, such as a state government or regulated distribution utility, bargains in the forward market on behalf of end-consumers who cannot organize together in the spot market. The ability to organize in forward markets allows consumers to encourage economic efficiency. When multiple producers are considered, I find that the ability to offer contracts also increases consumer surplus by decreasing the producers' profits. In some specifications of the model, consumers are able to capture the full gains from trade. The third model of this dissertation considers the ability of a large producer to take advantage of anonymity by randomly alternating between forward sales and forward purchases. The large producer uses its market power to

  3. Design of Concept of Sustainable Marketing Communication Strategy for a Ideal Industrial Enterprise and Practical Applications of this Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šujaková, Monika; Golejová, Simona; Sakál, Peter

    2017-09-01

    In the contribution the authors deal with the design and use of a sustainable marketing communication strategy of an ideal industrial enterprise in the Slovak Republic. The concept of an ideal enterprise is designed to increase the enterprise's sustainable competitiveness through the formation of a corporate image. In the framework of the research, the practical application of the draft concept was realized through a semi-structured interview in the form of propositional logic.

  4. An Agent-based Application to Enable Deregulated Energy Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capodieci, Nicola; Cabri, Giacomo; Pagani, Giuliano Andrea; Aiello, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Private houses are more and more enabled with devices that can produce renewable energy, and the not so remote chance of selling the surplus energy makes them new players in the energy market. This market is likely to become deregulated since each energy home-producer can negotiate the energy price

  5. Clusterwise regression and market segmentation : developments and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedel, M.

    1990-01-01

    The present work consists of two major parts. In the first part the literature on market segmentation is reviewed, in the second part a set of new methods for market segmentation are developed and applied.

    Part 1 starts with a discussion of the segmentation concept, and proceeds

  6. Transitional Labour Markets: Past, Present and Future Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooi-Reci, I.; de Bruijn, J.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past years many researchers have used the theory of transitional labour markets (TLM theory), grounded by Günther Schmid (1998), as a framework from where they could organize and analyze transitions in and around the labour market. However, the literature lacks a review that organizes and

  7. A bargaining model of regulated markets' integration with an application to electricity supply market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Jingyuan; Smeers, Y.; Canon, E.

    1995-01-01

    An integrated market organized by regulated electric utilities is modelled. It is assumed that, given a price vector for the exchange of electricity between each pair of neighboring utilities, utilities independently maximize their own domestic social welfare subject to the zero profit constraint. An equilibrium price vector for exchanges among utilities is defined as the one which clears the exchanges for all pair of business partners. A single piecewise linear model is formulated for computing market equilibria. The model is used to simulate the electricity supply market organized by 11 western European countries

  8. The economic analysis of power market architectures: application to real-time market design; L' analyse economique des architectures de marche electrique: application au market design du temps reel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saguan, M

    2007-04-15

    This work contributes to the economic analysis of power market architectures. A modular framework is used to separate problems of market design in different modules. The work's goal is to study real-time market design. A two-stage market equilibrium model is used to analyse the two main real-time designs: the 'market' and the 'mechanism' (with penalty). Numerical simulations show that design applied in real-time is not neutral vis-a-vis of energy markets sequence and the competition dynamic. Designs using penalty (mechanisms) cause distortions, inefficiencies and can create barriers to entry. The size of distortions is given by the temporal position of the gate that closure the forward markets. This model has also allowed us to show the key role of real-time integration between zones and the importance of good harmonization between real-time designs of each zone. (author)

  9. Market-based autonomous resource and application management in the cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costache, Stefania Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Organizations owning HPC infrastructures are facing difficulties in managing their resources. These difficulties come from the need to provide concurrent resource access to different application types while considering that users might have different performance objectives for their applications. Cloud computing brings more flexibility and better resource control, promising to improve the user's satisfaction in terms of perceived Quality of Service. Nevertheless, current cloud solutions provide limited support for users to express or use various resource management policies and they don't provide any support for application performance objectives. In this thesis, we present an approach that addresses this challenge in an unique way. Our approach provides a fully decentralized resource control by allocating resources through a proportional-share market, while applications run in autonomous virtual environments capable of scaling the application demand according to user performance objectives. The combination of currency distribution and dynamic resource pricing ensures fair resource utilization. We evaluated our approach in simulation and on the Grid'5000 test bed. Our results show that our approach can enable the co-habitation of different resource usage policies on the infrastructure, improving resource utilisation. (author)

  10. 77 FR 24171 - Notice of Funds Availability: Inviting Applications for the Foreign Market Development Cooperator...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... intended effect of this notice is to solicit applications from eligible applicants for 2013 and to set out... markets, the FAS considers whether the applicant provides a clear, long-term agricultural trade strategy... allocation strategy to fund applicants who can demonstrate performance and address the objectives of the GPRA...

  11. Application of marketing mix concept in student recruitment strategies: Evidence from University of Novi Sad, Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Rodić-Lukić Vesna; Lukić Nemanja

    2016-01-01

    The first subject of research in this article is the review and comparison of various theoretical approaches to marketing applied in institutions of higher education. The authors have observed the marketing as an active process by which institutions of higher education attract their users' attention to the educational services they offer. The research has sought for an answer to the question which marketing mix instrument has the greatest impact on the student decision to enroll at a particul...

  12. Evidence-Based Theory of Market Manipulation And Application: The Malaysian Case

    OpenAIRE

    Heong, Yin Yun

    2010-01-01

    According to Part IX Division 1 in Securities Industry Act 1983 of Malaysia Law, stock market manipulation is defined as unlawful action taken either direct or indirectly by any person, to affect the price of securities of the corporation on a stock market in Malaysia for the purpose which may include the purpose of inducing other persons. Extending the framework of Allen and Gale (1992), the Author presents a theory based on the empirical evidence from prosecuted stock market manipulation ca...

  13. Multiscale Shannon entropy and its application in the stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Rongbao

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we perform a multiscale entropy analysis on the Dow Jones Industrial Average Index using the Shannon entropy. The stock index shows the characteristic of multi-scale entropy that caused by noise in the market. The entropy is demonstrated to have significant predictive ability for the stock index in both long-term and short-term, and empirical results verify that noise does exist in the market and can affect stock price. It has important implications on market participants such as noise traders.

  14. Broadening Student Perspectives on Marketing Research Ethics: Development and Applications of a Teaching Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handlin, Amy

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an ethics module developed by the author to engage marketing research students during the fall semester, when they are bombarded by political polls. The module matches ethically questionable polling practices to similarly troubling practices in marketing research. The goals are to show that ethical principles are not topic- or…

  15. Problem analysis: application in the development of market strategies for health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J

    1988-03-01

    The problem analysis technique is an approach to understanding salient customer needs that is especially appropriate under complex market conditions. The author demonstrates the use of the approach in segmenting markets and conducting competitive analysis for positioning strategy decisions in health care.

  16. Personalized Medicine: how to Switch from the Concept to the Integration into the Clinical Development Plan to Obtain Marketing Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becquemont, Laurent; Bordet, Régis; Cellier, Dominic

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges of the coming years is to personalize medicine in order to provide each patient with an individualized treatment plan. The three objectives of personalized medicine are to refine diagnosis, rationalize treatment and engage patients in a preventive approach. Personalization can be characterized by various descriptors whether related to the field, biology, imaging, type of lesion of the entity to be treated, comorbidity factors, coprescriptions or the environment As part of personalized medicine focused on biological markers including genetics or genomics, the integration of the clinical development plan to obtain marketing authorization may be segmented in 3 stages with a known descriptor identified before clinical development, a known descriptor discovered during clinical development or a known descriptor known after clinical development. For each stage, it is important to clearly define the technical optimization elements, to specify the expectations and objectives, to examine the methodological aspects of each clinical development phase and finally to consider the fast changing regulatory requirements in view of the few registered therapeutics complying with the definition of personalized medicine as well as the significant technological breakthroughs according to the screened and selected biomarkers. These considerations should be integrated in view of the time required for clinical development from early phase to MA, i.e. more than 10 years. Moreover, business models related to the economic environment should be taken into account when deciding whether or not to retain a biomarker allowing the selection of target populations in a general population. © 2012 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  17. Application of the System Approach to Financial Services Market Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubyna Maksym V

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the nature of the financial services market by using the system approach methodology. In particular, the attention is focused on the already existing conceptual approaches to defining the nature of this market, their basic aspects are analyzed. The use of the system approach allowed to identify the essence of the financial services market as a single, complex system, which is proposed to be considered as an aggregate number of consumers and providers of financial services operating within a single economic space, their relationships emerging to meet different in their nature demands for financial services, with their interrelation being associated with movement of financial resources within this space and partially accompanied by processes of transformation of temporary free funds of economic entities into credit and investment resources. In the article the system components and the relationships between them are determined, the elements of the environment are identified and their relationship with the market for financial services described.

  18. Multisided Media Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstädt, Nadine

    Media markets recently have been identified as multisided markets. The application of the theory of multisided markets provides a better understanding of such markets. It enriched the hitherto economic approach and led to new insights and perspectives especially for the antitrust authorities when...... evaluating competition constraints and mergers. This paper reviews the theory of multisided markets and subsequently applies it to media markets. Finally the paper draws attention to the new perspectives and insights the theory provides but also brings open research questions to light....

  19. Monitoring market power in electricity market. Prepared for Competition Authority and Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate; Overvaakning av markedsmakt i kraftmarkedet. Utarbeidet for Konkurransetilsynet og NVE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-07-01

    The report outlines a plan to monitor competition in the physical energy market in Norway. As an indicator of short-term exercise of market power,it is proposed to base the calculations of a daily index that measures the average price premium compared to an estimated value of water in combination with an index which measures the maximum price mark-up. To investigate whether there are indications on strategic movement of water over long periods, it is necessary to compare market solution with model simulations of efficient water allocation. Both approaches are tested on the market adaptation of the hydrological year 2002/2003. In both cases, we find deviations that can not simply be explained by price taker behavior, but which can not be taken as evidence of strategic behavior. To investigate whether the adaptation is due to strategic behavior, noise or other factors, it is necessary to enter into individual participants' bidding in the spot market. (AG)

  20. 77 FR 7143 - Grand Coulee Project Hydroelectric Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... Project Hydroelectric Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On January 13, 2012, the Grand Coulee Project Hydroelectric... study the feasibility of the P.E. 46A Wasteway Hydroelectric Project, to be located on the P.E. 46A...

  1. 77 FR 7574 - Grand Coulee Project Hydroelectric Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... Project Hydroelectric Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On January 13, 2012, the Grand Coulee Project Hydroelectric... study the feasibility of the P.E. Scooteney Wasteway Hydroelectric Project, to be located on the P.E...

  2. 78 FR 5854 - Application of Scott Air, LLC for Certificate Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Application of Scott Air, LLC for Certificate Authority AGENCY: Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice of order to show cause (Order 2013-1-12... to show cause why it should not issue an order finding Scott Air, LLC fit, willing, and able, and...

  3. 78 FR 44937 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ...) previously approved on domestic natural gas supply and demand fundamentals. DOE will also consider any other..., and with which trade in not prohibited by U.S. law or policy. In the portion of SPL's Application...) with which trade is not prohibited by U.S. law or policy. SPL requests that this authorization commence...

  4. 21 CFR 1.95 - Application for authorization to relabel and recondition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to relabel and recondition. Application for authorization to relabel or perform other action to bring the article into compliance with the act or to render it other than a food, drug, device or cosmetic may be filed only by the owner or consignee, and shall: (a) Contain detailed proposals for bringing...

  5. 75 FR 17691 - Foreign-Trade Zone 196 - Fort Worth, Texas, Application for Manufacturing Authority, ATC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Worth, Texas, Application for Manufacturing Authority, ATC Logistics & Electronics (Cell Phone Kitting... million unit capacity) is used for the kitting and distribution of cell phones. Components and materials sourced from abroad (representing 96% of the value of the finished product) include: cell phone batteries...

  6. 77 FR 20356 - Foreign-Trade Zone 277-Western Maricopa County, AZ; Application for Manufacturing Authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... Maricopa County, AZ; Application for Manufacturing Authority; Suntech Arizona, Inc., (Solar Panel... facility is used for the manufacture of 275 and 290 watt solar panels for industrial use. Components and... to solar panels (duty-free) for the foreign inputs noted above. Suntech would also be exempt from...

  7. 75 FR 12328 - Application of Charter Air Transport, Inc. for Commuter Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Application of Charter Air Transport, Inc... interested persons to show cause why it should not issue an order finding Charter Air Transport, Inc., fit, willing, and able, and awarding it Commuter Air Carrier Authorization. DATES: Persons wishing to file...

  8. 75 FR 13332 - Application of Charter Air Transport, Inc. for Commuter Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Application of Charter Air Transport, Inc. for Commuter Authority Correction In notice document 2010-5555 appearing on page 12328 in the issue of Monday, March 15, 2010, make the following correction: In the second column, in the first paragraph, in...

  9. Market-oriented programming and its application to power load management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ygge, F

    1998-04-01

    Market-oriented programming is a new approach to design and implementation of resource allocation mechanisms in computer systems. It has its roots in different disciplines, such as economics and computer science (in particular the area of multi-agent systems). This is divided into two different parts, focusing on: (1) central foundations and mechanisms of market-oriented programming, and (2) the use of market-oriented programming in practical applications. Market-oriented programming is seen as a programming paradigm based on abstractions such as prices and demands. Concepts, terminology and theory from micro-economics form the foundations of the paradigm. Central aspects of these foundations are investigated and some new insights are presented. Furthermore, some relations between standard optimization/resource allocation approaches and markets are described, and novel theorems are introduced. A published, and generally recognized, market oriented approach to the application building climate control is analyzed in detail. A new approach to this application, based on market-oriented programming, is introduced and shown to be superior to the analyzed approach in many ways. The case study pinpoints a number of potential pitfalls as well as advantages of market-oriented approaches to this and other applications. A second investigated application is power load management, i.e. the management of loads at the customer`s side for obtaining more efficient energy systems management. The basis of the application is described and a new market oriented approach is introduced and analyzed. The approach is shown to have a number of advantages compared to existing approaches to this problem. The main conclusion of the thesis is that there are some potential pitfalls of market-oriented programming, but when used with care it provides a highly natural and efficient means for resource allocation in computer systems

  10. MARKET RISK ASSESSMENT USING EXPECTED TAIL LOST (ETL – PECULIARITIES AND APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Radukanov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Measuring market risk is explained by using Expected Tail Lost in the article. Its advantages, disadvantages and range of application are pointed out. The basic calculation stages are emphasized in MS EXCEL. Market risk measurement is carried out towards the shares of the company General Motors Company (GM

  11. U.S. Government Electronic Data Sources for Global Marketing Decisions: An Evaluation and Classroom Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Vaughan C.; Tims, Betty J.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. government publishes considerable information applicable to business people interested in global marketing opportunities, much of which is available via the Internet and CD-ROMs. Evaluates the usefulness of four of the government's electronic sources of global marketing information (e.g., the World Fact Book), describing workshops using…

  12. Small-scale fuel cell cogen: application potentials and market strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, Bernd

    2000-01-01

    Small (less than 5 kW) fuel-cell cogeneration systems are now being developed for use in residential buildings. The devices are expected to be on the market in five years. The article discusses the potential for their large-scale introduction, the impact of this new technology on the natural gas business, potential applications and marketing strategies

  13. 17 CFR 140.72 - Delegation of authority to disclose confidential information to a contract market, registered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Regional Administrators, each of the Directors of the Market Surveillance Branches, the Chief Economist of the Office of the Chief Economist, the Deputy Chief Economist of the Office of the Chief Economist...

  14. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ojating, I. Vol 16, No 1 (2010) - Articles Timber trade and marketing in two deregulated timber markets economy in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1118-0579. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  15. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anikamadu, Michael O. Vol 4, No 2 (2002) - Articles The Nigerian stock market efficient market hypothesis and the run test. Abstract. ISSN: 0794-067X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

  16. Modification and application of ECSI on the Czech service market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Ryglová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering contemporary trends in development of the world’s economy, all kinds of companies are made to analyse and implement new access to firm’s strategies. This article deals with new trends in marketing analysis focused on measurement and evaluation of customer satisfaction. We tried to apply methodology of ECSI (European customer satisfaction index into Czech service market. We counted the total customer satisfaction indexes for two chosen travel agencies (85% for the first travel agency, and 74% for the second one and for two chosen banks (72% for the first bank, and 82% for the second one.

  17. An assessment of the economics and market opportunities for municipal solid waste fired combined heat and power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frith, D.P.; Toothill, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    This study examines the issues surrounding the development of CHP applications of MSW combustion plants, and in particular the opportunities for new projects. The specific objectives of the study were as follows: (i) To assess the economics of CHP applications of MSW plant at three scales of operation, with waste throughputs of 400,000, 200,000 and 100,000 tonnes per year. (ii) To report on the market opportunities and barriers to implementation for such applications in the UK. (iii) To report on the commercial development of three such applications (case studies) in the UK and to examine the environmental benefits of such applications, with particular respect to greenhouse gas emissions. (author)

  18. Industrial application trends and market perspectives for virtual reality and visual simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Valerio Netto

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to provide an overview of current market trends in industrial applications of VR (Virtual Reality and VisSim (visual simulation for the next few years. Several market studies recently undertaken are presented and commented. A profile of some companies that are starting to work with these technologies is provided, in an attempt to motivate Brazilian companies into the use of these new technologies by describing successful example applications undertaken by foreign companies.

  19. Information acquisition and behavioral change: a social marketing application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, L L; Johnson, K

    1991-01-01

    Previous literature provides insight into the importance of beliefs and other intrapersonal variables for health-related information acquisition and behavioral change. The results of an empirical investigation evidence the unique strength of the role of core health beliefs for each of the multi-level measures. Directions for the development of effective marketing strategy are discussed.

  20. Application of Demand Analysis in Marketing Continuing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Elzberry, Jr.

    This study investigated the feasibility of applying economic demand analysis (especially elasticity of demand) in marketing George Washington University off-campus degree programs. In the case under study, a supplemental budget request had to be submitted to meet expenses incurred by an unforeseen increase in demand for graduate and undergraduate…

  1. On Application of Information and Marketing%信息赋能与市场营销

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮伟卿

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of the influence of information on e-commerce, online marketing and market exchange, this paper discusses marketing activities which sets internet as technology tools, develops through information elements. The application of information can change the behavior and relation between supply and demand of marketing, and shapes the network marketing,which is a new form of marketing.%本文通过信息对电子商务、市场和市场交换产生的影响,探讨了以互联网为技术工具,以信息为要素开展的市场营销活动。通过信息赋能,改变了市场营销中的供需双方的行为和关系,塑造了新的营销形态---网络营销。

  2. Transferring diffractive optics from research to commercial applications: Part II - size estimations for selected markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Robert

    2014-04-01

    In a series of two contributions, decisive business-related aspects of the current process status to transfer research results on diffractive optical elements (DOEs) into commercial solutions are discussed. In part I, the focus was on the patent landscape. Here, in part II, market estimations concerning DOEs for selected applications are presented, comprising classical spectroscopic gratings, security features on banknotes, DOEs for high-end applications, e.g., for the semiconductor manufacturing market and diffractive intra-ocular lenses. The derived market sizes are referred to the optical elements, itself, rather than to the enabled instruments. The estimated market volumes are mainly addressed to scientifically and technologically oriented optical engineers to serve as a rough classification of the commercial dimensions of DOEs in the different market segments and do not claim to be exhaustive.

  3. Investing in Global Markets: Big Data and Applications of Robust Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eGuerard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this analysis of the risk and return of stocks in global markets, we apply several applications of robust regression techniques in producing stock selection models and several optimization techniques in portfolio construction in global stock universes. We find that (1 the robust regression applications are appropriate for modeling stock returns in global markets; and (2 mean-variance techniques continue to produce portfolios capable of generating excess returns above transaction costs and statistically significant asset selection. We estimate expected return models in a global equity markets using a given stock selection model and generate statistically significant active returns from various portfolio construction techniques.

  4. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingass, H.; Asmon, I.

    1981-01-01

    Results of a month-long study in Morocco aimed at assessing the market potential for stand-alone photovoltaic systems in agriculture and rural service applications are presented. The following applications, requiring less than 15 kW of power, are described: irrigation, cattle watering, refrigeration, crop processing, potable water and educational TV. Telecommunications and transportation signalling applications, descriptions of power and energy use profiles, assessments of business environment, government and private sector attitudes towards photovoltaics, and financing were also considered. The Moroccan market presents both advantages and disadvantages for American PV manufacturers. The principle advantages of the Moroccan market are: a limited grid, interest in and present use of PV in communications applications, attractive investment incentives, and a stated policy favoring American investment. Disadvantages include: lack of government incentives for PV use, general unfamiliarity with PV technology, high first cost of PV, a well-established market network for diesel generators, and difficulty with financing. The market for PV in Morocco (1981-1986), will be relatively small, about 340 kwp. The market for PV is likely to be more favorable in telecommunications, transport signalling and some rural services. The primary market appears to be in the public (i.e., government) rather than private sector, due to financial constraints and the high price of PV relative to conventional power sector.

  5. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... incomplete market: application to a South African retirement fund. Abstract · Vol 11 (2011) - Articles The capital-asset pricing model: the case of South Africa Abstract · Vol 13 (2013) - Articles The capital-asset pricing model reconsidered: tests in real terms on a South African market portfolio comprising equities and bonds

  6. Application of neural network in market segmentation: A review on recent trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manojit Chattopadhyay

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the significance of Artificial Neural Network (ANN algorithm to market segmentation, there is a need of a comprehensive literature review and a classification system for it towards identification of future trend of market segmentation research. The present work is the first identifiable academic literature review of the application of neural network based techniques to segmentation. Our study has provided an academic database of literature between the periods of 2000–2010 and proposed a classification scheme for the articles. One thousands (1000 articles have been identified, and around 100 relevant selected articles have been subsequently reviewed and classified based on the major focus of each paper. Findings of this study indicated that the research area of ANN based applications are receiving most research attention and self organizing map based applications are second in position to be used in segmentation. The commonly used models for market segmentation are data mining, intelligent system etc. Our analysis furnishes a roadmap to guide future research and aid knowledge accretion and establishment pertaining to the application of ANN based techniques in market segmentation. Thus the present work will significantly contribute to both the industry and academic research in business and marketing as a sustainable valuable knowledge source of market segmentation with the future trend of ANN application in segmentation.

  7. 76 FR 34203 - Foreign-Trade Subzone 78A Application for Expansion of Manufacturing Authority Nissan North...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... Application for Expansion of Manufacturing Authority Nissan North America, Inc. (Electric Passenger Vehicles... with authority granted for the manufacture of light-duty pickup trucks at the NNA plant located at 983...-1997). The applicant now seeks to expand the scope of authority to include electric-powered, light-duty...

  8. Application of the Fractional Diffusion Equation for Predicting Market Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan M. Blackledge

    2010-01-01

    Most Financial modelling system rely on an underlying hypothesis known as the Eficient Market Hypothesi (EMH) including the famous BlackScholes formula for placing an option. However, the EMH has a fundamental flaw: it is based on the assumption that economic processes are normally distributed and it has long been known that this is not the case. This fundamental assumption leads to a number of shortcomings associated with using the EMH to analyse financial data which includes failure to pred...

  9. The Fractal Market Hypothesis: Applications to Financial Forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Blackledge, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Most financial modelling systems rely on an underlying hypothesis known as the Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH) including the famous Black-Scholes formula for placing an option. However, the EMH has a fundamental flaw: it is based on the assumption that economic processes are normally distributed and it has long been known that this is not the case. This fundamental assumption leads to a number of shortcomings associated with using the EMH to analyse financial data which includes failure to ...

  10. 17 CFR 200.30-3 - Delegation of authority to Director of Division of Trading and Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... this chapter, taking into account then existing market practices, to exempt contracts for the purchase... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS... effecting any transactions in, or inducing or attempting to induce the purchase or sale of, any security...

  11. Marketing at Superior: Theory meets application in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey, S.

    1992-01-01

    The field marketing practices of Superior Propane in rural Ontario are illustrated. In the Smithville area, Superior's customer base consists of agricultural, industrial, commercial, and residential customers, plus a large market for auto propane. A 6,900 ft 2 showroom presents a representative selection of the wide range of appliances using propane. Superior's Smithville branch is one of the top five in Canada, in terms of volume. To expand business beyond its traditional branch structures, Superior has an Independent Partners Program which is aimed at all phases of business including independent sales agents, conversions, propane fuel stops, appliance installations, and building contractors. In Keswick, located in the summer resort region on the south shore of Lake Simcoe, Superior's base load is 40% commercial and 20% each agricultural, residential, and automotive. A new 4,100 ft 2 showroom was recently constructed with separate display units for each appliance. The new building has brought increases in auto propane and appliance sales. The different branches of Superior Propane are able to tailor their marketing programs according to local needs by choosing the appropriate programs from those available at head office. 5 figs

  12. MODEL OF SHARIA PRINCIPLES INTEGRATION IN THE APPLICATION OF CAPITAL MARKET LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desy Nurkristia Tejawati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a country which most of the population is islamic, so of course in the life of the economy should be based on existing principles of sharia. At present, it must be admitted that the principles of sharia have grown in various fields of economy, including Banking, Insurance, and Capital Markets. However, in the Capital Market, although some of its instruments have been found in the Capital Market, the redulation is very minimal. This research is aimed at assisting Financial Services Authority in implementing Roadmap of Sharia Capital Market starting 2015 to 2019 to find a concept of Capital Market Law in accordance with Sharia Principles, so that Sharia Principles can be applied in isolation and different from Market Law regulation Conventional Capital that has been done. Research is a normative juridical research because it focuses on the rules of legislation using empirical data. The approach used is the approach of legislation and concept approach. Sharia Capital Market is a place for investors and emitents whose business field is not contrary to Sharia principles to conduct buying and selling activities in a way that uses the principles of sharia. The implementation of Sharia principles in Shariah Capital Market is in the business field of issuers, contracts used, and there are also arrangements related to Sharia Capital Market Experts.

  13. Market integration of responsive customers : application to energy and balancing markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, C.; Valencia, I.; Alcazar, M. [Univ. Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain). Inst. of Energy Engineering; Gabaldon, A.; Escriva, G. [Univ. Politecnica de Cartagena, Cartagena (Spain). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Demand response management methods are now being adopted by many deregulated electric utilities. This article presented details of a method designed to create offers and bids for large electricity customers. The method was developed to analyze daily and monthly energy consumption rates and participation in energy and ancillary service markets in Spain. A simulation was used to analyze day-ahead, inter-daily, and balancing scenarios. Peak demand in winter and summer months was characterized. Energy consumption was analyzed for different demand packages related to air conditioning, outdoor lighting, indoor lighting, and other domestic loads. Prices for each package were calculated in order to assess demand reduction capabilities. Differences between real consumption levels and energy prices bought at real-time prices were compared. An overview of Spanish electricity market structures was provided. Results of the study showed that electricity customers may benefit from participating in demand response programs. It was concluded that lower prices obtained during periods of low electricity production outweighed the higher costs of peak electricity periods. 13 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  14. Market integration of responsive customers : application to energy and balancing markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, C.; Valencia, I.; Alcazar, M.; Gabaldon, A.; Escriva, G.

    2009-01-01

    Demand response management methods are now being adopted by many deregulated electric utilities. This article presented details of a method designed to create offers and bids for large electricity customers. The method was developed to analyze daily and monthly energy consumption rates and participation in energy and ancillary service markets in Spain. A simulation was used to analyze day-ahead, inter-daily, and balancing scenarios. Peak demand in winter and summer months was characterized. Energy consumption was analyzed for different demand packages related to air conditioning, outdoor lighting, indoor lighting, and other domestic loads. Prices for each package were calculated in order to assess demand reduction capabilities. Differences between real consumption levels and energy prices bought at real-time prices were compared. An overview of Spanish electricity market structures was provided. Results of the study showed that electricity customers may benefit from participating in demand response programs. It was concluded that lower prices obtained during periods of low electricity production outweighed the higher costs of peak electricity periods. 13 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs

  15. Android Based Binus Profile Applications as the Marketing Tools of Bina Nusantara University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, Karto

    2014-03-01

    Smart phones with apps in it is not a new phenomenon. Both of technologies have been fused with the lifestyle today. The ease and speed of access to information makes a lot of companies use it in the process of marketing a product to the public. Objective of this action is to win the competition that more competitive. The purpose of this research is to create mobile application android based to assist in the marketing and introduction Bina Nusantara University profile to prospective students. This research method using software engineering waterfall model to produce Android-based mobile applications. The results in the form of Android-based mobile application that can be used as a viral marketing tool for Bina Nusantara University. At the end of this study can be generated that mobile technology can be used as a media for effective marketing and branding, especially for Bina Nusantara University. Android technology based for marketing applications suited to the Bina Nusantara University applicant segment which are generally young people. The future along with the improvement of network quality and affordable cost, then the application can be made online, so features such as chat, maps, and other can be used optimally.

  16. Android Based Binus Profile Applications as the Marketing Tools of Bina Nusantara University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskandar Karto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Smart phones with apps in it is not a new phenomenon. Both of technologies have been fused with the lifestyle today. The ease and speed of access to information makes a lot of companies use it in the process of marketing a product to the public. Objective of this action is to win the competition that more competitive. The purpose of this research is to create mobile application android based to assist in the marketing and introduction Bina Nusantara University profile to prospective students. This research method using software engineering waterfall model to produce Android-based mobile applications. The results in the form of Android-based mobile application that can be used as a viral marketing tool for Bina Nusantara University. At the end of this study can be generated that mobile technology can be used as a media for effective marketing and branding, especially for Bina Nusantara University. Android technology based for marketing applications suited to the Bina Nusantara University applicant segment which are generally young people. The future along with the improvement of network quality and affordable cost, then the application can be made online, so features such as chat, maps, and other can be used optimally.

  17. Photovoltaics: a market overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, A.; Barlow, R.W.; McNelis, B.; Gregory, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive assessment of the current state of this ever-growing market, then, in the form of extensive individual profiles, lists almost 200 companies active in PV. Chapters cover: the evolution of the industry; module production; module destinations; applications markets; characteristics of international trade tariffs; classifications of products; prospects for the future and sources of further information. (author)

  18. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on M3(R2) Nonclinical Safety Studies for the Conduct of Human Clinical Trials and Marketing Authorization for Pharmaceuticals; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "M3(R2) Nonclinical Safety Studies for the Conduct of Human Clinical Trials and Marketing Authorization for Pharmaceuticals.'' The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance, which is a revision of an existing guidance, discusses the types of nonclinical studies, their scope and duration, and their relation to the conduct of human clinical trials and marketing authorization for pharmaceuticals. The guidance is intended to facilitate the timely conduct of clinical trials and reduce the unnecessary use of animals and other drug development resources.

  19. 75 FR 12737 - Applications To Export Electric Energy; Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... impact on the reliability of the U.S. electric power supply system. Copies of this application will be... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket Nos. EA-363 and EA-364] Applications To Export Electric Energy; Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corp. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability...

  20. Market Segmentation: An Application to the Schist Village Tourism Destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Martinho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The Schist Village network is a sustainable development project in Portugal’s Pinhal Interior region that includes 27 villages located in the central inland area of the country. Overall, this study sets out evidence about the motivations, interests, behaviors, and images of visitors/tourists (tourism consumers regarding the Schist Villages in the area. Design/Methodology/Approach – The sample of individuals interviewed includes a total of 223 individuals (59 international and 164 national tourists, all of whom personally answered the questionnaire. Findings and implications – Through analysis of the survey results obtained, it is possible to chart a profile of Schist Village visitors/tourists, ascertain their preferences and the key attributes associated with the image of this tourist destination and, based on these, put forward strongly focused orientations and guidelines to help develop future marketing plans for this territory. Limitations – One limitation stems from how the data was gathered and analyzed constitutes but a mere “moment” in a fairly vast and dynamic universe given that the questionnaires were completed across a defined and fairly brief period of time. The fact that the questionnaires were handed out by network partners effectively excluded from the study all those tourism consumers who travel and visit the territory without any direct recourse to the services of the aforementioned partners. Originality – This study presents an easy and clear way to segment the market that could be used by several stakeholders in order to improve their targeting activities.

  1. Electricity markets volatility: estimates, regularities and risk management applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Masao [Sauder School of Business, University of British Columbia, 2053 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6 T 1Z2 (Canada)]. E-mail: masao.nakamura@sauder.ubc.ca; Nakashima, Tomoaki [Powerex Corp., Vancouver, BC, V6C 2X8 (Canada); Niimura, Takahide [TNC Systems Technologies, Burnaby, BC, V5 H 2W4 (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    The recent deregulation of the market for electric power in many parts of the US and Canada has expanded the set of potential tools for managing the types of risks faced by both generators and consumers of electric power. In particular manufacturing and other firms whose operations are powered by electricity now face, on a continuing basis, the engineering management decisions concerning whether they should buy or produce electricity, and if they are to buy or sell electricity, what types of contracts are optimum. These types of risk management decisions typically involve futures, forwards, options and other financial derivatives. The price and volatility of electric power are known to play an essential role in determining which of these instruments should be used. However, electricity as a commodity possesses certain special features not shared by other commodities and hence its risk properties are not yet well understood. In this paper we consider and test certain hypotheses about the properties of electricity price using recent market data. We find that electricity prices possess certain volatility and other systematic properties that can be characterized by the type and method of delivery of electricity. These properties can be used by firms in formulating their optimal demand and supply schedules of electric power.

  2. Electricity markets volatility: estimates, regularities and risk management applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Masao; Nakashima, Tomoaki; Niimura, Takahide

    2006-01-01

    The recent deregulation of the market for electric power in many parts of the US and Canada has expanded the set of potential tools for managing the types of risks faced by both generators and consumers of electric power. In particular manufacturing and other firms whose operations are powered by electricity now face, on a continuing basis, the engineering management decisions concerning whether they should buy or produce electricity, and if they are to buy or sell electricity, what types of contracts are optimum. These types of risk management decisions typically involve futures, forwards, options and other financial derivatives. The price and volatility of electric power are known to play an essential role in determining which of these instruments should be used. However, electricity as a commodity possesses certain special features not shared by other commodities and hence its risk properties are not yet well understood. In this paper we consider and test certain hypotheses about the properties of electricity price using recent market data. We find that electricity prices possess certain volatility and other systematic properties that can be characterized by the type and method of delivery of electricity. These properties can be used by firms in formulating their optimal demand and supply schedules of electric power

  3. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigelmann, W.; Asmon, I.

    1981-01-01

    The first year of cost-competitiveness, the market potential, and the environment in which PV systems would be marketed and employed were examined. Market elements specific to Mexico addressed include: (1) useful applications and estimates of the potential market for PV systems; (2) power requirements and load profiles for applications compatible with PV usage; (3) operating and cost characteristics of power systems that compete against PV; (4) national development goals in rural electrification and rural services, technology programs and government policies that influence the demand for PV in Mexico; (5) financing mechanisms and capital available for PV acquisition; (6) channels for distribution, installation and maintenance of PV systems; and (7) appropriate methods for conducting business in Mexico.

  4. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigelmann, W.; Asmon, I.

    1981-07-01

    The first year of cost-competitiveness, the market potential, and the environment in which PV systems would be marketed and employed were examined. Market elements specific to Mexico addressed include: (1) useful applications and estimates of the potential market for PV systems; (2) power requirements and load profiles for applications compatible with PV usage; (3) operating and cost characteristics of power systems that compete against PV; (4) national development goals in rural electrification and rural services, technology programs and government policies that influence the demand for PV in Mexico; (5) financing mechanisms and capital available for PV acquisition; (6) channels for distribution, installation and maintenance of PV systems; and (7) appropriate methods for conducting business in Mexico.

  5. Application of Q-learning with temperature variation for bidding strategies in market based power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naghibi-Sistani, M.B.; Akbarzadeh-Tootoonchi, M.R.; Javidi-Dashte Bayaz, M.H.; Rajabi-Mashhadi, H.

    2006-01-01

    The electric power industry is confronted with restructuring in which the operation scheduling is going to be decided based on a competitive market. In this new arrangement, bidding strategy has become a major issue. Participants in this deregulated energy market place may be able to compete better by choosing a suitable bidding strategy for trading electricity. Different classical methods for decision making in the uncertain environment of the market can be applied to select a suitable strategy. Most of these methods, such as game theory, that insure reaching the best solution for all market participants, require a lot of information about the other market players and the market. However, in the real market place only a little information, such as the spot price, is available for all participants. In this paper, a modified reinforcement learning based on temperature variation has been first proposed and then applied to determine the optimal strategy for a power supplier in the electricity market. A Pool-Co model has been considered here, and the simulation results are shown to be the same as those of standard game theory. Adaptation of the method in the presence of parameter variation has been verified as well. The main advantage of the proposed method is that no information about other participants is required. Furthermore, our investigation shows that even if all participants use this method, they will stay in Nash equilibrium. (author)

  6. 17 CFR 21.04 - Delegation of authority to the Director of the Division of Market Oversight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Delegation of authority to the... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION SPECIAL CALLS § 21.04 Delegation of authority to the Director of the... to be exercised by such Director or by such other employee or employees of such Director as...

  7. 17 CFR 18.03 - Delegation of authority to the Director of the Division of Market and Oversight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Delegation of authority to the... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REPORTS BY TRADERS § 18.03 Delegation of authority to the Director of... such other employee or employees of the Director as may be designated from time to time by the Director...

  8. Prefeasibility study of a e-business application for the energy wood markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokinen, J.; Maelkoenen, A.; Kivelae, H.

    2002-01-01

    Finland has a national target to increase the use of forest based energy from current 0.8 million m 3 /a to 5 million m 3 /a by 2010. Realisation of the target will depend on the functionality of the energy wood markets. The objective of the prefeasibility study is to identify the best e-business applications for energy wood markets in order to achieve the targeted forest energy level by 2010. (orig.)

  9. A SOCIAL MEDIA CAMPAIGN APPLICATION IN A MARKETING FIELD EXPERIENCE COURSE

    OpenAIRE

    Mine Ucok Hughes

    2014-01-01

    Most university students today use social media daily, are knowledgeable about a myriad of applications, and can navigate numerous platforms, such as Facebook and Twitter. Despite their affinity for social media, however, it is not clear whether or not they understand how social media can be used to create effective marketing strategies. This paper describes a social media assignment that was incorporated into a marketing field experience course for undergraduate students. The aim of the pape...

  10. THE MARKET POTENTIAL FOR ELECTRONIC PAYMENT APPLICATIONS IN GHANA AND UGANDA. CASE COMPANY– MAVIANCE GMBH

    OpenAIRE

    Terekhova, Mariia

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, electronic payment solutions are widespread all around the world. Besides, their popularity is rapidly growing in emerging markets bringing numerous business opportunities to the international companies specializing in electronic payment systems. The aim of this thesis is to create a marketing strategy for the penetration of Ghana and Uganda with Smobilpay, which is an electronic payment application of Maviance GmbH. The research is done with the help of an analysis of the busin...

  11. [Application of Markov model in post-marketing pharmacoeconomic evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Su, Xia; Sun, Wentao; Xie, Yanming; Wang, Yongyan

    2011-10-01

    In post-marketing study of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), pharmacoeconomic evaluation has an important applied significance. However, the economic literatures of TCM have been unable to fully and accurately reflect the unique overall outcomes of treatment with TCM. For the special nature of TCM itself, we recommend that Markov model could be introduced into post-marketing pharmacoeconomic evaluation of TCM, and also explore the feasibility of model application. Markov model can extrapolate the study time horizon, suit with effectiveness indicators of TCM, and provide measurable comprehensive outcome. In addition, Markov model can promote the development of TCM quality of life scale and the methodology of post-marketing pharmacoeconomic evaluation.

  12. 2012 Market Report on Wind Technologies in Distributed Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrell, Alice C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-08-01

    An annual report on U.S. wind power in distributed applications – expanded to include small, mid-size, and utility-scale installations – including key statistics, economic data, installation, capacity, and generation statistics, and more.

  13. Strategic market approach for entering the Indian solar water pump market : plan the marketing strategy for solar off-grid applications

    OpenAIRE

    Almanasreh, Khalil

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the strategic market approach for investing in solar water pumps market (SWP) in India, and Punjab state as a business case. The main research question is: What is an appropriate strategic market approach to invest in solar water pump market in India? The study focuses on the marketing strategy and strategic planning to enter the Indian market. The thesis follows the qualitative study design where the data was collected by observing the market and interviewing main sta...

  14. SIAM conference on applications of dynamical systems. Abstracts and author index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    A conference (Oct.15--19, 1992, Snowbird, Utah; sponsored by SIAM (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics) Activity Group on Dynamical Systems) was held that highlighted recent developments in applied dynamical systems. The main lectures and minisymposia covered theory about chaotic motion, applications in high energy physics and heart fibrillations, turbulent motion, Henon map and attractor, integrable problems in classical physics, pattern formation in chemical reactions, etc. The conference fostered an exchange between mathematicians working on theoretical issues of modern dynamical systems and applied scientists. This two-part document contains abstracts, conference program, and an author index.

  15. Predictive market segmentation model: An application of logistic regression model and CHAID procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soldić-Aleksić Jasna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Market segmentation presents one of the key concepts of the modern marketing. The main goal of market segmentation is focused on creating groups (segments of customers that have similar characteristics, needs, wishes and/or similar behavior regarding the purchase of concrete product/service. Companies can create specific marketing plan for each of these segments and therefore gain short or long term competitive advantage on the market. Depending on the concrete marketing goal, different segmentation schemes and techniques may be applied. This paper presents a predictive market segmentation model based on the application of logistic regression model and CHAID analysis. The logistic regression model was used for the purpose of variables selection (from the initial pool of eleven variables which are statistically significant for explaining the dependent variable. Selected variables were afterwards included in the CHAID procedure that generated the predictive market segmentation model. The model results are presented on the concrete empirical example in the following form: summary model results, CHAID tree, Gain chart, Index chart, risk and classification tables.

  16. 76 FR 33746 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ..., China and/or Taiwan.\\5\\ This blanket authorization was later amended to permit exports to Canada, Mexico... imported into the United States from foreign sources on a short-term or spot market basis. The LNG would be... liability company and wholly owned subsidiary of Zachary American Infrastructure, LLC, which owns a 55...

  17. Enhancing Learning Outcomes through Application Driven Activities in Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemann, Nicole; Sutton-Brady, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces an activity used in class to allow students to apply previously acquired information to a hands-on task. As the authors have previously shown active learning is a way to effectively facilitate and improve students' learning outcomes. As a result to improve learning outcomes we have overtime developed a series of learning…

  18. THE EFFECT OF REVENUE AND MARKET SEGMENTATION LEVEL TOWARDS VENTURE CAPITAL INVESTMENT IN MOBILE APPLICATION BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Adrian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of mobile applications has mushroomed in local and foreign industries. This provides a tremendous opportunity for developers. For technopreneur developer, the capital to run the business is one of the biggest problems despite the fact that they may have great competence in the field. The fact that the business has big potential market in Indonesia has invited investors from local and overseas to invest as venture capital. However, due to the lack of knowledge on building collaboration with the investors and on understanding the market and investor needs in a long term, the developer finds difficulties to grow its business and to compete with bigger competitors. The research intends to seek the influence in selecting the level of revenue and market segmentation to support the investment decisions in the business of mobile applications, so that the mobile application developer is able to monetize their business to attract investors to invest in the venture capital.

  19. 78 FR 49508 - Tesoro Refining & Marketing Company LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... Refining & Marketing Company LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes... proceeding of Tesoro Refining & Marketing Company LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an... of protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov...

  20. 75 FR 35017 - Brookfield Energy Marketing LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Energy Marketing LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding of Brookfield Energy Marketing LP's application for market-based rate authority, with an... protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To...

  1. 78 FR 16262 - Tesoro Refining & Marketing Company LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... Refining & Marketing Company LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes... proceeding, of Tesoro Refining & Marketing Company LLC's application for market- based rate authority, with... submission of protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov...

  2. Application of marketing mix concept in student recruitment strategies: Evidence from University of Novi Sad, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodić-Lukić Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The first subject of research in this article is the review and comparison of various theoretical approaches to marketing applied in institutions of higher education. The authors have observed the marketing as an active process by which institutions of higher education attract their users' attention to the educational services they offer. The research has sought for an answer to the question which marketing mix instrument has the greatest impact on the student decision to enroll at a particular faculty at the University of Novi Sad. The study involved 783 students at six faculties of this university. The authors used a non-standardized survey questionnaire to measure the attitudes towards 26 different marketing tools, using the five-point Likert scale. Principal components factor analysis was used to classify variables. The authors singled out seven factors relevant to the faculty choice: people, physical evidence, promotion, image, resources and extra services, location and price. The results coincided with the traditional elements of marketing mix (7P to a greater or lesser extent, confirming the results of previously conducted studies.

  3. 20 CFR 726.103 - Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 726.103 Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part. As... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part. 726.103 Section 726.103 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT...

  4. Applications for approval to market a new drug; complete response letter; amendments to unapproved applications. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-10

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations on new drug applications (NDAs) and abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for approval to market new drugs and generic drugs (drugs for which approval is sought in an ANDA). The final rule discontinues FDA's use of approvable letters and not approvable letters when taking action on marketing applications. Instead, we will send applicants a complete response letter to indicate that the review cycle for an application is complete and that the application is not ready for approval. We are also revising the regulations on extending the review cycle due to the submission of an amendment to an unapproved application and starting a new review cycle after the resubmission of an application following receipt of a complete response letter. In addition, we are adding to the regulations on biologics license applications (BLAs) provisions on the issuance of complete response letters to BLA applicants. We are taking these actions to implement the user fee performance goals referenced in the Prescription Drug User Fee Amendments of 2002 (PDUFA III) that address procedures and establish target timeframes for reviewing human drug applications.

  5. Application of Discriminant Analysis on Romanian Insurance Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Anghelache

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Discriminant analysis is a supervised learning technique that can be used in order to determine which variables are the best predictors of the classification of objects belonging to a population into predetermined classes. At the same time, discriminant analysis provides a powerful tool that enables researchers to make predictions regarding the classification of new objects into predefined classes. The main goal of discriminant analysis is to determine which of the N descriptive variables have the most discriminatory power, that is, which of them are the most relevant for the classification of objects into classes. In order to classify objects, we need a mathematical model that provides the rules for optimal allocation. This is the classifier. In this paper we will discuss three of the most important models of classification: the Bayesian criterion, the Mahalanobis criterion and the Fisher criterion. In this paper, we will use discriminant analysis to classify the insurance companies that operated on the Romanian market in 2006. We have selected a number of eigth (8 relevant variables: gross written premium (GR_WRI_PRE, net mathematical reserves (NET_M_PES, gross claims paid (GR_CL_PAID, net premium reserves (NET_PRE_RES, net claim reserves (NET_CL_RES, net income (NE—_INCOME, share capital (SHARE_CAP and gross written premium ceded in Reinsurance (GR_WRI_PRE_CED. Before proceeding to discriminant analysis, we performed cluster analysis on the initial data in order to identify classes (clusters that emerge from the data.

  6. When private information settles the bill : money and privacy in Google's market for smartphone applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kummer, Michael E.; Schulte, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    We shed light on a money-for-privacy trade-off in the market for smartphone applications ("apps"). Developers offer their apps cheaper in return for greater access to personal information, and consumers choose between lower prices and more privacy. We provide evidence for this pattern using data on 300,000 mobile applications which were obtained from the Android Market in 2012 and 2014. We augmented these data with information from Alexa.com and Amazon Mechanical Turk. Our findings show that ...

  7. 78 FR 75339 - Barca LNG LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ..., the long supply chains and inflexibility of European markets have made diversification of supply a... INFORMATION: Background Barca is a Delaware limited liability company with its principal place of business in... applicants to supply transaction information ``to the extent practicable.'' Barca states that the natural gas...

  8. Teaching Experientially with the Madeline Hunter Method: An Application in a Marketing Research Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Alvin C.

    2006-01-01

    Due to concerns about the disparity of learning and the high nonresponse rates encountered by student marketing research teams working with sponsors, the author adopted the Hunter Method to restructure his course. This method requires the use of a model onto which students can map their learning via guided practice as well as independent practice.…

  9. 76 FR 3881 - Application To Export Electric Energy; TransAlta Energy Marketing (U.S.) Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... Energy Marketing (U.S.) Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: TransAlta Energy Marketing (U.S.) Inc. (TEMUS) has applied to renew its..., Federal power marketing agencies, and other entities within the United States. The existing international...

  10. Advanced Sensors and Controls for Building Applications: Market Assessment and Potential R&D Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambley, Michael R.; Haves, Philip; McDonald, Sean C.; Torcellini, Paul; Hansen, David G.; Holmberg, David; Roth, Kurt

    2005-04-13

    Significant energy savings can be achieved in commercial building operation, along with increased comfort and control for occupants, through the implementation of advanced technologies. This document provides a market assessment of existing building sensors and controls and presents a range of technology pathways (R&D options) for pursuing advanced sensors and building control strategies. This paper is actually a synthesis of five other white papers: the first describes the market assessment including estimates of market potential and energy savings for sensors and control strategies currently on the market as well as a discussion of market barriers to these technologies. The other four cover technology pathways: (1) current applications and strategies for new applications, (2) sensors and controls, (3) networking, security, and protocols and standards, and (4) automated diagnostics, performance monitoring, commissioning, optimal control and tools. Each technology pathway chapter gives an overview of the technology or application. This is followed by a discussion of needs and the current status of the technology. Finally, a series of research topics is proposed.

  11. 47 CFR 63.09 - Definitions applicable to international Section 214 authorizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... telecommunications services offered to the public in that country within the meaning of the International... carriers are parties to, or the beneficiaries of, a contractual relation (e.g., a joint venture or market alliance) affecting the provision or marketing of international basic telecommunications services in the...

  12. Study about Markowitz Model Applicability on Romanian Stock Exchange Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Badea

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the application of the analysis on a portfolio made up of eight titles, through determination of the portfolio with absolute minimum variation and of the frontier of efficiency. Thus, using the Markowitz model, the dimensions of the portfolio with minimum absolute variation could be established but its profitability was smaller than the profitability offered by the BET rating. The best strategy to follow in this respect would have been to adopt a passive strategy and to take over the structure of the rating in the investment of portfolio for a good profitability but with a higher risk.

  13. Study about Markowitz Model Applicability on Romanian Stock Exchange Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Badea

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the application of the analysis on a portfolio made up of eight titles, through determination of the portfolio with absolute minimum variation and of the frontier of efficiency. Thus, using the Markowitz model, the dimensions of the portfolio with minimum absolute variation could be established but its profitability was smaller than the profitability offered by the BET rating. The best strategy to follow in this respect would have been to adopt a passive strategy and to take over the structure of the rating in the investment of portfolio for a good profitability but with a higher risk.

  14. Early Patient Access to Medicines: Health Technology Assessment Bodies Need to Catch Up with New Marketing Authorization Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyens, Lada; Brand, Angela

    National and international medicines agencies have developed innovative methods to expedite promising new medicines to the market and facilitate early patient access. Some of these approval pathways are the conditional approval and the adaptive pathways by the European Medicines Agency (EMA); the Promising Innovative Medicine (PIM) designation and the Early Access to Medicines Scheme (EAMS) by the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA), as well as the Fast Track, Breakthrough or Accelerated Approval methods by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, at least in Europe, these methods cannot achieve the goal of improving timely access for patients to new medicines on their own; the reimbursement process also has to become adaptive and flexible. In the past 2 years, the effective access (national patient access) to newly approved oncology drugs ranged from 1 to 30 months, with an extremely high variability between European countries. The goal of early patient access in Europe can only be achieved if the national health technology assessment bodies, such as NICE (ENG), HAS (FR), G-BA (DE) or AIFA (IT), provide harmonized, transparent, flexible, conditional and adaptive methods that adopt the level of evidence accepted by the medicines agencies. The efforts from medicines agencies are welcome but will be in vain if health technology assessments do not follow with similar initiatives, and the European 'postcode' lottery will continue. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabraal, R. A.; Delasanta, D.; Burrill, G.

    1981-01-01

    The market potential in the Philippines for stand alone photovoltaic (P/V) systems in agriculture was assessed. Applications include: irrigation, postharvest operation, food and fiber processing and storage, and livestock and fisheries operations. Power and energy use profiles for many applications as well as assessments of business, government and financial climate for P/V sales are described. Many characteristics of the Philippine agriculture and energy sector favorably influence the use of P/V systems. However, serious and significant barriers prevent achieving the technically feasible, cost competitive market for P/V systems in the agricultural sector. The reason for the small market is the limited availability capital for financing P/V systems. It is suggested that innovative financing schemes and promotional campaigns should be devised.

  16. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabraal, R. A.; Delasanta, D.; Burrill, G.

    1981-04-01

    The market potential in the Philippines for stand alone photovoltaic (P/V) systems in agriculture was assessed. Applications include: irrigation, postharvest operation, food and fiber processing and storage, and livestock and fisheries operations. Power and energy use profiles for many applications as well as assessments of business, government and financial climate for P/V sales are described. Many characteristics of the Philippine agriculture and energy sector favorably influence the use of P/V systems. However, serious and significant barriers prevent achieving the technically feasible, cost competitive market for P/V systems in the agricultural sector. The reason for the small market is the limited availability capital for financing P/V systems. It is suggested that innovative financing schemes and promotional campaigns should be devised.

  17. 47 CFR 0.434 - Data bases and lists of authorized broadcast stations and pending broadcast applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... stations and pending broadcast applications. 0.434 Section 0.434 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Commission § 0.434 Data bases and lists of authorized broadcast stations and pending broadcast applications... broadcast stations, pending applications for such stations, and rulemaking proceedings involving amendments...

  18. 77 FR 24169 - Notice of Funds Availability: Inviting Applications for the Market Access Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... for the 2013 Market Access Program (MAP). The intended effect of this notice is to solicit...-term agricultural trade strategy and a program effectiveness time line against which results can be... part of the FAS resource allocation strategy to fund applicants who can demonstrate performance and...

  19. 76 FR 21325 - Notice of Funds Availability: Inviting Applications for the Market Access Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... for the 2012 Market Access Program (MAP). The intended effect of this notice is to solicit...-term agricultural trade strategy and a program effectiveness time line against which results can be... part of the FAS resource allocation strategy to fund applicants who can demonstrate performance and...

  20. 78 FR 23893 - Notice of Funds Availability: Inviting Applications for the Market Access Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... inviting proposals for the 2014 Market Access Program (MAP). The intended effect of this notice is to... strategy and a program effectiveness time line against which results can be measured at specific intervals... allocation strategy to fund applicants who can demonstrate performance and address the objectives of the GPRA...

  1. 75 FR 26194 - Notice of Funds Availability: Inviting Applications for the Market Access Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... for the 2011 Market Access Program (MAP). The intended effect of this notice is to solicit... considers whether the applicant provides a clear, long-term agricultural trade strategy and a program... the greatest growth potential. These factors are part of the FAS resource allocation strategy to fund...

  2. 75 FR 57911 - Application To Export Electric Energy; GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing NA, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... reliability of the U.S. electric power supply system. Copies of this application will be made available, upon... electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act. DATES... purchased from electric utilities, Federal power marketing agencies and other entities within the United...

  3. On Volatility Swaps for Stock Market Forecast: Application Example CAC 40 French Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim Zeghdoudi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the pricing of variance and volatility swaps under Heston model (1993. To this end, we apply this model to the empirical financial data: CAC 40 French Index. More precisely, we make an application example for stock market forecast: CAC 40 French Index to price swap on the volatility using GARCH(1,1 model.

  4. Students' Preferences and Opinions on Design of a Mobile Marketing Education Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozata, Zeynep; Ozdama Keskin, Nilgun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define and better understand business school students' opinions and preferences on the design of a mobile marketing education application. To accomplish this purpose an explanatory mixed methods study design was used and the data was collected sequentially. First, a questionnaire was conducted with 168 business…

  5. German competent authority guidance in FE methods applications for package design assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelzke, H.; Wieser, G.; Zencker, U.; Qiao Linan; Ballheimer, V.

    2004-01-01

    The development of new methods in analysing package designs by using the finite element method (FEM) is of increasing importance. Package designers are more and more applying the growing opportunities of numerical methods to perform safety assessments for their products which requires suited methods also for competent authorities like BAM to verify the applicants' results. This presentation gives an topical overview of the experiences and tendencies within the complex field of finite element design testing. There are at first some general and more formal aspects concerning the correct finite element program selection and documentation of modelling, material properties, boundaries and calculation results including their interpretation. To give a reliable basis to the applicants in Germany BAM has drawn up and published a Finite Element Guideline recently. Secondly, the paper discusses actual technical questions which are of a wide interest and range from mechanical reflections on cask drop and extreme impact scenarios to thermal reflections on decay heat removal and fire scenarios. Examples from BAM work on FE-development activities are shown to demonstrate the great opportunities as well as the difficulties of using finite element methods for package safety analysis and design testing

  6. German competent authority guidance in FE methods applications for package design assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelzke, H.; Wieser, G.; Zencker, U.; Qiao Linan; Ballheimer, V. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The development of new methods in analysing package designs by using the finite element method (FEM) is of increasing importance. Package designers are more and more applying the growing opportunities of numerical methods to perform safety assessments for their products which requires suited methods also for competent authorities like BAM to verify the applicants' results. This presentation gives an topical overview of the experiences and tendencies within the complex field of finite element design testing. There are at first some general and more formal aspects concerning the correct finite element program selection and documentation of modelling, material properties, boundaries and calculation results including their interpretation. To give a reliable basis to the applicants in Germany BAM has drawn up and published a Finite Element Guideline recently. Secondly, the paper discusses actual technical questions which are of a wide interest and range from mechanical reflections on cask drop and extreme impact scenarios to thermal reflections on decay heat removal and fire scenarios. Examples from BAM work on FE-development activities are shown to demonstrate the great opportunities as well as the difficulties of using finite element methods for package safety analysis and design testing.

  7. Multi-period natural gas market modeling Applications, stochastic extensions and solution approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egging, Rudolf Gerardus

    This dissertation develops deterministic and stochastic multi-period mixed complementarity problems (MCP) for the global natural gas market, as well as solution approaches for large-scale stochastic MCP. The deterministic model is unique in the combination of the level of detail of the actors in the natural gas markets and the transport options, the detailed regional and global coverage, the multi-period approach with endogenous capacity expansions for transportation and storage infrastructure, the seasonal variation in demand and the representation of market power according to Nash-Cournot theory. The model is applied to several scenarios for the natural gas market that cover the formation of a cartel by the members of the Gas Exporting Countries Forum, a low availability of unconventional gas in the United States, and cost reductions in long-distance gas transportation. 1 The results provide insights in how different regions are affected by various developments, in terms of production, consumption, traded volumes, prices and profits of market participants. The stochastic MCP is developed and applied to a global natural gas market problem with four scenarios for a time horizon until 2050 with nineteen regions and containing 78,768 variables. The scenarios vary in the possibility of a gas market cartel formation and varying depletion rates of gas reserves in the major gas importing regions. Outcomes for hedging decisions of market participants show some significant shifts in the timing and location of infrastructure investments, thereby affecting local market situations. A first application of Benders decomposition (BD) is presented to solve a large-scale stochastic MCP for the global gas market with many hundreds of first-stage capacity expansion variables and market players exerting various levels of market power. The largest problem solved successfully using BD contained 47,373 variables of which 763 first-stage variables, however using BD did not result in

  8. Multi-Period Natural Gas Market Modeling. Applications, Stochastic Extensions and Solution Approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egging, R.G.

    2010-11-01

    This dissertation develops deterministic and stochastic multi-period mixed complementarity problems (MCP) for the global natural gas market, as well as solution approaches for large-scale stochastic MCP. The deterministic model is unique in the combination of the level of detail of the actors in the natural gas markets and the transport options, the detailed regional and global coverage, the multi-period approach with endogenous capacity expansions for transportation and storage infrastructure, the seasonal variation in demand and the representation of market power according to Nash-Cournot theory. The model is applied to several scenarios for the natural gas market that cover the formation of a cartel by the members of the Gas Exporting Countries Forum, a low availability of unconventional gas in the United States, and cost reductions in long-distance gas transportation. The results provide insights in how different regions are affected by various developments, in terms of production, consumption, traded volumes, prices and profits of market participants. The stochastic MCP is developed and applied to a global natural gas market problem with four scenarios for a time horizon until 2050 with nineteen regions and containing 78,768 variables. The scenarios vary in the possibility of a gas market cartel formation and varying depletion rates of gas reserves in the major gas importing regions. Outcomes for hedging decisions of market participants show some significant shifts in the timing and location of infrastructure investments, thereby affecting local market situations. A first application of Benders decomposition (BD) is presented to solve a large-scale stochastic MCP for the global gas market with many hundreds of first-stage capacity expansion variables and market players exerting various levels of market power. The largest problem solved successfully using BD contained 47,373 variables of which 763 first-stage variables, however using BD did not result in

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mukwabi, D.M.. Vol 94, No 1 (2017) - Articles Contamination of the minnow Rastrineobola argenta, through handling at landing sites and retail markets around Lake Victoria Abstract. ISSN: 0012-835X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  10. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tshiunza, M. Vol 31 (2000) - Articles Production and marketing of dessert banana in Owerri area of Southeast Nigeria Abstract. ISSN: 0300-368X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

  11. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laryea, Samuel. Vol 9, No 2 (2017) - Articles Book Review: Real estate, construction and economic development in emerging market economies. Abstract. ISSN: 2042-1478. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms ...

  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Umeh, OL. Vol 7, No 1 (2014) - Articles Relative performance of real estate equities and other selected stocks: The Nigerian market situation. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1596-6035. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms ...

  13. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adejuwon, G. Vol 23, No 2 (2008) - Articles Market women's attitude towards child labour in Nigeria: The influence of parental and environmental factors. Abstract. ISSN: 1012-1080. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

  14. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ojo, JO. Vol 14, No 1-2 (2014) - Articles Marketing Strategy: A Tool for Library and Information Services Delivery by Academic Libraries in Southwest Nigeria. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1596-5414. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  15. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Achoja, Felix Odemero. Vol 14, No 1 (2016) - Articles Profitability and constraints in the marketing of poultry birds in Delta central agricultural zone, Delta state, Nigeria Abstract. ISSN: 1597-1074. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  16. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fono-Tamo, R.S.. Vol 11, No 2 (2016) - Articles Physico-thermal characteristics and health risk evaluation of randomly selected brake pads in the Nigerian market. Abstract. ISSN: 0795-5111. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  17. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ndubuisi, J. Vol 11, No 4 (2014) - Articles Stock Market Reactions to Fiscal Policy Shocks: Empirical Evidence From Nigeria Abstract. ISSN: 1813-2227. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of ...

  18. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based and bilateral markets using self-organising hierarchical PSO Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2141-2839. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

  19. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adongo, AO. Vol 13, No 1 (2013) - Articles Simple evaporative cooling method reduces bacterial content of traditionally marketed camel milk in Isiolo county, Kenya Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1684-5374. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  20. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akinade, H. Vol 14, No 1-2 (2014) - Articles Marketing Strategy: A Tool for Library and Information Services Delivery by Academic Libraries in Southwest Nigeria. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1596-5414. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  1. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eke, FN. Vol 5, No 3 (2008) - Articles Arthropod pests of dried fish and fish by product in a tropical urban community market. Abstract. ISSN: 1597-3115. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of ...

  2. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ariyo, OO. Vol 8, No 6 (2015) - Articles Marketing strategy and product performance: a study of selected firms in Nigeria Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1998-0507. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of ...

  3. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amekuedee, JO. Vol 19, No 2 (2007) - Articles Information Marketing Initiatives In Agriculture Related Special Libraries In Ghana Abstract. ISSN: 0855-3033. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions ...

  4. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olotu, OA. Vol 8, No 2 (2010) - Articles Marketing of financial services and customer loyalty in the Nigerian banking sector. Abstract. ISSN: 1596-8308. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

  5. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sokhanvar, M. Vol 8, No 2 (2016): Special Issue: Part 3 - Articles Reduce the risk of stock trading by using technical analysis in iran's stock market. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1112-9867. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

  6. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kouassi, DK. Vol 83 (2014) - Articles Management of shells of giant African snails (Achatinidae) from the markets of Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire). Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1997-5902. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms ...

  7. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fung Ming Liu, Christy. Vol 31, No 4 (2013) - Articles The translator status, the translation market and developing economies: A preliminary study of ASEAN countries. Abstract. ISSN: 1607-3614. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  8. [Study of the labor market for dentists who recieved Norwegian authorization during 1972-1975. I. Waiting time and alternative employment before the 1st relevant job].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugejorden, O

    1977-07-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to monitor changes in the labour market situation for dentists who received authorization to practise dentistry in Norway during the years 1972-1975. Data was collected by postal questionnaire during April/May of the year following authorization, except for the 1972 cohort, which was contacted the second year after authorization. A 92-95 per cent response rate was achieved using one follow-up (Table 1). The percentage of respondents who waited 8 weeks or more to acquire a job in dentistry increased from 15 for those authorized in 1972 to 36 for the 1975 group (Table 3). The proportion of dentists who took paid employment other than dentistry, increased from just over 3 per cent for the 1973 to 14 per cent for the 1975 cohort (Table 4). This development has occured despite a decrease in the number of dentists receiving authorization each year and has resulted in a limited emigration of dentists. It is suggested that the favourable supply of dentists in relation to existing demand for dental services presents an ideal opportunity for attempting to solve dental health problems which have received inadequate attention in the past.

  9. Overcoming technical and market barriers for distributed wind applications : reaching the mainstream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoads-Weaver, H.; Forsyth, T.

    2006-01-01

    Technical and market barriers for distributed wind applications were reviewed. A renewable energy survey has recently suggested that while less than 10 per cent of survey respondents had installed wind turbines, 40 per cent indicated that they plan to use wind energy on-site in the future. It is estimated that global annual sales of wind systems have the potential to reach $110 million by 2010 under ideal conditions. Distributed wind market growth areas include residential grid-connected sites, schools, public facilities and farms, business and industry. Grid-connected wind projects are expected to grow from less than 5 per cent of the total small wind market to over 20 per cent by 2020. However, without a federal investment tax credit, more modest growth is anticipated. Drivers of the distributed wind market were identified as financial incentives and programs; favorable policies and regulations; and increasing retail electricity rates and loads. Challenges and barriers to distributed wind market growth included economics; lack of performance standards and ratings; difficult interconnection processes; prohibitive zoning rules; low manufacturing volumes; and low consumer awareness. While there has been a 5-fold increase in photovoltaics (PV) sales in the United States since 2000, small wind turbines sales have only grown by approximately 70 per cent over the same period. Market increases in distributed wind systems are anticipated with the introduction of hybrid wind/PV systems. Improved designs for small and mid-sized turbines, rotors and towers may help to overcome barriers to wind energy growth. Technology developments in remote-monitored controllers and improved computer tools for analyzing project economics may also help to overcome market barriers. However, significant cost reductions are needed to stimulate widespread market acceptance of distributed wind. It was concluded that distributed wind is well-positioned to play an important role in supplying clean

  10. A Semianalytical Solution of the Fractional Derivative Model and Its Application in Financial Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Song

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractional differential equation has been introduced to the financial theory, which presents new ideas and tools for the theoretical researches and the practical applications. In the work, an approximate semianalytical solution of the time-fractional European option pricing model is derived using the method of combining the enhanced technique of Adomian decomposition method with the finite difference method. And then the result is introduced in China’s financial market. The work makes every effort to test the feasibility of the fractional derivative model in the actual financial market.

  11. Prefeasibility study of a e-business application for the energy wood markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokinen, J.; Maelkoenen, A.; Kivelae, H.

    2001-01-01

    Finland has a national target to increase the use of forest based energy from current 0.8 million m 3 /a to 5 million m 3 /a by 2010. Realisation of the target will depend on the functionality of the energy wood markets. The objective of the prefeasibility study is to identify the best e-business applications for energy wood markets in order to achieve the targeted forest energy level by 2010. The prefeasibility study will be ready in November, 2001. (orig.)

  12. THE APPLICATION OF THE CAPITAL ASSET PRICING MODEL ON THE CROATIAN CAPITAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Tomic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes and analyzes the application of the capital asset pricing model (CAPM and the single-index model on the Zagreb stock exchange during the drop in the total trade turnover, and mostly in the trade of equity securities. This model shows through the analysis techniques used to estimate the systematic risk per share compared to the market portfolio. Also, the model quantifies the environment in which a company and its stocks exist, expressing it as risk, or a beta coefficient. Furthermore, with respect to the market stagnation, one can also discuss the usefulness of the model, especially if the quality of the input data is questionable. In this regard, the importance of the proper application and interpretation of the results obtained based on the model during the stagnation of the market, and especially during the stagnation of the trade of equity securities, is gaining even greater importance and significance. On the other hand, the results obtained through the analysis of data point to problems arising during the application of the model. It turns out the main problem of applying the CAPM model is the market index with negative returns during the observation period.

  13. Students’ Preferences And Opinions On Design 
Of A Mobile Marketing Education Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zeynep OZATA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to define and better understand business school students’ opinions and preferences on the design of a mobile marketing education application. To accomplish this purpose an explanatory mixed methods study design was used and the data was collected sequentially. First, a questionnaire was conducted with 168 business school students from Anadolu University to define their learning styles. The learning orientation questionnaire produced five factors: visual, auditory, dependent, collaborative, and reading & writing learning styles. In the second phase of the study, semi-structured in depth interviews were conducted with nine graduate students at Anadolu University to better understand their preferences and explore their opinions on the mobile application. After the coding process three themes emerged: learning styles, content, and tools. Added to these themes, eight motives for the use of a mobile marketing education application were also identified.

  14. 75 FR 4344 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, IL Application for Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority LG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ..., vinyl protective packaging sheets (duty rate ranges from duty free to 5.8%). T/IM authority could be... information presented in the application and case record and to report findings and recommendations pursuant...

  15. Applications of the automatic meter reading techniques at the Brazilian gas domestic market; Application des techniques de releve automatique des compteurs sur le marche domestique Bresilien du gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venancio, J.; Monteiro, F. [Comgas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); D' Oliveira, R.D. [ORBIS, Curitiba (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    This article will describe applications of the automation and automatic meter reading techniques at the internal gas pipes installations design, considering residential and commercial buildings, and taking in account the tendency of rapid growth of the activities related to the natural gas industry in Brazil, as well as the recently development of new technologies that can be applied with affordable prices. It will be analysed the application of an automatic meter reading technology in a building of several floors in Sao Paulo, which gas installations design is being carried up, with be purpose of making a comparative cost-effectiveness study with the traditional constructive methods applied in Brazil. As a result, it will be purposed a new commercialization model for the gas in Brazil at the residential and commercial market. (authors)

  16. Identifying consumer segments in health services markets: an application of conjoint and cluster analyses to the ambulatory care pharmacy market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrol, N V; Gagon, J P

    1983-01-01

    Because of increasing competition, it is becoming more important that health care providers pursue consumer-based market segmentation strategies. This paper presents a methodology for identifying and describing consumer segments in health service markets, and demonstrates the use of the methodology by presenting a study of consumer segments in the ambulatory care pharmacy market.

  17. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 4, No 1 (2005) - Articles Effects of fertilizer rates and cutting frequency on the marketable vegetable and pod yields in fluted pumpkin in southeastern Nigeria ... Studies on yield and yield component responses of Mucuna flagellipes to lime and phosphorus applications under field culture in a tropical ultisol. Abstract PDF.

  18. NOVEL APPLICATIONS FOR EMERGING MARKETS USING TELEVISION AS A UBIQUITOUS DEVICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pal, Arpan

    2013-01-01

    – personal computer (including laptop and tablet), television and mobile (including smart phone). For emerging market countries like India, personal computers are not yet affordable to masses and most of the people are not savvy or skilled enough to operate a personal computer. Mobile phones, though being...... connected to the internet-world in a low-cost manner, it has the potential of becoming the ―Ubiquitous Computing Screen‖ for the home. The emerging markets are characterized by some unique issues like low bandwidth / low Quality-of-Service (QoS) of the available wireless networks, extreme cost...... solutions for seamlessly blending Internet with broadcasting content. To this end, in this thesis a novel application development framework is proposed first on top of a low-cost over-the-top box that uses television as a ubiquitous device with a focus on emerging markets. Then an end-to-end solution...

  19. 78 FR 30914 - Grand River Dam Authority Notice of Application for Temporary Variance of License and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    .... Description of Request: Grand River Dam Authority (GRDA) requests a temporary variance, for the year 2013, to... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 1494-416] Grand River Dam Authority Notice of Application for Temporary Variance of License and Soliciting Comments, Motions To...

  20. 76 FR 16379 - Foreign-Trade Zone 177-Evansville, IN; Application for Manufacturing Authority, Best Chair, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ...--Evansville, IN; Application for Manufacturing Authority, Best Chair, Inc. d/b/a Best Home Furnishings... Zones Board (the Board) by the Ports of Indiana, grantee of FTZ 177, requesting manufacturing authority on behalf of Best Chair, Inc. d/b/a Best Home Furnishings (Best Home), to manufacture upholstered...

  1. 76 FR 65769 - Application of Friendship Airways, Inc. d/b/a Yellow Air Taxi for Commuter Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Application of Friendship Airways, Inc. d/b/a Yellow Air Taxi for Commuter Authority AGENCY: Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice of Order to... issued to Friendship Airways, Inc. d/b/a Yellow Air Taxi and deny its application to resume commuter...

  2. 78 FR 18314 - Foreign-Trade Zone 169-Manatee County, Florida; Application for Production Authority; ASO, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... located within Subzone 169A, in Sarasota, Florida. The facility is used for the production of plastic and... County, Florida; Application for Production Authority; ASO, LLC; Subzone 169A (Textile Fabric Adhesive Bandage Coating and Production); Sarasota, Florida An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade...

  3. Exploring and Prioritizing Factors Influencing Viral Marketing in the Context of Mobile Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaran Hajiheidari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Viral marketing, relying on word of mouth principle is an advertising or a way to publish it on the Internet or mobile networks. The main objective of this article is to explore and prioritize important factors affecting viral marketing in the context of mobile applications. Meta-synthesis technique was used to explore the important factors affecting viral marketing and then using Fuzzy Delphi to determine the significance of the factors. The population of this study in the quantitative section was experts working in the field of viral marketing in the mobile application industry who have been selected by snowball sampling method. In the meantime, 30 experts were selected. The results of meta-synthesis method showed 26 important factors. By using Fuzzy Delphi, 12 factors including speed of message, attractiveness of message, ability to communicate with the product, morality, reliability of the source or validity, personality of the recipient, motivations of people, emotions of people, culture, brand reputation, brand strength as well as brand image were the most important factors

  4. 76 FR 43259 - Foreign-Trade Zone 109-Watertown, NY, Application for Manufacturing Authority, North American...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... for the U.S. market and export. The manufacturing process under FTZ procedures would involve blending... finished tape's value) are woven cotton and polyester/cotton textile fabrics (duty rates: 10.5, 14.9%). The... company anticipates that some 58 percent of the plant's shipments will be exported. On its domestic sales...

  5. A critical view on temperature modelling for application in weather derivatives markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šaltytė Benth, Jūratė; Benth, Fred Espen

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a stochastic model for daily average temperature. The model contains seasonality, a low-order autoregressive component and a variance describing the heteroskedastic residuals. The model is estimated on daily average temperature records from Stockholm (Sweden). By comparing the proposed model with the popular model of Campbell and Diebold (2005), we point out some important issues to be addressed when modelling the temperature for application in weather derivatives market. - Highlights: ► We present a stochastic model for daily average temperature, containing seasonality, a low-order autoregressive component and a variance describing the heteroskedastic residuals. ► We compare the proposed model with the popular model of Campbell and Diebold (2005). ► Some important issues to be addressed when modelling the temperature for application in weather derivatives market are pointed out.

  6. A Semianalytical Solution of the Fractional Derivative Model and Its Application in Financial Market

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Lina

    2018-01-01

    Fractional differential equation has been introduced to the financial theory, which presents new ideas and tools for the theoretical researches and the practical applications. In the work, an approximate semianalytical solution of the time-fractional European option pricing model is derived using the method of combining the enhanced technique of Adomian decomposition method with the finite difference method. And then the result is introduced in China’s financial market. The work makes every e...

  7. Application of Markowitz Portfolio Theory by Building Optimal Portfolio on the US Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Širůček, Martin; Křen, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    ŠIRŮČEK MARTIN, KŘEN LUKÁŠ. 2015. Application of Markowitz Portfolio Theory by Building Optimal Portfolio on the US Stock Market. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, 63(4): 1375–1386. This paper is focused on building investment portfolios by using the Markowitz Portfolio Theory (MPT). Derivation based on the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) is used to calculate the weights of individual securities in portfolios. The calculated portfolios include a po...

  8. 77 FR 30274 - Inupiat Energy Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... Energy Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Inupiat Energy Marketing, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate... protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To...

  9. 78 FR 56691 - Sapphire Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Sapphire Power Marketing LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate... submission of protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov...

  10. 75 FR 48666 - Calpine Mid-Atlantic Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ...-Atlantic Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding, of Calpine Mid-Atlantic Marketing, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an... of protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov...

  11. 75 FR 24941 - PBF Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... of PBF Power Marketing LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate... protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To...

  12. 78 FR 28837 - Myotis Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Marketing LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule, noting that... interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To facilitate electronic...

  13. 77 FR 53197 - Raven Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Marketing LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule, noting that... interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To facilitate electronic...

  14. 78 FR 20910 - Hess Energy Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Marketing, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule, noting... interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To facilitate electronic...

  15. Marketing marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Karel Jan van Alsem

    2013-01-01

    In deze installatierede betoogt Karel Jan Alsem dat marketing een grotere strategische rol in organisaties zou moeten krijgen. Want marketing is bij uitstek de verbinding tussen klantwensen en het DNA van een organisatie. Doordat merken gemiddeld voor mensen niet heel belangrijk zijn, is goede

  16. Application of electronic business in monitoring marketing and consumption of human medicines in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tešić Danka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the application of electronic business (e-business in monitoring marketing and consumption of medicines, as one of e-government services (e-services of the Republic of Serbia (Serbia. It shows methodological framework for development of e-services, through use of RUP (Rational Unified Process methodology. The Unified Modelling Language (UML notation was used for description of the system model. The paper presents modeling of the process of marketing of medications for human use, as well as development of the information subsystem underpinning it. The analysis of the marketing of medications in Serbia was carried out in 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009, by the Medicines and Medical Devices Agency of Serbia, which was authorized to collect and analyze data on the marketing and consumption of medicines and medical devices. Data gathered for a particular time period were analyzed using Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification and the Defined Daily Doses methodology. The amount of medicines consumed was translated into the DDD by 1000 individuals per day, and gave an insight into the number of individuals (out of 1000 who used the medicine under observation and were under its effect during a single day. The data extracted are correlated with the number of individuals who took the medication during the period under observation. In the year 2006 total marketing of medications for human use amounted to € 510.833.609,54, in 2007 it stood at € 687.588.174,80, in 2008 it was € 799.082.221,05, while the overall marketing of medicines in the year 2009 was € 741.981.960,19. By processing the data by methodology of DDD, the following results were obtained: 1013,70 DDD/1000 individuals/day in year 2006; in year 2007, 1084,34 DDD/1000 individuals/day; in year 2008, 1219,57 DDD/1000 individuals/day and in year 2009, 1177,72 DDD/1000 individuals/day. The implementation of such system produces a series of technological, functional and

  17. An exploration of the applicability of situational segmentation in the health care market: development of a situational taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrt, K C; Pinto, M B

    1990-01-01

    Competition in the health care market has intensified in recent years. Health care providers are increasingly adopting innovative marketing techniques to secure their positions in the marketplace. This paper examines an innovative marketing technique, situational segmentation, and assesses its applicability to the health care market. Situational segmentation has proven useful in many consumer goods markets but has received little attention in the context of health care marketing. A two-stage research process is used to develop a taxonomy of situational factors pertinent to health care choice. In stage one, focus group interviews are used to gather information which is instrumental to questionnaire development. In stage two, the responses of 151 subjects to a 51 item questionnaire are factor analyzed. The results demonstrate that situational segmentation is a viable strategy in the health care market.

  18. Solving discretely-constrained MPEC problems with applications in electric power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, Steven A.; Leuthold, Florian U.

    2010-01-01

    Many of the European energy markets are characterized by dominant players that own a large share of their respective countries' generation capacities. In addition to that, there is a significant lack of cross-border transmission capacity. Combining both facts justifies the assumption that these dominant players are able to influence the market outcome of an internal European energy market due to strategic behavior. In this paper, we present a mathematical formulation in order to solve a Stackelberg game for a network-constrained energy market using integer programming. The strategic player is the Stackelberg leader and the independent system operator (including the decisions of the competitive fringe firms) acts as follower. We assume that there is one strategic player which results in a mathematical program with equilibrium constraints (MPEC). This MPEC is reformulated as mixed-integer linear program (MILP) by using disjunctive constraints and linearization. The MILP formulation gives the opportunity to solve the problems reliably and paves the way to add discrete constraints to the original MPEC formulation which can be used in order to solve discretely-constrained mathematical programs with equilibrium constraints (DC-MPECs). We report computational results for a small illustrative network as well as a stylized Western European grid with realistic data. (author)

  19. Solving discretely-constrained MPEC problems with applications in electric power markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, Steven A. [1143 Glenn L. Martin Hall, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-3021 (United States); Leuthold, Florian U. [Chair of Energy Economics and Public Sector Management, Dresden University of Technology, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    Many of the European energy markets are characterized by dominant players that own a large share of their respective countries' generation capacities. In addition to that, there is a significant lack of cross-border transmission capacity. Combining both facts justifies the assumption that these dominant players are able to influence the market outcome of an internal European energy market due to strategic behavior. In this paper, we present a mathematical formulation in order to solve a Stackelberg game for a network-constrained energy market using integer programming. The strategic player is the Stackelberg leader and the independent system operator (including the decisions of the competitive fringe firms) acts as follower. We assume that there is one strategic player which results in a mathematical program with equilibrium constraints (MPEC). This MPEC is reformulated as mixed-integer linear program (MILP) by using disjunctive constraints and linearization. The MILP formulation gives the opportunity to solve the problems reliably and paves the way to add discrete constraints to the original MPEC formulation which can be used in order to solve discretely-constrained mathematical programs with equilibrium constraints (DC-MPECs). We report computational results for a small illustrative network as well as a stylized Western European grid with realistic data. (author)

  20. Extreme Value Theory and Value at Risk. Application to oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marimoutou, Velayoudoum; Raggad, Bechir; Trabelsi, Abdelwahed

    2009-01-01

    Recent increases in energy prices, especially oil prices, have become a principal concern for consumers, corporations, and governments. Most analysts believe that oil price fluctuations have considerable consequences on economic activity. Oil markets have become relatively free, resulting in a high degree of oil-price volatility and generating radical changes to world energy and oil industries. Consequently, oil markets are naturally vulnerable to significant high price shifts. An example of such a case is the oil embargo crisis of 1973. In this newly created climate, protection against market risk has become a necessity. Value at Risk (VaR) measures risk exposure at a given probability level and is very important for risk management. Appealing aspects of Extreme Value Theory (EVT) have made convincing arguments for its use in managing energy price risks. In this paper, we model VaR for long and short trading positions in oil market by applying both unconditional and conditional EVT models to forecast Value at Risk. These models are compared to the performances of other well-known modelling techniques, such as GARCH, Historical Simulation and Filtered Historical Simulation. Both conditional EVT and Filtered Historical Simulation procedures offer a major improvement over the conventional methods. Furthermore, GARCH(1, 1)-t model may provide equally good results which are comparable to two combined procedures. Finally, our results confirm the importance of filtering process for the success of standard approaches. (author)

  1. Extreme Value Theory and Value at Risk. Application to oil market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marimoutou, Velayoudoum [GREQAM, Universite de la Mediterranee, Institut Francais de Pondichery (France); Raggad, Bechir; Trabelsi, Abdelwahed [BESTMOD, Institut Superieur de Gestion de Tunis (Tunisia)

    2009-07-15

    Recent increases in energy prices, especially oil prices, have become a principal concern for consumers, corporations, and governments. Most analysts believe that oil price fluctuations have considerable consequences on economic activity. Oil markets have become relatively free, resulting in a high degree of oil-price volatility and generating radical changes to world energy and oil industries. Consequently, oil markets are naturally vulnerable to significant high price shifts. An example of such a case is the oil embargo crisis of 1973. In this newly created climate, protection against market risk has become a necessity. Value at Risk (VaR) measures risk exposure at a given probability level and is very important for risk management. Appealing aspects of Extreme Value Theory (EVT) have made convincing arguments for its use in managing energy price risks. In this paper, we model VaR for long and short trading positions in oil market by applying both unconditional and conditional EVT models to forecast Value at Risk. These models are compared to the performances of other well-known modelling techniques, such as GARCH, Historical Simulation and Filtered Historical Simulation. Both conditional EVT and Filtered Historical Simulation procedures offer a major improvement over the conventional methods. Furthermore, GARCH(1, 1)-t model may provide equally good results which are comparable to two combined procedures. Finally, our results confirm the importance of filtering process for the success of standard approaches. (author)

  2. Marketing research activities in hospitals. Satisfaction surveys of inpatients and outpatients are the most widely used application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubeau, P R; Jantzen, R

    1998-01-01

    Virtually unheard of in health care 30 years ago, marketing research by hospitals is expanding at a notable rate, particularly among larger institutions located in highly competitive urban markets. Research applications are particularly pronounced at for-profit institutions, those heavily involved in managed care programs, and hospitals that are part of an integrated delivery system. However, the majority of hospital administrators surveyed indicated they do not invest in marketing research to track the effectiveness of their own institution's advertising.

  3. Box-triangular multiobjective linear programs for resource allocation with application to load management and energy market problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekel, P.Y.; Galperin, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Models for multicriteria resource allocation are constructed with the specific box-triangular structure of a feasible region. The method of balance set equations is extended for the satisfaction level representation of the cost function space including the case of linearly dependent cost functions. On this basis, different goal criteria on the balance set are investigated for linear cases. Procedures for determining the balance set and finding goal-optimal Pareto solutions are illustrated on examples. The results of the paper are of universal character and can find wide applications in allocating diverse types of resources on the multiobjective basis in planning and control of complex systems including load management and energy market problems. (Author)

  4. Development of a novel market forecasting tool and its application to hydrogen energy production in Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghton, T.; Cruden, A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors propose a novel model for forecasting the deployment of hydrogen energy systems based on a company value maximisation algorithm, designed to assist governments and other industry players in decision-making and the development of appropriate policy instruments. Current cost-minimisation approaches, such as MARKAL, have limitations particularly where price arbitrage between energy streams exists. A theoretical relationship between market sector valuations and investment activity is developed and the model is subsequently applied to the Scottish hydrogen energy market. Through the utilisation of net present value, revenue and profitability based valuations, the impact of investing in hydrogen energy infrastructure projects on three key market competitors is considered. It is shown that the three methods for calculating the value impact render different results suggesting that the use of a single method to assess forecast development scenarios, whether cost or value-based methods, may be misleading and that the holistic approach proposed is more realistic. The archivable value of this paper is to demonstrate the impact that investor expectations can have on investment decisions, a facet not captured in traditional methods of forecasting. (author)

  5. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details ... Design and Implementation of an M/M/1 Queuing Model Algorithm and its Applicability in ... Vehicle Identification Technology to Intercept Small Arms and Ammunition on Nigeria Roads

  6. Product Life Cycle concept use and application by marketing decision-makers in small South African organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Herbst

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to test the underlying theory of the product life cycle concept with the primary objective of establishing what the use and practical value of the product life cycle concept is in making marketing decisions in small manufacturing and dealer organisations in Gauteng. The main focus was to test the ability of marketing decision-makers in these small organisations to associate their application and use of the product life cycle concept with Kotler's assumptions on marketing characteristics, described marketing objectives and proposed marketing strategies. A major finding was that small organisations tended to display a marketing knowledge level with the existing marketing theory. Another important conclusion of the study was that the current product life cycle concept theory needs to be broadened to include strategies on the expanded marketing mix. Apart from the different use and application by marketing decision-makers in small organisations in South Africa the product life cycle concept theory has potential as a strategic tool and a high likelihood for its future use as a marketing decision-making instrument.

  7. Application of the Beta Coefficient in the Market of Direct residential Real Estate Investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolski Rafał

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The beta coefficient is one of the most popular indices used in contemporary finances. Despite the fact that there are justified doubts connected with its application, it is currently difficult to imagine a situation in which the cost of capital would be calculated without the use of the CAPM model. Thus, an attempt at answering the question whether and to what degree beta may be used in the real estate market constitutes an interesting problem. This is because on the one hand, the formal structure suggests that beta should not be used for assets which are not included in the benchmark but, on the other hand, such a benchmark should, at least theoretically, contain all market assets. Therefore, a decision was made to have a closer look at this issue, with the analysis of the possibility of using the beta coefficient in the residential real estate market set as the objective. Using the database of prices in the direct real estate investment created by the NBP, a comparison was conducted with regard to features of undertaken investments on the basis of an analysis of systematic risk calculated using selected indices available on the Polish market.

  8. A consideration about application/report systems to be used in digital certification and the certificate authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Shinya; Nakata, Yutaka; Itsuka, Tomoaki

    2002-10-01

    In promoting the E-Japan project (Electronic Government Policy) at JAERI, the following related activities were investigated: the national project, several social and ministry's plans, some foreign national cases and some Japanese private enterprise's activities, etc. Office of IT Promotion in JAERI, getting along with the E-Japan project, examined the policies to modify the current application/report system into the system based on digital certification and the Certificate Authority. These extensive investigations are described in this report. (author)

  9. Applicability of Markets to Global Scheduling in Grids: Critical Examination of General Equilibrium Theory and Market Folklore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Junko; VanDerWijngaart, Rob F.

    2003-01-01

    Markets are often considered superior to other global scheduling mechanisms for distributed computing systems. This claim is supported by: a casual observation from our every-day life that markets successfully equilibrate supply and demand, and the features of markets which originate in the general equilibrium theory, e.g., efficiency and the lack of necessity of 2 central controller. This paper describes why such beliefs in markets are not warranted. It does so by examining the general equilibrium theory, in terms of scope, abstraction, and interpretation. Not only does the general equilibrium theory fail to provide a satisfactory explanation of actual economies, including a computing-resource economy, it also falls short of supplying theoretical foundations for commonly held views of market desirability. This paper also points out that the argument for the desirability of markets involves circular reasoning and that the desirability can be established only vis-a-vis a scheduling goal. Finally, recasting the conclusion of Arrow's Impossibility Theorem as that for global scheduling, we conclude that there exists no market-based scheduler that is rational (in the sense defined in microeconomic theory), takes into account utility of more than one user, and yet yields a Pareto-optimal outcome for arbitrary user utility functions.

  10. 10 CFR 2.643 - Acceptance and docketing of application for limited work authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... application is docketed, the Director will cause to be published in the Federal Register and send to the... complete. (e) If part two of the application is docketed, the Director will cause to be published in the... § 2.101(a)(9) is incomplete and not acceptable for processing, the Director of New Reactors or the...

  11. 77 FR 66651 - Salient Advisors, L.P. and MarketShares ETF Trust; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... Advisors, L.P. and MarketShares ETF Trust; Notice of Application October 31, 2012 AGENCY: Securities and... ETF Trust (the ``Trust''). Summary of Application: Applicants request an order that permits: (a... statutory trust. The Trust will initially offer one series, the Salient MLP and Energy Infrastructure ETF...

  12. Attitudes, opinions and behaviour of Brasov managers as regards the application of ecological marketing in their business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funaru, M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of a quantitative research study which focuses on the attitudes, opinions and behaviour of Brasov managers as regards the application of ecological marketing in their business. The research method used is based on a sample survey. The research objective is to determine the extent to which Brasov managers know and apply green marketing in their business. The findings suggest that local companies’ managers generally have knowledge of ecological marketing. Managers are interested in applying green marketing and believe that it is important for a company from a strategic perspective, due to the long-term benefits it brings.

  13. E-business and its Application in Conditions of Central European Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naci Tolga Saruc

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this paper is highlighting possibilities in effective utilization of Information and Communication Technologies for supporting entrepreneurship (e-business for Small and Medium enterprises. The core research carried on for duration of twelve months covered analysis and following presentation of possibilities of practical utilization of e-business applications. Furthermore research was oriented towards innovative forms of marketing communication in Real Corporation conducting business in Central European market. Analyzing data on collected findings can add value towards gaining a significant competitive advantage in form of better understanding of real facts influencing entrepreneurship in principle. This can lead consequently to positive influence on corporate effectiveness in the environment of Small and Medium enterprises.

  14. DEA-BASED INVESTMENT STRATEGY AND ITS APPLICATION IN THE CROATIAN STOCK MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Gardijan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the DEA-based investment strategy for constructing of a stock portfolio in the Croatian stock market. The relative efficiency of the DMUs, which are in this case the selected stocks from Zagreb Stock Exchange, is obtained from the output oriented CCR and BCC models. The set of inputs consists of risk measures, namely return variance, Value at Risk (VaR and beta coefficient $(\\beta$, while monthly return represents an output. Following the „efficiency scores“, obtained from the models, we construct a portfolio of DEA-efficient stocks (DEA-portfolio. This portfolio can be modified over time according to changes of the DMU's efficiency scores. By comparing the returns of the EA-portfolio and the market return during the given time period, the applicability of the investment strategy based on a DEA methodology, as a strategy for achieving superior returns, is estimated.

  15. A network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials for comparing the effectiveness and safety profile of treatments with marketing authorization for relapsing multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjigeorgiou, G M; Doxani, C; Miligkos, M; Ziakas, P; Bakalos, G; Papadimitriou, D; Mprotsis, T; Grigoriadis, N; Zintzaras, E

    2013-12-01

    The relative effectiveness and safety profile of the treatments with marketing authorization for relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) are not well known because randomized controlled trials with head-to-head comparisons between these treatments do not exist. Thus, a network of multiple-treatments meta-analysis was performed using four clinical outcomes: 'patients free of relapse', 'patients without disease progression', 'patients without MRI progression' and 'patients with adverse events'. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on MS were systematically searched in PubMed and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trial. The network analysis performed pairwise comparisons between the marketed treatments (Betaferon 250mcg, Avonex 30mcg, Rebif 44mcg, Rebif 22mcg, Aubagio 7 mg, Aubagio 14 mg, Copaxone 20 mg, Tysabri 300 mg, Gilenya 0·5 mg and Novantrone 12 mg/m(2)) using direct and indirect analyses. The analysis included 48 articles, involving 20 455 patients with MS. The direct analysis showed better response for more than one outcome for Gilenya compared with Avonex ('patients free of relapse' and 'patients without MRI progression') and for Betaferon compared with Avonex ('patients without disease progression' and 'patients without MRI progression'). The indirect analysis indicated that Tysabri may have better relative effectiveness compared with the other treatments for two outcomes: 'patients free of relapse' and 'patients without MRI progression'. Regarding 'patients with adverse events', no data were available for all comparisons to make fair inferences. This was an attempt, for the first time, to compare the efficacy and safety profile of existing approved treatments for relapsing MS. Although some treatments have shown better response, the results of the network analysis should be interpreted with caution because of the lack of RCTs with head-to-head comparisons between treatments. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A spatial price equilibrium model in the oligopolistic market for oil derivatives: an application to the brazilian scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Mezadre Pompermayer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a spatial price equilibrium model in an oligopoly market for refined oil products. Till 1997 the Brazilian oil market was characterized by the state monopoly of Petrobras, which up to 2001 remained the only firm authorized to import oil derivatives. With several agents operating in the primary oil supply market, the government stopped fixing the prices for Petrobras, which started to determine the prices based on competition with other players. In this new scenario some questions arise regarding the price levels at which refined products will be supplied in different regions across Brazil as well as the capacity of national refineries to compete with imported products. To answer those and other questions, a new oligopoly spatial equilibrium model is herein proposed, taking into account the special characteristics of production of refined oil products. An iterative Gauss-Seidel-like algorithm with sequential adjustments was developed and applied to Brazilian market data. The model, the algorithm and its application are described in this work. Such a model may be used both by regulatory authorities and by companies in the sector.Este artigo apresenta um modelo de equilíbrio espacial de preços em um mercado oligopolizado de derivados de petróleo. Até o ano de 1997, o mercado brasileiro era caracterizado pelo monopólio estatal da Petrobrás, a qual permaneceu, até 2001, como a única empresa autorizada a importar derivados de petróleo. Com vários agentes operando no mercado, o governo deixou de fixar os preços para a Petrobrás, que passou a determinar os preços baseada na competição com outros agentes. Neste cenário, surgem algumas questões relativas aos níveis de preços a serem oferecidos no mercado e relativas à capacidade das refinarias nacionais de competir com produtos importados. Para responder a estas e outras questões, um novo modelo de equilíbrio espacial de preços para um mercado oligopolizado foi

  17. Analysis of H2 storage needs for early market non-motive fuel cell applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Terry Alan; Moreno, Marcina; Arienti, Marco; Pratt, Joseph William; Shaw, Leo; Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2012-03-01

    Hydrogen fuel cells can potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the United States dependence on foreign oil, but issues with hydrogen storage are impeding their widespread use. To help overcome these challenges, this study analyzes opportunities for their near-term deployment in five categories of non-motive equipment: portable power, construction equipment, airport ground support equipment, telecom backup power, and man-portable power and personal electronics. To this end, researchers engaged end users, equipment manufacturers, and technical experts via workshops, interviews, and electronic means, and then compiled these data into meaningful and realistic requirements for hydrogen storage in specific target applications. In addition to developing these requirements, end-user benefits (e.g., low noise and emissions, high efficiency, potentially lower maintenance costs) and concerns (e.g., capital cost, hydrogen availability) of hydrogen fuel cells in these applications were identified. Market data show potential deployments vary with application from hundreds to hundreds of thousands of units.

  18. Observations on Three Endpoint Properties and Their Relationship to Regulatory Outcomes of European Oncology Marketing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberti, Lawrence; Stolk, Pieter; McAuslane, James Neil; Schellens, Jan; Breckenridge, Alasdair M; Leufkens, Hubert

    2015-06-01

    Guidance and exploratory evidence indicate that the type of endpoints and the magnitude of their outcome can define a therapy's clinical activity; however, little empirical evidence relates specific endpoint properties with regulatory outcomes. We explored the relationship of 3 endpoint properties to regulatory outcomes by assessing 50 oncology marketing authorization applications (MAAs; reviewed from 2009 to 2013). Overall, 16 (32%) had a negative outcome. The most commonly used hard endpoints were overall survival (OS) and the duration of response or stable disease. OS was a component of 91% approved and 63% failed MAAs. The most commonly used surrogate endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), response rate, and health-related quality of life assessments. There was no difference (p = .3801) between the approved and failed MAA cohorts in the proportion of hard endpoints used. A mean of slightly more than four surrogate endpoints were used per approved MAA compared with slightly more than two for failed MAAs. Longer OS and PFS duration outcomes were generally associated with approvals, often when not statistically significant. The approved cohort was associated with a preponderance of statistically significant (p < .05) improvements in primary endpoints (p < .0001 difference between the approved and failed groups). Three key endpoint properties (type of endpoint [hard/surrogate], magnitude of an endpoint outcome, and its statistical significance) are consistent with the European Medicines Agency guidance and, notwithstanding the contribution of unique disease-specific circumstances, are associated with a predictable positive outcome for oncology MAAs. Regulatory decisions made by the European Medicines Agency determine which new medicines will be available to European prescribers and for which therapeutic indications. Regulatory success or failure can be influenced by many factors. This study assessed three key properties of endpoints used in

  19. 75 FR 18492 - Southern Nevada Water Authority; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Ready for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    .... Name of Project: Arrow Canyon Conduit Energy Recovery Hydroturbine. f. Project description: proposed... hydroturbine, the applicant would generate about 3.5 million kilowatt- hours (kWh) per year of renewable energy...

  20. Niche energy markets in rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, M.; McCarthy, S.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project is the development of a standard methodology for integrating non-food crops in rural areas with niche energy markets. This has involved a number of steps including (i) identification of 3 niche markets for energy crops which are of common interest to the partners, (ii) application of the standard costing methodology to investigate these three niche markets and (iii) comparison of the results from this work in three workshops (one for each market). Three tightly defined niche markets were identified; these were chosen following an examination of the national energy marekts in each of the partners countries (Ireland, Germany, Netherlands, UK, Greece and Portugal). This paper gives an overview of the national energy markets which were examined. The three niche markets are introduced and the reasons for their selection given. The application of the methodology to each of the niche markets is presented along with the conclusions of the partners regarding the niche markets. (Author)

  1. Methodology for the identification, evaluation and prioritization of market handicaps which prevent the implementation of Demand Response: Application to European electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcázar-Ortega, Manuel; Calpe, Carmen; Theisen, Thomas; Carbonell-Carretero, José Francisco

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the identification, analysis and comparative assessment of the handicaps which nowadays prevent the higher implementation of Demand Response (DR) in the electricity market. Its application provides a hierarchical organization of handicaps from the most critical to the less critical and then, from the easiest to the most difficult to overcome. This makes possible to determine which barriers would be a priority, which may indicate the direction of regulatory changes to properly address these handicaps and so, stimulating a higher participation of the demand side in electricity markets. After applying the methodology to three European countries, 34 handicaps have been identified, analyzing which of these handicaps affect such stakeholders as grid operators, retailers and customers and how these stakeholders are affected. For each handicap, the criticality and difficulty to overcome the different handicaps have been studied, based on detailed information coming from personal interviews to experts representing the different stakeholders in the electricity trading chain. Regulatory barriers have been identified as the most critical and difficult to overcome. Together with regulatory changes, the promotion of aggregators and the training of customers on DR applications are some of the most significant initiatives. - Highlights: • Market handicaps prevent the application of Demand Response in electricity markets. • A methodology to identify and organize such market handicaps has been developed. • The evaluation and quantification of criticality and difficulty to overcome is done. • A hierarchical list prioritizing handicaps to be addressed is obtained. • Market handicaps of three European countries were evaluated through this methodology.

  2. 78 FR 13330 - Pangea LNG (North America) Holdings, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... Mexico, acreages in the Marcellus shale gas play, the Eagle Ford shale gas play, the Bakken shale oil... gas reserves and production. Pangea states that improved drilling techniques and extraction...; Application for Long- Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced From Domestic Natural Gas...

  3. 75 FR 8178 - Application of Rugby Aviation LLC D/B/A Northwest Sky Ferry for Commuter Air Carrier Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Application of Rugby Aviation LLC D/B/A Northwest Sky Ferry for Commuter Air Carrier Authority AGENCY: Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice... Transportation is directing all interested persons to show cause why it should not issue an order finding Rugby...

  4. 76 FR 53115 - Foreign-Trade Zone 77-Memphis, TN; Application for Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... Phone/Mobile Handset Kitting); Memphis, TN An application has been submitted to the Executive Secretary... authority to produce cell phones/mobile handsets kits (HTSUS 8517.12, HTSUS 8517.62, HTSUS 8517.69, duty... cell phone/mobile handset kits (duty free) for the foreign inputs noted above. In accordance with the...

  5. 77 FR 34122 - Application of Sun Air Express, LLC, d/b/a Sun Air International for Commuter Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary [Docket DOT-OST-2011-0169] Application of Sun Air Express, LLC, d/b/a Sun Air International for Commuter Authority AGENCY: Department of... order finding Sun Air Express, LLC d/b/a Sun Air International fit, willing, and able, and awarding it...

  6. 47 CFR 15.305 - Equipment authorization requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 15.305 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unlicensed Personal Communications Service Devices § 15.305 Equipment authorization requirement. PCS devices... 2 of this chapter before marketing. The application for certification must contain sufficient...

  7. Estimating the potential for solar thermal applications in the industrial process heat market 1990-2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demeter, C.P.; Gray, E.E.; Carwile, C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a preliminary evaluation of the potential domestic market for solar thermal energy supply technologies matched to industrial process heat applications. The study estimates current and projects future industrial process heat demand to the year 2030 by two-digit standard industrial classification code for the manufacturing industrial sector and discusses the potential to displace conventional fossil fuel sources such as natural gas with alternative sources of supply. The PC Industrial Model, used by DOE's Energy Information Administration in support of the National Energy Strategy (NES) is used for forecast industrial energy demand. Demand is disaggregated by census region to account for geographic variations in solar insolation, and by heat medium and temperature to facilitate end-use matching with appropriate solar energy supply technologies. Levelized energy costs (LEC) are calculated for flat plate collectors for low- temperature preheat applications, parabolic troughs for intermediate temperature process steam and direct heat, and parabolic dish technologies for high-temperature, direct heat applications. LEC is also developed for a conventional natural gas-fueled Industrial Process Heat (IPH) supply source assuming natural gas price escalation consistent with NES forecasts to develop a relative figure of merit used in a market penetration model

  8. The market value of cultural heritage in urban areas: an application of spatial hedonic pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazrak, Faroek; Nijkamp, Peter; Rietveld, Piet; Rouwendal, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The current literature often values intangible goods like cultural heritage by applying stated preference methods. In recent years, however, the increasing availability of large databases on real estate transactions and listed prices has opened up new research possibilities and has reduced various existing barriers to applications of conventional (spatial) hedonic analysis to the real estate market. The present paper provides one of the first applications using a spatial autoregressive model to investigate the impact of cultural heritage—in particular, listed buildings and historic-cultural sites (or historic landmarks)—on the value of real estate in cities. In addition, this paper suggests a novel way of specifying the spatial weight matrix—only prices of sold houses influence current price—in identifying the spatial dependency effects between sold properties. The empirical application in the present study concerns the Dutch urban area of Zaanstad, a historic area for which over a long period of more than 20 years detailed information on individual dwellings, and their market prices are available in a GIS context. In this paper, the effect of cultural heritage is analysed in three complementary ways. First, we measure the effect of a listed building on its market price in the relevant area concerned. Secondly, we investigate the value that listed heritage has on nearby property. And finally, we estimate the effect of historic-cultural sites on real estate prices. We find that, to purchase a listed building, buyers are willing to pay an additional 26.9 %, while surrounding houses are worth an extra 0.28 % for each additional listed building within a 50-m radius. Houses sold within a conservation area appear to gain a premium of 26.4 % which confirms the existence of a `historic ensemble' effect.

  9. Market Assessment and Demonstration of Lignite FBC Ash Flowable Fill Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alan E. Bland

    2003-01-01

    Montana-Dakota Utilities (MDU) and Western Research Institute (WRI) have been developing flowable fill materials formulated using ash from the Montana-Dakota Utilities R. M. Heskett Station in Mandan, North Dakota. MDU and WRI have partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the North Dakota Industrial Commission (NDIC) to further the development of these materials for lignite-fired fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) facilities. The MDU controlled density fill (CDF) appears to be a viable engineering material and environmentally safe. WRI is pursuing the commercialization of the technology under the trademark Ready-Fill(trademark). The project objectives were to: (1) assess the market in the Bismarck-Mandan area; (2) evaluate the geotechnical properties and environmental compatibility; and (3) construct and monitor demonstrations of the various grades of flowable fill products in full-scale demonstrations. The scope of initial phase of work entailed the following: Task I--Assess Market for MDU Flowable Fill Products; Task II--Assess Geotechnical and Environmental Properties of MDU Flowable Fill Products; and Task III--Demonstrate and Monitor MDU Flowable Fill Products in Field-Scale Demonstrations. The results of these testing and demonstration activities proved the following: (1) The market assessment indicated that a market exists in the Bismarck-Mandan area for structural construction applications, such as sub-bases for residential and commercial businesses, and excavatable fill applications, such as gas line and utility trench filling. (2) The cost of the MDU flowable fill product must be lower than the current $35-$45/cubic yard price if it is to become a common construction material. Formulations using MDU ash and lower-cost sand alternatives offer that opportunity. An estimated market of 10,000 cubic yards of MDU flowable fill products could be realized if prices could be made competitive. (3) The geotechnical properties of the MDU ash-based flowable

  10. Market Assessment and Demonstration of Lignite FBC Ash Flowable Fill Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan E. Bland

    2003-09-30

    Montana-Dakota Utilities (MDU) and Western Research Institute (WRI) have been developing flowable fill materials formulated using ash from the Montana-Dakota Utilities R. M. Heskett Station in Mandan, North Dakota. MDU and WRI have partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the North Dakota Industrial Commission (NDIC) to further the development of these materials for lignite-fired fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) facilities. The MDU controlled density fill (CDF) appears to be a viable engineering material and environmentally safe. WRI is pursuing the commercialization of the technology under the trademark Ready-Fill{trademark}. The project objectives were to: (1) assess the market in the Bismarck-Mandan area; (2) evaluate the geotechnical properties and environmental compatibility; and (3) construct and monitor demonstrations of the various grades of flowable fill products in full-scale demonstrations. The scope of initial phase of work entailed the following: Task I--Assess Market for MDU Flowable Fill Products; Task II--Assess Geotechnical and Environmental Properties of MDU Flowable Fill Products; and Task III--Demonstrate and Monitor MDU Flowable Fill Products in Field-Scale Demonstrations. The results of these testing and demonstration activities proved the following: (1) The market assessment indicated that a market exists in the Bismarck-Mandan area for structural construction applications, such as sub-bases for residential and commercial businesses, and excavatable fill applications, such as gas line and utility trench filling. (2) The cost of the MDU flowable fill product must be lower than the current $35-$45/cubic yard price if it is to become a common construction material. Formulations using MDU ash and lower-cost sand alternatives offer that opportunity. An estimated market of 10,000 cubic yards of MDU flowable fill products could be realized if prices could be made competitive. (3) The geotechnical properties of the MDU ash-based flowable

  11. Backward jump continuous-time random walk: An application to market trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubiec, Tomasz; Kutner, Ryszard

    2010-10-01

    The backward jump modification of the continuous-time random walk model or the version of the model driven by the negative feedback was herein derived for spatiotemporal continuum in the context of a share price evolution on a stock exchange. In the frame of the model, we described stochastic evolution of a typical share price on a stock exchange with a moderate liquidity within a high-frequency time scale. The model was validated by satisfactory agreement of the theoretical velocity autocorrelation function with its empirical counterpart obtained for the continuous quotation. This agreement is mainly a result of a sharp backward correlation found and considered in this article. This correlation is a reminiscence of such a bid-ask bounce phenomenon where backward price jump has the same or almost the same length as preceding jump. We suggested that this correlation dominated the dynamics of the stock market with moderate liquidity. Although assumptions of the model were inspired by the market high-frequency empirical data, its potential applications extend beyond the financial market, for instance, to the field covered by the Le Chatelier-Braun principle of contrariness.

  12. Market Assessment of Biomass Gasification and Combustion Technology for Small- and Medium-Scale Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, D.; Haase, S.

    2009-07-01

    This report provides a market assessment of gasification and direct combustion technologies that use wood and agricultural resources to generate heat, power, or combined heat and power (CHP) for small- to medium-scale applications. It contains a brief overview of wood and agricultural resources in the U.S.; a description and discussion of gasification and combustion conversion technologies that utilize solid biomass to generate heat, power, and CHP; an assessment of the commercial status of gasification and combustion technologies; a summary of gasification and combustion system economics; a discussion of the market potential for small- to medium-scale gasification and combustion systems; and an inventory of direct combustion system suppliers and gasification technology companies. The report indicates that while direct combustion and close-coupled gasification boiler systems used to generate heat, power, or CHP are commercially available from a number of manufacturers, two-stage gasification systems are largely in development, with a number of technologies currently in demonstration. The report also cites the need for a searchable, comprehensive database of operating combustion and gasification systems that generate heat, power, or CHP built in the U.S., as well as a national assessment of the market potential for the systems.

  13. Paraffin-based hybrid rocket engines applications: A review and a market perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Alessandro; Merotto, Laura; Pinarello, Giordano

    2016-09-01

    Hybrid propulsion technology for aerospace applications has received growing attention in recent years due to its important advantages over competitive solutions. Hybrid rocket engines have a great potential for several aeronautics and aerospace applications because of their safety, reliability, low cost and high performance. As a consequence, this propulsion technology is feasible for a number of innovative missions, including space tourism. On the other hand, hybrid rocket propulsion's main drawback, i.e. the difficulty in reaching high regression rate values using standard fuels, has so far limited the maturity level of this technology. The complex physico-chemical processes involved in hybrid rocket engines combustion are of major importance for engine performance prediction and control. Therefore, further investigation is ongoing in order to achieve a more complete understanding of such phenomena. It is well known that one of the most promising solutions for overcoming hybrid rocket engines performance limits is the use of liquefying fuels. Such fuels can lead to notably increased solid fuel regression rate due to the so-called "entrainment phenomenon". Among liquefying fuels, paraffin-based formulations have great potentials as solid fuels due to their low cost, availability (as they can be derived from industrial waste), low environmental impact and high performance. Despite the vast amount of literature available on this subject, a precise focus on market potential of paraffins for hybrid propulsion aerospace applications is lacking. In this work a review of hybrid rocket engines state of the art was performed, together with a detailed analysis of the possible applications of such a technology. A market study was carried out in order to define the near-future foreseeable development needs for hybrid technology application to the aforementioned missions. Paraffin-based fuels are taken into account as the most promising segment for market development

  14. [Preventing complications due to dilatation by intracervical application of a prostaglandin-gel (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnie, H; Grande, P; Kuhn, W

    1977-08-01

    Mechanical injuries by dilatating the cervix uteri for artificial abortion may lead to intra- and postoperative complications; of these cervical insufficiency during subsequent pregnancy is of main importance. In order to prevent this complication 160 patients in the 8th to 18th week of pregnancy, who were going to have a legal abortion, were treated with a gel consisting of 3--5 mg Prostaglandin F2alpha which was applicated in the cervix uteri. In more than 90% of these cases a mechanical dilatation was not necessary afterwards. Generally the cervix uteri was softened and dilatated to Hegar 12. 32% of the patients had a spontaneous abortion. Therefore only a curettage without a dilatation had to be performed. Complications due to the application of the gel did not occur. The combined application of the gel with the extraamnial instillation of Prostaglandin for artificial abortion during the second trimenon reduced by half the period of indwelling of the intrauterine foley-catheter and therewith the risk of infection as well as the period of labour pains. Further possible ways of applicating the Prostaglandin gel in gynecology and obstetrics concern missed abortion, intrauterine death, and cervical dystocia during delivery.

  15. 77 FR 28372 - South Carolina Public Service Authority; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... documents may be filed electronically via the Internet. See, 18 CFR 385.2001(a)(1)(iii) and the instructions... marina, fuel and sewage pump-out services, restrooms, parking, shops, restaurant, swimming pool, rental cottages, boardwalk, wooden deck, and remote parking for boat trailers. l. Locations of the Application: A...

  16. 78 FR 44934 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ...) previously approved on domestic natural gas supply and demand fundamentals. DOE will also consider any other... prohibited by U.S. law or policy. In the portion of SPL's Application subject to this Notice, SPL requests... treatment for trade in natural gas (non-FTA countries) with which trade is not prohibited by U.S. law or...

  17. 14 CFR 204.3 - Applicants for new certificate or commuter air carrier authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... required.) (r) A brief narrative history of the applicant. (s) A description of all Federal, State and... compliance history that warrants it, additional information may be required.) (p) A description of all... time in the past and which remain under investigation by the FAA, the NTSB, or by the company itself...

  18. 77 FR 43135 - Application of City Wings, Inc. D/B/A Seaflight for Commuter Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION [Docket DOT-OST-2010-0263] Application of City Wings, Inc. D/B/A... cause why it should not issue an order finding City Wings, Inc. d/b/a Seaflight fit, willing, and able... be served upon the parties listed in Attachment A to the order. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  19. 75 FR 62512 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... than two years) with third parties with terms up to 30 years executed by September 7, 2020. The LNG may... Application, as countries that hold membership in the World Trade Organization (WTO Countries) and those... through job creation, increased economic activity and tax revenues. Second, Sabine Pass maintains that the...

  20. HTGR Economic / Business Analysis and Trade Studies Market Analysis for HTGR Technologies and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Matt [Ultra Safe Nuclear Corporation, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hamilton, Chris [Ultra Safe Nuclear Corporation, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report provides supplemental information to the assessment of target markets provided in Appendix A of the 2012 Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Industry Alliance (NIA) business plan [NIA 2012] for deployment of High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) in the 2025 – 2050 time frame. This report largely reiterates the [NIA 2012] assessment for potential deployment of 400 to 800 HTGR modules (100 to 200 HTGR plants with 4 reactor modules) in the 600-MWt class in North America by 2050 for electricity generation, co-generation of steam and electricity, oil sands operations, hydrogen production, and synthetic fuels production (e.g., coal to liquids). As the result of increased natural gas supply from hydraulic fracturing, the current and historically low prices of natural gas remain a significant barrier to deployment of HTGRs and other nuclear reactor concepts in the U.S. However, based on U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Information Agency (EIA) data, U.S. natural gas prices are expected to increase by the 2030 – 2040 timeframe when a significant number of HTGR modules could be deployed. An evaluation of more recent EIA 2013 data confirms the assumptions in [NIA 2012] of future natural gas prices in the range of approximately $7/MMBtu to $10/MMBtu during the 2030 – 2040 timeframe. Natural gas prices in this range will make HTGR energy prices competitive with natural gas, even in the absence of carbon-emissions penalties. Exhibit ES-1 presents the North American projections in each market segment including a characterization of the market penetration logic. Adjustments made to the 2012 data (and reflected in Exhibit ES-1) include normalization to the slightly larger 625MWt reactor module, segregation between steam cycle and more advanced (higher outlet temperature) modules, and characterization of U.S. synthetic fuel process applications as a separate market segment.

  1. 75 FR 80482 - Application To Export Electric Energy; TransCanada Power Marketing Ltd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-262-C] Application To Export Electric Energy; TransCanada... to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to section 202(e) of the... the Department of Energy (DOE) issued Order No. EA- 262, which authorized TCPM to transmit electric...

  2. ENERGETIC AND EXERGETIC ASSESSMENT OF DISPLAY CASES USED IN THE MARKET APPLICATIONS FOR PREFERENCE REFRIGERANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Ziya SOGUT

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines energy and exergy analyses of display cases used to preserve daily products in market applications for different refrigerants. In the study, vapor compression cooling cycle is taken as a model and R22, R134a, R404A and R507C refrigerants used in common application and R407C, R410A and R422D evaluated as alternative refrigerants are studied under constant load in cycle. According to COP and exergy analyses, R134a gas and alternative gas R407C have come forth among the other gases with values 5.33 and 60.86%, and 5.41 and 62.04% respectively. The study finally emphasizes the importance of exergy analysis which is an important method to determine irreversibility of the systems.

  3. A critic revision of the social marketing concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Marcelo Nomura

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we propose a reflection on the Social Marketing concept, by means of its definition and application in Brazilian reality. Thus, we present the main defi­nitions of marketing, social issues and Social Marketing, quoting some authors of the area. All analysis is done under a critic view of some authors that contributed very much for the marketing evolution: Philip Kotler, Marcos Cobra e Francisco Alberto Madia.

  4. Market-based autonomous resource and application management in private clouds

    KAUST Repository

    Costache, Stefania; Kortas, Samuel; Morin, Christine; Parlavantzas, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    High Performance Computing (HPC) clouds need to be efficiently shared between selfish tenants having applications with different resource requirements and Service Level Objectives (SLOs). The main difficulty relies on providing concurrent resource access to such tenants while maximizing the resource utilization. To overcome this challenge, we propose Merkat, a market-based SLO-driven cloud platform. Merkat relies on a market-based model specifically designed for on-demand fine-grain resource allocation to maximize resource utilization and it uses a combination of currency distribution and dynamic resource pricing to ensure proper resource distribution among tenants. To meet the tenant’s SLO, Merkat uses autonomous controllers, which apply adaptation policies that: (i) dynamically tune the application’s provisioned CPU and memory per virtual machine in contention periods, or (ii) dynamically change the number of virtual machines. Our evaluation with simulation and on the Grid’5000 testbed shows that Merkat provides flexible support for different application types and SLOs and good tenant satisfaction compared to existing centralized systems, while the infrastructure resource utilization is improved.

  5. The application of the CAPM model on selected shares on the Croatian capital market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrinka Tolušić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Capital Asset Pricing Model is a model that describes the relationship between risk, expected return and valuation of securities. The theoretical and practical value of this model has proved unquestionable, but under ideal circumstances. The theory has been utilized by numerous researchers and it confirms the linear relationship between risk and return under the CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model model showing that greater exposure to risk provides higher returns. However, empirical research showed there were numerous factors that CAPM model did not take into account since it is based on assumptions which exist in reality, but are invisible. Therefore, it is very interesting to study the application of the CAPM model on selected shares on the Croatian capital market and analyze the possibilities of its application in discovering the misvalued shares. Share price changes on the Croatian capital market suggest there are some unknown factors that also influence share valuation. There is no doubt that the fundamental analysis of shares is not sufficient for evaluating the real share value in light of various invisible elements and all available information available which affect their value as well.

  6. On investment, uncertainty, and strategic interaction with applications in energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murto, P.

    2003-01-01

    The thesis presents dynamic models on investment under uncertainty with the focus on strategic interaction and energy market applications. The uncertainty is modelled using stochastic processes as state variables. The specific questions analyzed include the effect of technological and revenue related uncertainties on the optimal timing of investment, the irreversibility in the choice between alternative investment projects with different degrees of uncertainty, and the effect of strategic interaction on the initiating of discrete investment projects, on the abandonment of a project, and on incremental capacity investments. The main methodological feature is the incorporation of game theoretic concepts in the theory of investment. It is argued that such an approach is often desirable in terms of real applications, because many industries are characterized by both uncertainty and strategic interaction between the firms. Besides extending the theory of investment, this line of work may be seen as an extension of the theory of industrial organization towards the direction that views market stability as one of the factors explaining rational behaviour of the firms. (orig.)

  7. International market assessment of stand-alone photovoltaic power systems for cottage industry applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippi, T. M.

    1981-01-01

    The final result of an international assessment of the market for stand-alone photovoltaic systems in cottage industry applications is reported. Nonindustrialized countries without centrally planned economies were considered. Cottage industries were defined as small rural manufacturers, employing less than 50 people, producing consumer and simple products. The data to support this analysis were obtained from secondary and expert sources in the U.S. and in-country field investigations of the Philippines and Mexico. The near-term market for photovoltaics for rural cottage industry applications appears to be limited to demonstration projects and pilot programs, based on an in-depth study of the nature of cottage industry, its role in the rural economy, the electric energy requirements of cottage industry, and a financial analysis of stand-alone photovoltaic systems as compared to their most viable competitor, diesel driven generators. Photovoltaics are shown to be a better long-term option only for very low power requirements. Some of these uses would include clay mixers, grinders, centrifuges, lathes, power saws and lighting of a workshop.

  8. Market-based autonomous resource and application management in private clouds

    KAUST Repository

    Costache, Stefania

    2016-10-12

    High Performance Computing (HPC) clouds need to be efficiently shared between selfish tenants having applications with different resource requirements and Service Level Objectives (SLOs). The main difficulty relies on providing concurrent resource access to such tenants while maximizing the resource utilization. To overcome this challenge, we propose Merkat, a market-based SLO-driven cloud platform. Merkat relies on a market-based model specifically designed for on-demand fine-grain resource allocation to maximize resource utilization and it uses a combination of currency distribution and dynamic resource pricing to ensure proper resource distribution among tenants. To meet the tenant’s SLO, Merkat uses autonomous controllers, which apply adaptation policies that: (i) dynamically tune the application’s provisioned CPU and memory per virtual machine in contention periods, or (ii) dynamically change the number of virtual machines. Our evaluation with simulation and on the Grid’5000 testbed shows that Merkat provides flexible support for different application types and SLOs and good tenant satisfaction compared to existing centralized systems, while the infrastructure resource utilization is improved.

  9. International market assessment of stand-alone photovoltaic power systems for cottage industry applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippi, T. M.

    1981-11-01

    The final result of an international assessment of the market for stand-alone photovoltaic systems in cottage industry applications is reported. Nonindustrialized countries without centrally planned economies were considered. Cottage industries were defined as small rural manufacturers, employing less than 50 people, producing consumer and simple products. The data to support this analysis were obtained from secondary and expert sources in the U.S. and in-country field investigations of the Philippines and Mexico. The near-term market for photovoltaics for rural cottage industry applications appears to be limited to demonstration projects and pilot programs, based on an in-depth study of the nature of cottage industry, its role in the rural economy, the electric energy requirements of cottage industry, and a financial analysis of stand-alone photovoltaic systems as compared to their most viable competitor, diesel driven generators. Photovoltaics are shown to be a better long-term option only for very low power requirements. Some of these uses would include clay mixers, grinders, centrifuges, lathes, power saws and lighting of a workshop.

  10. Characterizing U.S. Heat Demand Market for Potential Application of Geothermal Direct Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Kevin; Gleason, Michael; Reber, Tim; Young, Katherine R.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we assess the U.S. demand for low-temperature thermal energy at the county resolution for four major end-use sectors: residential buildings, commercial buildings, manufacturing facilities, and agricultural facilities. Existing, publicly available data on the U.S. thermal demand market are characterized by coarse spatial resolution, with assessments typically at the state-level or larger. For many uses, these data are sufficient; however, our research was motivated by an interest in assessing the potential demand for direct use (DU) of low-temperature (30 degrees to 150 degrees C) geothermal heat. The availability and quality of geothermal resources for DU applications are highly spatially heterogeneous; therefore, to assess the potential market for these resources, it is necessary to understand the spatial variation in demand for low-temperature resources at a local resolution. This paper presents the datasets and methods we used to develop county-level estimates of the thermal demand for the residential, commercial, manufacturing, and agricultural sectors. Although this analysis was motivated by an interest in geothermal energy deployment, the results are likely to have broader applications throughout the energy industry. The county-resolution thermal demand data developed in this study for four major U.S. sectors may have far-reaching implications for building technologies, industrial processes, and various distributed renewable energy thermal resources (e.g. biomass, solar).

  11. 77 FR 50680 - Notice of Orders Granting Applications and an Order Vacating Authority To Import and Export...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... import LNG from various international sources by vessel. 3121 06/22/12 12-65-NG Nexen Energy Marketing... various international sources by vessel. 3123 06/22/12 12-67-NG ETC Marketing, Ltd.... Order granting... Docket Nos. NATIONAL FUEL MARKETING COMPANY, LLC.... 11-101-NG CHENIERE MARKETING, LLC 12-36-LNG PAA...

  12. Assessing unilateral merger effects in a two-sided market : An application to the Dutch daily newspaper market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filistrucchi, L.; Klein, T.J.; Michielsen, T.O.

    2012-01-01

    We compare different methods to assess unilateral merger effects in a two-sided market by applying them to a hypothetical merger in the Dutch newspaper industry. We first specify and estimate a structural model of demand for differentiated products in both the readership and the advertising sides of

  13. Assessing Unilateral Merger Effects in a Two-Sided Market : An Application to the Dutch Daily Newspaper Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filistrucchi, L.; Klein, T.J.; Michielsen, T.O.

    2011-01-01

    We compare different methods to assess unilateral merger effects in a two-sided market by applying them to a hypothetical merger in the Dutch newspaper industry. For this, we first specify and estimate a structural model of demand for differentiated products on both the readership and the

  14. Evaluating the application of different pricing regimes and low carbon investments in the European electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oggioni, Giorgia; Smeers, Yves

    2012-01-01

    The EU-ETS is the first measure initiated by the EU to contribute to the decarbonization of the European energy sector. It is a cap and trade system that requires industries participating to the program to procure allowances to cover their emissions. Electricity Intensive Industries (EIIs) have complained that the system put their European plants at disadvantage compared to facilities located outside the EU. They have asked for actions to mitigate this effect; one of them is to have access to long term contracts with electricity suppliers, ideally with those operating carbon free plants. This paper presents and illustrates a method for assessing the impact of this measure on EIIs participating to the EU cap and trade system. We model a power market segmented in two consumer groups EIIs and the rest of the market (N-EIIs). These two groups are subject to different price regimes: EIIs purchase electricity from dedicated base-load power plants at average cost price, while N-EIIs are supplied at marginal cost. The French Exeltium and the Belgian Blue Sky consortia are existing examples of this market organization. The expanse of the territories that can be covered by these systems depends on the organization of transmission organization and on national energy position relative to carbon free generation. We examine two different types of long term average cost based contracts that differ by the organization of transmission and study their impact under different national energy policies. We formulate the problem of operations and investment in this market as a spatial equilibrium model where generators can invest in new capacity subject to different regional constraints. Transmission is organized according to a “flow based” approach as foreseen by Regulatory Authorities and Transmission System Operators in Europe. We also examine the impact of nuclear policies. CO 2 emission allowances are auctioned and tradable. We describe the models and discuss their policy

  15. Capacity Markets and Market Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, Hoff

    2006-01-01

    The good news is that market stability can be achieved through a combination of longer-term contracts, auctions for far enough in the future to permit new entry, a capacity management system, and a demand curve. The bad news is that if and when stable capacity markets are designed, the markets may seem to be relatively close to where we started - with integrated resource planning. Market ideologues will find this anathema. (author)

  16. [An approach to bacteriological taxonomy by application of Immanuel Kant's transcendental dialectics (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habs, H

    1981-01-01

    After having altered the name of International Committee for Bacteriological Nomenclature in International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology in 1970, the latter will also have to reflect upon the objects of taxonomy. An approach thereto is recognizable in the revision of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria in 1975. Considerations are being made whether a classification of bacteria does justice to the laws of homogenicity, specification and continuity as laid down by Kant in his transcendental dialectic. Most important of all are definition and determination of the taxon species. As far as contents go the latter is not possible from the biological point of view but applicable to its range in application of the regulations of the code. Within the priorities of taxa the species adopts a preferential position because conceptions of applied bacteriology are contained therein. The variety of infra-subspecific subdivisions is taken into consideration; as far as the formae speciales are concerned considerations as made with regard to species apply.

  17. Proof Theory for Authorization Logic and Its Application to a Practical File System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    related to each other in the preorder in BLS , and that the sort principal does not appear in formulas of GP logic. The translation pAq from...Figure 3.6. Lemma 3.17 (Composition). The following hold. 1. | pAq | = A 2. |pΣ; Γ −→ γq| = Σ;Γ −→ γ 52 Chapter 3. BLS : An Authorization Logic for...Static Policies Formulas A ppq = p pA ⊃ Bq = (` says pAq ) ⊃ (` says pBq) p⊥q = ⊥ p∀x:σ.Aq = ∀x:σ. ` says pAq pk says Aq = k says ` says pAq Hypotheses Γ

  18. Appraisal of the adequacy of the application of customer-driven marketing strategies to the Nigeria National Housing Fund scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuka Uzoma Ifediora

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study appraised the adequacy of the application of customer-driven marketing strategies to the Nigeria National Housing Fund (NHF scheme. The study objective was to assess the adequacy of the application of market segmentation, targeting, differentiation and positioning by the NHF implementers. The study adopted descriptive and exploratory research designs. Various offices of the Federal Mortgage Bank of Nigeria (the implementers of the NHF scheme in Abuja, Lagos, PortHarcourt, Ibadan and Enugu, as well as the 19 state/ district offices in these zones were studied. The study population comprised 201 management staff and officers in these offices. A census was carried out, considering the size of the population and the nature of the investigation. Structured questionnaire was used to collect data for this study. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to test the formulated hypothesis at 5% level of significance. The hypothesis test revealed that the application of market segmentation, targeting, differentiation and positioning by the NHF implementers is not adequate (Fcal = 95.239, p = 0.000 < 0.05. Following the finding, it is concluded that there is a low level of application of customer-driven marketing strategies in the National Housing Fund (NHF implementation. In line with the finding and conclusion of this study, it is recommended that the adoption and application of the customer-driven marketing strategies model for housing development programmes will aid the successful implementation of housing development programmes, thus leading to a substantial reduction in housing deficit level.

  19. Authorization Decree Application for the creation of the Flamanville-3 Basic Nuclear Installation. Executive Summary of the Technical Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    On 9 May 2006, Electricite de France (EDF) submitted to the Ministers for Nuclear Safety an authorization decree application for an EPR-type reactor on the site of the Flamanville Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Article 29 of Act No. 2006-686 of 13 June 2006 on Transparency and Security in the Nuclear Field prescribes that the creation of any basic nuclear installation shall be issued by a decree taken after consultation with the Nuclear Safety Authority (Autorite de surete nucleaire - ASN). The purpose of this report is to provide ASN's Board with a summary of the technical review led by ASN services and carried out by their technical support agencies, namely the IRSN, the GPR and the Standing Nuclear Section of the CCAP between 2001 and 2006. After summing up the conclusions of the review on the safety options of the European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) Project, as carried out between 1993 and 2000, this report describes the process and modalities of the review conducted from 2001 to 2006. Besides providing the opinion of ASN's services on the creation-licence application, it also outlines the further review to be carried out, if the authorization decree is issued. (authors)

  20. Application of progressive nucleation mechanism for the citation behavior of individual papers of different authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwal, Keshra

    2012-09-01

    The basic concepts and equations of the progressive nucleation mechanism (PNM) are presented first for the growth and decay of items. The mechanism is then applied to describe the cumulative citations L and citations ΔL per year of the individual most-cited papers i of four selected Polish professors as a function of citation duration t. It was found that the PNM satisfactorily describes the time dependence of cumulative citations L of the papers published by different authors with sufficiently high citations ΔL, as represented by the highest yearly citations ΔL(max) during the entire citation period t (normal citation behavior). The citation period for these papers is less than 15 years and it is even 6-8 years in several cases. However, for papers with citation periods exceeding about 15 years, the growth behavior of citations does not follow the PNM in the entire citation period (anomalous citation behavior), and there are regions of citations in which the citation data may be described by the PNM. Normal and anomalous citation behaviors are attributed, respectively, to the occurrence and nonoccurrence of stationary nucleation of citations for the papers. The PNM also explains the growth and decay of citations ΔL per year of papers exhibiting normal citation behavior.

  1. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yeaton, RI. Vol 11, No 1 (1994) - Articles A line-based vegetation sampling technique and its application in succulent karoo. Abstract. ISSN: 1022-0119. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of ...

  2. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abad, HHS. Vol 10, No 52 (2011) - Articles Nitrogen remobilization in wheat as influenced by nitrogen application and post-anthesis water deficit during grain filling. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1684-5315. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  3. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foucher, E. Vol 20 (1998) - Articles A GIS for the management of fisheries in West Africa: Preliminary application to the octopus stock in Senegal Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1814-232X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

  4. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osiki, JO. Vol 6, No 1 (1998) - Articles The Clinical Investigation on The Effective Application of Prayer and Faith Builder in Altering The Hither-To Situation of Some Non-Diagnostic Apa Illness Abstract. ISSN: 0794-0831. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bayou, T. Vol 8 (1989) - Articles Solar radiation maps fot Ethiopia Abstract PDF · Vol 13 (1996) - Articles Application of a photovoltaic system in water pumping. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0514-6216. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guzinski, J. Vol 2, No 10 (2010) - Articles Sensorless induction motor drive for electric vehicle application. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2141-2839. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact ...

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Munguri, M W. Vol 5, No 2 (2001): - Articles The effect of rate and time of application of Nitrogen on maize yield in Chinyika Resettlement area, Zimbabwe Abstract. ISSN: 1029-9645. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

  8. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alvarruiz-Bermejo, A. Vol 4, No 3 (1999) - Articles Quality control in the meat industry application of the HACCP in the manufacturing line of canned meat. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1028-6098. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diaw, M., Ethiopia. Vol 15, No 1 (2001) - Articles Electrochemical behaviour of gold at the carbon paste electrode: application to the gold ore analysis. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1726-801X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ramroop, S. Vol 7, No 1 (2009) - Articles Application of Negative Binomial Regression for Assessing Public Awareness of the Health Effects of Nicotine and Cigarettes Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1728-774X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tsin, C.Y.. Vol 10, No 1S (2018): Special Issue - Articles Development of NutriSportExTM-interactive sport nutrition based mobile application software. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1112-9867. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    Singh, S.N. Vol 2, No 3 (2010) - Articles Application of computational intelligence in emerging power systems. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2141-2839. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

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    Okoli, JU. Vol 32, No 3 (2013) - Research papers. Application of Nanotechnology in the Manufacturing Sector: A Review Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2467-8821. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of ...

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    Crafford, J. Vol 193 (2002) - Articles Measuring total economic benefits from water in plantation forestry: application of quasi I-O framework to the Crocodile catchment in South Africa: scientific paper. Abstract. ISSN: 2070-2639. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

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    Nwaoguala, CNC. Vol 15, No 2 (2015) - Articles Influence by artificial defoliation and NPK fertilizer application on growth and yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench) Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1684-5374. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...

  16. Author Details

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    Mukokoma, MM. Vol 2, No 1 (2009) - Articles Application and Effectiveness of New Public Management in National Water and Sewerage Corporation Abstract. ISSN: 2070-1748. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

  17. Author Details

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    Makolo, Angela. Vol 22, No 2 (2015) - Articles Development of a food to calorie converter mobile application: a case study of Nigerian foods. Abstract. ISSN: 2006-5523. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

  18. Author Details

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    Ekosse, Georges-Ivo E. Vol 5, No 2 (2005) - Articles Diagnostic evaluation of bentonitic and kaolinitic clayey materials for ceramic applications. Abstract PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions ...

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    Njoku, KC. Vol 10, No 1 (2015) - Articles Application of the anomic theory on the phenomenon of disengagement lethargy in the Imo state public service, Nigeria Abstract PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

  20. Author Details

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    Nweke, O. Vol 2, No 1 (2013) - Articles Application of Ethics, Justice and Fair Treatment in Human Resource Management for Sustainable Peace in Nigerian Work Organizations Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2227-5452. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...

  1. Mergers, acquisitions, divestitures, and applications for market-based rates in a deregulating electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews FERC's current procedures for undertaking competitive analysis. The current procedure for evaluating the competitive impact of transactions in the electric utility industry is described in Order 592, in particular Appendix A. These procedures effectively revised criteria that had been laid out in Commonwealth Edison and brought its merger policy in line with the EPAct and the provisions of Order 888. Order 592 was an attempt to provide more certainty and expedition in handling mergers. It established three criteria that had to be satisfied for a merger to be approved: Post-merger market power must be within acceptable thresholds or be satisfactorily mitigated, acceptable customer protections must be in place (to ensure that rates will not go up as a result of increased costs) and any adverse effect on regulation must be addressed. FERC states that its Order 592 Merger Policy Statement is based upon the Horizontal Merger Guidelines issued jointly by the Federal Trade Commission and the Antitrust Division Department of Justice (FTC/DOJ Merger Guidelines). While it borrows much of the language and basic concepts of the Merger Guidelines, FERC's procedures have been criticized as not following the methodology closely enough, leaving open the possibility of mistakes in market definition

  2. Mergers, acquisitions, divestitures, and applications for market-based rates in a deregulating electric utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, A.J.

    1999-05-01

    In this article, the author reviews FERC's current procedures for undertaking competitive analysis. The current procedure for evaluating the competitive impact of transactions in the electric utility industry is described in Order 592, in particular Appendix A. These procedures effectively revised criteria that had been laid out in Commonwealth Edison and brought its merger policy in line with the EPAct and the provisions of Order 888. Order 592 was an attempt to provide more certainty and expedition in handling mergers. It established three criteria that had to be satisfied for a merger to be approved: Post-merger market power must be within acceptable thresholds or be satisfactorily mitigated, acceptable customer protections must be in place (to ensure that rates will not go up as a result of increased costs) and any adverse effect on regulation must be addressed. FERC states that its Order 592 Merger Policy Statement is based upon the Horizontal Merger Guidelines issued jointly by the Federal Trade Commission and the Antitrust Division Department of Justice (FTC/DOJ Merger Guidelines). While it borrows much of the language and basic concepts of the Merger Guidelines, FERC's procedures have been criticized as not following the methodology closely enough, leaving open the possibility of mistakes in market definition.

  3. Study for application of multi fuel technology in the Brazilian automobilistic market; Estudo para aplicacao da tecnologia multi combustivel no mercado automobilistico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparotto, Alexsander David [FIAT/GM Powertrain (Brazil); Massarani, Marcelo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this work is a study for the application of a new technology that will be used in the engine management system in the vehicle; where the final consumer can opt for the inquiry performance or seeking an economy for the fuel consumption depending on its daily use and of the prices offered in the gas stations. Flexible Fuel is a technology in development for the automobile market that mixes the use of two fuels (gasoline and ethanol) and their mixtures in the internal combustion engine. (author)

  4. Study for application of flexible fuel technology in the Brazilian automobile market; Estudo para aplicacao da tecnologia multi combustivel no mercado automobilistico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparotto, Alexsander David [FIAT/GM Powertrain (Brazil); Massarani, Marcelo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this work is a study for the application of a new technology that will be used in the engine management system in the vehicle; where the final consumer can opt for the inquiry performance or seeking an economy for the fuel consumption depending on its daily use and of the prices offered in the gas stations. Flexible Fuel is a technology in development for the auto mobile market that mixes the use of two fuels (gasoline and ethanol) and their mixtures in the internal combustion engine. (author)

  5. Application of the Beck model to stock markets: Value-at-Risk and portfolio risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaki, M.; Sato, A.-H.

    2008-02-01

    We apply the Beck model, developed for turbulent systems that exhibit scaling properties, to stock markets. Our study reveals that the Beck model elucidates the properties of stock market returns and is applicable to practical use such as the Value-at-Risk estimation and the portfolio analysis. We perform empirical analysis with daily/intraday data of the S&P500 index return and find that the volatility fluctuation of real markets is well-consistent with the assumptions of the Beck model: The volatility fluctuates at a much larger time scale than the return itself and the inverse of variance, or “inverse temperature”, β obeys Γ-distribution. As predicted by the Beck model, the distribution of returns is well-fitted by q-Gaussian distribution of Tsallis statistics. The evaluation method of Value-at-Risk (VaR), one of the most significant indicators in risk management, is studied for q-Gaussian distribution. Our proposed method enables the VaR evaluation in consideration of tail risk, which is underestimated by the variance-covariance method. A framework of portfolio risk assessment under the existence of tail risk is considered. We propose a multi-asset model with a single volatility fluctuation shared by all assets, named the single β model, and empirically examine the agreement between the model and an imaginary portfolio with Dow Jones indices. It turns out that the single β model gives good approximation to portfolios composed of the assets with non-Gaussian and correlated returns.

  6. Online marketing plan proposal : Promotion of Microfinance Software Application to Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Boldosova, Valeriia

    2012-01-01

    Every company faces a time when there is a need to develop a marketing plan, which consists of determined goals and objectives, analysis of current situation, forecast planning and other relevant elements. In order to stay competitive and gain competitive advantage, companies seek for other marketing opportunities aside from traditional marketing. The era of technology has facilitated internet marketing development and opened the door of marketing opportunities. The main objective of this...

  7. Managing price risk in emerging electricity markets : OTC products and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, P.

    1998-01-01

    The evolution of power markets in the United States from traditional cost based rates to mature markets, characterized by significant specialization, high volume financial market and multiple futures/indices, is described. The meaning and characteristic features of the commodity market in electricity, OTC/futures products for the electricity markets, physical delivery vs. financial settlement, models for producer trading positions and consumer trading positions, long producer position, long spread option position, short consumer position, and long producer time spread position were explained

  8. Chiron Vision files FDA application to market intraocular implant for CMV retinitis. Food and Drug Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Chiron Corporation and Hoffman-LaRoche announced a filing of a New Drug Application with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to market Vitrasert, its intraocular implant which delivers ganciclovir directly to the eye for treatment of CMV retinitis. Clinical trials show that Vitrasert offers a clinical improvement versus intravenous ganciclovir in further delaying progression of CMV retinitis in the treated eye. One study reported that the median time to progression of CMV retinitis was 186 days for eyes receiving Vitrasert compared to 72 days for eyes receiving intravenous ganciclovir therapy. Chiron's intraocular implant contains ganciclovir embedded in a polymer-based system that slowly releases the drug into the eye for up to eight months. Two additional trials are underway. For further information contact the Professional Services Group at Chiron Corporation at (800) 244-7668, select 2.

  9. 3D CAPTURING PERFORMANCES OF LOW-COST RANGE SENSORS FOR MASS-MARKET APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Guidi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of the first Kinect as motion controller device for the Microsoft XBOX platform (November 2010, several similar active and low-cost range sensing devices have been introduced on the mass-market for several purposes, including gesture based interfaces, 3D multimedia interaction, robot navigation, finger tracking, 3D body scanning for garment design and proximity sensors for automotive. However, given their capability to generate a real time stream of range images, these has been used in some projects also as general purpose range devices, with performances that for some applications might be satisfying. This paper shows the working principle of the various devices, analyzing them in terms of systematic errors and random errors for exploring the applicability of them in standard 3D capturing problems. Five actual devices have been tested featuring three different technologies: i Kinect V1 by Microsoft, Structure Sensor by Occipital, and Xtion PRO by ASUS, all based on different implementations of the Primesense sensor; ii F200 by Intel/Creative, implementing the Realsense pattern projection technology; Kinect V2 by Microsoft, equipped with the Canesta TOF Camera. A critical analysis of the results tries first of all to compare them, and secondarily to focus the range of applications for which such devices could actually work as a viable solution.

  10. 18 CFR 284.503 - Market-power determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Market-power determination. 284.503 Section 284.503 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... RELATED AUTHORITIES Applications for Market-Based Rates for Storage § 284.503 Market-power determination...

  11. Authoring Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviranus, Jutta

    Authoring tools that are accessible and that enable authors to produce accessible Web content play a critical role in web accessibility. Widespread use of authoring tools that comply to the W3C Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG) would ensure that even authors who are neither knowledgeable about nor particularly motivated to produce accessible content do so by default. The principles and techniques of ATAG are discussed. Some examples of accessible authoring tools are described including authoring tool content management components such as TinyMCE. Considerations for creating an accessible collaborative environment are also covered. As part of providing accessible content, the debate between system-based personal optimization and one universally accessible site configuration is presented. The issues and potential solutions to address the accessibility crisis presented by the advent of rich internet applications are outlined. This challenge must be met to ensure that a large segment of the population is able to participate in the move toward the web as a two-way communication mechanism.

  12. Antecedents and consequences of market orientation in universities: Literature review and conceptual framework

    OpenAIRE

    Asaad, Y; Cohen, G; Melewar, T C

    2008-01-01

    Recent developments in marketing theory have resulted in the conceptualisation of the market orientation construct in different cultural and industrial settings. However, there is little research investigating the applicability of market orientation in the higher education context. Building on the existing literature on market orientation and higher education marketing, the authors propose a theoretical framework of market orientation from a higher education management perspective. The frame...

  13. 18 CFR 284.505 - Market-based rates for storage providers without a market-power determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Market-based rates for storage providers without a market-power determination. 284.505 Section 284.505 Conservation of Power and... UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Applications for Market-Based Rates for...

  14. Technology, Performance, and Market Report of Wind-Diesel Applications for Remote and Island Communities: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, I.; Dabo, M.

    2009-02-01

    This paper describes the current status of wind-diesel technology and its applications, the current research activities, and the remaining system technical and commercial challenges. System architectures, dispatch strategies, and operating experience from a variety of wind-diesel systems will be discussed, as well as how recent development to explore distributed energy generation solutions for wind generation can benefit from the performance experience of operating systems. The paper also includes a detailed discussion of the performance of wind-diesel applications in Alaska, where 10 wind-diesel stations are operating and additional systems are currently being implemented. Additionally, because this application represents an international opportunity, a community of interest committed to sharing technical and operating developments is being formed. The authors hope to encourage this expansion while allowing communities and nations to investigate the wind-diesel option for reducing their dependence on diesel-driven energy sources.

  15. Technology, Performance, and Market Report of Wind-Diesel Applications for Remote and Island Communities: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, I.; Dabo, M.

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes the current status of wind-diesel technology and its applications, the current research activities, and the remaining system technical and commercial challenges. System architectures, dispatch strategies, and operating experience from a variety of wind-diesel systems will be discussed, as well as how recent development to explore distributed energy generation solutions for wind generation can benefit from the performance experience of operating systems. The paper also includes a detailed discussion of the performance of wind-diesel applications in Alaska, where 10 wind-diesel stations are operating and additional systems are currently being implemented. Additionally, because this application represents an international opportunity, a community of interest committed to sharing technical and operating developments is being formed. The authors hope to encourage this expansion while allowing communities and nations to investigate the wind-diesel option for reducing their dependence on diesel-driven energy sources.

  16. Application of artificial neural network for the prediction of stock market returns: The case of the Japanese stock market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Mingyue; Song, Yu; Akagi, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    Accurate prediction of stock market returns is a very challenging task because of the highly nonlinear nature of the financial time series. In this study, we apply an artificial neural network (ANN) that can map any nonlinear function without a prior assumption to predict the return of the Japanese Nikkei 225 index. (1) To improve the effectiveness of prediction algorithms, we propose a new set of input variables for ANN models. (2) To verify the prediction ability of the selected input variables, we predict returns for the Nikkei 225 index using the classical back propagation (BP) learning algorithm. (3) Global search techniques, i.e., a genetic algorithm (GA) and simulated annealing (SA), are employed to improve the prediction accuracy of the ANN and overcome the local convergence problem of the BP algorithm. It is observed through empirical experiments that the selected input variables were effective to predict stock market returns. A hybrid approach based on GA and SA improve prediction accuracy significantly and outperform the traditional BP training algorithm.

  17. Analysis of Spain´s competitiveness in the European tomato market: An application of the Constant Market Share method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capobianco-Uriarte, M.; Aparicio, J.; Pablo-Valenciano, J. de

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the competitiveness of Spanish tomato export compared with its major competitors in the European Union market countries (EU28). The methodological framework is implemented through Constant Market Share to analyze variations in exports, allowing the portion attributable to competitiveness and segregation into general or specific competitiveness to be quantified. This analysis was carried out with the 2005-2009 and 2010-2014 periods to see if there had been a recovery from the global financial and economic crisis of 2007 in the Spanish tomato trade. Before the global economic and financial crisis, Spain had a positive structural effect of exports which contributed significantly to the growth of tomato sales to the EU, but had a negative change in the volume of exports to the EU28, mainly due to the negative effect of the competitiveness component. According to the segregation effect of competitiveness, a marked general negative competitive effect was evident, that cannot be offset by the positive effect of specific competitiveness. Since 2010, Spain has experienced a positive change in the volume of its tomato exports to the EU28, the competitiveness component also being positive, due to positive investment of the component of general competitiveness and whose greatest contribution was the positive effect of specific competitiveness. Within the group of competitors, Spain is the only country supplying tomatoes to the EU28 that has experienced a positive change in volume when comparing business performance of 2010-2014 vs 2005-2009.

  18. Analysis of Spain´s competitiveness in the European tomato market: An application of the Constant Market Share method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Capobianco-Uriarte

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the competitiveness of Spanish tomato export compared with its major competitors in the European Union market countries (EU28. The methodological framework is implemented through Constant Market Share to analyze variations in exports, allowing the portion attributable to competitiveness and segregation into general or specific competitiveness to be quantified. This analysis was carried out with the 2005-2009 and 2010-2014 periods to see if there had been a recovery from the global financial and economic crisis of 2007 in the Spanish tomato trade. Before the global economic and financial crisis, Spain had a positive structural effect of exports which contributed significantly to the growth of tomato sales to the EU, but had a negative change in the volume of exports to the EU28, mainly due to the negative effect of the competitiveness component. According to the segregation effect of competitiveness, a marked general negative competitive effect was evident, that cannot be offset by the positive effect of specific competitiveness. Since 2010, Spain has experienced a positive change in the volume of its tomato exports to the EU28, the competitiveness component also being positive, due to positive investment of the component of general competitiveness and whose greatest contribution was the positive effect of specific competitiveness. Within the group of competitors, Spain is the only country supplying tomatoes to the EU28 that has experienced a positive change in volume when comparing business performance of 2010-2014 vs 2005-2009.

  19. Analysis of Spain´s competitiveness in the European tomato market: An application of the Constant Market Share method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capobianco-Uriarte, M.; Aparicio, J.; Pablo-Valenciano, J. de

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the competitiveness of Spanish tomato export compared with its major competitors in the European Union market countries (EU28). The methodological framework is implemented through Constant Market Share to analyze variations in exports, allowing the portion attributable to competitiveness and segregation into general or specific competitiveness to be quantified. This analysis was carried out with the 2005-2009 and 2010-2014 periods to see if there had been a recovery from the global financial and economic crisis of 2007 in the Spanish tomato trade. Before the global economic and financial crisis, Spain had a positive structural effect of exports which contributed significantly to the growth of tomato sales to the EU, but had a negative change in the volume of exports to the EU28, mainly due to the negative effect of the competitiveness component. According to the segregation effect of competitiveness, a marked general negative competitive effect was evident, that cannot be offset by the positive effect of specific competitiveness. Since 2010, Spain has experienced a positive change in the volume of its tomato exports to the EU28, the competitiveness component also being positive, due to positive investment of the component of general competitiveness and whose greatest contribution was the positive effect of specific competitiveness. Within the group of competitors, Spain is the only country supplying tomatoes to the EU28 that has experienced a positive change in volume when comparing business performance of 2010-2014 vs 2005-2009.

  20. [Application of marketing strategies for the management of public hospitals from the viewpoint of the staff members].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros S, Jorge; Berné M, Carmen

    2006-03-01

    The implementation of the marketing strategies in public hospitals provides management advantages and improves the relationship between customers and staff. To analyze the application of marketing strategies in a public hospital, from the perspective of the staff. A structured survey that asked about perceptions in 50 items about communication between personnel and customers/users, customer satisfaction, participation in the development of new policies and incentives for efficiency was applied to a stratified sample of the staff. Factorial and regression analyses were performed to define the impact of marketing strategies on the degree of preoccupation and orientation of the organization towards the satisfaction of customer needs. The survey was applied to 74 males and 122 females. The survey showed that the orientation of the hospital towards the satisfaction of its beneficiaries basically depends on the generation of an organizational culture oriented towards them and the implementation of adequate policies in staff management and quality of service. These basic aspects can be accompanied with practices associated to the new marketing approaches such as a market orientation, customer orientation and relational marketing. All these factors presented positive and significant relations. New marketing strategies should be applied, to achieve an efficient and customer oriented hospital management.

  1. Marketing maloobchodu

    OpenAIRE

    Demuth, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is about the situation of retail marketing in Czech republic, with a special focus on in-store marketing instruments and activities. The goal of this work is to evaluate the application of these marketing instruments in a specific retail store. This chosen store is supermarket Billa. The first part of the thesis is offering theoretical base for in-store marketing activities and also presents the history of retail marketing in Czech republic. The second part is focusing on the situ...

  2. Speeding Access to Vaccines and Medicines in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Case for Change and a Framework for Optimized Product Market Authorization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Ahonkhai

    Full Text Available The United Nations Millennium Development Goals galvanized global efforts to alleviate suffering of the world's poorest people through unprecedented public-private partnerships. Donor aid agencies have demonstrably saved millions of lives that might otherwise have been lost to disease through increased access to quality-assured vaccines and medicines. Yet, the introduction of these health interventions in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs continues to face a time lag due to factors which remain poorly understood.A recurring theme from our partnership engagements was that an optimized regulatory process would contribute to improved access to quality health products. Therefore, we investigated the current system for medicine and vaccine registration in LMICs as part of our comprehensive regulatory strategy. Here, we report a fact base of the registration timelines for vaccines and drugs used to treat certain communicable diseases in LMICs. We worked with a broad set of stakeholders, including the World Health Organization's prequalification team, national regulatory authorities, manufacturers, procurers, and other experts, and collected data on the timelines between first submission and last approval of applications for product registration sub-Saharan Africa. We focused on countries with the highest burden of communicable disease and the greatest need for the products studied. The data showed a typical lag of 4 to 7 years between the first regulatory submission which was usually to a regulatory agency in a high-income country, and the final approval in Sub-Saharan Africa. Two of the three typical registration steps which products undergo before delivery in the countries involve lengthy timelines. Failure to leverage or rely on the findings from reviews already performed by competent regulatory authorities, disparate requirements for product approval by the countries, and lengthy timelines by manufacturers to respond to regulatory queries

  3. Fuel-cycle analysis of early market applications of fuel cells: Forklift propulsion systems and distributed power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgowainy, Amgad; Gaines, Linda; Wang, Michael [Center for Transportation Research, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Forklift propulsion systems and distributed power generation are identified as potential fuel cell applications for near-term markets. This analysis examines fuel cell forklifts and distributed power generators, and addresses the potential energy and environmental implications of substituting fuel-cell systems for existing technologies based on fossil fuels and grid electricity. Performance data and the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model are used to estimate full fuel-cycle emissions and use of primary energy sources. The greenhouse gas (GHG) impacts of fuel-cell forklifts using hydrogen from steam reforming of natural gas are considerably lower than those using electricity from the average U.S. grid. Fuel cell generators produce lower GHG emissions than those associated with the U.S. grid electricity and alternative distributed combustion technologies. If fuel-cell generation technologies approach or exceed the target efficiency of 40%, they offer significant reduction in energy use and GHG emissions compared to alternative combustion technologies. (author)

  4. Analysis of an application degree of marketing in organization and management activity of youth sports schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Sereda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Disclosed aspects of the marketing approach in the activities of youth sports schools. The degree of use of marketing in the organization and management of youth sports schools. Identified constraints and the possible consequences of the use of marketing in youth sports schools. The study involved 127 employees with 15 youth sports schools. The respondents were the director and deputy instructor methodists that senior coaches offices youth sports schools. It is certain that in their professional activities only 36.0% of workers in youth sports schools use marketing is the marketing research, 73.2% of respondents believe that the use of marketing to promote the image of youth sports schools. The absence of a marketing specialist in the management bodies of physical education and sport is one of the main problems for the efficient functioning of the market of sports schools sports and sports services.

  5. 77 FR 6055 - Notice of Funds Availability (NOFA) Inviting Applications for the Federal-State Marketing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... marketing, transportation, and distribution of U.S. food and agricultural products domestically and... channels. Assist in the development of more efficient marketing methods, practices, and facilities to bring... / Tuesday, February 7, 2012 / Notices#0;#0; [[Page 6055

  6. The Neander double crankshaft turbo-diesel engine, possible applications and market research

    OpenAIRE

    Castelltort Gil, Sebastià; Dejaeger, Nina; Grossen, Tobias; Guilarte, Rodrigo; Johnstone, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    This project proposed by the German company Neander Motors, consisted on studying the outboard market, where the company will launch their first engine of 50 horsepower in 2015 and subsequently analyze other potential markets where the company could enter in the future. Neander motor has the advantage that by having two crankshafts is lighter and smaller than a regular diesel engine, so it has certain advantages in some markets. In the first report, after analyzing the global market, sale...

  7. A Market Dynamics Model for New Industrial Products and Its Application

    OpenAIRE

    Shmuel S. Oren; Michael H. Rothkopf

    1984-01-01

    New product planning models attempt to predict the market consequences of product line and product design decisions. One output of such models, especially those driven by subjective or market research data, is usually theoretical market shares based upon consumer preferences under idealized conditions. This paper describes a class of models that bridge the gap between such theoretical market shares and dynamic sales forecasts. This model accounts for differences in customer awareness of diffe...

  8. WAYS OF INCREASING THE EFFICIENCY OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN THE COMMERCIAL COMPANIES UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE ROMANIAN LOCAL COUNCIL IN THE POST-ACCESSION PERIOD TO THE EUROPEAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Pendiuc

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available More and more companies under the authority of the Local Council are interested in implementing a quality management system following the quality assurance models proposed by the ISO9000 type international standards. Almost 200 organizations have in place a quality management system certified based on these standards. These organizatios requested certification in order to enjoy a number of advantages, especially as regards their position on the market towards competition, by establishing new contractual relationships, foreseeing customers' demands, creating products and services to better fulfill these demands, at better prices. According to some surveys, many commercial companies under the authority of the Loal Council managed to obtain these advantages to gether with other ones such as: a better working structure, motivation of the workers, improvement of the product quality, an increase in the efficiency, productivity and market quota. As more and more similar products manufactured using the same technologies emerge on the market, quality becomes the main selection factor of the commercial companies under the authority of the Local Council on the market, thus the main mean of competitiveness. Thus, lately, in our county we witness an increasingly intense concern in this field, the change of quality-related aspects, this being the main motivation for drafting this article.

  9. Workshop: Market Mechanisms and Incentives: Applications to Environmental Policy (2009-part 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentations on the use of market mechanisms and incentives in the areas of fuel economy, water quality, land use and the distributional consequences of using market incentives. There was also a panel discussion on the role of market mechanisms on climate

  10. Application Possibilities of Social Marketing Technologies for Publicity of Electronic Government Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Limba

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays e-government projects and projects in the public sector are changing the consistency and reality of our daily life and will need to be managed by project managers, who uge modern marketing tools and technologies. Social marketing is one of the modern marketing tools and, probably, it is the best tool to provide marketing in public sector project management, It has been changing in different ways since the founding of social marketing: the aim of social marketing, the technologies for using i ; but nowadays it’s hard to imagine public sector projects and, especially, egovernment projects, without using social marketing technologies. The usage of social marketing technologies can improve public sector project management and make the project more attractive to society or some part of it. This scientific paper represents social marketing transformation, the way in which social marketing needs to be used in the public sector project management process and analyses the phases of social marketing. It also gives some practical advics for public sector organizations o, how to implement social marketing in the e-government project deployment process.

  11. 76 FR 81487 - Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power Marketing Initiative to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... Management Program Power Marketing Initiative to the Boulder Canyon Project Post-2017 Remarketing AGENCY... . Information regarding Western's BCP Post-2017 marketing efforts, the Energy Management and Planning Program... Proposals. SUMMARY: The Western Area Power Administration (Western), a Federal power marketing agency of the...

  12. 76 FR 23583 - Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power Marketing Initiative to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... Management Program Power Marketing Initiative to the Boulder Canyon Project AGENCY: Western Area Power... Area Power Administration (Western), a Federal power marketing agency of the Department of Energy (DOE), will apply the Energy Planning and Management Program (Program) Power Marketing Initiative (PMI), as...

  13. 75 FR 9155 - Notice of Funds Availability (NOFA) Inviting Applications for the 2010 Farmers' Market Promotion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... Farmer-to-Consumer Direct Marketing Act of 1976 (7 U.S.C. 3001-3006) as amended by Section 10605 of the... marketing entities where agricultural farmers or vendors sell their own products directly to consumers, and... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service [Doc AMS-TM-09-0088; TM-09-09] Notice of...

  14. Application of Marketing in Interest as a Factor of Development of Enterprises in Digital Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerimane BAJRAKTARI

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Online transactions have been characterized by steady growth in recent years. This trend has not left aside developments in organizations in Kosovo. People who buy online are faced with technological equipment that often does not perform the right way as the customer requests or expects. The intranet connects the computer systems of an enterprise or organization based on the Internet technique especially in the TCP / IP protocol. Digital Marketing is a term for the marketing of targeted, measurable and interactive products and services using digital technology to reach and convert "leads" to customers. The main objective is to promote brands, build preference, and increase sales through various digital techniques. It is embodied by a wide selection of service, product and brand marketing tactics, which, as a core promotion medium, largely use the Internet. Digital marketing activities are: search engine optimization (SEO, search engine marketing (SEM, content marketing, influencing marketing and e-commerce, social media marketing, e-mail marketing, display advertising, books electronics, video games and any other form of digital media. According to the Digital Marketing Institute, the Digital Marketing Institute, digital marketing is the use of digital channels to promote or sell products or services to consumers or businesses. The Digital Economy is the highest level of use of computers in a national economy. The higher the rate of use of computers in a more digitized economy and closer to the overall economic progress is that country.

  15. Estimating farmers’ productive and marketing inefficiency: an application to vegetable producers in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singbo, A.G.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Emvalomatis, G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates the technical and marketing inefficiency of a sample of urban vegetable producers in Benin. Marketing inefficiency is defined as the failure of farmers to achieve better marketing output and is reflected in lower output price indices. The study proposes a Russell-type measure of

  16. Understanding Market Concentration: Internet-Based Applications from the Banking Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Fred H.; Ward, Sidne Gail

    2011-01-01

    Market structure is an essential topic in economics and finance courses, including bank management as well as many other business school courses, for example marketing, human resources and strategic management. Instructors explain the virtues of perfect competition and the evils of monopoly along with alternative market models. Often conversations…

  17. Dynamic conditional correlation analysis of financial market interdependence : An application to Thailand and Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, Gerard H.; Lestano, [No Value

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the dynamic linkages among financial markets in Thailand and Indonesia. In particular, we focus on the cross-border relationship in individual markets and on the relationship between finan- cial markets within each country. We find that while tight monetary policy pursued by

  18. [Service quality in health care: the application of the results of marketing research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheggen, F W; Harteloh, P P

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with quality assurance in health care and its relation to quality assurance in trade and industry. We present the service quality model--a model of quality from marketing research--and discuss how it can be applied to health care. Traditional quality assurance appears to have serious flaws. It lacks a general theory of the sources of hazards in the complex process of patient care and tends to stagnate, for no real improvement takes place. Departing from this criticism, modern quality assurance in health care is marked by: defining quality in a preferential sense as "fitness for use"; the use of theories and models of trade and industry (process-control); an emphasis on analyzing the process, instead of merely inspecting it; use of the Deming problem solving technique (plan, do, check, act); improvement of the process of care by altering perceptions of parties involved. We present an experience of application and utilization of this method in the University Hospital Maastricht, The Netherlands. The successful application of this model requires a favorable corporate culture and motivation of the health care workers. This model provides a useful framework to uplift the traditional approach to quality assurance in health care.

  19. 'It'll Look Good on Your Personal Statement': Self-Marketing amongst University Applicants in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuker, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    "Selling yourself" through personal statements and interviews is now a standard practice for university applicants. This article draws on a multi-case-study research project to report on the self-marketing orientations of students within three 16-19 institutions in England. These orientations (active/passive; internal/external;…

  20. Study on the impact of marketing through social media, online games and mobile applications on children's behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupiáñez-Villanueva, F.; Gaskell, G.; Veltri, G.A.; Theben, A.; Folkvord, F.; Bonatti, L; Bogliacino, F.; Fernández, L.; Codagnone, C.

    2016-01-01

    The European Online Games, Social Media and Mobile Application sector has grown substantially in recent years and children are exposed to increasingly sophisticated marketing techniques online which are often outside the purview of existing regulatory frameworks. This study aims to provide a better

  1. Analysis of long-term guarantee of supply in power markets: Application of the marginal theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrilla, Ernesto; Vazquez, Carlos

    2005-06-01

    In this paper the marginal theory is applied to discuss the different long-term equilibria that could be reached in an electricity market depending on the market participants' (generators, consumers and the regulator) goals and constraints. The aim is to identify the key elements of a possible market failure in providing generation adequacy - immature demand, regulated tariffs, long-term contracting, different agents perception of the market risks, etc - and to study their influence in the long-term market equilibrium. Furthermore, we analyze several of the different capacity mechanisms that could be used to ensure generation adequacy, such as: short-term capacity payments, long-term capacity payments and capacity markets. This final analysis includes an estimation of how useful each method is to compensate the market failures that we have previously identified

  2. [Study on the occupational stress norm and it's application for the marketing group, public service/safety group and production laborer group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Ming; Jin, Tai-Yi; Lan, Ya-Jia

    2006-09-01

    A study of the occupational stress norm and it's application for the marketing group, public service/safety group and production laborer group. In this study, cross-sectional study method is used, and a synthetic way of sorting and randomized sampling is adopted to deal with research targets (36 marketing group, 331 public service/safety group, 903 production laborer group). Descriptive statistics for OSI-R scale scores for the marketing group, public service/safety group and production laborer group were modulated. Scale raw score to T-score conversion tables derived from the OSI-R normative sample for marketing group public service/safety group and production laborer group were established. OSI-R profile from for marketing group, public service/safety group and production laborer group were established. For the ORQ and PSQ scales, scores at or above 70 indicate a strong levels of maladaptive stress and strain. Score in the range of 60 to 69 suggest middle levels of maladaptive stress and strain. Score in the range of 40 to 59 indicate normal levels of stress and strain. Score below 40 indicate a relative absence of occupational stress and strain. For the PRQ scales, score below 30 indicate a significant lack of coping resources. Score in the range of 30 to 39 suggest middle deficits in coping resources. Score in the range of 40 to 59 indicate average coping resources. Scores at or above 60 indicate a strong levels of coping resources. The authors combined subjective and objective environment match model of occupational stress. Different intervention measure should be take to reduce the occupational stress so as to improve the work ability.

  3. Application of a Gradient Descent Continuous Actor-Critic Algorithm for Double-Side Day-Ahead Electricity Market Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiru Zhao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An important goal of China’s electric power system reform is to create a double-side day-ahead wholesale electricity market in the future, where the suppliers (represented by GenCOs and demanders (represented by DisCOs compete simultaneously with each other in one market. Therefore, modeling and simulating the dynamic bidding process and the equilibrium in the double-side day-ahead electricity market scientifically is not only important to some developed countries, but also to China to provide a bidding decision-making tool to help GenCOs and DisCOs obtain more profits in market competition. Meanwhile, it can also provide an economic analysis tool to help government officials design the proper market mechanisms and policies. The traditional dynamic game model and table-based reinforcement learning algorithm have already been employed in the day-ahead electricity market modeling. However, those models are based on some assumptions, such as taking the probability distribution function of market clearing price (MCP and each rival’s bidding strategy as common knowledge (in dynamic game market models, and assuming the discrete state and action sets of every agent (in table-based reinforcement learning market models, which are no longer applicable in a realistic situation. In this paper, a modified reinforcement learning method, called gradient descent continuous Actor-Critic (GDCAC algorithm was employed in the double-side day-ahead electricity market modeling and simulation. This algorithm can not only get rid of the abovementioned unrealistic assumptions, but also cope with the Markov decision-making process with continuous state and action sets just like the real electricity market. Meanwhile, the time complexity of our proposed model is only O(n. The simulation result of employing the proposed model in the double-side day-ahead electricity market shows the superiority of our approach in terms of participant’s profit or social welfare

  4. Bayesian estimation of covariance matrices: Application to market risk management at EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandrzejewski-Bouriga, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, we develop new methods of regularized covariance matrix estimation, under the Bayesian setting. The regularization methodology employed is first related to shrinkage. We investigate a new Bayesian modeling of covariance matrix, based on hierarchical inverse-Wishart distribution, and then derive different estimators under standard loss functions. Comparisons between shrunk and empirical estimators are performed in terms of frequentist performance under different losses. It allows us to highlight the critical importance of the definition of cost function and show the persistent effect of the shrinkage-type prior on inference. In a second time, we consider the problem of covariance matrix estimation in Gaussian graphical models. If the issue is well treated for the decomposable case, it is not the case if you also consider non-decomposable graphs. We then describe a Bayesian and operational methodology to carry out the estimation of covariance matrix of Gaussian graphical models, decomposable or not. This procedure is based on a new and objective method of graphical-model selection, combined with a constrained and regularized estimation of the covariance matrix of the model chosen. The procedures studied effectively manage missing data. These estimation techniques were applied to calculate the covariance matrices involved in the market risk management for portfolios of EDF (Electricity of France), in particular for problems of calculating Value-at-Risk or in Asset Liability Management. (author)

  5. Application of integrated marketing communications in business family firms in Republic of Srpska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perić Nenad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As studies have shown, family businesses are the oldest and most common form of business organization in the world and is a key foundation of the global economy. Experience has shown that the family firm in the Republic of Srpska increasingly opt for hiring professionals for public relations or hiring agency for this work, for resolving crisis situations. The problems they face are, on the one hand, an insufficient budget for the integration of marketing communications and the management of unreason benefit from IMC. On the other hand, sometimes it's already failed separation of family business relationships. Hypotheses to be proven, are associated with insufficient support from family firms by the authorities in the Republic of Srpska, which implies limiting the growth of family firms, and insufficient investment in IMC, regardless, whether family firms have developed an export strategy. Hypothesis has been detected at levels of cognition. The first is proved for the general hypothesis, and then the collateral hypothesis. The sample of 208 family businesses in the Republic of Srpska and statistical analysis methods are descriptive analysis and chi-square test.

  6. Developing markets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueiredo, Bernardo; Chelekis, Jessica; DeBerry-Spence, Benet

    2015-01-01

    acknowledging complex, systemic interdependencies between markets, marketing, and society. Based on a critical review of the meaning of development and an interrogation of various developmental discourses, the authors develop a conceptual framework that brings together issues of development, wellbeing......, and social inequalities. We suggest that these issues are better understooda nd addressed when examined via grounded investigations of the role of markets in shaping the management of resources, consumer agency, power inequalities and ethics. The use of markets as units of analysis may lead to further cross...

  7. Application of Binomial Model and Market Asset Declaimer Methodology for Valuation of Abandon and Expand Options. The Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Mielcarz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a case study of valuation of real options included in a investment project. The main goal of the article is to present the calculation and methodological issues of application the methodology for real option valuation. In order to do it there are used the binomial model and Market Asset Declaimer methodology. The project presented in the article concerns the introduction of radio station to a new market. It includes two valuable real options: to abandon the project and to expand.

  8. ASPECTS OF MARKETING APPLICATION WITHIN AIRLINE TRAVELLING COMPANIES. THE CASE OF ALBANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areti STRINGA

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were defined through the following tasks: 1. To synthesise the features of daily marketing activities of the airlines operating on the Albanian market and establish their strengths and weaknesses. 2. To analyse and establish if there are marked differences in marketing activities of the airlines operating on the Albanian market. Different sources of primary and secondary data were used in analysis of services marketing of airlines operating on the Albanian market. The nature of the research was exploratory. Primary data were mostly gathered from expert opinion by means of personal interviews. The depth interviews took place in offices of the respondents.

  9. How companies utilize mascots in their digital marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Terning, Maja

    2013-01-01

    The commissioner for this thesis was Spinfy, a children’s mobile applications developer. From August 2012 to December 2012, the author conducted her internship at Spinfy and during this time initiated a marketing stunt/project utilizing the company mascot as an online marketing tool. The main goal of this thesis was to provide the commissioner with a comprehensive digital mar-keting communications plan for their mascot, Spinky. A company mascot can take on various marketing roles, depending o...

  10. Prediction Markets: A Review with an Experimentally Based Recommendation for Navy Force-shaping Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    participation problem in which rational traders have no further incentive or desire to trade once they already have hedged their bets (Hanson, 2003...traders who already have hedged their bets in other markets (Abramowicz, 2003, p. 24). A thin market generally leads to comparatively large price...prices. Contract prices should be set at a reasonable level to ensure there is not an overwhelming arbitrage opportunity when the market opens

  11. Regulatory requirements for clinical trial and marketing authorisation application for cell-based medicinal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmikangas, P; Flory, E; Reinhardt, J; Hinz, T; Maciulaitis, R

    2010-01-01

    The new era of regenerative medicine has led to rapid development of new innovative therapies especially for diseases and tissue/organ defects for which traditional therapies and medicinal products have not provided satisfactory outcome. Although the clinical use and developments of cell-based medicinal products (CBMPs) could be witnessed already for a decade, robust scientific and regulatory provisions for these products have only recently been enacted. The new Regulation for Advanced Therapies (EC) 1394/2007 together with the revised Annex I, Part IV of Directive 2001/83/EC provides the new legal framework for CBMPs. The wide variety of cell-based products and the foreseen limitations (small sample sizes, short shelf life) vs. particular risks (microbiological purity, variability, immunogenicity, tumourigenicity) associated with CBMPs have called for a flexible, case-by-case regulatory approach for these products. Consequently, a risk-based approach has been developed to allow definition of the amount of scientific data needed for a Marketing Authorisation Application (MAA) of each CBMP. The article provides further insight into the initial risk evaluation, as well as to the quality, non-clinical, and clinical requirements of CBMPs. Special somatic cell therapies designed for active immunotherapy are also addressed.

  12. APPLICATION OF FUZZY LOGIC BASED APPAREL SIZE FINDER IN ONLINE MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEMIR Murat

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of online retailing has been one of the most significant developments in business history. Altough proportion of apparel sales in online retailing also has been shown rapid increase, there are some significant barriers to overcome for expanding this market share. It is seen in literature that there are many researchers point out that finding right size apparel is the one of the most significant problems in online retailing. There are many study to solve this problem but still there is not an exact solution yet. Creating 3D avatars for virtual try on or scanning body measurements of consumers have been used to solved this problem but any study has not come up with a reliable solution. In this study, a fuzzy logic based apparel size finder website is proposed. The benefits and working princible of this website are also explained. In this website, both of consumers and retailers can create a profile page for sharing products or following each other. Once consumers follow a profile of retailer, they can see the right size of any shared apparel. On the other hand, retailers can also directly send message to certain users for certain size apparel. This system brings advantages for both parties. Consumers can reach the correct size of apparel and retailers can reach to target customer. It is assumed that creating website alike this or application of existing online retailers will help to reduce return in apparel online retailing as well as it may help to expand online retailing.

  13. Calibration of CIR processes to CVA data and applications to estimation of Market Price of Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvolby, Thomas; Christensen, Bent Jesper; Høg, Esben

    2018-01-01

    We present a rigorous framework for CDS valuation and calibration to market quotes on single-name CDSs and methods of calculating the market price of risk (MPR) on such markets. We use the results of MPR for bond markets, and thus the MPR corresponds to the survival probabilities, which is a non......-tradable asset. Further, we present a set-up for numerical valuation of triparty CDS agreements, where two default risky parties trade a CDS with a third entity as reference credit....

  14. Reconciliation of diverse telepathology system designs. Historic issues and implications for emerging markets and new applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Ronald S; Graham, Anna R; Lian, Fangru; Braunhut, Beth L; Barker, Gail R; Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Bhattacharyya, Achyut K

    2012-04-01

    the approach and developed WSI-enhanced dynamic-robotic digital telepathology systems, marketed under a variety of labels. Successful commercialization of such systems could help overcome the current resistance of some pathologists to incorporate digital pathology, and telepathology, into their routine and esoteric laboratory services. Also, WSI-enhanced dynamic robotic telepathology could be useful for providing general pathology and subspecialty pathology services to many of the world's underserved populations in the decades ahead. This could become an important enabler for the delivery of patient-centered healthcare in the future. © 2012 The Authors APMIS © 2012 APMIS.

  15. Labor market position after a rejection of a disability pension application: a register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Mikko; Gould, Raija; Liukko, Jyri

    2017-08-17

    To study labor market positions of rejected disability pension applicants and to examine which characteristics predict ending up in these positions after the rejection. Nationwide Finnish register data was used to describe employment, unemployment and disability pension trajectories of rejected applicants (n = 5740) from four years before to four years after the rejection. Demographic, occupational and health-related determinants of labor market position after the rejection were examined among those employed and not employed at the time of the rejection. The proportion of the employed steeply decreased and that of unemployed increased before the rejection of a disability pension application. Four years after the rejection, 30% of the rejected applicants were employed, 24% were unemployed and 30% received disability pension. Employment at the time of the rejection, younger age, shorter unemployment history, public sector employment and milder work disability increased future employment. Manual work, public sector employment and previous long-term unemployment predicted future unemployment. Apart from higher age, associations with receiving disability pension were relatively weak. For many rejected disability pension applicants return to work is challenging. Special efforts should be targeted to support the remaining work ability and to promote employment opportunities of the rejected applicants. Implications for Rehabilitation Employment, unemployment and receiving disability pension were equally common labor market positions four years after the rejection. Rejected DP applicants with unemployment history need special efforts to increase their employability. As a disability pension application, even if rejected, clearly indicates some degree of work ability problems, rehabilitation should be targeted at this time point to support employment.

  16. 76 FR 31571 - Notice of Funds Availability (NOFA) Inviting Applications for the 2011 Farmers' Market Promotion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... perishable (fresh, refrigerated, or frozen) or canned as well as nutrient-dense foods and beverages... producer-to- consumer marketing outlets that sell healthy foods including, but not limited to, farmers...-based projects that focus on developing healthy food direct- marketing outlets in food deserts. These...

  17. Exploring segmentation in rural financial markets : an application in El Salvador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, H.A.J.; Ruben, R.; Mol, E.W.G.; Sanders, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Understanding the segmentation in rural financial markets is of major importance for the identification of feasible relationships between clients and financial institutions. In this article we combine different insights into segmentation in rural financial markets into a two-dimensional analysis,

  18. 76 FR 30147 - Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power Marketing Initiative to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Management Program Power Marketing Initiative to the Boulder Canyon Project AGENCY: Western Area Power.... SUMMARY: The Western Area Power Administration (Western), a Federal power marketing agency of the..., the Energy Management and Planning Program (Program), and the Conformed General Consolidated Power...

  19. Complex systems in financial economics: Applications to interbank and stock markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    in 't Veld, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    Complex systems are characterised by strong interaction at the micro level that can induce large changes at the macro level. This thesis applies the theory of complex systems to the interbank market (Part I) and the stock market (Part II). Evidence found in data from the Netherlands and the US makes

  20. 24 CFR 888.111 - Fair market rents for existing housing: Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fair market rents for existing... DIRECT LOAN PROGRAM, SECTION 202 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY PROGRAM AND SECTION 811 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PAYMENTS PROGRAM-FAIR MARKET...