WorldWideScience

Sample records for marketing approval based

  1. Marketing Approval of Ethical Kampo Medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakamatsuka, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Kampo medicine is an original traditional medicine in Japan. Currently, 148 ethical Kampo formulations (Kampo prescription drugs) are registered in the National Health Insurance Price List. Kampo medicines can be prescribed under the national insurance system, which shows that they are part of conventional medicine in Japan. Japan has a unified drug approval system that does not distinguish between Western and Kampo medicines, and both are subject to the same regulations. The application for the market approval of ethical Kampo medicines is based on the general notification for drugs, i.e., "Handling of Ethical Combination Drugs" in "Precautions Necessary When Applying for Drug Marketing Approval" (Yakushokushinsa Notification No. 1121-12 of November 21, 2014). Furthermore, applications for the market approval of ethical Kampo medicines should follow the Kampo-specific notification of "Handling of Ethical Kampo Medicines" (Yakushin Notification No. 804 of June 25, 1980). Data from comparative studies with standard decoctions must be submitted with approval applications according to Yakushin 2 Notification No. 120 of May 31, 1985. The safety, efficacy, and quality of Kampo medicines are comprehensively assured by the Japanese Pharmacopoeia, Good Manufacturing Practice, Good Agricultural and Collection Practices, marketing approval certificate, approval standard, and pharmacovigilance. I believe that the basic framework for the market approval of ethical Kampo medicines has been established as described above. The key factors for the practical application of superior manufacturing technology and research achievements and the promotion of drug development are the specific guidelines for the approval of drugs of herbal origin.

  2. A decade of marketing approval of gene and cell-based therapies in the United States, European Union and Japan: An evaluation of regulatory decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppens, D G M; de Wilde, S; Guchelaar, H J; De Bruin, M L; Leufkens, H G M; Meij, P; Hoekman, J

    2018-05-02

    There is a widely held expectation of clinical advance with the development of gene and cell-based therapies (GCTs). Yet, establishing benefits and risks is highly uncertain. We examine differences in decision-making for GCT approval between jurisdictions by comparing regulatory assessment procedures in the United States (US), European Union (EU) and Japan. A cohort of 18 assessment procedures was analyzed by comparing product characteristics, evidentiary and non-evidentiary factors considered for approval and post-marketing risk management. Product characteristics are very heterogeneous and only three products are marketed in multiple jurisdictions. Almost half of all approved GCTs received an orphan designation. Overall, confirmatory evidence or indications of clinical benefit were evident in US and EU applications, whereas in Japan approval was solely granted based on non-confirmatory evidence. Due to scientific uncertainties and safety risks, substantial post-marketing risk management activities were requested in the EU and Japan. EU and Japanese authorities often took unmet medical needs into consideration in decision-making for approval. These observations underline the effects of implemented legislation in these two jurisdictions that facilitate an adaptive approach to licensing. In the US, the recent assessments of two chimeric antigen receptor-T cell (CAR-T) products are suggestive of a trend toward a more permissive approach for GCT approval under recent reforms, in contrast to a more binary decision-making approach for previous approvals. It indicates that all three regulatory agencies are currently willing to take risks by approving GCTs with scientific uncertainties and safety risks, urging them to pay accurate attention to post-marketing risk management. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 76 FR 28726 - Grain Market News Reports; Request for Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... Service [Doc. No. AMS-LS-11-0035] Grain Market News Reports; Request for Extension of a Currently Approved... grain market news reports. DATES: Comments must be received by July 18, 2011. ADDRESSES: Comments should... Lynch, Chief, Livestock and Grain Market News Branch, Livestock and Seed Program, Agricultural Marketing...

  4. Innovating by developing new uses of already-approved drugs: trends in the marketing approval of supplemental indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMasi, Joseph A

    2013-06-01

    Much of the literature on trends and factors affecting biopharmaceutical innovation has focused overwhelmingly on the development and approval of never-before approved drugs and biologics. Little attention has been paid to new uses for already-approved compounds, which can be an important form of innovation. This paper aimed to determine and analyze recent trends in the number and type of new or modified US indication approvals for drugs and biologics. We also examine regulatory approval-phase times for new-use efficacy supplements and compare them to approval-phase times for original-use approvals over the same period. We developed a data set of efficacy supplements approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) from 1998 to 2011 that includes information on the type, approval-phase time (time from submission to the FDA of an application for marketing approval to approval of the application), and FDA therapeutic-significance rating for the approved application, which we obtained from an FDA Web site. This data set was merged with a Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development (CSDD) data set of US new drug and biologics approvals. We developed descriptive statistics on trends in the number and type of new-use efficacy supplements, on US regulatory approval-phase times for the supplements, and on original new drug and biologics approvals over the study period and for the time from original- to new-use approval. The total number of new-use efficacy-supplement approvals did not exhibit a marked trend, but the number of new pediatric-indication approvals increased substantially. Approval-phase times for new-use supplements varied by therapeutic class and FDA therapeutic-significance rating. Mean approval-phase times were highest for central nervous system compounds (13.8 months) and lowest for antineoplastics (8.9 months). The mean time from original to supplement approval was substantially longer for new pediatric indications than for other new uses. Mean

  5. 21 CFR 314.610 - Approval based on evidence of effectiveness from studies in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... based on evidence of effectiveness from studies in animals. (a) FDA may grant marketing approval for a... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval based on evidence of effectiveness from... the effectiveness of these products only when: (1) There is a reasonably well-understood...

  6. 78 FR 32226 - Poultry Market News Reports; Request for Extension and Revision of the Currently Approved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Service [Doc. No. AMS-LPS-13-0021] Poultry Market News Reports; Request for Extension and Revision of the Currently Approved Information Collection and To Merge the Collections of Livestock, Poultry, Meat, Grain... merged its Livestock and Grain Market News Division with the Poultry Market News Division, creating the...

  7. Regulatory Approval Decisions in the Presence of Market Externalities: The Case of Genetically Modified Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Furtan, William Hartley; Gray, Richard S.; Holzman, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the optimal approval strategy for genetically modified (GM) wheat varieties in Canada and the United States. Without an affordable segregation system, the introduction of GM wheat will create a market for "lemons" that will result in the loss of important export markets. Using a differentiated product trade model for spring wheat, with endogenous technology pricing, a payoff matrix is generated for the possible approval outcomes. Results show that the existence of the mark...

  8. Fixed-Dose Combination Drug Approvals, Patents and Market Exclusivities Compared to Single Active Ingredient Pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jing; Rodriguez-Monguio, Rosa; Seoane-Vazquez, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Fixed-dose combinations (FDC) contain two or more active ingredients. The effective patent and exclusivity life of FDC compared to single active ingredient has not been assessed. Trends in FDA approved FDC in the period 1980-2012 and time lag between approval of FDC and single active ingredients in the combination were assessed, and the effective patent and exclusivity life of FDC was compared with their single active ingredients. New molecular entities (NMEs), new therapeutic biologics license applications (BLAs) and FDC data were collected from the FDA Orange Book and Drugs@FDA. Analysis included FDC containing one or more NMEs or BLAs at first FDA approval (NMEs-FDC) and only already marketed drugs (Non-NMEs-FDC). Descriptive, Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon Rank Sum analyses were performed. During the study period, the FDA approved 28 NMEs-FDC (3.5% of NMEs) and 117 non-NMEs-FDC. FDC approvals increased from 12 in the 1980s to 59 in the 2000s. Non-NMEs-FDC entered the market at a median of 5.43 years (interquartile range 1.74, 10.31) after first FDA approval of single active ingredients in the combination. The Non-NMEs-FDC entered the market at a median of 2.33 years (-7.55, 2.39) before approval of generic single active ingredient. Non-NME-FDC added a median of 9.70 (2.75, 16.24) years to the patent and exclusivity life of the single active ingredients in the combination. FDC approvals significantly increased over the last twenty years. Pharmaceutical companies market FDC drugs shortly before the generic versions of the single ingredients enter the market extending the patent and exclusivity life of drugs included in the combination.

  9. Fixed-Dose Combination Drug Approvals, Patents and Market Exclusivities Compared to Single Active Ingredient Pharmaceuticals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Hao

    Full Text Available Fixed-dose combinations (FDC contain two or more active ingredients. The effective patent and exclusivity life of FDC compared to single active ingredient has not been assessed.Trends in FDA approved FDC in the period 1980-2012 and time lag between approval of FDC and single active ingredients in the combination were assessed, and the effective patent and exclusivity life of FDC was compared with their single active ingredients.New molecular entities (NMEs, new therapeutic biologics license applications (BLAs and FDC data were collected from the FDA Orange Book and Drugs@FDA. Analysis included FDC containing one or more NMEs or BLAs at first FDA approval (NMEs-FDC and only already marketed drugs (Non-NMEs-FDC. Descriptive, Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon Rank Sum analyses were performed.During the study period, the FDA approved 28 NMEs-FDC (3.5% of NMEs and 117 non-NMEs-FDC. FDC approvals increased from 12 in the 1980s to 59 in the 2000s. Non-NMEs-FDC entered the market at a median of 5.43 years (interquartile range 1.74, 10.31 after first FDA approval of single active ingredients in the combination. The Non-NMEs-FDC entered the market at a median of 2.33 years (-7.55, 2.39 before approval of generic single active ingredient. Non-NME-FDC added a median of 9.70 (2.75, 16.24 years to the patent and exclusivity life of the single active ingredients in the combination.FDC approvals significantly increased over the last twenty years. Pharmaceutical companies market FDC drugs shortly before the generic versions of the single ingredients enter the market extending the patent and exclusivity life of drugs included in the combination.

  10. Drug-loaded erythrocytes: on the road toward marketing approval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourgeaux V

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vanessa Bourgeaux,1 José M Lanao,2 Bridget E Bax,3 Yann Godfrin11ERYTECH Pharma, Lyon, France; 2Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain; 3Cardiovascular and Cell Sciences Research Institute, St George’s University of London, London, UKAbstract: Erythrocyte drug encapsulation is one of the most promising therapeutic alternative approaches for the administration of toxic or rapidly cleared drugs. Drug-loaded erythrocytes can operate through one of the three main mechanisms of action: extension of circulation half-life (bioreactor, slow drug release, or specific organ targeting. Although the clinical development of erythrocyte carriers is confronted with regulatory and development process challenges, industrial development is expanding. The manufacture of this type of product can be either centralized or bedside based, and different procedures are employed for the encapsulation of therapeutic agents. The major challenges for successful industrialization include production scalability, process validation, and quality control of the released therapeutic agents. Advantages and drawbacks of the different manufacturing processes as well as success key points of clinical development are discussed. Several entrapment technologies based on osmotic methods have been industrialized. Companies have already achieved many of the critical clinical stages, thus providing the opportunity in the future to cover a wide range of diseases for which effective therapies are not currently available.Keywords: red blood cell, encapsulation method, drug carrier, industrial development, clinical use

  11. 77 FR 48570 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... Underlying Securities) of the NASDAQ Options Market rules.\\11\\ Additionally, the Target Component's and the...\\ Additionally, the Target Component's and the Benchmark Component's trading volume (in all markets in which the...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change Relating to the...

  12. 77 FR 47472 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... proposed rule change to make certain amendments that, in part, clarified the operation of the new Market... equitable principles of trade, to remove impediments to and perfect the mechanism of a free and open market...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change, as Modified by...

  13. [Marketing approval and market surveillance of medical devices in Germany: Where does policy integration take place?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Since 2011 new regulatory measures regarding medical devices have been set up with the aim to eliminate obstacles to innovations and to find more coordinated ways to marketing authorisation and market surveillance. This essay investigates whether these new and existing coordination mechanisms build up to a Joined-up Government approach. The analysis shows that the regulatory process should be adjusted along several dimensions. First, many organisations lack awareness regarding their stakeholders and focus solely on their immediate organisational activities. Second, the regulatory process (marketing authorisation and market surveillance) is too fragmented for an effective communication to take place. Finally, the underlying strategy process is an ad-hoc approach lacking continuity and continued involvement of, in particular, the responsible federal ministries. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  14. Market-Based Fisheries Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    a timely, critical insight into the social, cultural and economic aspects and consequences of market-based fisheries management. The privatization of fish quotas in Denmark represents one of the most far-reaching and comprehensive privatization schemes of its kind and has been widely promoted as a market......-based system with innovative social safeguards. This work critically examines this privatization of fish resources, combining quantitative and qualitative material to provide new understanding of fish quotas and their social value. Scholars with an interest in privatization and the socio-economic aspects...... of fisheries, and those working with NGOs, fishers and fisheries, and concerned with political conflicts will all value the research presented here....

  15. 78 FR 62814 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change To Assume... Authority and Supervision September 30, 2013. On July 31, 2013, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or...) Manipulation patterns that monitor solely NASDAQ activity, including patterns that monitor the Exchange's...

  16. 76 FR 21085 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ Stock Market, LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ Stock Market, LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Amend The NASDAQ OMX Group, Inc. By- Laws April 8, 2011. I. Introduction On February 8, 2011, The NASDAQ Stock Market... vote cast either ``for'' or ``against'' that director's election. In its filing, NASDAQ noted that...

  17. 77 FR 65237 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Granting Approval of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...Tree Trust October 19, 2012. I. Introduction On August 15, 2012, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``Nasdaq... temporary defensive strategies that are inconsistent with its investment strategies, the Fund's ability to...

  18. 77 FR 49034 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... entering new orders at inferior prices. This occurs because the current process directs the order to NASDAQ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change To Amend Rule... June 14, 2012, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or ``Exchange''), filed with the Securities and...

  19. [Management of Chinese materia medica market based on information asymmetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Wang, Nuo; Guo, Lan-Ping; Wang, Yong-Yan; Huang, Lu-Qi; Liu, Jin-Xin

    2013-12-01

    Pharmaceutical market is a typical market with information asymmetry, and which can lead to "lemons" problem. In all developed countries, firms must receive regulatory approval to market a pharmaceutical product. Such administrative department including SFDA, EMA, FDA and so on. Chinese materia medica is a special part of pharmaceutical market in China. The management of Chinese materia medica is a special challenge in China.

  20. Market based generation: A promising market management option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, R.

    1992-01-01

    It is proposed to ease the tension between demand management and supply side management at electric utilities through the introduction of a concept called market management. Market management provides a framework for developing and evaluating the attractiveness of new products and services such as dispersed generation hardware, implementation services, and complementary pricing structures. A market management strategy is the definition of market segments, creating products for those segments, evaluation of the profitability of the product-segment combinations, commitment of resources to those segments, and development of product and marketing plans for those segments. A brief analysis of backup generation is presented as an example of market management. In this example, the customer that is backed up shares some portion of the capital and maintenance costs of the backup unit through priority service rates; the utility and customers that are not backed up can obtain the use of the generating resource but pay only a portion of its costs. Backup generation programs have been found to provide utilities with the ability to meet peak load requirements more cheaply than by investing in peaking capacity. Other benefits for utilities include protection of market share, more efficient rates, and a new source of revenues. With the advances in the technology of small-scale generation, utilities can examine bundling various pricing options with market based generation to offer alternative value-added service options to customer segments with demand characteristics that make these technologies attractive. 3 figs

  1. Value Based International Relationship Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Ulrich Scholz

    2009-01-01

    The developement of a "general theory" of relationship marketing must be considered as distant vision rather than as imminent reality.We now use the existing stock of knowledge to identify some largely unexplored,yet relevant, aspects of relationship marketing and call for these issues to be

  2. 17 CFR 1.54 - Contract market rules submitted to and approved or not disapproved by the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... submitted to and approved or not disapproved by the Secretary of Agriculture. 1.54 Section 1.54 Commodity... Secretary of Agriculture. Notwithstanding any provision of these rules, any bylaw, rule, regulation, or resolution of a contract market that was submitted to the Secretary of Agriculture pursuant or § 1.38(a) or...

  3. 76 FR 45308 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Granting Approval of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change To... change should provide NOM Participants assistance in effectively managing their quotations. \\6\\ 15 U.S.C...,\\2\\ a proposed rule change to adopt a new risk monitor mechanism. The proposed rule change was...

  4. Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market. What the Research Says For... Qualification & Approval Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This summary pulls together the relevant key findings for qualification and approval bodies from the research program "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market." The program was comprised of three different strands: (1) pathways from VET in Schools, (2) pathways within and between vocational education…

  5. 78 FR 62834 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Granting Approval of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Fund of First Trust Exchange-Traded Fund VII October 9, 2013. I. Introduction On August 16, 2013, The... for the provision of custody, transfer agency, and accounting agent services with the same or with...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

  6. 78 FR 55057 - Authority To Manufacture Carbon Fiber for the U.S. Market Not Approved; Foreign-Trade Subzone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Order No. 1914] Authority To Manufacture Carbon... behalf of Toho Tenax America, Inc. (TTA), to manufacture carbon fiber under zone procedures for the U.S... approve the application requesting authority to manufacture carbon fiber for the U.S. market under zone...

  7. Market based solutions for power pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangensteen, Ivar

    2002-06-01

    The report examines how the price for effect reserves, spot market power and regulated power is formed provided ideal market conditions rule. Primarily the price determining factors in a market for power reserves are examined and how the connection between this market and the energy market (the spot market) is. In a free market there would be a balance between what the actors may obtain by operating in the open market for power reserves/regulated power on the one hand and the market for spot power on the other. Primarily we suppose that the desired amount of power reserve is known. Secondly the problem constellation is extended to comprise the size of the effect reserves i.e. the optimising of the requirement to the power reserves. The optimal amount of power reserves is obtained when there is a balance between the cost and the benefit. This optimal balance is achieved when expected macro economical loss due to outfacing balances against the cost of maintaining larger reserves. By using a simple model it is demonstrated that a system operator regulates the maximal price in the regulated market and this equals the rationing price. The actors will offer sufficient reserves even if the reserve price is zero (provided risk neutrality). If the maximal price for regulated power is lower the price of effect reserves will rise. Based on the same simple model calculations are made for how short and long term market balance will be for increasing demands

  8. Applications for approval to market a new drug; complete response letter; amendments to unapproved applications. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-10

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations on new drug applications (NDAs) and abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for approval to market new drugs and generic drugs (drugs for which approval is sought in an ANDA). The final rule discontinues FDA's use of approvable letters and not approvable letters when taking action on marketing applications. Instead, we will send applicants a complete response letter to indicate that the review cycle for an application is complete and that the application is not ready for approval. We are also revising the regulations on extending the review cycle due to the submission of an amendment to an unapproved application and starting a new review cycle after the resubmission of an application following receipt of a complete response letter. In addition, we are adding to the regulations on biologics license applications (BLAs) provisions on the issuance of complete response letters to BLA applicants. We are taking these actions to implement the user fee performance goals referenced in the Prescription Drug User Fee Amendments of 2002 (PDUFA III) that address procedures and establish target timeframes for reviewing human drug applications.

  9. Online marketing improvement based on marketing psychology, case: Roomsevilla

    OpenAIRE

    Laakkonen, Roosa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to study and find out the best cost-effective online marketing channels for a Spanish housing agency Roomsevilla in order to strengthen its online marketing. In addition, this thesis aims to find out how the case company can use marketing psychology in its online marketing. The theoretical part includes online marketing, marketing mix and marketing psycho- logy which were collected from various books, online journals and websites. Also Cialdini's 6 Principle...

  10. An approved personal dosimetry service based on an electronic dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, T.O.; Bartlett, D.T.; Burgess, P.H.; Campbell, J.I.; Hill, C.E.; Pook, E.A.; Sandford, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    At the Second Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry a paper was presented which, in part, announced the development of an electronic dosimeter to be undertaken in the UK by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) and Siemens Plessey Controls Ltd. This dosimeter was to be of a standard suitable for use as the basis of an approved personal dosimetry service for photon and beta radiations. The project has progressed extremely well and dosimeters and readers are about to become commercially available. The system and the specification of the dosimeter are presented. The NRPB is in the process of applying for approval by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) to operate as personal monitoring service based on this dosimeter. As part of the approval procedure the dosimeter is being type tested and is also undergoing an HSE performance test and wearer trials. The tests and the wearer trials are described and a summary of the results to date presented. The way in which the service will be organized and operated is described and a comparison is made between the running of the service and others based on passive dosimeters at NRPB

  11. Policy plan for the early approval for irradiated meat products and the promotion of irradiated meats in market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Woon [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Wang Geun [Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong Su [Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong Sun [Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Cheon Jei [Division of Animal Life Science, Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-11-15

    The consumption of meat products is gradually being increased by the development of livestock raising technology, industrialized farm management and international trade. This increased consumption also created new market for ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook meat products. However, these convenience meat products can be easily contaminated during the processing and storage by pathogens, and there have been many reported cases of food borne illness by meats. One of the most effective methods for the decontamination of meat products is the radiation technology. Food irradiation was the established, well-recognized and safe sterilization method. Many other countries researched the effect of irradiation on the meat products and approved the irradiation. In this article, the effectiveness, the international acceptance, the economics and the research trend of irradiation on meat products have been reviewed. Also, the policy plans for the early approval of the irradiated meat products in Korea and the promotion policy of irradiated meats in market were discussed.

  12. Policy plan for the early approval for irradiated meat products and the promotion of irradiated meats in market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Wang Geun; Kim, Kyong Su; Yook, Hong Sun; Kim, Cheon Jei

    2008-01-01

    The consumption of meat products is gradually being increased by the development of livestock raising technology, industrialized farm management and international trade. This increased consumption also created new market for ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook meat products. However, these convenience meat products can be easily contaminated during the processing and storage by pathogens, and there have been many reported cases of food borne illness by meats. One of the most effective methods for the decontamination of meat products is the radiation technology. Food irradiation was the established, well-recognized and safe sterilization method. Many other countries researched the effect of irradiation on the meat products and approved the irradiation. In this article, the effectiveness, the international acceptance, the economics and the research trend of irradiation on meat products have been reviewed. Also, the policy plans for the early approval of the irradiated meat products in Korea and the promotion policy of irradiated meats in market were discussed

  13. Analysis of the Risks and Benefits of New Chemical Entities Approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Subsequently Withdrawn From the US Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriarca, Peter A; Van Auken, R Michael; Kebschull, Scott A

    2018-01-01

    Benefit-risk evaluations of drugs have been conducted since the introduction of modern regulatory systems more than 50 years ago. Such judgments are typically made on the basis of qualitative or semiquantitative approaches, often without the aid of quantitative assessment methods, the latter having often been applied asymmetrically to place emphasis on benefit more so than harm. In an effort to preliminarily evaluate the utility of lives lost or saved, or quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) lost and gained as a means of quantitatively assessing the potential benefits and risks of a new chemical entity, we focused our attention on the unique scenario in which a drug was initially approved based on one set of data, but later withdrawn from the market based on a second set of data. In this analysis, a dimensionless risk to benefit ratio was calculated in each instance, based on the risk and benefit quantified in similar units. The results indicated that FDA decisions to approve the drug corresponded to risk to benefit ratios less than or equal to 0.136, and that decisions to withdraw the drug from the US market corresponded to risk to benefit ratios greater than or equal to 0.092. The probability of FDA approval was then estimated using logistic regression analysis. The results of this analysis indicated that there was a 50% probability of FDA approval if the risk to benefit ratio was 0.121, and that the probability approaches 100% for values much less than 0.121, and the probability approaches 0% for values much greater than 0.121. The large uncertainty in these estimates due to the small sample size and overlapping data may be addressed in the future by applying the methodology to other drugs.

  14. A Market-Based Virtual Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Træholt, Chresten; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2009-01-01

    The fast growing penetration of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) and the continuing trend towards a more liberalized electricity market requires more efficient energy management strategies to handle both emerging technical and economic issues. In this paper, a market-based Virtual Power Plant...... (MBVPP) model is proposed which provides individual DER units the accesses to current electricity markets. General bidding scenario and price signal scenario as two optional operation scenarios are operated by one MBVPP. In the end, a use case of a MBVPP with micro Combined Heat and Power (μCHP) systems...

  15. Value-Based Marketing: A Dsicussion of Issues and Trends in the Slaughter Cattle Market

    OpenAIRE

    Fausti, Scott W.; Diersen, Matthew A.; Qasmi, Bashir A.; Li, Jing

    2009-01-01

    Pricing and technological innovation are discussed within the context of the beef industry’s value-based marketing initiative. Cash and contract marketing practices for fed cattle are addressed with respect to slaughter volume and pricing methods (live, dressed, and grid). A methodology for estimating grid market share of weekly slaughter volume, based on USDA market reports (2004–2009), is introduced. Weekly grid market shares for the cash and contract markets are derived. Summary statis...

  16. 75 FR 77634 - Approval of Test Marketing Exemptions for Certain New Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    .... Use: (G) Coatings resin. Production Volume: CBI. Number of Customers: CBI. Test Marketing Period: CBI.... Number of Customers: CBI. Test Marketing Period: CBI. TME-09-0012. Date of Receipt: May 29, 2009. Notice... binding resin. Production Volume: CBI. Number of Customers: CBI. Test Marketing Period: CBI. TME-10-0001...

  17. 77 FR 32633 - Approval of Test Marketing Exemptions for Certain New Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... of Customers: CBI. Test Marketing Period: CBI days, commencing on first day of commercial manufacture... inorganic pigments and extenders. Production Volume: CBI. Number of Customers: CBI. Test Marketing Period... Customers: CBI. Test Marketing Period: CBI days, commencing on first day of commercial manufacture. TME-11...

  18. 78 FR 49508 - Tesoro Refining & Marketing Company LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... Refining & Marketing Company LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes... proceeding of Tesoro Refining & Marketing Company LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an... of protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov...

  19. 75 FR 35017 - Brookfield Energy Marketing LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Energy Marketing LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding of Brookfield Energy Marketing LP's application for market-based rate authority, with an... protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To...

  20. 78 FR 16262 - Tesoro Refining & Marketing Company LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... Refining & Marketing Company LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes... proceeding, of Tesoro Refining & Marketing Company LLC's application for market- based rate authority, with... submission of protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov...

  1. The Evolution of Approval Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warzala, Martin

    1994-01-01

    Describes major developments in book approval plans used by academic libraries for acquisition and for information dissemination and document distribution services based on approval-like concepts. Topics addressed include publishers; marketing; the impact of library automation; value-added services; the economic climate; the influence of…

  2. Strategy-Based Segmentation of Industrial Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhallen, Theo M.M.; Frambach, Ruud T.; Prabhu, Jaideep

    Segmentation of industrial markets is typically based on observable characteristics of firms such as their location and size. However, such variables have been found to be poor predictors of industrial buying behavior. To improve the effectiveness and power of existing approaches to industrial

  3. Redefining trade-based market manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, Matthijs

    2008-01-01

    Trade-based market manipulation, which is usually described as trading shares to initiate a price change or to cause an artificial price, has received wide attention in policy and academic discussions, although the behavior is still poorly defined in both legal and economic literature. This Article

  4. Desiccant-Based Preconditioning Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, J.

    2001-01-11

    A number of important conclusions can be drawn as a result of this broad, first-phase market evaluation. The more important conclusions include the following: (1) A very significant market opportunity will exist for specialized outdoor air-handling units (SOAHUs) as more construction and renovation projects are designed to incorporate the recommendations made by the ASHRAE 62-1989 standard. Based on this investigation, the total potential market is currently $725,000,000 annually (see Table 6, Sect. 3). Based on the market evaluations completed, it is estimated that approximately $398,000,000 (55%) of this total market could be served by DBC systems if they were made cost-effective through mass production. Approximately $306,000,000 (42%) of the total can be served by a non-regenerated, desiccant-based total recovery approach, based on the information provided by this investigation. Approximately $92,000,000 (13%) can be served by a regenerated desiccant-based cooling approach (see Table 7, Sect. 3). (2) A projection of the market selling price of various desiccant-based SOAHU systems was prepared using prices provided by Trane for central-station, air-handling modules currently manufactured. The wheel-component pricing was added to these components by SEMCO. This resulted in projected pricing for these systems that is significantly less than that currently offered by custom suppliers (see Table 4, Sect. 2). Estimated payback periods for all SOAHU approaches were quite short when compared with conventional over-cooling and reheat systems. Actual paybacks may vary significantly depending on site-specific considerations. (3) In comparing cost vs benefit of each SOAHU approach, it is critical that the total system design be evaluated. For example, the cost premium of a DBC system is very significant when compared to a conventional air handling system, yet the reduced chiller, boiler, cooling tower, and other expense often equals or exceeds this premium, resulting in a

  5. Markets for Canadian bitumen-based feedstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, R.; Lauerman, V.; Yamaguchi, N.

    2001-02-01

    This study was undertaken in an effort to determine the market potential for crude bitumen and derivative products from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin in 2007. As part of the study, CERI assessed the economic viability of a wide range of bitumen-based feedstock based on their refining values, investigated the sensitivity of refinery demand to the prices of these feedstocks, and examined the competitiveness of bitumen-based feedstocks and conventional crudes. A US$18.00 per barrel price for West Texas Intermediate at Cushing, Oklahoma, was assumed in all calculations, including other crude prices, as well as for Western Canadian and US crude oil production forecasts. Four different scenarios have been considered, but only the 'most plausible' scenario is discussed in the report. Consequently, Hydrocracked/Aromatics Saturated Synthetic Crude Oil, which is currently only a hypothetical product, is excluded from consideration. The availability of historical price differentials for the various competing crudes was another assumption used in developing the scenario. Proxy prices for the bitumen-based feedstock were based on their respective supply costs. The study concludes that the principal dilemma facing bitumen producers in Western Canada is to determine the amount of upgrading necessary to ensure an economic market for their product in the future. In general, the greater the degree of upgrading, the higher is the demand for bitumen-based feedstock. However, it must be kept in mind that the upgrading decisions of other bitumen producers, along with many other factors, will have a decisive impact on the economics of any individual project. The combination of coking capacity and asphalt demand limits the market for heavy and extra-heavy crudes. As a result, the researchers concluded that major expansion of heavy crude conversion capacity may have to wait until the end of the current decade. The economic market for bitumen-based blends in 2007 is estimated at

  6. Heterogeneity of Clinical Trials for Antihypertensive Drugs in Japan: Exploratory Analysis of Confirmatory Phase III Trials Used for Marketing Approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Reina; Sano, Kota; Ono, Shunsuke

    2018-07-01

    The results of pivotal trials, which provide a rationale for marketing approval decisions for new drugs, are considered for various comparative purposes in postmarketing analyses. Using meta-regression analysis of 91 randomized controlled trials of 61 approved antihypertensive drugs in Japan, we show that mean baseline blood pressure (BP) of each arm was associated with predetermined entry criteria (EC), age, and trial start year (TSY). BP changes following treatment were associated with EC, subject characteristics (e.g., age, complications, baseline BP), study design (e.g., concomitant drug use), and TSY. Effect sizes were generally larger in trials for the first and second drugs in the same class than in trials for follow-on drugs. Results of pivotal trials may vary depending on many factors, suggesting possible challenges associated with the comparison of these results indirectly. Due to the heterogeneity in pivotal trials, caution should be exercised when comparing approved drugs and conducting meta-analyses retrospectively. © 2017, The American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  7. Space Situational Awareness using Market Based Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, C.; Pier, E.; Gregory, S.; Bush, M.

    2012-09-01

    Space surveillance for the DoD is not limited to the Space Surveillance Network (SSN). Other DoD-owned assets have some existing capabilities for tasking but have no systematic way to work collaboratively with the SSN. These are run by diverse organizations including the Services, other defense and intelligence agencies and national laboratories. Beyond these organizations, academic and commercial entities have systems that possess SSA capability. Most all of these assets have some level of connectivity, security, and potential autonomy. Exploiting them in a mutually beneficial structure could provide a more comprehensive, efficient and cost effective solution for SSA. The collection of all potential assets, providers and consumers of SSA data comprises a market which is functionally illiquid. The development of a dynamic marketplace for SSA data could enable would-be providers the opportunity to sell data to SSA consumers for monetary or incentive based compensation. A well-conceived market architecture could drive down SSA data costs through increased supply and improve efficiency through increased competition. Oceanit will investigate market and market agent architectures, protocols, standards, and incentives toward producing high-volume/low-cost SSA.

  8. Green maritime transportation: Market based measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to introduce the concept of Market Based Measures (MBMs) to reduce Green House Gas (GHG) emissions from ships, and review several distinct MBM proposals that have been under consideration by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The chapter discusses the me...... the mechanisms used by MBMs, and explores how the concept of the Marginal Abatement Cost (MAC) can be linked to MBMs. It also attempts to discuss the pros and cons of the submitted proposals....

  9. Segments of marketers based on a perceived importance of marketing knowledge and skills

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna Žabkar; Maja Hosta

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to define and empirically verify a range of knowledge and skills which are necessary in order to segment marketers, based on their perceptions of the importance of such marketing knowledge and skills. To empirically verify the importance of marketing knowledge and skills, a 28-item measurement instrument was developed. Responses from 235 marketing vice-presidents, marketing directors, sales directors or company presidents/owners in Slovenia were obtained (an 11....

  10. Markets for Canadian bitumen-based feedstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauerman, V.

    2001-01-01

    The best types of refineries for processing western Canadian bitumen-based feedstock (BBF) were identified and a potential market for these feedstock for year 2007 was calculated. In addition, this power point presentation provided an estimation of potential regional and total demand for BBF. BBF included Athabasca bitumen blend, de-asphalted blend, coked sour crude oil (SCO), coked sweet SCO, hydrocracked SCO and hydrocracked/aromatic saturated SCO (HAS). Refinery prototypes included light and mixed prototypes for primary cracking units, light and heavy prototypes for primary coking units, as well as no coking, coking severe and residuum prototypes for primary hydrocracking units. The presentation included graphs depicting the natural market for Western Canadian crudes as well as U.S. crude oil production forecasts by PADD districts. It was forecasted that the market for bitumen-based feedstock in 2007 will be tight and that the potential demand for bitumen-based blends would be similar to expected production. It was also forecasted that the potential demand for SCO is not as promising relative to the expected production, unless price discounting or HAS will be available. 11 figs

  11. Market Segmentation Using Bayesian Model Based Clustering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hattum, P.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation deals with two basic problems in marketing, that are market segmentation, which is the grouping of persons who share common aspects, and market targeting, which is focusing your marketing efforts on one or more attractive market segments. For the grouping of persons who share

  12. Identity based marketing: a new balanced marketing paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsem, K.J.; Kostelijk, Erik Jan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to propose a fundamentally new extension of the marketing paradigm. This is theoretically and practically necessary since in the authors' view there is an insufficient balance between customer and brand thinking. Design/methodology/approach – While the

  13. Identity-based marketing : A new balanced marketing paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsem, K.J.; Kostelijk, E.J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to propose a fundamentally new extension of the marketing paradigm. This is theoretically and practically necessary since in the authors' view there is an insufficient balance between customer and brand thinking. Design/methodology/approach - While the

  14. Agent-based models of financial markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samanidou, E [Department of Economics, University of Kiel, Olshausenstrasse 40, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Zschischang, E [HSH Nord Bank, Portfolio Mngmt. and Inv., Martensdamm 6, D-24103 Kiel (Germany); Stauffer, D [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Cologne University, D-50923 Koeln (Germany); Lux, T [Department of Economics, University of Kiel, Olshausenstrasse 40, D-24118 Kiel (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    This review deals with several microscopic ('agent-based') models of financial markets which have been studied by economists and physicists over the last decade: Kim-Markowitz, Levy-Levy-Solomon, Cont-Bouchaud, Solomon-Weisbuch, Lux-Marchesi, Donangelo-Sneppen and Solomon-Levy-Huang. After an overview of simulation approaches in financial economics, we first give a summary of the Donangelo-Sneppen model of monetary exchange and compare it with related models in economics literature. Our selective review then outlines the main ingredients of some influential early models of multi-agent dynamics in financial markets (Kim-Markowitz, Levy-Levy-Solomon). As will be seen, these contributions draw their inspiration from the complex appearance of investors' interactions in real-life markets. Their main aim is to reproduce (and, thereby, provide possible explanations) for the spectacular bubbles and crashes seen in certain historical episodes, but they lack (like almost all the work before 1998 or so) a perspective in terms of the universal statistical features of financial time series. In fact, awareness of a set of such regularities (power-law tails of the distribution of returns, temporal scaling of volatility) only gradually appeared over the nineties. With the more precise description of the formerly relatively vague characteristics (e.g. moving from the notion of fat tails to the more concrete one of a power law with index around three), it became clear that financial market dynamics give rise to some kind of universal scaling law. Showing similarities with scaling laws for other systems with many interacting sub-units, an exploration of financial markets as multi-agent systems appeared to be a natural consequence. This topic has been pursued by quite a number of contributions appearing in both the physics and economics literature since the late nineties. From the wealth of different flavours of multi-agent models that have appeared up to now, we

  15. Agent-based models of financial markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanidou, E.; Zschischang, E.; Stauffer, D.; Lux, T.

    2007-03-01

    This review deals with several microscopic ('agent-based') models of financial markets which have been studied by economists and physicists over the last decade: Kim-Markowitz, Levy-Levy-Solomon, Cont-Bouchaud, Solomon-Weisbuch, Lux-Marchesi, Donangelo-Sneppen and Solomon-Levy-Huang. After an overview of simulation approaches in financial economics, we first give a summary of the Donangelo-Sneppen model of monetary exchange and compare it with related models in economics literature. Our selective review then outlines the main ingredients of some influential early models of multi-agent dynamics in financial markets (Kim-Markowitz, Levy-Levy-Solomon). As will be seen, these contributions draw their inspiration from the complex appearance of investors' interactions in real-life markets. Their main aim is to reproduce (and, thereby, provide possible explanations) for the spectacular bubbles and crashes seen in certain historical episodes, but they lack (like almost all the work before 1998 or so) a perspective in terms of the universal statistical features of financial time series. In fact, awareness of a set of such regularities (power-law tails of the distribution of returns, temporal scaling of volatility) only gradually appeared over the nineties. With the more precise description of the formerly relatively vague characteristics (e.g. moving from the notion of fat tails to the more concrete one of a power law with index around three), it became clear that financial market dynamics give rise to some kind of universal scaling law. Showing similarities with scaling laws for other systems with many interacting sub-units, an exploration of financial markets as multi-agent systems appeared to be a natural consequence. This topic has been pursued by quite a number of contributions appearing in both the physics and economics literature since the late nineties. From the wealth of different flavours of multi-agent models that have appeared up to now, we discuss the Cont

  16. Agent-based models of financial markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanidou, E; Zschischang, E; Stauffer, D; Lux, T

    2007-01-01

    This review deals with several microscopic ('agent-based') models of financial markets which have been studied by economists and physicists over the last decade: Kim-Markowitz, Levy-Levy-Solomon, Cont-Bouchaud, Solomon-Weisbuch, Lux-Marchesi, Donangelo-Sneppen and Solomon-Levy-Huang. After an overview of simulation approaches in financial economics, we first give a summary of the Donangelo-Sneppen model of monetary exchange and compare it with related models in economics literature. Our selective review then outlines the main ingredients of some influential early models of multi-agent dynamics in financial markets (Kim-Markowitz, Levy-Levy-Solomon). As will be seen, these contributions draw their inspiration from the complex appearance of investors' interactions in real-life markets. Their main aim is to reproduce (and, thereby, provide possible explanations) for the spectacular bubbles and crashes seen in certain historical episodes, but they lack (like almost all the work before 1998 or so) a perspective in terms of the universal statistical features of financial time series. In fact, awareness of a set of such regularities (power-law tails of the distribution of returns, temporal scaling of volatility) only gradually appeared over the nineties. With the more precise description of the formerly relatively vague characteristics (e.g. moving from the notion of fat tails to the more concrete one of a power law with index around three), it became clear that financial market dynamics give rise to some kind of universal scaling law. Showing similarities with scaling laws for other systems with many interacting sub-units, an exploration of financial markets as multi-agent systems appeared to be a natural consequence. This topic has been pursued by quite a number of contributions appearing in both the physics and economics literature since the late nineties. From the wealth of different flavours of multi-agent models that have appeared up to now, we discuss the Cont

  17. Foundations of Constructing a Marketing Data Base; Profitable Applications of the Computer to Marketing Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podell, Harold J.

    An introduction into the foundations of constructing a marketing data base is presented for the systems and marketing executives who are familiar with basic computer technology methods. The techniques and concepts presented are now being implemented by major organizations in the development of Management Information Systems (MIS). A marketing data…

  18. Post-marketing research and its outcome for novel anticancer agents approved by both the FDA and EMA between 2005 and 2010: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitoun, Jean-David; Baron, Gabriel; Vivot, Alexandre; Atal, Ignacio; Downing, Nicholas S; Ross, Joseph S; Ravaud, Philippe

    2018-01-15

    Post-marketing research in oncology has rarely been described. We aimed to characterize post-marketing trials for a consistent set of anticancer agents over a long period. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of post-marketing trials registered at ClinicalTrials.gov through September 2014 for novel anticancer agents approved by both the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency between 2005 and 2010. All relevant post-marketing trials were classified according to indication, primary outcome, starting date, sponsors, and planned enrollment. Supplemental indications were retrieved from regulatory documents and publication rate was assessed by two different methods. Ten novel anticancer agents were eligible: five were indicated for hematologic malignancies and the remaining five for solid cancers (three for kidney cancer). We identified 2,345 post-marketing trials; 1,362 (58.1%) targeted an indication other than the originally approved one. We observed extreme variations among drugs in both number of post-marketing trials (range 8-530) and overall population to be enrolled per trial (1-8,381). Post-marketing trials assessed almost all types of cancers, the three most frequently studied cancers being leukemia, kidney cancer and myeloma. In all, 6.6% of post-marketing trials had a clinical endpoint as a primary outcome, and 35.9% and 54.1% had a safety or surrogate endpoint, respectively, as a primary outcome. Nine drugs obtained approval for supplemental indications. The publication rate at 10 years was 12.3 to 26.1% depending on the analysis method. In conclusion, we found that post-marketing research in oncology is highly heterogeneous and the publication rate of launched trials is low. © 2017 UICC.

  19. The analysis of the market success of FDA approvals by probing top 100 bestselling drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanski, Jaroslaw; Bogocz, Jacek; Tkocz, Aleksandra

    2016-05-01

    Target-oriented drug discovery is the main research paradigm of contemporary drug discovery. In target-oriented approaches, we attempt to maximize in vitro drug potency by finding the optimal fit to the target. This can result in a higher molecular complexity, in particular, the higher molecular weight (MW) of the drugs. However, a comparison of the successful developments of pharmaceuticals with the general trends that can be observed in medicinal chemistry resulted in the conclusion that the so-called molecular obesity is an important reason for the attrition rate of drugs. When analyzing the list of top 100 drug bestsellers versus all of the FDA approvals, we discovered that on average lower-complexity (MW, ADMET score) drugs are winners of the top 100 list in terms of numbers but that, especially, up to some optimal MW value, a higher molecular complexity can pay off with higher incomes. This indicates that slim drugs are doing better but that fat drugs are bigger fishes to catch.

  20. Dynamic market behaviour of autonomous network based power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokic, A.; Wittebol, E.H.M.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Dynamic models of real-time markets are important since they lead to additional insights of the behavior and stability of power system markets. The main topic of this paper is the analysis of real-time market dynamics in a novel power system structure that is based on the concept of autonomous

  1. Multi-Market Impacts of Market-Based Recycling Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Linda R

    1999-09-01

    In 1995 the average tipping fee in the state of New York was $70/ton, with some landfills charging as high as $100. 1 In New Jersey, fees reached prices as high as $165/ton. 2 With budget crises occurring at all levels of government, economists, environmental scientists, policy-makers, and others are scrambling to find alternatives to waste disposal. Recycling as a solution has risen to the forefront, most likely because it both saves landfill space and may use fewer resources than virgin material processing. At every level of government, policies are being set that encourage recycling. Unfortunately, some of these programs may be resulting in unintended and undesirable side effects. To understand these effects, a broader view of the many factors involved in materials use, waste generation, and disposal is necessary. Within this paper, the broader view is considered, including a discussion of the externalities that exist in the markets affected by waste and an analysis of the effects on all alternatives to recycling, including composting and reuse. Through use of mathematical optimization, this paper shows that a recycling subsidy, or the more complicated tax/subsidy scheme, does not necessarily provide greater environmental benefits compared with disposal taxes.

  2. Evidence-Based Marketing for Academic Librarians

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo-Seong Song

    2006-01-01

    Objective - In developing marketing strategies for the Business & Economics Library (BEL) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), a survey was designed to answer the following questions: - Should BEL develop marketing strategies differently for East Asian business students? - What services do graduate business students want to receive from BEL? - With whom should BEL partner to increase visibility at the College of Business? Marketing research techniques were used to g...

  3. Market Reaction to the Approval of Stock Option Plans: an Event Study of Bovespa Listed Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Finotti Cordeiro Perobelli

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to verify market reactions to Employee Stock Options Plans (ESOP proposals and awards in the Brazilian Stock Exchange from July 1994 to March 2007. In order to achieve such objective, event studies methodology was applied and the original sample (comprised by all companies that adopted ESOP during the survey period was divided according to employees’ eligibility to ESOP and CEOs bargain power. Using non-parametric tests (Sign Test e Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test, we could verify that announcements of ESOP proposals and ESOP awards were not related to positive abnormal returns. As the opposite, returns around those announcements dates were negatives, in general. Such pattern could be explained by some theoretical consequences of ESOP plans: increase in the CEOs risky behavior, constrains in the dividend policy and CEOs opportunistic behavior by managing the timing of their voluntary disclosures around stock option awards. We also found evidences suggesting that employees´ eligibility is related to abnormal returns. When all employees are awarded, returns are even more negative. Possible explanations are indirect costs of capital pulverization and increase in the companies cost of capital due to the ESOP. Our findings suggest that an ESOP adoption in a poor governance environment can increase agency problems, instead of aligning CEOs and shareholders interests.

  4. Market-based approach to financial architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Underhill, G.R.D.; Caprio, G.; Beck, T.; Claessens, S.; Schmukler, S.L.

    2013-01-01

    The institutions of financial governance are central to the prospects for financial stability. Without sound regulatory and supervisory institutions, herd behavior and market failure looms large in a liberal financial system. Cross-border and cross-sectoral financial market integration exacerbates

  5. Evolution of Web-based International Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Companies that have been doing international business do not usually make the transition from traditional marketers to full-blown Web marketers in one sharp step. In our study of Danish firms, we found that in terms of the evolution of their Web strategies, these Danish companies went through three...

  6. European Marketing Authorizations Granted Based on a Single Pivotal Clinical Trial: The Rule or the Exception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morant, Anne Vinther; Vestergaard, Henrik Tang

    2018-07-01

    A minimum of two positive, adequate, and well-controlled clinical trials has historically been the gold standard for providing substantial evidence to support regulatory approval of a new medicine. Nevertheless, the present analysis of European Marketing Authorizations granted between 2012 and 2016 showed that 45% of new active substances were approved based on a single pivotal clinical trial. For therapeutic areas such as oncology and cardiovascular diseases, approvals based on a single pivotal trial are the rule rather than the exception, whereas new medicines within the nervous system area were generally supported by two or more pivotal trials. While overall similar trends have been observed in the US, the recent US Food and Drug Administration approvals of nervous system medicines based on a single pivotal trial suggest that a case-by-case scientific evaluation of the totality of evidence is increasingly applied to facilitate faster access of new medicines to patients suffering from serious diseases. © 2017 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  7. How much market do market-based instruments create? An analysis for the case of 'white' certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langniss, Ole; Praetorius, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Among the diverse economic instruments to foster energy efficiency (EE) and climate protection, tradable certificates have been investigated for renewable energy, and the EU directive on an emissions-trading scheme for CO 2 certificates has been approved in 2003. In contrast, tradable energy efficiency-or 'white'-certificates have only lately been considered as a market-based tool to foster EE as compared with standards and labelling, for example. Theoretically, there is little doubt about the advantages. In practice, however, some fundamental problems arise. Critical issues are the design of an efficient artificial market for white certificates, its compatibility with the European emissions-trading system, the identification of a suitable target group for an EE obligation and the measurement of energy savings as compared with a reference use of energy. We use the theoretical framework of transaction cost economics to elaborate these issues. We conclude that transaction costs and investment specificity will restrict markets for white certificates in practice. Long-term contracts rather than spot trade will be the prevailing form of governance for EE investments. (author)

  8. Institutional bases of the advertising market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К.В. Кузьменко

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available  The article grounds a necessity of  organizational power of a “contract state” for the introduction and functioning of the norms of market constitution, it consists findings of the investigations of Ukrainian state’s typology. The institutional analysis of budget items has been used for the purpose of estimation the digree of approximation to the model of “contract state”. “Contract” state and the norms of market constitution are the indispensable conditions for the development of advertising market.

  9. Bidding strategy in pay-as-bid markets based on supplier-market interaction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigdeli, N.; Afshar, K.; Fotuhi-Firuzabad, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new bidding strategy for pay-as-bid market suppliers is introduced. This method is based on a systematic analysis of interactions of market with the suppliers via several market indices as well as forecasting important indices by artificial neural networks. Besides, the proposed method considers the practical limitations in the system and deals with incomplete information handling, closely. Next, a strategic bidding approach is proposed for optimal bidding by the suppliers. In these investigations, the paper focus is on the experimental situation of Iran electricity market as a pay-as-bid market and a sample generating company with several generating units from this market is considered as the benchmark. The results of applying this approach to this generating company are representative of good performance of the proposed method.

  10. MARKETING CAPABILITIES FOR INNOVATION-BASED COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE IN THE SLOVENIAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojko Potocan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary role of marketing within the competitive advantage is innovation. The customer value-based differentiation strategies will drive the company’s market research efforts, its selection of target markets, its product development processes, its market communications programs, and its delivery processes. These processes require many specific capabilities that enable the firm to carry out activities necessary to move its products or services through the value chain. We must explore the role of distinctive marketing capabilities in competitive strategy of the company. As sources of competitive advantage, companies try to create their product or service differentiation by developing higher product or service quality, by using their knowledge to solving marketing problems, by communicating with their customers, and by satisfying customer’s needs. We also would like to confirm that superior customer service lead to company’s innovation. The paper closes with the implications of the findings and highlights promising future research avenues.

  11. Marketing for a Web-Based Master's Degree Program in Light of Marketing Mix Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Cheng-Chang

    2012-01-01

    The marketing mix model was applied with a focus on Web media to re-strategize a Web-based Master's program in a southern state university in U.S. The program's existing marketing strategy was examined using the four components of the model: product, price, place, and promotion, in hopes to repackage the program (product) to prospective students…

  12. Simulation of sovereign CDS market based on interaction between market participant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Bonggyun; Kim, Kyungwon

    2017-08-01

    A research for distributional property of financial asset is the subject of intense interest not only for financial theory but also for practitioner. Such respect is no exception to CDS market. The CDS market, which began to receive attention since the global financial debacle, is not well researched despite of the importance of research necessity. This research introduces creation of CDS market and use Ising system utilizing occurrence characteristics (to shift risk) as an important factor. Therefore the results of this paper would be of great assistance to both financial theory and practice. From this study, not only distributional property of the CDS market but also various statistics like multifractal characteristics could promote understanding about the market. A salient point in this study is that countries are mainly clustering into 2 groups and it might be because of market situation and geographical characteristics of each country. This paper suggested 2 simulation parameters representing this market based on understanding such CDS market situation. The estimated parameters are suitable for high and low risk event of CDS market respectively and these two parameters are complementary and can cover not only basic statistics but also multifractal properties of most countries. Therefore these estimated parameters can be used in researches preparing for a certain event (high or low risk). Finally this research will serve as a momentum double-checking indirectly the performance of Ising system based on these results.

  13. Studies in market-based electric power trade and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hope, Einar

    2000-01-01

    This is a compilation of articles written by the author during the last fifteen years. Most of the articles are related to the reform of the Norwegian electric power market. This reform led to the Energy Act of 1990 and to the subsequent development of the power markets. Some of the sections are in Norwegian, some in English. The sections discuss (1) Markets for electricity trade in Norway, (2) Economic incentives and public firm behaviour, (3) Market alternatives to the present forms of occasional power trade, (4) Socio-economic considerations about electricity pricing, (5) Scenarios for market based power trade in Norway, (6) Markets for electricity: economic reform of the Norwegian electricity industry, (7) The Norwegian power market, (8) A common Nordic energy market?, (9) Organization of supply markets for natural gas in Europe, (10) The extent of the central grid, (11) Optimum regulation of grid monopolies in the power trade, (12) Power markets and competition policy, (13) Deregulation of the Norwegian power sector, (14) designing a market based system for the Icelandic electricity industry and (15) regulation regimes for the power sector

  14. 7 CFR 1467.20 - Market-based conservation initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Market-based conservation initiatives. 1467.20....20 Market-based conservation initiatives. (a) Acceptance and use of contributions. Section 1241(e) of... for Conservation Improvements. (1) USDA recognizes that environmental benefits will be achieved by...

  15. NETWORK BASED BUSINESS MODEL INNOVATION TARGETING THE BOP MARKET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Jacob; Kroghstrup Nielsen, Martin; Lindgren, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Through innovation of products, process and business models targeting the needs of 4 billion poor people living at "the base of pyramid" (BoP) (Prahalad & Hart 2002) in developing countries the private sector can actively support poverty alleviation and at the same time reach new untouched market....... - A market is estimated a value of 5.3 trillion US$ (Hammond, Kramer, Tran, Kratz 2007). A number of researchers has dealt with the BoP - market potential and not least tried to understand how to penetrate this apparent blue ocean. Two distinct lines of thought when targeting BoP markets in developing...... & Halme 2008). The market and customer line - exemplified by soap producers trying to penetrate the BoPline - exemplified by soap producers trying to penetrate the BoP market through product adaptation selling soap in smaller packages (Hart & Christensen 2002, Prahalad 2006). Based on the case study...

  16. Pay-as-bid based reactive power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjady, N.; Rabiee, A.; Shayanfar, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    In energy market clearing, the offers are stacked in increasing order and the offer that intersects demand curve, determines the market clearing price (MCP). In reactive power market, the location of reactive power compensator is so important. A low cost reactive producer may not essentially be favorable if it is far from the consumer. Likewise, a high cost local reactive compensator at a heavily loaded demand center of network could be inevitably an alternative required to produce reactive power to maintain the integrity of power system. Given the background, this paper presents a day-ahead reactive power market based on pay-as-bid (PAB) mechanism. Generators expected payment function (EPF) is used to construct a bidding framework. Then, total payment function (TPF) of generators is used as the objective function of optimal power flow (OPF) problem to clear the PAB based market. The CIGRE-32 bus test system is used to examine the effectiveness of the proposed reactive power market.

  17. Pay-as-bid based reactive power market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amjady, N. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rabiee, A., E-mail: Rabiee@iust.ac.i [Center of Excellence for Power System Automation and Operation, Department of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shayanfar, H.A. [Center of Excellence for Power System Automation and Operation, Department of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    In energy market clearing, the offers are stacked in increasing order and the offer that intersects demand curve, determines the market clearing price (MCP). In reactive power market, the location of reactive power compensator is so important. A low cost reactive producer may not essentially be favorable if it is far from the consumer. Likewise, a high cost local reactive compensator at a heavily loaded demand center of network could be inevitably an alternative required to produce reactive power to maintain the integrity of power system. Given the background, this paper presents a day-ahead reactive power market based on pay-as-bid (PAB) mechanism. Generators expected payment function (EPF) is used to construct a bidding framework. Then, total payment function (TPF) of generators is used as the objective function of optimal power flow (OPF) problem to clear the PAB based market. The CIGRE-32 bus test system is used to examine the effectiveness of the proposed reactive power market.

  18. 77 FR 26441 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina; Charlotte; Ozone 2002 Base...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina; Charlotte; Ozone 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory... final action to approve the ozone 2002 base year emissions inventory portion of the state implementation... Air Act (CAA or Act). EPA will take action on the South Carolina submission for the ozone 2002 base...

  19. 77 FR 24399 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Atlanta; Ozone 2002 Base Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Atlanta; Ozone 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY... approve the ozone 2002 base year emissions inventory, portion of the state implementation plan (SIP... technology (RACT), contingency measures, a 2002 base- year emissions inventory and other planning SIP...

  20. 77 FR 42686 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; the 2002 Base Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; the 2002 Base Year Inventory AGENCY: Environmental... matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base year emissions inventory portion of the Maryland State Implementation Plan... National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) SIP. EPA is proposing to approve the 2002 base year PM 2.5...

  1. 77 FR 30274 - Inupiat Energy Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... Energy Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Inupiat Energy Marketing, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate... protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To...

  2. 78 FR 56691 - Sapphire Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Sapphire Power Marketing LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate... submission of protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov...

  3. 75 FR 48666 - Calpine Mid-Atlantic Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ...-Atlantic Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding, of Calpine Mid-Atlantic Marketing, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an... of protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov...

  4. 75 FR 24941 - PBF Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... of PBF Power Marketing LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate... protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To...

  5. 78 FR 28837 - Myotis Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Marketing LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule, noting that... interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To facilitate electronic...

  6. 75 FR 5782 - Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... Marketing and Trade Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...-referenced proceeding of Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corporation's application for market- based rate... electronic submission of protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http...

  7. 77 FR 53197 - Raven Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Marketing LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule, noting that... interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To facilitate electronic...

  8. 78 FR 20910 - Hess Energy Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Marketing, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule, noting... interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To facilitate electronic...

  9. Advancement of Marketing Developing Biotechnology-Based Business

    OpenAIRE

    Vilmantas, Vaidas; Melnikas, Borisas

    2014-01-01

    The article, in a complex way, analyzes the needs of marketing improvement in developing biotechnology-based business and highlights its role in the context of modern society and globalization challenges. The article distinguishes between the existing problems of biotechnology business, the present perspectives and specific characteristics of developing the marketing of biotechnological business. The paper represents the possibility of the substantial modernization of marketing tools with reg...

  10. A Novel Marketing Strategy based on Information Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiao

    2012-01-01

    Marketing, electronic data interchange, internet data center, electric ordering system Abstract:Marketing is the process of performing market research, selling products and/or services to customers and promoting them via advertising to further enhance sales. It generates the strategy that underlies sales techniques, business communication, and business developments. Information technology is the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a microelectronics-based combination of computing and telecommunications.

  11. Forecasting the Electricity Demand and Market Shares in Retail Electricity Market Based on System Dynamics and Markov Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Qingyou Yan; Chao Qin; Mingjian Nie; Le Yang

    2018-01-01

    Due to the deregulation of retail electricity market, consumers can choose retail electric suppliers freely, and market entities are facing fierce competition because of the increasing number of new entrants. Under these circumstances, forecasting the changes in all market entities, when market share stabilized, is important for suppliers making marketing decisions. In this paper, a market share forecasting model was established based on Markov chain, and a system dynamics model was construct...

  12. Market based consumer adaptation. Preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saele, Hanne

    2005-04-01

    This report is a foundation for further research in the project ''Market based consumer adaptation'', project period 2005-2008. The report describes characteristics of shortage periods for both energy and effects, low priority consumption, power products and network tariffs that may contribute to increased flexibility in consumption and limitations in the IT-systems of today and discusses what problems would be of interest for further studies. The reduction of low priority consumption and the activation of price elasticity would be challenges both for effect and energy shortages. Private consumption would however, partly be different due to the time perspective. It is expected that periods of effect shortages would be of only a few hours and the challenge would be to obtain sufficient response at an hourly basis at load disconnection. The energy shortage is expected to last longer which results in problems in obtaining sufficient and real consumer reduction over time in order to reduce the danger of critical shortage. Important elements in order to supply new power products and network tariffs which contributes to increased flexibility in the consumption, are technology for current registration and remote control of consumption, contracts between the involved parties and the framework conditions that gives incentives for establishing new network/power products. When several parties shall use the same measurements for accounting it would be necessary for all the figures to arrive in time and that corrections are avoided as much as possible. It would also be challenging for the parties whether new products satisfy the regulations. Pricing in network tariffs is subject to more legal public regulations than developing a power product. This may make it difficult to produce ''correct'' network tariffs due to regulation and at the same time interest more customers to making deals with such tariffs. Even if the power suppliers to a certain extent, are more free to develop

  13. Global Distribution of Businesses Marketing Stem Cell-Based Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Israel; Ahmad, Amina; Bansal, Akhil; Kapoor, Tanvir; Sipp, Douglas; Rasko, John E J

    2016-08-04

    A structured search reveals that online marketing of stem-cell-based interventions is skewed toward developed economies including the United States, Ireland, Australia, and Germany. Websites made broad, imprecise therapeutic claims and frequently failed to detail procedures. Widespread marketing poses challenges to regulators, bioethicists, and those seeking realistic hope from therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Flow-based market coupling. Stepping stone towards nodal pricing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Welle, A.J.

    2012-07-01

    For achieving one internal energy market for electricity by 2014, market coupling is deployed to integrate national markets into regional markets and ultimately one European electricity market. The extent to which markets can be coupled depends on the available transmission capacities between countries. Since interconnections are congested from time to time, congestion management methods are deployed to divide the scarce available transmission capacities over market participants. For further optimization of the use of available transmission capacities while maintaining current security of supply levels, flow-based market coupling (FBMC) will be implemented in the CWE region by 2013. Although this is an important step forward, important hurdles for efficient congestion management remain. Hence, flow based market coupling is compared to nodal pricing, which is often considered as the most optimal solution from theoretical perspective. In the context of decarbonised power systems it is concluded that advantages of nodal pricing are likely to exceed its disadvantages, warranting further development of FBMC in the direction of nodal pricing.

  15. Advancement of Marketing Developing Biotechnology-Based Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidas Vilmantas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article, in a complex way, analyzes the needs of marketing improvement in developing biotechnology­based business and highlights its role in the context of modern society and globalization challenges. The article distinguishes between the existing problems of biotechnology business, the present perspectives and specific characteristics of developing the marketing of biotechnological business. The paper represents the possibility of the substantial modernization of marketing tools with regard to modelling user’s behaviour, improvement in marketing strategy for the company, the correction of the elements of the marketing complex, changes in the marketing conception inside the company, product and service differentiation and renewal, the encouragement of expansion into other markets, variations in or the expansion of the target market, alternatives to the positioning strategy for the company, an increase in competitive ability and an internal impact of marketing on the varying elements. The article has referred to the analysis of scientific literature and research on the opinions of consumers and experts in the field in the context of biotechnology­based businesses.

  16. 77 FR 24440 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Atlanta; Ozone 2002 Base Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R04-OAR-2010-0021(b); FRL-9661-9] Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia; Atlanta; Ozone 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY... 2002 base year emissions inventory portion of the state implementation plan (SIP) revision submitted by...

  17. Virtual Community Based Destination Marketing with YouTube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sambhanthan, Arunasalam; Thelijjagoda, Samantha; Good, Alice

    2016-01-01

    YouTube has now evolved into a powerful medium for social interaction. Utilizing YouTube for enhancing marketing endeavours is a strategy practiced by marketing professionals across several industries. This paper rationalizes on the different strategies of leveraging YouTube-based platforms...... for effective destination marketing by the hospitality industry (hotels) and provides insights on the critical drivers and challenges embedded within YouTube-based community interactions for destination marketing. The comments made by YouTube users have been subjected to a content analysis and the results...... are reported under the five broad clusters of virtual communities. More broadly, the typology of virtual communities is adapted to evaluate the YouTube platform for effective destination marketing....

  18. Real-time versus day-ahead market power in a hydro-based electricity market

    OpenAIRE

    Tangerås, Thomas P.; Mauritzen, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    We analyse in a theoretical framework the link between real-time and day-ahead market performance in a hydro-based and imperfectly competitive wholesale electricity market. Theoretical predictions of the model are tested on data from the Nordic power exchange, Nord Pool Spot (NPS).We reject the hypothesis that prices at NPS were at their competitive levels throughout the period under examination. The empirical approach uses equilibrium prices and quantities and does not rely on bid data nor o...

  19. A comprehensive market-based scheme for VAR management and pricing in the electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Araby, E.E. [Qassim Univ., Alqassim, Meldia (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    In order to enable a power system to operate within an acceptable degree of reliability and security, the provision of VAR ancillary services from the VAR sources in electricity markets is the most effective method. The procurement of VAR services is particularly problematic for transmission operators as it relates to pricing mechanism and various technical issues during system operation. This paper proposed an integrated market-based approach for pricing VAR service in the electricity market. The paper was an extension of the authors' proposal for the provision of the VAR service from dynamic VAR sources in a competitive market-based environment. The formulation was modified to include VAR utilization payment and possible power system transition states multiple base cases and contingencies with their associated occurrence probabilities. The paper discussed the basic terms of the proposed approach including the VAR market objective and generator VAR output and its compensation. The mathematical formulation that considered VAR capacity payment, utilization payment and operating costs under the previous transition states in a unified single problem were introduced. The overall problem formulation and solution algorithm were also presented as a large-scale mixed integer nonlinear optimization problem. It was concluded that the proposed method was suited for the simulation and analysis of the existing VAR market. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs., 2 appendices.

  20. Challenges in the development of market-based pipeline investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Bassenheim, G.; Mohitpour, M.; Klaudt, D.; Jenkins, A.

    2000-01-01

    The challenges, risks and uncertainties that the natural gas industry faces in developing market-based pipeline projects were discussed. Market-based pipeline investments are fundamentally different from user-driven projects. Market-based projected involve finding enough energy users and linking them with a pipeline infrastructure to viable supplies of natural gas. Each unique project is developed individually and requires a strong corporate vision and support before it can be successfully implemented. The three phases of a pipeline investment include the business development phase, the project development phase, and the implementation/operations phase. Market-based companies will need a clear vision for long-term goals and the desire to succeed. The company will have to prepare a detailed strategy and policies that clearly define geographic areas of operations, risk tolerance, availability of capital and expected project performance. 3 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  1. Tribal Community-Based Social Marketing Training Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Community-Based Social Marketing (CBSM) Training Guide and recycling toolkit provides an overview of how to increase the adoption of sustainable behaviors and recycling practices with a community.

  2. CSC Tip Sheets: Community-Based Social Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use community-based social marketing (CBSM) to facilitate direct neighbor-to-neighbor communication and influence to promote behavior change. In-person communications are often complemented by electronic social media tools.

  3. A Knowledge-Based Consultant for Financial Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Kastner, John; Apte, Chidanand; Griesmer, James

    1986-01-01

    This article describes an effort to develop a knowledge-based financial marketing consultant system. Financial marketing is an excellent vehicle for both research and application in artificial intelligence (AI). This domain differs from the great majority of previous expert system domains in that there are no well-defined answers (in traditional sense); the goal here is to obtain satisfactory arguments to support the conclusions made. A large OPS5-based system was implemented as an initial pr...

  4. 77 FR 60094 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; The 2002 Base Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; The 2002 Base Year Inventory for the... proposing to approve the fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base year emissions inventory portion of the... Standard (NAAQS) SIP. EPA is proposing to approve the 2002 base year PM 2.5 emissions inventory for the...

  5. 77 FR 60087 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; The 2002 Base Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; The 2002 Base Year Inventory for the... proposing to approve the fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base year emissions inventory portion of the... National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) SIP. EPA is proposing to approve the 2002 base year PM 2.5...

  6. 77 FR 60085 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; The 2002 Base Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; The 2002 Base Year Inventory for the... proposing to approve the fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base year emissions inventory portion of the... Quality Standard (NAAQS) SIP. EPA is proposing to approve the 2002 base year PM 2.5 emissions inventory...

  7. Trial endpoints for drug approval in oncology: Chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitz, J

    2001-04-01

    As with other drugs, new drug applications for marketing approval of chemopreventive drugs must include data from adequate and well-controlled clinical trials that demonstrate effectiveness and safety for the intended use. This article summarizes the regulatory requirements for traditional marketing approval, as well as for approval under the accelerated approval regulations. Unlike traditional approval, accelerated approval is based on a surrogate endpoint that is reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit. Discussions with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regarding the validity of trial endpoints that may serve as surrogates for clinical benefit for accelerated approval should take place as early as possible in drug development. Meetings with the FDA to discuss these issues may be requested throughout the clinical development of a new drug.

  8. E-laboratories : agent-based modeling of electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    North, M.; Conzelmann, G.; Koritarov, V.; Macal, C.; Thimmapuram, P.; Veselka, T.

    2002-01-01

    Electricity markets are complex adaptive systems that operate under a wide range of rules that span a variety of time scales. These rules are imposed both from above by society and below by physics. Many electricity markets are undergoing or are about to undergo a transition from centrally regulated systems to decentralized markets. Furthermore, several electricity markets have recently undergone this transition with extremely unsatisfactory results, most notably in California. These high stakes transitions require the introduction of largely untested regulatory structures. Suitable laboratories that can be used to test regulatory structures before they are applied to real systems are needed. Agent-based models can provide such electronic laboratories or ''e-laboratories.'' To better understand the requirements of an electricity market e-laboratory, a live electricity market simulation was created. This experience helped to shape the development of the Electricity Market Complex Adaptive Systems (EMCAS) model. To explore EMCAS' potential as an e-laboratory, several variations of the live simulation were created. These variations probed the possible effects of changing power plant outages and price setting rules on electricity market prices

  9. Novel indexes based on network structure to indicate financial market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Tao; Peng, Qinke; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Jing

    2016-02-01

    There have been various achievements to understand and to analyze the financial market by complex network model. However, current studies analyze the financial network model but seldom present quantified indexes to indicate or forecast the price action of market. In this paper, the stock market is modeled as a dynamic network, in which the vertices refer to listed companies and edges refer to their rank-based correlation based on price series. Characteristics of the network are analyzed and then novel indexes are introduced into market analysis, which are calculated from maximum and fully-connected subnets. The indexes are compared with existing ones and the results confirm that our indexes perform better to indicate the daily trend of market composite index in advance. Via investment simulation, the performance of our indexes is analyzed in detail. The results indicate that the dynamic complex network model could not only serve as a structural description of the financial market, but also work to predict the market and guide investment by indexes.

  10. Agent-based simulation of electricity markets. A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sensfuss, F.; Ragwitz, M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Genoese, M.; Moest, D. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Industriebetriebslehre und Industrielle Produktion

    2007-07-01

    Liberalisation, climate policy and promotion of renewable energy are challenges to players of the electricity sector in many countries. Policy makers have to con-sider issues like market power, bounded rationality of players and the appear-ance of fluctuating energy sources in order to provide adequate legislation. Fur-thermore the interactions between markets and environmental policy instru-ments become an issue of increasing importance. A promising approach for the scientific analysis of these developments is the field of agent-based simulation. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of the current work applying this methodology to the analysis of electricity markets. (orig.)

  11. Vertical integration and market power: A model-based analysis of restructuring in the Korean electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunn, Derek W.; Martoccia, Maria; Ochoa, Patricia; Kim, Haein; Ahn, Nam-Sung; Yoon, Yong-Beom

    2010-01-01

    An agent-based simulation model is developed using computational learning to investigate the impact of vertical integration between electricity generators and retailers on market power in a competitive wholesale market setting. It is observed that if partial vertical integration creates some market foreclosure, whether this leads to an increase or decrease in market power is situation specific. A detailed application to the Korean market structure reveals this to be the case. We find that in various cases, whilst vertical integration generally reduces spot prices, it can increase or decrease the market power of other market generators, depending upon the market share and the technology segment of the market, which is integrated, as well as the market concentrations before and after the integration.

  12. Vertical integration and market power. A model-based analysis of restructuring in the Korean electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunn, Derek W.; Martoccia, Maria; Ochoa, Patricia [London Business School, London (United Kingdom); Kim, Haein; Ahn, Nam-Sung; Yoon, Yong-Beom [Korean Electric Power Corporation, Seoul (Korea)

    2010-07-15

    An agent-based simulation model is developed using computational learning to investigate the impact of vertical integration between electricity generators and retailers on market power in a competitive wholesale market setting. It is observed that if partial vertical integration creates some market foreclosure, whether this leads to an increase or decrease in market power is situation specific. A detailed application to the Korean market structure reveals this to be the case. We find that in various cases, whilst vertical integration generally reduces spot prices, it can increase or decrease the market power of other market generators, depending upon the market share and the technology segment of the market, which is integrated, as well as the market concentrations before and after the integration. (author)

  13. Vertical integration and market power: A model-based analysis of restructuring in the Korean electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunn, Derek W., E-mail: dbunn@london.ed [London Business School, London (United Kingdom); Martoccia, Maria; Ochoa, Patricia [London Business School, London (United Kingdom); Kim, Haein; Ahn, Nam-Sung; Yoon, Yong-Beom [Korean Electric Power Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-15

    An agent-based simulation model is developed using computational learning to investigate the impact of vertical integration between electricity generators and retailers on market power in a competitive wholesale market setting. It is observed that if partial vertical integration creates some market foreclosure, whether this leads to an increase or decrease in market power is situation specific. A detailed application to the Korean market structure reveals this to be the case. We find that in various cases, whilst vertical integration generally reduces spot prices, it can increase or decrease the market power of other market generators, depending upon the market share and the technology segment of the market, which is integrated, as well as the market concentrations before and after the integration.

  14. 18 CFR 284.505 - Market-based rates for storage providers without a market-power determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Market-based rates for storage providers without a market-power determination. 284.505 Section 284.505 Conservation of Power and... UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Applications for Market-Based Rates for...

  15. Market-based demand forecasting promotes informed strategic financial planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, A J

    2001-11-01

    Market-based demand forecasting is a method of estimating future demand for a healthcare organization's services by using a broad range of data that describe the nature of demand within the organization's service area. Such data include the primary and secondary service areas, the service-area populations by various demographic groupings, discharge utilization rates, market size, and market share by service line and organizationwide. Based on observable market dynamics, strategic planners can make a variety of explicit assumptions about future trends regarding these data to develop scenarios describing potential future demand. Financial planners then can evaluate each scenario to determine its potential effect on selected financial and operational measures, such as operating margin, days cash on hand, and debt-service coverage, and develop a strategic financial plan that covers a range of contingencies.

  16. A Concept of Location-Based Social Network Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tussyadiah, Iis

    2012-01-01

    A stimulus-response model of location-based social network marketing is conceptualized based on an exploratory investigation. Location-based social network applications are capable of generating marketing stimuli from merchant, competition-based, and connection-based rewards resulted from relevance...... and connectivity. Depending on consumption situations, consumer characteristics, and social network structure, these rewards lead to actual behavior that manifests in variety behavior (i.e., patronage to new places) and loyalty behavior (i.e., increased frequency of patronage to familiar places). This behavior...... implies changes in patterns of mobility, making this marketing approach particularly relevant for tourism and hospitality businesses. Managerial implications and recommendations for further studies are provided....

  17. Smart spatial incentives for market-based conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Hartig, Florian; Drechsler, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Market-based instruments such as payments, auctions or tradable permits have been proposed as flexible and cost-effective instruments for biodiversity conservation on private lands. Trading the service of conservation requires one to define a metric that determines the extent to which a conserved site adds to the regional conservation objective. Yet, while markets for conservation are widely discussed and increasingly applied, little research has been conducted on explicitly accounting for sp...

  18. MARKET SIGNALS IN VALUE-BASED PRICING PREMIUMS AND DISCOUNTS

    OpenAIRE

    Feuz, Dillon M.

    1999-01-01

    There is concern in the beef industry that present marketing practices may be impending the transmission of economic signals from consumers to producers. Presently, fed cattle may be sold on a show list, pen-by-pen, or on an individual head basis, and may be priced using live weight, dressed weight, or grid or formula pricing. Market signals are more likely to reach producers if cattle are priced individually. Current value-based pricing are discussed. Three grid pricing systems are evaluated...

  19. STOCK Market Differences in Correlation-Based Weighted Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Janghyuk; Lee, Junghoon; Chang, Woojin

    We examined the sector dynamics of Korean stock market in relation to the market volatility. The daily price data of 360 stocks for 5019 trading days (from January, 1990 to August, 2008) in Korean stock market are used. We performed the weighted network analysis and employed four measures: the average, the variance, the intensity, and the coherence of network weights (absolute values of stock return correlations) to investigate the network structure of Korean stock market. We performed regression analysis using the four measures in the seven major industry sectors and the market (seven sectors combined). We found that the average, the intensity, and the coherence of sector (subnetwork) weights increase as market becomes volatile. Except for the "Financials" sector, the variance of sector weights also grows as market volatility increases. Based on the four measures, we can categorize "Financials," "Information Technology" and "Industrials" sectors into one group, and "Materials" and "Consumer Discretionary" sectors into another group. We investigated the distributions of intrasector and intersector weights for each sector and found the differences in "Financials" sector are most distinct.

  20. Competency-Based Instruction for Marketing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Betty; Williams, Terry M.

    1982-01-01

    Which method of instruction is more effective for postsecondary students: competency-based or traditional? This study reveals that the effectiveness of one method over the other depends on work experience of the student. (Author)

  1. Onderzoek Location Based Marketing: Mobile = location = effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gisbergen, M.S. van; Huhn, A.E.; Khan, V.J.; Ketelaar, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    Onderzoekers van de NHTV (Internationaa Hoger Onderwijs Breda, Radboud Universiteit, DVJ Insights en Popai Benelux lieten consumenten in een virtuele supermarkt advertenties via de smartphone ontvangen wanneer men langs het geadverteerde product liep. De uitkomsten laten zien dat 'location based

  2. 78 FR 18393 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; the NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Granting Approval of a Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Vol. 44, 1427-1457 (2009) (``Weaver Study''); H. Bessembinder, J. Hao.... Venkataraman & A. Waisburd, ``The Value of the Designated Market Maker'' Journal of Financial and Quantitative... Value of the Specialist: Empirical Evidence from the CBOE'' Journal of Financial Markets, Vol. 9, no. 2...

  3. An auction game model for pool-based electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, Deqiang; Wang, Jianquan; Bourcier, Donald V.

    2005-01-01

    A single-period auction game model for analyzing strategic behavior in pool-based electricity markets is introduced in the paper. We study the Nash equilibrium in a pure strategy sense of such games. First an equilibrium existence lemma is proved. Equilibrium characterization under tight capacity constraints is provided. Then it is demonstrated that an auction game does not possess a pure strategy Nash equilibrium under a wide range of market conditions. The paper provides a characterization of equilibrium under weak capacity constraints. We apply the introduced results to analyze market power indices presented in our earlier work and in related reports. Applications to actual market analysis, as well as limitations of the introduced model are provided. (author)

  4. A Risk Metric Assessment of Scenario-Based Market Risk Measures for Volatility and Risk Estimation: Evidence from Emerging Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitima Innocent

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the sensitivity of the Value- at- Risk (VaR and Expected Shortfalls (ES with respect to portfolio allocation in emerging markets with an index portfolio of a developed market. This study utilised different models for VaR and ES techniques using various scenario-based models such as Covariance Methods, Historical Simulation and the GARCH (1, 1 for the predictive ability of these models in both relatively stable market conditions and extreme market conditions. The results showed that Expected Shortfall has less risk tolerance than VaR based on the same scenario-based market risk measures

  5. 77 FR 53059 - Risk-Based Capital Guidelines: Market Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ...'' framework that includes (1) Risk-based capital requirements for credit risk, market risk, and operational... default and credit quality migration risk for non-securitization credit products. With respect to... securitization positions, the revisions assign a specific risk- weighting factor based on the credit rating of a...

  6. 75 FR 19436 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ..., the Commission is not publishing it for comment.\\4\\ This order approves the proposed rule change, as... NASDAQ OMX Corporate Governance Guidelines, however, provide a different standard for uncontested... contained in the Corporate Governance Guidelines; contested elections would remain subject to the plurality...

  7. Regional markets with agricultural workforce based on Labour offices' data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Nohel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes in Czech agriculture over the past twenty years have had their impact on the agricultural labour market, too. The regional differentiation of the chances of applicants on the labour market as well as the agricultural enterprises’ chances of hiring employees fitting their requirements, are, among others, influenced by the specific conditions of agricultural production. The aim of this paper pertains to two basic problem areas: first, the differentiation of respective regions based on the number of agricultural applicants and job vacancies, and second, the identification of disequilibrium on the agricultural labour market. The latter is based on a theoretical framework defined by approaches in economy dealing with labour market equilibrium. Due to the unavailability of economic data (including wages, economic performance, etc. on the regional level, authors develop their own methodological approach, based on the number of applicants per job vacancy. A database of applicants and vacancies available from the Labour Offices is used as a source for the analysis and interpretation of data, enabling us to study the agricultural labour market not only sector-wise but also region-wise.

  8. A Study Effects Architectural Marketing Capabilities on Performance Marketing unit Based on: Morgan et al case: Past Industry in Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Dalvi; Robabe Seifi

    2014-01-01

    Over a period of time architectural marketing capabilities combination of knowledge and skills develop in to capabilities. These architectural marketing capabilities have been identified as one of the important ways firms can achieve a competitive advantage The following research tests effects architectural marketing capabilities on performance marketing unit Based on a survey .a structural equation model was developed to test our hypotheses. the study develops a structural model linking arch...

  9. Market-based transmission expansion planning by improved differential evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgilakis, Pavlos S.

    2010-01-01

    The restructuring and deregulation has exposed the transmission planner to new objectives and uncertainties. As a result, new criteria and approaches are needed for transmission expansion planning (TEP) in deregulated electricity markets. This paper proposes a new market-based approach for TEP. An improved differential evolution (IDE) model is proposed for the solution of this new market-based TEP problem. The modifications of IDE in comparison to the simple differential evolution method are: (1) the scaling factor F is varied randomly within some range, (2) an auxiliary set is employed to enhance the diversity of the population, (3) the newly generated trial vector is compared with the nearest parent, and (4) the simple feasibility rule is used to treat the constraints. Results from the application of the proposed method on the IEEE 30-bus test system demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of the proposed IDE for the solution of TEP problem. (author)

  10. Exploring policy impacts for servicising in product-based markets : A generic agent-based model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, R.A.C.; Kisjes, K.H.; Nikolic, I.

    2017-01-01

    The shift to markets based on servicising, i.e. market-level transitions from product-based to service-based production and consumption patterns, may contribute to achieve absolute decoupling, i.e. the combined development of economic growth and environmental impact reduction. However, the

  11. Database marketing : base de dados de clientes

    OpenAIRE

    Carreira, Luís

    2011-01-01

    Trabalho final para a Licenciatura em Informática apresentado à Universidade Aberta, 2011 Neste trabalho pretende-se extrair informação de base de dados de clientes recorrendo a duas métricas RM (Recenticidade/valor Monetário) e LTV(Life Time Value) individual. A comparação entre o LTV individual e o RM mostrou-se muito útil na tomada de decisões. O tratamento e a preparação dos dados em Access são efectuados em SQL obrigando à criação de várias consultas. O desenvolvimento de uma int...

  12. Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  13. Using Web-Based Foreign Advertisements in International Marketing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jason

    2011-01-01

    The author examines the use of the Web-based foreign advertisements for enhancing the international awareness of undergraduate marketing students. An analysis compares the adaptation of advertisements for identical products to the cultural perceptions and values of consumers in different countries. In a sample of 110 international marketing…

  14. Labour market participants’ competitiveness assessment based on latent variables theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Sabetova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article suggests innovative model for assessment of labour market subjects’ competitiveness, or successfulness. The authors state that general complex indicator for individual competitiveness within the labour market cannot be identified. Instead, precise enough assessment of such competitiveness can be based on some variables, though different for in-house and external labour market. The model of latent variables’ assessment based on Rasch’s method was selected as the base for the suggested method. The assessment model gives unbiased generalized values of subjects’ competitiveness on the linear non-dimensional scale based on the partial estimates of the selected criteria. The free choice of these criteria allows the model’s appliance for various labour market segments. The article demonstrates the mathematical grounding for the model; methodic of the assessment criteria selection; the way of assessment performance using MS Excel. It also analyses the features of the obtained estimates and shows their comparison with the estimates obtained by traditional methods. The model suggested by the authors can introduce any quantitative parameter of competitiveness as a variable after analysis of the factors affecting it. The quantitative estimates of these factors become the model’s criteria, but the assessment precision does not alter.

  15. Marketing evidence-based practice: what a CROC™!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyington, Alice R; Ferrall, Sheila M; Sylvanus, Terry

    2010-10-01

    Nurses should be engaged in evidence-based practice (EBP) to ensure that nursing care is efficient and effective. This article describes one cancer center's use of the Marketing Mix framework to educate staff nurses with the CROC™: Clinging Rigidly to Outdated Care campaign. As a result of the campaign, five EBP projects have been initiated in the cancer center.

  16. 76 FR 1889 - Risk-Based Capital Guidelines: Market Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... ``three-pillar'' framework that includes (i) risk-based capital requirements for credit risk, market risk... incremental risk capital requirement to capture default and credit quality migration risk for non... (advanced approaches rules) (collectively, the credit risk capital rules) \\8\\ by requiring any bank subject...

  17. Agent-based simulation of electricity markets : a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensfuss, F.; Genoese, M.; Genoese, M.; Most, D.

    2007-01-01

    The electricity sector in Europe and North America is undergoing considerable changes as a result of deregulation, issues related to climate change, and the integration of renewable resources within the electricity grid. This article reviewed agent-based simulation methods of analyzing electricity markets. The paper provided an analysis of research currently being conducted on electricity market designs and examined methods of modelling agent decisions. Methods of coupling long term and short term decisions were also reviewed. Issues related to single and multiple market analysis methods were discussed, as well as different approaches to integrating agent-based models with models of other commodities. The integration of transmission constraints within agent-based models was also discussed, and methods of measuring market efficiency were evaluated. Other topics examined in the paper included approaches to integrating investment decisions, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) trading, and renewable support schemes. It was concluded that agent-based models serve as a test bed for the electricity sector, and will help to provide insights for future policy decisions. 74 refs., 6 figs

  18. International market segmentation based on consumer-product relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Hofstede, F; Steenkamp, JBEM; Wedel, M

    With increasing competition in the global marketplace, international segmentation has become an ever more important issue in developing, positioning, and selling products across national borders. The authors propose a methodology to identify cross-national market segments, based on means-end chain

  19. A Market-Based Approach to Multi-factory Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vytelingum, Perukrishnen; Rogers, Alex; MacBeth, Douglas K.; Dutta, Partha; Stranjak, Armin; Jennings, Nicholas R.

    In this paper, we report on the design of a novel market-based approach for decentralised scheduling across multiple factories. Specifically, because of the limitations of scheduling in a centralised manner - which requires a center to have complete and perfect information for optimality and the truthful revelation of potentially commercially private preferences to that center - we advocate an informationally decentralised approach that is both agile and dynamic. In particular, this work adopts a market-based approach for decentralised scheduling by considering the different stakeholders representing different factories as self-interested, profit-motivated economic agents that trade resources for the scheduling of jobs. The overall schedule of these jobs is then an emergent behaviour of the strategic interaction of these trading agents bidding for resources in a market based on limited information and their own preferences. Using a simple (zero-intelligence) bidding strategy, we empirically demonstrate that our market-based approach achieves a lower bound efficiency of 84%. This represents a trade-off between a reasonable level of efficiency (compared to a centralised approach) and the desirable benefits of a decentralised solution.

  20. A valuation-Based Test of Market Timing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeter-Kant, J.; Elliott, W.B.; Warr, R.S.

    2007-01-01

    We implement an earnings-based fundamental valuation model to test the impact of market timing on the firm's method of funding the financing deficit. We argue that our valuation metric provides a superior measure of equity misvaluation because it avoids multiple interpretation problems faced by the

  1. Theoretical bases analysis of scientific prediction on marketing principles

    OpenAIRE

    A.S. Rosohata

    2012-01-01

    The article presents an overview categorical apparatus of scientific predictions and theoretical foundations results of scientific forecasting. They are integral part of effective management of economic activities. The approaches to the prediction of scientists in different fields of Social science and the categories modification of scientific prediction, based on principles of marketing are proposed.

  2. Transforming Markets, Increasing Access : Early Lessons on Base-of-the-Pyramid Market Development in Sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle Pedi; Will Davies

    2013-01-01

    The four billion global consumers at the base of the pyramid (BOP) - those earning less than two dollars a day - are increasingly recognized by the private sector as a major untapped market segment. The sanitation industry is no exception. Across sub-Saharan Africa, more than half of the population lives without access to minimum levels of improved sanitation. Beyond the reach of urban sew...

  3. Wildlife based business activities in Ogbe–Ijaw market of Delta state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wildlife based business activities in Ogbe–Ijaw market of Delta state, Nigeria. ... of procuring the products, channels for marketing the products, and risks involved in procuring wildlife products sold in the market. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  4. Issues in Water Quality Trading: Perspectives on the Market-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Market mechanisms and incentives can play an important role in addressing environmental problems. Potential advantages of using market-based approaches include reducing the costs of meeting environmental goals and encouraging innovation. One market mechanism that has been promo...

  5. Local labor markets and taste-based discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémence Berson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article appeals to heterogeneity in workers’ non-wage preferences to model taste-based discrimination. Firms hire both types of workers and pay lower wages to minority workers, whatever their taste for discrimination. A single prejudiced firm in the market produces a substantial wage gap in all firms. Consequently, discrimination allows unprejudiced firms to make non-zero profits, so that they have little incentive to drive out prejudiced firms. As the market does not eliminate discrimination, state intervention is required. Indirect policies do not affect the absolute wage gap between the two groups, but may be more likely to be used than direct policies.

  6. THE ANALYSIS OF THE ART MARKET FROM REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA WITH INNOVATIVE MARKETING ELEMENTS (based on the author's interview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga PERCINSCHI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The actuality of this research consists in the less developed of art market in the Republic of Moldova and lack of researches in this domain. The goal of the article is to analyze the art market of the Republic of Moldova with innovative marketing elements. The method of this article is based on interviews conducted with painters, owners of art galleries, art salons were highlighted barriers that hinder the development of the art market in Moldova. The main results are identified ways to overcome and directions for the development of effective marketing that will enhance the country's competitiveness as a whole.

  7. Do Culture-based Segments Predict Selection of Market Strategy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Jadczaková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Academists and practitioners have already acknowledged the importance of unobservable segmentation bases (such as psychographics yet still focusing on how well these bases are capable of describing relevant segments (the identifiability criterion rather than on how precisely these segments can predict (the predictability criterion. Therefore, this paper intends to add a debate to this topic by exploring whether culture-based segments do account for a selection of market strategy. To do so, a set of market strategy variables over a sample of 251 manufacturing firms was first regressed on a set of 19 cultural variables using canonical correlation analysis. Having found significant relationship in the first canonical function, it was further examined by means of correspondence analysis which cultural segments – if any – are linked to which market strategies. However, as correspondence analysis failed to find a significant relationship, it may be concluded that business culture might relate to the adoption of market strategy but not to the cultural groupings presented in the paper.

  8. Bringing plant-based veterinary vaccines to market: Managing regulatory and commercial hurdles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Jacqueline; Doshi, Ketan; Dussault, Marike; Hall, J Christopher; Holbrook, Larry; Jones, Ginny; Kaldis, Angelo; Klima, Cassidy L; Macdonald, Phil; McAllister, Tim; McLean, Michael D; Potter, Andrew; Richman, Alex; Shearer, Heather; Yarosh, Oksana; Yoo, Han Sang; Topp, Edward; Menassa, Rima

    2015-12-01

    The production of recombinant vaccines in plants may help to reduce the burden of veterinary diseases, which cause major economic losses and in some cases can affect human health. While there is abundant research in this area, a knowledge gap exists between the ability to create and evaluate plant-based products in the laboratory, and the ability to take these products on a path to commercialization. The current report, arising from a workshop sponsored by an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Co-operative Research Programme, addresses this gap by providing guidance in planning for the commercialization of plant-made vaccines for animal use. It includes relevant information on developing business plans, assessing market opportunities, manufacturing scale-up, financing, protecting and using intellectual property, and regulatory approval with a focus on Canadian regulations. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 78 FR 35656 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Granting Approval to Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... that internalize much of the market's retail order flow off-exchange, and that the Program, as modified... significant shares of retail order flow to the Program because the cost of complying with the current ``any... imposes a higher threshold for order flow segmentation purposes. Third, the commenter contended that the...

  10. 76 FR 3046 - Farmers' Market Promotion Program Regulation; Notice of Request for Approval of a New Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... does not meet the definition of a Federal mandate because the resulting annual State expenditures would..., roadside stands, community-supported agriculture programs, agri-tourism activities, and other direct...' markets, roadside stands, community-supported agriculture programs, agri-tourism activities, and other...

  11. 75 FR 14227 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... Commission has considered the proposed rule's impact on efficiency, competition, and capital formation. See... its rules governing NOM, the Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association (``SIFMA... security.''). See also Newton v. Merrill, Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith, Inc., 135 F.3d 266, at 271, 274...

  12. 75 FR 6072 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... delisting process if such rule changes are found to benefit Nasdaq's financial position.\\46\\ [[Page 6075... SEC filing made by listing companies, including proxies and annual and quarterly financial reports... the changes that have taken place in the financial markets, the existing time periods are unreasonably...

  13. Structural changes in the German pharmaceutical market: price setting mechanisms based on the early benefit evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henschke, Cornelia; Sundmacher, Leonie; Busse, Reinhard

    2013-03-01

    In the past, free price setting mechanisms in Germany led to high prices of patented pharmaceuticals and to increasing expenditures in the pharmaceutical sector. In order to control patented pharmaceutical prices and to curb increasing pharmaceutical spending, the Act for Restructuring the Pharmaceutical Market in Statutory Health Insurance (AMNOG) came into effect on 1st January 2011. In a structured dossier, pharmaceutical manufacturers have to demonstrate the additional therapeutic benefit of the newly approved pharmaceutical compared to its appropriate comparator. According to the level of additional benefit, pharmaceuticals will be subject to price negotiations between the Federal Association of Statutory Health Insurance Funds and the pharmaceutical company concerned (or assigned to a reference price group in case of no additional benefit). Therefore, the health care reform is a first step to decision making based on "value for money". The process of price setting based on early benefit evaluation has an impact on the German as well as the European pharmaceutical markets. Therefore, these structural changes in Germany are of importance for pricing decisions in many European countries both from a political point of view and for strategic planning for pharmaceutical manufacturers, which may have an effect on insured patients' access to pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A study of real-time content marketing : formulating real-time content marketing based on content, search and social media

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thi Kim Duyen

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this research is to understand profoundly the new concept of content marketing – real-time content marketing on the aspect of the digital marketing experts. Particularly, the research will focus on the real-time content marketing theories and how to build real-time content marketing strategy based on content, search and social media. It also finds out how marketers measure and keep track of conversion rates of their real-time content marketing plan. Practically, th...

  15. Web-Based Implementation of E-Marketing to Support Product Marketing of Chemical Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riswan Efendi Tarigan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, many company’s marketing strategies are limited only to face-to-face communication, telephone, facsimile, company portfolio, and product brochures. However, those marketing strategies are well- known to have limited impacts. Therefore, the presence of e-marketing as one of the marketing strategies would be appropriate to cover the weaknesses and to solve a number of the marketing problems. The purpose of this study is to discuss matters related to marketing, such    as, proposing a marketing plan using website, expanding marketing segment, and introducing existing  products for a chemical manufacturing company. The adopted research method is a descriptive method where the study is directly performed on the research object to acquire necessary data. The collected data are further analyzed using the Porter’s Five Force and SWOT analysis. Fi- nally, the work provides a number of recommendations for implementing e-marketing strategies to support the company business.

  16. Confiscated black market products and nutritional supplements with non-approved ingredients analyzed in the Cologne Doping Control Laboratory 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Maxie; Thomas, Andreas; Geyer, Hans; Petrou, Michael; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Doping control laboratories are frequently confronted with new substances that may be misused by athletes. Besides new pharmaceuticals, where method development for their detection is dependent on the availability of the substance and corresponding administration studies, some professional and amateur athletes are using illicit 'black market' products, which either differ from known pharmaceuticals but cause similar effects or still are undergoing clinical trials and are therefore rarely available to doping control laboratories. In the Cologne Doping Control Laboratory, different confiscated products and legally obtained nutritional supplements were analyzed in 2009, and various findings were reported including GH-labelled injection vials without any pharmacologically active content; combinations of products indicating the attempt to mask growth hormone abuse; unpurified long-R(3) -IGF-1; nutritional supplements containing the growth hormone releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2); and ampoules containing the selective androgen receptor modulator Andarine (S-4). This review provides an overview on the substances that were analyzed in 2009. Ingredients relevant for doping control were identified by means of liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry methods. The awareness of new products on the black market and in nutritional supplements is of utmost importance for laboratories to develop detection methods accordingly and screen for new substances as early as possible. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. 75 FR 20796 - Market-Based Rate Affiliate Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... companies, which include integrated electric businesses, merchant generators, marketing and trading... employees'' nor ``marketing function employees'' under the Standards of Conduct.\\10\\ The Compliance Working... employees'' and ``marketing function employees'' are defined terms under the Standards of Conduct. See 18...

  18. Analysis on the inbound tourist source market in Jiangxi based on geographic concentration index and market competition status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tong; Ye, Yue-li

    2018-05-01

    In accordance with the related data of Statistical Yearbook of Jiangxi (2007—2016), conduct analysis on the development situation of inbound tourist source market in Jiangxi based on geographic concentration index and market competition status. The result shows: when the geographic concentration index of the inbound tourism market in Jiangxi presents an increasing decline trend, the tourism-generating countries of the inbound tourism in Jiangxi are getting more and more disperse, the tourist markets present the diversified feature and the inbound tourism market tends to be stable; besides, the analysis result of the market competition status shows that the inbound tourism development in Jiangxi has transformed from the rapid development to stable development.

  19. An Agent-Based Computational Model for China’s Stock Market and Stock Index Futures Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Chuan Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an agent-based computational cross market model for Chinese equity market structure, which includes both stocks and CSI 300 index futures. In this model, we design several stocks and one index future to simulate this structure. This model allows heterogeneous investors to make investment decisions with restrictions including wealth, market trading mechanism, and risk management. Investors’ demands and order submissions are endogenously determined. Our model successfully reproduces several key features of the Chinese financial markets including spot-futures basis distribution, bid-ask spread distribution, volatility clustering, and long memory in absolute returns. Our model can be applied in cross market risk control, market mechanism design, and arbitrage strategies analysis.

  20. Teaching Innovations in Marketing: A Brand-Based Student-Led Inquiry of Marketing Concepts and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetter, Leonard R., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    This teaching innovation is a brand-based student-led inquiry of marketing concepts and practices for an introductory marketing course. During the first week of class, teams of students (or individual students) each select a brand of interest to research and analyze throughout the course. The objective is for students to understand the practical…

  1. Cointegration-based financial networks study in Chinese stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Chengyi

    2014-05-01

    We propose a method based on cointegration instead of correlation to construct financial complex network in Chinese stock market. The network is obtained starting from the matrix of p-value calculated by Engle-Granger cointegration test between all pairs of stocks. Then some tools for filtering information in complex network are implemented to prune the complete graph described by the above matrix, such as setting a level of statistical significance as a threshold and Planar Maximally Filtered Graph. We also calculate Partial Correlation Planar Graph of these stocks to compare the above networks. Last, we analyze these directed, weighted and non-symmetric networks by using standard methods of network analysis, including degree centrality, PageRank, HITS, local clustering coefficient, K-shell and strongly and weakly connected components. The results shed a new light on the underlying mechanisms and driving forces in a financial market and deepen our understanding of financial complex network.

  2. Market Mechanism Design for Renewable Energy based on Risk Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wu; Bo, Wang; Jichun, Liu; Wenjiao, Zai; Pingliang, Zeng; Haobo, Shi

    2018-02-01

    Generation trading between renewable energy and thermal power is an efficient market means for transforming supply structure of electric power into sustainable development pattern. But the trading is hampered by the output fluctuations of renewable energy and the cost differences between renewable energy and thermal power at present. In this paper, the external environmental cost (EEC) is defined and the EEC is introduced into the generation cost. At same time, the incentive functions of renewable energy and low-emission thermal power are designed, which are decreasing functions of EEC. On these bases, for the market risks caused by the random variability of EEC, the decision-making model of generation trading between renewable energy and thermal power is constructed according to the risk theory. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model are verified by simulation results.

  3. Drivers of Adoption and Implementation of Internet-Based Marketing Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørn Flohr; Mols, Niels Peter; Høst, Viggo

    2007-01-01

    This chapter analyses factors influencing manufacturers= adoption and implementation of Internet-based marketing channels, using models based on marketing channel and organisational innovation theory. Survey data from 1163 Danish, Finnish, and Swedish manufacturers form the empirical basis for te...

  4. Creating lift versus building the base : Current trends in marketing dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeflang, P.S.H.; Bijmolt, T.H.A.; van Doorn, J.; Hanssens, D.M.; van Heerde, H.J.; Verhoef, P.C.; Wieringa, J.E.

    Markets are dynamic by nature; and marketing-efforts can be directed to stimulate, reduce, or to utilize these dynamics. The field of marketing dynamics aims at modeling the effects of marketing actions and policies on short-term performance ("lift") and on long-term performance ("base"). One of the

  5. Mergers, acquisitions, divestitures, and applications for market-based rates in a deregulating electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews FERC's current procedures for undertaking competitive analysis. The current procedure for evaluating the competitive impact of transactions in the electric utility industry is described in Order 592, in particular Appendix A. These procedures effectively revised criteria that had been laid out in Commonwealth Edison and brought its merger policy in line with the EPAct and the provisions of Order 888. Order 592 was an attempt to provide more certainty and expedition in handling mergers. It established three criteria that had to be satisfied for a merger to be approved: Post-merger market power must be within acceptable thresholds or be satisfactorily mitigated, acceptable customer protections must be in place (to ensure that rates will not go up as a result of increased costs) and any adverse effect on regulation must be addressed. FERC states that its Order 592 Merger Policy Statement is based upon the Horizontal Merger Guidelines issued jointly by the Federal Trade Commission and the Antitrust Division Department of Justice (FTC/DOJ Merger Guidelines). While it borrows much of the language and basic concepts of the Merger Guidelines, FERC's procedures have been criticized as not following the methodology closely enough, leaving open the possibility of mistakes in market definition

  6. Mergers, acquisitions, divestitures, and applications for market-based rates in a deregulating electric utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, A.J.

    1999-05-01

    In this article, the author reviews FERC's current procedures for undertaking competitive analysis. The current procedure for evaluating the competitive impact of transactions in the electric utility industry is described in Order 592, in particular Appendix A. These procedures effectively revised criteria that had been laid out in Commonwealth Edison and brought its merger policy in line with the EPAct and the provisions of Order 888. Order 592 was an attempt to provide more certainty and expedition in handling mergers. It established three criteria that had to be satisfied for a merger to be approved: Post-merger market power must be within acceptable thresholds or be satisfactorily mitigated, acceptable customer protections must be in place (to ensure that rates will not go up as a result of increased costs) and any adverse effect on regulation must be addressed. FERC states that its Order 592 Merger Policy Statement is based upon the Horizontal Merger Guidelines issued jointly by the Federal Trade Commission and the Antitrust Division Department of Justice (FTC/DOJ Merger Guidelines). While it borrows much of the language and basic concepts of the Merger Guidelines, FERC's procedures have been criticized as not following the methodology closely enough, leaving open the possibility of mistakes in market definition.

  7. Market conditions for wind power and biofuel-based cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the prerequisites for biofuel-based cogeneration plants and for wind power, with special emphasis on following factors: 1/ The effect on the Swedish energy market of the opening of the power transmission networks for free competition within the electric power supply sector. 2/ A market model for the connection between the prices on fossil fuels, biomass fuels, electric power, and heating on the Swedish market. The analysis is made for three scenarios concerning carbon dioxide/energy taxation and the oil price development. The three scenarios are: A. Constant prices on heating oil and coal., B. An internationally uniform carbon dioxide tax, which successively is raised to SEK 0.40 per kilo carbon dioxide to the year 2010. In the year 2005 this will correspond to a doubling of the present prices on crude oil., C. An unilateral Swedish energy- and carbon dioxide tax of todays model (without exception for electric power generation), with constant import prices on heating oil and coal. The decisive factors for bio-cogeneration are construction- and operation costs, the costs of biofuels, and the sales price on electric power and heat. For wind power it is the construction- and operation costs that settle the conditions. 18 figs, 6 tabs

  8. System of marketing deciding support based on game theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Dukić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative methods and models can be applied in numerous spheres of marketing deciding. The choice of optimal strategy in product advertising is one of the problems that the marketing-management often meets. The use of models developed within the framework of game theory makes significantly easier to find out the solutions of conflict situations that appear herewith. The system of deciding support presented in this work is based on the supposition that two opposed sides take part in the game. With the aim of deciding process promotion, the starting model incorporates computer simulation of percentile changes in the market share that represent elements of payment matrix. The supposition is that the random variables that represent them follow the normal division. It is necessary to carry out the evaluation of their parameters because of relevant data. Information techniques, computer and the adequate program applications take the special position in solving and analysis of the suggested model. This kind of their application represents the basic characteristic of the deciding support system.

  9. Developing Marketing Higher Education Strategies Based on Students’ Satisfaction Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Orîndaru

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The educational system worldwide is currently under the spotlight as it shows significant signs of an ongoing crisis in its search for resources, visibility in the crowded market and significance to the ever-changing society. Within this framework, higher education institutions (HEIs are taking significant actions for maintaining students as clients of their educational services. As competition on this market is becoming stronger, HEIs face difficulties in keeping students, leading them to a continuous evaluation of student satisfaction indicators. Beyond HEIs’ managers, researchers in marketing higher education have contributed to the development of a comprehensive literature where still very few have forwarded a longitudinal research model for student satisfaction evaluation despite the need for such approaches. Given this context, the current paper presents a first step towards a longitudinal study as it displays, in a compare and contrast vision, the results of two different quantitative research projects developed in the same student community, with the same objective, but conducted in two different years. Among the most significant results of this research refer to an important decline in students’ satisfaction with a significant increase in the number of students that have a neutral perception. This is highly expected to determine a major impact on university’s overall performance and, therefore, it constitutes a strong argument for determining underlying causes, and especially developing the appropriate marketing strategies to tackle with these issues. Based on this result and other similar research outcomes, strategic and tactic recommendations are granted in the final part of this paper.

  10. An agent-based simulation of power generation company behavior in electricity markets under different market-clearing mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliabadi, Danial Esmaeili; Kaya, Murat; Şahin, Güvenç

    2017-01-01

    Deregulated electricity markets are expected to provide affordable electricity for consumers through promoting competition. Yet, the results do not always fulfill the expectations. The regulator's market-clearing mechanism is a strategic choice that may affect the level of competition in the market. We conceive of the market-clearing mechanism as composed of two components: pricing rules and rationing policies. We investigate the strategic behavior of power generation companies under different market-clearing mechanisms using an agent-based simulation model which integrates a game-theoretical understanding of the auction mechanism in the electricity market and generation companies' learning mechanism. Results of our simulation experiments are presented using various case studies representing different market settings. The market in simulations is observed to converge to a Nash equilibrium of the stage game or to a similar state under most parameter combinations. Compared to pay-as-bid pricing, bid prices are closer to marginal costs on average under uniform pricing while GenCos' total profit is also higher. The random rationing policy of the ISO turns out to be more successful in achieving lower bid prices and lower GenCo profits. In minimizing GenCos' total profit, a combination of pay-as-bid pricing rule and random rationing policy is observed to be the most promising. - Highlights: • An agent-based simulation of generation company behavior in electricity markets is developed. • Learning dynamics of companies is modeled with an extended Q-learning algorithm. • Different market clearing mechanisms of the regulator are compared. • Convergence to Nash equilibria is analyzed under different cases. • The level of competition in the market is studied.

  11. Mobil/Badger to market zeolite-based cumene technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotman, D.

    1993-01-01

    Badger (Cambridge, MA) and Mobil (Fairfax, VA) are ready to jointly license a new cumene technology that they say achieves higher yields and product purity than existing processes. The zeolite-based technology is scheduled to be introduced at next month's DeWitt Petrochemical Review in Houston. The Mobil/Badger technology aims to challenge the dominant position of UOP's (Des Plaines, IL) solid phosphoric acid (SPA) catalyst process - which accounts for 80%-90% of the world's cumene production. In addition, Monsanto/Kellogg's aluminum chloride-based technology has gained significant momentum since its introduction in the 1980s. And late last year, ABB Lummus Crest (Bloomfield, NJ) also began marketing a zeolite-based cumene technology. While all the technologies make cumene via the alkylation of benzene with propylene, the Mobil/Badger process uses a zeolite-containing catalyst designed by Mobil to selectively catalyze the benzene/propylene reaction, avoiding unwanted propylene oligomerization. Because the olefin reactions are so fast, says Frank A. Demers, Badger's v.p./technology development and marketing, other zeolite technologies are forced to use complex reactor arrangements to stop the propylene-propylene reactions. However, he says, 'Mobil has designed a catalyst that wants to react benzene with propylene to make cumene.'

  12. Quality of evidence considered by Health Canada in granting full market authorisation to new drugs with a conditional approval: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexchin, Joel

    2018-04-28

    This study examines the characteristics of studies that Health Canada uses to grant full marketing authorisation for products given a conditional approval between 1 January 1998 and 30 June 2017. Cohort study. Journal articles listing drugs that fulfilled their conditions and received full marketing authorisation, Notice of Compliance database, Notice of Compliance with conditions website, Qualifying Notices listing required confirmatory studies, clinicaltrials.gov, PubMed, Embase, companies making products being analysed, journal articles resulting from confirmatory studies. None. Characteristics of studies-study design (randomised controlled trials, observational), primary outcome used (clinical, surrogate), blinding, number of patients in studies, patient median age, number of men and women. Eleven companies confirmed 36 publications for 19 products (21 indications). Twenty-nine out of the 36 studies were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) but only 10 stated if they were blinded. Twenty used surrogate outcomes. The median age of patients was 56 (IQR 44-61). The median number of men per study/trial was 184 (IQR 58-514) versus women 141 (IQR 46-263). Postmarket studies required by Health Canada had more rigorous methodology than those required by either the Food and Drug Administration or the European Medicines Agency. There were still deficiencies in these studies. The absence of blinding in the majority of RCTs may introduce bias in their results. The use of surrogate outcomes especially in oncology trials means that improvements in survival are not available. The relatively young age of patients, even for products for cancer, means that predicting how the elderly will respond is often unknown. The almost universal finding that men outnumbered women may make it hard to differentiate responses by sex. These results raise potential concerns about the quality of evidence that Health Canada accepts. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated

  13. Biodiversity and Habitat Markets—Policy, Economic, and Ecological implications of Market-Based Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindilli, Emily J.; Casey, Frank

    2015-10-26

    This report is a primer on market-like and market-based mechanisms designed to conserve biodiversity and habitat. The types of markets and market-based approaches that were implemented or are emerging to benefit biodiversity and habitat in the United States are examined. The central approaches considered in this report include payments for ecosystem services, conservation banks, habitat exchanges, and eco-labels. Based on literature reviews and input from experts and practitioners, the report characterizes each market-based approach including policy context and structure; the theoretical basis for applying market-based approaches; the ecological effectiveness of practices and tools for measuring performance; and the future outlook for biodiversity and habitat markets. This report draws from previous research and serves as a summary of pertinent information associated with biodiversity and habitat markets while providing references to materials that go into greater detail on specific topics.

  14. 77 FR 75933 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; The 2002 Base Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... email. The www.regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means EPA will not know... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; The 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory for the...: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve the 2002 base year emissions inventory portion of the...

  15. Congestion management of electric distribution networks through market based methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun

     EVs and HPs. Market-based congestion management methods are the focus of the thesis. They handle the potential congestion at the energy planning stage; therefore, the aggregators can optimally plan the energy consumption and have the least impact on the customers. After reviewing and identifying...... the shortcomings of the existing methods, the thesis fully studies and improves the dynamic tariff (DT) method, and proposes two  new market-based  congestion management methods,  namely the  dynamic subsidy (DS) method and the flexible demand swap method. The thesis improves the DT method from four aspects......Rapidly increasing share of intermittent renewable energy production poses a great challenge of the management and operation of the modern power systems. Deployment of a large number of flexible demands, such as electrical vehicles (EVs) and heat pumps (HPs), is believed to be a promising solution...

  16. Complexity analysis based on generalized deviation for financial markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Shang, Pengjian

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a new modified method is proposed as a measure to investigate the correlation between past price and future volatility for financial time series, known as the complexity analysis based on generalized deviation. In comparison with the former retarded volatility model, the new approach is both simple and computationally efficient. The method based on the generalized deviation function presents us an exhaustive way showing the quantization of the financial market rules. Robustness of this method is verified by numerical experiments with both artificial and financial time series. Results show that the generalized deviation complexity analysis method not only identifies the volatility of financial time series, but provides a comprehensive way distinguishing the different characteristics between stock indices and individual stocks. Exponential functions can be used to successfully fit the volatility curves and quantify the changes of complexity for stock market data. Then we study the influence for negative domain of deviation coefficient and differences during the volatile periods and calm periods. after the data analysis of the experimental model, we found that the generalized deviation model has definite advantages in exploring the relationship between the historical returns and future volatility.

  17. MARKETING STRATEGY FOR THE FINNISH TOURIST COMPANY BASED ON SAINT PETERSBURG MARKET RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Miroshnichenko, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to get a marketing strategy for proposed tourist business through the field-work marketing research. The purpose of this marketing research was to investigate the attitudes of Russian tourists in Saint Pe-tersburg towards Finland as a destination. The research examines the respondents’ own evaluation of the Finnish tourism possibilities, as well as the expert evaluation (made by the professionals of tourist agencies in Saint Petersburg) of the Finnish tourist ma...

  18. CONDUCT RESEARCH STOCK MARKET BASED ON MODELS OF ARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Burtnyak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to study the dynamics of the volatility of some indicators of financial market of Ukraine using the methods ARCH modeling. As indicators of the financial market we take the most aggregated variables describing profitability or market price of the portfolio, but not individual assets constituting the portfolio. An indicator of the stock market index stands First Stock Trading System (PFTS. The conditional variance of financial indicators reflecting the level of systemic risk, measures the uncertainty associated with forecasting market dynamics. Key words. Autoregression models, econometric models, stock market, financial instruments, the PFTS index, volatility time series. JEL: C 50

  19. 30 CFR 14.7 - Approval marking and distribution records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE APPROVAL OF FLAME-RESISTANT CONVEYOR BELTS General Provisions § 14.7 Approval marking and distribution records. (a) An approved conveyor belt must be marketed only under the name specified in the approval. (b) Approved conveyor belt must be legibly and...

  20. Subdivisions of the adult zebrafish pallium based on molecular marker analysis [version 2; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Ganz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The telencephalon shows a remarkable structural diversity among vertebrates. In particular, the everted telencephalon of ray-finned fishes has a markedly different morphology compared to the evaginated telencephalon of all other vertebrates. This difference in development has hampered the comparison between different areas of the pallium of ray-finned fishes and the pallial nuclei of all other vertebrates. Various models of homology between pallial subdivisions in ray-finned fishes and the pallial nuclei in tetrapods have been proposed based on connectional, neurochemical, gene expression and functional data. However, no consensus has been reached so far. In recent years, the analysis of conserved developmental marker genes has assisted the identification of homologies for different parts of the telencephalon among several tetrapod species. Results: We have investigated the gene expression pattern of conserved marker genes in the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio pallium to identify pallial subdivisions and their homology to pallial nuclei in tetrapods. Combinatorial expression analysis of ascl1a, eomesa, emx1, emx2, emx3, and Prox1 identifies four main divisions in the adult zebrafish pallium. Within these subdivisions, we propose that Dm is homologous to the pallial amygdala in tetrapods and that the dorsal subdivision of Dl is homologous to part of the hippocampal formation in mouse. We have complemented this analysis be examining the gene expression of emx1, emx2 and emx3 in the zebrafish larval brain. Conclusions: Based on our gene expression data, we propose a new model of subdivisions in the adult zebrafish pallium and their putative homologies to pallial nuclei in tetrapods. Pallial nuclei control sensory, motor, and cognitive functions, like memory, learning and emotion. The identification of pallial subdivisions in the adult zebrafish and their homologies to pallial nuclei in tetrapods will contribute to the use of the zebrafish

  1. A Computational Agent-Based Modeling Approach for Competitive Wireless Service Market

    KAUST Repository

    Douglas, C C; Hyoseop Lee,; Wonsuck Lee,

    2011-01-01

    Using an agent-based modeling method, we study market dynamism with regard to wireless cellular services that are in competition for a greater market share and profit. In the proposed model, service providers and consumers are described as agents

  2. Target marketing for the hospital-based wellness center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangelosi, J D

    1997-01-01

    The American population is aging, medical technology is advancing, and life expectancies are on the rise. At the same time hospitals are looking for additional sources of income due to the pressures of government regulations and managed care. One of the options for hospitals looking for additional sources of income is the hospital-based but free-standing comprehensive wellness and fitness center. Such centers go beyond the facilities, programs and services offered by traditional health and fitness centers. In addition to physical fitness programs, hospital-based wellness centers offer programs in CPR, nutrition, weight control and many other programs of interest to an aging but active American populace. This research documents the hospital industry, wellness industry and the prospects of success or failure for he hospital attempting such a venture. The focus of the research is the experience of a particular hospital with regard to the programs, facilities and services deemed most important by its target market.

  3. Pre-market approval and post-market direct-to-consumer advertising of medical devices in Australia: a case study of breast cancer screening and diagnostic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreugdenburg, T D; Willis, C D; Mundy, L; Hiller, J E

    2013-01-01

    While research investigating direct-to-consumer advertising of therapeutic goods in Australia has historically focused on prescription medicines, recent action taken by regulators against companies promoting medical devices has placed the industry into the spotlight. Despite the need to effectively regulate direct-to-consumer advertising of medical devices due to its potential harms, inadequacies in the current regulatory system have been noted. Under the present system, devices with a questionable evidence base may enter the Australian marketplace without an evaluation of their effectiveness, and regulators are reliant on industry self-regulation and consumer complaints to draw attention to cases of advertising misconduct. Although some successes in the present system have been observed, we argue that the outlined inadequacies continue to enable the promotion of medical devices to consumers without thorough or sufficient examination of evidence. © 2011 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2011 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  4. Consumer’s market analysis of products based on cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unteawati, Bina; Fitriani; Fatih, Cholid

    2018-03-01

    Cassava product has the important role for enhancing household's income in rural. Cassava as raw material food is plentiful as local food in Lampung. Cassava product is one of strategic value addition activities. Value additional activities are a key to create income source enrichment in rural. The household was product cassava as a snack or additional food. Their product cassava was operated in small-scale, traditional, and discontinuous production. They have been lacked in technology, capital, and market access. Measurement the sustainability of their business is important. The market has driven the business globally. This research aims to (1) describe the cassava demand to locally product cassava in rural and (2) analysis the consumer's perception of cassava product. Research take placed in Lampung Province, involved Bandar Lampung and Metro City, Pringsewu, Pesawaran, Central Lampung, and East Lampung district. It is held in February until April 2017. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistic and multidimensional scaling. Based on the analysis conclude that (1) the demand of product cassava from rural was massive in volume and regularity with the enormous transaction. This fact is very important to role business cycles. Consumers demand continuously will lead the production of cassava product sustain. Producers of product cassava will consume fresh cassava for the farmer. Consumption of fresh cassava for home industry regularly in rural will develop balancing in fresh cassava price in the farming gate (2) The consumer's perception on cassava product in the different market showed that they prefer much to consume cassava chips as cassava product products than other. Next are crackers, opak, and tiwul rice. Urban consumers prefer product products as snacks (chips, crumbs, and opak), with consumption frequency of 2-5 times per week and volume of 1-3 kg purchases. Consumers in rural were more frequent with daily consumption frequency. Multidimensional scaling

  5. 77 FR 19427 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Granting Approval of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ...,'' as used in this subparagraph, shall mean one or more currencies, or currency options, futures, or... 5710 (``Securities Linked to the Performance of Indexes and Commodities (Including Currencies)'') to... Certificates; Commodity-Based Trust Shares; Currency Trust Shares; Commodity Index Trust Shares; Commodity...

  6. EXAMPLE OF A RISK-BASED DISPOSAL APPROVAL: SOLIDIFICATION OF HANFORD SITE TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PRIGNANO AL

    2007-01-01

    The Hanford Site requested, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 10 approved, a Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 (TSCA) risk-based disposal approval (RBDA) for solidifying approximately four cubic meters of waste from a specific area of one of the K East Basin: the North Loadout Pit (NLOP). The NLOP waste is a highly radioactive sludge that contained polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) regulated under TSCA. The prescribed disposal method for liquid PCB waste under TSCA regulations is either thermal treatment or decontamination. Due to the radioactive nature of the waste, however, neither thermal treatment nor decontamination was a viable option. As a result, the proposed treatment consisted of solidifying the material to comply with waste acceptance criteria at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico, or possibly the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility at the Hanford Site, depending on the resulting transuranic (TRU) content of the stabilized waste. The RBDA evaluated environmental risks associated with potential airborne PCBs. In addition, the RBDA made use of waste management controls already in place at the treatment unit. The treatment unit, the T Plant Complex, is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA)-permitted facility used for storing and treating radioactive waste. The EPA found that the proposed activities did not pose an unreasonable risk to human health or the environment. Treatment took place from October 26,2005 to June 9,2006, and 332 208-liter (55-gallon) containers of solidified waste were produced. All treated drums assayed to date are TRU and will be disposed at WIPP

  7. Market-Based Resource Allocation in a Wirelessly Integrated Naval Engineering Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    available wireless nodes will be developed. Using a multi-agent approach based on free market economics (termed market based control) will be explored...as battery power, data storage capacity, MPU time, wireless bandwidth, etc.) required to perform complex computational tasks are available only in a...network. One approach to this problem is to apply free-market economics to help allocate these resources. Free-market economies can be thought of as

  8. Behavioral Finance and Agent-Based Artificial Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Lovric (Milan)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractStudying the behavior of market participants is important due to its potential impact on asset prices and the dynamics of financial markets. The idea of individual investors who are prone to biases in judgment and who use various heuristics, which might lead to anomalies on the market

  9. Market-based capabilities, perceived quality and firm performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aakouk, M.

    2006-01-01

    The historical roots of the marketing concept are traceable to the early 1950s (Drucker, 1954). However, the field of strategic marketing did not begin to bloom until late 1980s and begin 1990s. In this period various scholars begin to develop a better and more precise understanding of the marketing

  10. Active Desiccant-Based Preconditioning Market Analysis and Product Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, J.

    2001-01-11

    The Phase 1 report (ORNL/Sub/94-SVO44/1), completed earlier in this program, involved a comprehensive field survey and market analysis comparing various specialized outdoor air handling units. This initial investigation included conventional cooling and reheat, conventional cooling with sensible recovery, total energy recovery systems (passive desiccant technology) and various active desiccant systems. The report concluded that several markets do promise a significant sales opportunity for a Climate Changer-based active desiccant system offering. (Climate Changer is a registered trademark of Trane Company.) This initial market analysis defined the wants and needs of the end customers (design engineers and building owners), which, along with subsequent information included in this report, have been used to guide the determination of the most promising active desiccant system configurations. This Phase 2 report begins with a summary of a more thorough investigation of those specific markets identified as most promising for active desiccant systems. Table 1 estimates the annual sales potential for a cost-effective product line of active desiccant systems, such as that built from Climate Changer modules. The Product Development Strategy section describes the active desiccant system configurations chosen to best fit the needs of the marketplace while minimizing system options. Key design objectives based on market research are listed in this report for these active desiccant systems. Corresponding performance goals for the dehumidification wheel required to meet the overall system design objectives are also defined. The Performance Modeling section describes the strategy used by SEMCO to design the dehumidification wheels integrated into the prototype systems currently being tested as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Desiccant Technology Program. Actual performance data from wheel testing was used to revise the system performance and energy analysis

  11. Distributed, price-based control approach to market-based operation of future power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokic, A.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.; Hermans, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present, discuss and illustrate on examples the price-based control paradigm as a suitable approach to solve some of the challenging problems facing future, market-based power systems. It is illustrated how global objectives and constraints are optimally translated into time-varying

  12. Mass transit: devising a research-based marketing plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanier, D.J.; Wotruba, T.R.

    1977-08-01

    This study presents a marketing planning procedural model that can be operationally used by marketing managers. The model enables the user to assess his company's performance on the various attributes of the marketing mix and to design a marketing program that caters to the needs of his marketplace. The model is applied here specifically to mass transit and is tested empirically. Within this context, it permits transit marketing to aim at increasing the probabilities of (i) greater usage on the part of existing riders and (ii) attracting prospects and converting them into actual customers.

  13. Mass transit: devising a research-based marketing plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanier, D J; Wotruba, T R

    1977-08-01

    This study presents a marketing planning procedural model that can be operationally used by marketing managers. The model enables the user to assess his company's performance on the various attributes of the marketing mix and to design a marketing program that caters to the needs of his marketplace. The model is applied here specifically to mass transit and is tested empirically. Within this context, it permits transit marketing to aim at increasing the probabilities of (i) greater usage on the part of existing riders and (ii) attracting prospects and converting them into actual customers.

  14. Mass market development strategies of software industries: Case study based research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Gupta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The success in competitive mass market software development depends on the quality of software development and market segments targeted. Market segments are categorized by uncertainties contributed by “Newness” and “turbulences”, making the software success stochastic in nature. Selecting good market segments, delivering high quality software versions in the lowest time than competitors, result in increasing demand in markets and ultimately revenues. Enhanced customer base is beneficial for current product as well as for future products of industry in the form of increased reputation and increased involvement of customers in future development. The case study was conducted with 13 representatives drawing experiences of 14 mass market projects. Results indicate that software solutions are delivered to few investors or in highly competitive markets, as per the survey's findings of the marketing departments. The software organizations are reluctant to deliver relatively complex solutions in new markets unless and until strongly convinced with the probable success. The method for selection of market segments belonging to new and existing markets for undertaking the software delivery is also proposed in this paper. The model will help software industry decide the market segments and high abstract level features that could increase probability of software success. Poor selection of markets or targeting markets of “improper” size affects the market share of the industry to a great extend.

  15. Development of educational Web-based simulator for the electricity spot market in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.W.; Yang, K.M.; Jeong, Y.W.; Park, J.B.; Shin, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Market simulation approaches are used frequently by electric utilities to resolve the spot market-related problems that are often encountered in competitive electricity markets. A well constructed market simulator offers the possibility to foresee the effect of new market structures or rules before they are actually implemented. This paper presented a newly developed educational market simulator that simulates the power exchange methods and market rules of the Two Way Bidding Pool (TWBP) in Korea. It allows users to set information related with market and market entities. In particular, it is an educational tool that enables interaction between lecturers and students via Web-based programs. Students can learn the effectiveness of an electricity spot market by bidding and examining the market with lecturers. Measures have been taken to address the problem of multi-users trying to manage the complex data sets. The developed application program is composed of 3 tiers where the middle tier is logically divided into 2 kinds of application programs. The divided application programs are interconnected by using the Web-service based on Extended Markup Technology and Hyper Text Transfer Protocol which make the distributed computing technology possible. Unlike most existing educational simulators, this one has the advantage of allowing students to make bids just like in a real market, thus showing them how the real electricity market runs and how market participants make their revenues. 10 refs., 4 tabs., 13 figs

  16. Development of educational Web-based simulator for the electricity spot market in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.W.; Yang, K.M.; Jeong, Y.W.; Park, J.B.; Shin, J.R. [Konkuk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Market simulation approaches are used frequently by electric utilities to resolve the spot market-related problems that are often encountered in competitive electricity markets. A well constructed market simulator offers the possibility to foresee the effect of new market structures or rules before they are actually implemented. This paper presented a newly developed educational market simulator that simulates the power exchange methods and market rules of the Two Way Bidding Pool (TWBP) in Korea. It allows users to set information related with market and market entities. In particular, it is an educational tool that enables interaction between lecturers and students via Web-based programs. Students can learn the effectiveness of an electricity spot market by bidding and examining the market with lecturers. Measures have been taken to address the problem of multi-users trying to manage the complex data sets. The developed application program is composed of 3 tiers where the middle tier is logically divided into 2 kinds of application programs. The divided application programs are interconnected by using the Web-service based on Extended Markup Technology and Hyper Text Transfer Protocol which make the distributed computing technology possible. Unlike most existing educational simulators, this one has the advantage of allowing students to make bids just like in a real market, thus showing them how the real electricity market runs and how market participants make their revenues. 10 refs., 4 tabs., 13 figs.

  17. Competition and equilibria in electricity markets based on two-settlement system: A conjectural variation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, David

    This dissertation studies electricity markets based on two-settlement systems and applies the concept of conjectural variation (CV) as a tool for representing different levels of competitiveness in the market. Some recent theoretical works are addressed to support the use of CV as a solution concept. A notion of consistency is introduced to make the level of competitiveness of the market endogenous, and allows finding consistent CV equilibria and the corresponding conditions for existence of equilibria. First, a case is studied in which firms hold exogenous levels of forward commitments. Then, backward induction and sub-game perfection are used to solve sequentially for the spot and forward market equilibrium. This allows analyzing how firms take positions in the forward market, based on considering their later impact on the spot market. It is concluded that positions taken in the forward market depend largely on firms expectations about the competitiveness of both the spot and the forward market. Forward markets are welfare enhancing even if they are not as competitive as the associated spot market as long as they are not too oligopolistie. The above formulation is used to model a dynamic scenario to analyze market stability, linking this research to Dr. Alvarado's earlier research on market stability. This brings about interesting trade offs between market power and market stability.

  18. Agent-based simulation of a financial market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raberto, Marco; Cincotti, Silvano; Focardi, Sergio M.; Marchesi, Michele

    2001-10-01

    This paper introduces an agent-based artificial financial market in which heterogeneous agents trade one single asset through a realistic trading mechanism for price formation. Agents are initially endowed with a finite amount of cash and a given finite portfolio of assets. There is no money-creation process; the total available cash is conserved in time. In each period, agents make random buy and sell decisions that are constrained by available resources, subject to clustering, and dependent on the volatility of previous periods. The model proposed herein is able to reproduce the leptokurtic shape of the probability density of log price returns and the clustering of volatility. Implemented using extreme programming and object-oriented technology, the simulator is a flexible computational experimental facility that can find applications in both academic and industrial research projects.

  19. A consensus-based dynamics for market volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatelli, Lorenzo; Richmond, Peter

    2004-12-01

    We develop a model of trading orders based on opinion dynamics. The agents may be thought as the share holders of a major mutual fund rather than as direct traders. The balance between their buy and sell orders determines the size of the fund order (volume) and has an impact on prices and indexes. We assume agents interact simultaneously to each other through a Sznajd-like interaction. Their degree of connection is determined by the probability of changing opinion independently of what their neighbours are doing. We assume that such a probability may change randomly, after each transaction, of an amount proportional to the relative difference between the volatility then measured and a benchmark that we assume to be an exponential moving average of the past volume values. We show how this simple model is compatible with some of the main statistical features observed for the asset volumes in financial markets.

  20. A trade based view on casino taxation: market conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqiang; Gu, Xinhua; Wu, Jie

    2015-06-01

    This article presents a trade based theory of casino taxation along with empirical evidence found from Macao as a typical tourism resort. We prove that there is a unique optimum gaming tax in a particular market for casino gambling, argue that any change in this tax is engendered by external demand shifts, and suggest that the economic rent from gambling legalization should be shared through such optimal tax between the public and private sectors. Our work also studies the tradeoff between economic benefits and social costs arising from casino tourism, and provides some policy recommendations for the sustainable development of gaming-led economies. The theoretical arguments in this article turn out to be consistent with empirical observations on Macao realities over the recent decade.

  1. Market-based instruments for water policy: the market for water rights in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redaelli, C.

    2008-01-01

    Market instruments have been often proposed with the aim of improving the efficient allocation of use rights over natural resources. This article analyzes the potential of market mechanisms in the field of water resources and focuses attention on the experience of Chile, one of the few cases in which water markets have been implemented on a wide scale. Evidence from the Chilean case is discussed in order to verify theoretical hypotheses and to outline the potential benefits but also the many drawbacks of these instruments. [it

  2. Market orientated design studies for SOFC based systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nietsch, T.; Clark, J.

    1999-07-01

    This report examines the development status of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology, assesses its commercial potential for heat and power generation in the UK and identifies key development areas for both the SOFC stack and associated system components. A range of Distributed Generation (DG) and Combined Heat and Power (CHP) applications were considered in arriving at these recommendations. The project commenced with initial surveys of leading SOFC technology companies and centres world-wide. These surveys were conducted in parallel with consultations with key operator organisations in the UK which enabled the requirements of these organisations within the UK Energy Supply Industry to be identified. As a result of the initial survey, over 30 fuel cell based power plants, of size ranging from 1 kW{sub e} to 20 MW{sub e} for both DG and CHP applications, were identified. Outline designs of these applications were then set up and simulated. These candidate systems were then assessed against each other in terms of efficiency, cost of electricity, specific costs, technical risk and market potential for the UK industry. The final ranking obtained was then confirmed with the key operator organisations. On the basis of the ranking process noted above, nine SOFC based power generation/CHP applications were chosen for more detailed investigation in terms of their potential in both UK and overseas markets. Detailed simulations were conducted for each application to allow study of: the influence of efficiency on the economics of the different plants/stacks; the combination of stack and Balance of Plant (BoP) costs; and the cost and availability of key balance of plant devices. These systems were then again assessed in terms of the criteria noted for the outline stage. Finally key development areas for both SOFC stacks and associated Balance of Plant devices were identified. (author)

  3. Bacteria-based concrete: from concept to market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiktor, V.; Jonkers, H. M.

    2016-08-01

    The concept of self-healing concrete—a concrete which can autonomously repair itself after crack formation, with no or limited human intervention—has received a lot of attention over the past 10 years as it could help structures to last longer and at a lower maintenance cost. This paper gives an overview on the key aspects and recent advances in the development of the bacteria-based self-healing concrete developed at the University of Technology of Delft (The Netherlands). Research started with the screening and selection of concrete compatible bacteria and nutrients. Several types of encapsulated bacteria and nutrients have been developed and tested. The functionality of these healing agents was demonstrated by showing metabolic activity of activated bacterial spores by oxygen consumption measurements and by regain of material functionality in form of regain of water tightness. Besides development of bacteria-based self-healing concrete, a bacteria-based repair mortar and liquid system were developed for the treatment of aged concrete structures. Field trials have been carried out with either type of bacteria-based systems and the promising results have led to a spinoff company Basilisk Self-Healing Concrete with the aim to further develop these systems and bring them to the market.

  4. A novel model for product bundling and direct marketing in e-commerce based on market segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Beheshtian-Ardakani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, companies offer product bundles with special discounts in order to sell more products. However, it is important to note that customers show different levels of loyalties to companies, and each segment of the market has unique features, which influences the customers’ buying patterns. The primary purpose of this paper is to propose a novel model for product bundling in e-commerce websites by using market segmentation variables and customer loyalty analysis. RFM model is employed to calculate customer loyalty. Subsequently, the customers are grouped based on their loyalty levels. Each group is then divided into different segments based on market segmentation variables. The product bundles are determined for each market segment via clustering algorithms. Apriori algorithm is also used to determine the association rules for each product bundle. Classification models are applied in order to determine which product bundle should be recommended to each customer. The results demonstrate that the silhouette coefficient, support, confidence, and accuracy values are higher when both customer loyalty level and market segmentation variables are used in product bundling. Accordingly, the proposed model increases the chance of success in direct marketing and recommending product bundles to customers.

  5. Hurst exponent and prediction based on weak-form efficient market hypothesis of stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Cheoljun; Choi, Sunghoon; Oh, Gabjin; Jung, Woo-Sung

    2008-07-01

    We empirically investigated the relationships between the degree of efficiency and the predictability in financial time-series data. The Hurst exponent was used as the measurement of the degree of efficiency, and the hit rate calculated from the nearest-neighbor prediction method was used for the prediction of the directions of future price changes. We used 60 market indexes of various countries. We empirically discovered that the relationship between the degree of efficiency (the Hurst exponent) and the predictability (the hit rate) is strongly positive. That is, a market index with a higher Hurst exponent tends to have a higher hit rate. These results suggested that the Hurst exponent is useful for predicting future price changes. Furthermore, we also discovered that the Hurst exponent and the hit rate are useful as standards that can distinguish emerging capital markets from mature capital markets.

  6. Benefiting from Customer and Competitor Knowledge: A Market-Based Approach to Organizational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoe, Siu Loon

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the organizational learning, market orientation and learning orientation concepts, highlight the importance of market knowledge to organizational learning and recommend ways in adopting a market-based approach to organizational learning. Design/methodology/approach: The extant organizational learning…

  7. Modeling investor sentiment and overconfidence in an agent-based stock market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lovric, M.; Kaymak, U.; Spronk, J.

    2010-01-01

    Agent-based stock markets as bottom-up models of financial markets allow us to study the link between individual investor behavior and aggregate market phenomena, and as such are a useful tool for investigating the implications of behavioral finance and investor psychology. In this paper we want to

  8. Overconfident investors in the LLS agent-based artificial financial market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lovric, M.; Kaymak, U.; Spronk, J.

    2009-01-01

    Agent-based artificial financial markets are bottom-up models of financial markets which explore the mapping from the micro level of individual investor behavior into the macro level of aggregate market phenomena. It has been recently recognized in the literature that such (agentbased) models are

  9. Multi-dimensional information diffusion and balancing market supply: an agent-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osinga, S.A.; Kramer, M.R.; Hofstede, G.J.; Beulens, A.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    This agent-based information management model is designed to explore how multi-dimensional information, spreading through a population of agents (for example farmers) affects market supply. Farmers make quality decisions that must be aligned with available markets. Markets distinguish themselves by

  10. [The Second Health Care Market: Market Mapping Based upon Consumer Perception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, T; Mühlbach, C

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the study was to present a picture of consumers' views on the specific market of health and health products, the second German health market. Market analysis of the product categories was carried out. A large-scale representative survey (N=1 033) determined with an innovative adaptation of the repertory grid method the consumer's perspective on the specific market. Basic questions concerning attitudes to health as well as healthy behaviors completed the telephone survey. In the saturated markets, market for health is growing, especially in the context of aging societies, and this is not limited to primary medical products. In this study, product categories such as "dental care", "fruit and vegetables" or "nuts" were classified as healthy products. The relevance of health also in the macroeconomic context has been long underestimated. Health has still a high priority for consumers. A disclosure of individual perceptions in the health context provides a significantly more relevant product design. The identification of healthy product dimensions from the consumer's perspective sheds light on the actually desired product properties and the available potential to meet these desires. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Confidence and the stock market: an agent-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertella, Mario A; Pires, Felipe R; Feng, Ling; Stanley, Harry Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Using a behavioral finance approach we study the impact of behavioral bias. We construct an artificial market consisting of fundamentalists and chartists to model the decision-making process of various agents. The agents differ in their strategies for evaluating stock prices, and exhibit differing memory lengths and confidence levels. When we increase the heterogeneity of the strategies used by the agents, in particular the memory lengths, we observe excess volatility and kurtosis, in agreement with real market fluctuations--indicating that agents in real-world financial markets exhibit widely differing memory lengths. We incorporate the behavioral traits of adaptive confidence and observe a positive correlation between average confidence and return rate, indicating that market sentiment is an important driver in price fluctuations. The introduction of market confidence increases price volatility, reflecting the negative effect of irrationality in market behavior.

  12. Public relation based model of integrated marketing communications

    OpenAIRE

    Naumovska, Ljupka; Blazeska, Daliborka

    2016-01-01

    The marketing communications industry and theory are facing rapid changes in accordance with global business and society fluctuations. Global and local market conditions are constantly varying and thus creating hardly predictable environment. The most implemented tool for marketing communications – advertising, is losing its power for effective communications; customers are becoming over-advertised and resistant to traditional advertising stimuli. Advertising, as one-way communica...

  13. ETHICS AND MARKETING IN THE KNOWLEDGE BASED SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana HÎNCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight the relationship between marketing and ethics. Today we face great challenges given the so-called knowledge society, as through the internet and social networks we can learn anything about anyone, including large corporations and about. The work that we realized is composed of two parts, namely: the ethics part and marketing, and later to stress that ethical marketing concept means and how it can be achieved in our country. Marketing appeared a long time ago, at first in the USA during the first part of the twentieth century. The modern concept of the term marketing refers to the main purpose of the economic activity, which is consumer satisfaction. During the last five decades, along with the development of tourism, marketing interferes with this area and gradually expands to other areas as well. Many authors try to define tourism marketing in certain ways, but eventually tourism marketing is presented as a process of identifying and ensuring the formula by which both consumer satisfaction and the achievement of the entrepreneurial goals become possible. During their daily activity, marketers face various moral issues, but most often the activities they undertake are not clear in terms of ethics.

  14. A Study on Market-based Strategic Procurement Planning in Convergent Supply Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opadiji, Jayeola Femi; Kaihara, Toshiya

    We present a market-based decentralized approach which uses a market-oriented programming algorithm to obtain Pareto-optimal allocation of resources traded among agents which represent enterprise units in a supply network. The proposed method divides the network into a series of Walrsian markets in order to obtain procurement budgets for enterprises in the network. An interaction protocol based on market value propagation is constructed to coordinate the flow of resources across the network layers. The method mitigates the effect of product complementarity in convergent network by allowing for enterprises to hold private valuations of resources in the markets.

  15. How much market do market-based instruments create? An analysis for the case of 'white' certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langniss, Ole

    2003-01-01

    Discussions about 'green' certificates for renewable energy forms are under way for some time now. In contrast, tradable 'white' certificates have only lately been celebrated as a market-based tool to foster energy efficiency. Theoretically, there is little doubt about this. In practice, however, some fundamental problems and doubts about the usefulness of certificates arise: How 'competitive' are markets for certificates in reality? Is a 'white' certificate scheme only a new name for an old hat rooted in control and command regulation? With this suspicion, a number of questions and aspects arise: - Market mechanism: Which criteria guarantee that an - artificial - market for certificates really becomes competitive? Will trading be characterized by spot markets or by rather anti-competitive long-term over-the-counter contracts? Which minimum market size is needed, and which are the conditions regarding the tradability of the certificate that have to be met? - Target group: Who should be obliged to purchase certificates? Are electricity suppliers the right target group, or should fuel and heat suppliers be addressed, or the consumer himself? - Additionality and measurability: Which efficiency technologies should be eligible for certificates? What exactly is an efficient technology? A narrow definition might ease measuring problems but at the same time reduce innovation incentives. We use the theoretical framework of Transaction Cost Economics to discuss these issues. A brief review of the design of tradable certificate schemes in Italy and the UK is given. Lessons can also be learned from renewable portfolio standards recently implemented in a number of countries

  16. Driving factors of interactions between the exchange rate market and the commodity market: A wavelet-based complex network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shaobo; An, Haizhong; Chen, Zhihua; Liu, Xueyong

    2017-08-01

    In traditional econometrics, a time series must be in a stationary sequence. However, it usually shows time-varying fluctuations, and it remains a challenge to execute a multiscale analysis of the data and discover the topological characteristics of conduction in different scales. Wavelet analysis and complex networks in physical statistics have special advantages in solving these problems. We select the exchange rate variable from the Chinese market and the commodity price index variable from the world market as the time series of our study. We explore the driving factors behind the behavior of the two markets and their topological characteristics in three steps. First, we use the Kalman filter to find the optimal estimation of the relationship between the two markets. Second, wavelet analysis is used to extract the scales of the relationship that are driven by different frequency wavelets. Meanwhile, we search for the actual economic variables corresponding to different frequency wavelets. Finally, a complex network is used to search for the transfer characteristics of the combination of states driven by different frequency wavelets. The results show that statistical physics have a unique advantage over traditional econometrics. The Chinese market has time-varying impacts on the world market: it has greater influence when the world economy is stable and less influence in times of turmoil. The process of forming the state combination is random. Transitions between state combinations have a clustering feature. Based on these characteristics, we can effectively reduce the information burden on investors and correctly respond to the government's policy mix.

  17. An Agent-based Application to Enable Deregulated Energy Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capodieci, Nicola; Cabri, Giacomo; Pagani, Giuliano Andrea; Aiello, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Private houses are more and more enabled with devices that can produce renewable energy, and the not so remote chance of selling the surplus energy makes them new players in the energy market. This market is likely to become deregulated since each energy home-producer can negotiate the energy price

  18. PUBLIC RELATION BASED MODEL OF INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljupka Naumovska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The marketing communications industry and theory are facing rapid changes in accordance with global business and society fluctuations. Global and local market conditions are constantly varying and thus creating hardly predictable environment. The most implemented tool for marketing communications – advertising, is losing its power for effective communications; customers are becoming over-advertised and resistant to traditional advertising stimuli. Advertising, as one-way communication mass media tool is no longer effective as previously, hence can no longer fulfill the role of leading marketing mix tool. Therefore, the necessity for altering the structure of the traditional marketing communication mix elements, emphasizing the role of other elements but advertising, with more personalized and interactive functions. One method for improvement of marketing communication’s mix efficiency is by reallocation the leading role of advertising with public relations. The practice of public relations tools can ensure higher level of transparency in internal and external organizational communications and thus can certify more effective marketing communication. The theoretical research is supported with qualitative research of business segment by conducting a detailed interview for the marketing communication practice.

  19. Nonprofit health care services marketing: persuasive messages based on multidimensional concept mapping and direct magnitude estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michael L

    2009-01-01

    Persuasive messages for marketing healthcare services in general and coordinated care in particular are more important now for providers, hospitals, and third-party payers than ever before. The combination of measurement-based information and creativity may be among the most critical factors in reaching markets or expanding markets. The research presented here provides an approach to marketing coordinated care services which allows healthcare managers to plan persuasive messages given the market conditions they face. Using market respondents' thinking about product attributes combined with distance measurement between pairs of product attributes, a conceptual marketing map is presented and applied to advertising, message copy, and delivery. The data reported here are representative of the potential caregivers for which the messages are intended. Results are described with implications for application to coordinated care services. Theory building and marketing practice are discussed in the light of findings and methodology.

  20. Analyzing power pools and understanding the spot market based approach to electricity trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulding, D. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    Highlights of the evolution of the electricity industry from franchised monopoly to commoditized markets were presented. Trends in commoditized markets include increased competition, a decline in profit margins and increases in price volatility. Examples of highly regulated industries that have commoditized include long distance telephone, airline and the trucking industries. Models of possible market structures for electricity were reviewed, among them: (1) mandatory one-sided spot market, (2) mandatory spot market, less central control, (3) optional two-sided spot market, and (4) physical bilateral based market. Management of the marketplace regardless of the model used, must assure system security and system reliability and meet real-time demand on the system. Possible roles for the Independent System Operator were discussed. The principal role was predicted to be the operation of an electronic exchange for forward contracts, operation of the spot market, and acting as a clearinghouse for buyers and sellers of forward contracts. 1 tab., 4 figs.

  1. Simulating GenCo bidding strategies in electricity markets with an agent-based model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botterud, Audun; Thimmapuram, Prakash R.; Yamakado, Malo

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we use an agent-based simulation model, EMCAS, to analyze market power in electricity markets. We focus on the effect of congestion management on the ability of generating companies (GenCos) to raise prices beyond competitive levels. An 11-node test power system is used to compare a market design based on locational marginal pricing with a market design that uses system marginal pricing and congestion management by counter trading. Bidding strategies based on both physical and economic withholding are compared to a base case with production cost bidding. The results show that unilateral market power is exercised under both pricing mechanisms. However, the largest changes in consumer costs and GenCo profits due to strategic bidding occur under the locational marginal pricing scheme. The analysis also illustrates that agent-based modeling can contribute important insights into the complex interactions between the participants in transmission-constrained electricity markets. (Author)

  2. Market stimulation of renewable-based power generation in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwahata, Rena; Monroy, Carlos Rodriguez

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to identify the types of renewable-based power generation technologies available in Australia that have the capacity to contribute to the growth of the renewable energy sector and then suggest what type of economic incentive instruments could be applied in order to stimulate investment in that sector. Currently in Australia there are hydro, wind, bioenergy, solar, geothermal and ocean technologies being used to produce renewable power. Of these all except hydro power has large amounts of potentially useful resources. In the cases of wind, bioenergy, solar, and geothermal, the technology is mature enough to be immediately deployed in large-scale. However, only in the cases of wind and bioenergy the costs and return on investments are proven to be viable in the current market. What is required on all fronts is an improved return on investments. Within the current electricity market competition with fossil-fuel based power is very difficult considering the ample supply of coal available in Australia and the heavy subsidies it receives. To become more competitive with electricity generated from coal-fired power plants, a feed-in tariff scheme could be implemented, and subsidies to the coal industry should be reduced if not removed. Another aspect impeding the growth of certain renewable power technologies is the high capital cost. This issue could be addressed with direct subsidies or tax exemptions, or aiding with easier access of finance options. However for particular industries such as wind and solar, it would be a further benefit if some effort is made to encourage component manufacturing within Australia. For technologies that require further technical development, funding towards R and D or pilot projects, and support for international collaboration projects would accelerate their path to deployment. It is critical that the Australian government continues to be a leader. In addition to the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme (CPRS) and an

  3. Agent-based land markets: Heterogeneous agents, land proces and urban land use change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filatova, Tatiana; Parker, Dawn C.; van der Veen, A.; Amblard, F.

    2007-01-01

    We construct a spatially explicit agent-based model of a bilateral land market. Heterogeneous agents form their bid and ask prices for land based on the utility that they obtain from a certain location (houte/land) and base on the state of the market (an excess of demand or supply). We underline the

  4. Is It Really FDA Approved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... satisfaction before companies can market them in interstate commerce. Some examples of biologics that require approval are ... it means the agency has determined that the benefits of the product outweigh the known risks for ...

  5. Marketing CE approved off-the-shelf FC-operated power backup units for the telecom industry at competitive prices : a continuing success story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, P. [Dantherm Power, Skive (Denmark)

    2009-07-01

    Dantherm Power receives a steady supply of fuel cell stacks packed on pallets at its factory in Denmark. Once unpacked, they go to an assembly line to be integrated into power modules designed for telecom- and IT network-base-stations around the world. The CE approved units are designed and tested to meet current telecom standards. Customers can purchase the off-the-shelf units at competitive prices. Dantherm Power has brought fuel-cell technology beyond the research and development stage. Since 2005, the company has sold backup units providing uninterruptible power supply (UPS) to the telecom industry on standard commercial terms. Their fuel cell-based-solutions have proven to be successful. The company began in 2003 as a research and development project within Dantherm Air Handling A/S. Development was driven by the idea that a UPS-system based on hydrogen and fuel-cell-technology may be better solution than traditional battery and diesel driven backup for many of the company's existing clients.

  6. Structural analysis of oligopoly market based on the reflective game model by the example of telecommunication market in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna A. Biryukova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to analyze the possible structures of the oligopoly market distribution by the example of telecommunication industry in terms of the agentsrsquo reflexive behavior. nbsp Methods game theory economicmathematical modeling. Results the article states that one of the first objects in the game theory is an oligopoly market. Based on the analysis of game theory studies it was found that there is a need to achieve information equilibrium in reflexive games of three agents in the oligopoly market. To solve this problem we analyzed all possible representations of the agents leading to the set of games in the Russian telecommunications market for three agents OJSC ldquoMTSrdquo OJSC ldquoMegafonrdquo and OJSC ldquoVympelcomrdquo. Three reflection grades were studied 1 representations of the agent about other agents 2 representations of the agentrsquos perception of other agents about it and 3 representations of the agent about what its competitors think about the first agentrsquos opinion about the other two. As a result the general patterns were revealed of the expressions of conjectural variations in each case it was proved that further detailing of the reflection is not needed. As a result of calculations the models of informational equilibriums of the Russian telecommunication market were constructed for that the averaged values of the demand and cost functions parameters functions of cellular communication operators were taken. It was also revealed that in 2015 the actual telecommunication market in the Russian Federation qualitatively i.e. by the ratio of market shares was close to equilibrium on condition of first rank reflexive behavior for the case when the market leader OJSC ldquoMTSrdquo represents its counterparties ndash OJSC ldquoMegafonrdquo and OJSC ldquoVympelcomrdquo ndash as the driven agents. Scientific novelty the analytical expressions for the information equilibrium parameters issues and profits of the agents aggregate

  7. Tycoon market-based system: integration with EGEE

    CERN Document Server

    Dana Perez, J M

    2007-01-01

    Tycoon is a market-based system for trading resources. The idea is to integrate Tycoon with EGEE, obtaining a dynamic Grid ready to share resources with others (Universities, research centres, etc.). Tycoon will run as a new service, deploying and destroying virtual machines (Worker Nodes and Computing Elements) on demand. Tycoon will give to EGEE a dynamic, flexible, secure and transparent platform/service to trade resources more efficiently. It could attract small and medium VOs to the EGEE project, they could take advantage of the Grid resources and obtain extra computing power while EGEE could obtain credits/money for its service. Our goal is to integrate Tycoon as a new service of EGEE, we do not have special requirements, we do not need to modify the EGEE middleware, Grid special services, etc. Standard and ‘tycoonized’ nodes (Computing Elements and Worker Nodes) must coexist in the same Grid, working without problems. Our main issue would be to ensure the security of the whole system (EGEE platform...

  8. The institutional economics of market-based climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woerdman, E.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this book is to analyze the institutional barriers to implementing market-based climate policy, as well as to provide some opportunities to overcome them. The approach is that of institutional economics, with special emphasis on political transaction costs and path dependence. Instead of rejecting the neoclassical approach, this book uses it where fruitful and shows when and why it is necessary to employ a new or neo-institutionalist approach. The result is that equity is considered next to efficiency, that the evolution and possible lock-in of both formal and informal climate institutions are studied, and that attention is paid to the politics and law of economic instruments for climate policy, including some new empirical analyses. The research topics of this book include the set-up costs of a permit trading system, the risk that credit trading becomes locked-in, the potential legal problem of grandfathering in terms of actional subsidies under WTO law or state aid under EC law, and the changing attitudes of various European officials towards restricting the use of the Kyoto Mechanisms

  9. The export marketing-financing based on forfeiting model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Pero B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary business finance have a lot of modalities of involving in the international market with different options. Twenty years ago, financial aspects and insurance of export transactions especially in international practice have been successfully solved by application of forfeiting model. The forfeiting is a medium-term transaction mainly which basic subject is right to buy claim with maturity from 6 to 60 months, and mainly related to drafts. In essence, this transaction mean the purchase of securities in order to cover claims with maturity in future related to delivery of goods and services, mainly of export character without the owner's right to demand payment. The right to claim is based both on a draft (which is the most frequent subject of forfeiting because of its simple form and long tradition and on any other financial instrument. As a rule, the exporter is owner and seller of claim. He accept the draft as a cover for payment of exported goods or services in order to speed-up the collection, and transferring the risk of collection on forfeiter (any person buying a securities without the owner's right to demand payment from previous owner. As a compensation, he receive the reduced value of security and providing a necessary liquid assets immediately in that way. Buying a securities without the owner's right to demand payment from previous owner (exporter, the forfeiter accept all risks from exporter related to the collection in certain transaction.

  10. 77 FR 24198 - Notice of Revocation of Market-Based Rate Authority and Termination of Market-Based Rate Tariffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... Innovative Technical Services, LLC....... ER03-763-000 Inupiat Energy Marketing, LLC ER09-1748-000 Kohler Co... Redwood Energy Marketing, LLC ER04-545-000 SF Phosphates Limited Company, LLC....... ER01-1121-000 Sirius... complete picture of a company's tariff, the various provisions need to be integrated into a single system...

  11. Analysis of Marketing and Customer Satisfaction in Base Housing Communities of the Monterey Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    in Seattle, Washington. The company claims to be based on four basic principles : “exceptional people, strong customer service, market knowledge, and...FtOrd.html Keller, K., & Kotler , P. (2009). A framework for marketing management. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. Office of...SUBTITLE Analysis of Marketing and Customer Satisfaction in Base Housing Communities of the Monterey Bay Area 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S

  12. Calibrating emergent phenomena in stock markets with agent based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fievet, Lucas; Sornette, Didier

    2018-01-01

    Since the 2008 financial crisis, agent-based models (ABMs), which account for out-of-equilibrium dynamics, heterogeneous preferences, time horizons and strategies, have often been envisioned as the new frontier that could revolutionise and displace the more standard models and tools in economics. However, their adoption and generalisation is drastically hindered by the absence of general reliable operational calibration methods. Here, we start with a different calibration angle that qualifies an ABM for its ability to achieve abnormal trading performance with respect to the buy-and-hold strategy when fed with real financial data. Starting from the common definition of standard minority and majority agents with binary strategies, we prove their equivalence to optimal decision trees. This efficient representation allows us to exhaustively test all meaningful single agent models for their potential anomalous investment performance, which we apply to the NASDAQ Composite index over the last 20 years. We uncover large significant predictive power, with anomalous Sharpe ratio and directional accuracy, in particular during the dotcom bubble and crash and the 2008 financial crisis. A principal component analysis reveals transient convergence between the anomalous minority and majority models. A novel combination of the optimal single-agent models of both classes into a two-agents model leads to remarkable superior investment performance, especially during the periods of bubbles and crashes. Our design opens the field of ABMs to construct novel types of advanced warning systems of market crises, based on the emergent collective intelligence of ABMs built on carefully designed optimal decision trees that can be reversed engineered from real financial data.

  13. Calibrating emergent phenomena in stock markets with agent based models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornette, Didier

    2018-01-01

    Since the 2008 financial crisis, agent-based models (ABMs), which account for out-of-equilibrium dynamics, heterogeneous preferences, time horizons and strategies, have often been envisioned as the new frontier that could revolutionise and displace the more standard models and tools in economics. However, their adoption and generalisation is drastically hindered by the absence of general reliable operational calibration methods. Here, we start with a different calibration angle that qualifies an ABM for its ability to achieve abnormal trading performance with respect to the buy-and-hold strategy when fed with real financial data. Starting from the common definition of standard minority and majority agents with binary strategies, we prove their equivalence to optimal decision trees. This efficient representation allows us to exhaustively test all meaningful single agent models for their potential anomalous investment performance, which we apply to the NASDAQ Composite index over the last 20 years. We uncover large significant predictive power, with anomalous Sharpe ratio and directional accuracy, in particular during the dotcom bubble and crash and the 2008 financial crisis. A principal component analysis reveals transient convergence between the anomalous minority and majority models. A novel combination of the optimal single-agent models of both classes into a two-agents model leads to remarkable superior investment performance, especially during the periods of bubbles and crashes. Our design opens the field of ABMs to construct novel types of advanced warning systems of market crises, based on the emergent collective intelligence of ABMs built on carefully designed optimal decision trees that can be reversed engineered from real financial data. PMID:29499049

  14. Rail renaissance based on strategic market segmentation principles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rail renaissance, market segmentation, South Africa, state of logistics, ... The modal imbalance is the result of a historical rail investment backlog, with ..... vector that can be thought of as a chromosome in genetic terms, while the values used.

  15. Security cost analysis in electricity markets based on voltage security criteria and Web-based implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient and transparent method for electricity market operators to analyze transaction security costs and to quantify the correlation between market operation and power system operation. Rescheduling and take-risk strategies were proposed and discussed with reference to transaction impact computations, thermal and voltage limits and voltage stability criteria. The rescheduling method is associated with an iterative generation dispatch or load curtailment approach to minimize the amount of rescheduling. The take-risk method considered operating risks to facilitate transactions. The SATC concept was also proposed to accurately evaluate transmission congestion. The impact of transaction was calculated using a new sensitivity formula to find the most effective rescheduling direction and the most effective cost distribution. A new pricing method called Nodal Congestion Price was also proposed to determine proper price signals. The paper also presents an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based short term load forecasting method that considers the effect of price on the load. A web-based prototype was implemented to allow all market participants access to the proposed analysis and pricing techniques. Several case studies have validated the effectiveness of the proposed method which would help independent system operators in determining congestion prices, coordinate transactions and make profitable market decisions

  16. Market power monitoring and mitigation in the US wholesale power markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helman, Udi [Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, 888 First Street, N.E., Washington, DC 20426 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    Under current statutory requirements, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) must ensure that prices in US wholesale power markets are 'just and reasonable'. This has been interpreted by the agency and the courts as requiring the monitoring and mitigation of undue market power. This paper focuses on generation market power. Prior to electricity sector restructuring, wholesale bilateral power trading took place among vertically integrated monopoly utilities trading at the margin or between small independent producers and the utilities. Under those conditions, the authorization of trading at market prices, called 'market-based rates', required only that the generation supplier pass a simple market share screen for market power. As restructuring unfolded, and market conditions changed, there has been a steady evolution in FERC's market power mitigation rules, encompassing (a) changes in the market power assessment required for granting market-based rates and related methods for merger approval, and (b) development and refinement of new techniques for screening and mitigating offers into the organized day-ahead and real-time markets operated by Independent System Operators (ISOs) and Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs). This paper reviews these changes to date, as FERC continues to clarify its approved rules and procedures. It also examines recent methods for quantitative market power analysis that could augment current procedures or supplant them, as found appropriate. (author)

  17. 75 FR 38516 - Order on Intent To Revoke Market-Based Rate Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ..., Electric Quarterly Reports, Strategic Energy Management Corp., Solaro Energy Marketing Corporation. 1... (including market-based power sales, cost-based power sales, and transmission service) and providing transaction information (including rates) for short-term and long-term power sales during the most recent...

  18. 77 FR 48148 - Energy Alternatives Wholesale, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... Energy Alternatives Wholesale, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2413-000] Energy Alternatives Wholesale, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

  19. 77 FR 9226 - Physical Systems Integration, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1013-000] Physical Systems Integration, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Physical Systems Integration, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  20. 75 FR 74711 - Planet Energy (Pennsylvania) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2167-000] Planet Energy (Pennsylvania) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding, of Planet Energy (Pennsylvania) Corp.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  1. 75 FR 74712 - Planet Energy (Maryland) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2168-000] Planet Energy (Maryland) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding, of Planet Energy (Maryland) Corp.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  2. 18 CFR 284.502 - Procedures for applying for market-based rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for applying for market-based rates. 284.502 Section 284.502 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Applications for Market-Based Rates for Storage § 284.502...

  3. 76 FR 6128 - Energy Exchange International, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2730-000] Energy Exchange International, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding Energy Exchange International, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  4. 75 FR 41855 - Stream Energy Pennsylvania, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1750-000] Stream Energy Pennsylvania, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... of Stream Energy Pennsylvania, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  5. 78 FR 28214 - Gainesville Renewable Energy Center, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1348-000] Gainesville Renewable Energy Center, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Gainesville Renewable Energy Center, LLC's application for market- based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  6. 78 FR 40473 - Plainfield Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1734-000] Plainfield Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Plainfield Renewable Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  7. 77 FR 64980 - Chesapeake Renewable Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-28-000] Chesapeake Renewable Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of Chesapeake Renewable Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  8. 77 FR 52016 - Brookfield Smoky Mountain Hydropower LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2447-001] Brookfield Smoky Mountain Hydropower LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes... proceeding, of Brookfield Smoky Mountain Hydropower LLC's application for market- based rate authority, with...

  9. 75 FR 61747 - Union Leader Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... of Union Leader Corporation's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-2780-000] Union Leader Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section...

  10. 76 FR 12726 - Tropicana Manufacturing Company, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... . To facilitate electronic service, persons with Internet access who will eFile a document and/or be... Manufacturing Company, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Tropicana Manufacturing Company, Inc.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  11. 77 FR 42722 - Berry Petroleum Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2233-000] Berry Petroleum Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Petroleum Company's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule, noting...

  12. A study of the spreading scheme for viral marketing based on a complex network model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianmei; Yao, Canzhong; Ma, Weicheng; Chen, Guanrong

    2010-02-01

    Buzzword-based viral marketing, known also as digital word-of-mouth marketing, is a marketing mode attached to some carriers on the Internet, which can rapidly copy marketing information at a low cost. Viral marketing actually uses a pre-existing social network where, however, the scale of the pre-existing network is believed to be so large and so random, so that its theoretical analysis is intractable and unmanageable. There are very few reports in the literature on how to design a spreading scheme for viral marketing on real social networks according to the traditional marketing theory or the relatively new network marketing theory. Complex network theory provides a new model for the study of large-scale complex systems, using the latest developments of graph theory and computing techniques. From this perspective, the present paper extends the complex network theory and modeling into the research of general viral marketing and develops a specific spreading scheme for viral marking and an approach to design the scheme based on a real complex network on the QQ instant messaging system. This approach is shown to be rather universal and can be further extended to the design of various spreading schemes for viral marketing based on different instant messaging systems.

  13. The measurement of China's consumer market development based on CPI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jiang; Wang, Minggang; Tian, Lixin; Zhen, Zaili

    2018-01-01

    Consumer Price Index (CPI) is a comprehensive index which contains a large amount of market information. In order to effectively measure the running status of China's consumer market and analyze the dynamic evolution characteristics of regional economic consumption in China, the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of random matrix are proposed to quantitatively describe the evolution relationship of provincial and regional CPI in China. Based on the provincial data of China's CPI, system risk entropy, synchronicity ratio, stability and market induction are introduced to characterize the market evolution characteristics, and analyze the regional differences and synchronicity of the consumer price index of China and evaluate the development of China's consumer market. The results show that the average system risk entropy of China's consumer market for the period 2000-2015 is 0.1646, fluctuating in the range of 0.0512-0.3288, indicating a higher system risk of China's consumer market. The system risk of China's consumer market is still higher than the average in nearly 15 years. Fluctuating in the range of 0.3871-0.9355, the market synchronicity ratio has a mean of 0.7225, which reveals a higher market consistency level, a rising trend in fluctuation but an increasing tendency in the degree of unbalanced regional development. Evolution results of market induction demonstrate that the evolution of China's consumer market has experienced four stages. The market induction has possessed a sustained growth trend since August 2010. Scenario analysis indicates that the key to effectively improve China's consumer market system is to solve the lagging issue of China's western region market on the basis of controlling and resolving of the existing risk.

  14. An integrated ant colony optimization approach to compare strategies of clearing market in electricity markets. Agent-based simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadeh, A.; Maleki-Shoja, B.; Skandari, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, an innovative model of agent based simulation, based on Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm is proposed in order to compare three available strategies of clearing wholesale electricity markets, i.e. uniform, pay-as-bid, and generalized Vickrey rules. The supply side actors of the power market are modeled as adaptive agents who learn how to bid strategically to optimize their profit through indirect interaction with other actors of the market. The proposed model is proper for bidding functions with high number of dimensions and enables modelers to avoid curse of dimensionality as dimension grows. Test systems are then used to study the behavior of each pricing rule under different degrees of competition and heterogeneity. Finally, the pricing rules are comprehensively compared using different economic criteria such as average cleared price, efficiency of allocation, and price volatility. Also, principle component analysis (PCA) is used to rank and select the best price rule. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first study that uses ACO for assessing strategies of wholesale electricity market. (author)

  15. Linkage between forest-based mitigation and GHG markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loisel, C.

    2008-01-01

    According to the latest assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, deforestation and forest degradation contributed to 23% of global carbon dioxide emissions and 17% of global emissions of all greenhouse gases in 2004 (IPCC AR4 SPM, 2007). Despite significant uncertainties, these figures stress the relevance of addressing deforestation into the new global climate governance regime. Deforestation is primarily a concern for tropical regions nowadays and FAO's Forest resource assessments (2005) highlight significant national disparities as a consequence of history, soil and climate conditions and current policies and socio-economic conditions. The Stern Review (2006) pointed to deforestation abatement as a must-seize opportunity to cut global greenhouse emissions with good cost/efficiency and numerous co-benefits. Under the framework of the 2007 Bali Action Plan, the UNFCCC is now considering policy approaches to promote the reduction of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and also forest conservation, sustainable forest management and forestation ('REDD+'). At the same time, the European Union is engaged in a major review of its climate and energy legislation. The EU climate/energy package has entered into the final stages of negotiation and the outcome should provide funding for REDD+ actions on the long run through some sort of connection to carbon markets. These are moments of historic significance both for world forests and climate protection, but significant challenges remain. This workshop focuses on one of these challenges: while mechanisms are being designed to connect greenhouse gas emission trading schemes and REDD+ actions, we must ensure that they enable broad and far-reaching actions while safeguarding against various sorts of unintended consequences. This background paper intends to provide a rapid initial overview on three aspects of the linkage between forest-based mitigation and emission trading schemes: (i

  16. Market based solutions for increased flexibility in electricity consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grande, Ove S.; Saele, Hanne

    2005-06-01

    The main focus of this paper is on manual and automatic demand response to prices in the day ahead market. The content is mainly based on the results and experiences from the large scale Norwegian test and research project End User flexibility by efficient use of ICT (2001-2004) involving 10,894 customers with automatic meter reading (AMR) and remote load control (RLC) options. The response to hourly spot price products and intraday time of use (ToU) tariffs were tested. The registered response differs from 0.18-1 kWh/h in average per household customer for the different combination of these price signals. The largest response was achieved for the customers with both the ToU network tariff and hourly spot price. Some of the customers were offered remote controlled automatic disconnection of water heaters in the high price periods during week days. The test shows that the potential of load reduction from water heaters can be estimated to 0.6 kWh/h in the peak hours on average. For Norway this indicates that a total of 600 MWh/h automatic price elasticity could be achieved, provided that half of the 2 million Norwegian households accept RLC of their water heater referred to spot price. The benefit for load shifting is limited for each customer, but of great value for the power system as a whole. Combination of an hourly spot price contract with an intraday ToU network tariff should therefore be considered, in order to provide stable economic incentives for load reduction. One potential drawback for customers with spot price energy contracts is the risk of high electricity prices in periods of lasting scarcity. Combination with financial power contracts as an insurance for the customer is an option that will be examined in a follow up project

  17. Accelerated approval of oncology products: the food and drug administration experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, John R; Ning, Yang-Min; Farrell, Ann; Justice, Robert; Keegan, Patricia; Pazdur, Richard

    2011-04-20

    We reviewed the regulatory history of the accelerated approval process and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) experience with accelerated approval of oncology products from its initiation in December 11, 1992, to July 1, 2010. The accelerated approval regulations allowed accelerated approval of products to treat serious or life-threatening diseases based on surrogate endpoints that are reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit. Failure to complete postapproval trials to confirm clinical benefit with due diligence could result in removal of the accelerated approval indication from the market. From December 11, 1992, to July 1, 2010, the FDA granted accelerated approval to 35 oncology products for 47 new indications. Clinical benefit was confirmed in postapproval trials for 26 of the 47 new indications, resulting in conversion to regular approval. The median time between accelerated approval and regular approval of oncology products was 3.9 years (range = 0.8-12.6 years) and the mean time was 4.7 years, representing a substantial time savings in terms of earlier availability of drugs to cancer patients. Three new indications did not show clinical benefit when confirmatory postapproval trials were completed and were subsequently removed from the market or had restricted distribution plans implemented. Confirmatory trials were not completed for 14 new indications. The five longest intervals from receipt of accelerated approval to July 1, 2010, without completion of trials to confirm clinical benefit were 10.5, 6.4, 5.5, 5.5, and 4.7 years. The five longest intervals between accelerated approval and successful conversion to regular approval were 12.6, 9.7, 8.1, 7.5, and 7.4 years. Trials to confirm clinical benefit should be part of the drug development plan and should be in progress at the time of an application seeking accelerated approval to prevent an ineffective drug from remaining on the market for an unacceptable time.

  18. Tweet-based Target Market Classification Using Ensemble Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Adi Khairul Anshary

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Target market classification is aimed at focusing marketing activities on the right targets. Classification of target markets can be done through data mining and by utilizing data from social media, e.g. Twitter. The end result of data mining are learning models that can classify new data. Ensemble methods can improve the accuracy of the models and therefore provide better results. In this study, classification of target markets was conducted on a dataset of 3000 tweets in order to extract features. Classification models were constructed to manipulate the training data using two ensemble methods (bagging and boosting. To investigate the effectiveness of the ensemble methods, this study used the CART (classification and regression tree algorithm for comparison. Three categories of consumer goods (computers, mobile phones and cameras and three categories of sentiments (positive, negative and neutral were classified towards three target-market categories. Machine learning was performed using Weka 3.6.9. The results of the test data showed that the bagging method improved the accuracy of CART with 1.9% (to 85.20%. On the other hand, for sentiment classification, the ensemble methods were not successful in increasing the accuracy of CART. The results of this study may be taken into consideration by companies who approach their customers through social media, especially Twitter.

  19. 77 FR 11531 - Electric Quarterly Reports, Acacia Energy, Inc., et al.; Notice of Revocation of Market-Based...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ...-000 Nordic Marketing of Illinois, Docket No. ER03-888-000 L.L.C. Nordic Marketing of Michigan, Docket No. ER04-264-000 L.L.C. Nordic Marketing, L.L.C Docket No. ER00-774-000 Pirin Solutions, Inc Docket... (including market-based power sales, cost-based power sales, and transmission service) and providing...

  20. Conjectural variation based learning model of strategic bidding in spot market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiqun Song; Yixin Ni; Fushuan Wen; Wu, F.F.

    2004-01-01

    In actual electricity market, which operates repeatedly on the basis of one hour or half hour, each firm might learn or estimate other competitors' strategic behaviors from available historical market operation data, and rationally aims at its maximum profit in the repeated biddings. A conjectural variation based learning method is proposed in this paper for generation firm to improve its strategic bidding performance. In the method, each firm learns and dynamically regulates its conjecture upon the reactions of its rivals to its bidding according to available information published in the electricity market, and then makes its optimal generation decision based on the updated conjectural variation of its rivals. Through such learning process, the equilibrium reached in the market is proven a Nash equilibrium. Motivation of generation firm to learn in the changing market environment and consequence of learning behavior in the market are also discussed through computer tests. (author)

  1. Effectiveness of the management of price risk methodologies for the corn market based on trading signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Rossouw

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Corn production is scattered geographically over various continents, but most of it is grown in the United States. As such, the world price of corn futures contracts is largely dominated by North American corn prices as traded on the Chicago Board of Trade. In recent years, this market has been characterised by an increase in price volatility and magnitude of price movement as a result of decreasing stock levels. The development and implementation of an effective and successful derivative price risk management strategy based on the Chicago Board of Trade corn futures contract will therefore be of inestimable value to market stakeholders worldwide. The research focused on the efficient market hypothesis and the possibility of contesting this phenomenon through an application of a derivative price risk management methodology. The methodology is based on a combination of an analysis of market trends and technical oscillators with the objective of generating returns superior to that of a market benchmark. The study found that market participants are currently unable to exploit price movement in a manner which results in returns that contest the notion of efficient markets. The methodology proposed, however, does allow the user to consistently achieve returns superior to that of a predetermined market benchmark. The benchmark price for the purposes of this study was the average price offered by the market over the contract lifetime, and as such, the efficient market hypothesis was successfully contested

  2. Evaluating the impacts of farmers' behaviors on a hypothetical agricultural water market based on double auction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Erhu; Cai, Ximing; Brozović, Nicholas; Minsker, Barbara

    2017-05-01

    Agricultural water markets are considered effective instruments to mitigate the impacts of water scarcity and to increase crop production. However, previous studies have limited understanding of how farmers' behaviors affect the performance of water markets. This study develops an agent-based model to explicitly incorporate farmers' behaviors, namely irrigation behavior (represented by farmers' sensitivity to soil water deficit λ) and bidding behavior (represented by farmers' rent seeking μ and learning rate β), in a hypothetical water market based on a double auction. The model is applied to the Guadalupe River Basin in Texas to simulate a hypothetical agricultural water market under various hydrological conditions. It is found that the joint impacts of the behavioral parameters on the water market are strong and complex. In particular, among the three behavioral parameters, λ affects the water market potential and its impacts on the performance of the water market are significant under most scenarios. The impacts of μ or β on the performance of the water market depend on the other two parameters. The water market could significantly increase crop production only when the following conditions are satisfied: (1) λ is small and (2) μ is small and/or β is large. The first condition requires efficient irrigation scheduling, and the second requires well-developed water market institutions that provide incentives to bid true valuation of water permits.

  3. Potential markets for a satellite-based mobile communications system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, W. M.; Peet, C. S.; Bengston, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The objective of the study was to define the market needs for improved land mobile communications systems. Within the context of this objective, the following goals were set: (1) characterize the present mobile communications industry; (2) determine the market for an improved system for mobile communications; and (3) define the system requirements as seen from the potential customer's viewpoint. The scope of the study was defined by the following parameters: (1) markets were confined to U.S. and Canada; (2) range of operation generally exceeded 20 miles, but this was not restrictive; (3) the classes of potential users considered included all private sector users, and non-military public sector users; (4) the time span examined was 1975 to 1985; and (5) highly localized users were generally excluded - e.g., taxicabs, and local paging.

  4. Test marketing for value-added root and tuber based products in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test marketing for value-added root and tuber based products in Ikwuano local government area ... JE Ewuziem, C Aniedu, E Oti, VO Onyenobi ... root and tuber based products, developed at National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike.

  5. Market-Based and System-Wide Fuel Cycle Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The Dynamic Resource Exchange (DRE) gives agency to consumer facilities to determine the preference of any particular trade that is offered by suppliers to satisfy its requests. This provides a natural balance of power in the relationship between consumers and suppliers. However, in situations in which suppliers have flexibility surrounding the way that they respond to individual requests, they have no mechanism to assess how different bids will be received by the consumer. Theoretically, a supplier can offer multiple bids to respond to a given request in an attempt to cover their bases, but this introduces more arcs into the underlying network flow problem, increasing the cost to solve the problem. In the extreme, when a supplier can continuously vary the characteristics of the bid, this can represent a large number of additional arcs and have real performance consequences. To remedy this inefficiency in the implementation of the market-level optimization, the definition of a request has been extended to include a function that can be used by the supplier to query the preference that would be assigned by a consumer for a potential bid. The supplier is then free to implement arbitrarily complex algorithms to revise/optimize its bid based on responses to this function. A supplier can chose to not invoke the function at all, mimicking the original DRE behavior, can use it to select among a small set of discrete choices, or can implement an internal algorithm to seek an optimum bid on a continuous parameter space. This capability was demonstrated with a storage facility that preferred material with a specific decay heat that was as close as possible to the maximum allowable decay heat, while requiring the specific decay heat to fall between a minimum and maximum level. This archetype was used to fill multiple storage roles in a simulation that also included a standard recipe reactor: wet storage with no maximum allowable specific decay heat, dry storage with a modest

  6. Implications for Utilizing YouTube based Community Interactions for Destination Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Sambhanthan, Arunasalam; Thelijjagoda, Samantha; Tan, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    In recent time, YouTube has evolved into a powerful medium for social interaction. Utilizing YouTube for enhancing marketing endeavors is a strategy practiced by marketing professionals across several industries. This paper rationalizes on the different ways and means of leveraging YouTube-based platforms for effective destination marketing by the hospitality industry (hotels). More specifically, the typology of virtual communities is adapted to evaluate the YouTube platform for effective des...

  7. Evidence-Based Theory of Market Manipulation And Application: The Malaysian Case

    OpenAIRE

    Heong, Yin Yun

    2010-01-01

    According to Part IX Division 1 in Securities Industry Act 1983 of Malaysia Law, stock market manipulation is defined as unlawful action taken either direct or indirectly by any person, to affect the price of securities of the corporation on a stock market in Malaysia for the purpose which may include the purpose of inducing other persons. Extending the framework of Allen and Gale (1992), the Author presents a theory based on the empirical evidence from prosecuted stock market manipulation ca...

  8. MODEL INOVASI SISTEM PEMASARAN PERBANKAN SYARIAH BERBASIS FLOATING MARKET UNTUK PENCIPTAAN DAYA SAING (MODEL OF ISLAMIC BANKING MARKETING INNOVATION SYSTEMS BASED ON FLOATING MARKET FOR CREATION COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Sulianti K. Tobing

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractGovernment in implementing policies dual banking system in fact is still unrealized, whereas considerablemarket potential with many established Islamic banks. One solution offered is a marketing system innovationin Islamic banking market floating base. The purpose of this study identifies spiritual and floating marketbehavior and determine the factors that influence the customer’s decision in choosing Islamic banks based onpersonal and social nature. The study population is Islamic bank customers located in the region of Jember,Bondowoso, Situbondo, and Banyuwangi with a sample of 200 people. The research method used logisticregression analysis. The results achieved are the majority of customers are female, in the productive age, andemployees. The majority of customers are in a group associated with Islamic banks and conventional.

  9. [Discussion about traditional Chinese medicine pharmacokinetics study based on first botanical drug approved by FDA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fanghua

    2010-04-01

    Pharmacokinetics study is one of main components of pharmaceuticals development. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Veregen as the first botanical drug in 2006. This article introduced FDA's requirement on pharmacokinetics study of botanical drug and pharmacokinetics studies of Veregen, summarized current requirement and status quo of pharmacokinetics study on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and natural medicine in China, and discussed about pharmacokinetics study strategy for TCM and natural medicine.

  10. Food Marketing: Cashier-Checker. Student Material. Competency Based Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froelich, Larry; And Others

    This curriculum for food marketing (cashier-checking) is designed to provide entry-level employment skills. It is organized into 13 units which contain one to ten competencies. A student competency sheet provided for each competency is organized into this format: unit and competency number and name, learning steps, learning activities, and…

  11. Market-based instruments for environmental management: politics and institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The contributors examine the role of political processes in designing, introducing and implementing green taxes and charges and analyse the extent to which political concerns complicate the approach favoured by environmental economists. The authors then focus on the implementation of market...

  12. Proposing Community-Based Learning in the Marketing Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadwallader, Susan; Atwong, Catherine; Lebard, Aubrey

    2013-01-01

    Community service and service learning (CS&SL) exposes students to the business practice of giving back to society while reinforcing classroom learning in an applied real-world setting. However, does the CS&SL format provide a better means of instilling the benefits of community service among marketing students than community-based…

  13. Market-Based and System-Wide Fuel Cycle Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Paul [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-06-02

    The Dynamic Resource Exchange (DRE) gives agency to consumer facilities to determine the preference of any particular trade that is offered by suppliers to satisfy its requests. This provides a natural balance of power in the relationship between consumers and suppliers. However, in situations in which suppliers have flexibility surrounding the way that they respond to individual requests, they have no mechanism to assess how different bids will be received by the consumer. Theoretically, a supplier can offer multiple bids to respond to a given request in an attempt to “cover their bases”, but this introduces more arcs into the underlying network flow problem, increasing the cost to solve the problem. In the extreme, when a supplier can continuously vary the characteristics of the bid, this can represent a large number of additional arcs and have real performance consequences. To remedy this inefficiency in the implementation of the market-level optimization, the definition of a request has been extended to include a function that can be used by the supplier to query the preference that would be assigned by a consumer for a potential bid. The supplier is then free to implement arbitrarily complex algorithms to revise/optimize its bid based on responses to this function. A supplier can chose to not invoke the function at all, mimicking the original DRE behavior, can use it to select among a small set of discrete choices, or can implement an internal algorithm to seek an optimum bid on a continuous parameter space. This capability was demonstrated with a storage facility that preferred material with a specific decay heat that was as close as possible to the maximum allowable decay heat, while requiring the specific decay heat to fall between a minimum and maximum level. This archetype was used to fill multiple storage roles in a simulation that also included a standard recipe reactor: wet storage with no maximum allowable specific decay heat, dry storage with a

  14. Marketing marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Karel Jan van Alsem

    2013-01-01

    In deze installatierede betoogt Karel Jan Alsem dat marketing een grotere strategische rol in organisaties zou moeten krijgen. Want marketing is bij uitstek de verbinding tussen klantwensen en het DNA van een organisatie. Doordat merken gemiddeld voor mensen niet heel belangrijk zijn, is goede

  15. Research on Marketing Channel of Mobile Manufacturer Based on Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Hui; LI Shi-ming; LAN Yong

    2006-01-01

    Research on "marketing channel" of mobile attracts much attention in these years,but there're only few articles referring to how to optimize the disposition of channel resources for mobile manufacturers. Based on a typically multiplex marketing channel system of mobile manufacturer, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) structure model is established. Through the judgment matrix, simple and total hierarchy arrangement, consistent test, this paper gets the weight of each kind of marketing channel of mobile manufacturer. It provides the practical reference value for mobile manufacturers to distribute resources of marketing channels.

  16. Far-Infrared Based Pedestrian Detection for Driver-Assistance Systems Based on Candidate Filters, Gradient-Based Feature and Multi-Frame Approval Matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guohua; Liu, Qiong

    2015-12-21

    Far-infrared pedestrian detection approaches for advanced driver-assistance systems based on high-dimensional features fail to simultaneously achieve robust and real-time detection. We propose a robust and real-time pedestrian detection system characterized by novel candidate filters, novel pedestrian features and multi-frame approval matching in a coarse-to-fine fashion. Firstly, we design two filters based on the pedestrians' head and the road to select the candidates after applying a pedestrian segmentation algorithm to reduce false alarms. Secondly, we propose a novel feature encapsulating both the relationship of oriented gradient distribution and the code of oriented gradient to deal with the enormous variance in pedestrians' size and appearance. Thirdly, we introduce a multi-frame approval matching approach utilizing the spatiotemporal continuity of pedestrians to increase the detection rate. Large-scale experiments indicate that the system works in real time and the accuracy has improved about 9% compared with approaches based on high-dimensional features only.

  17. Far-Infrared Based Pedestrian Detection for Driver-Assistance Systems Based on Candidate Filters, Gradient-Based Feature and Multi-Frame Approval Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohua Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Far-infrared pedestrian detection approaches for advanced driver-assistance systems based on high-dimensional features fail to simultaneously achieve robust and real-time detection. We propose a robust and real-time pedestrian detection system characterized by novel candidate filters, novel pedestrian features and multi-frame approval matching in a coarse-to-fine fashion. Firstly, we design two filters based on the pedestrians’ head and the road to select the candidates after applying a pedestrian segmentation algorithm to reduce false alarms. Secondly, we propose a novel feature encapsulating both the relationship of oriented gradient distribution and the code of oriented gradient to deal with the enormous variance in pedestrians’ size and appearance. Thirdly, we introduce a multi-frame approval matching approach utilizing the spatiotemporal continuity of pedestrians to increase the detection rate. Large-scale experiments indicate that the system works in real time and the accuracy has improved about 9% compared with approaches based on high-dimensional features only.

  18. How Feedback Can Improve Managerial Evaluations of Model-based Marketing Decision Support Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U. Kayande (Ujwal); A. de Bruyn (Arnoud); G.L. Lilien (Gary); A. Rangaswamy (Arvind); G.H. van Bruggen (Gerrit)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractMarketing managers often provide much poorer evaluations of model-based marketing decision support systems (MDSSs) than are warranted by the objective performance of those systems. We show that a reason for this discrepant evaluation may be that MDSSs are often not designed to help users

  19. Marketing Need-Based Financial Aid Programs: An Institutional Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Mary Beth

    2010-01-01

    Colleges and universities represent one of the most utilized sources of need-based financial aid information for students and families, and yet most research in access marketing is focused at the national and state levels. There is sparse published information about the effects of financial aid marketing observed through quantitative analysis, in…

  20. MARKETING AND INNOVATION IN ENVIRONMENT BANKING FINANCIAL - REQUIREMENTS IN A KNOWLEDGE-BASED SOCIETY AND TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRCEA VALERIA ARINA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the context of knowledge-based economy and society has acquired a connotation marketing role vital for all fields. Evolution of social, cultural, political and economic, information, design and conduct of marketing activities contribute to increasing the efficiency of any institution. Evolution of marketing over time provoked the great researchers who have tried to define the concept of their views, but only surprising aspects of this vast and important field. The definitions are different as shown in the article approach, the essence is the same. In the banking and financial role of marketing is to continually improve the quality of customer services and products offered by formulating appropriate marketing strategies so as to be able to influence The consumer buying behavior. Customer focus, his loyalty and not least an innovative marketing that starts at the client key aspects FEATURES today. The emphasis on innovation and ingenuity in order to: create new banking services and products, ways to attract customers; loyalty of existing ones, defining marketing and communication strategies lead to appropriate strategies to maximize the results of innovative marketing campaigns. Referring to work in the banking environment we can say that innovation is the key to success BANK and are based on: product and service innovations, process innovations, organizational innovations, and not least of marketing innovations.

  1. A Community-Based Marketing Campaign at Farmers Markets to Encourage Fruit and Vegetable Purchases in Rural Counties With High Rates of Obesity, Kentucky, 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Emily; McGladrey, Margaret; Liu, Emily; Peritore, Nicole; Webber, Kelly; Butterworth, Brooke; Vail, Ann; Gustafson, Alison

    2017-08-31

    Availability of farmers markets may increase fruit and vegetable consumption among rural residents of the United States. We conducted a community-based marketing campaign, Plate it Up Kentucky Proud (PIUKP), in 6 rural communities over 2 years to determine the association between exposure to the campaign and fruit and vegetable purchases, adjusted for Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program recipient status. Logistic regression was used to examine the odds of the PIUKP campaign influencing purchases. Awareness of the PIUKP marketing campaign was significantly associated with a willingness to prepare fruits and vegetables at home. Using marketing strategies at farmers markets may be an effective way to improve fruit and vegetable purchases in rural communities.

  2. 21 CFR 314.510 - Approval based on a surrogate endpoint or on an effect on a clinical endpoint other than survival...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Serious or Life-Threatening Illnesses § 314.510 Approval based on a surrogate endpoint or on an effect on... well-controlled. The applicant shall carry out any such studies with due diligence. ...

  3. Nationwide Risk-Based PCB Remediation Waste Disposal Approvals under Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Section 761.61(c)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains information about Nationwide Risk-Based Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Remediation Waste Disposal Approvals under Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Section 761.61(c)

  4. Equation-based model for the stock market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Paloma O C; Atman, A P F; de Magalhães, A R Bosco

    2017-09-01

    We propose a stock market model which is investigated in the forms of difference and differential equations whose variables correspond to the demand or supply of each agent and to the price. In the model, agents are driven by the behavior of their trust contact network as well by fundamental analysis. By means of the deterministic version of the model, the connection between such drive mechanisms and the price is analyzed: imitation behavior promotes market instability, finitude of resources is associated to stock index stability, and high sensitivity to the fair price provokes price oscillations. Long-range correlations in the price temporal series and heavy-tailed distribution of returns are observed for the version of the model which considers different proposals for stochasticity of microeconomic and macroeconomic origins.

  5. Cuba's transition to market-based energy prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Lopez, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1960 the Soviet Union has been, for all practical purposes, Cuba's exclusive supplier of energy products. For certain time periods, Soviet sales of oil and oil products to Cuba were made at concessional prices; prior to 1991, they were priced using transferable rubles and were essentially bartered for Cuban goods, especially sugar. Effective January 1, 1991, the Soviet Union shifted to world market prices and convertible currency payments for all traded commodities, including energy products. The shift to market prices and convertible currencies in Cuban-Soviet energy trade has already brought - or is likely to bring - a number of adjustments in four areas: (1) the trade balance; (2) the ability to reexport oil and oil products; (3) energy consumption patterns; (4) and the structure of energy supplies. 33 refs., 8 tabs

  6. Equation-based model for the stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Paloma O. C.; Atman, A. P. F.; de Magalhães, A. R. Bosco

    2017-09-01

    We propose a stock market model which is investigated in the forms of difference and differential equations whose variables correspond to the demand or supply of each agent and to the price. In the model, agents are driven by the behavior of their trust contact network as well by fundamental analysis. By means of the deterministic version of the model, the connection between such drive mechanisms and the price is analyzed: imitation behavior promotes market instability, finitude of resources is associated to stock index stability, and high sensitivity to the fair price provokes price oscillations. Long-range correlations in the price temporal series and heavy-tailed distribution of returns are observed for the version of the model which considers different proposals for stochasticity of microeconomic and macroeconomic origins.

  7. Market-Based and System-Wide Fuel Cycle Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Paul Philip Hood [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Scopatz, Anthony [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Gidden, Matthew [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Carlsen, Robert [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Mouginot, Baptiste [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Flanagan, Robert [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2017-06-13

    This work introduces automated optimization into fuel cycle simulations in the Cyclus platform. This includes system-level optimizations, seeking a deployment plan that optimizes the performance over the entire transition, and market-level optimization, seeking an optimal set of material trades at each time step. These concepts were introduced in a way that preserves the flexibility of the Cyclus fuel cycle framework, one of its most important design principles.

  8. Market-Based and System-Wide Fuel Cycle Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Paul Philip Hood; Scopatz, Anthony; Gidden, Matthew; Carlsen, Robert; Mouginot, Baptiste; Flanagan, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This work introduces automated optimization into fuel cycle simulations in the Cyclus platform. This includes system-level optimizations, seeking a deployment plan that optimizes the performance over the entire transition, and market-level optimization, seeking an optimal set of material trades at each time step. These concepts were introduced in a way that preserves the flexibility of the Cyclus fuel cycle framework, one of its most important design principles.

  9. Four proposals for market-based health care system reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, W

    1994-08-01

    A perfectly free, competitive medical market would not meet many social goals, such as universal access to health care. Micromanagement of interactions between patients and providers does not guarantee quality care and frequently undermines that relationship, to the frustration of all involved. Furthermore, while some North American health care plans are less expensive than others, none have reduced the medical inflation rate to equal the general inflation rate. Markets have always fixed uneven inflation rates in other domains. The suggested reforms could make elective interactions between patients and providers work more like a free market than did any preceding system. The health and life insurance plan creates cost-sensitive consumers, informed by a corporation with significant research incentives and abilities. The FFEB proposal encourages context-sensitive pricing, established by negotiation processes that weigh labor and benefit. Publication of providers' expected outcomes further enriches the information available to consumers and may reduce defensive medicine incentives. A medical career ladder would ease entry and exit from medical professions. These and complementary reforms do not specifically cap spending yet could have a deflationary impact on elective health care prices, while providing incentives to maintain quality. They accomplish these ends by giving more responsibility, information, incentives, and choice to citizens. We could provide most health care in a marketlike environment. We can incorporate these reforms in any convenient order and allow them to compete with alternative schemes. Our next challenge is to design, implement, and evaluate marketlike health care systems.

  10. One Size (Never) Fits All: Segment Differences Observed Following a School-Based Alcohol Social Marketing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Timo; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn; Leo, Cheryl; Connor, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Background: According to commercial marketing theory, a market orientation leads to improved performance. Drawing on the social marketing principles of segmentation and audience research, the current study seeks to identify segments to examine responses to a school-based alcohol social marketing program. Methods: A sample of 371 year 10 students…

  11. Longitudinal evaluation of a World Wide Web-based antimicrobial stewardship program: assessing factors associated with approval patterns and trends over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Vidya; Lehmann, Christoph U; Diener-West, Marie; Agwu, Allison L

    2014-02-01

    The Johns Hopkins Children's Medical and Surgery Center developed a Web-based Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (ASP) in 2005. The present study aimed to assess longitudinal antimicrobial request and approval patterns for this ASP. We analyzed a total of 16,229 antimicrobial requests for 3,542 patients between June 1, 2005, and June 30, 2009. Antimicrobial approval was the outcome of interest. We assessed gaming by studying trends in automatically approved requests. Nonparametric tests for trend were performed to detect changes in approval patterns. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with approval. The vast majority (91.3%) of antimicrobial requests were approved, with an increase of 6.1% over time (P Web-based ASP allows management of a large number of antimicrobial requests, without apparent gaming. Observed differences in approval patterns based on patient, requestor, and antimicrobial factors may inform the development of ASPs and evaluation of provider education and training. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Transaction Pattern Based on Secondary Clientelism, Business Ideology and Market Development: The case of lime market in Hui Town

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Secondary clientelism is a special exchange relationship derived from primary clientelism. The market with transactions dependent on the secondary clientelism would be”because of”erembeddedness”. Using the lime market in Hui Town as a case, this paper tries to explore why this kind of markets could achieve market order from the perspective of the interconnection of market structure and market culture. Analysis demonstrates that, the coupling induction of structural embeddedness and cultural embeddedness is the deeper mechanism for the market development. Although the new business ideology and transactional dependence on networks originate from market structural transitions, active construction and choice behaviors of the manufacturers still manifest great importance.

  13. The NOx Budget. Market-based control of tropospheric ozone in the northeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, Alex; Carter, Robert; Raufer, Roger

    1999-01-01

    The NOx Budget is a marketable emissions allowance system currently being adopted by states in the Northeastern US to reduce tropospheric ozone concentrations to healthful levels in a cost-effective manner. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) are currently regulated within the existing Command and Control (CAC) framework. The introduction of a market-based approach will further reduce emissions, but will not resolve all regulatory uncertainties. These implementation concerns are identified and discussed. Cost savings and emissions reductions patterns which will arise under several different scenarios are determined through the use of a dynamic, relaxed mixed-integer linear programming model of the NOx allowance market. Like other market-based pollution control programs, the NOx Budget is found to be more efficient than CAC options. Restrictions on the market designed to address perceived flaws are found to be expensive but ineffectual

  14. A Computational Agent-Based Modeling Approach for Competitive Wireless Service Market

    KAUST Repository

    Douglas, C C

    2011-04-01

    Using an agent-based modeling method, we study market dynamism with regard to wireless cellular services that are in competition for a greater market share and profit. In the proposed model, service providers and consumers are described as agents who interact with each other and actively participate in an economically well-defined marketplace. Parameters of the model are optimized using the Levenberg-Marquardt method. The quantitative prediction capabilities of the proposed model are examined through data reproducibility using past data from the U.S. and Korean wireless service markets. Finally, we investigate a disruptive market event, namely the introduction of the iPhone into the U.S. in 2007 and the resulting changes in the modeling parameters. We predict and analyze the impacts of the introduction of the iPhone into the Korean wireless service market assuming a release date of 2Q09 based on earlier data. © 2011 IEEE.

  15. Some design lessons from market-based greenhouse gas regulation in the restructured Australian electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGill, Iain; Outhred, Hugh; Nolles, Karel

    2006-01-01

    There is growing worldwide interest in the use of market-based policy instruments for climate change regulation in the electricity sector. These mechanisms would seem to offer some efficiency and flexibility advantages over more traditional regulatory approaches, while being highly compatible with competitive market-based electricity industries. Australia has been an early and enthusiastic adopter of both electricity industry restructuring and market-based environmental instruments. This paper first outlines some of these recent policy developments. In particular, we describe the objectives, design and outcomes to date of electricity industry restructuring, the Mandatory Renewable Energy Target, the NSW Greenhouse Benchmarks, the Queensland 13% Gas scheme and Government accredited Green Power. From this, we draw some key design lessons for such market-based instruments. These include the perils of abstraction in scheme design, the vital importance of setting appropriate baselines in 'baseline and credit' schemes, the possibility that such measures may interact in ways that reduce their environmental effectiveness, 'market for lemon' risks with tradable instruments that have measurement, verification or 'additionality' difficulties, and the challenges of creating transparent liquid markets for these mechanisms. The mixed performance of these Australian schemes to date illustrates the need for great care in designing such market-based approaches

  16. Some design lessons from market-based greenhouse gas regulation in the restructured Australian electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacGill, Iain [School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia)] e-mail: i.macgill@unsw.edu.au; Outhred, Hugh [School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia); Nolles, Karel [School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2006-01-01

    There is growing worldwide interest in the use of market-based policy instruments for climate change regulation in the electricity sector. These mechanisms would seem to offer some efficiency and flexibility advantages over more traditional regulatory approaches, while being highly compatible with competitive market-based electricity industries. Australia has been an early and enthusiastic adopter of both electricity industry restructuring and market-based environmental instruments. This paper first outlines some of these recent policy developments. In particular, we describe the objectives, design and outcomes to date of electricity industry restructuring, the Mandatory Renewable Energy Target, the NSW Greenhouse Benchmarks, the Queensland 13% Gas scheme and Government accredited Green Power. From this, we draw some key design lessons for such market-based instruments. These include the perils of abstraction in scheme design, the vital importance of setting appropriate baselines in 'baseline and credit' schemes, the possibility that such measures may interact in ways that reduce their environmental effectiveness, 'market for lemon' risks with tradable instruments that have measurement, verification or 'additionality' difficulties, and the challenges of creating transparent liquid markets for these mechanisms. The mixed performance of these Australian schemes to date illustrates the need for great care in designing such market-based approaches.

  17. Some design lessons from market-based greenhouse gas regulation in the restructured Australian electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iain MacGill; Hugh Outhred; Karel Nolles [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Electrical Engineering & Telecommunications

    2006-01-01

    There is growing worldwide interest in the use of market-based policy instruments for climate change regulation in the electricity sector. These mechanisms would seem to offer some efficiency and flexibility advantages over more traditional regulatory approaches, while being highly compatible with competitive market-based electricity industries. Australia has been an early and enthusiastic adopter of both electricity industry restructuring and market-based environmental instruments. This paper first outlines some of these recent policy developments. It then describes the objectives, design and outcomes to date of electricity industry restructuring, the Mandatory Renewable Energy Target, the NSW Greenhouse Benchmarks, the Queensland 13% Gas scheme and Government accredited Green Power. From this, some key design lessons are drawn for such market-based instruments. These include the perils of abstraction in scheme design, the vital importance of setting appropriate baselines in 'baseline and credit' schemes, the possibility that such measures may interact in ways that reduce their environmental effectiveness, 'market for lemon' risks with tradable instruments that have measurement, verification or 'additionality' difficulties, and the challenges of creating transparent liquid markets for these mechanisms. The mixed performance of these Australian schemes to date illustrates the need for great care in designing such market-based approaches. 36 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Impact of the market premium on direct marketers. An agency-based model approach; Auswirkungen der Marktpraemie auf die Akteure der Direktvermarktung. Ein agentenbasierter Modellansatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wassermann, Sandra; Hauser, Wolfgang [ZIRIUS Univ. Stuttgart (Germany); Reeg, Matthias [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamik

    2012-09-15

    By introducing a market premium and tightening the eligibility requirements for the green electricity privilege, the latest amendment to the Renewable Energy Law (EEG) has brought about major changes to the market for direct marketing of electricity from EEG-eligible plants. Has the new EEG made direct marketing based on the green electricity privilege unprofitable altogether, or only for individual market participants? What are the experiences and perspectives of electricity traders in regard to the new EEG and what strategies and business models have they turned to as a result? This article presents first results from a project funded by the Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety (BMU) on the impact of the new regulatory framework for direct marketing on businesses in the renewable electricity market.

  19. Linaclotide: first global approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Vanessa; Whiteside, Glenn; McKeage, Kate

    2012-11-12

    Linaclotide is a once-daily, orally administered, first-in-class agonist of guanylate cyclase-C that is minimally absorbed. It is being developed to treat gastrointestinal disorders by Ironwood Pharmaceuticals and its partners, Forest Laboratories (North America), Almirall (Europe) and Astellas Pharma (Asia-Pacific). Linaclotide has received its first global approval in the US for the treatment of constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) and chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC), and a marketing submission has been filed in the EU for IBS-C. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of linaclotide leading to this first approval for IBS-C and CIC. This profile has been extracted and modified from the Adis R&D Insight drug pipeline database. Adis R&D Insight tracks drug development worldwide through the entire development process, from discovery, through pre-clinical and clinical studies to market launch.

  20. Study on Market Stability and Price Limit of Chinese Stock Index Futures Market: An Agent-Based Modeling Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiong; Nan, Ding; Yang, Yang; Yongjie, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores a method of managing the risk of the stock index futures market and the cross-market through analyzing the effectiveness of price limits on the Chinese Stock Index 300 futures market. We adopt a cross-market artificial financial market (include the stock market and the stock index futures market) as a platform on which to simulate the operation of the CSI 300 futures market by changing the settings of price limits. After comparing the market stability under different price limits by appropriate liquidity and volatility indicators, we find that enhancing price limits or removing price limits both play a negative impact on market stability. In contrast, a positive impact exists on market stability if the existing price limit is maintained (increase of limit by10%, down by 10%) or it is broadened to a proper extent. Our study provides reasonable advice for a price limit setting and risk management for CSI 300 futures.

  1. 75 FR 14342 - Market-Based Rates for Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ...; Order No. 697-D] Market-Based Rates for Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary... affiliates.\\3\\ \\1\\ Market-Based Rates for Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services...\\ Market-Based Rates for Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services by Public...

  2. The economics of gasification: a market-based approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abadie, L. M. [Bilbao Bizkaia Kutxa, Gran Via 30, 48009 Bilbao (Spain); Chamorro, J. M. [Departamento Fundamentos del Analisis Economico I, University of the Basque Country, Av. Lehendakari Aguirre 83, 48015 Bilbao (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    This paper deals with the economics of gasification facilities in general and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants in particular. Regarding the prospects of these systems, passing the technological test is one thing, passing the economic test can be quite another. In this respect, traditional valuations assume constant input and/or output prices. Since this is hardly realistic, we allow for uncertainty in prices. We naturally look at the markets where many of the products involved are regularly traded. Futures markets on commodities are particularly useful for valuing uncertain future cash flows. Thus, revenues and variable costs can be assessed by means of sound financial concepts and actual market data. On the other hand, these complex systems provide a number of flexibility options (e.g., to choose among several inputs, outputs, modes of operation, etc.). Typically, flexibility contributes significantly to the overall value of real assets. Indeed, maximization of the asset value requires the optimal exercise of any flexibility option available. Yet the economic value of flexibility is elusive, the more so under (price) uncertainty. And the right choice of input fuels and/or output products is a main concern for the facility managers. As a particular application, we deal with the valuation of input flexibility. We follow the Real Options approach. In addition to economic variables, we also address technical and environmental issues such as energy efficiency, utility performance characteristics and emissions (note that carbon constraints are looming). Lastly, a brief introduction to some stochastic processes suitable for valuation purposes is provided. (author)

  3. The economics of gasification: a market-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadie, L. M.; Chamorro, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the economics of gasification facilities in general and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants in particular. Regarding the prospects of these systems, passing the technological test is one thing, passing the economic test can be quite another. In this respect, traditional valuations assume constant input and/or output prices. Since this is hardly realistic, we allow for uncertainty in prices. We naturally look at the markets where many of the products involved are regularly traded. Futures markets on commodities are particularly useful for valuing uncertain future cash flows. Thus, revenues and variable costs can be assessed by means of sound financial concepts and actual market data. On the other hand, these complex systems provide a number of flexibility options (e.g., to choose among several inputs, outputs, modes of operation, etc.). Typically, flexibility contributes significantly to the overall value of real assets. Indeed, maximization of the asset value requires the optimal exercise of any flexibility option available. Yet the economic value of flexibility is elusive, the more so under (price) uncertainty. And the right choice of input fuels and/or output products is a main concern for the facility managers. As a particular application, we deal with the valuation of input flexibility. We follow the Real Options approach. In addition to economic variables, we also address technical and environmental issues such as energy efficiency, utility performance characteristics and emissions (note that carbon constraints are looming). Lastly, a brief introduction to some stochastic processes suitable for valuation purposes is provided. (author)

  4. An agent-based analysis of the German electricity market with transmission capacity constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veit, Daniel J.; Weidlich, Anke; Krafft, Jacob A.

    2009-01-01

    While some agent-based models have been developed for analyzing the German electricity market, there has been little research done on the emerging issue of intra-German congestion and its effects on the bidding behavior of generator agents. Yet, studies of other markets have shown that transmission grid constraints considerably affect strategic behavior in electricity markets. In this paper, the implications of transmission constraints on power markets are analyzed for the case of Germany. Market splitting is applied in the case of congestion in the grid. For this purpose, the agent-based modeling of electricity systems (AMES) market package developed by Sun and Tesfatsion is modified to fit the German context, including a detailed representation of the German high-voltage grid and its interconnections. Implications of transmission constraints on prices and social welfare are analyzed for scenarios that include strategic behavior of market participants and high wind power generation. It can be shown that strategic behavior and transmission constraints are inter-related and may pose severe problems in the future German electricity market.

  5. Application of Q-learning with temperature variation for bidding strategies in market based power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naghibi-Sistani, M.B.; Akbarzadeh-Tootoonchi, M.R.; Javidi-Dashte Bayaz, M.H.; Rajabi-Mashhadi, H.

    2006-01-01

    The electric power industry is confronted with restructuring in which the operation scheduling is going to be decided based on a competitive market. In this new arrangement, bidding strategy has become a major issue. Participants in this deregulated energy market place may be able to compete better by choosing a suitable bidding strategy for trading electricity. Different classical methods for decision making in the uncertain environment of the market can be applied to select a suitable strategy. Most of these methods, such as game theory, that insure reaching the best solution for all market participants, require a lot of information about the other market players and the market. However, in the real market place only a little information, such as the spot price, is available for all participants. In this paper, a modified reinforcement learning based on temperature variation has been first proposed and then applied to determine the optimal strategy for a power supplier in the electricity market. A Pool-Co model has been considered here, and the simulation results are shown to be the same as those of standard game theory. Adaptation of the method in the presence of parameter variation has been verified as well. The main advantage of the proposed method is that no information about other participants is required. Furthermore, our investigation shows that even if all participants use this method, they will stay in Nash equilibrium. (author)

  6. Market Segmentation in Business Technology Base: The Case of Segmentation of Sparkling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Riscarolli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A common market segmentation premise for products and services rules consumer behavior as the segmentation center piece. Would this be the logic for segmentation used by small technology based companies? In this article we target at determining the principles of market segmentation used by a vitiwinery company, as research object. This company is recognized by its products excellence, either in domestic as well as in the foreign market, among 13 distinct countries. The research method used is a case study, through information from the company’s CEOs and crossed by primary information from observation and formal registries and documents of the company. In this research we look at sparkling wines market segmentation. Main results indicate that the winery studied considers only technological elements as the basis to build a market segment. One may conclude that a market segmentation for this company is based upon technological dominion of sparkling wines production, aligned with a premium-price policy. In the company, directorship believes that as sparkling wines market is still incipient in the country, sparkling wine market segments will form and consolidate after the evolution of consumers tasting preferences, depending on technologies that boost sparkling wines quality. 

  7. An agent-based analysis of the German electricity market with transmission capacity constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veit, Daniel J.; Weidlich, Anke; Krafft, Jacob A. [University of Mannheim, Dieter Schwarz Chair of Business Administration, E-Business and E-Government, 68131 Mannheim (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    While some agent-based models have been developed for analyzing the German electricity market, there has been little research done on the emerging issue of intra-German congestion and its effects on the bidding behavior of generator agents. Yet, studies of other markets have shown that transmission grid constraints considerably affect strategic behavior in electricity markets. In this paper, the implications of transmission constraints on power markets are analyzed for the case of Germany. Market splitting is applied in the case of congestion in the grid. For this purpose, the agent-based modeling of electricity systems (AMES) market package developed by Sun and Tesfatsion is modified to fit the German context, including a detailed representation of the German high-voltage grid and its interconnections. Implications of transmission constraints on prices and social welfare are analyzed for scenarios that include strategic behavior of market participants and high wind power generation. It can be shown that strategic behavior and transmission constraints are inter-related and may pose severe problems in the future German electricity market. (author)

  8. A market-based optimization approach to sensor and resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrage, Dan; Farnham, Christopher; Gonsalves, Paul G.

    2006-05-01

    Dynamic resource allocation for sensor management is a problem that demands solutions beyond traditional approaches to optimization. Market-based optimization applies solutions from economic theory, particularly game theory, to the resource allocation problem by creating an artificial market for sensor information and computational resources. Intelligent agents are the buyers and sellers in this market, and they represent all the elements of the sensor network, from sensors to sensor platforms to computational resources. These agents interact based on a negotiation mechanism that determines their bidding strategies. This negotiation mechanism and the agents' bidding strategies are based on game theory, and they are designed so that the aggregate result of the multi-agent negotiation process is a market in competitive equilibrium, which guarantees an optimal allocation of resources throughout the sensor network. This paper makes two contributions to the field of market-based optimization: First, we develop a market protocol to handle heterogeneous goods in a dynamic setting. Second, we develop arbitrage agents to improve the efficiency in the market in light of its dynamic nature.

  9. Market-based process and product innovation in the food sector: A Danish research programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Baadsgaard, Allan

    1992-01-01

    This note informs about the Danish MAPP research programme, a collection of 15 research projects aimed at making product and process innovation in the food sector more market-based. The programme, which has an interdisciplinary base, but is geared towards marketing applications, is concerned...... with the organization of the innovation process, the interaction of consumer and producer criteria in product development, the assessment of long-term developments in the market environment and the role distribution system in product innovation. Innovation in both primary production and processing are considered....

  10. Establish the technical regulation of MERCOSUR transport infectious materials and samples for diagnostic approve for resolution No.25/000 of MERCOSUR Common market group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Technical MERCOSUR (South Common Market) regulation presented for transport of infectious substances and analysis of samples in laboratories enabled by the Ministries of Health of the States Parts of the Mercosur for diagnostic [es

  11. Time delay and profit accumulation effect on a mine-based uranium market clearing model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auzans, Aris; Teder, Allan; Tkaczyk, Alan H.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Improved version of a mine-based uranium market clearing model for the front-end uranium market and enrichment industries is proposed. • A profit accumulation algorithm and time delay function provides more realistic uranium mine decision making process. • Operational decision delay increased uranium market price volatility. - Abstract: The mining industry faces a number of challenges such as market volatility, investment safety, issues surrounding employment and productivity. Therefore, computer simulations are highly relevant in order to reduce financial risks associated with these challenges. In the mining industry, each firm must compete with other mines and the basic target is profit maximization. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the world uranium (U) supply by simulating financial management challenges faced by an individual U mine that are caused by a variety of regulation issues. In this paper front-end nuclear fuel cycle tool is used to simulate market conditions and the effects they have on the stability of U supply. An individual U mine’s exit or entry in the market might cause changes in the U supply side which can increase or decrease the market price. In this paper we offer a more advanced version of a mine-based U market clearing model. The existing U market model incorporates the market of primary U from uranium mines with secondary uranium (depleted uranium DU), enriched uranium (HEU) and enrichment services. In the model each uranium mine acts as an independent agent that is able to make operational decisions based on the market price. This paper introduces a more realistic decision making algorithm of individual U mine that adds constraints to production decisions. The authors added an accumulated profit model, which allows for the profits accumulated to cover any possible future economic losses and the time-delay algorithm to simulate delayed process of reopening a U mine. The U market simulation covers time period 2010

  12. Time delay and profit accumulation effect on a mine-based uranium market clearing model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auzans, Aris [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ostwaldi 1, EE-50411 Tartu (Estonia); Teder, Allan [School of Economics and Business Administration, University of Tartu, Narva mnt 4, EE-51009 Tartu (Estonia); Tkaczyk, Alan H., E-mail: alan@ut.ee [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ostwaldi 1, EE-50411 Tartu (Estonia)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Improved version of a mine-based uranium market clearing model for the front-end uranium market and enrichment industries is proposed. • A profit accumulation algorithm and time delay function provides more realistic uranium mine decision making process. • Operational decision delay increased uranium market price volatility. - Abstract: The mining industry faces a number of challenges such as market volatility, investment safety, issues surrounding employment and productivity. Therefore, computer simulations are highly relevant in order to reduce financial risks associated with these challenges. In the mining industry, each firm must compete with other mines and the basic target is profit maximization. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the world uranium (U) supply by simulating financial management challenges faced by an individual U mine that are caused by a variety of regulation issues. In this paper front-end nuclear fuel cycle tool is used to simulate market conditions and the effects they have on the stability of U supply. An individual U mine’s exit or entry in the market might cause changes in the U supply side which can increase or decrease the market price. In this paper we offer a more advanced version of a mine-based U market clearing model. The existing U market model incorporates the market of primary U from uranium mines with secondary uranium (depleted uranium DU), enriched uranium (HEU) and enrichment services. In the model each uranium mine acts as an independent agent that is able to make operational decisions based on the market price. This paper introduces a more realistic decision making algorithm of individual U mine that adds constraints to production decisions. The authors added an accumulated profit model, which allows for the profits accumulated to cover any possible future economic losses and the time-delay algorithm to simulate delayed process of reopening a U mine. The U market simulation covers time period 2010

  13. Research trends on Big Data in Marketing: A text mining and topic modeling based literature analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Amado

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the research interest on Big Data in Marketing, we present a research literature analysis based on a text mining semi-automated approach with the goal of identifying the main trends in this domain. In particular, the analysis focuses on relevant terms and topics related with five dimensions: Big Data, Marketing, Geographic location of authors’ affiliation (countries and continents, Products, and Sectors. A total of 1560 articles published from 2010 to 2015 were scrutinized. The findings revealed that research is bipartite between technological and research domains, with Big Data publications not clearly aligning cutting edge techniques toward Marketing benefits. Also, few inter-continental co-authored publications were found. Moreover, findings show that research in Big Data applications to Marketing is still in an embryonic stage, thus making it essential to develop more direct efforts toward business for Big Data to thrive in the Marketing arena.

  14. Market interdependence among commodity prices based on information transmission on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qiang; Guo, Jian-Feng

    2015-05-01

    Human behaviour on the Internet has become a synchro-projection of real society. In this paper, we introduce the public concern derived from query volumes on the Web to empirically analyse the influence of information on commodity markets (e.g., crude oil, heating oil, corn and gold) using multivariate GARCH models based on dynamic conditional correlations. The analysis found that the changes of public concern on the Internet can well depict the changes of market prices, as the former has significant Granger causality effects on market prices. The findings indicate that the information of external shocks to commodity markets could be transmitted quickly, and commodity markets easily absorb the public concern of the information-sensitive traders. Finally, the conditional correlation among commodity prices varies dramatically over time.

  15. Study of network resource allocation based on market and game theoretic mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingmei; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Gang

    2004-04-01

    We work on the network resource allocation issue concerning network management system function based on market-oriented mechanism. The scheme is to model the telecommunication network resources as trading goods in which the various network components could be owned by different competitive, real-world entities. This is a multidisciplinary framework concentrating on the similarity between resource allocation in network environment and the market mechanism in economic theory. By taking an economic (market-based and game theoretic) approach in routing of communication network, we study the dynamic behavior under game-theoretic framework in allocating network resources. Based on the prior work of Gibney and Jennings, we apply concepts of utility and fitness to the market mechanism with an intention to close the gap between experiment environment and real world situation.

  16. Market-based implementation of Kyoto commitments: how the financial/insurance sector can support industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoepfel, Ivo

    1999-01-01

    The implementation of the Kyoto Protocol in the context of the Framework Convention on Climate Change will probably lead to economic winners and losers in various sectors of the economy. Especially carbon intensive industries will need to develop hedging strategies to prevent potential negative effects and to optimise market opportunities. Such strategies can be based on technological innovation, market and product diversification, and on financial/legal offsets. The Kyoto Protocol has introduced new market-based instruments, which can, in a near future provide such hedging opportunities. These include joint implementation, the so-called clean development mechanism, and international emissions trading. The financial services and insurance sector are the natural partners of industry in designing tailored hedging strategies. It is recommended that industry, financial services and insurance companies take a more proactive role in further developing the market-based instruments established by the Kyoto Protocol. (Author)

  17. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    TO THE POINT:The government vows to control the real estate market after a year of robust growth.To diversify financial investment tools,the regulatory authorities approved the launch of stock index futures,and short selling and margin trading to allow investors to hedge against risks.China overtakes the United States to become the world’s biggest auto market in2009.The country is also expected to become the largest consumer market in the world by2020.Google threatens to halt its China operations if it cannot reach a censorship agreement with the government.

  18. Buying on margin, selling short in an agent-based market model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Li, Honggang

    2013-09-01

    Credit trading, or leverage trading, which includes buying on margin and selling short, plays an important role in financial markets, where agents tend to increase their leverages for increased profits. This paper presents an agent-based asset market model to study the effect of the permissive leverage level on traders’ wealth and overall market indicators. In this model, heterogeneous agents can assume fundamental value-converging expectations or trend-persistence expectations, and their effective demands of assets depend both on demand willingness and wealth constraints, where leverage can relieve the wealth constraints to some extent. The asset market price is determined by a market maker, who watches the market excess demand, and is influenced by noise factors. By simulations, we examine market results for different leverage ratios. At the individual level, we focus on how the leverage ratio influences agents’ wealth accumulation. At the market level, we focus on how the leverage ratio influences changes in the asset price, volatility, and trading volume. Qualitatively, our model provides some meaningful results supported by empirical facts. More importantly, we find a continuous phase transition as we increase the leverage threshold, which may provide a further prospective of credit trading.

  19. Evaluation on Core Competitiveness of Wholesale Market of Agricultural Products Based on CWAA Operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to relevant data,we select five indices,namely management ability,organization and management capability,enterprise culture,development ability and technical equipment ability,to establish the index system of core competitiveness of wholesale market of agricultural products.Based on combination weight arithmetic average(CWAA) operator,we advance an evaluation model of core competitiveness of wholesale market of agricultural products which involves participation of many people.By inviting five exerts,we conduct evaluation in terms of management ability of wholesale market of agricultural products,organization and management capability of leadership,enterprise culture of wholesale market of agricultural products,future development ability of wholesale market of agricultural products,and exiting technical equipment ability of wholesale market of agricultural products.We adopt hundred-mark system to grade and evaluate core competitiveness of wholesale market of agricultural products.The results show that the experts’ evaluation score of core competitiveness of wholesale market of agricultural products is high.The evaluation result is reasonable and authentic and this model is feasible.

  20. Evaluation of wholesale electric power market rules and financial risk management by agent-based simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nanpeng

    As U.S. regional electricity markets continue to refine their market structures, designs and rules of operation in various ways, two critical issues are emerging. First, although much experience has been gained and costly and valuable lessons have been learned, there is still a lack of a systematic platform for evaluation of the impact of a new market design from both engineering and economic points of view. Second, the transition from a monopoly paradigm characterized by a guaranteed rate of return to a competitive market created various unfamiliar financial risks for various market participants, especially for the Investor Owned Utilities (IOUs) and Independent Power Producers (IPPs). This dissertation uses agent-based simulation methods to tackle the market rules evaluation and financial risk management problems. The California energy crisis in 2000-01 showed what could happen to an electricity market if it did not go through a comprehensive and rigorous testing before its implementation. Due to the complexity of the market structure, strategic interaction between the participants, and the underlying physics, it is difficult to fully evaluate the implications of potential changes to market rules. This dissertation presents a flexible and integrative method to assess market designs through agent-based simulations. Realistic simulation scenarios on a 225-bus system are constructed for evaluation of the proposed PJM-like market power mitigation rules of the California electricity market. Simulation results show that in the absence of market power mitigation, generation company (GenCo) agents facilitated by Q-learning are able to exploit the market flaws and make significantly higher profits relative to the competitive benchmark. The incorporation of PJM-like local market power mitigation rules is shown to be effective in suppressing the exercise of market power. The importance of financial risk management is exemplified by the recent financial crisis. In this

  1. Asymmetry Effects in Volatility on the Major European Stock Markets: the EGARCH Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Olbrys

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to investigate the asymmetric impact of innovations on volatility in the case of the largest European stock markets in the United Kingdom, France and Germany by using the EGARCH based approach. The sample period begins in January 2003 and ends in December 2016, and it includes the 2007 U.S. subprime crisis. The robustness analysis of empirical results is provided with respect to the whole sample and three adjacent subsamples, each of equal size: 1 the pre-crisis, 2 the Global Financial Crisis (GFC and 3 the post-crisis periods. The GFC periods are formally detected by using a statistical method of dividing market states into bullish and bearish markets. Moreover, the common trading window procedure is employed to avoid the nonsynchronous trading problem in the group of investigated markets and to get the overlapping information set. We estimate univariate EGARCH models based on daily percentage logarithmic returns of major stock market indexes: FTSE100 (London, CAC40 (Paris, and DAX (Frankfurt. Pronounced negative asymmetry effects in volatility are presented in the case of all markets and are rather robust to the choice of the period. Our findings are consistent with the literature and suggest that the major European stock markets are more sensitive to ’bad’ than ‘good’ news.

  2. Comparing Postsecondary Marketing Student Performance on Computer-Based and Handwritten Essay Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truell, Allen D.; Alexander, Melody W.; Davis, Rodney E.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there were differences in postsecondary marketing student performance on essay tests based on test format (i.e., computer-based or handwritten). Specifically, the variables of performance, test completion time, and gender were explored for differences based on essay test format. Results of the study…

  3. The Simulation of Financial Markets by Agent-Based Mix-Game Models

    OpenAIRE

    Chengling Gou

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the simulation of financial markets using an agent-based mix-game model which is a variant of the minority game (MG). It specifies the spectra of parameters of mix-game models that fit financial markets by investigating the dynamic behaviors of mix-game models under a wide range of parameters. The main findings are (a) in order to approach efficiency, agents in a real financial market must be heterogeneous, boundedly rational and subject to asymmetric information; (b) an ac...

  4. The Simulation of Financial Markets by an Agent-Based Mix-Game Model

    OpenAIRE

    Chengling Gou

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the simulation of financial markets using an agent-based mix-game model which is a variant of the minority game (MG). It specifies the spectra of parameters of mix-game models that fit financial markets by investigating the dynamic behaviors of mix-game models under a wide range of parameters. The main findings are (a) in order to approach efficiency, agents in a real financial market must be heterogeneous, boundedly rational and subject to asymmetric information; (b) an ac...

  5. Exploiting Flexibility in Coupled Electricity and Natural Gas Markets: A Price-Based Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordoudis, Christos; Delikaraoglou, Stefanos; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Natural gas-fired power plants (NGFPPs) are considered a highly flexible component of the energy system and can facilitate the large-scale integration of intermittent renewable generation. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the coordination between electric power and natural gas systems....... Considering a market-based coupling of these systems, we introduce a decision support tool that increases market efficiency in the current setup where day-ahead and balancing markets are cleared sequentially. The proposed approach relies on the optimal adjustment of natural gas price to modify the scheduling...

  6. Customer social network affects marketing strategy: A simulation analysis based on competitive diffusion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Rui; Wu, Jiawen; Du, Helen S.

    2017-03-01

    To explain the competition phenomenon and results between QQ and MSN (China) in the Chinese instant messaging software market, this paper developed a new population competition model based on customer social network. The simulation results show that the firm whose product with greater network externality effect will gain more market share than its rival when the same marketing strategy is used. The firm with the advantage of time, derived from the initial scale effect will become more competitive than its rival when facing a group of common penguin customers within a social network, verifying the winner-take-all phenomenon in this case.

  7. Redistribution by insurance market regulation: Analyzing a ban on gender-based retirement annuities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Amy; Poterba, James; Rothschild, Casey

    2009-01-01

    We illustrate how equilibrium screening models can be used to evaluate the economic consequences of insurance market regulation. We calibrate and solve a model of the United Kingdom's compulsory annuity market and examine the impact of gender-based pricing restrictions. We find that the endogenous adjustment of annuity contract menus in response to such restrictions can undo up to half of the redistribution from men to women that would occur with exogenous Social Security-like annuity contracts. Our findings indicate the importance of endogenous contract responses and illustrate the feasibility of employing theoretical insurance market equilibrium models for quantitative policy analysis.

  8. A critical survey of agent-based wholesale electricity market models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidlich, Anke; Veit, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The complexity of electricity markets calls for rich and flexible modeling techniques that help to understand market dynamics and to derive advice for the design of appropriate regulatory frameworks. Agent-Based Computational Economics (ACE) is a fairly young research paradigm that offers methods for realistic electricity market modeling. A growing number of researchers have developed agent-based models for simulating electricity markets. The diversity of approaches makes it difficult to overview the field of ACE electricity research; this literature survey should guide the way through and describe the state-of-the-art of this research area. In a conclusive summary, shortcomings of existing approaches and open issues that should be addressed by ACE electricity researchers are critically discussed. (author)

  9. Economic Reforms and Gender-based Wage Inequality in the Presence of Factor Market Distortions

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhuri, Sarbajit; Roychowdhury, Somasree

    2014-01-01

    A simple three-sector general equilibrium model has been developed with both male and female labour and factor market distortions. The effects of different liberalized economic policies have been examined on the gender-based wage inequality. The analysis finds that credit market reform and tariff reform produce favourable effects on the wage inequality while the liberalized investment policy becomes counterproductive. These results have important policy implications for a small open developin...

  10. The Main Approaches to Using the Concept of Trust-Based Marketing in Trade Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina Basova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of trust and the main factors affecting it are analyzed. The essence of trust-based marketing and its tasks, the main strategies of building trust to an organization from the clients’ side are considered. The CRM system has been explored as a tool for managing customer relationships, and contemporary marketing technologies such as crowdsourcing and collaboration that develop trust are considered.

  11. Research Intelligent Precision Marketing of E-commerce Based on the Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Jianhui Zhang; Junxuan Zhu

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzed and summarized the development path of electronic commerce marketing based on the big data; the related aspects of intelligent precision marketing framework has been designed combined with smart technology; and describes its functional structure and operational processes. Taking into account the differences between e-commerce and traditional retail industry; constructed RFMA model combined with characterizes of the electricity suppliers, by means of k-means clustering to a...

  12. Market drivers and challenges for gasification-based power plants in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juergen Karg; Frank Hannemann [Siemens Power Generation (PG) (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The paper begins by examining the present situation and future trends in the power generation market, before discussing existing IGCC plants and present market activities. IGCC plants in which Siemens are involved are given and coal-based IGCC applications are described. Finally improvement potential of IGCC, and technologies towards zero emission plants (including CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration) are discussed. 19 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Survey-based Indicators of Regional Labour Markets and Interregional Migration in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsen, Fredrik; Johansen, Kåre

    2002-01-01

    A rich set of regional labour market variables is utilised to explain interregional migration in Norway. In particular, regional indicators of labour market pressure are computed from survey data in which respondents are asked to evaluate local job prospects in their resident municipality and the surroundings. Mean satisfaction with local job prospects reported by respondents in a region and related survey-based indicators have a positive and significant impact on net in-migration to the regi...

  14. Sustainable Lifestyle Marketing of Individuals: the Base of Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Rakic

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the sustainable lifestyle marketing of an individual (SLMOI. The SLMOI is the activity, a set of institutions and processes for creating, communicating and maintaining the sustainable lifestyle of an individual (SLOI. The SLOI is an individual’s sustainability-oriented pattern of living represented by his or her activities, interests and opinions. The SLOI refers to a sustainable pattern of life (daily activities within the family, a sustainable pattern of consumption, a sustainable pattern of work and production (as employees in organizations and a sustainable pattern of behavior in the society and the environment they live in. The SLOI reflects an individual’s choices with respect to spending time, money and energy in accordance with the sustainable pattern of life. The SLOI stands for sustainable behavioral patterns on the basis of attitudes and values. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the attitudes of the population towards sustainable lifestyles and the SLMOI (performed by different actors and behaviors on the basis of attitudes.Using a face-to-face questionnaire interview, the study was conducted on a sample of 400 citizens of Serbia. There are three key conclusions. First, the SLMOI leads to the SLOI, and the SLOI further leads to sustainability. Second, the creation and maintenance of the SLOI is a long-term process. Third, a holistic approach is needed as well as the engagement of numerous actors in that process of creating and maintaining the SLOI.

  15. Survival benefit of glioblastoma patients after FDA approval of temozolomide concomitant with radiation and bevacizumab: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ping; Du, Xianglin L; Lu, Guangrong; Zhu, Jay-Jiguang

    2017-07-04

    Few population-based analyses have investigated survival change in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients treated with concomitant radiotherapy-temozolomide (RT-TMZ) and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ) and then bevacizumab (BEV) after Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval, respectively. We aimed to explore the effects on survival with RT-TMZ, adjuvant TMZ and BEV in general GBM population based on the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) and Texas Cancer Registry (TCR) databases. A total of 28933 GBM patients from SEER (N = 24578) and TCR (N = 4355) between January 2000 and December 2013 were included. Patients were grouped into three calendar periods based on date of diagnosis: pre-RT-TMZ and pre-BEV (1/2000-2/2005, P1), post-RT-TMZ and pre-BEV (3/2005-4/2009, P2), and post-RT-TMZ and post-BEV (5/2009-12/2013, P3). The association between calendar period of diagnosis and survival was analyzed in SEER and TCR, separately, by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model. We found a significant increase in median overall survival (OS) across the three periods in both populations. In multivariate models, the risk of death was significantly reduced during P2 and further decreased in P3, which remained unchanged after stratification. Comparison and validation analysis were performed in the combined dataset, and consistent results were observed. We conclude that the OS of GBM patients in a "real-world" setting has been steadily improved from January 2000 to December 2013, which likely resulted from the administrations of TMZ concomitant with RT and adjuvant TMZ for newly diagnosed GBM and then BEV for recurrent GBM after respective FDA approval.

  16. Leisure market segmentation : an integrated preferences/constraints-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stemerding, M.P.; Oppewal, H.; Beckers, T.A.M.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Traditional segmentation schemes are often based on a grouping of consumers with similar preference functions. The research steps, ultimately leading to such segmentation schemes, are typically independent. In the present article, a new integrated approach to segmentation is introduced, which

  17. Combined hydro-wind generation bids in a pool-based electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angarita, Jorge L.; Usaola, Julio; Martinez-Crespo, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Present regulatory trends are promoting the direct participation of wind energy in electricity markets. The final result of these markets sets the production scheduling for the operation time, including a power commitment from the wind generators. However, wind resources are uncertain, and the final power delivered usually differs from the initial power committed. This imbalance produces an overcost in the system, which must be paid by those who produce it, e.g., wind generators among others. As a result, wind farm revenue decreases, but it could increase by allowing wind farms to submit their bids to the markets together with a hydro generating unit, which may easily modify its production according to the expected imbalance. This paper presents a stochastic optimization technique that maximizes the joint profit of hydro and wind generators in a pool-based electricity market, taking into account the uncertainty of wind power prediction. (author)

  18. 75 FR 36058 - Notice of Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... Currently Approved Information Collection AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice and...: Extension and revision of a currently approved information collection. Abstract: Marketing order programs... / Thursday, June 24, 2010 / Notices#0;#0; [[Page 36058

  19. 77 FR 45304 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; The 2002 Base Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; The 2002 Base Year Inventory AGENCY: Environmental... particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base year emissions inventory portion of the Virginia State Implementation... base year PM 2.5 emissions inventory in accordance with the requirements of the Clean Air Act (CAA...

  20. Segment-based Mass Customization: An Exploration of a New Conceptual Marketing Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Pingjun

    2000-01-01

    Suggests that the concept of mass customization should be seen as an integral part of market segmentation theory which offers the best way to satisfy consumers' unique needs and wants while yielding profits to companies. Proposes a new concept of "segment-based based mass customization," and offers a series of propositions which are…

  1. Prediction Markets and Beliefs about Climate: Results from Agent-Based Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, J. M.; John, N. J.; van der Linden, M.

    2015-12-01

    Climate scientists have long been frustrated by persistent doubts a large portion of the public expresses toward the scientific consensus about anthropogenic global warming. The political and ideological polarization of this doubt led Vandenbergh, Raimi, and Gilligan [1] to propose that prediction markets for climate change might influence the opinions of those who mistrust the scientific community but do trust the power of markets.We have developed an agent-based simulation of a climate prediction market in which traders buy and sell future contracts that will pay off at some future year with a value that depends on the global average temperature at that time. The traders form a heterogeneous population with different ideological positions, different beliefs about anthropogenic global warming, and different degrees of risk aversion. We also vary characteristics of the market, including the topology of social networks among the traders, the number of traders, and the completeness of the market. Traders adjust their beliefs about climate according to the gains and losses they and other traders in their social network experience. This model predicts that if global temperature is predominantly driven by greenhouse gas concentrations, prediction markets will cause traders' beliefs to converge toward correctly accepting anthropogenic warming as real. This convergence is largely independent of the structure of the market and the characteristics of the population of traders. However, it may take considerable time for beliefs to converge. Conversely, if temperature does not depend on greenhouse gases, the model predicts that traders' beliefs will not converge. We will discuss the policy-relevance of these results and more generally, the use of agent-based market simulations for policy analysis regarding climate change, seasonal agricultural weather forecasts, and other applications.[1] MP Vandenbergh, KT Raimi, & JM Gilligan. UCLA Law Rev. 61, 1962 (2014).

  2. Effectiveness of alcohol prevention interventions based on the principles of social marketing: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Meriam M; Mathijssen, Jolanda J P; van Bon-Martens, Marja J H; van Oers, Hans A M; Garretsen, Henk F L

    2013-06-01

    Alcohol education aims to increase knowledge on the harm related to alcohol, and to change attitudes and drinking behaviour. However, little (lasting) evidence has been found for alcohol education, in changing alcohol-related attitudes and behaviour. Social marketing uses marketing techniques to achieve a social or healthy goal, and can be used in alcohol education. Social marketing consists of eight principles: customer orientation, insight, segmentation, behavioural goals, exchange, competition, methods mix, and is theory based. This review investigates the application of social marketing in alcohol prevention interventions, and whether application of social marketing influences alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, PsychInfo, Cochrane and Scopus. Inclusion criteria were that original papers had to describe the effects of an alcohol prevention intervention developed according to one or more principles of social marketing. No limits were set on the age of the participants or on the kind of alcohol prevention intervention. The abstracts of the 274 retrieved studies were reviewed and the full texts of potentially relevant studies were screened. Six studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. These six studies showed associations for the application of social marketing techniques on alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour; one study relates to participation in a drinking event, four to alcohol drinking behaviour, two to driving a car while under the influence of alcohol, two to recognition of campaign messages or campaign logo, and one to awareness of the campaign. However, no associations were also found. In addition, the studies had several limitations related to a control group, response rate and study methodology. Based on this review, the effect of applying the principles of social marketing in alcohol prevention in changing alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour could not be assessed. More

  3. Android Based Binus Profile Applications as the Marketing Tools of Bina Nusantara University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, Karto

    2014-03-01

    Smart phones with apps in it is not a new phenomenon. Both of technologies have been fused with the lifestyle today. The ease and speed of access to information makes a lot of companies use it in the process of marketing a product to the public. Objective of this action is to win the competition that more competitive. The purpose of this research is to create mobile application android based to assist in the marketing and introduction Bina Nusantara University profile to prospective students. This research method using software engineering waterfall model to produce Android-based mobile applications. The results in the form of Android-based mobile application that can be used as a viral marketing tool for Bina Nusantara University. At the end of this study can be generated that mobile technology can be used as a media for effective marketing and branding, especially for Bina Nusantara University. Android technology based for marketing applications suited to the Bina Nusantara University applicant segment which are generally young people. The future along with the improvement of network quality and affordable cost, then the application can be made online, so features such as chat, maps, and other can be used optimally.

  4. Android Based Binus Profile Applications as the Marketing Tools of Bina Nusantara University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskandar Karto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Smart phones with apps in it is not a new phenomenon. Both of technologies have been fused with the lifestyle today. The ease and speed of access to information makes a lot of companies use it in the process of marketing a product to the public. Objective of this action is to win the competition that more competitive. The purpose of this research is to create mobile application android based to assist in the marketing and introduction Bina Nusantara University profile to prospective students. This research method using software engineering waterfall model to produce Android-based mobile applications. The results in the form of Android-based mobile application that can be used as a viral marketing tool for Bina Nusantara University. At the end of this study can be generated that mobile technology can be used as a media for effective marketing and branding, especially for Bina Nusantara University. Android technology based for marketing applications suited to the Bina Nusantara University applicant segment which are generally young people. The future along with the improvement of network quality and affordable cost, then the application can be made online, so features such as chat, maps, and other can be used optimally.

  5. Mobile Agent based Market Basket Analysis on Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Waghmare, Vijayata; Mukhopadhyay, Debajyoti

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a location-based mobile shopping application for bakery product shops. Whole application is deployed on cloud. The three-tier architecture consists of, front-end, middle-ware and back-end. The front-end level is a location-based mobile shopping application for android mobile devices, for purchasing bakery products of nearby places. Front-end level also displays association among the purchased products. The middle-ware level provides a web ser...

  6. The Evolution of ICT Markets: An Agent-Based Model on Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liangjie; Wu, Bangtao; Chen, Zhong; Li, Li

    Information and communication technology (ICT) products exhibit positive network effects.The dynamic process of ICT markets evolution has two intrinsic characteristics: (1) customers are influenced by each others’ purchasing decision; (2) customers are intelligent agents with bounded rationality.Guided by complex systems theory, we construct an agent-based model and simulate on complex networks to examine how the evolution can arise from the interaction of customers, which occur when they make expectations about the future installed base of a product by the fraction of neighbors who are using the same product in his personal network.We demonstrate that network effects play an important role in the evolution of markets share, which make even an inferior product can dominate the whole market.We also find that the intensity of customers’ communication can influence whether the best initial strategy for firms is to improve product quality or expand their installed base.

  7. Value at risk estimation with entropy-based wavelet analysis in exchange markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kaijian; Wang, Lijun; Zou, Yingchao; Lai, Kin Keung

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, exchange markets are increasingly integrated together. Fluctuations and risks across different exchange markets exhibit co-moving and complex dynamics. In this paper we propose the entropy-based multivariate wavelet based approaches to analyze the multiscale characteristic in the multidimensional domain and improve further the Value at Risk estimation reliability. Wavelet analysis has been introduced to construct the entropy-based Multiscale Portfolio Value at Risk estimation algorithm to account for the multiscale dynamic correlation. The entropy measure has been proposed as the more effective measure with the error minimization principle to select the best basis when determining the wavelet families and the decomposition level to use. The empirical studies conducted in this paper have provided positive evidence as to the superior performance of the proposed approach, using the closely related Chinese Renminbi and European Euro exchange market.

  8. A drug's life: the pathway to drug approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keng, Michael K; Wenzell, Candice M; Sekeres, Mikkael A

    2013-10-01

    In the United States, drugs and medical devices are regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). A drug must undergo rigorous testing prior to marketing to and medical use by the general public. The FDA grants marketing approval for drug products based on a comprehensive review of safety and efficacy data. This review article explains the history behind the establishment of the FDA and examines the historical legislation and approval processes for drugs, specifically in the fields of medical oncology and hematology. The agents imatinib (Gleevec, Novartis) and decitabine (Dacogen, Eisai) are used to illustrate both the current FDA regulatory process-specifically the orphan drug designation and accelerated approval process-and why decitabine failed to gain an indication for acute myeloid leukemia. The purpose and construct of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee are also discussed, along with examples of 2 renal cell cancer drugs-axitinib (Inlyta, Pfizer) and tivozanib-that used progression-free survival as an endpoint. Regulatory approval of oncology drugs is the cornerstone of the development of new treatment agents and modalities, which lead to improvements in the standard of cancer care. The future landscape of drug development and regulatory approval will be influenced by the new breakthrough therapy designation, and choice of drug will be guided by genomic insights.

  9. Understanding agent-based models of financial markets: A bottom-up approach based on order parameters and phase diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lye, Ribin; Tan, James Peng Lung; Cheong, Siew Ann

    2012-11-01

    We describe a bottom-up framework, based on the identification of appropriate order parameters and determination of phase diagrams, for understanding progressively refined agent-based models and simulations of financial markets. We illustrate this framework by starting with a deterministic toy model, whereby N independent traders buy and sell M stocks through an order book that acts as a clearing house. The price of a stock increases whenever it is bought and decreases whenever it is sold. Price changes are updated by the order book before the next transaction takes place. In this deterministic model, all traders based their buy decisions on a call utility function, and all their sell decisions on a put utility function. We then make the agent-based model more realistic, by either having a fraction fb of traders buy a random stock on offer, or a fraction fs of traders sell a random stock in their portfolio. Based on our simulations, we find that it is possible to identify useful order parameters from the steady-state price distributions of all three models. Using these order parameters as a guide, we find three phases: (i) the dead market; (ii) the boom market; and (iii) the jammed market in the phase diagram of the deterministic model. Comparing the phase diagrams of the stochastic models against that of the deterministic model, we realize that the primary effect of stochasticity is to eliminate the dead market phase.

  10. Learning from the Pros: Influence of Web-Based Expert Commentary on Vicarious Learning about Financial Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Matthew W.; Kent, Daniel W.; Devoto, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Web-based financial commentary, in which experts routinely express market-related thought processes, is proposed as a means for college students to learn vicariously about financial markets. Undergraduate business school students from a regional university were exposed to expert market commentary from a single financial Web site for a 6-week…

  11. RESEARCH OF COMPETITION IN DEPOSIT MARKET OF UKRAINE BASED ON THE PANZAR-ROSSE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Didenko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem in an adequate assessment of the level of competition in the banking market has prompted researchers to search constantly some new methods. The most famous of them were later successfully adapted to the banking market, are a models of Bresnahan, Panzar-Rosse, Bertrand, Iwat, Monti-Klein-Modesto Barros and others. In Ukraine, the process of assessing the level of competition in the banking sector is very relevant, in line with the recent reforms of particular relevance and distribution. Regarding the domestic deposit market, there is a shortage of qualitative analysis of this issue, unlike foreign practice. Therefore this study we try to solve this problem. The key goal of researchers in this study is in a detailed analysis to identify the important factors which make influence on the allocated markets, in particular on lending and deposit rates. Based on these factors there could be implemented internal adjustment processes taking place in the markets. The purpose of the article is to determine the level of competition in the deposit market of Ukraine in 2006-2015 basing on nonstructural Panzar- Rosse model and identify key factors that affect this level. Methodology. To research the level of competition in the deposit market of Ukraine the Panzar-Rosse model was used, in which separate 11 models were built using the integrated tool “Multiple regression” in the software package of statistics analysis STATISTICA. The input data in the model was presented with the information on financial performance of Ukrainian banks during ten years from 01.01.2005 till 01.01.2015. Results of this research showed that in Ukrainian deposit market there is a monopolistic competition, as proved by the calculated values of H-statistics index. The year of 2008, in the context of the global economic crisis, was marked as an unbalanced period for deposit market of Ukraine. Practical implications. Knowing the current state of competition level in the

  12. Are marketing students in control in problem-based learning?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geitz, Gerry; Joosten-ten Brinke, Desirée; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated to what extent self-efficacy, learning behavior, and performance outcomes relate to each other and how they can be positively influenced by students asking for and seeking feedback within a problem-based learning (PBL) environment in order to meet today’s requirements of

  13. Competitive market-based allocation of consumer attention space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Bohte (Sander); E.H. Gerding (Enrico); J.A. La Poutré (Han)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe amount of attention space available for recommending suppliers to consumers on e-commerce sites is typically limited. We present a competitive distributed recommendation mechanism based on adaptive software agents for efficiently allocating the 'consumer attention space', or banners.

  14. Avelumab: First Global Approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Esther S

    2017-05-01

    Avelumab (Bavencio ® ) is an intravenously administered programmed cell death ligand-1-blocking human antibody initially developed by EMD Serono Inc. (the biopharmaceutical division of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany) [now jointly developed and commercialized by EMD Serono Inc. and Pfizer] for the treatment of various tumours. It has received accelerated approval in the USA for the treatment of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (mMCC) in adults and paediatric patients aged ≥12 years. The marketing authorization application for avelumab in the treatment of mMCC is undergoing regulatory review in the EU, the biologics license application for avelumab in the treatment of urothelial carcinoma is undergoing priority review by the FDA, and avelumab is in various stages of development internationally for a variety of cancers. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of avelumab leading to this first approval for mMCC.

  15. Impact of Germany's energy transition on the Nordic power market – A market-based multi-region energy system model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakeri, Behnam; Virasjoki, Vilma; Syri, Sanna; Connolly, David; Mathiesen, Brian V.; Welsch, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The EU energy policy aims at creating a single European electricity market through market couplings and grid expansions. To analyse the implications of such power market couplings, we propose a market-based multi-region energy system model. The model simulates a multi-region power market (by applying market optimization and network theory), with detailed representation of each region as an energy system (by simulation of both heat and power sectors). We examine the impact of further integration of variable renewable energy (VRE) in Germany on the Nordic power market. The results indicate that the average electricity price slightly grows in the Nordic power market after Germany's Energy Transition (Energiewende). Hence, the economic surplus of Nordic consumers diminishes while Nordic producers improve their gain under new market conditions. Considering the gird congestion income, the overall system-level benefits (social welfare) will improve in the Nordic region after Germany's Energiewende. However, this gain is not equally distributed among different Nordic countries and across different stakeholders. Furthermore, the Energiewende slightly increases carbon emissions from power and district heating (DH) sectors, and reduces the flexibility in integration of VRE in some Nordic countries like Denmark. The direct interconnection of Norway and Germany through NordLink will contribute to the flexibility in wind integration in other Nordic countries, such as Denmark and Finland. - Highlights: • By an integrated hourly analysis, we model the energy systems of several networked countries and their common electricity market. • The proposed model can inform energy policy on implications of renewable energy integration in an international power market. • Among Nordic countries, Norway gains the highest economic benefits from Germany's energy transition. • Germany's energy transition constrains the flexibility of the Nordic countries in wind integration. • Nord

  16. MANAGEMENT OF THE INTERNAL LABOR MARKET (BASING ON CASES OF THE SVERDLOVSK REGION CITY-FORMING ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Orekhova

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an estimation procedure of regional labor market influence on sustainability of internal labor market institutions. The paper refines the categories of regional and internal labor market. Internal labor market institutions have been classified and evaluated regarding the level of their sustainability (basing on cases of the Sverdlovsk region city-forming enterprises. As a result the model of labor expenses evaluation is elaborated for enterprises concerned.

  17. Consequences of Market-Based Measures CO2-emission Reduction Maritime Transport for the Netherlands; Gevolgen Market Based Measures CO2-emissiereductie zeevaart voor Nederland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortelboer-van Donselaar, P.; Kansen, M.; Moorman, S. [Kennisinstituut voor Mobiliteitsbeleid KiM, Den Haag (Netherlands); Faber, J.; Koopman, M.; Smit, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands)

    2013-11-15

    The introduction of Market Based Measures (MBMs) to reduce the CO2 emissions of international sea shipping will have relatively limited economic effects for the Netherlands. Moreover, these effects are largely in line with those in other countries. For the Netherlands, however, the manner in which MBMS are organised and enforced is likely to be particularly important, given the importance of ports to the Dutch economy, the country's relatively large bunker sector, and the fact that Dutch shipowners operate relatively small vessels and on a relatively small scale. MBMs include pricing measures in the form of tax or trade systems, as well as other market-related proposals. In this research study, the consequences are analysed of four international MBM proposals for the Netherlands [Dutch] Om de CO2-uitstoot van de internationale zeevaartsector terug te dringen worden momenteel zogeheten Market Based Measures (MBMs), zoals bijvoorbeeld het veilen van emissierechten of het invoeren van een heffing, overwogen. De invoering van de MBMs zal voor Nederland relatief beperkte economische effecten hebben. Deze effecten wijken bovendien niet bijzonder af van die voor andere landen. De wijze waarop de MBMs worden georganiseerd en gehandhaafd, is voor Nederland mogelijk wel van onderscheidend belang. Dit gezien het belang van de havens voor de Nederlandse economie, de relatief grote bunkersector, en de relatief kleine schepen en kleinschaligheid van de Nederlandse reders.

  18. Competitive market-based allocation of consumer attention space

    OpenAIRE

    Bohte, Sander; Gerding, Enrico; La Poutré, Han

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe amount of attention space available for recommending suppliers to consumers on e-commerce sites is typically limited. We present a competitive distributed recommendation mechanism based on adaptive software agents for efficiently allocating the 'consumer attention space', or banners. In the example of an electronic shopping mall, the task is delegated to the individual shops, each of which evaluates the information that is available about the consumer and his or her interests ...

  19. Discretionary-Based Disclosure: Evidence from the Brazilian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Dal-Ri Murcia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this paper is to identify the factors that explain Brazilian companies’ level of voluntary disclosure. Underpinning this work is the Discretionary-based Disclosure theory. The sample is composed of the top 100 largest non-financial companies listed in the Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo (Brazilian Securities, Commodities, and Futures exchange - BOVESPA. Information was gathered from Financial Statements for the years ending in 2006, 2007, and 2008, with the use of content analysis. A disclosure framework based on 27 studies from these years was created, with a total of 92 voluntary items divided into two dimensions: economic (43 and socio-environmental (49. Based on the existing literature, a total of 12 hypotheses were elaborated and tested using a panel data approach. Results evidence that: (a Sector and Origin of Control are statistically significant in all three models tested: economic, socio-environmental, and total; (b ‘Profitability’ is relevant in the economic model and in the total model; (c Tobin’s Q is relevant in the socio-environmental model and in the total disclosure model; (d Leverage and Auditing Firm are only relevant in the economic disclosure model; (e Size, Governance, Stock Issuing, Growth Opportunities and Concentration of Control are not statistically significant in any of the three models.

  20. Market Segmentation Based on the Consumers' Impulsive Buying Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Mihić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The major purpose of this research is to determine the sufficiently different segments of consumers based on their impulsivity in the buying behaviour. The research was conducted in Splitsko-Dalmatinska county on the sample of 180 respondents. Based on the subject matter and research goals, the basic as well as four additional hypotheses were set. The used methodology comprised of the cluster analysis, which helped to divide three segments that were named as: ‘’rational’’, ‘’somewhat rational and somewhat impulsive’’ and ‘’impulsive’’ consumers. The variance analysis was used in order to describe the segments properly and to determine whether they are different enough with respect to demographic, socio-economic characteristics and individual differences variables. The findings confirmed the hypothesis based on the possibility of dividing different consumer segments according to the analysed variables. Correlating the demographics and individual differences factors with the impulse buy, the expected results were gained. When analyzing demographics the results indicate the segment differentiation solely in the case of age and working status. However, from the aspect of majority of individual differences variables the distinction among the segments is significant.

  1. How well does consumer-based brand equity align with sales-based brand equity and marketing mix response?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datta, Hannes; Ailawadi, Kusum L.; van Heerde, H.J.

    Brand equity is the differential preference and response to marketing effort that a product obtains because of its brand identification. Brand equity can be measured based on either consumer perceptions or on sales. Consumer-based brand equity (CBBE) measures what consumers think and feel about the

  2. 77 FR 60339 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; The 2002 Base Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ....regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means EPA will not know your identity or... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; The 2002 Base Year Inventory for the Pittsburgh... particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) 2002 base year emissions inventory portion of the Pennsylvania State...

  3. Expert Advisor (EA) Evaluation System Using Web-based ELECTRE Method in Foreign Exchange (Forex) Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satibi; Widodo, Catur Edi; Farikhin

    2018-02-01

    This research aims to optimize forex trading profit automatically using EA but its still keep considering accuracy and drawdown levels. The evaluation system will classify EA performance based on trading market sessions (Sydney, Tokyo, London and New York) to determine the right EA to be used in certain market sessions. This evaluation system is a web-based ELECTRE methods that interact in real-time with EA through web service and are able to present real-time charts performance dashboard using web socket protocol communications. Web applications are programmed using NodeJs. In the testing period, all EAs had been simulated 24 hours in all market sessions for three months, the best EA is valued by its profit, accuracy and drawdown criteria that calculated using web-based ELECTRE method. The ideas of this research are to compare the best EA on testing period with collaboration performances of each best classified EA by market sessions. This research uses three months historical data of EUR/USD as testing period and other 3 months as validation period. As a result, performance of collaboration four best EA classified by market sessions can increase profits percentage consistently in testing and validation periods and keep securing accuracy and drawdown levels.

  4. Expert Advisor (EA Evaluation System Using Web-based ELECTRE Method in Foreign Exchange (Forex Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satibi Satibi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to optimize forex trading profit automatically using EA but its still keep considering accuracy and drawdown levels. The evaluation system will classify EA performance based on trading market sessions (Sydney, Tokyo, London and New York to determine the right EA to be used in certain market sessions. This evaluation system is a web-based ELECTRE methods that interact in real-time with EA through web service and are able to present real-time charts performance dashboard using web socket protocol communications. Web applications are programmed using NodeJs. In the testing period, all EAs had been simulated 24 hours in all market sessions for three months, the best EA is valued by its profit, accuracy and drawdown criteria that calculated using web-based ELECTRE method. The ideas of this research are to compare the best EA on testing period with collaboration performances of each best classified EA by market sessions. This research uses three months historical data of EUR/USD as testing period and other 3 months as validation period. As a result, performance of collaboration four best EA classified by market sessions can increase profits percentage consistently in testing and validation periods and keep securing accuracy and drawdown levels.

  5. A market-driven commercialization strategy for gasification-based technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klara, J.M.; Tomer, B.J.; Stiegel, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    In the wake of deregulation of power generation in the US, market-based competition is driving electricity generators to low-cost risk system. In such an environment, gasification-based technologies will not be competitive with low capital cost, efficient, and reliable natural gas-fired facilities for baseload power generation in the foreseeable future. The lack of a near-term market application poses a serious threat to the progress of gasification technology. With a reduction in direct federal funding of large-scale demonstration plants as the trend to reduce the size of government continues, an alternate approach to commercialize gasification-based technologies has been developed at DOE/FETC. This new strategy employs gasification in near-term markets where, due to its ability to coproduce a wide variety of commodity and premium products to meet market requirements, it is an attractive alternative. By obtaining operating experience in near-term coproduction applications, gasification system modules can be refined and improved leading to commercial guarantees and acceptance of gasification technology as a cost-effective technology for baseload power generation when this market begins to open domestically, sometime after 2005

  6. Model-based synthesis of locally contingent responses to global market signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliocca, N. R.

    2015-12-01

    Rural livelihoods and the land systems on which they depend are increasingly influenced by distant markets through economic globalization. Place-based analyses of land and livelihood system sustainability must then consider both proximate and distant influences on local decision-making. Thus, advancing land change theory in the context of economic globalization calls for a systematic understanding of the general processes as well as local contingencies shaping local responses to global signals. Synthesis of insights from place-based case studies of land and livelihood change is a path forward for developing such systematic knowledge. This paper introduces a model-based synthesis approach to investigating the influence of local socio-environmental and agent-level factors in mediating land-use and livelihood responses to changing global market signals. A generalized agent-based modeling framework is applied to six case-study sites that differ in environmental conditions, market access and influence, and livelihood settings. The largest modeled land conversions and livelihood transitions to market-oriented production occurred in sties with relatively productive agricultural land and/or with limited livelihood options. Experimental shifts in the distributions of agents' risk tolerances generally acted to attenuate or amplify responses to changes in global market signals. Importantly, however, responses of agents at different points in the risk tolerance distribution varied widely, with the wealth gap growing wider between agents with higher or lower risk tolerance. These results demonstrate model-based synthesis is a promising approach to overcome many of the challenges of current synthesis methods in land change science, and to identify generalized as well as locally contingent responses to global market signals.

  7. Investigating Food and Beverage Industry Market Structure and Market Power Based on Leo and Bresnahan’s Approach

    OpenAIRE

    M. Nabishahikitash; E. Gholipoorbolasi; A. Mohammadzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Food processing industries are one of the major industrial groups in developing countries which play an important role in the economic development of these countries. With the Developed and Developing Food Industry on the other hand, food security and providing food are very important in each country. In an overview, markets are divided into two groups: The first group is a market with perfect competition. And second group is markets with monopoly structure.One of the importa...

  8. Marketing Strategy of Rural Supermarket Chain in Ningxia Based on the Long Tail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the introduction of the Long Tail,the political,economical,social and technological environment for the development of rural supermarket chain in Ningxia is analyzed.The problems in the marketing strategy of Ningxia rural supermarket chain are pointed out,including single products and uneven level of quality,the products,which can not satisfy farmers’ needs;low quality of the personnel and imperfect information system,thus the traditional way of marketing is challenged.In the end,from the perspective of products,position,price,and personnel,the marketing strategies for the development of Ningxia rural supermarket chain based on the Long Tail Theory are put forward.

  9. Bidding strategy for pumped-storage plant in pool-based electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanakasabapathy, P.; Shanti Swarup, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops optimal bidding strategies for a pumped-storage plant in a pool-based electricity market. In the competitive regime, when compared to simple hydroelectric generator, profit of the pumped-storage plant is maximized by operating it as a generator when market clearing price is high and as a pump when the price is low. Based on forecasted hourly market clearing price, a multistage looping algorithm to maximize the profit of a pumped-storage plant is developed, considering both the spinning and non-spinning reserve bids and meeting the technical operating constraints of the plant. The proposed model is adaptive for the nonlinear three-dimensional relationship between the power produced, the energy stored, and the head of the associated reservoir. Different operating cycles for a realistic pumped-storage plant are considered and simulation results are reported and compared. (author)

  10. Conceptual model for marketing solar based technology to developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, Raj; Ramaseshan, B.; Nayar, C.V.

    2002-01-01

    Developing countries are faced with large shortfalls of electric-power generation, shortages of usable indigenous fuels, and transportation bottlenecks for those fuels. The loss of revenue that is forced upon the industry due to power cuts and frequent interruptions of power supply is substantial. Renewable sources of energy have an important role to play in providing much needed power in the context of growing global concern about sustainable energy supplies and protecting the environment from the adverse effects of fossil fuel utilization. The purpose of the study is to identify the factors that influence the adoption of solar-based technology. An examination of the literature in the area of diffusion of technology has led to the identification of different variables. The possible relationships that may exist between these variables is depicted in the conceptual framework. This paper attempts to clarify the relationships between the variables that have been identified and the decision to adopt. (Author)

  11. Optimizing the structure of the natural gas market using an agent-based modeling framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Benthem, M.

    2010-01-14

    The overall research question guiding this study is as follows: what is the optimal structure of the natural gas market, considering both the degrees of affordability and supply security resulting from this structure? The sub-questions are: How can the concepts of supply security and affordability be usefully defined? (Chapter 2); What should a modeling framework for analyzing the natural gas market with regard to these concepts look like? (Chapters 3 and 4); What general conclusions can be drawn on the basis of this framework? (Chapter 5); What is the effect of liberalization on the Dutch natural gas market? (Chapter 6); What are the possible effects of current trends unfolding in the Dutch natural gas market? (Chapter 7). The framework constructed in this study implicitly contains the necessary elements for deriving a sustainability indicator too. However, to limit the scope of the study, sustainability will not be analyzed explicitly. Chapter 2 provides an introductory description of the natural gas market. Starting from a description of the natural gas value chain, the process of liberalization is described as a change in the organization of the value chain. In addition, the concepts of affordability and supply security are discussed and appropriate quantitative indicators for both objectives are identified. In Chapter 3, a survey of existing gas market models is performed. On the basis of this survey, a classification system for natural gas market models is developed. Furthermore, the characteristics of a modeling framework fit for the purpose of this study are derived. In Chapter 4, a general, quantitative framework for natural gas market modeling is developed on the basis of agent-based computational economics. The model's structure, its dynamics, output and data requirements are described. Furthermore, the properties of each agent are explored, and the possibilities for model verification and validation are outlined. Chapter 5 provides a number of

  12. Optimizing the structure of the natural gas market using an agent-based modeling framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Benthem, M.

    2010-01-01

    The overall research question guiding this study is as follows: what is the optimal structure of the natural gas market, considering both the degrees of affordability and supply security resulting from this structure? The sub-questions are: How can the concepts of supply security and affordability be usefully defined? (Chapter 2); What should a modeling framework for analyzing the natural gas market with regard to these concepts look like? (Chapters 3 and 4); What general conclusions can be drawn on the basis of this framework? (Chapter 5); What is the effect of liberalization on the Dutch natural gas market? (Chapter 6); What are the possible effects of current trends unfolding in the Dutch natural gas market? (Chapter 7). The framework constructed in this study implicitly contains the necessary elements for deriving a sustainability indicator too. However, to limit the scope of the study, sustainability will not be analyzed explicitly. Chapter 2 provides an introductory description of the natural gas market. Starting from a description of the natural gas value chain, the process of liberalization is described as a change in the organization of the value chain. In addition, the concepts of affordability and supply security are discussed and appropriate quantitative indicators for both objectives are identified. In Chapter 3, a survey of existing gas market models is performed. On the basis of this survey, a classification system for natural gas market models is developed. Furthermore, the characteristics of a modeling framework fit for the purpose of this study are derived. In Chapter 4, a general, quantitative framework for natural gas market modeling is developed on the basis of agent-based computational economics. The model's structure, its dynamics, output and data requirements are described. Furthermore, the properties of each agent are explored, and the possibilities for model verification and validation are outlined. Chapter 5 provides a number of

  13. From where to what: a neuroanatomically based evolutionary model of the emergence of speech in humans [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Poliva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the brain of primates, the auditory cortex connects with the frontal lobe via the temporal pole (auditory ventral stream; AVS and via the inferior parietal lobe (auditory dorsal stream; ADS. The AVS is responsible for sound recognition, and the ADS for sound-localization, voice detection and integration of calls with faces. I propose that the primary role of the ADS in non-human primates is the detection and response to contact calls. These calls are exchanged between tribe members (e.g., mother-offspring and are used for monitoring location. Detection of contact calls occurs by the ADS identifying a voice, localizing it, and verifying that the corresponding face is out of sight. Once a contact call is detected, the primate produces a contact call in return via descending connections from the frontal lobe to a network of limbic and brainstem regions. Because the ADS of present day humans also performs speech production, I further propose an evolutionary course for the transition from contact call exchange to an early form of speech. In accordance with this model, structural changes to the ADS endowed early members of the genus Homo with partial vocal control. This development was beneficial as it enabled offspring to modify their contact calls with intonations for signaling high or low levels of distress to their mother. Eventually, individuals were capable of participating in yes-no question-answer conversations. In these conversations the offspring emitted a low-level distress call for inquiring about the safety of objects (e.g., food, and his/her mother responded with a high- or low-level distress call to signal approval or disapproval of the interaction. Gradually, the ADS and its connections with brainstem motor regions became more robust and vocal control became more volitional. Speech emerged once vocal control was sufficient for inventing novel calls.

  14. From where to what: a neuroanatomically based evolutionary model of the emergence of speech in humans [version 3; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Poliva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the brain of primates, the auditory cortex connects with the frontal lobe via the temporal pole (auditory ventral stream; AVS and via the inferior parietal lobe (auditory dorsal stream; ADS. The AVS is responsible for sound recognition, and the ADS for sound-localization, voice detection and integration of calls with faces. I propose that the primary role of the ADS in non-human primates is the detection and response to contact calls. These calls are exchanged between tribe members (e.g., mother-offspring and are used for monitoring location. Detection of contact calls occurs by the ADS identifying a voice, localizing it, and verifying that the corresponding face is out of sight. Once a contact call is detected, the primate produces a contact call in return via descending connections from the frontal lobe to a network of limbic and brainstem regions. Because the ADS of present day humans also performs speech production, I further propose an evolutionary course for the transition from contact call exchange to an early form of speech. In accordance with this model, structural changes to the ADS endowed early members of the genus Homo with partial vocal control. This development was beneficial as it enabled offspring to modify their contact calls with intonations for signaling high or low levels of distress to their mother. Eventually, individuals were capable of participating in yes-no question-answer conversations. In these conversations the offspring emitted a low-level distress call for inquiring about the safety of objects (e.g., food, and his/her mother responded with a high- or low-level distress call to signal approval or disapproval of the interaction. Gradually, the ADS and its connections with brainstem motor regions became more robust and vocal control became more volitional. Speech emerged once vocal control was sufficient for inventing novel calls.

  15. Traders’ Networks of Interactions and Structural Properties of Financial Markets: An Agent-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Ponta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An information-based multiasset artificial stock market characterized by different types of stocks and populated by heterogeneous agents is presented and studied so as to determine the influences of agents’ networks on the market’s structure. Agents are organized in networks that are responsible for the formation of the sentiments of the agents. In the market, agents trade risky assets in exchange for cash and share their sentiments by means of interactions that are determined by sparsely connected graphs. A central market maker (clearing house mechanism determines the price process for each stock at the intersection of the demand and the supply curves. A set of market’s structure indicators based on the main single-assets and multiassets stylized facts have been defined, in order to study the effects of the agents’ networks. Results point out an intrinsic structural resilience of the stock market. In fact, the network is necessary in order to archive the ability to reproduce the main stylized facts, but also the market has some characteristics that are independent from the network and depend on the finiteness of traders’ wealth.

  16. [Study on supply and demand relation based on two stages division of market of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Guo, Lan-Ping; Wang, Nuo; Zeng, Yan; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-01-01

    The complex production processes and long industrial chain in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) market result in difficulty in Chinese market microstructure research. Based on the defining the logical relationships among different concepts. This paper divides TCM market into two stages as Chinese materia medica resource market and traditional Chinese Patent Medicines market. Under this foundation, we investigated the supply capacity, approaching rules and motivation system of suppliers in TCM market, analyzed the demand situation in the perspective of demand side, and evaluated the purchasing power in terms of population profile, income, and insurance. Furthermore we also analyzed the price formation mechanism in two stages of TCM market. We hope this study can make a positive and promotion effect on TCM market related research.

  17. 78 FR 14020 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; the 2002 Base Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ..., procedures and methodologies for the base year emissions inventory submitted by DNREC. EPA found the process.... Petitions for Judicial Review Under section 307(b)(1) of the CAA, petitions for judicial review of this... finality of this action for the purposes of judicial review nor does it extend the time within which a...

  18. 75 FR 68251 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; 2002 Base Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ....regulations.gov or e-mail. The http://www.regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which... emissions inventory was calculated using EPA's MOBILE6.2 and the Highway Performance Monitoring System model... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; 2002 Base Year Emission Inventory, Reasonable...

  19. 77 FR 72966 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; The 2002 Base Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... Environment (MDE), on June 6, 2008. The emissions inventory is part of the June 6, 2008 SIP revision that was....regulations.gov Web site. Although listed in the electronic docket, some information is not publicly available... (Revision 08-05). II. Summary of SIP Revision The 2002 base year emissions inventory submitted by MDE on...

  20. 77 FR 61513 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; The 2002 Base Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... Environment (MDE), on April 3, 2008. The emissions inventory is part of the April 3, 2008 SIP revision that... Web site. Although listed in the electronic docket, some information is not publicly available, i.e... 2002 base year emissions inventory submitted by MDE on April 3, 2008 includes emissions estimates that...

  1. Consentaneous agent-based and stochastic model of the financial markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontis, Vygintas; Kononovicius, Aleksejus

    2014-01-01

    We are looking for the agent-based treatment of the financial markets considering necessity to build bridges between microscopic, agent based, and macroscopic, phenomenological modeling. The acknowledgment that agent-based modeling framework, which may provide qualitative and quantitative understanding of the financial markets, is very ambiguous emphasizes the exceptional value of well defined analytically tractable agent systems. Herding as one of the behavior peculiarities considered in the behavioral finance is the main property of the agent interactions we deal with in this contribution. Looking for the consentaneous agent-based and macroscopic approach we combine two origins of the noise: exogenous one, related to the information flow, and endogenous one, arising form the complex stochastic dynamics of agents. As a result we propose a three state agent-based herding model of the financial markets. From this agent-based model we derive a set of stochastic differential equations, which describes underlying macroscopic dynamics of agent population and log price in the financial markets. The obtained solution is then subjected to the exogenous noise, which shapes instantaneous return fluctuations. We test both Gaussian and q-Gaussian noise as a source of the short term fluctuations. The resulting model of the return in the financial markets with the same set of parameters reproduces empirical probability and spectral densities of absolute return observed in New York, Warsaw and NASDAQ OMX Vilnius Stock Exchanges. Our result confirms the prevalent idea in behavioral finance that herding interactions may be dominant over agent rationality and contribute towards bubble formation.

  2. 78 FR 75560 - Biofuels Washington LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER14-506-000] Biofuels Washington LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Biofuels...

  3. Market-Based Coordination and Auditing Mechanisms for Self-Interested Multi-Robot Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, MyungJoo

    2009-01-01

    We propose market-based coordinated task allocation mechanisms, which allocate complex tasks that require synchronized and collaborated services of multiple robot agents to robot agents, and an auditing mechanism, which ensures proper behaviors of robot agents by verifying inter-agent activities, for self-interested, fully-distributed, and…

  4. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 3 - Risk-Based Capital Guidelines; Market Risk Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) The bank must have a risk control unit that reports directly to senior management and is independent... management systems at least annually. (c) Market risk factors. The bank's internal model must use risk.... Section 4. Internal Models (a) General. For risk-based capital purposes, a bank subject to this appendix...

  5. 77 FR 60984 - World Digital Innovations; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2654-001] World Digital Innovations; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of World Digital...

  6. A unifying energy-based approach to stability of power grids with market dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegink, Tjerk; De Persis, Claudio; van der Schaft, Arjan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper a unifying energy-based approach is provided to the modeling and stability analysis of power systems coupled with market dynamics. We consider a standard model of the power network with a third-order model for the synchronous generators involving voltage dynamics. By applying the

  7. A resource-based theory of market structure and organizational form

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Witteloostuijn, A.; Boone, C.A.J.J.

    We argue that combining the insights from both the industrial organization and organizational ecology perspectives is likely to produce value added. We develop a resource-based theory of market structure, where resources pertain to the environmental assets (together forming the resource space)

  8. SEGMENTING RETAIL MARKETS ON STORE IMAGE USING A CONSUMER-BASED METHODOLOGY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEENKAMP, JBEM; WEDEL, M

    1991-01-01

    Various approaches to segmenting retail markets based on store image are reviewed, including methods that have not yet been applied to retailing problems. It is argued that a recently developed segmentation technique, fuzzy clusterwise regression analysis (FCR), holds high potential for store-image

  9. Value assessment of hydrogen-based electrical energy storage in view of electricity spot market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Hu, Junjie; Zong, Yi

    2016-01-01

    electricity spot market that has high price volatility due to its high share of wind power. An economic dispatch model is developed as a mixed-integer programming (MIP) problem to support the estimation of variable cost of such a system taking into account a good granularity of the technical details. Based...

  10. Voice-Based Marketing for Agricultural Products : A Case Study in Rural Northern Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittoh, Francis; Aart, Chris Van; Boer, Victor De

    2013-01-01

    We present a study conducted in rural Northern Ghana about issues around the marketing of agricultural products and the need of mobile-based ICT solutions. The need for the spread of information and web access to communities in developing countries has given rise to the design and development of

  11. Harem: Hardwood lumber remanufacturing program for maxmizing value based on size, grade and current market prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.J. Schwehm; P. Klinkhachorn; Charles W. McMillin; Henry A. Huber

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes an expert system computer program which will determine the optimum way to edge and trim a hardwood board so as to yield the highest dollar value based on the grade, size of each board, and current market prices. The program uses the Automated Hardwood Lumber Grading Program written by Klinkhachorn, et al. for determining the grade of each board...

  12. Values-Based Education for Sustainability Marketers: Two Approaches for Enhancing Student Social Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley Rountree, Melissa; Koernig, Stephen K.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable development has been a hot button issue for decades, and yet business schools continue to struggle with accessible, meaningful and effective strategies to incorporate the topic into their curricula. To extend the teaching toolbox of educators, we describe two complementary marketing courses that use values-based learning to incorporate…

  13. A Marketing Plan for Recruiting Students into Pharmacy School-based Graduate Programs. A Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdford, David A.; Stratton, Timothy P.

    2000-01-01

    Outlines a marketing plan for recruiting students into pharmacy school-based graduate programs, particularly into social and administrative sciences. Addresses challenges and opportunities when recruiting, the need to clearly define the "product" that graduate programs are trying to sell to potential students, types of students…

  14. Formation of trading strategy based on technical analysis and application in the FOREX market

    OpenAIRE

    Butkus, Mindaugas; Tamašauskas, Mantas

    2016-01-01

    This paper accomplishes modification of technical analysis based trading strategy for the FOREX market. New strategy performance was checked using historical data. Most profitable modification was excluded and optimized. Straipsnyje atliktas technine analize grįstos prekybos strategijos, skirtos FOREX rinkai, modifikavimas. Naujos strategijos veikimas patikrintas su istoriniais duomenimis. Buvo atrinkta ir optimizuota pelningiausia modifikacija.

  15. Recruiting Teachers Online: Marketing Strategies and Information Dissemination Practices of UK-Based Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, Rian; Books, Sue

    2009-01-01

    A review of the websites of 43 UK-based agencies that are recruiting teachers in South Africa and other countries finds that important information about what to expect often is missing. An analysis of the marketing strategies shows that agencies overall are promising schools thorough vetting of candidates and low fees, are promising prospective…

  16. How are base excision DNA repair pathways deployed in vivo? [version 1; referees: 4 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upasna Thapar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of the base excision repair (BER system for DNA more than 40 years ago, new branches of the pathway have been revealed at the biochemical level by in vitro studies. Largely for technical reasons, however, the confirmation of these subpathways in vivo has been elusive. We review methods that have been used to explore BER in mammalian cells, indicate where there are important knowledge gaps to fill, and suggest a way to address them.

  17. Causal relationship between the global foreign exchange market based on complex networks and entropy theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Guangxi; Zhang, Qi; Li, Qingchen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Mutual information is used as the edge weights of nodes instead of PCC, which overcomes the shortcomings of linear correlation functions. • SGD turns into a new cluster center and gradually becomes a point connecting the Asian and European clusters during and after the US sub-prime crisis. • Liang's entropy theory, which has not been adopted before in the global foreign exchange market, is considered. - Abstract: The foreign exchange (FX) market is a typical complex dynamic system under the background of exchange rate marketization reform and is an important part of the financial market. This study aims to generate an international FX network based on complex network theory. This study employs the mutual information method to judge the nonlinear characteristics of 54 major currencies in international FX markets. Through this method, we find that the FX network possesses a small average path length and a large clustering coefficient under different thresholds and that it exhibits small-world characteristics as a whole. Results show that the relationship between FX rates is close. Volatility can quickly transfer in the whole market, and the FX volatility of influential individual states transfers at a fast pace and a large scale. The period from July 21, 2005 to March 31, 2015 is subdivided into three sub-periods (i.e., before, during, and after the US sub-prime crisis) to analyze the topology evolution of FX markets using the maximum spanning tree approach. Results show that the USD gradually lost its core position, EUR remained a stable center, and the center of the Asian cluster became unstable. Liang's entropy theory is used to analyze the causal relationship between the four large clusters of the world.

  18. Reaching rural customers: the challenge of market-based rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinmueller, Dorothee; Adib, Rana

    2002-01-01

    The large number of households that need catering for in market based approaches to rural energy supply in developing countries makes different demands on all involved players: an extensive infrastructure for reaching the rural customer needs to be established, extensive investments have to be realised, financial sustainability must be assured, and the business must even show profit. Thus, for successful market and infrastructure development it is a major necessity to understand the mechanisms involved. The authors describe a new guide to assist governments, business, and financing organisations in providing energy to rural areas using renewables. (Author)

  19. Using Scenario-based Business Modelling to Explore the 5G Telecommunication Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moqaddamerad, Sara; Ahokangas, Petri; Matinmikko, Marja

    2017-01-01

    Innovative technologies often alter established value chains and make traditional strategic planning methods inadequate. In this paper, we present the use of scenario-based business modelling to explore the market for the fifth generation mobile communication networks (5G). We discuss four...... scenarios that have been developed in a collaborative effort among different actors in the market. We then describe the approach to build business models and discuss lessons learned and benefits from the novel approach. This approach complements traditional techniques through providing a powerful platform...

  20. Design and Promotion Strategy of Marketing Platform of Aquatic Auction based on Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jianliang

    For the online trade and promotion of aquatic products and related materials through the network between supply and demand, the design content and effective promotional strategies of aquatic auctions online marketing platform is proposed in this paper. Design elements involve the location of customer service, the basic function of the platform including the purchase of general orders, online auctions, information dissemination, and recommendation of fine products, human services, and payment preferences. Based on network and mobile e-commerce transaction support, the auction platform makes the transaction of aquatic products well in advance. The results are important practical value for the design and application of online marketing platform of aquatic auction.

  1. Market power and output-based refunding of environmental policy revenues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    Output-based refunding of environmental policy revenues combines a tax on emissions with a production subsidy, typically in a revenue-neutral fashion. With imperfect competition, subsidies can alleviate output underprovision. However, when market shares are significant, endogenous refunding reduces abatement incentives and the marginal net tax or subsidy. If market shares differ, marginal abatement costs will not be equalized, and production is shifted among participants. In an asymmetric Cournot duopoly, endogenous refunding leads to higher output, emissions, and overall costs compared with a fixed rebate program targeting the same emissions intensity. These results hold whether emissions rates are determined simultaneously with output or strategically in a two-stage model. (author)

  2. Reaching rural customers: the challenge of market-based rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinmueller, Dorothee [International Solar Energy Society (ISES), Freiburg (Germany); Adib, Rana [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    2002-06-01

    The large number of households that need catering for in market based approaches to rural energy supply in developing countries makes different demands on all involved players: an extensive infrastructure for reaching the rural customer needs to be established, extensive investments have to be realised, financial sustainability must be assured, and the business must even show profit. Thus, for successful market and infrastructure development it is a major necessity to understand the mechanisms involved. The authors describe a new guide to assist governments, business, and financing organisations in providing energy to rural areas using renewables. (Author)

  3. Dataset for petroleum based stock markets and GAUSS codes for SAMEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A.A. Khalifa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article includes a unique data set of a balanced daily (Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday for oil and natural gas volatility and the oil rich economies’ stock markets for Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Kuwait, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Bahrain and Oman, using daily data over the period spanning Oct. 18, 2006–July 30, 2015. Additionally, we have included unique GAUSS codes for estimating the spillover asymmetric multiplicative error model (SAMEM with application to Petroleum-Based Stock Market. The data, the model and the codes have many applications in business and social science.

  4. Diffusion and Aggregation in an Agent Based Model of Stock Market Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglione, Filippo

    We describe a new model to simulate the dynamic interactions between market price and the decisions of two different kind of traders. They possess spatial mobility allowing to group together to form coalitions. Each coalition follows a strategy chosen from a proportional voting ``dominated'' by a leader's decision. The interplay of both kind of agents gives rise to complex price dynamics that is consistent with the main stylized facts of financial time series. The present model incorporates many features of other known models and is meant to be the first step toward the construction of an agent-based model that uses more realistic markets rules, strategies, and information structures.

  5. Dataset for petroleum based stock markets and GAUSS codes for SAMEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Ahmed A A; Bertuccelli, Pietro; Otranto, Edoardo

    2017-02-01

    This article includes a unique data set of a balanced daily (Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday) for oil and natural gas volatility and the oil rich economies' stock markets for Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Kuwait, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Bahrain and Oman, using daily data over the period spanning Oct. 18, 2006-July 30, 2015. Additionally, we have included unique GAUSS codes for estimating the spillover asymmetric multiplicative error model (SAMEM) with application to Petroleum-Based Stock Market. The data, the model and the codes have many applications in business and social science.

  6. Assessing the Impact of School-Based Marketing Efforts: A Case Study of a Foreign Language Immersion Program in a School-Choice Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson Beal, Heather K.; Beal, Brent D.

    2016-01-01

    The marketization of K-12 education has led to an increase in school-based marketing efforts. Relatively little research, however, has examined how public schools market themselves, who is involved in marketing, and how these marketing efforts impact key stakeholders, including school administrators, teachers, students, and parents.We explore…

  7. Riverine based eco-tourism: Trinity River non-market benefits estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, A.J.; Taylor, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    California's Central Valley Project (CVP) was approved by voters in a statewide referendum in 1933. CVP referendum approval initiated funding for construction of important water development projects that had far reaching effects on regional water supplies. The construction of Trinity Dam in 1963 and the subsequent transbasin diversion of Trinity River flow was one of several CVP projects that had noteworthy adverse environmental and regional economic impacts. The Trinity River is the largest tributary of the Klamath River, and has its headwaters in the Trinity Alps of north-central California. After the construction of Trinity Dam in 1963, 90% of the Trinity River flow at Lewiston was moved to the Sacramento River via the Clear Creek Tunnel. Before 1963, the Trinity River was a major recreation resource of Northern California. The loss of streamflow has had a marked adverse impact on Trinity River-related recreation activities and the size and robustness of Trinity River salmon, steelhead, shad, and sturgeon runs. Trinity River water produces hydropower during its transit via Bureau of Reclamation canals and pumps to the northern San Joaquin Valley, where it is used for irrigated agriculture. The benefits provided by Trinity River instream flow-related environmental amenities were estimated with the travel cost method (TCM). Trinity River non-market benefits are about $406 million per annum, while the social cost of sending water down the Trinity River ranges from $17 to $42 million per annum, depending on the exact flow. We also discuss the relative magnitude of Trinity River survey data contingent value method (CVM) benefits estimates.

  8. A Transmission-Cost-Based Model to Estimate the Amount of Market-Integrable Wind Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales González, Juan Miguel; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    are made to share the expenses in transmission derived from their integration, they may see the doors of electricity markets closed for not being competitive enough. This paper presents a model to decide the amount of wind resources that are economically exploitable at a given location from a transmission......In the pursuit of the large-scale integration of wind power production, it is imperative to evaluate plausible frictions among the stochastic nature of wind generation, electricity markets, and the investments in transmission required to accommodate larger amounts of wind. If wind producers......-cost perspective. This model accounts for the uncertain character of wind by using a modeling framework based on stochastic optimization, simulates market barriers by means of a bi-level structure, and considers the financial risk of investments in transmission through the conditional value-at-risk. The major...

  9. Energy Collectives: a Community and Fairness based Approach to Future Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moret, Fabio; Pinson, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    for the community reflects prosumers' preferences. We show that community members can be influenced by a supervisory third-party in charge of interfacing with the market and system operator and of guaranteeing the collective common agreements. We simulate a number of test cases and we apply typical principles from......While power system organization has evolved from a hierarchical structure to a more decentralized model, electricity markets are still not up to date with the ongoing transformation towards more consumer-centric economies. As Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are broadly adopted......, they allow prosumers to have a more proactive role in power system operation. This work introduces the concept of energy collectives, as a community-based electricity market structure. We find that when prosumers are allowed to share energy at community level, overall electricity procurement...

  10. The nexus between geopolitical uncertainty and crude oil markets: An entropy-based wavelet analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Gazi Salah; Bekiros, Stelios; Ahmed, Ali

    2018-04-01

    The global financial crisis and the subsequent geopolitical turbulence in energy markets have brought increased attention to the proper statistical modeling especially of the crude oil markets. In particular, we utilize a time-frequency decomposition approach based on wavelet analysis to explore the inherent dynamics and the casual interrelationships between various types of geopolitical, economic and financial uncertainty indices and oil markets. Via the introduction of a mixed discrete-continuous multiresolution analysis, we employ the entropic criterion for the selection of the optimal decomposition level of a MODWT as well as the continuous-time coherency and phase measures for the detection of business cycle (a)synchronization. Overall, a strong heterogeneity in the revealed interrelationships is detected over time and across scales.

  11. State-of-the-art research: optimal investment in market-based electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hope, Einar; Skjeret, Frode

    2008-04-15

    The purpose of this state-of-the-art research paper is to surveying the literature on investment in market based electric power systems as a background for identifying and discussing some important issues in the optimal design and operation of such systems. A fundamental distinction has to be made between investment in the competitive part of the power system (generation and trading) on the one hand and the natural monopoly part (network infrastructure) on the other. The paper starts with a listing and discussion on market characteristics and properties of electric power and goes on to discussing performance criteria and potential sources of market failure for optimal electric power investment. After the literature survey there is a discussion of conditions under which optimal investment may occur. (author). 78 refs., figs

  12. A quantile-based Time at Risk: A new approach for assessing risk in financial markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolgorian, Meysam; Raei, Reza

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we provide a new measure for evaluation of risk in financial markets. This measure is based on the return interval of critical events in financial markets or other investment situations. Our main goal was to devise a model like Value at Risk (VaR). As VaR, for a given financial asset, probability level and time horizon, gives a critical value such that the likelihood of loss on the asset over the time horizon exceeds this value is equal to the given probability level, our concept of Time at Risk (TaR), using a probability distribution function of return intervals, provides a critical time such that the probability that the return interval of a critical event exceeds this time equals the given probability level. As an empirical application, we applied our model to data from the Tehran Stock Exchange Price Index (TEPIX) as a financial asset (market portfolio) and reported the results.

  13. LULUCF-based CDM. Too much ado for a small carbon market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernoux, M.; Feller, C.; Eschenbrenner, V.; Cerri, C.C.; Melillo, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The Bonn agreement reached in July at the sixth conference of the parties (COP) to the FCCC states 'that for the first commitment period, the total of additions to and subtractions from the assigned amount of a party resulting from eligible LULUCF activities under Article 12 (i.e. CDM), shall not exceed 1% of base-year emissions of that party, times five'. The most probable size of this LULUCF-CDM (land use, land-use change and forestry - clean development mechanism) market is analyzed in light of each Annex I party's actual and projected emissions and policies. Results show that the market size would be only about 110 Mt CO2 eq. for 2000-2012, representing a maximum global market value of about US$ 876 million

  14. Sustainability of market-based community distribution of Sprinkles in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchdev, Parminder S; Shah, Ami; Jefferds, Maria Elena D; Eleveld, Alie; Patel, Minal; Stein, Aryeh D; Macdonald, Barbara; Ruth, Laird

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the sustainability of market-based community distribution of micronutrient powders (Sprinkles(®), Hexagon Nutrition, Mumbai, India.) among pre-school children in Kenya, we conducted in August 2010 a follow-up survey, 18 months after study-related marketing and household monitoring ended. We surveyed 849 children aged 6-35 months randomly selected from 60 study villages. Nutritional biomarkers were measured by fingerstick; demographic characteristics, Sprinkles purchases and use were assessed through household questionnaires. We compared Sprinkles use, marketing efforts and biomarker levels with the data from surveys conducted in March 2007, March 2008 and March 2009. We used logistic regression to evaluate associations between marketing activities and Sprinkles use in the 2010 survey. At the 2010 follow-up, 21.9% of children used Sprinkles in the previous 7 days, compared with 64.9% in 2008 (P Factors associated with recent Sprinkles use in 2010 included young age [6-23 months vs. 24-35 months, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.5, P = 0.02], lowest 2 quintiles of socio-economic status (aOR = 1.7, P = 0.004), household attendance at trainings or launches (aOR = 2.8, P marketing activities. Continued promotion and monitoring of Sprinkles usage may be important components to sustain the programme. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Static and dynamic factors in an information-based multi-asset artificial stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponta, Linda; Pastore, Stefano; Cincotti, Silvano

    2018-02-01

    An information-based multi-asset artificial stock market characterized by different types of stocks and populated by heterogeneous agents is presented. In the market, agents trade risky assets in exchange for cash. Beside the amount of cash and of stocks owned, each agent is characterized by sentiments and agents share their sentiments by means of interactions that are determined by sparsely connected networks. A central market maker (clearing house mechanism) determines the price processes for each stock at the intersection of the demand and the supply curves. Single stock price processes exhibit volatility clustering and fat-tailed distribution of returns whereas multivariate price process exhibits both static and dynamic stylized facts, i.e., the presence of static factors and common trends. Static factors are studied making reference to the cross-correlation of returns of different stocks. The common trends are investigated considering the variance-covariance matrix of prices. Results point out that the probability distribution of eigenvalues of the cross-correlation matrix of returns shows the presence of sectors, similar to those observed on real empirical data. As regarding the dynamic factors, the variance-covariance matrix of prices point out a limited number of assets prices series that are independent integrated processes, in close agreement with the empirical evidence of asset price time series of real stock markets. These results remarks the crucial dependence of statistical properties of multi-assets stock market on the agents' interaction structure.

  16. Policy design and performance of emissions trading markets: an adaptive agent-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Zhang; Qinqin, Yu; Jun, Bi

    2010-08-01

    Emissions trading is considered to be a cost-effective environmental economic instrument for pollution control. However, the pilot emissions trading programs in China have failed to bring remarkable success in the campaign for pollution control. The policy design of an emissions trading program is found to have a decisive impact on its performance. In this study, an artificial market for sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions trading applying the agent-based model was constructed. The performance of the Jiangsu SO2 emissions trading market under different policy design scenario was also examined. Results show that the market efficiency of emissions trading is significantly affected by policy design and existing policies. China's coal-electricity price system is the principal factor influencing the performance of the SO2 emissions trading market. Transaction costs would also reduce market efficiency. In addition, current-level emissions discharge fee/tax and banking mechanisms do not distinctly affect policy performance. Thus, applying emissions trading in emission control in China should consider policy design and interaction with other existing policies.

  17. SIMULATING AN EVOLUTIONARY MULTI-AGENT BASED MODEL OF THE STOCK MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana MARICA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on artificial stock market simulations using a multi-agent model incorporating 2,000 heterogeneous agents interacting on the artificial market. The agents interaction is due to trading activity on the market through a call auction trading mechanism. The multi-agent model uses evolutionary techniques such as genetic programming in order to generate an adaptive and evolving population of agents. Each artificial agent is endowed with wealth and a genetic programming induced trading strategy. The trading strategy evolves and adapts to the new market conditions through a process called breeding, which implies that at each simulation step, new agents with better trading strategies are generated by the model, from recombining the best performing trading strategies and replacing the agents which have the worst performing trading strategies. The simulation model was build with the help of the simulation software Altreva Adaptive Modeler which offers a suitable platform for financial market simulations of evolutionary agent based models, the S&P500 composite index being used as a benchmark for the simulation results.

  18. Transactive-Market-Based Operation of Distributed Electrical Energy Storage with Grid Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nazif Faqiry

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In a transactive energy market, distributed energy resources (DERs such as dispatchable distributed generators (DGs, electrical energy storages (EESs, distribution-scale load aggregators (LAs, and renewable energy sources (RESs have to earn their share of supply or demand through a bidding process. In such a market, the distribution system operator (DSO may optimally schedule these resources, first in a forward market, i.e., day-ahead, and in a real-time market later on, while maintaining a reliable and economic distribution grid. In this paper, an efficient day-ahead scheduling of these resources, in the presence of interaction with wholesale market at the locational marginal price (LMP, is studied. Due to inclusion of EES units with integer constraints, a detailed mixed integer linear programming (MILP formulation that incorporates simplified DistFlow equations to account for grid constraints is proposed. Convex quadratic line and transformer apparent power flow constraints have been linearized using an outer approximation. The proposed model schedules DERs based on distribution locational marginal price (DLMP, which is obtained as the Lagrange multiplier of the real power balance constraint at each distribution bus while maintaining physical grid constraints such as line limits, transformer limits, and bus voltage magnitudes. Case studies are performed on a modified IEEE 13-bus system with high DER penetration. Simulation results show the validity and efficiency of the proposed model.

  19. Doing Business at the Base of the Pyramid: The Reality of Emerging Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Abraham

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of business has traditionally been ignored in the global debates around economic development and poverty alleviation.  The recent global success of the mobile telephony industry, and the rapid growth in emerging markets over the last two decades has, however, forced a rethink. Instead of top-down, development aid-driven strategies, more discussions now focus on providing goods and services profitably to the base of the economic pyramid (BOP, like mobile phone companies have.Research teams at the Centre for Emerging Markets Solutions (CEMS have found that while it is possible to profitably serve BOP markets, it requires some departure from strategies advocated in the traditional BOP literature. In particular, it requires addressing issues around the macro-economic and business climate of the country; mispricing of risk; entrepreneurship; and a shift of focus away from multi-national corporations to the small business sector, and the transaction costs that bedevil it.This piece also examines a few commercially sustainable business models that have worked in these markets, and investigates a few sectors that commercial capital will find highly attractive and investable. Finally, we look at how to structure and commercialize the huge business opportunities that exist in addressing the inefficiencies of BOP markets, using a combination of business model innovation (especially around reduced cost structures, research, entrepreneurship, and patient capital.

  20. 75 FR 80061 - Abbott Laboratories, Inc.; Withdrawal of Approval of a New Drug Application for MERIDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... withdrawing approval of a new drug application (NDA) for MERIDIA (sibutramine hydrochloride (HCl)) oral... requested that Abbott voluntarily withdraw MERIDIA (sibutramine HCl) oral capsules from the market, based on FDA's recent analysis of clinical trial data from the Sibutramine Cardiovascular Outcomes Trial (SCOUT...

  1. Use of marketing communication tools by micro and small enterprises : A case study based on three small restaurants in Umeå

    OpenAIRE

    Atik Gumuscu, Sezen

    2017-01-01

    Changing and development characterize all areas of life in contemporary world, also businesses have begun to move from traditional marketing approaches to relationship marketing which is a customer based approach. New marketing strategies and application have developed for reaching more customers and keeping existing customers. Marketing communication tools are one of these marketing strategies. However, the application of these strategies like marketing communication tools is based on enterp...

  2. Hospital Value-Based Purchasing Performance: Do Organizational and Market Characteristics Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Aaron; Edwardson, Nick; Zhao, Mei

    The hospital value-based purchasing (HVBP) program of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services challenges hospitals to deliver high-quality care or face a reduction in Medicare payments. How do different organizational structures and market characteristics enable or inhibit successful transition to this new model of value-based care? To address that question, this study employs an institutional theory lens to test whether certain organizational structures and market characteristics mediate hospitals' ability to perform across HVBP domains.Data from the 2014 American Hospital Association Annual Survey Database, Area Health Resource File, the Medicare Hospital Compare Database, and the association between external environment and hospital performance are assessed through multiple regression analysis. Results indicate that hospitals that belong to a system are more likely than independent hospitals to score highly on the domains associated with the HVBP incentive arrangement. However, varying and sometimes counterintuitive market influences bring different dimensions to the HVBP program. A hospital's ability to score well in this new value arrangement may be heavily based on the organization's ability to learn from others, implement change, and apply the appropriate amount of control in various markets.

  3. Marketing Strategy Analysis Based On SWOT At PT. Muba Link Business Unit Of Wisma Ranggonang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desi Ulpa Anggraini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to know and analyze the marketing strategy based on SWOT analysis at PT. Muba Link Business unit Wisma Ranggonang Sekayu district Musi Banyuasin. The population of this research were the leadership and the employees of Wisma Ranggonang. This research was conducted by using descriptive research method with a quantitive approach in the form of quadrant position analysis by using SWOT Matrix analysis and after that it was proceed with the decision of making phase in the form of marketing strategy. The result showed that based on the external/internal Matrix get value of each strength factor for about 1, weakness is 1.25 opportunity worth 1,285 and threat is 1,217. Meanwhile, based on cartesius diagram, the quadrant position of Wisma Ranggonang Sekayu was in the third quadrant supporting the turnaraound strategy, i.e. the company faces a huge market opportunity, but on the other hand it faces some internal conctraints/weakness. The focus of this company’s strategy was to minimize the internal company problems, so as to seize the more market opportunities. So, the initial hypothesis that Wisma Ranggonang Sekayu supports the growth/aggressive strategy was not fulfilled.

  4. Investigating Food and Beverage Industry Market Structure and Market Power Based on Leo and Bresnahan’s Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nabishahikitash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Food processing industries are one of the major industrial groups in developing countries which play an important role in the economic development of these countries. With the Developed and Developing Food Industry on the other hand, food security and providing food are very important in each country. In an overview, markets are divided into two groups: The first group is a market with perfect competition. And second group is markets with monopoly structure.One of the important features of markets that determine its type is the ability of the firms in the pricing and determiningof the amount of production. If the firms do not have any effect on these two factors, themarket has perfect competition.If the firms have the ability to influence price of productions, this market is non-competitive and a concept called market power emerges.In general, not only market power is the ability of firm in determination of price above the competitive situation, but also it does not let its share of sale to decrease. The existence of collusion in markets can makethem distantfrom perfect competition and make them incomplete. In economics and particularly in industrial organization, market power is the ability of a firm to profitably raise the market price of a good or service over marginal cost. In perfect competitive markets, market participants have no market power. A firm with total market power can raise prices without losing any customers to competitors. Firms that have power to set price are referred to as "price makers" or "price setters", while those without itare sometimes called "price-takers". Significant market power occurs when prices exceed marginal cost and the long run average cost, so the firm makes economic profits. A firm with market power has the ability to individually affect either the total quantity or the prevailing price in the market. Price makers face a downward slopingdemand curve, such that increases in price leads to a

  5. Marketing skills for hospital-based laboratory managers in a managed care environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchwinski, J; Coggins, F

    1997-01-01

    Managers of hospital-based laboratories have begun to realize the importance of a successful outreach program in protecting against declining inpatient activity. Succeeding in the highly competitive field of outpatient testing requires some new skills and techniques that may not have been apparent when addressing normal inpatient requirements. This article provides an overview of some very basic marketing concepts and attempts to show how they can assist the hospital-based laboratory manager in developing a successful outreach program.

  6. pCloud: A Cloud-based Power Market Simulation Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudkevich, Aleksandr; Goldis, Evgeniy

    2012-12-02

    This research conducted by the Newton Energy Group, LLC (NEG) is dedicated to the development of pCloud: a Cloud-based Power Market Simulation Environment. pCloud is offering power industry stakeholders the capability to model electricity markets and is organized around the Software as a Service (SaaS) concept -- a software application delivery model in which software is centrally hosted and provided to many users via the internet. During the Phase I of this project NEG developed a prototype design for pCloud as a SaaS-based commercial service offering, system architecture supporting that design, ensured feasibility of key architecture's elements, formed technological partnerships and negotiated commercial agreements with partners, conducted market research and other related activities and secured funding for continue development of pCloud between the end of Phase I and beginning of Phase II, if awarded. Based on the results of Phase I activities, NEG has established that the development of a cloud-based power market simulation environment within the Windows Azure platform is technologically feasible, can be accomplished within the budget and timeframe available through the Phase II SBIR award with additional external funding. NEG believes that pCloud has the potential to become a game-changing technology for the modeling and analysis of electricity markets. This potential is due to the following critical advantages of pCloud over its competition: - Standardized access to advanced and proven power market simulators offered by third parties. - Automated parallelization of simulations and dynamic provisioning of computing resources on the cloud. This combination of automation and scalability dramatically reduces turn-around time while offering the capability to increase the number of analyzed scenarios by a factor of 10, 100 or even 1000. - Access to ready-to-use data and to cloud-based resources leading to a reduction in software, hardware, and IT costs

  7. Regulating deregulated energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.

    2002-01-01

    The North American gas and electricity markets are fast evolving, and regulators are currently faced with a host of issues such as market-based rates, unbundling, stranded costs, open access, and incentive regulation are surfacing as a result of deregulation. The regulatory environment in Ontario was reviewed by the author. Deregulated markets rule, from commodities to gas and electricity. Additionally, there is an evolution of traditional utility regulation. A look at deregulated markets revealed that there are regulations on boundary conditions on the deregulated market. Under the Ontario Energy Board (OEB), all generators, transmitters, distributors, and retailers of electricity must be licensed. The standard supply service (SSS) offered by electricity distributors and system gas which is still being sold by natural gas distributors continues to be regulated by OEB. One issue that was addressed was separation for revenues and costs of the utility's purchase and sale of gas business, at least for accounting purposes. The next issue discussed was cost of system gas and SSS, followed by timely signals and prudent incurred costs. Historical benefits were reviewed, such as historical commitments to low-cost electricity. Pooling transportation costs, transmission pricing continued, market-based rates, unbundling, stranded costs, open access, incentive regulation/ performance based regulation (PBR) were all discussed. Price cap on PBR, both partial and comprehensive were looked at. A requirement to review guidelines on cost of capital and an application to extend blanket approval provisions for gas storage were discussed, as they are amongst some of the challenges of the future. Other challenges include revised rules and practice and procedure; practice directions for cost awards, appeals, and other functions; confidentiality guidelines; and refinements to the role of and approaches to alternative dispute resolution. The future role of regulators was examined in light

  8. Contract-based electricity markets in developing countries: Overcoming inefficiency constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, M. N. Susantha

    The electric utility sector throughout the world has been undergoing significant changes. It is changing from its traditional, central-station generation model managed under a vertically integrated monopoly to a more market-dependent business. In the rich industrialized countries, this change has progressed rapidly with the emergence of competitive markets---not only in the area of electricity generation, but also in the extension of such markets down to the level of retail domestic consumer. Developing countries, on the other hand, are trying to attract much-needed investment capital for their power sector expansion activities, particularly for the expansion of generating capacity, through the involvement of the private sector. Unlike their industrialized counterparts, they are facing many limitations in transforming the mostly government-owned monopolies into market-driven businesses, thereby creating an environment that is conducive to private sector participation. Amongst these limitations are the lack of a well-developed, local private sector or domestic financial market that can handle the sophisticated power sector financing; inadequate legal and regulatory frameworks that can address the many complexities of private power development; and numerous risk factors including political risks. This dissertation research addresses an important inefficiency faced by developing countries in the new contract-based market structure that has emerged within these countries. It examines the inefficiencies brought on by restrictions in the contracts, specifically those arising from the guaranteed purchase conditions that are typically included in contracts between the purchasing utility and independent power producers in this new market. The research attempts to provide a solution for this problem and proposes a methodology that enables the parties to conduct their businesses in a cost-efficient manner within a cooperative environment. The situation described above is

  9. Effectiveness of alcohol prevention interventions based on the principles of social marketing: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol education aims to increase knowledge on the harm related to alcohol, and to change attitudes and drinking behaviour. However, little (lasting) evidence has been found for alcohol education, in changing alcohol-related attitudes and behaviour. Social marketing uses marketing techniques to achieve a social or healthy goal, and can be used in alcohol education. Social marketing consists of eight principles: customer orientation, insight, segmentation, behavioural goals, exchange, competition, methods mix, and is theory based. This review investigates the application of social marketing in alcohol prevention interventions, and whether application of social marketing influences alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour. Method A literature search was conducted in PubMed, PsychInfo, Cochrane and Scopus. Inclusion criteria were that original papers had to describe the effects of an alcohol prevention intervention developed according to one or more principles of social marketing. No limits were set on the age of the participants or on the kind of alcohol prevention intervention. The abstracts of the 274 retrieved studies were reviewed and the full texts of potentially relevant studies were screened. Results Six studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. These six studies showed associations for the application of social marketing techniques on alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour; one study relates to participation in a drinking event, four to alcohol drinking behaviour, two to driving a car while under the influence of alcohol, two to recognition of campaign messages or campaign logo, and one to awareness of the campaign. However, no associations were also found. In addition, the studies had several limitations related to a control group, response rate and study methodology. Conclusion Based on this review, the effect of applying the principles of social marketing in alcohol prevention in changing alcohol-related attitudes or

  10. 77 FR 64980 - Collegiate Clean Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-33-000] Collegiate Clean Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Collegiate Clean Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff...

  11. 77 FR 53884 - North Sky River Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2444-000] North Sky River Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... North Sky River Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  12. 77 FR 23476 - Energia Sierra Juarez U.S., LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1470-000] Energia Sierra Juarez U.S., LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Energia Sierra Juarez U.S., LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  13. 75 FR 10244 - TC Energy Trading, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-792-000] TC Energy Trading, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of TC Energy Trading, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  14. 75 FR 10245 - S.J. Energy Partners, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-735-000] S.J. Energy Partners, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of S.J. Energy Partners, Inc.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  15. 76 FR 32188 - Hatch Solar Energy Center 1, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-3635-000] Hatch Solar Energy Center 1, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Hatch Solar Energy Center 1, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  16. 78 FR 34371 - Centinela Solar Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1561-000] Centinela Solar Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Centinela Solar Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  17. 78 FR 28836 - Arlington Valley Solar Energy II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1430-000] Arlington Valley Solar Energy II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request..., of Arlington Valley Solar Energy II, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  18. 77 FR 57082 - Prairie Rose Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2542-000] Prairie Rose Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Rose Wind, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule...

  19. 75 FR 80486 - Sustainable Star, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... proceeding of Sustainable Star, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2354-000] Sustainable Star, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket...

  20. 75 FR 61746 - New England Wire Technologies Corp; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ...-referenced proceeding of New England Wire Technologies Corp's application for market-based rate authority... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-2754-000] New England Wire Technologies Corp; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

  1. 75 FR 70742 - AES Laurel Mountain, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2036-000] AES Laurel Mountain, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of AES Laurel Mountain, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  2. 76 FR 72697 - Heritage Garden Wind Farm I, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-421-000] Heritage Garden Wind Farm I, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Heritage Garden Wind Farm I, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  3. 76 FR 33333 - Use of Small Area Fair Market Rents for Project Base Vouchers in the Dallas TX Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5525-N-01] Use of Small Area Fair Market Rents for Project Base Vouchers in the Dallas TX Metropolitan Area AGENCY: Office of the Assistant... Small Area Fair Market Rents (SAFMRs) for Project-Based Vouchers (PBVs) located in the Dallas, TX...

  4. 78 FR 36768 - Battery Utility of Ohio, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1667-000] Battery Utility of Ohio, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Battery Utility of Ohio, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  5. 78 FR 62615 - Healthy Planet Partners Energy Company, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER14-96-000] Healthy Planet Partners Energy Company, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request... of Healthy Planet Partners Energy Company, LLC's application for market- based rate authority, with...

  6. 76 FR 77815 - Ethical Electric Benefit Co.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-543-000] Ethical Electric Benefit Co.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Ethical Electric Benefit Co.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  7. 75 FR 27339 - Blackstone Wind Farm II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1184-000] Blackstone Wind Farm II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding of Blackstone Wind Farm, LLCs application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  8. 78 FR 50410 - Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-2143-000] Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  9. 77 FR 38280 - Verde Energy USA New York, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2071-000] Verde Energy USA New York, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Verde Energy USA New York, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  10. 76 FR 43684 - Verde Energy USA Trading, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-4041-000] Verde Energy USA Trading, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Verde Energy USA Trading, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  11. 75 FR 76727 - Evergreen Wind Power III, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2201-000] Evergreen Wind Power III, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding of Evergreen Wind Power III, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  12. 78 FR 26771 - Mesa Wind Power Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... Wind Power Corporation's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1346-000] Mesa Wind Power Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

  13. 77 FR 62510 - Niagara Wind Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... Wind Power, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-17-000] Niagara Wind Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket...

  14. 75 FR 18201 - Juniper Canyon Wind Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-975-000] Juniper Canyon Wind Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... of Juniper Canyon Wind Power, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  15. 75 FR 52321 - Dry Lake Wind Power II LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... proceeding, of Dry Lake Wind Power II LLC application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1720-000] Dry Lake Wind Power II LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket...

  16. 75 FR 42745 - Hardscrabble Wind Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1725-000] Hardscrabble Wind Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... of Hardscrabble Wind Power LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  17. 75 FR 74711 - Planet Energy (USA) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2166-000] Planet Energy (USA) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding, of Planet Energy (USA) Corp.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  18. 75 FR 76004 - Planet Energy (New York) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2179-000] Planet Energy (New York) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding, of Planet Energy (New York) Corp.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  19. 75 FR 61747 - Discount Energy Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... proceeding of Discount Energy Group, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-2803-000] Discount Energy Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket...

  20. 76 FR 2368 - Balance Power Systems, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2331-000] Balance Power Systems, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of Balance Power Systems, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  1. 76 FR 41238 - Post Rock Wind Power Project, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-3959-000] Post Rock Wind Power Project, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Rock Wind Power Project, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  2. 75 FR 37430 - Plymouth Rock Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1470-000] Plymouth Rock Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... of Plymouth Rock Energy, LLC.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  3. 77 FR 55817 - Panther Creek Power Operating, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2570-000] Panther Creek Power Operating, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Panther Creek Power Operating, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  4. 75 FR 57016 - Maple Analytics, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-2541-000] Maple Analytics, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of Maple Analytics, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  5. 75 FR 16453 - Nasdaq OMX Commodities Clearing-Finance, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-914-000] Nasdaq OMX Commodities Clearing--Finance, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...-referenced proceeding of Nasdaq OMX Commodities Clearing--Finance, LLC's application for market- based rate...

  6. 75 FR 71426 - North Community Turbines, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2107-000] North Community Turbines, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding, of North Community Turbines, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  7. Energy Flexometer : an effective implementation of internet of things for market-based demand response in an energy management system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babar, M.S.; Grela, J.; Ozadowicz, A.; Nguyen, P.H.; Hanzelka, Z.; Kamphuis, I.G.

    2017-01-01

    Market-based control mechanism (MCM) needs the IoT environment to fully explore flexibility potential from the end-users to offer to involved actors of the smart energy system. On the other hand, many IoT based energy management systems are already available to a market. This paper presents an

  8. 75 FR 71425 - Border Energy Electric Services, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... proceeding, of Border Energy Electric Services, Inc.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2088-000] Border Energy Electric Services, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

  9. 75 FR 68352 - Salmon Falls Wind Park, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-1893-000] Salmon Falls Wind Park, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of Salmon Falls Wind Park, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  10. 76 FR 69267 - Stream Energy New Jersey, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-225-000] Stream Energy New Jersey, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Stream Energy New Jersey, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  11. 77 FR 47625 - Beebe Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2311-000] Beebe Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Beebe Renewable Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  12. 77 FR 35669 - AltaGas Renewable Energy Colorado LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1875-000] AltaGas Renewable Energy Colorado LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request... of AltaGas Renewable Energy Colorado LLC application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  13. 77 FR 2718 - CPV Cimarron Renewable Energy Company, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-775-000] CPV Cimarron Renewable Energy Company, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request... of CPV Cimarron Renewable Energy Company, LLC's application for market- based rate authority, with an...

  14. 75 FR 42744 - Synergics Roth Rock Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1637-000] Synergics Roth Rock Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...-referenced proceeding of Synergics Roth Rock Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority...

  15. 76 FR 6614 - Elk Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2765-000] Elk Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of Elk Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  16. 77 FR 21555 - Flat Ridge 2 Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1400-000] Flat Ridge 2 Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Wind Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff, noting...

  17. 77 FR 47625 - Laurel Hill Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2313-000] Laurel Hill Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request For... Laurel Hill Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  18. 75 FR 42743 - Synergics Roth Rock North Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1673-000] Synergics Roth Rock North Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...-referenced proceeding of Synergics Roth Rock North Wind Energy, LLC's application for market- based rate...

  19. 78 FR 62300 - Prairie Breeze Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER14-25-000] Prairie Breeze Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Breeze Wind Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule...

  20. 75 FR 57016 - Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-2522-000] Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...-referenced proceeding of Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority...

  1. 77 FR 106 - California Ridge Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-645-000] California Ridge Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... California Ridge Wind Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  2. 77 FR 41400 - Mehoopany Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2200-000] Mehoopany Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Wind Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff, noting...

  3. 76 FR 69720 - NaturEner Rim Rock Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [ Docket No. ER12-295-000] NaturEner Rim Rock Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... NaturEner Rim Rock Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  4. Proceedings: 1996 EPRI conference on innovative approaches to electricity pricing: Managing the transition to market-based pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the proceedings from the EPRI conference on innovative approaches to electricity pricing. Topics discussed include: power transmission pricing; retail pricing; price risk management; new pricing paradigms; changes from cost-based to a market-based pricing scheme; ancillary services; retail market strategies; profitability; unbundling; and value added services. This is the leading abstract. Papers are processed separately for the databases

  5. 75 FR 71425 - North Wind Turbines, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... proceeding, of North Wind Turbines, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2108-000] North Wind Turbines, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket...

  6. 75 FR 82381 - Oracle Energy Services, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2436-000] Oracle Energy Services, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of Oracle Energy Services, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  7. 75 FR 52528 - FC Landfill Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-2268-000] FC Landfill Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding, of FC Landfill Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  8. 77 FR 24697 - Cooper Mountain Solar 2, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1566-000] Cooper Mountain Solar 2, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Cooper Mountain Solar 2, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  9. 76 FR 44322 - Copper Mountain Solar 1, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-4055-000] Copper Mountain Solar 1, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Copper Mountain Solar 1, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  10. 76 FR 79169 - Power Network New Mexico, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-605-000] Power Network New Mexico, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Power Network New Mexico, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  11. 76 FR 25328 - New Mexico Green Initiatives, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... Mexico Green Initiatives, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-3431-000] New Mexico Green Initiatives, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

  12. 75 FR 70738 - Gulf Oil Limited Partnership; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... Limited Partnership; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding of Gulf Oil Limited Partnership's application for market-based rate authority, with an... CFR Part 34, of future issuances of securities and assumptions of liability. Any person desiring to...

  13. 75 FR 70739 - Domtar A.W. LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2021-000] Domtar A.W. LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section... of Domtar A.W. LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff...

  14. 75 FR 70738 - Domtar A.W. LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2021-000] Domtar A.W. LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section... of Domtar A.W. LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff...

  15. 75 FR 359 - Google Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-468-000] Google Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section... of Google Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff...

  16. 75 FR 74039 - FPL Energy Montezuma Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... proceeding, of FPL Energy Montezuma Wind, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2160-000] FPL Energy Montezuma Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket...

  17. 76 FR 61687 - NextEra Energy Montezuma II Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-4677-000] NextEra Energy Montezuma II Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request... of NextEra Energy Montezuma II Wind, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  18. 78 FR 28835 - Salton Sea Power Generation Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1271-000] Salton Sea Power Generation Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Salton Sea Power Generation Company's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  19. 75 FR 18202 - Vantage Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-956-000] Vantage Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... of Vantage Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  20. Looking to the future of new media in health marketing: deriving propositions based on traditional theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della, Lindsay J; Eroglu, Dogan; Bernhardt, Jay M; Edgerton, Erin; Nall, Janice

    2008-01-01

    Market trend data show that the media marketplace continues to rapidly evolve. Recent research shows that substantial portions of the U.S. media population are "new media" users. Today, more than ever before, media consumers are exposed to multiple media at the same point in time, encouraged to participate in media content generation, and challenged to learn, access, and use the new media that are continually entering the market. These media trends have strong implications for how consumers of health information access, process, and retain health-related knowledge. In this article we review traditional information processing models and theories of interpersonal and mass media access and consumption. We make several theory-based propositions for how traditional information processing and media consumption concepts will function as new media usage continues to increase. These propositions are supported by new media usage data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's entry into the new media market (e.g., podcasting, virtual events, blogging, and webinars). Based on these propositions, we conclude by presenting both opportunities and challenges that public health communicators and marketers will face in the future.