WorldWideScience

Sample records for market-based virtual power

  1. A Market-Based Virtual Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Træholt, Chresten; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2009-01-01

    The fast growing penetration of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) and the continuing trend towards a more liberalized electricity market requires more efficient energy management strategies to handle both emerging technical and economic issues. In this paper, a market-based Virtual Power Plant...... (MBVPP) model is proposed which provides individual DER units the accesses to current electricity markets. General bidding scenario and price signal scenario as two optional operation scenarios are operated by one MBVPP. In the end, a use case of a MBVPP with micro Combined Heat and Power (μCHP) systems...

  2. Market based solutions for power pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangensteen, Ivar

    2002-06-01

    The report examines how the price for effect reserves, spot market power and regulated power is formed provided ideal market conditions rule. Primarily the price determining factors in a market for power reserves are examined and how the connection between this market and the energy market (the spot market) is. In a free market there would be a balance between what the actors may obtain by operating in the open market for power reserves/regulated power on the one hand and the market for spot power on the other. Primarily we suppose that the desired amount of power reserve is known. Secondly the problem constellation is extended to comprise the size of the effect reserves i.e. the optimising of the requirement to the power reserves. The optimal amount of power reserves is obtained when there is a balance between the cost and the benefit. This optimal balance is achieved when expected macro economical loss due to outfacing balances against the cost of maintaining larger reserves. By using a simple model it is demonstrated that a system operator regulates the maximal price in the regulated market and this equals the rationing price. The actors will offer sufficient reserves even if the reserve price is zero (provided risk neutrality). If the maximal price for regulated power is lower the price of effect reserves will rise. Based on the same simple model calculations are made for how short and long term market balance will be for increasing demands

  3. Studies in market-based electric power trade and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hope, Einar

    2000-01-01

    This is a compilation of articles written by the author during the last fifteen years. Most of the articles are related to the reform of the Norwegian electric power market. This reform led to the Energy Act of 1990 and to the subsequent development of the power markets. Some of the sections are in Norwegian, some in English. The sections discuss (1) Markets for electricity trade in Norway, (2) Economic incentives and public firm behaviour, (3) Market alternatives to the present forms of occasional power trade, (4) Socio-economic considerations about electricity pricing, (5) Scenarios for market based power trade in Norway, (6) Markets for electricity: economic reform of the Norwegian electricity industry, (7) The Norwegian power market, (8) A common Nordic energy market?, (9) Organization of supply markets for natural gas in Europe, (10) The extent of the central grid, (11) Optimum regulation of grid monopolies in the power trade, (12) Power markets and competition policy, (13) Deregulation of the Norwegian power sector, (14) designing a market based system for the Icelandic electricity industry and (15) regulation regimes for the power sector

  4. Virtual power plant auctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ausubel, Lawrence M.; Cramton, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Since their advent in 2001, virtual power plant (VPP) auctions have been implemented widely. In this paper, we describe the simultaneous ascending-clock auction format that has been used for virtually all VPP auctions to date, elaborating on other design choices that most VPP auctions have had in common as well as discussing a few aspects that have varied significantly among VPP auctions. We then evaluate the various objectives of regulators in requiring VPP auctions, concluding that the auctions have been effective devices for facilitating new entry into electricity markets and for developing wholesale power markets. (author)

  5. Virtual power plant auctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ausubel, Lawrence M.; Cramton, Peter [Department of Economics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Since their advent in 2001, virtual power plant (VPP) auctions have been implemented widely. In this paper, we describe the simultaneous ascending-clock auction format that has been used for virtually all VPP auctions to date, elaborating on other design choices that most VPP auctions have had in common as well as discussing a few aspects that have varied significantly among VPP auctions. We then evaluate the various objectives of regulators in requiring VPP auctions, concluding that the auctions have been effective devices for facilitating new entry into electricity markets and for developing wholesale power markets. (author)

  6. Distributed, price-based control approach to market-based operation of future power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokic, A.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.; Hermans, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present, discuss and illustrate on examples the price-based control paradigm as a suitable approach to solve some of the challenging problems facing future, market-based power systems. It is illustrated how global objectives and constraints are optimally translated into time-varying

  7. 18 CFR 284.505 - Market-based rates for storage providers without a market-power determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Market-based rates for storage providers without a market-power determination. 284.505 Section 284.505 Conservation of Power and... UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Applications for Market-Based Rates for...

  8. 78 FR 56691 - Sapphire Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Sapphire Power Marketing LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate... submission of protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov...

  9. 75 FR 76727 - Evergreen Wind Power III, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2201-000] Evergreen Wind Power III, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding of Evergreen Wind Power III, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  10. 78 FR 26771 - Mesa Wind Power Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... Wind Power Corporation's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1346-000] Mesa Wind Power Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

  11. 77 FR 62510 - Niagara Wind Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... Wind Power, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-17-000] Niagara Wind Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket...

  12. 75 FR 18201 - Juniper Canyon Wind Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-975-000] Juniper Canyon Wind Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... of Juniper Canyon Wind Power, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  13. 75 FR 52321 - Dry Lake Wind Power II LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... proceeding, of Dry Lake Wind Power II LLC application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1720-000] Dry Lake Wind Power II LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket...

  14. 75 FR 42745 - Hardscrabble Wind Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1725-000] Hardscrabble Wind Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... of Hardscrabble Wind Power LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  15. 76 FR 2368 - Balance Power Systems, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2331-000] Balance Power Systems, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of Balance Power Systems, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  16. 76 FR 41238 - Post Rock Wind Power Project, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-3959-000] Post Rock Wind Power Project, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Rock Wind Power Project, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  17. 77 FR 55817 - Panther Creek Power Operating, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2570-000] Panther Creek Power Operating, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Panther Creek Power Operating, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  18. 76 FR 79169 - Power Network New Mexico, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-605-000] Power Network New Mexico, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Power Network New Mexico, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  19. 78 FR 28835 - Salton Sea Power Generation Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1271-000] Salton Sea Power Generation Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Salton Sea Power Generation Company's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  20. 75 FR 24941 - PBF Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... of PBF Power Marketing LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate... protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To...

  1. State-of-the-art research: optimal investment in market-based electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hope, Einar; Skjeret, Frode

    2008-04-15

    The purpose of this state-of-the-art research paper is to surveying the literature on investment in market based electric power systems as a background for identifying and discussing some important issues in the optimal design and operation of such systems. A fundamental distinction has to be made between investment in the competitive part of the power system (generation and trading) on the one hand and the natural monopoly part (network infrastructure) on the other. The paper starts with a listing and discussion on market characteristics and properties of electric power and goes on to discussing performance criteria and potential sources of market failure for optimal electric power investment. After the literature survey there is a discussion of conditions under which optimal investment may occur. (author). 78 refs., figs

  2. Market-based multiagent system for reconfiguration of shipboard power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Kai; Srivastava, Sanjeev K.; Cartes, David A.; Sun, Li-Hsiang

    2009-01-01

    On ships, the electric shipboard power system (SPS) supplies electrical power to critical functions such as navigation, communication, emergency systems, and in the case of warships, weapon systems. During ship operation, some parts of the SPS may become unavailable due to damage, fault, or maintenance. For the survivability and reliability of ships, it is desired to make the SPS highly reconfigurable. This paper presents a market-based multiagent system (MAS) for the reconfiguration of radial SPS. Radial SPSs are found on majority of ships. In the proposed MAS, each agent only communicates with its neighbor agents to make the system work in a fully decentralized manner. The MAS is implemented using Java Agent Development Framework (JADE), which is fully implemented in Java and compliant with Foundation of Intelligent Physical Agents (FIPA). An SPS with two generators and four loads is used for testing the proposed MAS. The results show the proposed MAS can successfully reconfigure a radial SPS. (author)

  3. 77 FR 42301 - W Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2219-000] W Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of W Power, LLC's application...

  4. 78 FR 2984 - Silver Bear Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-733-000] Silver Bear Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Silver Bear...

  5. 76 FR 73619 - Quantum Choctaw Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-458-000] Quantum Choctaw Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Quantum...

  6. 78 FR 28834 - Salton Sea Power L.L.C.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1272-000] Salton Sea Power L.L.C.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Salton Sea...

  7. Quantifying the Sensitivity of the Production of Environmental Externalities to Market-Based Interventions in the Power Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, R.; Sanders, K.

    2017-12-01

    The optimization function that governs the dispatching of power generators to meet electricity demand minimizes the marginal cost of electricity generation without regard to the environmental or public health damages caused by power production. Although technologies exist for reducing the externalities resulting from electricity generation at power plants, current solutions typically raise the cost of power production or introduce operational challenges for the grid. This research quantifies the trade-offs and couplings between the cooling water, greenhouse gas emissions, and air quality impacts of different power generating technologies under business as usual market conditions, as well as a series of market-based interventions aimed to reduce the production of those externalities. Using publicly available data from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Energy Information Administration (EIA) for power plant water use and emissions, a unit commitment and dispatch power market simulation model is modified to evaluate the production of environmental externalities from power production. Scenarios are developed to apply a set of fees for cooling water, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and sulfur oxide emissions, respectively. Trade-offs between environmental performance, overall generation costs, and shifts in the power plants dispatched to meet demand are quantified for each power market simulation. The results from this study will provide insight into the development of a novel market-based framework that modifies the optimization algorithms governing the dispatching of electricity onto the grid in efforts to achieve cost-effective improvements in its environmental performance without the need for new infrastructure investments.

  8. Physical and financial virtual power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willems, Bert

    2005-01-01

    Regulators in Belgium and the Netherlands use different mechanisms to mitigate generation market power. In Belgium, antitrust authorities oblige the incumbent to sell financial Virtual Power Plants, while in the Netherlands regulators have been discussing the use of physical Virtual Power Plants. This paper uses a numerical game theoretic model to simulate the behavior of the generation firms and to compare the effects of both systems on the market power of the generators. It shows that financial Virtual Power Plants are better for society. (Author)

  9. Working in a virtual power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibault, G.; Smadja, S.

    1999-01-01

    Graphical simulations on computer providing a virtual and reversible experience can now be used for maintenance in nuclear power plants allowing operations to be tested and tools to be optimised. Eventually, operatives will be trained to work in virtual nuclear power plants in complete safety. (authors)

  10. New market based price regulation on combined heat and power in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Jesper; Nielsen, Marianne; Hansen, Anders B.; Lawaetz, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Major economic risks can become reality when local co-generation plants (L-CHP ) meet the full market penetration with new market based price regulation. Co-generation produces more than 50% of the national electricity consumption and half of the production is generated from L-CHP. The new price regulation is assumed to take action in 2004. The paper will present an analysis of a market based price regulation on the L-CHP-sector. The paper will spotlight on L-CHP in district heating systems supplying heat for domestic purposes. When smaller and medium sized CHP sell electricity they are paid an average price of 46 Euro per MWh. The return of selling electricity shall primarily cover the expenditure of buying gas for electricity production and writing off investments cost of a CHP-plant. With the framework of today it is a fact that the plants (in average) are only slightly competitive compared to individual heat production plants. When CHP meet market conditions there is a high risk that electricity prices will be reduced significantly (prices of 20 - 30 Euro per MWh) for a longer period. Significantly reduced electricity prices will result in dramatically increased heat prices. If no action is taken there will be a potential risk that heat consumers in the smaller and medium sized cities together must pay an extra bill of 200 million Euro each year. It corresponds to an average increase of the heating bill of 300 - 500 Euro per year for an average house. This is far from acceptable. There will also be a high risk that companies with industrial CHP will permanently convert to heat only boiler and only use their CHP occasionally because CHP plants might not be cost-effective when electricity prices are low. These effects can cause a significant increase of the national CO 2 emission

  11. Market integration of Virtual Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mette Kirschmeyer; Hansen, Lars Henrik; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2013-01-01

    develop a three stage market model, which includes Day-Ahead (Spot), Intra-Day and Regulating Power Markets. This allows us to test the hypothesis that the Virtual Power Plant can generate additional profit by trading across several markets. We find that even though profits do increase as more markets...

  12. Power generation scheduling. A free market based procedure with reserve constraints included

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huse, Einar Staale

    1998-01-01

    This thesis deals with the short-term scheduling of electric power generation in a competitive market. This involves determination of start-ups and shut-downs, and production levels of all units in all hours of the optimization period, considering unit characteristics and system restrictions. The unit characteristics and restrictions handled are minimum and maximum production levels, fuel cost function, start-up costs, minimum up time and minimum down time. The system restrictions handled are power balance (supply equals demand in all hours) and spinning reserve requirement. The thesis has two main contributions: (1) A new organization of an hourly electric power market that simultaneously sets the price of both energy and reserve power is proposed. A power exchange is used as a trading place for electricity. Its responsibility is to balance supply and demand bids and to secure enough spinning reserve. Routines for bidding and market clearing are developed. (2) A computer programme that simulates the proposed electricity market has been implemented. The program can also be used as a new method for solving the single owner generation scheduling problem. Simulations show that the performance of the program is excellent. Simulations also show that it is possible to obtain efficient schedules through the proposed electricity market. 37 refs., 20 figs., 15 tabs

  13. Power generation scheduling. A free market based procedure with reserve constraints included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huse, Einar Staale

    1999-12-31

    This thesis deals with the short-term scheduling of electric power generation in a competitive market. This involves determination of start-ups and shut-downs, and production levels of all units in all hours of the optimization period, considering unit characteristics and system restrictions. The unit characteristics and restrictions handled are minimum and maximum production levels, fuel cost function, start-up costs, minimum up time and minimum down time. The system restrictions handled are power balance (supply equals demand in all hours) and spinning reserve requirement. The thesis has two main contributions: (1) A new organization of an hourly electric power market that simultaneously sets the price of both energy and reserve power is proposed. A power exchange is used as a trading place for electricity. Its responsibility is to balance supply and demand bids and to secure enough spinning reserve. Routines for bidding and market clearing are developed. (2) A computer programme that simulates the proposed electricity market has been implemented. The program can also be used as a new method for solving the single owner generation scheduling problem. Simulations show that the performance of the program is excellent. Simulations also show that it is possible to obtain efficient schedules through the proposed electricity market. 37 refs., 20 figs., 15 tabs.

  14. Power generation scheduling. A free market based procedure with reserve constraints included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huse, Einar Staale

    1998-12-31

    This thesis deals with the short-term scheduling of electric power generation in a competitive market. This involves determination of start-ups and shut-downs, and production levels of all units in all hours of the optimization period, considering unit characteristics and system restrictions. The unit characteristics and restrictions handled are minimum and maximum production levels, fuel cost function, start-up costs, minimum up time and minimum down time. The system restrictions handled are power balance (supply equals demand in all hours) and spinning reserve requirement. The thesis has two main contributions: (1) A new organization of an hourly electric power market that simultaneously sets the price of both energy and reserve power is proposed. A power exchange is used as a trading place for electricity. Its responsibility is to balance supply and demand bids and to secure enough spinning reserve. Routines for bidding and market clearing are developed. (2) A computer programme that simulates the proposed electricity market has been implemented. The program can also be used as a new method for solving the single owner generation scheduling problem. Simulations show that the performance of the program is excellent. Simulations also show that it is possible to obtain efficient schedules through the proposed electricity market. 37 refs., 20 figs., 15 tabs.

  15. Climate change drives wind turbines in China: case study of market based wind power development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming Yang [EET Consulting, Glen Waverley, Victoria (Australia)

    2004-07-01

    This paper aims at quantifying the impact of government policy and clean development mechanism (CDM) on wind power development in China. Firstly we review the background of Chinese wind power development and policy, as well as literature of climate change and CDM. We then present methodology, scenarios and data of a case study for the development of a large-scale grid-connected wind farm. We undertake project financial analysis under three scenarios. Our analysis results show that the project FIRR is 8.31% if CDM benefit is not taken into account, 8.72% if CDM benefit is considered with the price of the certified emission reduction (CER) at US dollars 4, and 10.28% if both the CDM benefit and government policy on cutting value added tax (VAT) by 50% are taken into account. This paper concludes that CDM and government preferential policy on value added tax will make wind power development financially viable in China. (author)

  16. A mid-term, market-based power systems planning model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koltsaklis, Nikolaos E.; Dagoumas, Athanasios S.; Georgiadis, Michael C.; Papaioannou, George; Dikaiakos, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A mid-term Energy Planning along with a Unit Commitment model is developed. • The model identifies the optimum interconnection capacity. • Electricity interconnections affect the power mix and the day-ahead spot price. • Renewables’ penetration has impacts on the power reserves and the CO_2 emissions. • Energy policy and fuel pricing can have significant impacts on the power mix. - Abstract: This paper presents a generic Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model that integrates a Mid-term Energy Planning (MEP) model, which implements generation and transmission system planning at a yearly level, with a Unit Commitment (UC) model, which performs the simulation of the Day-Ahead Electricity Market. The applicability of the proposed model is illustrated in a case study of the Greek interconnected power system. The aim is to evaluate a critical project in the Ten Year Network Development Plan (TYNDP) of the Independent Power Transmission System Operator S.A. (ADMIE), namely the electric interconnection of the Crete Island with the mainland electric system. The proposed modeling framework identifies the implementation (or not) of the interconnection of the Crete Island with the mainland electric system, as well as the optimum interconnection capacity. It also quantifies the effects on the Day-Ahead electricity market and on the energy mix. The paper demonstrates that the model can provide useful insights into the strategic and challenging decisions to be determined by investors and/or policy makers at a national and/or regional level, by providing the optimal energy roadmap and management, as well as clear price signals on critical energy projects under real operating and design constraints.

  17. Application of Q-learning with temperature variation for bidding strategies in market based power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naghibi-Sistani, M.B.; Akbarzadeh-Tootoonchi, M.R.; Javidi-Dashte Bayaz, M.H.; Rajabi-Mashhadi, H.

    2006-01-01

    The electric power industry is confronted with restructuring in which the operation scheduling is going to be decided based on a competitive market. In this new arrangement, bidding strategy has become a major issue. Participants in this deregulated energy market place may be able to compete better by choosing a suitable bidding strategy for trading electricity. Different classical methods for decision making in the uncertain environment of the market can be applied to select a suitable strategy. Most of these methods, such as game theory, that insure reaching the best solution for all market participants, require a lot of information about the other market players and the market. However, in the real market place only a little information, such as the spot price, is available for all participants. In this paper, a modified reinforcement learning based on temperature variation has been first proposed and then applied to determine the optimal strategy for a power supplier in the electricity market. A Pool-Co model has been considered here, and the simulation results are shown to be the same as those of standard game theory. Adaptation of the method in the presence of parameter variation has been verified as well. The main advantage of the proposed method is that no information about other participants is required. Furthermore, our investigation shows that even if all participants use this method, they will stay in Nash equilibrium. (author)

  18. 78 FR 28837 - Myotis Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Marketing LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule, noting that... interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To facilitate electronic...

  19. 77 FR 53197 - Raven Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Marketing LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule, noting that... interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To facilitate electronic...

  20. VISIT - Virtual visits to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollaret, Jean-Christophe

    2001-01-01

    For more than twenty years, EDFs Communication Division has conducted a policy of opening its generation sites to the general public. Around 300,000 people visit a nuclear power plant every year. However, for the security of persons and the safety of facilities, those parts of the plant situated in controlled areas are not accessible to visitors. For the sake of transparency, EDF has taken an interest in the technologies offered by virtual reality to show the general public what a nuclear power plant is really like, so as to initiate dialogue on nuclear energy, particularly with young people. Visit has been developed with virtual reality technologies. It serves to show the invisible (voyage to the core of fission), the inaccessible and to immerse the visitors in environments which are usually closed to the general public (discovery of the controlled area of a nuclear power plant). Visit is used in Public Information Centres which receive visitors to EDF power plants and during international exhibitions and conferences. Visit allows a virtual tour of the following controlled areas: locker room hot area/cold area, a necessary passage before entering the controlled areas; reactor building; fuel building; waste auxiliary building (liquid, solid and gaseous effluents). It also includes a tour of the rooms or equipment usually accessible to the general public: control room, turbine hall, transformer, air cooling tower

  1. Virtual environments for nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.; Singleterry, R.C. Jr.; King, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    In the design and operation of nuclear power plants, the visualization process inherent in virtual environments (VE) allows for abstract design concepts to be made concrete and simulated without using a physical mock-up. This helps reduce the time and effort required to design and understand the system, thus providing the design team with a less complicated arrangement. Also, the outcome of human interactions with the components and system can be minimized through various testing of scenarios in real-time without the threat of injury to the user or damage to the equipment. If implemented, this will lead to a minimal total design and construction effort for nuclear power plants (NPP)

  2. Regulating power provided by an industrial virtual power plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roossien, B.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Doss, A.

    2012-01-01

    The use of renewable energy sources for the transition towards a sustainable electricity system imposes a number of new challenges for the grid, one of them being the balancing of variable output supply and demand. The flexibility of production and consumption in Virtual Power Plants can be used

  3. Market Integration of Virtual Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mette Kirschmeyer

    increasingly challenging due to the intrinsic variability of production technologies such as photovoltaics and wind turbines. In a Smart Grid system the balancing task will therefore be handled by mobilizing flexibility on the consumption side. This Thesis assumes that the Smart Grid should be commercially......Global efforts to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide drives the introduction of renewable power production technologies into the existing power system. The real-time balance between production and consumption must, however, still be maintained at all times. Unfortunately, this is becoming....... It does however significantly sharpen the discussion of the flexibility concept and provides a categorization of flexible systems. This Thesis also investigates what value can be created from the different types of flexibility by assuming that the Virtual Power Plant will generate profit by trading...

  4. Optimal Regulation of Virtual Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall Anese, Emiliano; Guggilam, Swaroop S.; Simonetto, Andrea; Chen, Yu Christine; Dhople, Sairaj V.

    2018-03-01

    This paper develops a real-time algorithmic framework for aggregations of distributed energy resources (DERs) in distribution networks to provide regulation services in response to transmission-level requests. Leveraging online primal-dual-type methods for time-varying optimization problems and suitable linearizations of the nonlinear AC power-flow equations, we believe this work establishes the system-theoretic foundation to realize the vision of distribution-level virtual power plants. The optimization framework controls the output powers of dispatchable DERs such that, in aggregate, they respond to automatic-generation-control and/or regulation-services commands. This is achieved while concurrently regulating voltages within the feeder and maximizing customers' and utility's performance objectives. Convergence and tracking capabilities are analytically established under suitable modeling assumptions. Simulations are provided to validate the proposed approach.

  5. Bidding Strategy of Virtual Power Plant with Energy Storage Power Station and Photovoltaic and Wind Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongfu Tan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For the virtual power plants containing energy storage power stations and photovoltaic and wind power, the output of PV and wind power is uncertain and virtual power plants must consider this uncertainty when they participate in the auction in the electricity market. In this context, this paper studies the bidding strategy of the virtual power plant with photovoltaic and wind power. Assuming that the upper and lower limits of the combined output of photovoltaic and wind power are stochastically variable, the fluctuation range of the day-ahead energy market and capacity price is stochastically variable. If the capacity of the storage station is large enough to stabilize the fluctuation of the output of the wind and photovoltaic power, virtual power plants can participate in the electricity market bidding. This paper constructs a robust optimization model of virtual power plant bidding strategy in the electricity market, which considers the cost of charge and discharge of energy storage power station and transmission congestion. The model proposed in this paper is solved by CPLEX; the example results show that the model is reasonable and the method is valid.

  6. Optimal dispatch strategy for the agile virtual power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mette Højgaard; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of large ratios of renewable energy into the existing power system is complicated by the inherent variability of production technologies, which harvest energy from wind, sun and waves. Fluctuations of renewable power production can be predicted to some extent, but the assumption...... of perfect prediction is unrealistic. This paper therefore introduces the Agile Virtual Power Plant. The Agile Virtual Power Plant assumes that the base load production planning based on best available knowledge is already given, so imbalances cannot be predicted. Consequently the Agile Virtual Power Plant...... attempts to preserve maneuverability (stay agile) rather than optimize performance according to predictions. In this paper the imbalance compensation problem for an Agile Virtual Power Plant is formulated. It is proved formally, that when local units are power and energy constrained integrators a dispatch...

  7. Using Service Oriented Architecture in a Generic Virtual Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bach; Poulsen, Bjarne; Træholt, Chresten

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to find and describe a suitable software framework that can be used to help implement the concept of a Generic Virtual Power Plant in the future power system. The Generic Virtual Power Plant concept, along with the utilization of distributed energy resources, has many...... the Generic Virtual Power Plant, an array of different software design principles, patterns and architectures must be applied. Especially Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) can aid in implementing the Generic Virtual Power Plant.......The purpose of this paper is to find and describe a suitable software framework that can be used to help implement the concept of a Generic Virtual Power Plant in the future power system. The Generic Virtual Power Plant concept, along with the utilization of distributed energy resources, has many...... interesting properties that can influence the future shape of power markets. The concept holds many promises including cheaper power to the consumer, a more flexible and responsive power production and the support of a more environment-friendly development. In order to realize a software solution supporting...

  8. Virtual classes: a powerful mechanism in object-oriented programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    1989-01-01

    The notions of class, subclass and virtual procedure are fairly well understood and recognized as some of the key concepts in object-oriented programming. The possibility of modifying a virtual procedure in a subclass is a powerful technique for specializing the general properties of the superclass....... In most object-oriented languages, the attributes of an object may be references to objects and (virtual) procedures. In Simula and BETA it is also possible to have class attributes. The power of class attributes has not yet been widely recognized. In BETA a class may also have virtual class attributes...

  9. Economic-environmental active and reactive power scheduling of modern distribution systems in presence of wind generations: A distribution market-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samimi, Abouzar; Kazemi, Ahad; Siano, Pierluigi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new market-based approach is proposed to schedule active and reactive powers. • Multi-component reactive power bidding structures for DERs is introduced. • A new economical/environmental operational scheduling method is proposed. • At distribution level, a reactive power market is developed in presence of DERs. - Abstract: Distribution System Operator (DSO) is responsible for active and reactive power scheduling in a distribution system. DSO purchases its active and reactive power requirements from Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) as well as the wholesale electricity market. In this paper, a new economical/environmental operational scheduling method based on sequential day-ahead active and reactive power markets at distribution level is proposed to dispatch active and reactive powers in distribution systems with high penetration of DERs. In the proposed model, after day-ahead active power market was cleared the participants submit their reactive power bids and then the reactive power market will be settled. At distribution level, developing a Var market, in which DERs like synchronous machine-based Distributed Generation (DG) units and Wind Turbines (WTs) could offer their reactive power prices, DERs are motivated to actively participate in the Volt/VAr Control (VVC) problem. To achieve this purpose, based on the capability curves of considered DERs, innovative multi-component reactive power bidding structures for DERs are introduced. Moreover, the effect of reactive power market clearing on the active power scheduling is explicitly considered into the proposed model by rescheduling of active power by usage of energy-balance service bids. On the other hand, environmental concerns that arise from the operation of fossil fuel fired electric generators are included in the proposed model by employing CO_2 emission penalty cost. The suggested reactive power market is cleared through a mixed-integer nonlinear optimization program. The

  10. Application of virtual reality to simulation in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Pengfei; Yang Yanhua; Yang Yongmu; Duan Dongdong; Luo Jie

    2008-01-01

    Based on detailed analysis of the structure and key techniques of a virtual reality system, the applications of virtual reality to simulation in nuclear power plant (NPP) were developed. In order to meet the requirement of simulation in NPP, motion simulation of control rod drive system, walking system inside the containment and virtual main control room were presented. A simulator of NPP was connected to interchange dynamic data between virtual main control room and the simulator. The simulating results show that the technique of virtual reality can be applied well to the simulation inside containment, which is filled with activity material, and the simulation of virtual main control room, where human factors must be considered. It also can be used well to design virtual education and training system of NPP. (authors)

  11. Virtual reality technology in nuclear power plant operation and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Sen

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a generic virtual reality comprehensive system focusing on the operation and maintenance in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is proposed. Under this layout, some key topics and means of the system are discussed. As example 'Virtual Nuclear Island' comprehensive system and its typical applications in NPP are set up. In the end, it prospects the applications of virtual reality technology in NPP operation, training and maintenance. (author)

  12. Power, Influence Tactics, and Influence Processes in Virtual Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughton, Marla

    2011-01-01

    Current studies of power, influence tactics, and influence processes in virtual teams assume that these constructs operate in a similar manner as they do in the face-to-face (FtF) environment. However, the virtual context differs from the FtF environment on a variety of dimensions, such as the availability of status cues. The differences between…

  13. Virtual power plant mid-term dispatch optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandžić, Hrvoje; Kuzle, Igor; Capuder, Tomislav

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mid-term virtual power plant dispatching. ► Linear modeling. ► Mixed-integer linear programming applied to mid-term dispatch scheduling. ► Operation profit maximization combining bilateral contracts and the day-ahead market. -- Abstract: Wind power plants incur practically zero marginal costs during their operation. However, variable and uncertain nature of wind results in significant problems when trying to satisfy the contracted quantities of delivered electricity. For this reason, wind power plants and other non-dispatchable power sources are combined with dispatchable power sources forming a virtual power plant. This paper considers a weekly self-scheduling of a virtual power plant composed of intermittent renewable sources, storage system and a conventional power plant. On the one hand, the virtual power plant needs to fulfill its long-term bilateral contracts, while, on the other hand, it acts in the market trying to maximize its overall profit. The optimal dispatch problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming model which maximizes the weekly virtual power plant profit subject to the long-term bilateral contracts and technical constraints. The self-scheduling procedure is based on stochastic programming. The uncertainty of the wind power and solar power generation is settled by using pumped hydro storage in order to provide flexible operation, as well as by having a conventional power plant as a backup. The efficiency of the proposed model is rendered through a realistic case study and analysis of the results is provided. Additionally, the impact of different storage capacities and turbine/pump capacities of pumped storage are analyzed.

  14. Desktop Virtualization in Action: Simplicity Is Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, Dustin

    2010-01-01

    Discover how your institution can better manage and increase access to instructional applications and desktops while providing a blended learning environment. Receive practical insight into how academic computing virtualization can be leveraged to enhance education at your institution while lowering Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) and reducing the…

  15. Impact of Germany's energy transition on the Nordic power market – A market-based multi-region energy system model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakeri, Behnam; Virasjoki, Vilma; Syri, Sanna; Connolly, David; Mathiesen, Brian V.; Welsch, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The EU energy policy aims at creating a single European electricity market through market couplings and grid expansions. To analyse the implications of such power market couplings, we propose a market-based multi-region energy system model. The model simulates a multi-region power market (by applying market optimization and network theory), with detailed representation of each region as an energy system (by simulation of both heat and power sectors). We examine the impact of further integration of variable renewable energy (VRE) in Germany on the Nordic power market. The results indicate that the average electricity price slightly grows in the Nordic power market after Germany's Energy Transition (Energiewende). Hence, the economic surplus of Nordic consumers diminishes while Nordic producers improve their gain under new market conditions. Considering the gird congestion income, the overall system-level benefits (social welfare) will improve in the Nordic region after Germany's Energiewende. However, this gain is not equally distributed among different Nordic countries and across different stakeholders. Furthermore, the Energiewende slightly increases carbon emissions from power and district heating (DH) sectors, and reduces the flexibility in integration of VRE in some Nordic countries like Denmark. The direct interconnection of Norway and Germany through NordLink will contribute to the flexibility in wind integration in other Nordic countries, such as Denmark and Finland. - Highlights: • By an integrated hourly analysis, we model the energy systems of several networked countries and their common electricity market. • The proposed model can inform energy policy on implications of renewable energy integration in an international power market. • Among Nordic countries, Norway gains the highest economic benefits from Germany's energy transition. • Germany's energy transition constrains the flexibility of the Nordic countries in wind integration. • Nord

  16. Heuristic Optimization for the Discrete Virtual Power Plant Dispatch Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mette Kirschmeyer; Hansen, Lars Henrik; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2014-01-01

    We consider a Virtual Power Plant, which is given the task of dispatching a fluctuating power supply to a portfolio of flexible consumers. The flexible consumers are modeled as discrete batch processes, and the associated optimization problem is denoted the Discrete Virtual Power Plant Dispatch...... Problem. First NP-completeness of the Discrete Virtual Power Plant Dispatch Problem is proved formally. We then proceed to develop tailored versions of the meta-heuristic algorithms Hill Climber and Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP). The algorithms are tuned and tested on portfolios...... of varying sizes. We find that all the tailored algorithms perform satisfactorily in the sense that they are able to find sub-optimal, but usable, solutions to very large problems (on the order of 10 5 units) at computation times on the scale of just 10 seconds, which is far beyond the capabilities...

  17. A virtual power plant model for time-driven power flow calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Guerra

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the implementation of a custom-made virtual power plant model in OpenDSS. The goal is to develop a model adequate for time-driven power flow calculations in distribution systems. The virtual power plant is modeled as the aggregation of renewable generation and energy storage connected to the distribution system through an inverter. The implemented operation mode allows the virtual power plant to act as a single dispatchable generation unit. The case studies presented in the paper demonstrate that the model behaves according to the specified control algorithm and show how it can be incorporated into the solution scheme of a general parallel genetic algorithm in order to obtain the optimal day-ahead dispatch. Simulation results exhibit a clear benefit from the deployment of a virtual power plant when compared to distributed generation based only on renewable intermittent generation.

  18. Offering model for a virtual power plant based on stochastic programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    PandŽić, Hrvoje; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Conejo, Antonio J.

    2013-01-01

    A virtual power plant aggregates various local production/consumption units that act in the market as a single entity. This paper considers a virtual power plant consisting of an intermittent source, a storage facility, and a dispatchable power plant. The virtual power plant sells and purchases e...

  19. Abstract flexibility description for virtual power plant scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Fröhling, Judith

    2017-01-01

    In the ongoing paradigm shift of the energy market from big power plants to more and more small and decentralized power plants, virtual power plants (VPPs) play an important role. VPPs bundle the capacities of the small and decentralized resources (DER). Planing of VPP operation, that is also called scheduling, relies on the flexibilities of controllable DER in the VPP, e.g., combined heat and power plants (CHPs), heat pumps and batteries. The aim of this thesis is the development of an abstr...

  20. Tangible interfaces for virtual nuclear power plant control desk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghina, Mauricio Alves C.; Mol, Antonio Carlos A.; Jorge, Carlos Alexandre F.; Lapa, Celso M.F. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nomiya, Diogo [Engenharia Eletrica (UFRJ), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cunha, Gerson G.; Landau, Luiz [Programa de Engenharia Civil (PEC/COPPE/UFRJ), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Due to the high safety requirements for nuclear power plant operation, control desks must be designed in such a way operators can take all the procedures safely, with a good overview of all variable indicators and easy access to actuator controls. Also, operators must see alarms indication in a way they can easily identify any abnormal conditions and bring the NPP back to normal operation. The ergonomics and human factors fields have helped evaluations to improve the design of nuclear power plant control systems. Lately, the use of virtual control desks have helped even more such evaluations, by integrating in one platform both nuclear power plant dynamics simulator with a high visual fidelity control desk proto typing. Operators can interact with these virtual control desks in a similar way as with real ones. Such a virtual control desk has been under development at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, IEN/CNEN. This paper reports the latest improvements, with the use of more interaction modes, to turn operation a friendlier task. An automatic speech recognition interface has been implemented as a self-contained system, by accessing directly MS Windows Application Interface, and with online neural network training for spoken commend recognition. Thus, operators can switch among different desk views. Besides this, head tracking interfaces have been integrated with the virtual control desk, to move within desk views according to users head movements. Both marker and markerless-based head tracking interfaces have been implemented. Results are shown and commented. (author)

  1. Tangible interfaces for virtual nuclear power plant control desk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghina, Mauricio Alves C.; Mol, Antonio Carlos A.; Jorge, Carlos Alexandre F.; Lapa, Celso M.F.; Nomiya, Diogo; Cunha, Gerson G.; Landau, Luiz

    2011-01-01

    Due to the high safety requirements for nuclear power plant operation, control desks must be designed in such a way operators can take all the procedures safely, with a good overview of all variable indicators and easy access to actuator controls. Also, operators must see alarms indication in a way they can easily identify any abnormal conditions and bring the NPP back to normal operation. The ergonomics and human factors fields have helped evaluations to improve the design of nuclear power plant control systems. Lately, the use of virtual control desks have helped even more such evaluations, by integrating in one platform both nuclear power plant dynamics simulator with a high visual fidelity control desk proto typing. Operators can interact with these virtual control desks in a similar way as with real ones. Such a virtual control desk has been under development at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, IEN/CNEN. This paper reports the latest improvements, with the use of more interaction modes, to turn operation a friendlier task. An automatic speech recognition interface has been implemented as a self-contained system, by accessing directly MS Windows Application Interface, and with online neural network training for spoken commend recognition. Thus, operators can switch among different desk views. Besides this, head tracking interfaces have been integrated with the virtual control desk, to move within desk views according to users head movements. Both marker and markerless-based head tracking interfaces have been implemented. Results are shown and commented. (author)

  2. Virtual powers and virtual works in mechanics of micropolar continuous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossetie, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    The expression of virtual work and virtual powers of internal actions is established for a continuous medium where the actions are defined by fields of forces and moments. A basic formulation of the mechanical problem is thus obtained and can serve as the starting point for variational and quasi-variational formulations of these problems. This expression may be used in thermodynamic developments relating to research or constitutive laws of materials within the context of so-called hidden internal variable formulations. The principle of virtual works is given in general applied then to the classic case through a demonstration consistent with this principle and finally applied to the general case in which distributions of moments are included. The viewpoint adopted is that Euler-Cauchy. This expression will have to be accounted for in establishing thermodynamic relations regarding materials subjected to nuclear effects (irradiated materials)

  3. Safety evaluation of nuclear power plant against the virtual tsunami

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, S. B.; Imamura, Fumihiko

    2004-01-01

    The main scope of this study is the numerical analysis of virtual tsunami event near the Ulchin Nuclear Power Plants. In the numerical analysis, the maximum run-up height and draw-down are estimated at the Ulchin Nuclear Power Plants. The computer program developed in this study describes the propagation and associated run-up process of tsunamis by solving linear and nonlinear shallow-water equations with finite difference methods. It can be used to check the safety of a nuclear power plant against tsunami attacks. The program can also be used to calculate run-up height of wave and provide proper design criteria for coastal facilities and structures. A maximum inundation zone along the coastline can be developed by using the moving boundary condition. As a result, it is predicted that the Ulchin Nuclear Power Plants might be safe against the virtual tsunami event. Although the Ulchin Nuclear Power Plants are safe against the virtual tsunami event, the occurrence of a huge tsunami in the seismic gap should be investigated in detail. Furthermore, the possibility of nearshore tsunamis around the Korean Peninsula should also be studied and monitored continuously

  4. Microgrid Reactive and Harmonic Power Sharing Using Enhanced Virtual Impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Jinwei; Wei Li, Yun; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    To address the load sharing problem in islanding microgrids, this paper proposes an improved approach which regulates the distributed generation (DG) unit interfacing virtual impedance at fundamental and selected harmonic frequencies. In contrast to the conventional virtual impedance control where...... only a line current feed-forward term is added to the DG voltage reference, the proposed virtual impedances at fundamental and harmonic frequencies are realized using DG line current and point of common coupling (PCC) voltage feed-forward terms, respectively. With this modification, the mismatched DG...... feeder impedances can be properly compensated, resulting in accurate reactive and harmonic power sharing at the same time. In addition, this paper shows that the microgrid PCC harmonic voltages can be mitigated by reducing the magnitude of DG unit equivalent harmonic impedance. Finally, an improved...

  5. Distributed continuous energy scheduling for dynamic virtual power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niesse, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents DynaSCOPE as distributed control method for continuous energy scheduling for dynamic virtual power plants (DVPP). DVPPs aggregate the flexibility of distributed energy units to address current energy markets. As an extension of the Virtual Power Plant concept they show high dynamics in aggregation and operation of energy units. Whereas operation schedules are set up for all energy units in a day-ahead planning procedure, incidents may render these schedules infeasible during execution, like deviation from prognoses or outages. Thus, a continuous scheduling process is needed to ensure product fulfillment. With DynaSCOPE, software agents representing single energy units solve this problem in a completely distributed heuristic approach. Using a stepped concept, several damping mechanisms are applied to allow minimum disturbance while continuously trying to fulfill the product as contracted at the market.

  6. Full State Feedback Control for Virtual Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jay Tillay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This report presents an object-oriented implementation of full state feedback control for virtual power plants (VPP). The components of the VPP full state feedback control are (1) objectoriented high-fidelity modeling for all devices in the VPP; (2) Distribution System Distributed Quasi-Dynamic State Estimation (DS-DQSE) that enables full observability of the VPP by augmenting actual measurements with virtual, derived and pseudo measurements and performing the Quasi-Dynamic State Estimation (QSE) in a distributed manner, and (3) automated formulation of the Optimal Power Flow (OPF) in real time using the output of the DS-DQSE, and solving the distributed OPF to provide the optimal control commands to the DERs of the VPP.

  7. FleetPower: Creating Virtual Power Plants in Sustainable Smart Electricity Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.T. Kahlen (Micha); W. Ketter (Wolfgang); A. Gupta (Alok)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractElectric vehicles have the potential to be used as virtual power plants to provide reliable back-up power. This generates additional profits for carsharing rental firms, who rent vehicles by the minute. We show this by developing a discrete event simulation platform based on real-time

  8. Optimization of a Virtual Power Plant to Provide Frequency Support.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neely, Jason C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gonzalez, Sigifredo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lave, Matthew Samuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Delhotal, Jarod James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Increasing the penetration of distributed renewable sources, including photovoltaic (PV) sources, poses technical challenges for grid management. The grid has been optimized over decades to rely upon large centralized power plants with well-established feedback controls, but now non-dispatchable, renewable sources are displacing these controllable generators. This one-year study was funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot program and is intended to better utilize those variable resources by providing electric utilities with the tools to implement frequency regulation and primary frequency reserves using aggregated renewable resources, known as a virtual power plant. The goal is to eventually enable the integration of 100s of Gigawatts into US power systems.

  9. Three-phase model and power-flow analysis of microgrids and virtual power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamh, M.Z.; Iravani, R. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Energy Systems Group

    2009-07-01

    A distributed energy resources (DER) unit can be a distributed generation unit, a distributed storage unit, or a hybrid of the two. It can be dispatchable, non-dispatchable or pseudo-dispatchable. A DER unit is connected to the hosting utility directly or via an electronic converter. A three-phase model and power-flow analysis of microgrids and virtual power plants was presented. The presentation discussed DER classification; microgrids and virtual power plants; motivations and goals; and a proposed DER model and power flow approach. Validation and results were also offered. The developed algorithm was implemented in the sequence-component frame using the MATLAB platform. Case studies were offered in order to verify the accuracy of the DER model and the power-flow program. It was concluded that the developed software accommodates different DER configurations and accurately reflects their control strategies. figs.

  10. AEP smart grid demo : virtual power plant simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riggins, M.

    2010-01-01

    This power point presentation described a virtual power plant simulation study conducted by American Electric Power (AEP), a utility with over 5.4 million customers. The simulation study was conducted in order to enable the installation of smart meters as well as to ensure remote monitoring and control of distribution line devices and energy resources. The simulation study assessed the functionality and performance of a fully integrated smart grid using real system and device information and data. The simulations were also used to optimize power costs and plant efficiency. Energy resources simulated in the study included battery installations, photovoltaic (PV) systems, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines, hybrid electric vehicles, community energy storage systems, and wind turbines. The study also assessed the regional market structure. The impacts of various protocols and standards were assessed in order to determine control system requirement and evaluate constraints and energy efficiency targets. The simulation included regional power system, station transformers, and distribution circuit breakers. Various automation schemes were considered, as well as an integrated VAR control concept. Community energy storage unit specifications were also discussed. tabs., figs.

  11. Distributed Power System Virtual Inertia Implemented by Grid-Connected Power Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Jingyang; Li, Hongchang; Tang, Yi

    2018-01-01

    Renewable energy sources (RESs), e.g. wind and solar photovoltaics, have been increasingly used to meet worldwide growing energy demands and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, RESs are normally coupled to the power grid through fast-response power converters without any inertia, leading...... to decreased power system inertia. As a result, the grid frequency may easily go beyond the acceptable range under severe frequency events, resulting in undesirable load-shedding, cascading failures, or even large-scale blackouts. To address the ever-decreasing inertia issue, this paper proposes the concept...... of distributed power system virtual inertia, which can be implemented by grid-connected power converters. Without modifications of system hardware, power system inertia can be emulated by the energy stored in the dc-link capacitors of grid-connected power converters. By regulating the dc-link voltages...

  12. Virtual Power Players Internal Negotiation and Management in MASCEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Gabriel; Pinto, Tiago; Vale, Zita

    2013-01-01

    for the management of coalitions in electricity markets. This approach is tested using the multi-agent market simulator MASCEM (Multi-Agent Simulator of Competitive Electricity Markets), taking advantage of its ability to provide the means to model and simulate Virtual Power Players (VPP). VPPs are represented......Electricity Markets are not only a new reality but an evolving one as the involved players and rules change at a relatively high rate. Multi-agent simulation combined with Artificial Intelligence techniques may result in very helpful sophisticated tools. This paper presents a new methodology...... as coalitions of agents, with the capability of negotiating both in the market and internally, with their members in order to combine and manage their individual specific characteristics and goals, with the strategy and objectives of the VPP itself. A case study using real data from the Iberian Electricity...

  13. A Study of Power and Individualism in Virtual Teams: Trends, Challenges, and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Deirdre

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between cultural values and effectiveness of virtual team processes. In order to render an acceptable degree of comparison, four specific team outcomes of virtual team effectiveness were aligned on Hofstede's cultural dimensions of power distance and individualism. The lack of awareness of how power and…

  14. A COMPUTATIONAL WORKBENCH ENVIRONMENT FOR VIRTUAL POWER PLANT SIMULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Dave Swensen; Martin Denison; Adel Sarofim; Connie Senior

    2004-12-22

    In this report is described the work effort to develop and demonstrate a software framework to support advanced process simulations to evaluate the performance of advanced power systems. Integrated into the framework are a broad range of models, analysis tools, and visualization methods that can be used for the plant evaluation. The framework provides a tightly integrated problem-solving environment, with plug-and-play functionality, and includes a hierarchy of models, ranging from fast running process models to detailed reacting CFD models. The framework places no inherent limitations on the type of physics that can be modeled, numerical techniques, or programming languages used to implement the equipment models, or the type or amount of data that can be exchanged between models. Tools are provided to analyze simulation results at multiple levels of detail, ranging from simple tabular outputs to advanced solution visualization methods. All models and tools communicate in a seamless manner. The framework can be coupled to other software frameworks that provide different modeling capabilities. Three software frameworks were developed during the course of the project. The first framework focused on simulating the performance of the DOE Low Emissions Boiler System Proof of Concept facility, an advanced pulverized-coal combustion-based power plant. The second framework targeted simulating the performance of an Integrated coal Gasification Combined Cycle - Fuel Cell Turbine (IGCC-FCT) plant configuration. The coal gasifier models included both CFD and process models for the commercially dominant systems. Interfacing models to the framework was performed using VES-Open, and tests were performed to demonstrate interfacing CAPE-Open compliant models to the framework. The IGCC-FCT framework was subsequently extended to support Virtual Engineering concepts in which plant configurations can be constructed and interrogated in a three-dimensional, user-centered, interactive

  15. Design and Evaluation of a Secure Virtual Power Plant.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jay Tillay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    For three years, Sandia National Laboratories, Georgia Institute of Technology, and University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign investigated a smart grid vision in which renewable-centric Virtual Power Plants (VPPs) provided ancillary services with interoperable distributed energy resources (DER). This team researched, designed, built, and evaluated real-time VPP designs incorporating DER forecasting, stochastic optimization, controls, and cyber security to construct a system capable of delivering reliable ancillary services, which have been traditionally provided by large power plants or other dedicated equipment. VPPs have become possible through an evolving landscape of state and national interconnection standards, which now require DER to include grid-support functionality and communications capabilities. This makes it possible for third party aggregators to provide a range of critical grid services such as voltage regulation, frequency regulation, and contingency reserves to grid operators. This paradigm (a) enables renewable energy, demand response, and energy storage to participate in grid operations and provide grid services, (b) improves grid reliability by providing additional operating reserves for utilities, independent system operators (ISOs), and regional transmission organization (RTOs), and (c) removes renewable energy high-penetration barriers by providing services with photovoltaics and wind resources that traditionally were the jobs of thermal generators. Therefore, it is believed VPP deployment will have far-reaching positive consequences for grid operations and may provide a robust pathway to high penetrations of renewables on US power systems. In this report, we design VPPs to provide a range of grid-support services and demonstrate one VPP which simultaneously provides bulk-system energy and ancillary reserves.

  16. 基于大数据平台的电力营销信息化建设分析%Informatization Construction of Power Marketing Based on Big Data Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志坚

    2016-01-01

    Traditional power marketing is lack of deep analysis, mining capacity of data correlation analysis. To solve these problems the author proposes informatization construction of power marketing programme based on big data platform. Based on the huge data of power marketing system, making full use of the huge amount of power data in power marketing system to predict business trends and generate strategy, optimize the marketing and service mode targetedly. The informatization of power marketing of contains the comprehensive service system based on big data platform, the informatization of power marketing based on mobile internet and the technical architecture of big data platform. Informatization construction of power marketing based on the big data platform will enhance the capacity of data mining and analysis in marketing, and improve the ability and the quality of marketing service.%针对传统电力营销存在的电力数据深度分析和发掘能力不足、未涉及数据关联分析等问题,提出了基于大数据平台的营销信息化建设规划。以电力营销系统的海量电力数据为依据,充分挖掘电力数据中有价值的信息,实现业务趋势预测、营销策略制订等,在此基础上有针对性地优化营销方式,改善服务模式。营销信息化包括基于大数据平台的全方位服务体系、基于移动互联网的智能营销服务和大数据平台的技术架构。基于大数据平台的营销信息化建设将增强营销相关领域的数据分析和数据挖掘能力,从而提高营销业务的服务能力和服务质量。

  17. Short-term economics of virtual power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, J.K.

    2009-08-01

    The Virtual Power Plant (VPP) has gained an increasing interest over the last few years. A VPP is a flexible representation of a portfolio of Distributed Energy Resources (DER: distributed generation, demand response and electricity storage). One of the key activities of a VPP is the delivery of (near-)real-time balancing services. In order to operate such a (near-)real-time coordination activity optimally, the VPP needs to maintain a dynamic merit-order list of all DER participating in the VPP. In order to make optimal decisions based on this list, the merit order needs to be based on the true marginal cost (or marginal benefit in case of demand response) of the individual DER units. The marginal electricity costs of most types of DER are highly dependent on local context and, hence, change over time. From analysis of the short-term bid strategies of various DER units, the existence of a bid strategy spectrum becomes clear. On one end of the spectrum, bidding strategies are based straightforwardly on true marginal cost or benefit. Further along the spectrum, optimal bidding strategies become less dependent on marginal cost levels and more on the price dynamics in the (VPP) market context. These results are relevant for VPP operations both from business and technical perspectives.

  18. Computer based virtual reality approach towards its application in an accidental emergency at nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Jun; Yao Qingshan

    1999-01-01

    Virtual reality is a computer based system for creating and receiving virtual world. As an emerging branch of computer discipline, this approach is extensively expanding and widely used in variety of industries such as national defence, research, engineering, medicine and air navigation. The author intends to present the fundamentals of virtual reality, in attempt to study some interested aspects for use in nuclear power emergency planning

  19. A Virtual Engineering Framework for Simulating Advanced Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Dave Swensen; Martin Denison; Stanislav Borodai

    2008-06-18

    In this report is described the work effort performed to provide NETL with VE-Suite based Virtual Engineering software and enhanced equipment models to support NETL's Advanced Process Engineering Co-simulation (APECS) framework for advanced power generation systems. Enhancements to the software framework facilitated an important link between APECS and the virtual engineering capabilities provided by VE-Suite (e.g., equipment and process visualization, information assimilation). Model enhancements focused on improving predictions for the performance of entrained flow coal gasifiers and important auxiliary equipment (e.g., Air Separation Units) used in coal gasification systems. In addition, a Reduced Order Model generation tool and software to provide a coupling between APECS/AspenPlus and the GE GateCycle simulation system were developed. CAPE-Open model interfaces were employed where needed. The improved simulation capability is demonstrated on selected test problems. As part of the project an Advisory Panel was formed to provide guidance on the issues on which to focus the work effort. The Advisory Panel included experts from industry and academics in gasification, CO2 capture issues, process simulation and representatives from technology developers and the electric utility industry. To optimize the benefit to NETL, REI coordinated its efforts with NETL and NETL funded projects at Iowa State University, Carnegie Mellon University and ANSYS/Fluent, Inc. The improved simulation capabilities incorporated into APECS will enable researchers and engineers to better understand the interactions of different equipment components, identify weaknesses and processes needing improvement and thereby allow more efficient, less expensive plants to be developed and brought on-line faster and in a more cost-effective manner. These enhancements to APECS represent an important step toward having a fully integrated environment for performing plant simulation and engineering

  20. Research of nuclear power plant in-service maintenance based on virtual reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yong; Kuang Weijun

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method of constructing nuclear power plant in-service maintenance virtual simulation scene and virtual maintenance process. Taking air baffles dismantling process of CAP1400(China Advanced Passive 1400) nuclear power plant as an instance, this paper discusses ergonomics, space analysis, time assessment based on virtual reality in the process of in-service maintenance. It demonstrates the advantage of using VR technology to design and verify in-service maintenance process of nuclear power plant compared to the conventional way. (author)

  1. High-power microwave generation from a frequency-stabilized virtual cathode source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, M.V.; Hoeberling, R.F.; Kinross-Wright, J.

    1988-01-01

    The evolution of virtual cathode based high-power microwave-source technology has been directed primarily toward achieving higher peak-power levels. As peak powers in excess of 10 GW have been reported, attention has begun to focus on techniques for producing a more frequency- and phase-stable virtual cathode source. Free-running virtual cathode microwave sources characteristically exhibit bandwidths in a single pulse of tens of percent, which makes them unsuitable for many applications such as power sources for phased array antennas and microwave linear accelerators. Presented here are results of an experimental approach utilizing a high-Q, resonant cavity surrounding the oscillating virtual cathode to achieve frequency stabilization and repeatable narrow-band operation. A cylindrical cavity resonator is used with the microwave power being extracted radially through circumferential slot apertures into L-band waveguide

  2. Remote Power Control Injection of Grid-Connected Power Converters Based on Virtual Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Fazlin Roslan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Renewable Energy Source (RES-based power plants need to control the active and reactive power at the Point of Common Connection (PCC with the grid, in order to comply with the requirements of the Transmission System Operators (TSOs. This point is normally far away from the power converter station, and the cables and step-up transformers have a non-neglectable influence on the delivered power. In order to overcome this drawback, this paper presents a control algorithm that permits one to control remotely the power injected at the PCC, by adjusting the local controller of the Voltage Source Converters (VSCs. In this work, the synchronization with the grid is done based on the Virtual Flux (VF concept. The results reveals that the VF estimation is able to produce a reliable estimation of the grid voltage in any point of the network, and makes it possible to calculate the necessary current reference for injecting a desired active and reactive power at a point that can be some kilometres away. In this paper the main principle for this remote power control is presented. Likewise, the simulation and experimental results will be shown in order to analyse the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  3. Agent-based Integration of Complex and Heterogeneous Distributed Energy Resources in Virtual Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Umair, Aisha; Demazeau, Yves

    2017-01-01

    A Virtual Power Plant aggregates several Distributed Energy Resources in order to expose them as a single, controllable entity. This enables smaller Distributed Energy Resources to take part in Demand Response programs which traditionally only targeted larger consumers. To date, models for Virtual...

  4. Interactive Virtual Reactor and Control Room for Education and Training at Universities and Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Yoshinori; Li, Ye; Zhu, Xuefeng; Rizwan, Uddin

    2014-01-01

    Efficient and effective education and training of nuclear engineering students and nuclear workers are critical for the safe operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. With an eye toward this need, we have focused on the development of 3D models of virtual labs for education, training as well as to conduct virtual experiments. These virtual labs, that are expected to supplement currently available resources, and have the potential to reduce the cost of education and training, are most easily developed on game-engine platforms. We report some recent extensions to the virtual model of the University of Illinois TRIGA reactor

  5. Interactive Virtual Reactor and Control Room for Education and Training at Universities and Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Yoshinori; Li, Ye; Zhu, Xuefeng; Rizwan, Uddin [University of Illinois, Urbana (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Efficient and effective education and training of nuclear engineering students and nuclear workers are critical for the safe operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. With an eye toward this need, we have focused on the development of 3D models of virtual labs for education, training as well as to conduct virtual experiments. These virtual labs, that are expected to supplement currently available resources, and have the potential to reduce the cost of education and training, are most easily developed on game-engine platforms. We report some recent extensions to the virtual model of the University of Illinois TRIGA reactor.

  6. Evaluation of a Generic Virtual Power Plant Framework Using Service Oriented Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bach; Poulsen, Bjarne; Decker, Morten

    2008-01-01

    interesting properties that can influence the future shape of power markets. The concept holds many promises including cheaper power to the consumer, a more flexible and responsive power production and the support of a more environment- friendly development. In order to realize a software solution supporting...... the generic virtual power plant, an array of different software design principles, patterns and architectures must be applied. Especially Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) can aid in implementing the generic virtual power plant. An analysis of the Nordic power market has been carried out in order...... to identify potential issues and barriers, henceforth mentioned as challenges, connected with the introduction of the generic virtual power plant concept. In this paper, three use case scenarios will show how each of these challenges can be overcome by the proposed solution framework. The use case scenarios...

  7. An interactive cooperation model for neighboring virtual power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabanzadeh, Morteza; Sheikh-El-Eslami, Mohammad-Kazem; Haghifam, Mahmoud-Reza

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •The trading strategies of a VPP in cooperation with its neighboring VPPs are addressed. •A portfolio of inter-regional contracts is considered to model this cooperation scheme. •A novel mathematical formulation for possible inadvertent transactions is provided. •A two-stage stochastic programming approach is applied to characterize the uncertainty. •Two efficient risk measures, SSD and CVaR, are implemented in the VPP decision-making problem. -- Abstract: Future distribution systems will accommodate an increasing share of distributed energy resources (DERs). Facing with this new reality, virtual power plants (VPPs) play a key role to aggregate DERs with the aim of facilitating their involvement in wholesale electricity markets. In this paper, the trading strategies of a VPP in cooperation with its neighboring VPPs are addressed. Toward this aim, a portfolio of inter-regional contracts is considered to model this cooperation and maximize the energy trade opportunities of the VPP within a medium-term horizon. To hedge against profit variability caused by market price uncertainties, two efficient risk management approaches are also implemented in the VPP decision-making problem based on the concepts of conditional value at risk (CVaR) and second-order stochastic dominance constraints (SSD). The resulting models are formulated as mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) problems that can be solved using off-the-shelf software packages. The efficiency of the proposed risk-hedging models is analyzed through a detailed case study, and thereby relevant conclusions are drawn.

  8. Virtual power plant feasibility study and funding proposal / the virtual power plant objectives, concept, components, context, business plan / objectives, activities and timelines for the VPP feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a proposal for funding a virtual power plant feasibility study. The goals of the virtual power plant are to increase the efficiency of electricity use by creating a market-driven, subsidy-free, financially sustainable mechanism to finance economic Demand Side Management (DSM) by providing a fully liquid market for saved electricity, provide a new revenue opportunity for the Local Distributing Company (LDC) and increase the use of renewable and low environmental impact, high efficiency technologies within the service area

  9. Market-Based Fisheries Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    a timely, critical insight into the social, cultural and economic aspects and consequences of market-based fisheries management. The privatization of fish quotas in Denmark represents one of the most far-reaching and comprehensive privatization schemes of its kind and has been widely promoted as a market......-based system with innovative social safeguards. This work critically examines this privatization of fish resources, combining quantitative and qualitative material to provide new understanding of fish quotas and their social value. Scholars with an interest in privatization and the socio-economic aspects...... of fisheries, and those working with NGOs, fishers and fisheries, and concerned with political conflicts will all value the research presented here....

  10. Impact of Germany's energy transition on the Nordic power market – A market-based multi-region energy system model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakeri, Behnam; Virasjoki, Vilma; Syri, Sanna

    2016-01-01

    -level benefits (social welfare) will improve in the Nordic region after Germany's Energiewende. However, this gain is not equally distributed among different Nordic countries and across different stakeholders. Furthermore, the Energiewende slightly increases carbon emissions from power and district heating (DH......) sectors, and reduces the flexibility in integration of VRE in some Nordic countries like Denmark. The direct interconnection of Norway and Germany through NordLink will contribute to the flexibility in wind integration in other Nordic countries, such as Denmark and Finland....

  11. An islanding microgrid reactive power sharing scheme enhanced by programmed virtual impedances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Jinwei; Li, Yun Wei; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2012-01-01

    harmonic currents. With the knowledge of feeder impedances, reactive power sharing performance can be enhanced by the regulation of DG unit output virtual impedance. The proposed method realizes accurate real and reactive power sharing in proportion to DG unit rated power. Simulated and experimental...

  12. The Optimal Dispatch of a Power System Containing Virtual Power Plants under Fog and Haze Weather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the growing influence of fog and haze (F-H weather and the rapid development of distributed energy resources (DERs and smart grids, the concept of the virtual power plant (VPP employed in this study would help to solve the dispatch problem caused by multiple DERs connected to the power grid. The effects of F-H weather on photovoltaic output forecast, load forecast and power system dispatch are discussed according to real case data. The wavelet neural network (WNN model was employed to predict photovoltaic output and load, considering F-H weather, based on the idea of “similar days of F-H”. The multi-objective optimal dispatch model of a power system adopted in this paper contains several VPPs and conventional power plants, under F-H weather, and the mixed integer linear programming (MILP and the Yalmip toolbox of MATLAB were adopted to solve the dispatch model. The analysis of the results from a case study proves the validity and feasibility of the model and the algorithms.

  13. Tycoon market-based system: integration with EGEE

    CERN Document Server

    Dana Perez, J M

    2007-01-01

    Tycoon is a market-based system for trading resources. The idea is to integrate Tycoon with EGEE, obtaining a dynamic Grid ready to share resources with others (Universities, research centres, etc.). Tycoon will run as a new service, deploying and destroying virtual machines (Worker Nodes and Computing Elements) on demand. Tycoon will give to EGEE a dynamic, flexible, secure and transparent platform/service to trade resources more efficiently. It could attract small and medium VOs to the EGEE project, they could take advantage of the Grid resources and obtain extra computing power while EGEE could obtain credits/money for its service. Our goal is to integrate Tycoon as a new service of EGEE, we do not have special requirements, we do not need to modify the EGEE middleware, Grid special services, etc. Standard and ‘tycoonized’ nodes (Computing Elements and Worker Nodes) must coexist in the same Grid, working without problems. Our main issue would be to ensure the security of the whole system (EGEE platform...

  14. Competitve problems of virtual power plant sections; Wettbewerbsrechtliche Probleme virtueller Kraftwerksscheiben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesgen, Peter

    2013-08-01

    Due to dynamic price adjustment clauses 'virtual power plant sections' enable long-term contracts although the future costs of electricity production at the time of the conclusion of the contract are not predictable. Nevertheless, power plant sections gain of considerable importance due to the increasing spread in the energy industry practice. At first, the author of the book under consideration describes the different types of virtual power plant sections as well as the necessary complex economic and technical backgrounds. The competitive analysis of virtual power plant sections is the focus of this book. An orientation guide will be developed in the first part of this competitive analysis. With this it can be determined whether a virtual power plant section is qualified as a noticeable restriction of competition. The second part of this competitive analysis examines the extent to which virtual power plant sections may violate the prohibition of abuse of a market dominant position with respect to Article 102 AEUV (Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union) and ate paragraph paragraph 19 et seq. GWB (Law against the Restriction of Competition).

  15. The design of VR-CATS for power plant simulator using virtual reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. Y.; Yoo, H. J.; Lee, M. S.; Hong, J. H.; Lee, Y. K.

    2001-01-01

    In Hadong fossil power plant simulator project (1998. 1 ∼ 2000. 7), KEPRI applied virtual reality to the simulator. To provide more efficient operator training, KEPRI further developed the virtual reality technology into VR-CATS( Virtual Reality Computer Assistance Training System), a web-based multimedia training system with virtual reality technologies, in KNPEC-2 projects. By visualizing nuclear power plant system with stereoscopic 3-graphics in this project, VR-CATS enable trainee to navigate whole nuclear power plants including high radiation areas and other restricted areas. In addition, instructors can train the local operators to operate the local valves and other equipment in the local area of the plant. It aims at helping trainees understand system locations and system functions more easily. And, by reproducing main control room with stereoscopic 3-D graphics and linking it with P and ID, operating procedures, and plant components, Virtual panels maximize training effects. During the classroom training, the instructor can acess the stand-by host computer of the simulator through a network. This enables the instructor to can operate the simulator with only soft-panel. With the soft-panel, the instructor can activate any malfunction that he wants to instruct, show the trends of major parameters to the trainee and discuss with them. This desktop simulator function helps trainee to understand basic symptoms of the accidents. With CBT, operators can easily understand why some parameters are increasing or decreasing and what they should to mak the system stable. The VR-CATS for Uljin equips with much stronger and higher level virtual environment. First, all components of the virtual plant are linked with P and ID, ISO drawings, and engineering database. In addition, virtual MCR provides much immersive environment with such virtual reality equipment as HMD and data glove. Operators can also do collaboration work in the network through avatar, real

  16. Demand Response Integration Through Agent-Based Coordination of Consumers in Virtual Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Umair, Aisha; Ma, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    of industrial loads. Coordination happens in response to Demand Response events, while considering local objectives in the industrial domain. We illustrate the applicability of our approach on a Virtual Power Plant scenario with three simulated greenhouses. The results suggest that the proposed design is able...... Power Plant design that is able to balance the demand of energy-intensive, industrial loads with the supply situation in the electricity grid. The proposed Virtual Power Plant design uses a novel inter-agent, multi-objective, multi-issue negotiation mechanism, to coordinate the electricity demands...... to coordinate the electricity demands of industrial loads, in compliance with external Demand Response events....

  17. Smart grids : combination of 'Virtual Power Plant'-concept and 'smart network'-design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Bakari, K.; Kling, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of virtual power plant (VPP) offers a solution to control and manage higher level of dispersed generation in nowadays passive distribution network. Under certain conditions the VPP is able to displace power and energy which implies more control on the energy flow in the networks. To

  18. Virtual community centre for power wheelchair training: Experience of children and clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkia, Caryne; Ryan, Stephen E; Reid, Denise; Boissy, Patrick; Lemay, Martin; Routhier, François; Contardo, Resi; Woodhouse, Janet; Archambault, Phillipe S

    2017-11-02

    To: 1) characterize the overall experience in using the McGill immersive wheelchair - community centre (miWe-CC) simulator; and 2) investigate the experience of presence (i.e., sense of being in the virtual rather than in the real, physical environment) while driving a PW in the miWe-CC. A qualitative research design with structured interviews was used. Fifteen clinicians and 11 children were interviewed after driving a power wheelchair (PW) in the miWe-CC simulator. Data were analyzed using the conventional and directed content analysis approaches. Overall, participants enjoyed using the simulator and experienced a sense of presence in the virtual space. They felt a sense of being in the virtual environment, involved and focused on driving the virtual PW rather than on the surroundings of the actual room where they were. Participants reported several similarities between the virtual community centre layout and activities of the miWe-CC and the day-to-day reality of paediatric PW users. The simulator replicated participants' expectations of real-life PW use and promises to have an effect on improving the driving skills of new PW users. Implications for rehabilitation Among young users, the McGill immersive wheelchair (miWe) simulator provides an experience of presence within the virtual environment. This experience of presence is generated by a sense of being in the virtual scene, a sense of being involved, engaged, and focused on interacting within the virtual environment, and by the perception that the virtual environment is consistent with the real world. The miWe is a relevant and accessible approach, complementary to real world power wheelchair training for young users.

  19. The role of inmformation systems in virtual power plants; Die Rolle der Informationssysteme in virtuellen Kraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schloegl, F.; Rohrig, K. [Inst. fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik e.V. (ISET), Kassel (Germany); Biermann, K. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Hamburg (Germany); Frank, T. [Envidatec GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Rudion, K. [Otto-von-Guericke-Univ. Magdeburg (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Increasing penetration of electricity supply systems with information and communication technologies in combination with a growing share of distributed generation creates an abundance of information. The new challenge to information systems is to provide the user with relevant information. A virtual power plant is a cluster of distributed generation installations which are collectively run by a central control entity. A most essential part of a virtual power plant is the information system. For an efficient development of information systems it is necessary to replace the existing diversity of data formats with some few standards. Forecasts are an important component of the information system. In order to be able to control future virtual power plants it is necessary to improve the accuracy of forecasts constantly. (orig.)

  20. 18 CFR 284.502 - Procedures for applying for market-based rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for applying for market-based rates. 284.502 Section 284.502 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Applications for Market-Based Rates for Storage § 284.502...

  1. Consolidating Learning in Power Systems: Virtual Reality Applied to the Study of the Operation of Electric Power Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Pebertli Nils Alho; Filho, Manoel Ribeiro; Nunes, Marcus V. Alves

    2015-01-01

    Within the field of electric power systems, the study of electrical equipment can be frustrating and demotivating because of the lack of a clear vision of how this equipment functions and operates in a real environment. The use of virtual reality can provide a more concrete representation for students, who rarely have the opportunity to visit a…

  2. Utilization of Flexible Demand in a Virtual Power Plant Set-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thavlov, Anders; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2014-01-01

    High penetration levels from renewable energy sources in large-scale power systems demand a high degree of flexibility in the transmission and distribution system. This paper presents a method for utilization of flexible demand in the low-voltage distribution system using the thermal mass...... of a building to defer power consumption from electric space heating. The power consumption for heating is controlled by an operational virtual power plant, which is sending a set point for requested power consumption to the building management system. An optimization problem is formulated...

  3. Virtual Power Plants as a Model for the Competitiveness of Small Manufacturers and Operators of Virtual Power Plants in Markets of Electricity and Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galic, T.; Tomsic, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Production of electricity from renewable energy sources and energy-efficient power sources to be connected to the electricity distribution network is still not competitive with electricity production from conventional sources of electricity. A powerful technological development of distributed energy sources and technologies for electricity storage has reduced their production costs, production costs of electricity from distributed energy sources, the costs of simultaneous production of electricity and thermal energy from cogeneration distributed energy sources and thus has facilitated their increased use in practice. It also allows them to interconnect systems such as virtual power plants in order to achieve full economic feasibility of their use. Current electricity and gas customers, now also in the role of small power producers, interconnected by virtual power plants operators, in addition to buying electricity and gas on retail markets for electricity and gas, will be able to sell electricity and new energy services also on wholesale electricity markets. Development and application of new distributed technologies will enable the production of new quantities of electricity which will increase the competitiveness of electricity producers, competitiveness of electricity suppliers of end-customers and elasticity of supply and demand in the electricity market. These processes will also increase the efficiency of the entire systems of electricity supply and of the gas supply systems.(author)

  4. Simultaneous Imbalance Reduction and Peak Shaving using a Field Operational Virtual Power Plant with Pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruissen, O.P. van; Kok, J.K.; Eisma, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Dutch electricity infrastructure is challenged by the deployment of large numbers of heat pumps in newly-built domestic residences. An example is the apartment complex of Couperus in The Hague where 300 apartments are heated by individual heat pumps. This building was operated as a Virtual Power

  5. Virtual Power Plants of Electric Vehicles in Sustainable Smart Electricity Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.T. Kahlen (Micha)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThe batteries of electric vehicles can be used as Virtual Power Plants to balance out frequency deviations in the electricity grid. Carsharing fleet owners have the options to charge an electric vehicle's battery, discharge an electric vehicle's battery, or keep an electric vehicle

  6. Virtual Power Plant and Microgrids controller for Energy Management based on optimization techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher G. M. Abdolrasol

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss virtual power plant (VPP and Microgrid controller for energy management system (EMS based on optimization techniques by using two optimization techniques namely Backtracking search algorithm (BSA and particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO. The research proposes use of multi Microgrid in the distribution networks to aggregate the power form distribution generation and form it into single Microgrid and let these Microgrid deal directly with the central organizer called virtual power plant. VPP duties are price forecast, demand forecast, weather forecast, production forecast, shedding loads, make intelligent decision and for aggregate & optimizes the data. This huge system has been tested and simulated by using Matlab simulink. These paper shows optimizations of two methods were really significant in the results. But BSA is better than PSO to search for better parameters which could make more power saving as in the results and the discussion.

  7. Virtual power plants in energy industry law. Possible manifestations and from them resulting legal questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlbrandt, Lea Katharina

    2017-01-01

    Although cogeneration plants are operated with fossil fuels are not quite as environmentally friendly as EEG systems they have a much more favorable effect due to their high efficiency climate as conventional power plants. In the future this could can even improve with the aid of fuel cell technology. Therefore, they play for the transition to a safe and secure more efficient power supply conditions for a merger of cogeneration plants overall favorable, in particular because that no influence on the or the emission trading obligation of the plant operators has. However, the complete elimination of avoided network charges could be counterproductive. Just virtual power plants of cogeneration plants have an effect on a feed-in that the grid not charged, so fees for a decentralized feed in these cases can be justified. Also the development of cogeneration development within the framework of the newly introduced calls will have a major impact on the development of virtual power stations. [de

  8. Use of virtual environments to reduce the construction costs of the next generation nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whisker, V.E.; Baratta, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    The near term deployment of the next generation of reactors will only be successful if they are built on time and without the costly overruns experienced in the previous generation. One critical factor in achieving these goals is to ensure the design is optimized for constructability. In this work the authors explored the effectiveness of full-scale virtual reality simulation in the optimization of the design and construction of the next generation of nuclear reactors. The research tested the suitability of immersive virtual reality display technology in aiding engineers in evaluating potential cost reductions that can be realized by the optimization of design and installation and construction sequences. The intent of this research is to see if this type of technology can be used in capacities similar to those currently filled by full-scale physical mockups and desktop simulations. Using a fully-immersive five sided virtual reality system, known as a CAVE, the authors constructed a series of virtual mockups that represented two next generation nuclear power plants, the Westinghouse AP-1000 and the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR). These virtual mockups were then tested as a design tool to help locate and correct problem areas, to optimize the construction sequence, and to assist with familiarizing trades people with the performance of maintenance activities. A series of experiments were performed to assess the usefulness of these virtual mockups in accomplishing these tasks. (authors)

  9. Virtual Generation (Energy Efficiency) The Cheapest Source For Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasnie, Sohail

    2010-09-15

    Energy efficiency is the cheapest source of energy that has escaped the minds of the politicians in the developing countries. This paper argues for large scale utility led end use efficiency programs in a new paradigm, where 1 million efficient light bulbs is synonymous to a 50 MW power station that costs only 2% of the traditional fossil fuel power station and zero maintenance. Bulk procurement, setting up new standards and generation of certified emissions reduction is part of this strategy. It discusses implementation of a $20 million pilot in the Philippines supported by the Asian Development Bank.

  10. Microgrids, virtual power plants and our distributed energy future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asmus, Peter

    2010-12-15

    Opportunities for VPPs and microgrids will only increase dramatically with time, as the traditional system of building larger and larger centralized and polluting power plants by utilities charging a regulated rate of return fades. The key questions are: how soon will these new business models thrive - and who will be in the driver's seat? (author)

  11. The virtual digital nuclear power plant: A modern tool for supporting the lifecycle of VVER-based nuclear power units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkadov, G. V.; Zhukavin, A. P.; Kroshilin, A. E.; Parshikov, I. A.; Solov'ev, S. L.; Shishov, A. V.

    2014-10-01

    The article describes the "Virtual Digital VVER-Based Nuclear Power Plant" computerized system comprising a totality of verified initial data (sets of input data for a model intended for describing the behavior of nuclear power plant (NPP) systems in design and emergency modes of their operation) and a unified system of new-generation computation codes intended for carrying out coordinated computation of the variety of physical processes in the reactor core and NPP equipment. Experiments with the demonstration version of the "Virtual Digital VVER-Based NPP" computerized system has shown that it is in principle possible to set up a unified system of computation codes in a common software environment for carrying out interconnected calculations of various physical phenomena at NPPs constructed according to the standard AES-2006 project. With the full-scale version of the "Virtual Digital VVER-Based NPP" computerized system put in operation, the concerned engineering, design, construction, and operating organizations will have access to all necessary information relating to the NPP power unit project throughout its entire lifecycle. The domestically developed commercial-grade software product set to operate as an independently operating application to the project will bring about additional competitive advantages in the modern market of nuclear power technologies.

  12. Enhanced power sharing in microgrids using the modified droop and virtual line impedance systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghasafari, M.A.; Lopes, L.A.C.; Williamson, S. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Power Electronics and Energy Research Group

    2009-06-15

    The microgrid is the local electricity network which connects several distributed energy systems. This paper proposed a control strategy which provided better power sharing than that of other control systems with low sensibility to the line unbalances, with fast and non-oscillatory responses. These distributed sources (which can include solar panels) were connected together using inverters in a low voltage microgrid. Power equations of the system were considered and presented from the droop strategy point of view and the importance of including virtual impedances in the control system was considered. The performance of the system was verified by means of simulations. Several illustrations and graphs were presented, including a simplified power stage of the system; power sharing variations by change in the first source voltage phase; power sharing variations as the first source voltage magnitude changes; power sharing variations by change in the system steady state frequency; and apparent power changes by change in the system steady state frequency. The control system and its levels was also illustrated including its four levels, namely an inverter current control loop; inverter voltage control loop; virtual resistance loop; and droop control loop. It was concluded that the control scheme for isolated microgrids yielded good speed, power sharing, and efficiency with small transient oscillations. The system could make good power sharing insensitive to the line unbalance. 8 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  13. Research on multi - channel interactive virtual assembly system for power equipment under the “VR+” era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yilong; Duan, Xitong; Wu, Lei; He, Jin; Xu, Wu

    2017-06-01

    With the development of the “VR+” era, the traditional virtual assembly system of power equipment has been unable to satisfy our growing needs. In this paper, based on the analysis of the traditional virtual assembly system of electric power equipment and the application of VR technology in the virtual assembly system of electric power equipment in our country, this paper puts forward the scheme of establishing the virtual assembly system of power equipment: At first, we should obtain the information of power equipment, then we should using OpenGL and multi texture technology to build 3D solid graphics library. After the completion of three-dimensional modeling, we can use the dynamic link library DLL package three-dimensional solid graphics generation program to realize the modularization of power equipment model library and power equipment model library generated hidden algorithm. After the establishment of 3D power equipment model database, we set up the virtual assembly system of 3D power equipment to separate the assembly operation of the power equipment from the space. At the same time, aiming at the deficiency of the traditional gesture recognition algorithm, we propose a gesture recognition algorithm based on improved PSO algorithm for BP neural network data glove. Finally, the virtual assembly system of power equipment can really achieve multi-channel interaction function.

  14. Intelligent Energy Management System for Virtual Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braun, Philipp

    demonstrated to be suitable storage technologies that have been integrated in power systems worldwide in recent years. Such storage systems are underlying a fast development track and have improved over the past decades considerably. This makes an increase in the number of VPPs more likely in future. Potential...... investors in VPPs face several questions before and after an investment decision for a specific BESS is made. This work addresses the following questions: 1. Is a VPP a profitable investment and if so, which technology or combination of different technologies of BESSs and which size should be purchased? 2...... questions depending on the input parameters provided to the model. The model focuses on the BESS including capacity fade which is a battery specific property. It determines the performance, live-time, and - most important - the annualized costs of the BESS. Modeling capacity fade opens up the possibility...

  15. Interrater Reliability of the Power Mobility Road Test in the Virtual Reality-Based Simulator-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraj, Deepan C; Dicianno, Brad E; Mahajan, Harshal P; Buhari, Alhaji M; Cooper, Rory A

    2016-07-01

    To assess interrater reliability of the Power Mobility Road Test (PMRT) when administered through the Virtual Reality-based SIMulator-version 2 (VRSIM-2). Within-subjects repeated-measures design. Participants interacted with VRSIM-2 through 2 display options (desktop monitor vs immersive virtual reality screens) using 2 control interfaces (roller system vs conventional movement-sensing joystick), providing 4 different driving scenarios (driving conditions 1-4). Participants performed 3 virtual driving sessions for each of the 2 display screens and 1 session through a real-world driving course (driving condition 5). The virtual PMRT was conducted in a simulated indoor office space, and an equivalent course was charted in an open space for the real-world assessment. After every change in driving condition, participants completed a self-reported workload assessment questionnaire, the Task Load Index, developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. A convenience sample of electric-powered wheelchair (EPW) athletes (N=21) recruited at the 31st National Veterans Wheelchair Games. Not applicable. Total composite PMRT score. The PMRT had high interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]>.75) between the 2 raters in all 5 driving conditions. Post hoc analyses revealed that the reliability analyses had >80% power to detect high ICCs in driving conditions 1 and 4. The PMRT has high interrater reliability in conditions 1 and 4 and could be used to assess EPW driving performance virtually in VRSIM-2. However, further psychometric assessment is necessary to assess the feasibility of administering the PMRT using the different interfaces of VRSIM-2. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Virtual Constraint Control of a Powered Prosthetic Leg: From Simulation to Experiments with Transfemoral Amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Robert D; Lenzi, Tommaso; Hargrove, Levi J; Sensinger, Jonathon W

    2014-12-01

    Recent powered (or robotic) prosthetic legs independently control different joints and time periods of the gait cycle, resulting in control parameters and switching rules that can be difficult to tune by clinicians. This challenge might be addressed by a unifying control model used by recent bipedal robots, in which virtual constraints define joint patterns as functions of a monotonic variable that continuously represents the gait cycle phase. In the first application of virtual constraints to amputee locomotion, this paper derives exact and approximate control laws for a partial feedback linearization to enforce virtual constraints on a prosthetic leg. We then encode a human-inspired invariance property called effective shape into virtual constraints for the stance period. After simulating the robustness of the partial feedback linearization to clinically meaningful conditions, we experimentally implement this control strategy on a powered transfemoral leg. We report the results of three amputee subjects walking overground and at variable cadences on a treadmill, demonstrating the clinical viability of this novel control approach.

  17. A COMPUTATIONAL WORKBENCH ENVIRONMENT FOR VIRTUAL POWER PLANT SIMULATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mike Bockelie; Dave Swensen; Martin Denison

    2002-01-01

    This is the fifth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT41047. The goal of the project is to develop and demonstrate a computational workbench for simulating the performance of Vision 21 Power Plant Systems. Within the last quarter, our efforts have become focused on developing an improved workbench for simulating a gasifier based Vision 21 energyplex. To provide for interoperability of models developed under Vision 21 and other DOE programs, discussions have been held with DOE and other organizations developing plant simulator tools to review the possibility of establishing a common software interface or protocol to use when developing component models. A component model that employs the CCA protocol has successfully been interfaced to our CCA enabled workbench. To investigate the software protocol issue, DOE has selected a gasifier based Vision 21 energyplex configuration for use in testing and evaluating the impacts of different software interface methods. A Memo of Understanding with the Cooperative Research Centre for Coal in Sustainable Development (CCSD) in Australia has been completed that will enable collaborative research efforts on gasification issues. Preliminary results have been obtained for a CFD model of a pilot scale, entrained flow gasifier. A paper was presented at the Vision 21 Program Review Meeting at NETL (Morgantown) that summarized our accomplishments for Year One and plans for Year Two and Year Three

  18. Applying machine learning techniques for forecasting flexibility of virtual power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacDougall, Pamela; Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2016-01-01

    network as well as the multi-variant linear regression. It is found that it is possible to estimate the longevity of flexibility with machine learning. The linear regression algorithm is, on average, able to estimate the longevity with a 15% error. However, there was a significant improvement with the ANN...... approach to investigating the longevity of aggregated response of a virtual power plant using historic bidding and aggregated behaviour with machine learning techniques. The two supervised machine learning techniques investigated and compared in this paper are, multivariate linear regression and single...... algorithm achieving, on average, a 5.3% error. This is lowered 2.4% when learning for the same virtual power plant. With this information it would be possible to accurately offer residential VPP flexibility for market operations to safely avoid causing further imbalances and financial penalties....

  19. Market based consumer adaptation. Preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saele, Hanne

    2005-04-01

    This report is a foundation for further research in the project ''Market based consumer adaptation'', project period 2005-2008. The report describes characteristics of shortage periods for both energy and effects, low priority consumption, power products and network tariffs that may contribute to increased flexibility in consumption and limitations in the IT-systems of today and discusses what problems would be of interest for further studies. The reduction of low priority consumption and the activation of price elasticity would be challenges both for effect and energy shortages. Private consumption would however, partly be different due to the time perspective. It is expected that periods of effect shortages would be of only a few hours and the challenge would be to obtain sufficient response at an hourly basis at load disconnection. The energy shortage is expected to last longer which results in problems in obtaining sufficient and real consumer reduction over time in order to reduce the danger of critical shortage. Important elements in order to supply new power products and network tariffs which contributes to increased flexibility in the consumption, are technology for current registration and remote control of consumption, contracts between the involved parties and the framework conditions that gives incentives for establishing new network/power products. When several parties shall use the same measurements for accounting it would be necessary for all the figures to arrive in time and that corrections are avoided as much as possible. It would also be challenging for the parties whether new products satisfy the regulations. Pricing in network tariffs is subject to more legal public regulations than developing a power product. This may make it difficult to produce ''correct'' network tariffs due to regulation and at the same time interest more customers to making deals with such tariffs. Even if the power suppliers to a certain extent, are more free to develop

  20. Simulation of Digital Control Computer of Nuclear Power Plant Based on Virtual Machine Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Xue Yan; Li, Shu; Li, Qing

    2011-01-01

    Based on analyzing DCC (Digital Control Computer) instruction sets, memory map, display controllers and I/O system, virtual machine of DCC (abbr. VM DCC) has been developed. The executive and control programs, same as running on NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) unit's DCC, can run on the VM DCC smoothly and get same control results. Dual VM DCC system has been successfully applied in NPP FSS(Full Scope Simulator) training. It not only improves FSS's fidelity but also makes maintaining easier

  1. Virtual Refrigerant Mass Flow and Power Sensors for Variable-Speed Compressors

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Woohyun; Braun, James E.

    2012-01-01

    The use of variable-speed compressors in heat pumps and air conditioners has increased in recent years in order to improve comfort and energy efficiency. At the same time, there is a trend towards embedding more sensors in this type of equipment to facilitate real-time energy monitoring and diagnostics. Although compressor mass flow rate and power consumption are useful indices for performance monitoring and diagnostics, they are expensive to measure. The virtual variable-speed compressor sen...

  2. Introduction of virtual detectors for core monitoring system of korean standard nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eun, Ki Lee.; Yong, Hee Kim.; Jybe, Ho Cha.; Moon, Ghu Park.

    2000-01-01

    A novel algorithm known as the virtual detector method (VDM) is introduced to reconstruct the axial power shape (APS) for the on-line core monitoring system of the Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP). A pure statistical method (SM) is also introduced and the results are compared with the currently implemented five-mode Fourier fitting method (FFM). VDM adopts nine virtual detector informations coupled with a regression model based on the Alternating Conditional Expectation (ACE) algorithm. VDM uses Fourier fitting with the information of nine virtual detectors expanded from the currently implemented FFM, which uses five-level detector information. By introducing virtual detectors, we can increase the number of axial detectors, and thus expect the computational errors of APS to be reduced. The two methods (SM and VDM) are applied to in-core mapping data from six cycles of Yong Gwang nuclear power plant Units 3 and 4. For ∼ 3500 cases of APSs extracted from a cycle of operation which is simulated by a three-dimensional nodal code, the accuracy of the three methods (SM, VDM, FFM) is compared. The average root mean square (RMS) error and average of axial peaking error of SM and VDM resulted in reduction of more than 50 % and 70 %, respectively, relative to FFM. VDM and SM also show more realistic axial profiles and predict more accurate axial peaking than FFM. These improvements can contribute to a larger thermal margin. SM shows the most accurate results for all cases. VDM can almost obtain the same results as SM, and using far fewer computation steps. VDM can be a useful tool for precisely reconstructing axial power shapes in a core monitoring system. (authors)

  3. Developing Virtual Power Plant for Optimized Distributed Energy Resources Operation and Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi

    Distributed Energy Resources (DER) are small-scale power generation and storage technologies, (typically in the range of a few kWe to tens of kWe) located close to the customer side. They are right now under heavy development and have a great market potential in the near future. However, these so......Distributed Energy Resources (DER) are small-scale power generation and storage technologies, (typically in the range of a few kWe to tens of kWe) located close to the customer side. They are right now under heavy development and have a great market potential in the near future. However...... units in the electric power system  Efficient electricity market participation to benefit both power system operation and DER owners To address these issues, an innovative concept Virtual Power Plant (VPP) is investigated in this PhD study. Based on a comprehensive overview of the state of the art...

  4. An accurate reactive power control study in virtual flux droop control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aimeng; Zhang, Jia

    2017-12-01

    This paper investigates the problem of reactive power sharing based on virtual flux droop method. Firstly, flux droop control method is derived, where complicated multiple feedback loops and parameter regulation are avoided. Then, the reasons for inaccurate reactive power sharing are theoretically analyzed. Further, a novel reactive power control scheme is proposed which consists of three parts: compensation control, voltage recovery control and flux droop control. Finally, the proposed reactive power control strategy is verified in a simplified microgrid model with two parallel DGs. The simulation results show that the proposed control scheme can achieve accurate reactive power sharing and zero deviation of voltage. Meanwhile, it has some advantages of simple control and excellent dynamic and static performance.

  5. Is micro-CHP price controllable under price signal controlled Virtual Power Plants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Træholt, Chresten; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    As micro-combined heat and power (micro-CHP) systems move towards mass deployment together with other kinds of distributed energy resources (DER), an increasing emphasis has been placed on how to coordinate such a large diversified DER portfolio in an efficient way by the Virtual Power Plant (VPP...... for three different micro-CHP systems to investigate the feasibility of being controlled by price. Such analysis is relevant for both controller designs for micro-CHP systems and VPP related operations. The results indicate that controlling the micro-CHP systems by price is feasible but could result...

  6. Distributed generation and demand response dispatch for a virtual power player energy and reserve provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faria, Pedro; Soares, Tiago; Vale, Zita

    2014-01-01

    Recent changes in the operation and planning of power systems have been motivated by the introduction of Distributed Generation (DG) and Demand Response (DR) in the competitive electricity markets’ environment, with deep concerns at the efficiency level. In this context, grid operators, market...... proposes a methodology which considers the joint dispatch of demand response and distributed generation in the context of a distribution network operated by a virtual power player. The resources’ participation can be performed in both energy and reserve contexts. This methodology contemplates...

  7. Power Flow Analysis for Low-Voltage AC and DC Microgrids Considering Droop Control and Virtual Impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Chaudhary, Sanjay Kumar; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    In the low-voltage (LV) ac microgrids (MGs), with a relatively high R/X ratio, virtual impedance is usually adopted to improve the performance of droop control applied to distributed generators (DGs). At the same time, LV dc MG using virtual impedance as droop control is emerging without adequate...... power flow studies. In this paper, power flow analyses for both ac and dc MGs are formulated and implemented. The mathematical models for both types of MGs considering the concept of virtual impedance are used to be in conformity with the practical control of the DGs. As a result, calculation accuracy...... is improved for both ac and dc MG power flow analyses, comparing with previous methods without considering virtual impedance. Case studies are conducted to verify the proposed power flow analyses in terms of convergence and accuracy. Investigation of the impact to the system of internal control parameters...

  8. Virtual instrument for controlling and monitoring digitalized power supply in SSRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Junlong; Chen Huanguang; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Xu Ruinian; Shen Tianjian; Li Deming

    2006-01-01

    The Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) needs extremely precise power supplies for their various magnets. A digital controller is being developed for the power converters of the SSRF power supply (PS). In the digital controller, a fully digital pulse-width modulator (PWM) directly controls the power unit insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) of the PS. A program in LabVIEW language has been developed to control and monitor the digital PS via serial communication (RS232) from a PC and to modify its parameters as well. In this article, the software design of the virtual instrument for controlling and monitoring digitalized PS and its associated functions are described, and the essential elements of the program graphical main-VI and sub-VI source code are presented and explained. The communication protocol and the structure of the developed system are also included in this article. (authors)

  9. Joint Scheduling Optimization of Virtual Power Plants and Equitable Profit Distribution Using Shapely Value Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-fu Tan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The installation capacity of wind and solar photovoltaic power is continually increasing, which makes renewable energy grid connection and power generation an important link of China’s power structure optimization. A virtual power plant (VPP is an important way to help distributed energy resource grid connection and promote renewable energy industry development. To study the economic scheduling problem of various distributed energy resources and the profit distribution problem of VPP alliance, this study builds a separate operation scheduling model for individual VPP and a joint operation scheduling model for VPP alliance, as well as the profit distribution model. The case study verifies the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model. The sensitivity analysis provides information about VPP decision-making in accordance with the policy environment development trend.

  10. The Optimal Configuration Scheme of the Virtual Power Plant Considering Benefits and Risks of Investors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingmin Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A virtual power plant (VPP is a special virtual unit that integrates various distributed energy resources (DERs distributed in the generation and consumption sides. The optimal configuration scheme of the VPP needs to break the geographical restrictions to make full use of DERs, considering the uncertainties. First, the components of the DERs and the structure of the VPP are briefly introduced. Next, the cubic exponential smoothing method is adopted to predict the VPP load requirement. Finally, the optimal configuration of the DER capacities inside the VPP is calculated by using portfolio theory and genetic algorithms (GA. The results show that the configuration scheme can optimize the DER capacities considering uncertainties, guaranteeing economic benefits of investors, and fully utilizing the DERs. Therefore, this paper provides a feasible reference for the optimal configuration scheme of the VPP from the perspective of investors.

  11. Modeling of power train by applying the virtual prototype concept; Kaso genkei ni yoru power train no model ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiramatsu, S; Harada, Y; Arakawa, H; Komori, S [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan); Sumida, S [U-Shin Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    This paper describes the simulation of power train that includes the model developed by applying the virtual prototype concept. By this concept, subsystem models which consist of functional model and mechanism models are integrated into a total system model. This peculiarity in architecture of model, which is called the hierarchical structure, enables us to model a system of large scale with many units, systems and parts easily. Two kinds of computer simulations are performed. One is engine revolution fluctuation by accessory load input, and the other is changing gears by automatic transmission. They are verified to have sufficient accuracy. 2 refs., 12 figs.

  12. Risk averse optimal operation of a virtual power plant using two stage stochastic programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajeddini, Mohammad Amin; Rahimi-Kian, Ashkan; Soroudi, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    VPP (Virtual Power Plant) is defined as a cluster of energy conversion/storage units which are centrally operated in order to improve the technical and economic performance. This paper addresses the optimal operation of a VPP considering the risk factors affecting its daily operation profits. The optimal operation is modelled in both day ahead and balancing markets as a two-stage stochastic mixed integer linear programming in order to maximize a GenCo (generation companies) expected profit. Furthermore, the CVaR (Conditional Value at Risk) is used as a risk measure technique in order to control the risk of low profit scenarios. The uncertain parameters, including the PV power output, wind power output and day-ahead market prices are modelled through scenarios. The proposed model is successfully applied to a real case study to show its applicability and the results are presented and thoroughly discussed. - Highlights: • Virtual power plant modelling considering a set of energy generating and conversion units. • Uncertainty modelling using two stage stochastic programming technique. • Risk modelling using conditional value at risk. • Flexible operation of renewable energy resources. • Electricity price uncertainty in day ahead energy markets

  13. Development of a virtual power market model to investigate strategic and collusive behavior of market players

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafie-khah, Miadreza; Parsa Moghaddam, Mohsen; Sheikh-El-Eslami, Mohamad Kazem

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a virtual power market model is proposed to investigate the behavior of power market players from regulator's point of view. In this approach, strategic players are modeled in a multi-agent environment. These agents which are virtual representative of actual players forecast the prices and participate in the markets, exactly the same as real world situation. In addition, the role of ISO is encountered by using security constraint unit commitment (SCUC) and security constraint economic dispatch (SCED) solutions. Moreover, the interaction between market players is modeled using a heuristic dynamic game theory algorithm based on the supply function equilibria (SFE). In addition to the collusive behavior, using the proposed model, the short-term strategic behavior of players, which their effects will appear in long-term, can be simulated. The proposed model enables the market regulators to make decision before implementing new market rules with the confidence of their results. To represent the effectiveness of the proposed method, a case study including wind power plants is considered and the impact of various market rules on players’ behavior is simulated and discussed. Numerical studies indicate that simulating the strategic and collusive behavior prior to any change in the market rules is necessary. - Highlights: • A virtual power market model is proposed using a heuristic dynamic game theory. • The proposed model can simulate the behavior of market players in a certain period. • This model can evaluate the oligopoly, collusive and strategic behavior of players. • The price uncertainty and security constraint are considered. • Neglecting strategic behavior of players can cause adverse consequences

  14. Virtual instrumention-based linearity test platform for DCCT of digital power supply at SSRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Junlong; Li Deming; Shen Tianjian; Liu Hong

    2008-01-01

    Based on virtual instrumentation, a reliable and effective test platform, performing instrument control, data acquisition and data recording, has been established to evaluate linearity of high performance DCCT (DC current transducer) for digital power supply at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF). The software in LabVIEW language was developed to perform computer communication via serial communication (RS232) and GPIB, providing a friendly user interface to the linearity test platform. This makes it easy to test the linearity and control power on or off and current output of high-precision and high-current DC constant current output power supply. The experimental data, stored in an EXCEL file, can be processed to obtain DCCT linearity, and provide basis to further analyze DCCT performance in the future. (authors)

  15. A Location Selection Policy of Live Virtual Machine Migration for Power Saving and Load Balancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Green cloud data center has become a research hotspot of virtualized cloud computing architecture. And load balancing has also been one of the most important goals in cloud data centers. Since live virtual machine (VM migration technology is widely used and studied in cloud computing, we have focused on location selection (migration policy of live VM migration for power saving and load balancing. We propose a novel approach MOGA-LS, which is a heuristic and self-adaptive multiobjective optimization algorithm based on the improved genetic algorithm (GA. This paper has presented the specific design and implementation of MOGA-LS such as the design of the genetic operators, fitness values, and elitism. We have introduced the Pareto dominance theory and the simulated annealing (SA idea into MOGA-LS and have presented the specific process to get the final solution, and thus, the whole approach achieves a long-term efficient optimization for power saving and load balancing. The experimental results demonstrate that MOGA-LS evidently reduces the total incremental power consumption and better protects the performance of VM migration and achieves the balancing of system load compared with the existing research. It makes the result of live VM migration more high-effective and meaningful.

  16. A location selection policy of live virtual machine migration for power saving and load balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jia; Ding, Yan; Xu, Gaochao; Hu, Liang; Dong, Yushuang; Fu, Xiaodong

    2013-01-01

    Green cloud data center has become a research hotspot of virtualized cloud computing architecture. And load balancing has also been one of the most important goals in cloud data centers. Since live virtual machine (VM) migration technology is widely used and studied in cloud computing, we have focused on location selection (migration policy) of live VM migration for power saving and load balancing. We propose a novel approach MOGA-LS, which is a heuristic and self-adaptive multiobjective optimization algorithm based on the improved genetic algorithm (GA). This paper has presented the specific design and implementation of MOGA-LS such as the design of the genetic operators, fitness values, and elitism. We have introduced the Pareto dominance theory and the simulated annealing (SA) idea into MOGA-LS and have presented the specific process to get the final solution, and thus, the whole approach achieves a long-term efficient optimization for power saving and load balancing. The experimental results demonstrate that MOGA-LS evidently reduces the total incremental power consumption and better protects the performance of VM migration and achieves the balancing of system load compared with the existing research. It makes the result of live VM migration more high-effective and meaningful.

  17. Aircraft panel with sensorless active sound power reduction capabilities through virtual mechanical impedances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulandet, R.; Michau, M.; Micheau, P.; Berry, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with an active structural acoustic control approach to reduce the transmission of tonal noise in aircraft cabins. The focus is on the practical implementation of the virtual mechanical impedances method by using sensoriactuators instead of conventional control units composed of separate sensors and actuators. The experimental setup includes two sensoriactuators developed from the electrodynamic inertial exciter and distributed over an aircraft trim panel which is subject to a time-harmonic diffuse sound field. The target mechanical impedances are first defined by solving a linear optimization problem from sound power measurements before being applied to the test panel using a complex envelope controller. Measured data are compared to results obtained with sensor-actuator pairs consisting of an accelerometer and an inertial exciter, particularly as regards sound power reduction. It is shown that the two types of control unit provide similar performance, and that here virtual impedance control stands apart from conventional active damping. In particular, it is clear from this study that extra vibrational energy must be provided by the actuators for optimal sound power reduction, mainly due to the high structural damping in the aircraft trim panel. Concluding remarks on the benefits of using these electrodynamic sensoriactuators to control tonal disturbances are also provided.

  18. Simulation of Digital Control Computer of Nuclear Power Plant Based on Virtual Machine Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Xue Yan; Li, Shu; Li, Qing [China Nuclear Power Operation Technology Co., Wuhan (China)

    2011-08-15

    Based on analyzing DCC (Digital Control Computer) instruction sets, memory map, display controllers and I/O system, virtual machine of DCC (abbr. VM DCC) has been developed. The executive and control programs, same as running on NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) unit's DCC, can run on the VM DCC smoothly and get same control results. Dual VM DCC system has been successfully applied in NPP FSS(Full Scope Simulator) training. It not only improves FSS's fidelity but also makes maintaining easier.

  19. Coalition of distributed generation units to virtual power players - a game theory approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago M; Santos, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    and the existence of new management players such as several types of aggregators. This paper proposes a methodology to facilitate the coalition between distributed generation units originating Virtual Power Players (VPP) considering a game theory approach. The proposed approach consists in the analysis...... strategies, size and goals, each parameter has different importance. VPP can also manage other type of energy resources, like storage units, electric vehicles, demand response programs or even parts of the MV and LV distribution network. A case study with twelve VPPs with different characteristics and one...

  20. Virtual Impedance Based Stability Improvement for DC Microgrids with Constant Power Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xiaonan; Sun, Kai; Huang, Lipei

    2014-01-01

    DC microgrid provides an efficient way to integrate different kinds of renewable energy sources with DC couplings. In this paper, in order to improve the stability of DC microgrids with constant power loads (CPLs), a virtual impedance based method is proposed. The CPLs have inherent instability....... To validate the stability with the above stabilizers in a DC microgrid with parallel interfacing converters and CPL, the impedance matching approach is employed. The output impedance of the source converter and input impedance of the load are calculated respectively, and the influence of droop control...

  1. Generic Virtual Power Plants: Management of Distributed Energy Resources under Liberalized Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Træholt, Chresten; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2009-01-01

    The emergence of Virtual Power Plant (VPP) can be attributed to the major boost of distributed energy resources (DER), which satisfies the changing needs of modern society on energy industry. Based on this concept, DER units disregarding the differences in each individualtechnology are loosely...... aggregated with a unique interface to the external grid and energy market. This paper gives a broad overview of state-of-the-art VPP concepts and proposes a detailed generic VPP (GVPP) model running in liberalized electricity market environment. An attempt is made to provide an outline of the main functions...

  2. Maximizing the Social Welfare of Virtual Power Players Operation in Case of Excessive Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faria, Pedro; Vale, Zita; Morais, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    based generation (including wind power) has caused several changes in the operation and planning of power systems and of electricity markets. Sometimes the available non-dispatchable generation is higher than the demand. This generation must be used; otherwise it is wasted if not stored or used...... that aggregates and manages the available energy resources. When facing a situation of excessive non-dispatchable generation, including wind power, real time pricing is applied in order to induce the increase of consumption so that wind curtailment is minimized. This method is especially useful when actual...... in this paper using a real 937-bus distribution network with 20.310 consumers and 548 distributed generators, some of them non-dispatchable and with must take contracts. The implemented scenario corresponds to a real day in Portuguese power system....

  3. Combined heat and power considered as a virtual steam cycle heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The first aim of this paper is to shed light on the thermodynamic reasons for the practical pursuit of low temperature operation by engineers involved in the design and the operation of combined heat and power (CHP) and district heating (DH) systems. The paper shows that the steam cycle of a combined heat and power generator is thermodynamically equivalent to a conventional steam cycle generator plus an additional virtual steam cycle heat pump. This apparently novel conceptualisation leads directly to (i) the observed sensitivity of coefficient of performance of CHP to supply and return temperatures in associated DH systems, and (ii) the conclusion that the performance of CHP will tend to be significantly higher than real heat pumps operating at similar temperatures. The second aim, which is pursued more qualitatively, is to show that the thermodynamic performance advantages of CHP are consistent with the goal of deep, long-term decarbonisation of industrialised economies. As an example, estimates are presented, which suggest that CHP based on combined-cycle gas turbines with carbon capture and storage has the potential to reduce the carbon intensity of delivered heat by a factor of ∼30, compared with a base case of natural gas-fired condensing boilers. - Highlights: → Large-scale CHP systems are thermodynamically equivalent to virtual steam cycle heat pumps. → COPs of such virtual heat pumps are necessarily better than the Carnot limit for real heat pumps. → COPs can approach 9 for plant matched to district heating systems with flow temperatures of 90 deg. C. → CHP combined with CCGT and CCS can reduce the carbon intensity of delivered heat ∼30-fold.

  4. Enhancing Cellular Coverage Quality by Virtual Access Point and Wireless Power Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsong Gui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultradensification deploying for cellular networks is a direct and effective method for the improvement of network capacity. However, the benefit is achieved at the cost of network infrastructure investment and operating overheads, especially when there is big gap between peak-hour Internet traffic and average one. Therefore, we put forward the concept of virtual cellular coverage area, where wireless terminals with high-end configuration are motivated to enhance cellular coverage quality by both providing RF energy compensation and rewarding free traffic access to Internet. This problem is formulated as the Stackelberg game based on three-party circular decision, where a Macro BS (MBS acts as the leader to offer a charging power to Energy Transferring Relays (ETRs, and the ETRs and their associating Virtual Access Points (VAPs act as the followers to make their decisions, respectively. According to the feedback from the followers, the leader may readjust its strategy. The circular decision is repeated until the powers converge. Also, the better response algorithm for each game player is proposed to iteratively achieve the Stackelberg-Nash Equilibrium (SNE. Theoretical analysis proves the convergence of the proposed game scheme, and simulation results demonstrate its effectiveness.

  5. 75 FR 38516 - Order on Intent To Revoke Market-Based Rate Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ..., Electric Quarterly Reports, Strategic Energy Management Corp., Solaro Energy Marketing Corporation. 1... (including market-based power sales, cost-based power sales, and transmission service) and providing transaction information (including rates) for short-term and long-term power sales during the most recent...

  6. Experimental progress on virtual-cathode very high power microwave source development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, M.V.; Hoeberling, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The evolution of rf accelerator technology toward high-power, high-current, low-emittance beams produces an ever-increasing demand for efficient, very high power microwave sources. The present klystron technology has performed very well but is not expected to produce reliable gigawatt peak-power units in the 1- to 10-GHz regime. Further major advancements must involve other types of sources. The reflexing electron sources can produce microwave powers at the gigawatt level and have demonstrated operation from 800 MHz to 40 GHz. Pulse length appears to be limited by electron-beam diode closure, and reflexing electron devices have been operated in a repetitively pulsed mode. An experiment is under way to investigate concepts to stabilize the frequency of the virtual cathode source. If one can successfully frequency and phase lock this source to an external signal, then this source can operate as a very high power microwave amplifier making it practical for accelerator applications. The progress on an experiment to test these concepts will be discussed

  7. Virtual marketing in virtual enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Ale Ebrahim, Nader; Fattahi, Hamaid Ali; Golnam, Arash

    2008-01-01

    Virtualization caused tremendous evolution in the economics of marketing channels, patterns of physical distribution and the structure of distributors and developed a new concept that is known as virtual marketing (VM). VM combines the powerful technologies of interactive marketing and virtual reality. Virtual enterprise (VE) refers to an organization not having a clear physical locus. In other words, VE is an organization distributed geographically and whose work is coordinated through e...

  8. Green maritime transportation: Market based measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to introduce the concept of Market Based Measures (MBMs) to reduce Green House Gas (GHG) emissions from ships, and review several distinct MBM proposals that have been under consideration by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The chapter discusses the me...... the mechanisms used by MBMs, and explores how the concept of the Marginal Abatement Cost (MAC) can be linked to MBMs. It also attempts to discuss the pros and cons of the submitted proposals....

  9. Virtual resistance-based control strategy for DC link regeneration protection and current sharing in uninterruptible power supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Jinghang; Guan, Yajuan; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    To address the DC link voltage regeneration issue in parallel Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) system, a DC link voltage protection (DCVP) method through online virtual resistance regulation is proposed. The proposed control strategy is able to protect the DC link from overvoltage that may...... trigger the protection mechanism of the UPS system. Moreover, a current sharing control strategy by regulating the virtual resistance is proposed to address the circulating current caused by the active power feeding. Finally, the feasibility of the proposed method is verified by experimental results from...

  10. Natural interfaces for interacting with a virtual control desk of a nuclear power plant simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghina, Mauricio Alves da Cunha e

    2012-01-01

    Due to very strict standards of safe operation of a nuclear power plant operators must be well trained so they can operate it within the necessary safety procedures. This is done through training simulators, which enable the user operation, as close as possible to the real control desk, and can be inserted accident situations, so they train, how to return the plant to a normal operating condition. Normally is used two types of simulator. Preferred is the full scope simulator, what is a computational dynamics program of the plant used in conjunction with a physical replica of the control desk, but this type of simulator involves a high construction cost. The second type is what uses synoptic windows of various regions of the original control desk, its construction cost is smaller, but it have a little fidelity to the original appearance of the table. Currently, with the use of virtual reality, control desks can be modeled in 3D, making the simulator interface is very similar to the appearance of the real control desk with a low cost construction. This work shows the use of natural interfaces for operator interaction with the virtual control desk, in order that it does not use any mechanical device for displaying and acting with it. For procedures that were used, such as: computer vision to recognize the position of the operator's and observation of their hands to the work of the desk controls and voice recognition. (author)

  11. Virtual control desk for operators training: a case study for a nuclear power plant simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghina, Mauricio Alves da Cunha e

    2009-03-01

    Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is a facility for electrical energy generation. Because of its high degree of complexity and very rigid norms of security it is extremely necessary that operators are very well trained for the NPP operation. A mistaken operation by a human operator may cause a shutdown of the NPP, incurring in a huge economical damage for the owner and for the population in the case of a electric net black out. To reduce the possibility of a mistaken operation, the NPP usually have a full scope simulator of the plant's control room, which is the physical copy of the original control room. The control of this simulator is a computer program that can generate the equal functioning of the normal one or some scenarios of accidents to train the operators in many abnormal conditions of the plant. A physical copy of the control room has a high cost for its construction, not only of its facilities but also for its physical components. The proposal of this work is to present a project of a virtual simulator with the modeling in 3D stereo of a control room of a given nuclear plant with the same operation functions of the original simulator. This virtual simulator will have a lower cost and serves for pretraining of operators with the intention of making them familiar to the original control room. (author)

  12. Field tests applying multi-agent technology for distributed control. Virtual power plants and wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffer, G.J.; Warmer, C.J.; Hommelberg, M.P.F.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Kok, J.K. [Energy in the Built Environment and Networks, Petten (Netherlands)

    2007-01-15

    Multi-agent technology is state of the art ICT. It is not yet widely applied in power control systems. However, it has a large potential for bottom-up, distributed control of a network with large-scale renewable energy sources (RES) and distributed energy resources (DER) in future power systems. At least two major European R and D projects (MicroGrids and CRISP) have investigated its potential. Both grid-related as well as market-related applications have been studied. This paper will focus on two field tests, performed in the Netherlands, applying multi-agent control by means of the PowerMatcher concept. The first field test focuses on the application of multi-agent technology in a commercial setting, i.e. by reducing the need for balancing power in the case of intermittent energy sources, such as wind energy. In this case the flexibility is used of demand and supply of industrial and residential consumers and producers. Imbalance reduction rates of over 40% have been achieved applying the PowerMatcher, and with a proper portfolio even larger rates are expected. In the second field test the multi-agent technology is used in the design and implementation of a virtual power plant (VPP). This VPP digitally connects a number of micro-CHP units, installed in residential dwellings, into a cluster that is controlled to reduce the local peak demand of the common low-voltage grid segment the micro-CHP units are connected to. In this way the VPP supports the local distribution system operator (DSO) to defer reinforcements in the grid infrastructure (substations and cables)

  13. Field tests applying multi-agent technology for distributed control. Virtual power plants and wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, G.J.; Warmer, C.J.; Hommelberg, M.P.F.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Kok, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    Multi-agent technology is state of the art ICT. It is not yet widely applied in power control systems. However, it has a large potential for bottom-up, distributed control of a network with large-scale renewable energy sources (RES) and distributed energy resources (DER) in future power systems. At least two major European R and D projects (MicroGrids and CRISP) have investigated its potential. Both grid-related as well as market-related applications have been studied. This paper will focus on two field tests, performed in the Netherlands, applying multi-agent control by means of the PowerMatcher concept. The first field test focuses on the application of multi-agent technology in a commercial setting, i.e. by reducing the need for balancing power in the case of intermittent energy sources, such as wind energy. In this case the flexibility is used of demand and supply of industrial and residential consumers and producers. Imbalance reduction rates of over 40% have been achieved applying the PowerMatcher, and with a proper portfolio even larger rates are expected. In the second field test the multi-agent technology is used in the design and implementation of a virtual power plant (VPP). This VPP digitally connects a number of micro-CHP units, installed in residential dwellings, into a cluster that is controlled to reduce the local peak demand of the common low-voltage grid segment the micro-CHP units are connected to. In this way the VPP supports the local distribution system operator (DSO) to defer reinforcements in the grid infrastructure (substations and cables)

  14. The influence and evaluation of different virtual reality presentations for the main control room of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Rouwen; Lin Chiuhsiang Joe; Lin Shiaufeng; Yang Chihwei; Cheng Tsungchieh; Yang Lichen

    2011-01-01

    Certainly, a nuclear power plant (NPP) is a complex system and requires high reliability. Engineering technology plays an important role in NPP that requires complex technical equipment and interfaces in order to achieve public security and working safety. Through training, operators can understand the nuclear power system and further establish the fit between human operators and the system, in order to reduce human errors and to ensure the working safety of the control room of NPP. However, the operator trainings for the control room of NPP are difficult and time-consuming. Virtual control room is thus developed using the virtual reality (VR) technology to help the training process. Presently several researches have developed virtual system for NPP for the purpose of training. However, whether the virtual training system for the control room of NPP can give users realistic immersive context as in the real environment is unknown. Whether these virtual systems are helpful in training performance are yet to be confirmed. For this reason, the control room of Lung-Men NPP of Taiwan was constructed with VR technology in this study in order to compare the performances of two VR representation methods (Desktop VR and Project VR). A searching task was planned in which the operators have to find out the objects appointed by the experimenter in the virtual interface of the main control room. The time to complete the task was collected as dependent variables in this experiment. The subjects have to complete the questionnaire that was developed for evaluating the usability of the virtual interface of MRC after finishing the experiment. The result showed that the performance of the virtual interface of NPP presented by the VR projector was better than the desktop. (author)

  15. Development of pilot model of virtual nuclear power plant and its application to radiation management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, K. D.; Sin, S. W.

    2002-01-01

    Using Virtual Reality (VR) technique, a real model for radiation controlled area in nuclear power plant was developed and a feasibility study to develop a computational program to estimate radiation dose was performed. For this purpose a pilot model with an dynamic function and bi-directional communication was developed. This model was enhanced from the existing 3-D single-directional communication. In this pilot model, a plant visitor needs a series of security checking process initially. If he(she) enters the controlled area and approaches radiation hazard area, the alarms with warning lamp will be initiated automatically. Throughout the test to connect this model from both domestic and international sites in various time zones it has proven that it showed a sufficient performance. Therefore this model can be applied to broad fields as radiation protection procedures photographic data, on-line dose program

  16. The Persuasive Power of Virtual Reality: Effects of Simulated Human Distress on Attitudes towards Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittaro, Luca; Zangrando, Nicola

    Although virtual reality (VR) is a powerful simulation tool that can allow users to experience the effects of their actions in vivid and memorable ways, explorations of VR as a persuasive technology are rare. In this paper, we focus on different ways of providing negative feedback for persuasive purposes through simulated experiences in VR. The persuasive goal we consider concerns awareness of personal fire safety issues and the experiment we describe focuses on attitudes towards smoke in evacuating buildings. We test two techniques: the first technique simulates the damaging effects of smoke on the user through a visualization that should not evoke strong emotions, while the second is aimed at partially reproducing the anxiety of an emergency situation. The results of the study show that the second technique is able to increase user's anxiety as well as producing better results in attitude change.

  17. A Cost-Effective Virtual Environment for Simulating and Training Powered Wheelchairs Manoeuvres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headleand, Christopher J; Day, Thomas; Pop, Serban R; Ritsos, Panagiotis D; John, Nigel W

    2016-01-01

    Control of a powered wheelchair is often not intuitive, making training of new users a challenging and sometimes hazardous task. Collisions, due to a lack of experience can result in injury for the user and other individuals. By conducting training activities in virtual reality (VR), we can potentially improve driving skills whilst avoiding the risks inherent to the real world. However, until recently VR technology has been expensive and limited the commercial feasibility of a general training solution. We describe Wheelchair-Rift, a cost effective prototype simulator that makes use of the Oculus Rift head mounted display and the Leap Motion hand tracking device. It has been assessed for face validity by a panel of experts from a local Posture and Mobility Service. Initial results augur well for our cost-effective training solution.

  18. Risk-averse formulations and methods for a virtual power plant

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, Ricardo M.; Conejo, Antonio J.; Langodan, Sabique; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Knio, Omar M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we address the optimal operation of a virtual power plant using stochastic programming. We consider one risk-neutral and two risk-averse formulations that rely on the conditional value at risk. To handle large-scale problems, we implement two decomposition methods with variants using single- and multiple-cuts. We propose the utilization of wind ensembles obtained from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) to quantify the uncertainty of the wind forecast. We present detailed results relative to the computational performance of the risk-averse formulations, the decomposition methods, and risk management and sensitivities analysis as a function of the number of scenarios and risk parameters. The implementation of the two decomposition methods relies on the parallel solution of subproblems, which turns out to be paramount for computational efficiency. The results show that one of the two decomposition methods is the most efficient.

  19. Risk-averse formulations and methods for a virtual power plant

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, Ricardo M.

    2017-12-15

    In this paper we address the optimal operation of a virtual power plant using stochastic programming. We consider one risk-neutral and two risk-averse formulations that rely on the conditional value at risk. To handle large-scale problems, we implement two decomposition methods with variants using single- and multiple-cuts. We propose the utilization of wind ensembles obtained from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) to quantify the uncertainty of the wind forecast. We present detailed results relative to the computational performance of the risk-averse formulations, the decomposition methods, and risk management and sensitivities analysis as a function of the number of scenarios and risk parameters. The implementation of the two decomposition methods relies on the parallel solution of subproblems, which turns out to be paramount for computational efficiency. The results show that one of the two decomposition methods is the most efficient.

  20. Day-ahead resource scheduling of a renewable energy based virtual power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamani, Ali Ghahgharaee; Zakariazadeh, Alireza; Jadid, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Simultaneous energy and reserve scheduling of a VPP. • Aggregate uncertainties of electricity prices, renewable generation and load demand. • Develop a stochastic scheduling model using the point estimate method. - Abstract: The evolution of energy markets is accelerating in the direction of a greater reliance upon distributed energy resources (DERs). To manage this increasing two-way complexity, virtual power plants (VPPs) are being deployed today all over the world. In this paper, a probabilistic model for optimal day ahead scheduling of electrical and thermal energy resources in a VPP is proposed where participation of energy storage systems and demand response programs (DRPs) are also taken into account. In the proposed model, energy and reserve is simultaneously scheduled considering the uncertainties of market prices, electrical demand and intermittent renewable power generation. The Point Estimate Method (PEM) is applied in order to model the uncertainties of VPP’s scheduling problem. Moreover, the optimal reserve scheduling of VPP is presented which efficiently decreases VPP’s risk facing the unexpected fluctuations of uncertain parameters at the power delivery time. The results demonstrated that implementation of demand response programs (DRPs) would decrease total operation costs of VPP as well as its dependency on the upstream network.

  1. A full scope nuclear power plant simulator for multiple reactor types with virtual control panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, Hisanori; Ueda, Hiroki; Kato, Takahisa

    2017-01-01

    This paper summarizes a full scope nuclear power plant simulator for multiple reactor types with virtual control panels which Toshiba developed and delivered. After the Fukushima DAIICHI nuclear power plants accident, it is required that all the people who are engaged in the design, manufacturing, operation, maintenance, management and regulation for the nuclear power plant should learn the wide and deep knowledge about the nuclear power plant design including the severe accident. For this purpose, the training with a full scope simulator is one of the most suitable ways. However the existing full scope simulators which are consist of the control panels replica of the referenced plants are costly and they are hard to remodel to fit to the real plant of the latest condition. That's why Toshiba developed and delivered the new concept simulator system which covers multiple referenced plants even though they have different design like BWR and PWR. The control panels of the simulator are made by combining 69 large Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) panels with touch screen instead of a control panel replica of referenced plant. The screen size of the each panel is 42 inches and 3 displays are arranged in tandem for one unit and 23 units are connected together. Each panel displays switches, indicators, recorders and lamps with the Computer Graphics (CG) and trainees operate them with touch operations. The simulator includes a BWR and a PWR simulator model, which enable trainees to learn the wide and deep knowledge about the nuclear power plant of BWR and PWR reactor types. (author)

  2. Selection and impedance based model of a lithium ion battery technology for integration with virtual power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2013-01-01

    is to integrate lithium-ion batteries into virtual power plants; thus, the power system stability and the energy quality can be increased. The selection of the best lithium-ion battery candidate for integration with wind power plants is a key aspect for the economic feasibility of the virtual power plant...... investment. This paper presents a methodology for selection, between three candidates, of a Li-ion battery which offers long cycle lifetime at partial charge/discharge (required by many grid support applications) while providing a low cost per cycle also. For the selected Li-ion battery an impedance......-based diagnostic tool for lifetime estimation was developed and verified. This diagnostic tool can be extended into an impedance-based lifetime model that will be able to predict the remaining useful lifetime of Li-ion batteries for specific grid support applications....

  3. Stochastic profit-based scheduling of industrial virtual power plant using the best demand response strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosratabadi, Seyyed Mostafa; Hooshmand, Rahmat-Allah; Gholipour, Eskandar

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • VPPs and IVPPs are defined for energy management of aggregated generations. • IVPP can manage industrial microgrid containing some relevant load and generation. • A stochastic modeling is proposed to schedule optimal generations in competition market. • Wind generation and day-ahead and spot market prices are considered to be stochastic. • A new DRL program selection scheme is presented in the scheduling procedure. - Abstract: One of the main classified microgrids in a power system is the industrial microgrid. Due to its behaviors and the heavy loads, its energy management is challengeable. Virtual Power Plant (VPP) can be an important concept in managing such problems in this kind of grids. Here, a transmission power system is considered as a Regional Electric Company (REC) and the VPPs comprising Distributed Generation (DG) units and Demand Response Loads (DRLs) are determined in this system. This paper focuses on Industrial VPP (IVPP) and its management. An IVPP can be determined as a management unit comprising generations and loads in an industrial microgrid. Since the scheduling procedure for these units is very important for their participation in a short-term electric market, a stochastic formulation is proposed for power scheduling in VPPs especially in IVPPs in this paper. By introducing the DRL programs and using the proposed modeling, the operator can select the best DRL program for each VPP in a scheduling procedure. In this regard, a suitable approach is presented to determine the proposed formulation and its solution in a Mixed Integer Non-Linear Programming (MINLP). To validate the performance of the proposed method, the IEEE Reliability Test System (IEEE-RTS) is considered to apply the method on it, while some challenging aspects are presented.

  4. Micro-size cogeneration plants and virtual power plants. New energy landscapes; Mikro-KWK und virtuelle Kraftwerke. Neue Energielandschaften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roon, Serafin von [Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft e.V., Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Combined heat and power generation is an established technology. With micro-size cogeneration units, the technology is now available to private single or multiple dwellings and for decentral power supply of residential blocks. With the right political boundary conditions and integrated into virtual power stations, this is an option for enhanced use of renewable energy sources and for decentral, flexible and climate-friendly heat and power generation in buildings. Economic efficiency analyses by experts, high utilisation rates, innovative developments of the manufacturers and a positive public image are all in favour of a great future for micro-size cogeneration units. (orig.)

  5. A Virtual Power Plant Architecture for the Demand-Side Management of Smart Prosumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pasetti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a conceptual study on a Virtual Power Plant (VPP architecture for the optimal management of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs owned by prosumers participating in Demand-Side Management (DSM programs. Compared to classical VPP architectures, which aim to aggregate several DERs dispersed throughout the electrical grid, in the proposed VPP architecture the supervised physical domain is limited to single users, i.e., to single Points of Delivery (PODs of the distribution network. The VPP architecture is based on a service-oriented approach, where multiple agents cooperate to implement the optimal management of the prosumer’s assets, by also considering different forms of Demand Response (DR requests. The considered DR schemes range from Price-Based DRs to Event-Based DRs, covering both the normal operating functions and the emergency control requests applied in modern distribution networks. With respect to centralized approaches, in this study the control perspective is moved from the system level to the single prosumer’s level, who is allowed to independently provide flexible power profiles through the aggregation of multiple DERs. A generalized optimization model, formulated as a Mixed-Integer Linear Programming (MILP problem, is also introduced. Such a model is able to compute the optimal scheduling of a prosumer’s assets by considering both DR requests and end-users’ requirements in terms of comfort levels while minimizing the costs.

  6. Stability Enhancement Based on Virtual Impedance for DC Microgrids with Constant Power Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xiaonan; Sun, Kai; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a converter-based DC microgrid is studied. By considering the impact of each component in DC microgrids on system stability, a multi-stage configuration is employed, which includes the source stage, interface converter stage between buses and common load stage. In order to study th....... It can be seen that by using the proposed stabilizers, the unstable poles induced by the CPLs are forced to move into the stable region. The proposed method is verified by the MATLAB/Simulink model of multi-stage DC microgrids with three distributed power generation units.......In this paper, a converter-based DC microgrid is studied. By considering the impact of each component in DC microgrids on system stability, a multi-stage configuration is employed, which includes the source stage, interface converter stage between buses and common load stage. In order to study...... the overall stability of the above DC microgrid with constant power loads (CPLs), a comprehensive small-signal model is derived by analyzing the interface converters in each stage. The instability issue induced by the CPLs is revealed by using the criteria of impedance matching. Meanwhile, virtual...

  7. GreenVMAS: Virtual Organization Based Platform for Heating Greenhouses Using Waste Energy from Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Briones, Alfonso; Chamoso, Pablo; Yoe, Hyun; Corchado, Juan M

    2018-03-14

    The gradual depletion of energy resources makes it necessary to optimize their use and to reuse them. Although great advances have already been made in optimizing energy generation processes, many of these processes generate energy that inevitably gets wasted. A clear example of this are nuclear, thermal and carbon power plants, which lose a large amount of energy that could otherwise be used for different purposes, such as heating greenhouses. The role of GreenVMAS is to maintain the required temperature level in greenhouses by using the waste energy generated by power plants. It incorporates a case-based reasoning system, virtual organizations and algorithms for data analysis and for efficient interaction with sensors and actuators. The system is context aware and scalable as it incorporates an artificial neural network, this means that it can operate correctly even if the number and characteristics of the greenhouses participating in the case study change. The architecture was evaluated empirically and the results show that the user's energy bill is greatly reduced with the implemented system.

  8. GreenVMAS: Virtual Organization Based Platform for Heating Greenhouses Using Waste Energy from Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso González-Briones

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The gradual depletion of energy resources makes it necessary to optimize their use and to reuse them. Although great advances have already been made in optimizing energy generation processes, many of these processes generate energy that inevitably gets wasted. A clear example of this are nuclear, thermal and carbon power plants, which lose a large amount of energy that could otherwise be used for different purposes, such as heating greenhouses. The role of GreenVMAS is to maintain the required temperature level in greenhouses by using the waste energy generated by power plants. It incorporates a case-based reasoning system, virtual organizations and algorithms for data analysis and for efficient interaction with sensors and actuators. The system is context aware and scalable as it incorporates an artificial neural network, this means that it can operate correctly even if the number and characteristics of the greenhouses participating in the case study change. The architecture was evaluated empirically and the results show that the user’s energy bill is greatly reduced with the implemented system.

  9. Congestion management of electric distribution networks through market based methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun

     EVs and HPs. Market-based congestion management methods are the focus of the thesis. They handle the potential congestion at the energy planning stage; therefore, the aggregators can optimally plan the energy consumption and have the least impact on the customers. After reviewing and identifying...... the shortcomings of the existing methods, the thesis fully studies and improves the dynamic tariff (DT) method, and proposes two  new market-based  congestion management methods,  namely the  dynamic subsidy (DS) method and the flexible demand swap method. The thesis improves the DT method from four aspects......Rapidly increasing share of intermittent renewable energy production poses a great challenge of the management and operation of the modern power systems. Deployment of a large number of flexible demands, such as electrical vehicles (EVs) and heat pumps (HPs), is believed to be a promising solution...

  10. A comparative study of imbalance reduction strategies for virtual power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, J.; Vandewalle, J.; D'haeseleer, W.

    2014-01-01

    The penetration of a large amount of distributed generation (DG) technologies with intermittent output, such as photovoltaic installations and wind turbines, yields an important challenge to the electric grid. It is believed that aggregating them with controllable technologies such as cogeneration devices (CHP) can help to balance fluctuations of renewable energy. This work evaluates the ability of a virtual power plant (VPP) to reduce the imbalance error of renewable generators. The study is undertaken in a VPP that consists of several cogeneration devices and photovoltaic (PV) installations. The virtual power plant operator bids electricity into the day-ahead market using the forecast for solar irradiation and for the thermal demand. During the actual day, the imbalance due to deviations between the forecasted electricity delivered and the real output has to be settled in the balancing market. Thus, in order to compensate these errors and possible economic drawbacks, the operation of the CHP is adjusted periodically in a so called reschedule. Two different rescheduling strategies are compared against a ‘reference scenario’ in which the imbalance error is settled in the market. The first one (‘forced strategy’) aims at reducing the imbalance error every time step regardless of the imbalance prices. The second (‘economic strategy’) considers the imbalance prices and takes only action if it is economically appropriate and thus intends to reduce the total operational cost. The results show that the rescheduling technique is able to reduce the imbalance error (up to 90% depending on the season and the strategy). Additionally, the total operational cost is estimated. However, the nowadays imbalance prices only lead to a minor financial advantage that is unlikely to motivate real life operators to perform a rescheduling strategy. - Highlights: • The VPP is dispatched by a day-ahead optimization followed by a rescheduling. • A forced rescheduling strategy

  11. Virtual solar field - An opportunity to optimize transient processes in line-focus CSP power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noureldin, Kareem; Hirsch, Tobias; Pitz-Paal, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Optimizing solar field operation and control is a key factor to improve the competitiveness of line-focus solar thermal power plants. However, the risks of assessing new and innovative control strategies on operational power plants hinder such optimizations and result in applying more conservative control schemes. In this paper, we describe some applications for a whole solar field transient in-house simulation tool developed at the German Aerospace Centre (DLR), the Virtual Solar Field (VSF). The tool offers a virtual platform to simulate real solar fields while coupling the thermal and hydraulic conditions of the field with high computational efficiency. Using the tool, developers and operator can probe their control strategies and assess the potential benefits while avoiding the high risks and costs. In this paper, we study the benefits gained from controlling the loop valves and of using direct normal irradiance maps and forecasts for the field control. Loop valve control is interesting for many solar field operators since it provides a high degree of flexibility to the control of the solar field through regulating the flow rate in each loop. This improves the reaction to transient condition, such as passing clouds and field start-up in the morning. Nevertheless, due to the large number of loops and the sensitivity of the field control to the valve settings, this process needs to be automated and the effect of changing the setting of each valve on the whole field control needs to be taken into account. We used VSF to implement simple control algorithms to control the loop valves and to study the benefits that could be gained from using active loop valve control during transient conditions. Secondly, we study how using short-term highly spatially-resolved DNI forecasts provided by cloud cameras could improve the plant energy yield. Both cases show an improvement in the plant efficiency and outlet temperature stability. This paves the road for further

  12. Multi-objective stochastic scheduling optimization model for connecting a virtual power plant to wind-photovoltaic-electric vehicles considering uncertainties and demand response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Liwei; Li, Huanhuan; Zhao, Junwei; Chen, Kangting; Tan, Qingkun; Tan, Zhongfu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Our research focuses on virtual power plant. • Electric vehicle group and demand response are integrated into virtual power plant. • Stochastic chance constraint planning is applied to overcome uncertainties. • A multi-objective stochastic scheduling model is proposed for virtual power plant. • A three-stage hybrid intelligent solution algorithm is proposed for solving the model. - Abstract: A stochastic chance-constrained planning method is applied to build a multi-objective optimization model for virtual power plant scheduling. Firstly, the implementation cost of demand response is calculated using the system income difference. Secondly, a wind power plant, photovoltaic power, an electric vehicle group and a conventional power plant are aggregated into a virtual power plant. A stochastic scheduling model is proposed for the virtual power plant, considering uncertainties under three objective functions. Thirdly, a three-stage hybrid intelligent solution algorithm is proposed, featuring the particle swarm optimization algorithm, the entropy weight method and the fuzzy satisfaction theory. Finally, the Yunnan distributed power demonstration project in China is utilized for example analysis. Simulation results demonstrate that when considering uncertainties, the system will reduce the grid connection of the wind power plant and photovoltaic power to decrease the power shortage punishment cost. The average reduction of the system power shortage punishment cost and the operation revenue of virtual power plant are 61.5% and 1.76%, respectively, while the average increase of the system abandoned energy cost is 40.4%. The output of the virtual power plant exhibits a reverse distribution with the confidence degree of the uncertainty variable. The proposed algorithm rapidly calculates a global optimal set. The electric vehicle group could provide spinning reserve to ensure stability of the output of the virtual power plant. Demand response could

  13. Stochastic Optimal Dispatch of Virtual Power Plant considering Correlation of Distributed Generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual power plant (VPP is an aggregation of multiple distributed generations, energy storage, and controllable loads. Affected by natural conditions, the uncontrollable distributed generations within VPP, such as wind and photovoltaic generations, are extremely random and relative. Considering the randomness and its correlation of uncontrollable distributed generations, this paper constructs the chance constraints stochastic optimal dispatch of VPP including stochastic variables and its random correlation. The probability distributions of independent wind and photovoltaic generations are described by empirical distribution functions, and their joint probability density model is established by Frank-copula function. And then, sample average approximation (SAA is applied to convert the chance constrained stochastic optimization model into a deterministic optimization model. Simulation cases are calculated based on the AIMMS. Simulation results of this paper mathematic model are compared with the results of deterministic optimization model without stochastic variables and stochastic optimization considering stochastic variables but not random correlation. Furthermore, this paper analyzes how SAA sampling frequency and the confidence level influence the results of stochastic optimization. The numerical example results show the effectiveness of the stochastic optimal dispatch of VPP considering the randomness and its correlations of distributed generations.

  14. A Bilevel Scheduling Approach for Modeling Energy Transaction of Virtual Power Plants in Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nazari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available By increasing the use of distributed generation (DG in the distribution network operation, an entity called virtual power plant (VPP has been introduced to control, dispatch and aggregate the generation of DGs, enabling them to participate either in the electricity market or the distribution network operation. The participation of VPPs in the electricity market has made challenges to fairly allocate payments and benefits between VPPs and distribution network operator (DNO. This paper presents a bilevel scheduling approach to model the energy transaction between VPPs and DNO.  The upper level corresponds to the decision making of VPPs which bid their long- term contract prices so that their own profits are maximized and the lower level represents the DNO decision making to supply electricity demand of the network by minimizing its overall cost. The proposed bilevel scheduling approach is transformed to a single level optimizing problem using its Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT optimality conditions. Several scenarios are applied to scrutinize the effectiveness and usefulness of the proposed model. 

  15. A Hands-Free Interface for Controlling Virtual Electric-Powered Wheelchairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauseef Gulrez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on how to provide mobility to people with motor impairments with the integration of robotics and wearable computing systems. The burden of learning to control powered mobility devices should not fall entirely on the people with disabilities. Instead, the system should be able to learn the user's movements. This requires learning the degrees of freedom of user movement, and mapping these degrees of freedom onto electric-powered wheelchair (EPW controls. Such mapping cannot be static because in some cases users will eventually improve with practice. Our goal in this paper is to present a hands-free interface (HFI that can be customized to the varying needs of EPW users with appropriate mapping between the users' degrees of freedom and EPW controls. EPW users with different impairment types must learn how to operate a wheelchair with their residual body motions. EPW interfaces are often customized to fit their needs. An HFI utilizes the signals generated by the user's voluntary shoulder and elbow movements and translates them into an EPW control scheme. We examine the correlation of kinematics that occur during moderately paced repetitive elbow and shoulder movements for a range of motion. The output of upper-limb movements (shoulder and elbows was tested on six participants, and compared with an output of a precision position tracking (PPT optical system for validation. We find strong correlations between the HFI signal counts and PPT optical system during different upper-limb movements (ranged from r = 0.86 to 0.94. We also tested the HFI performance in driving the EPW in a virtual reality environment on a spinal-cord-injured (SCI patient. The results showed that the HFI was able to adapt and translate the residual mobility of the SCI patient into efficient control commands within a week's training. The results are encouraging for the development of more efficient HFIs, especially for wheelchair users.

  16. Virtual Grower 3: A powerful decision support tool for greenhouse systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several years ago, Virtual Grower software was released to the public. Initially designed to help greenhouse growers determine heating costs and do simple simulations to figure out where heat savings could be achieved, it has slowly added features. Now, Virtual Grower can help not only identify he...

  17. Full scope simulator of a nuclear power plant control room using 3D stereo virtual reality techniques for operators training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghina, Mauricio A.C.; Mol, Antonio Carlos A.; Almeida, Adino Americo A.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.; Varela, Thiago F.B.

    2007-01-01

    Practical training of nuclear power plants operators are partially performed by means of simulators. Usually these simulators are physical copies of the original control roam, needing a large space on a facility being also very expensive. In this way, the proposal of this paper is to implement the use of Virtual Reality techniques to design a full scope control room simulator, in a manner to reduce costs and physical space usage. (author)

  18. Implementation of a virtual link between power system testbeds at Marshall Spaceflight Center and Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doreswamy, Rajiv

    1990-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) owns and operates a space station module power management and distribution (SSM-PMAD) testbed. This system, managed by expert systems, is used to analyze and develop power system automation techniques for Space Station Freedom. The Lewis Research Center (LeRC), Cleveland, Ohio, has developed and implemented a space station electrical power system (EPS) testbed. This system and its power management controller are representative of the overall Space Station Freedom power system. A virtual link is being implemented between the testbeds at MSFC and LeRC. This link would enable configuration of SSM-PMAD as a load center for the EPS testbed at LeRC. This connection will add to the versatility of both systems, and provide an environment of enhanced realism for operation of both testbeds.

  19. Some design lessons from market-based greenhouse gas regulation in the restructured Australian electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGill, Iain; Outhred, Hugh; Nolles, Karel

    2006-01-01

    There is growing worldwide interest in the use of market-based policy instruments for climate change regulation in the electricity sector. These mechanisms would seem to offer some efficiency and flexibility advantages over more traditional regulatory approaches, while being highly compatible with competitive market-based electricity industries. Australia has been an early and enthusiastic adopter of both electricity industry restructuring and market-based environmental instruments. This paper first outlines some of these recent policy developments. In particular, we describe the objectives, design and outcomes to date of electricity industry restructuring, the Mandatory Renewable Energy Target, the NSW Greenhouse Benchmarks, the Queensland 13% Gas scheme and Government accredited Green Power. From this, we draw some key design lessons for such market-based instruments. These include the perils of abstraction in scheme design, the vital importance of setting appropriate baselines in 'baseline and credit' schemes, the possibility that such measures may interact in ways that reduce their environmental effectiveness, 'market for lemon' risks with tradable instruments that have measurement, verification or 'additionality' difficulties, and the challenges of creating transparent liquid markets for these mechanisms. The mixed performance of these Australian schemes to date illustrates the need for great care in designing such market-based approaches

  20. Some design lessons from market-based greenhouse gas regulation in the restructured Australian electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacGill, Iain [School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia)] e-mail: i.macgill@unsw.edu.au; Outhred, Hugh [School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia); Nolles, Karel [School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2006-01-01

    There is growing worldwide interest in the use of market-based policy instruments for climate change regulation in the electricity sector. These mechanisms would seem to offer some efficiency and flexibility advantages over more traditional regulatory approaches, while being highly compatible with competitive market-based electricity industries. Australia has been an early and enthusiastic adopter of both electricity industry restructuring and market-based environmental instruments. This paper first outlines some of these recent policy developments. In particular, we describe the objectives, design and outcomes to date of electricity industry restructuring, the Mandatory Renewable Energy Target, the NSW Greenhouse Benchmarks, the Queensland 13% Gas scheme and Government accredited Green Power. From this, we draw some key design lessons for such market-based instruments. These include the perils of abstraction in scheme design, the vital importance of setting appropriate baselines in 'baseline and credit' schemes, the possibility that such measures may interact in ways that reduce their environmental effectiveness, 'market for lemon' risks with tradable instruments that have measurement, verification or 'additionality' difficulties, and the challenges of creating transparent liquid markets for these mechanisms. The mixed performance of these Australian schemes to date illustrates the need for great care in designing such market-based approaches.

  1. Some design lessons from market-based greenhouse gas regulation in the restructured Australian electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iain MacGill; Hugh Outhred; Karel Nolles [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Electrical Engineering & Telecommunications

    2006-01-01

    There is growing worldwide interest in the use of market-based policy instruments for climate change regulation in the electricity sector. These mechanisms would seem to offer some efficiency and flexibility advantages over more traditional regulatory approaches, while being highly compatible with competitive market-based electricity industries. Australia has been an early and enthusiastic adopter of both electricity industry restructuring and market-based environmental instruments. This paper first outlines some of these recent policy developments. It then describes the objectives, design and outcomes to date of electricity industry restructuring, the Mandatory Renewable Energy Target, the NSW Greenhouse Benchmarks, the Queensland 13% Gas scheme and Government accredited Green Power. From this, some key design lessons are drawn for such market-based instruments. These include the perils of abstraction in scheme design, the vital importance of setting appropriate baselines in 'baseline and credit' schemes, the possibility that such measures may interact in ways that reduce their environmental effectiveness, 'market for lemon' risks with tradable instruments that have measurement, verification or 'additionality' difficulties, and the challenges of creating transparent liquid markets for these mechanisms. The mixed performance of these Australian schemes to date illustrates the need for great care in designing such market-based approaches. 36 refs., 2 figs.

  2. A Virtual Test Bed for PEBB-Based Ship Power Systems, Volume 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dougal, Roger

    1997-01-01

    .... The use of virtual prototypes, rather than hardware prototypes, allows the U.S. Navy to maintain its technological superiority by exploiting its dominant position with respect to information technologies...

  3. A Virtual Test Bed for PEBB-Based Ship Power Systems, Volume 2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dougal, Roger

    1997-01-01

    .... The use of virtual prototypes, rather than hardware prototypes, allows the U.S. Navy to maintain its technological superiority by exploiting its dominant position with respect to information technologies...

  4. An Islanding Microgrid Power Sharing Approach Using Enhanced Virtual Impedance Control Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Jinwei; Li, Yun Wei; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    In order to address the load sharing problem in islanding microgrids, this paper proposes an enhanced distributed generation (DG) unit virtual impedance control approach. The proposed method can realize accurate regulation of DG unit equivalent impedance at both fundamental and selected harmonic...... and PCC harmonic voltage compensation are achieved without using any fundamental and harmonic components extractions. Experimental results from a scaled single-phase microgrid prototype are provided to validate the feasibility of the proposed virtual impedance control approach....... frequencies. In contrast to conventional virtual impedance control methods, where only a line current feed-forward term is added to the DG voltage reference, the proposed virtual impedance at fundamental and harmonic frequencies is regulated using DG line current and point of common coupling (PCC) voltage...

  5. 7 CFR 1467.20 - Market-based conservation initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Market-based conservation initiatives. 1467.20....20 Market-based conservation initiatives. (a) Acceptance and use of contributions. Section 1241(e) of... for Conservation Improvements. (1) USDA recognizes that environmental benefits will be achieved by...

  6. Anthropometric Considerations in the Modernized Main Control Room: Application to a Virtual Nuclear Power Plant Control Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chih Wei; Cheng, Tsung Chieh; Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the anthropometric considerations in the main control room (MCR) application to a virtual nuclear power plant (NPP) control panel. Influences of working postures and physical demands on the operational performance are also discussed. Finally, the present research provides a case example to illustrate the influences of anthropometric considerations on the control panel design for MCR operators by applying virtual reality (VR) technology. The MCR design primarily evolved in different countries. The datasets available is usually insufficient or inconsistent for the end users. To solve the upper mentioned problem, this study put emphasis on applying VR technology to anthropometric considerations support control panel design in the modernized MCR. Although the concept of applying VR technology on anthropometric considerations in this paper is related to the MCR in NPPs, it could be easily applied for the purposes of any type of control room in a similar manner

  7. Anthropometric Considerations in the Modernized Main Control Room: Application to a Virtual Nuclear Power Plant Control Panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chih Wei; Cheng, Tsung Chieh [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan (China); Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe [Chung-Yuan Christian University, Chung Li (China)

    2011-08-15

    This study investigates the anthropometric considerations in the main control room (MCR) application to a virtual nuclear power plant (NPP) control panel. Influences of working postures and physical demands on the operational performance are also discussed. Finally, the present research provides a case example to illustrate the influences of anthropometric considerations on the control panel design for MCR operators by applying virtual reality (VR) technology. The MCR design primarily evolved in different countries. The datasets available is usually insufficient or inconsistent for the end users. To solve the upper mentioned problem, this study put emphasis on applying VR technology to anthropometric considerations support control panel design in the modernized MCR. Although the concept of applying VR technology on anthropometric considerations in this paper is related to the MCR in NPPs, it could be easily applied for the purposes of any type of control room in a similar manner.

  8. Bidding strategies for virtual power plants considering CHPs and intermittent renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata Riveros, J.; Bruninx, K.; Poncelet, K.; D’haeseleer, W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A stochastic optimization evaluates the optimal bidding strategy of a VPP. • Three different strategies were assessed: ‘static’, ‘flexible DA’ and ‘flexible RT’. • The ‘flexible RT’ attains the largest profits. It adapts the VPP output in real-time. - Abstract: Energy efficiency and renewable-energy sources (RES) are fundamental parts of the European energy policy. For this reason, efficient distributed generation technologies such as combined heat and power coupled to district heating (CHP–DH) and RES based electricity are largely promoted. Additionally, the flexibility that CHP–DH offers to the power system is seen as an option to balance the intermittent output of RES-based generation. This could be done by aggregating RES based electricity generation and CHP DH in a virtual power plant (VPP). In this framework, the present work presents a methodology to evaluate the optimal bidding strategy of a VPP composed of a CHP–DH and RES based generators. The objective is to investigate the optimal bidding strategy for a VPP that uses CHP DH to compensate for the uncertainties regarding RES-based electricity generation and market prices. The VPP operator nominates its energy to the day ahead market the day before the actual delivery (D-1). In real time, any deviation from the day-ahead schedule is settled in the imbalance market. The uncertainties are modeled using a two stage stochastic programming approach. Three different bidding strategies are studied: ‘static’, ‘flexible DA’ and ‘flexible RT’. The major difference between the studied strategies lies in the dispatch decisions. The ‘static’ strategy does not adjust the scheduled output of the CHP. Whereas, the ‘flexible DA’ and ‘flexible RT’ strategies differ from each other in terms of the information available at the moment of performing the reschedule (second stage decision). The ‘flexible DA’ reschedules the CHP output for the whole day assuming

  9. The power and pain of market-based carbon policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henderson, B.; Golub, A.; Pambudi, D.; Hertel, T.; Godde, C.; Herrero, M.; Cacho, O.; Gerber, P.

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this research are to assess the greenhouse gas mitigation potential of carbon policies applied to the ruminant livestock sector [inclusive of the major ruminant species—cattle (Bos Taurus and Bos indicus), sheep (Ovis aries), and goats (Capra hircus)]—with particular emphasis on

  10. Simulation of Power Produced by a Building Added PV System in Indonesia using virtual reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, A.J.; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    In this study a PV system will be simulated using virtual reality software for PV system simulations -called VR4PV - to show the effectiveness of the modelling of PV systems on buildings which are placed in the tropics. The PV system used for this study has been installed in Papua, Indonesia and

  11. Development of a dose database in the refuelling scenario of a nuclear power plant for a virtual reality application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenas, J.; Zarza, I.; Pascual, A.; Felipe, A.; Sanchez-Mayoral, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    Operators in Nuclear Power Plants can receive high doses during refuelling operation. A training program simulating refuelling operations will be useful to reduce doses received by workers as well as to minimise operation time. With this goal in mind a Virtual Reality application is developed in the frame of CIPRES Project (Calculos Interactivos de Proteccion Radiologica en un Entorno de Simulacion - Interactive Calculations of Radiological Protection in a Simulation Environment), a RD project sponsored by IBERINCO and developed jointly by IBERINCO and the Nuclear Engineering Department of the Polytechnic University of Valencia. The Virtual Reality application requires the possibility of displaying doses, both instantaneous and accumulated, at all times during the operator training. Therefore, it is necessary to elaborate a database containing dose rates at every point of the refuelling plant. This database is elaborated from Radiological Protection Surveillance data measured throughout the plant during refuelling operation. To estimate doses throughout the refuelling plant some interpolation routines have been used. Different assumptions have been adopted in order to perform the interpolation and obtain consistent data. In this paper, procedures developed to elaborate the dose database for the Virtual Reality application are presented and analysed

  12. 77 FR 11531 - Electric Quarterly Reports, Acacia Energy, Inc., et al.; Notice of Revocation of Market-Based...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ...-000 Nordic Marketing of Illinois, Docket No. ER03-888-000 L.L.C. Nordic Marketing of Michigan, Docket No. ER04-264-000 L.L.C. Nordic Marketing, L.L.C Docket No. ER00-774-000 Pirin Solutions, Inc Docket... (including market-based power sales, cost-based power sales, and transmission service) and providing...

  13. A complex bid model and strategy for dispatchable loads in real-time market-based demand response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babar, M.; Nguyen, P.H.; Cuk, V.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Kling, W.L.

    2014-01-01

    The power system is moving into the new era of Smart Grid with the help of advance ICT and other developed technologies. These advancements made the demand response as an integral part of power and energy systems. Nowadays, the concept of Energy bidding is emerging in the Market-based Demand

  14. Market-based autonomous resource and application management in private clouds

    KAUST Repository

    Costache, Stefania; Kortas, Samuel; Morin, Christine; Parlavantzas, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    High Performance Computing (HPC) clouds need to be efficiently shared between selfish tenants having applications with different resource requirements and Service Level Objectives (SLOs). The main difficulty relies on providing concurrent resource access to such tenants while maximizing the resource utilization. To overcome this challenge, we propose Merkat, a market-based SLO-driven cloud platform. Merkat relies on a market-based model specifically designed for on-demand fine-grain resource allocation to maximize resource utilization and it uses a combination of currency distribution and dynamic resource pricing to ensure proper resource distribution among tenants. To meet the tenant’s SLO, Merkat uses autonomous controllers, which apply adaptation policies that: (i) dynamically tune the application’s provisioned CPU and memory per virtual machine in contention periods, or (ii) dynamically change the number of virtual machines. Our evaluation with simulation and on the Grid’5000 testbed shows that Merkat provides flexible support for different application types and SLOs and good tenant satisfaction compared to existing centralized systems, while the infrastructure resource utilization is improved.

  15. Market-based autonomous resource and application management in private clouds

    KAUST Repository

    Costache, Stefania

    2016-10-12

    High Performance Computing (HPC) clouds need to be efficiently shared between selfish tenants having applications with different resource requirements and Service Level Objectives (SLOs). The main difficulty relies on providing concurrent resource access to such tenants while maximizing the resource utilization. To overcome this challenge, we propose Merkat, a market-based SLO-driven cloud platform. Merkat relies on a market-based model specifically designed for on-demand fine-grain resource allocation to maximize resource utilization and it uses a combination of currency distribution and dynamic resource pricing to ensure proper resource distribution among tenants. To meet the tenant’s SLO, Merkat uses autonomous controllers, which apply adaptation policies that: (i) dynamically tune the application’s provisioned CPU and memory per virtual machine in contention periods, or (ii) dynamically change the number of virtual machines. Our evaluation with simulation and on the Grid’5000 testbed shows that Merkat provides flexible support for different application types and SLOs and good tenant satisfaction compared to existing centralized systems, while the infrastructure resource utilization is improved.

  16. Challenges in the development of market-based pipeline investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Bassenheim, G.; Mohitpour, M.; Klaudt, D.; Jenkins, A.

    2000-01-01

    The challenges, risks and uncertainties that the natural gas industry faces in developing market-based pipeline projects were discussed. Market-based pipeline investments are fundamentally different from user-driven projects. Market-based projected involve finding enough energy users and linking them with a pipeline infrastructure to viable supplies of natural gas. Each unique project is developed individually and requires a strong corporate vision and support before it can be successfully implemented. The three phases of a pipeline investment include the business development phase, the project development phase, and the implementation/operations phase. Market-based companies will need a clear vision for long-term goals and the desire to succeed. The company will have to prepare a detailed strategy and policies that clearly define geographic areas of operations, risk tolerance, availability of capital and expected project performance. 3 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  17. Reducing radiation exposures at nuclear power plants using virtual job planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verzilov, Y.; Husain, A.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Dose Exposure Planning Tool (ADEPT) is an innovative solution for assisting nuclear station staff to effectively minimize worker dose during inspection and maintenance activities and to improve ALARA job planning. ADEPT combines visualization and simulation of the radioactive environment at a nuclear station to estimate worker dose. It allows users to walk through a virtual job plan and receive a live radiation dose estimate for the planned work. (author)

  18. The power of virtual integration: an interview with Dell Computer's Michael Dell. Interview by Joan Magretta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, M

    1998-01-01

    Michael Dell started his computer company in 1984 with a simple business insight. He could bypass the dealer channel through which personal computers were then being sold and sell directly to customers, building products to order. Dell's direct model eliminated the dealer's markup and the risks associated with carrying large inventories of finished goods. In this interview, Michael Dell provides a detailed description of how his company is pushing that business model one step further, toward what he calls virtual integration. Dell is using technology and information to blur the traditional boundaries in the value chain between suppliers, manufacturers, and customers. The individual pieces of Dell's strategy--customer focus, supplier partnerships, mass customization, just-in-time manufacturing--may be all be familiar. But Michael Dell's business insight into how to combine them is highly innovative. Direct relationships with customers create valuable information, which in turn allows the company to coordinate its entire value chain back through manufacturing to product design. Dell describes how his company has come to achieve this tight coordination without the "drag effect" of ownership. Dell reaps the advantages of being vertically integrated without incurring the costs, all the while achieving the focus, agility, and speed of a virtual organization. As envisioned by Michael Dell, virtual integration may well become a new organizational model for the information age.

  19. Application Prospect of Block Chain Technology in Virtual Power Plant%区块链技术在虚拟电厂中的应用前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何奇琳; 艾芊

    2017-01-01

    从区块链技术与虚拟电厂的概念和特点出发,通过二者特性的相似点以及虚拟电厂的发展需求,分析了区块链技术与虚拟电厂融合的互补性,重点分析了区块链技术应用于虚拟电厂的可行性;同时,区块链技术与虚拟电厂技术融合后的系统仍存在一些问题,值得思考和关注.%Based on the concept and characteristics of blockchain and virtual power plants,this paper analyzed the complementarity of integration between block chain technology and virtual power plant technology through the similarity of these two technology's characteristics and the development demand of virtual power plants,and focuses on analysis of the feasibility about the blockchain technology used in a virtual power plant.At the same time,the blockchain technology and the virtual power plant technology fusion system still has some problems worthy of our consideration and concern.

  20. Market-Based Resource Allocation in a Wirelessly Integrated Naval Engineering Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    available wireless nodes will be developed. Using a multi-agent approach based on free market economics (termed market based control) will be explored...as battery power, data storage capacity, MPU time, wireless bandwidth, etc.) required to perform complex computational tasks are available only in a...network. One approach to this problem is to apply free-market economics to help allocate these resources. Free-market economies can be thought of as

  1. Implementation of an Electric Vehicle Test Bed Controlled by a Virtual Power Plant for Contributing to Regulating Power Reserves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Sacchetti, Dario; Pedersen, Anders Bro

    2012-01-01

    and communication interfaces, is able to respond in real-time to smart grid control signals. The EV test bed is equipped with a Lithium-ion battery pack, a Battery Management System (BMS), a charger and a Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) unit for feeding power back to the grid. The designed solution serves......With the increased focus on Electric Vehicles (EV) research and the potential benefits they bring for smart grid applications, there is a growing need for an evaluation platform connected to the electricity grid. This paper addresses the design of an EV test bed, which using real EV components...... requests from the Danish TSO are used as a proof-of-concept, to demonstrate the EV test bed power response. Test results have proven the capability to respond to frequent power control requests and they reveal the potential EV ability for contributing to regulating power reserves....

  2. DCS upgrades for nuclear power plants: Saving money and reducing risk through virtual-stimulation control system checkout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKim, G.; Yeager, M.; Weirich, C.

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear power plant control systems of 1970's vintage have reached the end of their life: reliability is poor and spare parts are hard to come by. At First Energy Perry station, two costly feedwater system trips caused by an ailing analog control system led to the decision to replace it with a modern Foxboro I/A-series Distributed Control System. The simulator was also upgraded using the Virtual-Stim simulation of I/A, called FSIM. Virtual-Stim simulation allows the configuration and graphics from the plant to be downloaded onto the simulator as-is, using the same tools and operator interface as the plant, without imprecise translations, conversions, or other emulation. Advances in simulation technology and market forces have led to an open architecture design, allowing FSIM to be 'bridged' to Perry's existing Opensim simulator process model. This appears to be an industry-wide trend as more control system vendors offer Virtual Stimulation solutions for connection to third-party simulation products. Taking a cue from First Energy's Sammis Station FSIM simulator projects, the Perry simulator was used for dedicated control verification and tuning. Preventing forced outages caused by control configuration errors can result in enormous savings, and the simulator is now required to precede any plant modifications rather than just a training tool that lags the plant. This testing revealed several surprising results for a relatively straightforward control strategy, showing that simulator-based testing will be even more crucial in the future as the remain-der of the balance of plant is migrated to digital control. (author)

  3. Summary of replies to the public consultation on the virtual power plants (VPP) system implemented by EDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    From 15 December 2005 to 13 January 2006, CRE organized a public consultation on the Virtual Power Plants (VPP) system implemented by EDF. The questions asked to the contributors concerned: their assessment of the effect of VPP on the French market during the period 2001-2005; their suggestions concerning the continuation or stopping of the current system, or concerning the setting up of a new system of energy or generation capacity release by EDF. Twenty three players in the French electricity market answered this consultation. The replies made by the various contributors to each question are very diversified. This document presents the summary of replies received, question by question. (A.L.B.)

  4. Summary of replies to the public consultation on the virtual power plants (VPP) system implemented by EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    From 15 December 2005 to 13 January 2006, CRE organized a public consultation on the Virtual Power Plants (VPP) system implemented by EDF. The questions asked to the contributors concerned: their assessment of the effect of VPP on the French market during the period 2001-2005; their suggestions concerning the continuation or stopping of the current system, or concerning the setting up of a new system of energy or generation capacity release by EDF. Twenty three players in the French electricity market answered this consultation. The replies made by the various contributors to each question are very diversified. This document presents the summary of replies received, question by question. (A.L.B.)

  5. Improving the Stability and Accuracy of Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation Using Virtual Impedance Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Zha

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL systems are advanced, real-time platforms for combined software and hardware testing. Two paramount issues in PHIL simulations are the closed-loop stability and simulation accuracy. This paper presents a virtual impedance (VI method for PHIL simulations that improves the simulation’s stability and accuracy. Through the establishment of an impedance model for a PHIL simulation circuit, which is composed of a voltage-source converter and a simple network, the stability and accuracy of the PHIL system are analyzed. Then, the proposed VI method is implemented in a digital real-time simulator and used to correct the combined impedance in the impedance model, achieving higher stability and accuracy of the results. The validity of the VI method is verified through the PHIL simulation of two typical PHIL examples.

  6. Server virtualization solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Jonasts, Gusts

    2012-01-01

    Currently in the information technology sector that is responsible for a server infrastructure is a huge development in the field of server virtualization on x86 computer architecture. As a prerequisite for such a virtualization development is growth in server productivity and underutilization of available computing power. Several companies in the market are working on two virtualization architectures – hypervizor and hosting. In this paper several of virtualization products that use host...

  7. Short-term Wind Forecasting to Support Virtual Power Player Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Sérgio; Soares, João; Pinto, Tiago; Vale, Zita

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a wind speed forecasting model that contributes to the development and implementation of adequate methodologies for Energy Resource Man-agement in a distribution power network, with intensive use of wind based power generation. The proposed fore-casting methodology aims to support the operation in the scope of the intraday resources scheduling model, name-ly with a time horizon of 10 minutes. A case study using a real database from the meteoro-logical station installed ...

  8. Regional virtual power plant. State of the art; Regionales virtuelles Kraftwerk. Eine Ist-Stand-Analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, Joachim; Meinzenbach, Andrea [TU Dresden (Germany). Professur fuer Gebaeudeenergietechnik und Waermeversorgung; Hartan, Joerg [VNG Gasspeicher GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Fachgruppe fuer Automatisierung und Prozessleittechnik; Schegner, Peter [TU Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Elektrische Energieversorgung und Hochspannungstechnik; Rehkopf, Andreas [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Automatisierungstechnik

    2013-04-15

    The politically and socially desired rearrangement of the energy sector in Germany becomes very challenging for the regional and national utility company. In particular, the integration of renewable energy sources into the power structures is mentioned. The activities mainly focus on the electric power sector. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration reports on two current research projects. These research projects look for solutions in order to operate micro-CHP systems in the network in addition to the isolated operation.

  9. Tidal power: will it bring 40 years of virtually free power, or is it still no more than a dream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C

    1978-04-01

    First proposed in Canada in 1919, the use of tidal power to generate electricity remains a well-studied but unproved option. The Cumberland Basin has been recommended for research and engineering studies as a possible site. A single-effect system is preferred over a double-effect system for the Bay of Fundy area because of construction costs. Although major problems arise because the lunar cycle and solar cycles do not coincide, tidal power could provide utility base loads. No significant dampening of the tidal effect was seen to be caused by a dam across open water, but other complications remain to be solved. System stability, the effect of dredging and sedimentation, social and ecological impacts will be examined in the next phase of assessment. A coalition of conservationists will monitor the environmental study. (DCK)

  10. Proceedings: 1996 EPRI conference on innovative approaches to electricity pricing: Managing the transition to market-based pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the proceedings from the EPRI conference on innovative approaches to electricity pricing. Topics discussed include: power transmission pricing; retail pricing; price risk management; new pricing paradigms; changes from cost-based to a market-based pricing scheme; ancillary services; retail market strategies; profitability; unbundling; and value added services. This is the leading abstract. Papers are processed separately for the databases

  11. Improvement of core monitoring code cecor by the virtual segmentation of the self powered neutron detector loaded at Korean Standard Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, T.; Jung, Y.S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Korean Standard Nuclear Plant uses Self Powered Neutron Detectors (SPNDs) to measure the neutron flux in the reactor core. The SPND's height is 40 cm and is located axially at the five different positions and 45 radial places. The design code simulated a reactor core is calculated by segmentation of the core. The segmentation is called as 'node', of which size is normally 20 cm. The axial height of the detector is larger than that of the node, and the larger detector's height maybe product some error on the axially complex shape. The analysis with the detector's signals showed some errors at the non-cosine axial flux shape. In order to reduce the errors for the shape, we tried to divide the detector by introducing the virtual boundary in the detector. Then, each axially 5 detectors had two virtual segmentations respectively and the detector's signal was divided by the inputs. So the more virtual detector's signals were gotten, the more accurate axial shape was produced. The result with virtual segmentations in a detector gave less deviation than the case without virtual segmentation (the current model). After the middle of cycle at the initial core specially, the axial neutron flux shape is changed to the saddle type one. The current model gave some error in Root Mean Square (RMS) between the measured value and the calculated one. The virtual segmentation model gave the better agreement at that time

  12. Instruction by virtual reality to operation and security of a nuclear power plant of IV generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neri O, J. C.; Baltasar M, J.; Valle H, J.

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of LaNuVi project which is developing in the Engineering Faculty of National Autonomous University of Mexico, to have a virtual laboratory of nuclear reactors as tool of multidisciplinary education at basic and advanced levels in nuclear engineering area, involves training resources in audio visual and interactive form that allow to form a comprehension more realistic of operation of different systems and components. In this work is proposed to use educational resources, as the employees in the U.S. Army and in some centers of advanced education of medicine, where have been come proving concepts like projected reality, increased reality, tele transparency and others that present big benefits to learning-education process. The proposal here is to include the resource knew as serious game based learning. The focal point of stage that is presented is of a nuclear reactor PBMR like desalination and generator of controlled alternating energy and efficient that should put on in operation to allow the subsistence of a community in a desolated region of beginning second quarter of X XI century. For this purpose the designs are initiated and programmed several subsystems that allow the three-dimensional modeling of main components of a PBMR as well as of surrounding facilities. The obtained results and reaches of this design are presented. The product is in tests for a first version and it is hope to achieve a free and integral resource of national distribution for different cultural groups, interested in this type of advanced technology. (Author)

  13. Virtual Organizations: Beyond Network Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Gabriel CRETU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most used buzz-words in (e-business literature of the last decade is virtual organization. The term "virtual" can be identified in all sorts of combinations regarding the business world. From virtual products to virtual processes or virtual teams, everything that is “touched” by the computer’s processing power instantly becomes virtual. Moreover, most of the literature treats virtual and network organizations as being synonyms. This paper aims to draw a much more distinctive line between the two concepts. Providing a more coherent description of what virtual organization might be is also one of our intentions.

  14. Facilitating sustainability through smart network design in combination with virtual power plant operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Bakari, K.; Kling, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    While smart grids are considered as an outcome to integrate a high penetration level of dispersed generation (DG) in the power system, most distribution networks are still passive controlled. To accelerate the transition towards smart grids network operators can take two important steps: 1.

  15. A Market-Based Approach to Multi-factory Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vytelingum, Perukrishnen; Rogers, Alex; MacBeth, Douglas K.; Dutta, Partha; Stranjak, Armin; Jennings, Nicholas R.

    In this paper, we report on the design of a novel market-based approach for decentralised scheduling across multiple factories. Specifically, because of the limitations of scheduling in a centralised manner - which requires a center to have complete and perfect information for optimality and the truthful revelation of potentially commercially private preferences to that center - we advocate an informationally decentralised approach that is both agile and dynamic. In particular, this work adopts a market-based approach for decentralised scheduling by considering the different stakeholders representing different factories as self-interested, profit-motivated economic agents that trade resources for the scheduling of jobs. The overall schedule of these jobs is then an emergent behaviour of the strategic interaction of these trading agents bidding for resources in a market based on limited information and their own preferences. Using a simple (zero-intelligence) bidding strategy, we empirically demonstrate that our market-based approach achieves a lower bound efficiency of 84%. This represents a trade-off between a reasonable level of efficiency (compared to a centralised approach) and the desirable benefits of a decentralised solution.

  16. Virtual reality applied in the ergonomic evaluation of nuclear power plant control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatto, Leandro Barbosa da Silveira

    2012-01-01

    A nuclear power plant control room is a complex system that controls a nuclear and thermodynamic process used to produce electrical energy. The operators interact with the control room through interfaces that have significant implications to nuclear power plant safety and influence the operator activity. The operator activity presents complexity features and shows a series of mechanisms absents from the human factors guidelines, important to the evaluation and update of control rooms. The ergonomics approach considers the operation strategies, the interaction between the operators, the operator-system interaction, and interaction between operators and support groups. The main objective of this paper is propose the modeling of a nuclear control room, with the support of a game engine core. This tool will be used in the ergonomic evaluation of nuclear control room, generating information and data that will make possible the adequacy of control rooms features to the legal requirements of the regulating agency, assisting the nuclear licensing. (author)

  17. Restricted conformal invariance in QCD and its predictive power for virtual two-photon processes

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, D

    1998-01-01

    The conformal algebra provides powerful constraints, which guarantee that renormalized conformally covariant operators exist in the hypothetical conformal limit of the theory, where the $\\beta$-function vanishes. Thus, in this limit also the conformally covariant operator product expansion on the light cone holds true. This operator product expansion has predictive power for two-photon processes in the generalized Bjorken region. Only the Wilson coefficients and the anomalous dimensions that are known from deep inelastic scattering are required for the prediction of all other two-photon processes in terms of the process-dependent off-diagonal expectation values of conformal operators. It is checked that the next-to-leading order calculations for the flavour non-singlet meson transition form factors are consistent with the corrections to the corresponding Wilson coefficients in deep inelasitic scattering.

  18. Divestiture or virtual power plants - the solution to the problem of the dominant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppens, F.

    2005-01-01

    The European commission adopted the directive on 'the common rules for the creation of the internal electricity market' in 1996. After about ten years, it seems that in many smaller countries the historical producer remains dominant in the national market. This is the case for Belgium, where historical reasons and limited interconnection capacity resulted in a market share between 70% and 80% (depending on whether the interconnections are taken into account) for the historical producer Electrabel. This might potentially lead to an abuse of market power. Moreover, the wholesale margins seem to be higher in Belgium than e.g. in the Netherlands. Many argue that divestiture or additional VPP might solve the problem. This paper argues that there is no doubt whatsoever that divestiture and VPP will increase competition. However, whether it will also increase efficiency depends strongly on the specific context. It is shown that the existence of margins might be due to other causes than the abuse of market power and as a consequence that divestiture and VPP might not be the solution. (Author)

  19. Virtualization A Manager's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Kusnetzky, Dan

    2011-01-01

    What exactly is virtualization? As this concise book explains, virtualization is a smorgasbord of technologies that offer organizations many advantages, whether you're managing extremely large stores of rapidly changing data, scaling out an application, or harnessing huge amounts of computational power. With this guide, you get an overview of the five main types of virtualization technology, along with information on security, management, and modern use cases. Topics include: Access virtualization-Allows access to any application from any deviceApplication virtualization-Enables applications

  20. Market-based transmission expansion planning by improved differential evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgilakis, Pavlos S.

    2010-01-01

    The restructuring and deregulation has exposed the transmission planner to new objectives and uncertainties. As a result, new criteria and approaches are needed for transmission expansion planning (TEP) in deregulated electricity markets. This paper proposes a new market-based approach for TEP. An improved differential evolution (IDE) model is proposed for the solution of this new market-based TEP problem. The modifications of IDE in comparison to the simple differential evolution method are: (1) the scaling factor F is varied randomly within some range, (2) an auxiliary set is employed to enhance the diversity of the population, (3) the newly generated trial vector is compared with the nearest parent, and (4) the simple feasibility rule is used to treat the constraints. Results from the application of the proposed method on the IEEE 30-bus test system demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of the proposed IDE for the solution of TEP problem. (author)

  1. Smart spatial incentives for market-based conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Hartig, Florian; Drechsler, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Market-based instruments such as payments, auctions or tradable permits have been proposed as flexible and cost-effective instruments for biodiversity conservation on private lands. Trading the service of conservation requires one to define a metric that determines the extent to which a conserved site adds to the regional conservation objective. Yet, while markets for conservation are widely discussed and increasingly applied, little research has been conducted on explicitly accounting for sp...

  2. Virtually teaching virtual leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Thomas Duus; Nielsen, Rikke Kristine; Børgesen, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    This paper seeks to investigate the challenges to virtual collaboration and leadership on basis of findings from a virtual course on collaboration and leadership. The course used for this experiment was designed as a practical approach, which allowed participants to experience curriculum phenomena....... This experimental course provided insights into the challenges involved in virtual processes, and those experiences where used for addressing the challenges that virtual leadership is confronted with. Emphasis was placed on the reduction of undesired virtual distance and its consequences through affinity building....... We found that student scepticism appeared when a breakdown resulted in increasing virtual distance, and raises questions on how leaders might translate or upgrade their understandings of leadership to handling such increased distance through affinity building....

  3. A comprehensive market-based scheme for VAR management and pricing in the electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Araby, E.E. [Qassim Univ., Alqassim, Meldia (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    In order to enable a power system to operate within an acceptable degree of reliability and security, the provision of VAR ancillary services from the VAR sources in electricity markets is the most effective method. The procurement of VAR services is particularly problematic for transmission operators as it relates to pricing mechanism and various technical issues during system operation. This paper proposed an integrated market-based approach for pricing VAR service in the electricity market. The paper was an extension of the authors' proposal for the provision of the VAR service from dynamic VAR sources in a competitive market-based environment. The formulation was modified to include VAR utilization payment and possible power system transition states multiple base cases and contingencies with their associated occurrence probabilities. The paper discussed the basic terms of the proposed approach including the VAR market objective and generator VAR output and its compensation. The mathematical formulation that considered VAR capacity payment, utilization payment and operating costs under the previous transition states in a unified single problem were introduced. The overall problem formulation and solution algorithm were also presented as a large-scale mixed integer nonlinear optimization problem. It was concluded that the proposed method was suited for the simulation and analysis of the existing VAR market. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs., 2 appendices.

  4. A medium-term coalition-forming model of heterogeneous DERs for a commercial virtual power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabanzadeh, Morteza; Sheikh-El-Eslami, Mohammad-Kazem; Haghifam, Mahmoud-Reza

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A medium-term coalition-forming scheme is proposed for commercial VPPs. • Decision making on the optimal selection of VPP coalition members, bilateral and forward contracting, and pool involvement. • VPP acts as an arbitrageur by exercising arbitrage between diverse energy trading floors. • Stochastic programming approach applied to characterize the uncertainty and to derive informed decisions. - Abstract: Within a medium-term market horizon, this research work provides a methodology that allows a commercial virtual power plant (CVPP) to form an optimal coalition of heterogeneous distributed energy resources (DERs) based on weekly bilateral contracting, futures-market involvement, and pool participation. The established model aims at composing an optimal portfolio of available DERs and jointly takes into account the risk associated with the energy trading strategy of the CVPP. Perceiving the fact that pool prices have highly uncertain nature, a framework based on stochastic programming approach is utilized to model this decision-making problem. The proposed framework consists of two stages. The first stage deals with decisions regarding DERs optimal selection for the VPP coalition, the amount of agreed quantity in the bilateral negotiation, and the type and quantity selection of futures-market contracts as well. In the second stage, decisions are made based on the most plausible realizations of the stochastic prices in the day-ahead market. For a given pre-specified risk level on profit volatility, the main objective is to maximize the expected profit for the VPP manager over the planning horizon. The efficiency and applicability of the developed model is illustrated and analyzed by its implementation in a system with few heterogeneous DERs and through different scenarios, and finally thereby meaningful conclusions are duly drawn.

  5. Integration of renewable energy plants based on generic data models in the energy management of a virtual power plant; Integration von erneuerbaren Energieanlagen auf Basis generischer Datenmodelle in das Energiemanagement eines virtuellen Kraftwerks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickert, Manuel; Slaby, Wolfgang; Hochloff, Patrick [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Windenergie und Energiesystemtechnik (IWES), Kassel (Germany); Winter, Martin [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany). Corporate Technology

    2012-07-01

    The integration of different types of energy resources manufactured by different vendors is one of the main challenges for virtual power plants. One of the important problems is a highly heterogeneous standardization environment for decentralized renewable energy resources. On the one hand proprietary solutions are implemented for some types of energy resources. In a future smart grid it is getting more and more important to handle decentralized energy generation. The project RegModHarz researched the dynamic integration of energy resources in virtual power plants based on generic data models. This paper introduces a concept for the integration of heterogeneous energy resources into the energy management of a virtual power plant using a uniform data model. On the assumption of a market-oriented virtual power plant the main attributes of this data model are generally identified and afterwards explained by examples. The capability of this data model is shown in a comprehensive field test with different renewable energy resources. (orig.)

  6. The power of Virtual Globes for valorising cultural heritage and enabling sustainable tourism: NASA World Wind applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovelli, M.; Hogan, P.; Minghini, M.; Zamboni, G.

    2013-10-01

    Inspired by the visionary idea of Digital Earth, as well as from the tremendous improvements in geo-technologies, use of virtual globes has been changing the way people approach to geographic information on the Web. Unlike the traditional 2D-visualization typical of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), virtual globes offer multi-dimensional, fully-realistic content visualization which allows for a much richer user experience. This research investigates the potential for using virtual globes to foster tourism and enhance cultural heritage. The paper first outlines the state of the art for existing virtual globes, pointing out some possible categorizations according to license type, platform-dependence, application type, default layers, functionalities and freedom of customization. Based on this analysis, the NASA World Wind virtual globe is the preferred tool for promoting tourism and cultural heritage. This is because its open source nature allows unlimited customization (in terms of both data and functionalities), and its Java core supports platform-independence. Relevant tourism-oriented World Wind-based applications, dealing with both the Web promotion of historical cartography and the setup of a participatory Web platform exploiting crowd-sourced data, are described. Finally, the paper presents a project focusing on the promotion of the Via Regina area (crossing the border between Italy and Switzerland) through an ad hoc World Wind customization. World Wind can thus be considered an ideal virtual globe for tourism applications, as it can be shaped to increase awareness of cultural history and, in turn, enhance touristic experience.

  7. Training simulators for power plant operation based in multimedia, intelligent tutorials and virtual reality; Simuladores para entrenamiento en la operacion de centrales basados en multimedia, tutores inteligentes y realidad virtual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossano Roman, Miguel; Tavira Mondragon, Jose A.; Romero Jimenez, Guillermo; Buenabad Arias, Maria de los Angeles [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The possibility of utilizing simulators to support the fossil fuel power plants operation personnel training, is analyzed. These simulators can be based in multimedia, intelligent tutorials and virtual reality. The software and hardware advances of these technologies are analyzed and it is concluded that the simulators development for operators training supported in the fore mentioned technologies represents a new alternative for the instruction of personnel of this type of power stations that has to be analyzed and evaluated, since one of the disadvantages of this type of technologies is the equipment and software investment cost [Espanol] Se analiza la posibilidad de utilizar simuladores para ayudar al entrenamiento del personal en la operacion de centrales termoelectricas, dichos simuladores pueden estar basados en multimedia, tutores inteligentes y realidad virtual. Se describen los avances en software y hardware de estas tecnologias y se concluye en que el desarrollo de simuladores para el entrenamiento de operadores apoyados con las tecnologias antes mencionadas representa una nueva alternativa para la instruccion del personal de este tipo de centrales, que hay que analizar y evaluar, ya que una de las desventajas de este tipo de tecnologias es el costo de inversion en equipo y software

  8. Training simulators for power plant operation based in multimedia, intelligent tutorials and virtual reality; Simuladores para entrenamiento en la operacion de centrales basados en multimedia, tutores inteligentes y realidad virtual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossano Roman, Miguel; Tavira Mondragon, Jose A; Romero Jimenez, Guillermo; Buenabad Arias, Maria de los Angeles [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The possibility of utilizing simulators to support the fossil fuel power plants operation personnel training, is analyzed. These simulators can be based in multimedia, intelligent tutorials and virtual reality. The software and hardware advances of these technologies are analyzed and it is concluded that the simulators development for operators training supported in the fore mentioned technologies represents a new alternative for the instruction of personnel of this type of power stations that has to be analyzed and evaluated, since one of the disadvantages of this type of technologies is the equipment and software investment cost [Espanol] Se analiza la posibilidad de utilizar simuladores para ayudar al entrenamiento del personal en la operacion de centrales termoelectricas, dichos simuladores pueden estar basados en multimedia, tutores inteligentes y realidad virtual. Se describen los avances en software y hardware de estas tecnologias y se concluye en que el desarrollo de simuladores para el entrenamiento de operadores apoyados con las tecnologias antes mencionadas representa una nueva alternativa para la instruccion del personal de este tipo de centrales, que hay que analizar y evaluar, ya que una de las desventajas de este tipo de tecnologias es el costo de inversion en equipo y software

  9. Developing a virtual reality application for training Nuclear Power Plant operators: Setting up a database containing dose rates in the refuelling plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenas, J.; Zarza, I.; Burgos, M. C.; Felipe, A.; Sanchez-Mayoral, M. L.

    2004-01-01

    Operators in Nuclear Power Plants can receive high doses during refuelling operations. A training programme for simulating refuelling operations will be useful in reducing the doses received by workers as well as minimising operation time. With this goal in mind, a virtual reality application is developed within the framework of the CIPRES project. The application requires doses, both instantaneous and accumulated, to be displayed at all times during operator training. Therefore, it is necessary to set up a database containing dose rates at every point in the refuelling plant. This database is based on radiological protection surveillance data measured in the plant during refuelling operations. Some interpolation routines have been used to estimate doses through the refuelling plant. Different assumptions have been adopted in order to perform the interpolation and obtain consistent data. In this paper, the procedures developed to set up the dose database for the virtual reality application are presented and analysed. (authors)

  10. Competition and equilibria in electricity markets based on two-settlement system: A conjectural variation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, David

    This dissertation studies electricity markets based on two-settlement systems and applies the concept of conjectural variation (CV) as a tool for representing different levels of competitiveness in the market. Some recent theoretical works are addressed to support the use of CV as a solution concept. A notion of consistency is introduced to make the level of competitiveness of the market endogenous, and allows finding consistent CV equilibria and the corresponding conditions for existence of equilibria. First, a case is studied in which firms hold exogenous levels of forward commitments. Then, backward induction and sub-game perfection are used to solve sequentially for the spot and forward market equilibrium. This allows analyzing how firms take positions in the forward market, based on considering their later impact on the spot market. It is concluded that positions taken in the forward market depend largely on firms expectations about the competitiveness of both the spot and the forward market. Forward markets are welfare enhancing even if they are not as competitive as the associated spot market as long as they are not too oligopolistie. The above formulation is used to model a dynamic scenario to analyze market stability, linking this research to Dr. Alvarado's earlier research on market stability. This brings about interesting trade offs between market power and market stability.

  11. Virtual colonoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonoscopy - virtual; CT colonography; Computed tomographic colonography; Colography - virtual ... Differences between virtual and conventional colonoscopy include: VC can view the colon from many different angles. This is not as easy ...

  12. A bi-level stochastic scheduling optimization model for a virtual power plant connected to a wind–photovoltaic–energy storage system considering the uncertainty and demand response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Liwei; Tan, Zhongfu; Yuan, Jinyun; Tan, Qingkun; Li, Huanhuan; Dong, Fugui

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Our research focuses on Virtual Power Plant (VPP). • Virtual Power Plant consists of WPP, PV, CGT, ESSs and DRPs. • Robust optimization theory is introduced to analyze uncertainties. • A bi-level stochastic scheduling optimization model is proposed for VPP. • Models are built to measure the impacts of ESSs and DERPs on VPP operation. - Abstract: To reduce the uncertain influence of wind power and solar photovoltaic power on virtual power plant (VPP) operation, robust optimization theory (ROT) is introduced to build a stochastic scheduling model for VPP considering the uncertainty, price-based demand response (PBDR) and incentive-based demand response (IBDR). First, the VPP components are described including the wind power plant (WPP), photovoltaic generators (PV), convention gas turbine (CGT), energy storage systems (ESSs) and demand resource providers (DRPs). Then, a scenario generation and reduction frame is proposed for analyzing and simulating output stochastics based on the interval method and the Kantorovich distance. Second, a bi-level robust scheduling model is proposed with a double robust coefficient for WPP and PV. In the upper layer model, the maximum VPP operation income is taken as the optimization objective for building the scheduling model with the day-ahead prediction output of WPP and PV. In the lower layer model, the day-ahead scheduling scheme is revised with the actual output of the WPP and PV under the objectives of the minimum system net load and the minimum system operation cost. Finally, the independent micro-grid in a coastal island in eastern China is used for the simulation analysis. The results illustrate that the model can overcome the influence of uncertainty on VPP operations and reduce the system power shortage cost by connecting the day-ahead scheduling with the real-time scheduling. ROT could provide a flexible decision tool for decision makers, effectively addressing system uncertainties. ESSs could

  13. Market-based demand forecasting promotes informed strategic financial planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, A J

    2001-11-01

    Market-based demand forecasting is a method of estimating future demand for a healthcare organization's services by using a broad range of data that describe the nature of demand within the organization's service area. Such data include the primary and secondary service areas, the service-area populations by various demographic groupings, discharge utilization rates, market size, and market share by service line and organizationwide. Based on observable market dynamics, strategic planners can make a variety of explicit assumptions about future trends regarding these data to develop scenarios describing potential future demand. Financial planners then can evaluate each scenario to determine its potential effect on selected financial and operational measures, such as operating margin, days cash on hand, and debt-service coverage, and develop a strategic financial plan that covers a range of contingencies.

  14. Disposal of metal artifacts by monochrome virtual images generated by TC dual power planning in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Perez, V.; Bartres Salido, A.; Arana Fernandez Moya, E.; Crispin Contreras, V.; Dolores Alemany, V. de los; Campo Sanmartin, V.; Moratal Perez, D.

    2015-01-01

    Using monochromatic high-energy virtual images reconstructed by a scanner TCED is viable for planning radiotherapy treatments and improves image quality. Such images using the DICOM standard, and have been successfully exported to the planning system XiO treatments. (Author)

  15. Virtual control desk for operators training: a case study for a nuclear power plant simulator; Mesa de controle virtual para treinamento de operadores: um estudo de caso para um simulador de usina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghina, Mauricio Alves da Cunha e

    2009-03-15

    Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is a facility for electrical energy generation. Because of its high degree of complexity and very rigid norms of security it is extremely necessary that operators are very well trained for the NPP operation. A mistaken operation by a human operator may cause a shutdown of the NPP, incurring in a huge economical damage for the owner and for the population in the case of a electric net black out. To reduce the possibility of a mistaken operation, the NPP usually have a full scope simulator of the plant's control room, which is the physical copy of the original control room. The control of this simulator is a computer program that can generate the equal functioning of the normal one or some scenarios of accidents to train the operators in many abnormal conditions of the plant. A physical copy of the control room has a high cost for its construction, not only of its facilities but also for its physical components. The proposal of this work is to present a project of a virtual simulator with the modeling in 3D stereo of a control room of a given nuclear plant with the same operation functions of the original simulator. This virtual simulator will have a lower cost and serves for pretraining of operators with the intention of making them familiar to the original control room. (author)

  16. Natural interfaces for interacting with a virtual control desk of a nuclear power plant simulator; Interfaces naturais para interacao com uma mesa de controle virtual de um simulador de uma usina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghina, Mauricio Alves da Cunha e

    2012-07-01

    Due to very strict standards of safe operation of a nuclear power plant operators must be well trained so they can operate it within the necessary safety procedures. This is done through training simulators, which enable the user operation, as close as possible to the real control desk, and can be inserted accident situations, so they train, how to return the plant to a normal operating condition. Normally is used two types of simulator. Preferred is the full scope simulator, what is a computational dynamics program of the plant used in conjunction with a physical replica of the control desk, but this type of simulator involves a high construction cost. The second type is what uses synoptic windows of various regions of the original control desk, its construction cost is smaller, but it have a little fidelity to the original appearance of the table. Currently, with the use of virtual reality, control desks can be modeled in 3D, making the simulator interface is very similar to the appearance of the real control desk with a low cost construction. This work shows the use of natural interfaces for operator interaction with the virtual control desk, in order that it does not use any mechanical device for displaying and acting with it. For procedures that were used, such as: computer vision to recognize the position of the operator's and observation of their hands to the work of the desk controls and voice recognition. (author)

  17. InGaP solar cell on Ge-on-Si virtual substrate for novel solar power conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T. W.; Albert, B. R.; Kimerling, L. C.; Michel, J.

    2018-02-01

    InGaP single-junction solar cells are grown on lattice-matched Ge-on-Si virtual substrates using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Optoelectronic simulation results indicate that the optimal collection length for InGaP single-junction solar cells with a carrier lifetime range of 2-5 ns is wider than approximately 1 μm. Electron beam-induced current measurements reveal that the threading dislocation density (TDD) of InGaP solar cells fabricated on Ge and Ge-on-Si substrates is in the range of 104-3 × 107 cm-2. We demonstrate that the open circuit voltage (Voc) of InGaP solar cells is not significantly influenced by TDDs less than 2 × 106 cm-2. Fabricated InGaP solar cells grown on a Ge-on-Si virtual substrate and a Ge substrate exhibit Voc in the range of 0.96 to 1.43 V under an equivalent illumination in the range of ˜0.5 Sun. The estimated efficiency of the InGaP solar cell fabricated on the Ge-on-Si virtual substrate (Ge substrate) at room temperature for the limited incident spectrum spanning the photon energy range of 1.9-2.4 eV varies from 16.6% to 34.3%.

  18. Decision support tool for Virtual Power Players: Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization applied to Day-ahead Vehicle-To-Grid Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, João; Valle, Zita; Morais, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a decision support Tool methodology to help virtual power players (VPPs) in the Smart Grid (SGs) context to solve the day-ahead energy ressource scheduling considering the intensive use of Distributed Generation (DG) and Vehicle-To-Grid (V2G). The main focus is the application...... of a new hybrid method combing a particle swarm approach and a deterministic technique based on mixedinteger linear programming (MILP) to solve the day-ahead scheduling minimizing total operation costs from the aggregator point of view. A realistic mathematical formulation, considering the electric network...... constraints and V2G charging and discharging efficiencies is presented. Full AC power flow calculation is included in the hybrid method to allow taking into account the network constraints. A case study with a 33-bus distribution network and 1800 V2G resources is used to illustrate the performance...

  19. Virtual power plants in energy industry law. Possible manifestations and from them resulting legal questions; Virtuelle Kraftwerke im Energiewirtschaftsrecht. Moegliche Erscheinungsformen und daraus resultierende Rechtsfragen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahlbrandt, Lea Katharina [Bucerius Law School, Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    Although cogeneration plants are operated with fossil fuels are not quite as environmentally friendly as EEG systems they have a much more favorable effect due to their high efficiency climate as conventional power plants. In the future this could can even improve with the aid of fuel cell technology. Therefore, they play for the transition to a safe and secure more efficient power supply conditions for a merger of cogeneration plants overall favorable, in particular because that no influence on the or the emission trading obligation of the plant operators has. However, the complete elimination of avoided network charges could be counterproductive. Just virtual power plants of cogeneration plants have an effect on a feed-in that the grid not charged, so fees for a decentralized feed in these cases can be justified. Also the development of cogeneration development within the framework of the newly introduced calls will have a major impact on the development of virtual power stations. [German] Zwar sind KWK-Anlagen, die mit fossilen Brennstoffen betrieben werden, nicht ganz so umweltfreundlich wie EEG-Anlagen, doch haben sie aufgrund ihres hohen Wirkungsgrades eine viel guenstigere Klimabilanz als konventionelle Kraftwerke. In Zukunft koennte diese sich mithilfe der Brennstoffzellen-Technologie sogar noch verbessern. Daher spielen sie fuer den Uebergang zu einer sicheren und klimafreundlicheren Stromversorgung eine wichtige Rolle. Die Bedingungen fuer einen Zusammenschluss von KWK-Anlagen sind insgesamt guenstig, insbesondere weil jener keinen Einfluss auf die Foerdersaetze oder die Emissionshandelspflicht der Anlagenbetreiber hat. Allerdings koennte die vollstaendige Abschaffung vermiedener Netzentgelte kontraproduktiv sein. Gerade virtuelle Kraftwerke aus KWK-Anlagen wirken auf eine Einspeisung hin, die das Netz nicht ueberfordert, sodass Entgelte fuer eine dezentrale Einspeisung in diesen Faellen durchaus eine Rechtfertigung haben. Auch die Entwicklung des KWK

  20. Market based generation: A promising market management option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, R.

    1992-01-01

    It is proposed to ease the tension between demand management and supply side management at electric utilities through the introduction of a concept called market management. Market management provides a framework for developing and evaluating the attractiveness of new products and services such as dispersed generation hardware, implementation services, and complementary pricing structures. A market management strategy is the definition of market segments, creating products for those segments, evaluation of the profitability of the product-segment combinations, commitment of resources to those segments, and development of product and marketing plans for those segments. A brief analysis of backup generation is presented as an example of market management. In this example, the customer that is backed up shares some portion of the capital and maintenance costs of the backup unit through priority service rates; the utility and customers that are not backed up can obtain the use of the generating resource but pay only a portion of its costs. Backup generation programs have been found to provide utilities with the ability to meet peak load requirements more cheaply than by investing in peaking capacity. Other benefits for utilities include protection of market share, more efficient rates, and a new source of revenues. With the advances in the technology of small-scale generation, utilities can examine bundling various pricing options with market based generation to offer alternative value-added service options to customer segments with demand characteristics that make these technologies attractive. 3 figs

  1. The institutional economics of market-based climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woerdman, E.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this book is to analyze the institutional barriers to implementing market-based climate policy, as well as to provide some opportunities to overcome them. The approach is that of institutional economics, with special emphasis on political transaction costs and path dependence. Instead of rejecting the neoclassical approach, this book uses it where fruitful and shows when and why it is necessary to employ a new or neo-institutionalist approach. The result is that equity is considered next to efficiency, that the evolution and possible lock-in of both formal and informal climate institutions are studied, and that attention is paid to the politics and law of economic instruments for climate policy, including some new empirical analyses. The research topics of this book include the set-up costs of a permit trading system, the risk that credit trading becomes locked-in, the potential legal problem of grandfathering in terms of actional subsidies under WTO law or state aid under EC law, and the changing attitudes of various European officials towards restricting the use of the Kyoto Mechanisms

  2. Combining Market-Based Control with Distribution Grid Constraints when Coordinating Electric Vehicle Charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geert Deconinck

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The charging of electric vehicles (EVs impacts the distribution grid, and its cost depends on the price of electricity when charging. An aggregator that is responsible for a large fleet of EVs can use a market-based control algorithm to coordinate the charging of these vehicles, in order to minimize the costs. In such an optimization, the operational parameters of the distribution grid, to which the EVs are connected, are not considered. This can lead to violations of the technical constraints of the grid (e.g., under-voltage, phase unbalances; for example, because many vehicles start charging simultaneously when the price is low. An optimization that simultaneously takes the economic and technical aspects into account is complex, because it has to combine time-driven control at the market level with event-driven control at the operational level. Different case studies investigate under which circumstances the market-based control, which coordinates EV charging, conflicts with the operational constraints of the distribution grid. Especially in weak grids, phase unbalance and voltage issues arise with a high share of EVs. A low-level voltage droop controller at the charging point of the EV can be used to avoid many grid constraint violations, by reducing the charge power if the local voltage is too low. While this action implies a deviation from the cost-optimal operating point, it is shown that this has a very limited impact on the business case of an aggregator, and is able to comply with the technical distribution grid constraints, even in weak distribution grids with many EVs.

  3. Improved cost–benefit analysis for market-based transmission planning, a European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaemmanouil, A.; Bertling Tjernberg, L.; Tuan, L.A.; Andersson, G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of transmission planning in interconnected power systems under the uncertainty of future generation parks and fast varying marginal production costs. The decision maker has to consider many different aspects during the definition of different transmission planning strategies that sometimes might even be contradicting. Major contributions are the incorporation of energy policy measurements in the evaluation process of candidate transmission plans and the inclusion of short- and long-term uncertainties. The proposed methodology, so-called C-TRAP, is based on a semi-dynamic heuristic approach that solves the social welfare maximization problem for several discrete steps considering different preferences for energy policy and transmission network reinforcements. The flexibility provided through the heuristic analysis is very important for decision makers in the new uncertain environment in power systems. - Highlights: • Consideration of environmental policy in the decision of transmission expansion plans. • Semi-dynamic heuristic approach including societal, economic and availability standards. • Market-based approach using nodal pricing. • The amount of reduced unserved load is not equal to the amount of capacity increase of a line. • Less environmental costs lead usually to higher congestion costs due to overly power trading

  4. Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    until exhausted. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE All other editions are obsolete. UNCLASSIFIED " VIRTUAL REALITY JAMES F. DAILEY, LIEUTENANT COLONEL...US" This paper reviews the exciting field of virtual reality . The author describes the basic concepts of virtual reality and finds that its numerous...potential benefits to society could revolutionize everyday life. The various components that make up a virtual reality system are described in detail

  5. Virtual Box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Hilary; Skov, Mikael B.; Stougaard, Malthe

    2007-01-01

    . This paper reports on the design, implementation and initial evaluation of Virtual Box. Virtual Box attempts to create a physical and engaging context in order to support reciprocal interactions with expressive content. An implemented version of Virtual Box is evaluated in a location-aware environment...

  6. 77 FR 48148 - Energy Alternatives Wholesale, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... Energy Alternatives Wholesale, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2413-000] Energy Alternatives Wholesale, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

  7. 77 FR 9226 - Physical Systems Integration, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1013-000] Physical Systems Integration, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Physical Systems Integration, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  8. 78 FR 49508 - Tesoro Refining & Marketing Company LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... Refining & Marketing Company LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes... proceeding of Tesoro Refining & Marketing Company LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an... of protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov...

  9. 75 FR 35017 - Brookfield Energy Marketing LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Energy Marketing LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding of Brookfield Energy Marketing LP's application for market-based rate authority, with an... protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To...

  10. 78 FR 16262 - Tesoro Refining & Marketing Company LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... Refining & Marketing Company LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes... proceeding, of Tesoro Refining & Marketing Company LLC's application for market- based rate authority, with... submission of protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov...

  11. 75 FR 74711 - Planet Energy (Pennsylvania) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2167-000] Planet Energy (Pennsylvania) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding, of Planet Energy (Pennsylvania) Corp.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  12. 75 FR 74712 - Planet Energy (Maryland) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2168-000] Planet Energy (Maryland) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding, of Planet Energy (Maryland) Corp.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  13. 76 FR 6128 - Energy Exchange International, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2730-000] Energy Exchange International, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding Energy Exchange International, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  14. 75 FR 41855 - Stream Energy Pennsylvania, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1750-000] Stream Energy Pennsylvania, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... of Stream Energy Pennsylvania, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  15. 78 FR 28214 - Gainesville Renewable Energy Center, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1348-000] Gainesville Renewable Energy Center, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Gainesville Renewable Energy Center, LLC's application for market- based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  16. 78 FR 40473 - Plainfield Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1734-000] Plainfield Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Plainfield Renewable Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  17. 77 FR 64980 - Chesapeake Renewable Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-28-000] Chesapeake Renewable Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of Chesapeake Renewable Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  18. 77 FR 52016 - Brookfield Smoky Mountain Hydropower LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2447-001] Brookfield Smoky Mountain Hydropower LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes... proceeding, of Brookfield Smoky Mountain Hydropower LLC's application for market- based rate authority, with...

  19. 75 FR 61747 - Union Leader Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... of Union Leader Corporation's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-2780-000] Union Leader Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section...

  20. 76 FR 12726 - Tropicana Manufacturing Company, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... . To facilitate electronic service, persons with Internet access who will eFile a document and/or be... Manufacturing Company, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Tropicana Manufacturing Company, Inc.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  1. 77 FR 42722 - Berry Petroleum Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2233-000] Berry Petroleum Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Petroleum Company's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule, noting...

  2. Saving Money and Time with Virtual Server

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Microsoft Virtual Server 2005 consistently proves to be worth its weight in gold, with new implementations thought up every day. With this product now a free download from Microsoft, scores of new users are able to experience what the power of virtualization can do for their networks. This guide is aimed at network administrators who are interested in ways that Virtual Server 2005 can be implemented in their organizations in order to save money and increase network productivity. It contains information on setting up a virtual network, virtual consolidation, virtual security, virtual honeypo

  3. Wireless virtualization

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Heming; Le-Ngoc, Tho

    2013-01-01

    This SpringerBriefs is an overview of the emerging field of wireless access and mobile network virtualization. It provides a clear and relevant picture of the current virtualization trends in wireless technologies by summarizing and comparing different architectures, techniques and technologies applicable to a future virtualized wireless network infrastructure. The readers are exposed to a short walkthrough of the future Internet initiative and network virtualization technologies in order to understand the potential role of wireless virtualization in the broader context of next-generation ubiq

  4. Novice Shooters With Lower Pre-shooting Alpha Power Have Better Performance During Competition in a Virtual Reality Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pereira

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Competition changes the environment for athletes. The difficulty of training for such stressful events can lead to the well-known effect of “choking” under pressure, which prevents athletes from performing at their best level. To study the effect of competition on the human brain, we recorded pilot electroencephalography (EEG data while novice shooters were immersed in a realistic virtual environment representing a shooting range. We found a differential between-subject effect of competition on mu (8–12 Hz oscillatory activity during aiming; compared to training, the more the subject was able to desynchronize his mu rhythm during competition, the better was his shooting performance. Because this differential effect could not be explained by differences in simple measures of the kinematics and muscular activity, nor by the effect of competition or shooting performance per se, we interpret our results as evidence that mu desynchronization has a positive effect on performance during competition.

  5. Art in virtual reality 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ben

    2010-01-01

    For decades, virtual reality artwork has existed in a small but highly influential niche in the world of electronic and new media art. Since the early 1990's, virtual reality installations have come to define an extreme boundary point of both aesthetic experience and technological sophistication. Classic virtual reality artworks have an almost mythological stature - powerful, exotic, and often rarely exhibited. Today, art in virtual environments continues to evolve and mature, encompassing everything from fully immersive CAVE experiences to performance art in Second Life to the use of augmented and mixed reality in public space. Art in Virtual Reality 2010 is a public exhibition of new artwork that showcases the diverse ways that contemporary artists use virtual environments to explore new aesthetic ground and investigate the continually evolving relationship between our selves and our virtual worlds.

  6. Short-term Forecast of Automatic Frequency Restoration Reserve from a Renewable Energy Based Virtual Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Camal , Simon; Michiorri , Andrea; Kariniotakis , Georges; Liebelt , Andreas

    2017-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents the initial findings on a new forecast approach for ancillary services delivered by aggregated renewable power plants. The increasing penetration of distributed variable generators challenges grid reliability. Wind and photovoltaic power plants are technically able to provide ancillary services, but their stochastic behavior currently impedes their integration into reserve mechanisms. A methodology is developed to forecast the flexibility that a win...

  7. Virtual Exploratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sisse Siggaard

    2006-01-01

    -systems, the paper introduces the designing strategy referred to as virtual exploratories. Some of the advanced virtual worlds may inspire the design of such provoking and challenging virtual exploratories, and especially the Massively Multi-User Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGS). However, if we have to learn from...... the design and activity of the advanced virtual worlds and role-playing games, then the empirical research on the actors’ activity, while they are acting, is an important precondition to it. A step towards the conception of such a designing strategy for virtual exploratories is currently pursued....... [1] The research project: Actors and Avatars Communicating in Virtual Worlds – an Empirical Analysis of Actors’ Sense-making Strategies When Based on a Communication Theoretical Approach’ (2006-2007) is supported...

  8. Virtual Reflexes

    OpenAIRE

    Jonker, Catholijn; Broekens, Joost; Plaat, Aske

    2014-01-01

    Virtual Reality is used successfully to treat people for regular phobias. A new challenge is to develop Virtual Reality Exposure Training for social skills. Virtual actors in such systems have to show appropriate social behavior including emotions, gaze, and keeping distance. The behavior must be realistic and real-time. Current approaches consist of four steps: 1) trainee social signal detection, 2) cognitive-affective interpretation, 3) determination of the appropriate bodily responses, and...

  9. Virtual volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A. Christian; Prange, Richard E.

    2007-03-01

    We introduce the concept of virtual volatility. This simple but new measure shows how to quantify the uncertainty in the forecast of the drift component of a random walk. The virtual volatility also is a useful tool in understanding the stochastic process for a given portfolio. In particular, and as an example, we were able to identify mean reversion effect in our portfolio. Finally, we briefly discuss the potential practical effect of the virtual volatility on an investor asset allocation strategy.

  10. Smart grid and intelligent office buildings: virtual power plants : the basis for the optimal use of renewable energy sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aduda, K.O.; Zeiler, W.; Boxem, G.; Sayigh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Electricity energy generation and its supply through electricity networks are mainly organized in a top-down, centralized manner. Energy consumption can be predicted quite accurately at a high level, and this forms the basis for prescheduling the production by large power plants. Only few actors are

  11. Smart Grid and Intelligent Office Buildings: Virtual Power Plants-The basis for optimal use of renwable energy sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aduda, Kennedy; Zeiler, Wim; Boxem, Gert; Sayigh, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Electricity energy generation and its supply through electricity networks are mainly organized in a top-down, centralized manner. Energy consumption can be predicted quite accurately at a high level, and this forms the basis for prescheduling the production by large power plants. Only few actors are

  12. Virtual bronchoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogalla, P.; Meiri, N.; Hamm, B.; Rueckert, J.C.; Schmidt, B.; Witt, C.

    2001-01-01

    Flexible bronchoscopy represents a clinically well-established invasive diagnostic tool. Virtual bronchoscopies, calculated from thin-slice CT sections, allow astonishing immitations of reality although principal differences exist between both technologies: the Fact that colour representation is artificial and concommitant interventions are impossible limits the clinical use of virtual bronchoscopy. However, its value increases when calculations can be attained within minutes due to technological advancements, and when virtually any chest CT is suitable for further postprocessing. Indications, findings and the clinical role of virtual bronchoscopy are discussed. (orig.) [de

  13. Virtual projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Commisso, Trine Hald

    2012-01-01

    that the best practice knowledge has not permeated sufficiently to the practice. Furthermore, the appropriate application of information and communication technology (ICT) remains a big challenge, and finally project managers are not sufficiently trained in organizing and conducting virtual projects....... The overall implications for research and practice are to acknowledge virtual project management as very different to traditional project management and to address this difference.......Virtual projects are common with global competition, market development, and not least the financial crisis forcing organizations to reduce their costs drastically. Organizations therefore have to place high importance on ways to carry out virtual projects and consider appropriate practices...

  14. On integrating device level schedules into market based control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nutma, J.S.; Hoogsteen, G.; Molderink, A.; Wijbrandi, W.E.; Hurink, J.L.; Smit, G.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    To deal with challenges introduced by the adaption of distributed energy resources, Demand Side Management methodologies are being developed to ensure the availability and reliability of our electricity supply in the future. The Power-Matcher and TRIANA are two examples of such management

  15. Design of the incentive mechanism in electricity auction market based on the signaling game theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Xiliang; Lieu, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    At present, designing a proper bidding mechanism to decrease the generators' market power is considered to be one of the key approaches to deepen the reform of the electricity market. Based on the signaling game theory, the paper analyzes the main electricity bidding mechanisms in the electricity auction markets and considers the degree of information disturbance as an important factor for evaluating bidding mechanisms. Under the above studies, an incentive electricity bidding mechanism defined as the Generator Semi-randomized Matching (GSM) mechanism is proposed. In order to verify the new bidding mechanism, this paper uses the Swarm platform to develop a simulation model based on the multi-agents. In the simulation model, the generators and purchasers use the partly superior study strategy to adjust their price and their electricity quantity. Then, the paper examines a simulation experiment of the GSM bidding mechanism and compares it to a simulation of the High-Low Matching (HLM) bidding mechanism. According to the simulation results, several conclusions can be drawn when comparing the proposed GSM bidding mechanism to the equilibrium state of HLM: the clearing price decreases, the total transaction volume increases, the profits of electricity generators decreases, and the overall benefits of purchasers increases. Index Terms - signaling game; semi-randomized matching; high-low match. (author)

  16. Optimizing a Hybrid Energy Storage System for a Virtual Power Plant for Improved Wind Power Generation: A Case Study for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braun, Philipp; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Diosi, Robert

    2011-01-01

    market in western Denmark. The optimum ESs are selected based on the highest net present value (NPV) out of many different combinations of ESs in terms of power rating and technologies. Due to its many possible combinations a simulation model has been built which uses historical market data and also...

  17. Biodiversity and Habitat Markets—Policy, Economic, and Ecological implications of Market-Based Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindilli, Emily J.; Casey, Frank

    2015-10-26

    This report is a primer on market-like and market-based mechanisms designed to conserve biodiversity and habitat. The types of markets and market-based approaches that were implemented or are emerging to benefit biodiversity and habitat in the United States are examined. The central approaches considered in this report include payments for ecosystem services, conservation banks, habitat exchanges, and eco-labels. Based on literature reviews and input from experts and practitioners, the report characterizes each market-based approach including policy context and structure; the theoretical basis for applying market-based approaches; the ecological effectiveness of practices and tools for measuring performance; and the future outlook for biodiversity and habitat markets. This report draws from previous research and serves as a summary of pertinent information associated with biodiversity and habitat markets while providing references to materials that go into greater detail on specific topics.

  18. Issues in Water Quality Trading: Perspectives on the Market-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Market mechanisms and incentives can play an important role in addressing environmental problems. Potential advantages of using market-based approaches include reducing the costs of meeting environmental goals and encouraging innovation. One market mechanism that has been promo...

  19. A virtual nuclear world?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salve, R.

    1998-01-01

    The way in which virtual reality technology has so dramatically developed over the last few years has opened up the possibility of its application to various industrial processes. This article describes the possible uses of such a technique in nuclear power plants in various phases such as design, construction, operation or dismantling. (Author)

  20. Capital market based warning indicators of bank runs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakhtina, Elena; Wosnitza, Jan Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In this investigation, we examine the univariate as well as the multivariate capabilities of the log-periodic [super-exponential] power law (LPPL) for the prediction of bank runs. The research is built upon daily CDS spreads of 40 international banks for the period from June 2007 to March 2010, i.e. at the heart of the global financial crisis. For this time period, 20 of the financial institutions received federal bailouts and are labeled as defaults while the remaining institutions are categorized as non-defaults. The employed multivariate pattern recognition approach represents a modification of the CORA3 algorithm. The approach is found to be robust regardless of reasonable changes of its inputs. Despite the fact that distinct alarm indices for banks do not clearly demonstrate predictive capabilities of the LPPL, the synchronized alarm indices confirm the multivariate discriminative power of LPPL patterns in CDS spread developments acknowledged by bootstrap intervals with 70% confidence level.

  1. 75 FR 14342 - Market-Based Rates for Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ...; Order No. 697-D] Market-Based Rates for Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary... affiliates.\\3\\ \\1\\ Market-Based Rates for Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services...\\ Market-Based Rates for Wholesale Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services by Public...

  2. Virtual Workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Lillian; Bygholm, Ann

    In relation to the Tutor course in the Mediterranean Virtual University (MVU) project, a virtual workshop “Getting experiences with different synchronous communication media, collaboration, and group work” was held with all partner institutions in January 2006. More than 25 key-tutors within MVU...

  3. Innovative market-based policy instruments for waste management: A case study on shredder residues in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Maarten; Hoogmartens, Rob; Van Passel, Steven; Van Acker, Karel; Vanderreydt, Ive

    2015-10-01

    In an increasingly complex waste market, market-based policy instruments, such as disposal taxes, can give incentives for sustainable progress while leaving flexibility for innovation. However, implementation of disposal taxes is often criticised by domestic waste handlers that fear to be outcompeted by competitors in other countries. The article discusses three innovative market-based instruments that limit the impact on international competitiveness: Tradable recycling credits, refunded disposal taxes and differentiated disposal taxes. All three instruments have already been implemented for distinct environmental policies in Europe. In order to illustrate how these instruments can be used for waste policy, the literature review is complemented with a case study on shredder residues from metal-containing waste streams in Belgium. The analysis shows that a conventional disposal tax remains the most efficient, simple and transparent instrument. However, if international competition is a significant issue or if political support is weak, refunded and differentiated disposal taxes can have an added value as second-best instruments. Tradable recycling credits are not an appropriate instrument for use in small waste markets with market power. In addition, refunded taxes create similar incentives, but induce lower transactions costs. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Applied virtual reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yule, I.Y.; Lee, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    To reduce plant down time during irradiated fuel cell dismantling at Torness Power Station, a new visualisation technique has been used for the manipulator. Complex computer graphics packages were used to provide a ''Virtual Reality'' environment which allowed the Irradiated Fuel Dismantling Cell to be simulated. Significant cost savings have been achieved due to reductions in lost output. The virtual reality environment is at present being extended to the design and deployment of a new manipulator for in-vessel inspection of the boiler. (UK)

  5. Market based solutions for increased flexibility in electricity consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grande, Ove S.; Saele, Hanne

    2005-06-01

    The main focus of this paper is on manual and automatic demand response to prices in the day ahead market. The content is mainly based on the results and experiences from the large scale Norwegian test and research project End User flexibility by efficient use of ICT (2001-2004) involving 10,894 customers with automatic meter reading (AMR) and remote load control (RLC) options. The response to hourly spot price products and intraday time of use (ToU) tariffs were tested. The registered response differs from 0.18-1 kWh/h in average per household customer for the different combination of these price signals. The largest response was achieved for the customers with both the ToU network tariff and hourly spot price. Some of the customers were offered remote controlled automatic disconnection of water heaters in the high price periods during week days. The test shows that the potential of load reduction from water heaters can be estimated to 0.6 kWh/h in the peak hours on average. For Norway this indicates that a total of 600 MWh/h automatic price elasticity could be achieved, provided that half of the 2 million Norwegian households accept RLC of their water heater referred to spot price. The benefit for load shifting is limited for each customer, but of great value for the power system as a whole. Combination of an hourly spot price contract with an intraday ToU network tariff should therefore be considered, in order to provide stable economic incentives for load reduction. One potential drawback for customers with spot price energy contracts is the risk of high electricity prices in periods of lasting scarcity. Combination with financial power contracts as an insurance for the customer is an option that will be examined in a follow up project

  6. Virtual Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Beverly

    1995-01-01

    Virtual work teams scattered around the globe are becoming a feature of corporate workplaces. Although most people prefer face-to-face meetings and interactions, reality often requires telecommuting. (JOW)

  7. Virtual data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorklund, E.

    1993-01-01

    In the 1970's, when computers were memory limited, operating system designers created the concept of ''virtual memory'' which gave users the ability to address more memory than physically existed. In the 1990s, many large control systems have the potential for becoming data limited. We propose that many of the principles behind virtual memory systems (working sets, locality, caching, and clustering) can also be applied to data-limited systems - creating, in effect, ''virtual data systems.'' At the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF), we have applied these principles to a moderately sized (10,000 data points) data acquisition and control system. To test the principles, we measured the system's performance during tune-up, production, and maintenance periods. In this paper, we present a general discussion of the principles of a virtual data system along with some discussion of our own implementation and the results of our performance measurements

  8. Virtual Worlds for Virtual Organizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoten, Diana; Lutters, Wayne

    The members and resources of a virtual organization are dispersed across time and space, yet they function as a coherent entity through the use of technologies, networks, and alliances. As virtual organizations proliferate and become increasingly important in society, many may exploit the technical architecture s of virtual worlds, which are the confluence of computer-mediated communication, telepresence, and virtual reality originally created for gaming. A brief socio-technical history describes their early origins and the waves of progress followed by stasis that brought us to the current period of renewed enthusiasm. Examination of contemporary examples demonstrates how three genres of virtual worlds have enabled new arenas for virtual organizing: developer-defined closed worlds, user-modifiable quasi-open worlds, and user-generated open worlds. Among expected future trends are an increase in collaboration born virtually rather than imported from existing organizations, a tension between high-fidelity recreations of the physical world and hyper-stylized imaginations of fantasy worlds, and the growth of specialized worlds optimized for particular sectors, companies, or cultures.

  9. The economics of gasification: a market-based approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abadie, L. M. [Bilbao Bizkaia Kutxa, Gran Via 30, 48009 Bilbao (Spain); Chamorro, J. M. [Departamento Fundamentos del Analisis Economico I, University of the Basque Country, Av. Lehendakari Aguirre 83, 48015 Bilbao (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    This paper deals with the economics of gasification facilities in general and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants in particular. Regarding the prospects of these systems, passing the technological test is one thing, passing the economic test can be quite another. In this respect, traditional valuations assume constant input and/or output prices. Since this is hardly realistic, we allow for uncertainty in prices. We naturally look at the markets where many of the products involved are regularly traded. Futures markets on commodities are particularly useful for valuing uncertain future cash flows. Thus, revenues and variable costs can be assessed by means of sound financial concepts and actual market data. On the other hand, these complex systems provide a number of flexibility options (e.g., to choose among several inputs, outputs, modes of operation, etc.). Typically, flexibility contributes significantly to the overall value of real assets. Indeed, maximization of the asset value requires the optimal exercise of any flexibility option available. Yet the economic value of flexibility is elusive, the more so under (price) uncertainty. And the right choice of input fuels and/or output products is a main concern for the facility managers. As a particular application, we deal with the valuation of input flexibility. We follow the Real Options approach. In addition to economic variables, we also address technical and environmental issues such as energy efficiency, utility performance characteristics and emissions (note that carbon constraints are looming). Lastly, a brief introduction to some stochastic processes suitable for valuation purposes is provided. (author)

  10. The economics of gasification: a market-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadie, L. M.; Chamorro, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the economics of gasification facilities in general and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants in particular. Regarding the prospects of these systems, passing the technological test is one thing, passing the economic test can be quite another. In this respect, traditional valuations assume constant input and/or output prices. Since this is hardly realistic, we allow for uncertainty in prices. We naturally look at the markets where many of the products involved are regularly traded. Futures markets on commodities are particularly useful for valuing uncertain future cash flows. Thus, revenues and variable costs can be assessed by means of sound financial concepts and actual market data. On the other hand, these complex systems provide a number of flexibility options (e.g., to choose among several inputs, outputs, modes of operation, etc.). Typically, flexibility contributes significantly to the overall value of real assets. Indeed, maximization of the asset value requires the optimal exercise of any flexibility option available. Yet the economic value of flexibility is elusive, the more so under (price) uncertainty. And the right choice of input fuels and/or output products is a main concern for the facility managers. As a particular application, we deal with the valuation of input flexibility. We follow the Real Options approach. In addition to economic variables, we also address technical and environmental issues such as energy efficiency, utility performance characteristics and emissions (note that carbon constraints are looming). Lastly, a brief introduction to some stochastic processes suitable for valuation purposes is provided. (author)

  11. Analyzing power pools and understanding the spot market based approach to electricity trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulding, D. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    Highlights of the evolution of the electricity industry from franchised monopoly to commoditized markets were presented. Trends in commoditized markets include increased competition, a decline in profit margins and increases in price volatility. Examples of highly regulated industries that have commoditized include long distance telephone, airline and the trucking industries. Models of possible market structures for electricity were reviewed, among them: (1) mandatory one-sided spot market, (2) mandatory spot market, less central control, (3) optional two-sided spot market, and (4) physical bilateral based market. Management of the marketplace regardless of the model used, must assure system security and system reliability and meet real-time demand on the system. Possible roles for the Independent System Operator were discussed. The principal role was predicted to be the operation of an electronic exchange for forward contracts, operation of the spot market, and acting as a clearinghouse for buyers and sellers of forward contracts. 1 tab., 4 figs.

  12. Decentralized load- and feed-in-management using a market based agent system; Dezentrales Last- und Einspeisemanagement mittels eines marktbasierten Agentensystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linnenberg, T.; Wior, I.; Schreiber, S.; Fay, A. [Helmut-Schmidt-Univ., Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Automatisierungstechnik

    2012-07-01

    As a result of the increasing amount of decentralized electricity generation classical, centralized control concepts are taken to their limits. At present, two approaches are being followed to deal with these problems: the expansion of the electricity network and the extension of reserve capacities. The ''DEcentralized MArket based POwer control System'' (DEMAPOS) approach presented in this article, illustrates ways to solve these problems by means of a decentralized, market based control. With a focus on easy expandability and the possibility to cooperate with project partners a methodic and comprehensible development process was used along with open standards and free software. The Validation of the approach was carried out simulation based on real world data. (orig.)

  13. Market-Based and System-Wide Fuel Cycle Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Paul [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-06-02

    The Dynamic Resource Exchange (DRE) gives agency to consumer facilities to determine the preference of any particular trade that is offered by suppliers to satisfy its requests. This provides a natural balance of power in the relationship between consumers and suppliers. However, in situations in which suppliers have flexibility surrounding the way that they respond to individual requests, they have no mechanism to assess how different bids will be received by the consumer. Theoretically, a supplier can offer multiple bids to respond to a given request in an attempt to “cover their bases”, but this introduces more arcs into the underlying network flow problem, increasing the cost to solve the problem. In the extreme, when a supplier can continuously vary the characteristics of the bid, this can represent a large number of additional arcs and have real performance consequences. To remedy this inefficiency in the implementation of the market-level optimization, the definition of a request has been extended to include a function that can be used by the supplier to query the preference that would be assigned by a consumer for a potential bid. The supplier is then free to implement arbitrarily complex algorithms to revise/optimize its bid based on responses to this function. A supplier can chose to not invoke the function at all, mimicking the original DRE behavior, can use it to select among a small set of discrete choices, or can implement an internal algorithm to seek an optimum bid on a continuous parameter space. This capability was demonstrated with a storage facility that preferred material with a specific decay heat that was as close as possible to the maximum allowable decay heat, while requiring the specific decay heat to fall between a minimum and maximum level. This archetype was used to fill multiple storage roles in a simulation that also included a standard recipe reactor: wet storage with no maximum allowable specific decay heat, dry storage with a

  14. Market-Based and System-Wide Fuel Cycle Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The Dynamic Resource Exchange (DRE) gives agency to consumer facilities to determine the preference of any particular trade that is offered by suppliers to satisfy its requests. This provides a natural balance of power in the relationship between consumers and suppliers. However, in situations in which suppliers have flexibility surrounding the way that they respond to individual requests, they have no mechanism to assess how different bids will be received by the consumer. Theoretically, a supplier can offer multiple bids to respond to a given request in an attempt to cover their bases, but this introduces more arcs into the underlying network flow problem, increasing the cost to solve the problem. In the extreme, when a supplier can continuously vary the characteristics of the bid, this can represent a large number of additional arcs and have real performance consequences. To remedy this inefficiency in the implementation of the market-level optimization, the definition of a request has been extended to include a function that can be used by the supplier to query the preference that would be assigned by a consumer for a potential bid. The supplier is then free to implement arbitrarily complex algorithms to revise/optimize its bid based on responses to this function. A supplier can chose to not invoke the function at all, mimicking the original DRE behavior, can use it to select among a small set of discrete choices, or can implement an internal algorithm to seek an optimum bid on a continuous parameter space. This capability was demonstrated with a storage facility that preferred material with a specific decay heat that was as close as possible to the maximum allowable decay heat, while requiring the specific decay heat to fall between a minimum and maximum level. This archetype was used to fill multiple storage roles in a simulation that also included a standard recipe reactor: wet storage with no maximum allowable specific decay heat, dry storage with a modest

  15. Disposal of metal artifacts by monochrome virtual images generated by TC dual power planning in radiation therapy; Eliminacion de artefactos metalicos mediante imagenes virtuales nonocromaticas generadas mediante TC de energia dual para planificacion en radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Perez, V.; Bartres Salido, A.; Arana Fernandez Moya, E.; Crispin Contreras, V.; Dolores Alemany, V. de los; Campo Sanmartin, V.; Moratal Perez, D.

    2015-07-01

    Using monochromatic high-energy virtual images reconstructed by a scanner TCED is viable for planning radiotherapy treatments and improves image quality. Such images using the DICOM standard, and have been successfully exported to the planning system XiO treatments. (Author)

  16. Virtual Power Plant Operation and Scheduling Model Based on Energy Blockchain Network%基于能源区块链网络的虚拟电厂运行与调度模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘维; 胡跃; 杨晓宇; 高山; 刘炜

    2017-01-01

    区块链作为一种全新的去中心化基础构架和分布式计算范式,融合并创新了多种计算机技术.虚拟电厂(virtual power plant,VPP)是能源互联网中的一个重要分支,在聚合分布式发电资源和建立虚拟电力资源交易等方面发挥着重要的作用.该文针对现有的VPP模型中存在的问题,将区块链技术引入VPP,提出一种能源区块链网络模型,进而提出一种改进的VPP运行与调度模型.通过仿真实验,对比了该模型与原有的VPP运行模式在煤炭消耗、温室气体排放和经济成本等方面的数据.仿真结果表明,该模型可更好地反映需求侧实时信息,更有利于VPP进行环境友好、信息透明的稳定调度,也提高了系统的数据安全性和存储安全性.%Block chain is a new decentralized framework and a distributed computing paradigm,which integrates and innovates a variety of computer technologies.Virtual power plant is an important branch of the energy intemet.It plays an important role in the convergence of distributed power generation resources and the establishment of virtual power resource transactions.In this paper,it proposed a kind of energy block chain network model and a virtual power plant operation and scheduling of the improved model to solve the existing problems in the VPP model.The simulation results show that the proposed model can reflect the real-time information of the demand,conducive to the virtual power plant environmental friendly and transparent stable scheduling,and improve the data and storage security.

  17. The effect of distance on moral engagement: Event related potentials and alpha power are sensitive to perspective in a virtual shooting task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten ePetras

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a shooting video game we investigated whether increased distance reduces moral conflict. We measured and analysed the event related potential (ERP, including the N2 component, which has previously been linked to cognitive conflict from competing decision tendencies. In a modified go/nogo task designed to trigger moral conflict participants had to shoot suddenly appearing human like avatars in a virtual reality scene. The scene was seen either from an ego perspective with targets appearing directly in front of the participant or from a bird’s view, where targets were seen from above and more distant. To control for low level visual features, we conducted a visually identical control experiment, where the instruction to shoot was replaced by an instruction to detect. ERP waveforms showed differences between the two tasks as early as in the N1 time-range, with higher N1 amplitudes for the close perspective in the shoot task. Additionally, we found that pre-stimulus alpha power was significantly decreased in the ego, compared to the bird's view only for the shoot but not for the detect task. In the N2 time window, we observed main amplitude effects for response (nogo > go and distance (ego > bird perspective but no interaction with task type (shoot vs detect. We argue that the pre-stimulus and N1 effects can be explained by reduced attention and arousal in the distance condition when people are instructed to shoot. The lack of interaction in the N2 across tasks suggests that at that time point, the moral conflict is already resolved and response execution dominates. We discuss potential implications for real life shooting situations, especially considering recent developments in drone shootings which are per definition of a distant view.

  18. The Effect of Distance on Moral Engagement: Event Related Potentials and Alpha Power are Sensitive to Perspective in a Virtual Shooting Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petras, Kirsten; Ten Oever, Sanne; Jansma, Bernadette M

    2015-01-01

    In a shooting video game we investigated whether increased distance reduces moral conflict. We measured and analyzed the event related potential (ERP), including the N2 component, which has previously been linked to cognitive conflict from competing decision tendencies. In a modified Go/No-go task designed to trigger moral conflict participants had to shoot suddenly appearing human like avatars in a virtual reality scene. The scene was seen either from an ego perspective with targets appearing directly in front of the participant or from a bird's view, where targets were seen from above and more distant. To control for low level visual features, we added a visually identical control condition, where the instruction to "shoot" was replaced by an instruction to "detect." ERP waveforms showed differences between the two tasks as early as in the N1 time-range, with higher N1 amplitudes for the close perspective in the "shoot" task. Additionally, we found that pre-stimulus alpha power was significantly decreased in the ego, compared to the bird's view only for the "shoot" but not for the "detect" task. In the N2 time window, we observed main amplitude effects for response (No-go > Go) and distance (ego > bird perspective) but no interaction with task type (shoot vs. detect). We argue that the pre-stimulus and N1 effects can be explained by reduced attention and arousal in the distance condition when people are instructed to "shoot." These results indicate a reduced moral engagement for increased distance. The lack of interaction in the N2 across tasks suggests that at that time point response execution dominates. We discuss potential implications for real life shooting situations, especially considering recent developments in drone shootings which are per definition of a distant view.

  19. Virtual Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzopoulos, Demetri; Qureshi, Faisal Z.

    Computer vision and sensor networks researchers are increasingly motivated to investigate complex multi-camera sensing and control issues that arise in the automatic visual surveillance of extensive, highly populated public spaces such as airports and train stations. However, they often encounter serious impediments to deploying and experimenting with large-scale physical camera networks in such real-world environments. We propose an alternative approach called "Virtual Vision", which facilitates this type of research through the virtual reality simulation of populated urban spaces, camera sensor networks, and computer vision on commodity computers. We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by developing two highly automated surveillance systems comprising passive and active pan/tilt/zoom cameras that are deployed in a virtual train station environment populated by autonomous, lifelike virtual pedestrians. The easily reconfigurable virtual cameras distributed in this environment generate synthetic video feeds that emulate those acquired by real surveillance cameras monitoring public spaces. The novel multi-camera control strategies that we describe enable the cameras to collaborate in persistently observing pedestrians of interest and in acquiring close-up videos of pedestrians in designated areas.

  20. Virtual Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Sims Bainbridge

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In four ways, massively multiplayer online role-playing games may serve as tools for advancing sustainability goals, and as laboratories for developing alternatives to current social arrangements that have implications for the natural environment. First, by moving conspicuous consumption and other usually costly status competitions into virtual environments, these virtual worlds might reduce the need for physical resources. Second, they provide training that could prepare individuals to be teleworkers, and develop or demonstrate methods for using information technology to replace much transportation technology, notably in commuting. Third, virtual worlds and online games build international cooperation, even blending national cultures, thereby inching us toward not only the world consciousness needed for international agreements about the environment, but also toward non-spatial government that cuts across archaic nationalisms. Finally, realizing the potential social benefits of this new technology may urge us to reconsider a number of traditional societal institutions.

  1. Virtual Tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayne, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The primary responsibility of an intrusion detection system (IDS) operator is to monitor the system, assess alarms, and summon and coordinate the response team when a threat is acknowledged. The tools currently provided to the operator are somewhat limited: monitors must be switched, keystrokes must be entered to call up intrusion sensor data, and communication with the response force must be maintained. The Virtual tower is an operator interface assembled from low-cost commercial-off-the-shelf hardware and software; it enables large amounts of data to be displayed in a virtual manner that provides instant recognition for the operator and increases assessment accuracy in alarm annunciator and control systems. This is accomplished by correlating and fusing the data into a 360-degree visual representation that employs color, auxiliary attributes, video, and directional audio to prompt the operator. The Virtual Tower would be a valuable low-cost enhancement to existing systems

  2. Virtual care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Annette; Aaløkke Ballegaard, Stinne

    of retrenchment, promising better quality, empowerment of citizens and work that is smarter and more qualified. Through ethnographic field studies we study the introduction of virtual home care in Danish elderly care, focusing on the implications for relational work and care relations. Virtual home care entails...... the performance of specific home care services by means of video conversations rather than physical visits in the citizens’ homes. As scholars within the STS tradition maintain, technologies do not simply replace a human function; they rather transform care work, redistributing tasks between citizens, technology...... point out how issues of trust and surveillance, which are always negotiated in care relations, are in fact accentuated in this kind of virtual care work. Moreover, we stress that the contemporary institutional context, organization and time schedules have a vast impact on the practices developed....

  3. Virtual toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobus, Charles J.; Jacobus, Heidi N.; Mitchell, Brian T.; Riggs, A. J.; Taylor, Mark J.

    1993-04-01

    At least three of the five senses must be fully addressed in a successful virtual reality (VR) system. Sight, sound, and touch are the most critical elements for the creation of the illusion of presence. Since humans depend so much on sight to collect information about their environment, this area has been the focus of much of the prior art in virtual reality, however, it is also crucial that we provide facilities for force, torque, and touch reflection, and sound replay and 3-D localization. In this paper we present a sampling of hardware and software in the virtual environment maker's `toolbox' which can support rapidly building up of customized VR systems. We provide demonstrative examples of how some of the tools work and we speculate about VR applications and future technology needs.

  4. Virtual polytopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panina, G Yu; Streinu, I

    2015-01-01

    Originating in diverse branches of mathematics, from polytope algebra and toric varieties to the theory of stressed graphs, virtual polytopes represent a natural algebraic generalization of convex polytopes. Introduced as elements of the Grothendieck group associated to the semigroup of convex polytopes, they admit a variety of geometrizations. The present survey connects the theory of virtual polytopes with other geometrical subjects, describes a series of geometrizations together with relations between them, and gives a selection of applications. Bibliography: 50 titles

  5. Benefiting from Customer and Competitor Knowledge: A Market-Based Approach to Organizational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoe, Siu Loon

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the organizational learning, market orientation and learning orientation concepts, highlight the importance of market knowledge to organizational learning and recommend ways in adopting a market-based approach to organizational learning. Design/methodology/approach: The extant organizational learning…

  6. 78 FR 75560 - Biofuels Washington LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER14-506-000] Biofuels Washington LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Biofuels...

  7. Market-Based Coordination and Auditing Mechanisms for Self-Interested Multi-Robot Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, MyungJoo

    2009-01-01

    We propose market-based coordinated task allocation mechanisms, which allocate complex tasks that require synchronized and collaborated services of multiple robot agents to robot agents, and an auditing mechanism, which ensures proper behaviors of robot agents by verifying inter-agent activities, for self-interested, fully-distributed, and…

  8. 77 FR 60984 - World Digital Innovations; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2654-001] World Digital Innovations; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of World Digital...

  9. Autonomous power networks based power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokic, A.; Van den Bosch, P.P.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presented the concept of autonomous networks to cope with this increased complexity in power systems while enhancing market-based operation. The operation of future power systems will be more challenging and demanding than present systems because of increased uncertainties, less inertia in the system, replacement of centralized coordinating activities by decentralized parties and the reliance on dynamic markets for both power balancing and system reliability. An autonomous network includes the aggregation of networked producers and consumers in a relatively small area with respect to the overall system. The operation of an autonomous network is coordinated and controlled with one central unit acting as an interface between internal producers/consumers and the rest of the power system. In this study, the power balance problem and system reliability through provision of ancillary services was formulated as an optimization problem for the overall autonomous networks based power system. This paper described the simulation of an optimal autonomous network dispatching in day ahead markets, based on predicted spot prices for real power, and two ancillary services. It was concluded that large changes occur in a power systems structure and operation, most of them adding to the uncertainty and complexity of the system. The introduced concept of an autonomous power network-based power system was shown to be a realistic and consistent approach to formulate and operate a market-based dispatch of both power and ancillary services. 9 refs., 4 figs

  10. Virtual Savannah

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodil, Kasper; Eskildsen, Søren; Rehm, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Virtual Savannah is constructed to visualize parts of a curriculum, which the educational service at Aalborg Zoo has difficulties in teaching children visiting the zoo. It contains rich media like audio, text, video and picture galleries about African ecology, but some of this episodic information...

  11. Virtual Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Gregory B.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the current state of the art in virtual reality (VR), its historical background, and future possibilities. Highlights include applications in medicine, art and entertainment, science, business, and telerobotics; and VR for information science, including graphical display of bibliographic data, libraries and books, and cyberspace.…

  12. Virtualize Me!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, John K.

    2009-01-01

    John Abdelmalak, director of technology for the School District of the Chathams, was pretty sure it was time to jump on the virtualization bandwagon last year when he invited Dell to conduct a readiness assessment of his district's servers. When he saw just how little of their capacity was being used, he lost all doubt. Abdelmalak is one of many…

  13. Virtual Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ove

    2013-01-01

    In the Scandinavian countries: Sweden, Norway and Denmark, the project GNU (Grænseoverskridende Nordisk Undervisning, i.e. Transnational Nordic Teaching) is experimenting with ways of conducting teaching across the borders in the elementary schools. The cloud classes are organised with one class...... and benefits in regard to learning and pedagogy with virtual classroom....

  14. Virtual landmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Bai, Peirui; Torigian, Drew A.

    2017-03-01

    Much has been published on finding landmarks on object surfaces in the context of shape modeling. While this is still an open problem, many of the challenges of past approaches can be overcome by removing the restriction that landmarks must be on the object surface. The virtual landmarks we propose may reside inside, on the boundary of, or outside the object and are tethered to the object. Our solution is straightforward, simple, and recursive in nature, proceeding from global features initially to local features in later levels to detect landmarks. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used as an engine to recursively subdivide the object region. The object itself may be represented in binary or fuzzy form or with gray values. The method is illustrated in 3D space (although it generalizes readily to spaces of any dimensionality) on four objects (liver, trachea and bronchi, and outer boundaries of left and right lungs along pleura) derived from 5 patient computed tomography (CT) image data sets of the thorax and abdomen. The virtual landmark identification approach seems to work well on different structures in different subjects and seems to detect landmarks that are homologously located in different samples of the same object. The approach guarantees that virtual landmarks are invariant to translation, scaling, and rotation of the object/image. Landmarking techniques are fundamental for many computer vision and image processing applications, and we are currently exploring the use virtual landmarks in automatic anatomy recognition and object analytics.

  15. Personal Virtual Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2004-01-01

    Virtual libraries are becoming more and more common. Most states have a virtual library. A growing number of public libraries have a virtual presence on the Web. Virtual libraries are a growing addition to school library media collections. The next logical step would be personal virtual libraries. A personal virtual library (PVL) is a collection…

  16. Managing congestion in distribution grids - Market design consideration. How heat pumps can deliver flexibility though well-designed markets and virtual power plant technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg Rasmussen, L. [NEAS Energy, Aalborg (Denmark); Bang, C.; Togeby, M. [Ea Energy Analyses, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-10-15

    of end-users to react to price fluctuations e.g. spot prices, thus enabling them to save on their electricity bill, and contribute to the overall system balance. The aim of this report is to discuss challenges with congestions in the distribution grids and how these can be solved through different tariffs and connection agreements, and how a market can be designed to manage congestion in local grids. A part of this is the investigation of the principal questions: Does the DSO have information about potential congestions, and what should the geographic scope of such a signal be? End-user demand can be controlled by a computer in each home which responds to a price signal that originates from the DSO, or it could be controlled by a centralised system, e.g. a virtual-power-plant (VPP) setup. The VPP set-up is in focus in this project, but the signal from the DSO should likely be useable in relation to both control solutions. How future signals from the DSO to the consumer would work in practice is open to discussion as there are a number of potential options, each which vary with respect to their geographic scope, timing, notice, and price level. Our initial findings indicate a number of issues that appear to be clear: 1) The signal indicating a potential congestion in distribution grids must originate from the DSO, and this signal will be directed to the retailer/aggregator/balance responsible, which will pass it on to end-users. 2) Ideally, the signal with grid tariffs should be sent to all end-users (not only heat pumps) in the congested area (i.e. possibly a small fraction of the DSO area). However, with more than 10,000 potential grids this may not be practical, and costs may not allow for this ideal solution. 3) Simple time-of-use tariffs can be an important first step in the direction of dynamic tariffs. Time-of-use tariffs can motivate behavioural change, i.e. computers and communication are not a requirement. It has not been analysed in detail how far in the

  17. Consequences of Market-Based Measures CO2-emission Reduction Maritime Transport for the Netherlands; Gevolgen Market Based Measures CO2-emissiereductie zeevaart voor Nederland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortelboer-van Donselaar, P.; Kansen, M.; Moorman, S. [Kennisinstituut voor Mobiliteitsbeleid KiM, Den Haag (Netherlands); Faber, J.; Koopman, M.; Smit, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands)

    2013-11-15

    The introduction of Market Based Measures (MBMs) to reduce the CO2 emissions of international sea shipping will have relatively limited economic effects for the Netherlands. Moreover, these effects are largely in line with those in other countries. For the Netherlands, however, the manner in which MBMS are organised and enforced is likely to be particularly important, given the importance of ports to the Dutch economy, the country's relatively large bunker sector, and the fact that Dutch shipowners operate relatively small vessels and on a relatively small scale. MBMs include pricing measures in the form of tax or trade systems, as well as other market-related proposals. In this research study, the consequences are analysed of four international MBM proposals for the Netherlands [Dutch] Om de CO2-uitstoot van de internationale zeevaartsector terug te dringen worden momenteel zogeheten Market Based Measures (MBMs), zoals bijvoorbeeld het veilen van emissierechten of het invoeren van een heffing, overwogen. De invoering van de MBMs zal voor Nederland relatief beperkte economische effecten hebben. Deze effecten wijken bovendien niet bijzonder af van die voor andere landen. De wijze waarop de MBMs worden georganiseerd en gehandhaafd, is voor Nederland mogelijk wel van onderscheidend belang. Dit gezien het belang van de havens voor de Nederlandse economie, de relatief grote bunkersector, en de relatief kleine schepen en kleinschaligheid van de Nederlandse reders.

  18. 77 FR 64980 - Collegiate Clean Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-33-000] Collegiate Clean Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Collegiate Clean Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff...

  19. 77 FR 53884 - North Sky River Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2444-000] North Sky River Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... North Sky River Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  20. 77 FR 23476 - Energia Sierra Juarez U.S., LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1470-000] Energia Sierra Juarez U.S., LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Energia Sierra Juarez U.S., LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  1. 75 FR 10244 - TC Energy Trading, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-792-000] TC Energy Trading, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of TC Energy Trading, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  2. 75 FR 10245 - S.J. Energy Partners, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-735-000] S.J. Energy Partners, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of S.J. Energy Partners, Inc.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  3. 76 FR 32188 - Hatch Solar Energy Center 1, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-3635-000] Hatch Solar Energy Center 1, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Hatch Solar Energy Center 1, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  4. 78 FR 34371 - Centinela Solar Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1561-000] Centinela Solar Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Centinela Solar Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  5. 78 FR 28836 - Arlington Valley Solar Energy II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1430-000] Arlington Valley Solar Energy II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request..., of Arlington Valley Solar Energy II, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  6. 77 FR 57082 - Prairie Rose Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2542-000] Prairie Rose Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Rose Wind, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule...

  7. 75 FR 80486 - Sustainable Star, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... proceeding of Sustainable Star, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2354-000] Sustainable Star, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket...

  8. 75 FR 61746 - New England Wire Technologies Corp; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ...-referenced proceeding of New England Wire Technologies Corp's application for market-based rate authority... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-2754-000] New England Wire Technologies Corp; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

  9. 75 FR 70742 - AES Laurel Mountain, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2036-000] AES Laurel Mountain, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of AES Laurel Mountain, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  10. 76 FR 72697 - Heritage Garden Wind Farm I, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-421-000] Heritage Garden Wind Farm I, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Heritage Garden Wind Farm I, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  11. 78 FR 36768 - Battery Utility of Ohio, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1667-000] Battery Utility of Ohio, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Battery Utility of Ohio, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  12. 78 FR 62615 - Healthy Planet Partners Energy Company, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER14-96-000] Healthy Planet Partners Energy Company, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request... of Healthy Planet Partners Energy Company, LLC's application for market- based rate authority, with...

  13. 76 FR 77815 - Ethical Electric Benefit Co.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-543-000] Ethical Electric Benefit Co.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Ethical Electric Benefit Co.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  14. 75 FR 27339 - Blackstone Wind Farm II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1184-000] Blackstone Wind Farm II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding of Blackstone Wind Farm, LLCs application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  15. 78 FR 50410 - Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-2143-000] Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  16. 77 FR 30274 - Inupiat Energy Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... Energy Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Inupiat Energy Marketing, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate... protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To...

  17. 75 FR 48666 - Calpine Mid-Atlantic Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ...-Atlantic Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding, of Calpine Mid-Atlantic Marketing, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an... of protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov...

  18. 75 FR 5782 - Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... Marketing and Trade Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...-referenced proceeding of Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corporation's application for market- based rate... electronic submission of protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http...

  19. 78 FR 20910 - Hess Energy Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Marketing, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule, noting... interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To facilitate electronic...

  20. 77 FR 38280 - Verde Energy USA New York, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2071-000] Verde Energy USA New York, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Verde Energy USA New York, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  1. 76 FR 43684 - Verde Energy USA Trading, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-4041-000] Verde Energy USA Trading, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Verde Energy USA Trading, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  2. 75 FR 74711 - Planet Energy (USA) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2166-000] Planet Energy (USA) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding, of Planet Energy (USA) Corp.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  3. 75 FR 76004 - Planet Energy (New York) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2179-000] Planet Energy (New York) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding, of Planet Energy (New York) Corp.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  4. 75 FR 61747 - Discount Energy Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... proceeding of Discount Energy Group, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-2803-000] Discount Energy Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket...

  5. 75 FR 37430 - Plymouth Rock Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1470-000] Plymouth Rock Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... of Plymouth Rock Energy, LLC.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  6. 75 FR 57016 - Maple Analytics, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-2541-000] Maple Analytics, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of Maple Analytics, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  7. 75 FR 16453 - Nasdaq OMX Commodities Clearing-Finance, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-914-000] Nasdaq OMX Commodities Clearing--Finance, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...-referenced proceeding of Nasdaq OMX Commodities Clearing--Finance, LLC's application for market- based rate...

  8. 75 FR 71426 - North Community Turbines, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2107-000] North Community Turbines, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding, of North Community Turbines, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  9. 75 FR 71425 - Border Energy Electric Services, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... proceeding, of Border Energy Electric Services, Inc.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2088-000] Border Energy Electric Services, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

  10. 75 FR 68352 - Salmon Falls Wind Park, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-1893-000] Salmon Falls Wind Park, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of Salmon Falls Wind Park, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  11. 76 FR 69267 - Stream Energy New Jersey, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-225-000] Stream Energy New Jersey, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Stream Energy New Jersey, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  12. 77 FR 47625 - Beebe Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2311-000] Beebe Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Beebe Renewable Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  13. 77 FR 35669 - AltaGas Renewable Energy Colorado LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1875-000] AltaGas Renewable Energy Colorado LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request... of AltaGas Renewable Energy Colorado LLC application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  14. 77 FR 2718 - CPV Cimarron Renewable Energy Company, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-775-000] CPV Cimarron Renewable Energy Company, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request... of CPV Cimarron Renewable Energy Company, LLC's application for market- based rate authority, with an...

  15. 75 FR 42744 - Synergics Roth Rock Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1637-000] Synergics Roth Rock Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...-referenced proceeding of Synergics Roth Rock Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority...

  16. 76 FR 6614 - Elk Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2765-000] Elk Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of Elk Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  17. 77 FR 21555 - Flat Ridge 2 Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1400-000] Flat Ridge 2 Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Wind Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff, noting...

  18. 77 FR 47625 - Laurel Hill Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2313-000] Laurel Hill Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request For... Laurel Hill Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  19. 75 FR 42743 - Synergics Roth Rock North Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1673-000] Synergics Roth Rock North Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...-referenced proceeding of Synergics Roth Rock North Wind Energy, LLC's application for market- based rate...

  20. 78 FR 62300 - Prairie Breeze Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER14-25-000] Prairie Breeze Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Breeze Wind Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule...

  1. 75 FR 57016 - Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-2522-000] Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...-referenced proceeding of Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority...

  2. 77 FR 106 - California Ridge Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-645-000] California Ridge Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... California Ridge Wind Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  3. 77 FR 41400 - Mehoopany Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2200-000] Mehoopany Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Wind Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff, noting...

  4. 76 FR 69720 - NaturEner Rim Rock Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [ Docket No. ER12-295-000] NaturEner Rim Rock Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... NaturEner Rim Rock Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  5. 75 FR 71425 - North Wind Turbines, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... proceeding, of North Wind Turbines, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2108-000] North Wind Turbines, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket...

  6. 75 FR 82381 - Oracle Energy Services, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2436-000] Oracle Energy Services, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of Oracle Energy Services, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  7. 75 FR 52528 - FC Landfill Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-2268-000] FC Landfill Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding, of FC Landfill Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  8. 77 FR 24697 - Cooper Mountain Solar 2, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1566-000] Cooper Mountain Solar 2, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Cooper Mountain Solar 2, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  9. 76 FR 44322 - Copper Mountain Solar 1, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-4055-000] Copper Mountain Solar 1, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Copper Mountain Solar 1, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  10. 76 FR 25328 - New Mexico Green Initiatives, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... Mexico Green Initiatives, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-3431-000] New Mexico Green Initiatives, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

  11. 75 FR 70738 - Gulf Oil Limited Partnership; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... Limited Partnership; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding of Gulf Oil Limited Partnership's application for market-based rate authority, with an... CFR Part 34, of future issuances of securities and assumptions of liability. Any person desiring to...

  12. 75 FR 70739 - Domtar A.W. LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2021-000] Domtar A.W. LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section... of Domtar A.W. LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff...

  13. 75 FR 70738 - Domtar A.W. LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2021-000] Domtar A.W. LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section... of Domtar A.W. LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff...

  14. 75 FR 359 - Google Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-468-000] Google Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section... of Google Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff...

  15. 75 FR 74039 - FPL Energy Montezuma Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... proceeding, of FPL Energy Montezuma Wind, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2160-000] FPL Energy Montezuma Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket...

  16. 76 FR 61687 - NextEra Energy Montezuma II Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-4677-000] NextEra Energy Montezuma II Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request... of NextEra Energy Montezuma II Wind, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  17. 75 FR 18202 - Vantage Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-956-000] Vantage Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... of Vantage Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  18. Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation is based on the concept of smart sensor technology for testing with intelligence needed to perform sell-diagnosis of health, and to participate in a hierarchy of health determination at sensor, process, and system levels. A virtual sensor test instrumentation consists of five elements: (1) a common sensor interface, (2) microprocessor, (3) wireless interface, (4) signal conditioning and ADC/DAC (analog-to-digital conversion/ digital-to-analog conversion), and (5) onboard EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) for metadata storage and executable software to create powerful, scalable, reconfigurable, and reliable embedded and distributed test instruments. In order to maximize the efficient data conversion through the smart sensor node, plug-and-play functionality is required to interface with traditional sensors to enhance their identity and capabilities for data processing and communications. Virtual sensor test instrumentation can be accessible wirelessly via a Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP) or a Smart Transducer Interlace Module (STIM) that may be managed under real-time rule engines for mission-critical applications. The transducer senses the physical quantity being measured and converts it into an electrical signal. The signal is fed to an A/D converter, and is ready for use by the processor to execute functional transformation based on the sensor characteristics stored in a Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS). Virtual sensor test instrumentation is built upon an open-system architecture with standardized protocol modules/stacks to interface with industry standards and commonly used software. One major benefit for deploying the virtual sensor test instrumentation is the ability, through a plug-and-play common interface, to convert raw sensor data in either analog or digital form, to an IEEE 1451 standard-based smart sensor, which has instructions to program sensors for a wide variety of

  19. Sensorial Virtualization: Coupling Gaming and Virtual Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garbaya, S.; Miraoui, C.; Wendrich, Robert E.; Lim, T.; Stanescu, I.A.; Hauge, J.B.

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality and virtualization are currently used to design complex systems and demonstrate that they represent the functionalities of real systems. However, the design refinement of the virtual environment (VE) and distributed virtual environment (DVE) are still time consuming and costly, as it

  20. Virtual Presenters: Towards Interactive Virtual Presentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Cappellini, V.; Hemsley, J.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss having virtual presenters in virtual environments that present information to visitors of these environments. Some current research is surveyed and we will look in particular to our research in the context of a virtual meeting room where a virtual presenter uses speech, gestures, pointing

  1. Virtual materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    as their recounts of them and 3. the consumption of other media products like movies, reality shows, YouTube videos etc. How do we theorize ‘matter’ in such dimensions? Is it possible to theorize virtual matter as ‘materiality’ in line with any real life materiality? What conceptualization will help us understand......? These questions become crucial when we follow matter in and across real life, virtual experience, recounted imagery, night dreams, YouTube videos and even further. Some may already have recognized Phillip’s skeleton army as a transport/transformation from Lord of the Rings, DVD 3, the army which Aragon calls out....... Butler, J. (1993) Bodies that Matter. On the Discursive Limits of “Sex”. London: Routledge. Durkin, K. et al. (1998) Children, Media and Agression. Current Research in Australia and New Zealand. In: Carlson, U. & von Feilitzen, C. (red): Children and Media Violence. Yearbook from the UNESCO International...

  2. Virtual anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Gerhard W

    2015-02-01

    Comparative morphology, dealing with the diversity of form and shape, and functional morphology, the study of the relationship between the structure and the function of an organism's parts, are both important subdisciplines in biological research. Virtual anthropology (VA) contributes to comparative morphology by taking advantage of technological innovations, and it also offers new opportunities for functional analyses. It exploits digital technologies and pools experts from different domains such as anthropology, primatology, medicine, paleontology, mathematics, statistics, computer science, and engineering. VA as a technical term was coined in the late 1990s from the perspective of anthropologists with the intent of being mostly applied to biological questions concerning recent and fossil hominoids. More generally, however, there are advanced methods to study shape and size or to manipulate data digitally suitable for application to all kinds of primates, mammals, other vertebrates, and invertebrates or to issues regarding plants, tools, or other objects. In this sense, we could also call the field "virtual morphology." The approach yields permanently available virtual copies of specimens and data that comprehensively quantify geometry, including previously neglected anatomical regions. It applies advanced statistical methods, supports the reconstruction of specimens based on reproducible manipulations, and promotes the acquisition of larger samples by data sharing via electronic archives. Finally, it can help identify new, hidden traits, which is particularly important in paleoanthropology, where the scarcity of material demands extracting information from fragmentary remains. This contribution presents a current view of the six main work steps of VA: digitize, expose, compare, reconstruct, materialize, and share. The VA machinery has also been successfully used in biomechanical studies which simulate the stress and strains appearing in structures. Although

  3. Applied virtual reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yule, I.Y.; Lee, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    An early experience in deploying a manipulator to the Irradiated Fuel Dismantling Cell at Torness Power Station, quickly highlighted that special visualisation techniques were required to achieve a successful deployment and reduce plant system down time. This visualisation was later realised through the IGRIP software pakcage operating on a Silicon Graphics computing engine, which provides a 'Non-Immersive' Virtual Reality environment. Within this environment, models of the Irradiated Fuel Dismantling cell were generated along with a model of the manipulator, allowing manipulator deployment to the Irradiated Fuel Dismantling Cell be modelled. It is estimated that the first use of this new environment provided a significant saving to Scottish Nuclear in potential lost output. The use of this virtual reality environment is currently being extended into the design and deployment of a new manipulator for Torness in vessel inspection, the Boiler Inspection Manipulator. (author)

  4. Virtual automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casis, E; Garrido, A; Uranga, B; Vives, A; Zufiaurre, C

    2001-01-01

    Total laboratory automation (TLA) can be substituted in mid-size laboratories by a computer sample workflow control (virtual automation). Such a solution has been implemented in our laboratory using PSM, software developed in cooperation with Roche Diagnostics (Barcelona, Spain), to this purpose. This software is connected to the online analyzers and to the laboratory information system and is able to control and direct the samples working as an intermediate station. The only difference with TLA is the replacement of transport belts by personnel of the laboratory. The implementation of this virtual automation system has allowed us the achievement of the main advantages of TLA: workload increase (64%) with reduction in the cost per test (43%), significant reduction in the number of biochemistry primary tubes (from 8 to 2), less aliquoting (from 600 to 100 samples/day), automation of functional testing, drastic reduction of preanalytical errors (from 11.7 to 0.4% of the tubes) and better total response time for both inpatients (from up to 48 hours to up to 4 hours) and outpatients (from up to 10 days to up to 48 hours). As an additional advantage, virtual automation could be implemented without hardware investment and significant headcount reduction (15% in our lab).

  5. Virtual Cystoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia Restrepo, Jorge; Aldana S, Natalia; Munoz Sierra, Juan; Lopez Amaya, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: virtual cystoscopy is a minimally invasive procedure that facilitates the evaluation of the urinary tract, allowing intraluminal navigation through the urinary tract structures on the basis of CT imaging reconstructions. it allows detection of various pathologies of the system, through high-sensitivity, three-dimensional lesion visualization with some advantages over conventional cystoscopy. Objective: to describe the technique used for virtual cystoscopy at our institution,and present some representative cases. Materials and methods: We describe the main indications, advantages and limitations of the method, followed by a description of the technique used in our institution, and finally, we present five representative cases of bladder and urethral pathology. Conclusion: virtual cystoscopy is a sensitive technique for the diagnosis of bladder tumors, even those smaller than 5mm. it is the preferred method in patients who have contraindications for conventional cystoscopy, such as prostate hyperplasia, urethral stenoses and active haematuria.it is less invasive and has a lower complication rate when compared with conventional cystoscopy. It has limited use in the assessment of the mucosa and of small, flat lesions.

  6. Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Fogsgaard, Morten

    2016-01-01

    and creativity suggests that when managers give people the opportunity to gain power and explicate that there is reason to be more creative, people will show a boost in creative behaviour. Moreover, this process works best in unstable power hierarchies, which implies that power is treated as a negotiable....... It is thus a central point that power is not necessarily something that breaks down and represses. On the contrary, an explicit focus on the dynamics of power in relation to creativity can be productive for the organisation. Our main focus is to elaborate the implications of this for practice and theory...

  7. The NOx Budget. Market-based control of tropospheric ozone in the northeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, Alex; Carter, Robert; Raufer, Roger

    1999-01-01

    The NOx Budget is a marketable emissions allowance system currently being adopted by states in the Northeastern US to reduce tropospheric ozone concentrations to healthful levels in a cost-effective manner. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) are currently regulated within the existing Command and Control (CAC) framework. The introduction of a market-based approach will further reduce emissions, but will not resolve all regulatory uncertainties. These implementation concerns are identified and discussed. Cost savings and emissions reductions patterns which will arise under several different scenarios are determined through the use of a dynamic, relaxed mixed-integer linear programming model of the NOx allowance market. Like other market-based pollution control programs, the NOx Budget is found to be more efficient than CAC options. Restrictions on the market designed to address perceived flaws are found to be expensive but ineffectual

  8. Market-based implementation of Kyoto commitments: how the financial/insurance sector can support industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoepfel, Ivo

    1999-01-01

    The implementation of the Kyoto Protocol in the context of the Framework Convention on Climate Change will probably lead to economic winners and losers in various sectors of the economy. Especially carbon intensive industries will need to develop hedging strategies to prevent potential negative effects and to optimise market opportunities. Such strategies can be based on technological innovation, market and product diversification, and on financial/legal offsets. The Kyoto Protocol has introduced new market-based instruments, which can, in a near future provide such hedging opportunities. These include joint implementation, the so-called clean development mechanism, and international emissions trading. The financial services and insurance sector are the natural partners of industry in designing tailored hedging strategies. It is recommended that industry, financial services and insurance companies take a more proactive role in further developing the market-based instruments established by the Kyoto Protocol. (Author)

  9. Distributed Market-Based Algorithms for Multi-Agent Planning with Shared Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    1 Introduction 1 2 Distributed Market-Based Multi-Agent Planning 5 2.1 Problem Formulation...over the deterministic planner, on the “test set” of scenarios with changing economies. . . 50 xi xii Chapter 1 Introduction Multi-agent planning is...representation of the objective (4.2.1). For example, for the supply chain mangement problem, we assumed a sequence of Bernoulli coin flips, which seems

  10. The relative efficiency of market-based environmental policy instruments with imperfect compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Rousseau, Sandra; Proost, Stef

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines to what extent incomplete compliance of environmental regulation mitigates the distortions caused by pre-existing labour taxes. We study the relative cost efficiency of three market-based instruments: emission taxes, tradable permits and output taxes. In a first-best setting and given that monitoring and enforcement is costless, we find that the same utility levels can be reached with and without incomplete compliance. However, allowing for violations makes the policy i...

  11. Segments of marketers based on a perceived importance of marketing knowledge and skills

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna Žabkar; Maja Hosta

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to define and empirically verify a range of knowledge and skills which are necessary in order to segment marketers, based on their perceptions of the importance of such marketing knowledge and skills. To empirically verify the importance of marketing knowledge and skills, a 28-item measurement instrument was developed. Responses from 235 marketing vice-presidents, marketing directors, sales directors or company presidents/owners in Slovenia were obtained (an 11....

  12. Comprehensive and market-based approaches to global-change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    The summary highlights the need to take a system-wide approach to global change. The need to minimize costs while achieving environmental goals suggests the utility of employing market-based incentives that (1) ensure that the most is achieved by those who can do so at least cost and (2) encourage, innovation, rather than using 'command-and-control' tactics that mandate uniform adoption of centrally selected techniques. 18 refs

  13. Virtualization in the Operations Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Lee; Lankford, Kim; Felton, Larry; Pruitt, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Virtualization provides the opportunity to continue to do "more with less"---more computing power with fewer physical boxes, thus reducing the overall hardware footprint, power and cooling requirements, software licenses, and their associated costs. This paper explores the tremendous advantages and any disadvantages of virtualization in all of the environments associated with software and systems development to operations flow. It includes the use and benefits of the Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) specification, and identifies lessons learned concerning hardware and network configurations. Using the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center as an example, we demonstrate that deploying virtualized servers as a means of managing computing resources is applicable and beneficial to many areas of application, up to and including flight operations.

  14. Integration of Electric Vehicles into the Power Distribution Network with a Modified Capacity Allocation Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Hu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing penetration of electric vehicles (EVs represents an operational challenge to system operators, mainly at the distribution level by introducing congestion and voltage drop problems. To solve these potential problems, a two-level coordination approach is proposed in this study. An aggregation entity, i.e., an EV virtual power plant (EV-VPP, is used to facilitate the interaction between the distribution system operator (DSO and EV owners considering the decentralized electricity market structure. In level I, to prevent the line congestion and voltage drop problems, the EV-VPP internally respects the line and voltage constraints when making optimal charging schedules. In level II, to avoid power transformer congestion problems, this paper investigates three different coordination mechanisms, or power transformer capacity allocation mechanisms, between the DSO and the EV-VPPs, considering the case of EVs charging and discharging. The three mechanisms include: (1 a market-based approach; (2 a pro-rata approach; and (3 a newly-proposed constrained market-based approach. A case study considering a 37-bus distribution network and high penetration of electric vehicles is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed coordination mechanism, comparing with the existing ones.

  15. Periodismo virtual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Morales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El periodismo virtual se produce en diarios que no ofrecen noticias (concebidas como versión o reflejo de la realidad sino que crean sus propias ficciones, especialmente en primeras planas. El autor del artículo señala que esto esta sucediendo en LA NACIÓN de San José de Costa Rica, diario premiado por la inefable Sociedad Interamericana de Prensa - SIP - y periódico económicamente más importante del país.

  16. Imparting Individuality to Virtual Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egges, A.; Kshirsagar, V.; Magnenat-Thalmann, N.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present an integrated method of linking personality and emotion with the response generation and expression synthesis of Virtual Humans. The characters are powered by a dialogue system that consists of a large set of basic interactions between user and computer. These

  17. Green Virtualization for Multiple Collaborative Cellular Operators

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Muhammad Junaid; Ghazzai, Hakim; Yaacoub, Elias; Kadri, Abdullah; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes and investigates a green virtualization framework for infrastructure sharing among multiple cellular operators whose networks are powered by a combination of conventional and renewable sources of energy. Under the proposed

  18. Citrix XenApp 7.5 desktop virtualization solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Andy

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Citrix® engineer, a virtualization consultant, or an IT project manager with prior experience of using Citrix XenApp® and related technologies for desktop virtualization and want to further explore the power of XenApp® for flawless desktop virtualization, then this book is for you.

  19. Application of Virtual Reality to Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamela, B.; Felipe, A.; Sanchez-Mayoral, M. L.; Mreino, A.; Sarti, F.

    2004-01-01

    In order to optimize the operations and procedures in several aspects of a Nuclear Power Plants, Iberdrola Ingenieria y Consultoria (Iberinco) has been developed some projects with Virtual Reality: CIPRES, ACEWO, TILOS and SICOMORO. With the experience acquired in these projects, Iberinco has checked the utility and advantageous of Virtual Reality applications that could have a direct application to Radiation Protection. With Virtual Reality it is possible to optimize the procedures involved in several critical aspects of the Plant Management. A training program bases on Virtual Reality systems could be one of the most important application. In Emergency situations the time of reaction is very important and in order to reduce it and dose, Virtual Reality is a very important tool, that could be used for training and to guide response team actions. Finally, the reduction of dose to workers, in a NPP, and patients, in hospital, is one of the most important application of Virtual Reality. (Author) 5 refs

  20. Instruction by virtual reality to operation and security of a nuclear power plant of IV generation; Instruccion por realidad virtual a la operacion y seguridad de una central nuclear de generacion IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri O, J. C.; Baltasar M, J.; Valle H, J. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Division de Estudios de Posgrado, Campus Morelos, UNAM, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, Col. Progreso, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)], e-mail: neriunam@ieee.org

    2009-10-15

    The purpose of LaNuVi project which is developing in the Engineering Faculty of National Autonomous University of Mexico, to have a virtual laboratory of nuclear reactors as tool of multidisciplinary education at basic and advanced levels in nuclear engineering area, involves training resources in audio visual and interactive form that allow to form a comprehension more realistic of operation of different systems and components. In this work is proposed to use educational resources, as the employees in the U.S. Army and in some centers of advanced education of medicine, where have been come proving concepts like projected reality, increased reality, tele transparency and others that present big benefits to learning-education process. The proposal here is to include the resource knew as serious game based learning. The focal point of stage that is presented is of a nuclear reactor PBMR like desalination and generator of controlled alternating energy and efficient that should put on in operation to allow the subsistence of a community in a desolated region of beginning second quarter of X XI century. For this purpose the designs are initiated and programmed several subsystems that allow the three-dimensional modeling of main components of a PBMR as well as of surrounding facilities. The obtained results and reaches of this design are presented. The product is in tests for a first version and it is hope to achieve a free and integral resource of national distribution for different cultural groups, interested in this type of advanced technology. (Author)

  1. Trust and virtual worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ess, Charles; Thorseth, May

    2011-01-01

    We collect diverse philosophical analyses of the issues and problems clustering around trust online with specific attention to establishing trust in virtual environments. The book moves forward important discussions of how virtual worlds and virtuality are to be defined and understood; the role o...... by virtuality, such as virtual child pornography. The introduction further develops a philosophical anthropology, rooted in Kantian ethics, phenomenology, virtue ethics, and feminist perspectives, that grounds a specific approach to ethical issues in virtual environments....

  2. Realidad virtual y materialidad

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Herranz, Fernando Miguel

    2009-01-01

    1. Fenomenología de partida: Real / Simbólico / Imaginario 2. Realidad 3. Virtual 3.1. Virtual / real / posible / probable 3.2. Los contextos de la realidad virtual A) REALIDAD VIRTUAL INMERSIVA B) REALIDAD VIRTUAL NO INMERSIVA C) REALIDAD VIRTUAL Y DIGITALIZACIÓN 3.3. Cruce virtual / real 3.4. Cuestiones filosóficas 4. Materialidad 5. Materialidad y descentramiento 5.1. Ejemplos de descentramiento en los contextos de Realidad Virtual A’) DUALISMO CARTESIANO, CUERPO Y «CIBORG » B’) EL ESPÍRIT...

  3. Realidad virtual

    OpenAIRE

    García García, Alberto Luis

    2000-01-01

    Las nuevas tecnologías, basadas en el mundo digital propuesto por la informática, están cambiando nuestra forma de entender el mundo, tanto desde el punto de vista sociocultural como económico. La realidad virtual se vale de códigos icónicos, y con ello se convierte en un paso más hacia la supresión de toda barrera linguística, para llegar a conseguir la gran comunidad global. Es necesario conocer en toda su extensión, una tecnología que está cambiando el modo de comunicarnos. Estos son, a gr...

  4. Virtual Reality and the Virtual Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, Charles

    1993-01-01

    Explains virtual reality, including proper and improper uses of the term, and suggests ways that libraries might be affected by it. Highlights include elements of virtual reality systems; possible virtual reality applications, including architecture, the chemical industry, transport planning, armed forces, and entertainment; and the virtual…

  5. From virtual environment to virtual community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Terano, Takao; Nishida, Toyoaki; Namatame, Akira; Tsumoto, Syusaku; Ohsawa, Yukido; Washio, Takashi

    2001-01-01

    We discuss a virtual reality theater environment and its transition to a virtual community by adding domain agents and by allowing multiple users to visit this environment. The environment has been built using VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). We discuss how our ideas about this environment

  6. Reaching rural customers: the challenge of market-based rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinmueller, Dorothee; Adib, Rana

    2002-01-01

    The large number of households that need catering for in market based approaches to rural energy supply in developing countries makes different demands on all involved players: an extensive infrastructure for reaching the rural customer needs to be established, extensive investments have to be realised, financial sustainability must be assured, and the business must even show profit. Thus, for successful market and infrastructure development it is a major necessity to understand the mechanisms involved. The authors describe a new guide to assist governments, business, and financing organisations in providing energy to rural areas using renewables. (Author)

  7. A Study on Market-based Strategic Procurement Planning in Convergent Supply Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opadiji, Jayeola Femi; Kaihara, Toshiya

    We present a market-based decentralized approach which uses a market-oriented programming algorithm to obtain Pareto-optimal allocation of resources traded among agents which represent enterprise units in a supply network. The proposed method divides the network into a series of Walrsian markets in order to obtain procurement budgets for enterprises in the network. An interaction protocol based on market value propagation is constructed to coordinate the flow of resources across the network layers. The method mitigates the effect of product complementarity in convergent network by allowing for enterprises to hold private valuations of resources in the markets.

  8. Market-based process and product innovation in the food sector: A Danish research programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Baadsgaard, Allan

    1992-01-01

    This note informs about the Danish MAPP research programme, a collection of 15 research projects aimed at making product and process innovation in the food sector more market-based. The programme, which has an interdisciplinary base, but is geared towards marketing applications, is concerned...... with the organization of the innovation process, the interaction of consumer and producer criteria in product development, the assessment of long-term developments in the market environment and the role distribution system in product innovation. Innovation in both primary production and processing are considered....

  9. Reaching rural customers: the challenge of market-based rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinmueller, Dorothee [International Solar Energy Society (ISES), Freiburg (Germany); Adib, Rana [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    2002-06-01

    The large number of households that need catering for in market based approaches to rural energy supply in developing countries makes different demands on all involved players: an extensive infrastructure for reaching the rural customer needs to be established, extensive investments have to be realised, financial sustainability must be assured, and the business must even show profit. Thus, for successful market and infrastructure development it is a major necessity to understand the mechanisms involved. The authors describe a new guide to assist governments, business, and financing organisations in providing energy to rural areas using renewables. (Author)

  10. EnviroAtlas - Ecosystem Services Market-Based Programs Web Service, U.S., 2016, Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service contains layers depicting market-based programs and projects addressing ecosystem services protection in the United States. Layers...

  11. 75 FR 76726 - San Luis Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2196-000] San Luis Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of San Luis [[Page 76727

  12. Microsoft Virtualization Master Microsoft Server, Desktop, Application, and Presentation Virtualization

    CERN Document Server

    Olzak, Thomas; Boomer, Jason; Keefer, Robert M

    2010-01-01

    Microsoft Virtualization helps you understand and implement the latest virtualization strategies available with Microsoft products. This book focuses on: Server Virtualization, Desktop Virtualization, Application Virtualization, and Presentation Virtualization. Whether you are managing Hyper-V, implementing desktop virtualization, or even migrating virtual machines, this book is packed with coverage on all aspects of these processes. Written by a talented team of Microsoft MVPs, Microsoft Virtualization is the leading resource for a full installation, migration, or integration of virtual syste

  13. Work in a virtual plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibault, G.; Smadja, S.

    1996-01-01

    An EDF graphic simulator is based on a three dimensional image built by an optical radar in an EDF PWR power plant. The resulting virtual plant has improved accuracy thanks to radar millimeter range spatial resolution. These performances allow realistic and reliable training of reactor operators, in particular for work in virtual reality. The simulation gives accurate data on the possibility of introducing a tool in a particular place. EDF work resulted in COMPROMIS computer code which optimizes their maintenance. (D.L.). 7 refs., 6 figs

  14. Grids, Clouds, and Virtualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafaro, Massimo; Aloisio, Giovanni

    This chapter introduces and puts in context Grids, Clouds, and Virtualization. Grids promised to deliver computing power on demand. However, despite a decade of active research, no viable commercial grid computing provider has emerged. On the other hand, it is widely believed - especially in the Business World - that HPC will eventually become a commodity. Just as some commercial consumers of electricity have mission requirements that necessitate they generate their own power, some consumers of computational resources will continue to need to provision their own supercomputers. Clouds are a recent business-oriented development with the potential to render this eventually as rare as organizations that generate their own electricity today, even among institutions who currently consider themselves the unassailable elite of the HPC business. Finally, Virtualization is one of the key technologies enabling many different Clouds. We begin with a brief history in order to put them in context, and recall the basic principles and concepts underlying and clearly differentiating them. A thorough overview and survey of existing technologies provides the basis to delve into details as the reader progresses through the book.

  15. A market-based optimization approach to sensor and resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrage, Dan; Farnham, Christopher; Gonsalves, Paul G.

    2006-05-01

    Dynamic resource allocation for sensor management is a problem that demands solutions beyond traditional approaches to optimization. Market-based optimization applies solutions from economic theory, particularly game theory, to the resource allocation problem by creating an artificial market for sensor information and computational resources. Intelligent agents are the buyers and sellers in this market, and they represent all the elements of the sensor network, from sensors to sensor platforms to computational resources. These agents interact based on a negotiation mechanism that determines their bidding strategies. This negotiation mechanism and the agents' bidding strategies are based on game theory, and they are designed so that the aggregate result of the multi-agent negotiation process is a market in competitive equilibrium, which guarantees an optimal allocation of resources throughout the sensor network. This paper makes two contributions to the field of market-based optimization: First, we develop a market protocol to handle heterogeneous goods in a dynamic setting. Second, we develop arbitrage agents to improve the efficiency in the market in light of its dynamic nature.

  16. Comparative study of the impacts of hydroelectric power plants with impacts avoided by a Virtual Plants Equivalents (VPEs) through of energy efficiency actions; Estudo comparativo dos impactos das usinas hidreletricas com os impactos evitados por uma usina virtual equivalente atraves das acoes de eficiencia energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Roberto Perillo Barbosa da; Barros, Regiane Silva de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica], emails: rpbsilva@fem.unicamp.br, rsbarros@fem.unicamp.br Rossi, Luiz Antonio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. Engenharia Agricola], email: rossi@feagri.unicamp.br

    2010-07-01

    This article presents a comparative study of the impacts caused by Hydroelectric Power Plants (HPPs) in relation to the impacts avoided through actions that promotes energy efficiency called Virtual Plants Equivalents (VPEs). To do so, it was considering the recent results presented by the National Program for Electric Energy Conservation (PROCEL) to the year 2008, which shows that the program actions' in this period resulted in a Virtual Plant Equivalent of 1049 MW. It was performed a survey of the values of wetland and families displaced by the construction of hydropower plants and, later, it was compared these data with the values found in the literature and, finally, it was established that the actions of energy efficiency are important instruments to avoid (or at least postpone) the social and environmental impacts directly and indirectly that affects the whole society. Thus, it is suggested that there is a stimulus in relation to energy efficiency actions, what is observed nowadays in Brazil is that these actions are negligible before the potential that exists at industrial, commercial and residential sectors. (author)

  17. An options model for electric power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Kanchan; Ramesh, V.C.

    1997-01-01

    The international electric utility industry is undergoing a radical transformation from an essentially regulated and monopolistic industry to an industry made uncertain with impending deregulation and the advent of competitive forces. This paper investigates the development of an options market for bulk power trading in a market setup while considering power system planning and operational constraints and/or requirements. In so doing it considers the different market based financial derivative instruments while can be used to trade electrical power in bulk and examines how established tools such as Optimal Power Flow (OPF) may be applied in helping to develop a price for bulk power transactions under a market based setup. (Author)

  18. : Virtual Tours in School Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Ribeiro,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the importance of using virtual tours in schools as a means to disseminate local cultural heritage, school projects and teaching resources. We want to use virtual tours, involving the school community in its use, through the production of relevant multimedia content as a way to understand and analyze the potential of multimedia resources in schools. With the evolution of new technologies, including the internet, it is up to the schools, as sources of knowledge transmission, to resort to new technologies as a way to encourage students to learn, to promote local heritage and to disclose the work of the school community, using virtual tours in school context as a powerful interdisciplinary technical and educational resource.

  19. Virtualization and cloud computing in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Frank; Muftu, Ali; Shorter, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The use of virtualization and cloud computing has changed the way we use computers. Virtualization is a method of placing software called a hypervisor on the hardware of a computer or a host operating system. It allows a guest operating system to run on top of the physical computer with a virtual machine (i.e., virtual computer). Virtualization allows multiple virtual computers to run on top of one physical computer and to share its hardware resources, such as printers, scanners, and modems. This increases the efficient use of the computer by decreasing costs (e.g., hardware, electricity administration, and management) since only one physical computer is needed and running. This virtualization platform is the basis for cloud computing. It has expanded into areas of server and storage virtualization. One of the commonly used dental storage systems is cloud storage. Patient information is encrypted as required by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and stored on off-site private cloud services for a monthly service fee. As computer costs continue to increase, so too will the need for more storage and processing power. Virtual and cloud computing will be a method for dentists to minimize costs and maximize computer efficiency in the near future. This article will provide some useful information on current uses of cloud computing.

  20. A Virtual Class Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik; Ostermann, Klaus; Cook, William Randall

    2006-01-01

    Virtual classes are class-valued attributes of objects. Like virtual methods, virtual classes are defined in an object's class and may be redefined within subclasses. They resemble inner classes, which are also defined within a class, but virtual classes are accessed through object instances...... model for virtual classes has been a long-standing open question. This paper presents a virtual class calculus, vc, that captures the essence of virtual classes in these full-fledged programming languages. The key contributions of the paper are a formalization of the dynamic and static semantics of vc...

  1. Virtual inertia for variable speed wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeni, Lorenzo; Rudolph, Andreas Jakob; Münster-Swendsen, Janus

    2013-01-01

    electronic converter and on its impact on the primary frequency response of a power system. An additional control for the power electronics is implemented to give VSWTs a virtual inertia, referring to the kinetic energy stored in the rotating masses, which can be released initially to support the system......’s inertia. A simple Matlab/Simulink model and control of a VSWT and of a generic power system are developed to analyse the primary frequency response following different generation losses in a system comprising VSWTs provided with virtual inertia. The possibility of substituting a 50% share of conventional...... power with wind is also assessed and investigated. The intrinsic problems related to the implementation of virtual inertia are illustrated, addressing their origin in the action of pitch and power control. A solution is proposed, which aims at obtaining the same response as for the system with only...

  2. Virtual Trackballs Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Knud; Sporring, Jon; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2004-01-01

    reviews and provides a mathematical foundation for virtual trackballs. The first, but still popular, virtual trackball was described by Chen et al. [CHECK END OF SENTENCE]. We show that the virtual trackball by Chen et al. does not rotate the object along the intended great circular arc on the virtual...... trackball and we give a correction. Another popular virtual trackball is Shoemake's quaternion implementation [CHECK END OF SENTENCE], which we show to be a special case of the virtual trackball by Chen et al.. Shoemake extends the scope of the virtual trackball to the full screen. Unfortunately, Shoemake......'s virtual trackball is inhomogeneous and discontinuous with consequences for usability. Finally, we review Bell's virtual trackball [CHECK END OF SENTENCE] and discuss studies of the usability of virtual trackballs....

  3. Virtual cystoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Aza; Simpson, Adam; Zamora, Ignacio; Gilliland, Leslie

    2008-07-01

    Bladder cancer is a common problem facing urologists worldwide. The gold standard for its diagnosis and follow-up is the direct visualization of the tumor using conventional cystoscopy. Despite having high sensitivity and specificity for detecting bladder cancer, conventional cystoscopy is regarded as an invasive procedure which is associated with several complications. In addition, regular follow-up of patients with bladder cancer is a financial burden on the health system. With the progressive development in diagnostic imaging and medical computer software technologies, it was possible to generate virtual reality images to aid the clinician to inspect the interior of the bladder in real time. This technology is considered as a safe test for bladder cancer diagnosis and follow-up, and it is associated with cancer detection rates comparable with conventional cystoscopy. However, it is associated with some drawbacks that limit its use in routine clinical practice at the current time. In this paper, we review the development and clinical applications of this technology.

  4. PowerCLI cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sellers, Philip

    2015-01-01

    If you are a virtualization professional who wants to unleash the power of automation and combat the complexity of sprawling virtual environments, this book is ideal for you. This book will enhance your skills of administering VMware vSphere and vCloud Director with PowerCLI.

  5. Virtual Web Services

    OpenAIRE

    Rykowski, Jarogniew

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we propose an application of software agents to provide Virtual Web Services. A Virtual Web Service is a linked collection of several real and/or virtual Web Services, and public and private agents, accessed by the user in the same way as a single real Web Service. A Virtual Web Service allows unrestricted comparison, information merging, pipelining, etc., of data coming from different sources and in different forms. Detailed architecture and functionality of a single Virtual We...

  6. Virtual button interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.S.

    1999-01-12

    An apparatus and method of issuing commands to a computer by a user interfacing with a virtual reality environment are disclosed. To issue a command, the user directs gaze at a virtual button within the virtual reality environment, causing a perceptible change in the virtual button, which then sends a command corresponding to the virtual button to the computer, optionally after a confirming action is performed by the user, such as depressing a thumb switch. 4 figs.

  7. Virtual reality in education

    OpenAIRE

    Minocha, Shailey; Tudor, Ana-Despina

    2017-01-01

    In this workshop-presentation, we described the evolution of virtual reality technologies and our research from 3D virtual worlds, 3D virtual environments built in gaming environments such as Unity 3D, 360-degree videos, and mobile virtual reality via Google Expeditions. For each of these four technologies, we discussed the affordances of the technologies and how they contribute towards learning and teaching. We outlined the significance of students being aware of the different virtual realit...

  8. Virtual reality - aesthetic consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Benda, Lubor

    2014-01-01

    In the present work we study aesthetic consequences of virtual reality. Exploring the fringe between fictional and virtual is one of the key goals, that will be achieved through etymologic and technologic definition of both fiction and virtual reality, fictional and virtual worlds. Both fiction and virtual reality will be then studied from aesthetic distance and aesthetic pleasure point of view. At the end, we will see the main difference as well as an common grounds between fiction and virtu...

  9. Virtual goods recommendations in virtual worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Yu; Liao, Hsiu-Yu; Chen, Jyun-Hung; Liu, Duen-Ren

    2015-01-01

    Virtual worlds (VWs) are computer-simulated environments which allow users to create their own virtual character as an avatar. With the rapidly growing user volume in VWs, platform providers launch virtual goods in haste and stampede users to increase sales revenue. However, the rapidity of development incurs virtual unrelated items which will be difficult to remarket. It not only wastes virtual global companies' intelligence resources, but also makes it difficult for users to find suitable virtual goods fit for their virtual home in daily virtual life. In the VWs, users decorate their houses, visit others' homes, create families, host parties, and so forth. Users establish their social life circles through these activities. This research proposes a novel virtual goods recommendation method based on these social interactions. The contact strength and contact influence result from interactions with social neighbors and influence users' buying intention. Our research highlights the importance of social interactions in virtual goods recommendation. The experiment's data were retrieved from an online VW platform, and the results show that the proposed method, considering social interactions and social life circle, has better performance than existing recommendation methods.

  10. Designing communication and remote controlling of virtual instrument network system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Lin; Wang, Houjun; Zhou, Xue; Zhou, Wenjian

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a virtual instrument network through the LAN and finally remote control of virtual instruments is realized based on virtual instrument and LabWindows/CVI software platform. The virtual instrument network system is made up of three subsystems. There are server subsystem, telnet client subsystem and local instrument control subsystem. This paper introduced virtual instrument network structure in detail based on LabWindows. Application procedure design of virtual instrument network communication, the Client/the programming mode of the server, remote PC and server communication far realizing, the control power of the workstation is transmitted, server program and so on essential technical were introduced. And virtual instruments network may connect to entire Internet on. Above-mentioned technology, through measuring the application in the electronic measurement virtual instrument network that is already built up, has verified the actual using value of the technology. Experiment and application validate that this design is resultful.

  11. Designing communication and remote controlling of virtual instrument network system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Lin; Wang Houjun; Zhou Xue; Zhou Wenjian

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a virtual instrument network through the LAN and finally remote control of virtual instruments is realized based on virtual instrument and LabWindows/CVI software platform. The virtual instrument network system is made up of three subsystems. There are server subsystem, telnet client subsystem and local instrument control subsystem. This paper introduced virtual instrument network structure in detail based on LabWindows. Application procedure design of virtual instrument network communication, the Client/the programming mode of the server, remote PC and server communication far realizing, the control power of the workstation is transmitted, server program and so on essential technical were introduced. And virtual instruments network may connect to entire Internet on. Above-mentioned technology, through measuring the application in the electronic measurement virtual instrument network that is already built up, has verified the actual using value of the technology. Experiment and application validate that this design is resultful

  12. The novel cloud application technology with virtual platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ying-Chuan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtualization technology of cloud application service is the major research issue in recent years. Our virtual platform can obtain a lot of advantages base on virtualization technology with suitable virtual machine solution that all system resources can deployed quickly and managed competently, and it has some features including the high capacity for reliability, elasticity and customization. In our virtual platform, there are many different application services are provided for cloud service style. For system computing resources, we need to share all of system and software resources using the virtualization technology is presented in related sections, and we proposed virtual and remote application technology to implement innovative, convenient and powerful cloud application service base on virtual platform. For users of our platform, they can easy to use any software and tools on demand with pay per use mode anytime, and they do not have specialized knowledge and ability of install and maintenance.

  13. A study on development of virtual panel and virtual collaboration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, H. J.; Park, S. Y.; Lee, M. S.; Hong, J. H.

    2001-01-01

    The Nuclear I and C group of KEPRI has been peforming research and development on the VRCATS, Virtual Reality based Computer Assisted Training System. For the past two years, we have developed the first VRCATS for Youngkwang 1 nuclear power plant. Currently, we are developing an advanced VRCATS for Uljin 3 nuclear power plant. In this paepr, we will describe virtual panel system and VR based collaborate training system (VRCATS) of the Uljin VRCATS. Since Virtual Panel provides the same environment as the real MCR, trainees can expect the same training effect with Virtual Panel as they do with full scope simulator. i.e., trainees can check key variables and operate the plants and get responses with Virtual Panel. VRCTS provides another realistic training environment for trainees. In VRCATS, for example, operators in a group can work together t handle LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident) according to emergency operation procedures

  14. Market-based Conservation in Melanesia: Contrasting Expectations of Landowners and Conservationists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget Marie Henning

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conservationists have long been interested in the biodiverse country of Papua New Guinea but have had limited success on the ground. Direct payments for conservation appeal to Western conservationists because they compete with the material benefits from resource extraction enterprises. Direct payments are also attractive to Melanesian villagers because they appear to be the beginning of socially appropriate reciprocal relationships with conservationists. Market-based conservation assumes exchange takes place between independent, self-interested actors, but Melanesian villagers assume that exchange takes place between morally obligated, interdependent actors. Such cultural differences led to contradictory expectations and friction between conservationists and villagers in Wanang Conservation, the particular ethnographic focus of this article. However, direct payments have simultaneously satisfied some expectations of both parties. Direct payments may be useful in conservation but for different reasons than expected. They succeed as part of a wider socially acceptable reciprocal relationship, but direct payments alone will likely fail.

  15. Social marketing-based communications to integrate and support the HEALTHY study intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBar, L L; Schneider, M; Ford, E G; Hernandez, A E; Showell, B; Drews, K L; Moe, E L; Gillis, B; Jessup, A N; Stadler, D D; White, M

    2009-08-01

    The HEALTHY study was a randomized, controlled, multicenter, middle school-based, multifaceted intervention designed to reduce risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes. The study randomized 42 middle schools to intervention or control, and followed students from the sixth to the eighth grades. Participants were a racially, ethnically and geographically diverse cohort from across the United States. Here, we describe the conceptual underpinnings and design of the social marketing-based communications component of the HEALTHY study intervention that combined changes in the school nutrition and physical education (PE) environment with behavior change initiatives. The communications intervention component coordinated multiple elements to deliver campaigns that served to integrate and support all aspects of the HEALTHY intervention. The campaigns unfolded across five semesters of middle school, each targeting a specific theme related to the HEALTHY objectives. Communications campaigns comprised (1) core elements such as branding, posters, banners and visual and verbal messaging, (2) student events supporting the nutrition, PE and behavior intervention components through the application of social marketing and communications strategies, including the incorporation of student-generated media and (3) distribution of premiums and theme enhancers to extend the visibility of the study beyond the intervention environment. Formative research conducted with students, parents and school administrators was used to refine the communications strategy. Student peer communicators selected from the student body were involved to influence the normative student environment. Marketing and creative design experts developed a brand, logo, activities and materials. In the latter half of the study, student-generated messages and media were used to reflect local interests and culture and enhance peer influence. The HEALTHY intervention delivery and impact were strengthened by the

  16. Social marketing-based communications to integrate and support the HEALTHY study intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBar, LL; Schneider, M; Ford, EG; Hernandez, AE; Showell, B; Drews, KL; Moe, EL; Gillis, B; Jessup, AN; Stadler, DD; White, M

    2009-01-01

    The HEALTHY study was a randomized, controlled, multicenter, middle school-based, multifaceted intervention designed to reduce risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes. The study randomized 42 middle schools to intervention or control, and followed students from the sixth to the eighth grades. Participants were a racially, ethnically and geographically diverse cohort from across the United States. Here, we describe the conceptual underpinnings and design of the social marketing-based communications component of the HEALTHY study intervention that combined changes in the school nutrition and physical education (PE) environment with behavior change initiatives. The communications intervention component coordinated multiple elements to deliver campaigns that served to integrate and support all aspects of the HEALTHY intervention. The campaigns unfolded across five semesters of middle school, each targeting a specific theme related to the HEALTHY objectives. Communications campaigns comprised (1) core elements such as branding, posters, banners and visual and verbal messaging, (2) student events supporting the nutrition, PE and behavior intervention components through the application of social marketing and communications strategies, including the incorporation of student-generated media and (3) distribution of premiums and theme enhancers to extend the visibility of the study beyond the intervention environment. Formative research conducted with students, parents and school administrators was used to refine the communications strategy. Student peer communicators selected from the student body were involved to influence the normative student environment. Marketing and creative design experts developed a brand, logo, activities and materials. In the latter half of the study, student-generated messages and media were used to reflect local interests and culture and enhance peer influence. The HEALTHY intervention delivery and impact were strengthened by the

  17. Market-based biogas sector development in least developed countries —The case of Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buysman, Eric; Mol, Arthur P.J.

    2013-01-01

    In many of the least developed countries the energy security conundrum is how to provide affordable, safe and clean energy to a low income rural population. Household level generation of biogas from animal waste for both cooking and lighting, while producing high quality organic fertiliser, is increasingly proposed as a viable part of the solution for farming households. Since the early 1990s international development organisations – often in cooperation with the national government – have attempted to introduce biogas technologies in many least developed countries, but most initiatives failed. In this landscape of failed biogas development programmes the National Biodigester Programme (NBP) Cambodia started in 2006, with the aim to establish a permanent market oriented and self-financed biogas sector. The results show the development of a sustainable domestic biodigester sector, a rapid diffusion of biodigesters among poor rural households, but still ambivalences on financial independency from external funding and carbon finance. The conclusion is that a pure market model for biogas development in the rural area of the least developed countries will not easily work. Governmental regulation and coordination will remain needed, and carbon finance will not easily fully replace ODA and governmental financial support. - Highlights: • The National Biodigester Programme has successfully introduced domestic biogas in Cambodia. • The development of a market based biogas sector is crucial in ensuring a healthy and continuous development after donor funding. • Domestic biogas is of crucial importance to meet rural Cambodia’s energy challenges and to boost the rural economy by providing employment opportunities. • Domestic biogas helps Cambodia to reduce deforestation and to shift to climate-smart agriculture. • Financing of a market-based biogas model remain problematic in the near future

  18. Quality issues in the market based dissemination of solar home systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, Klara [MicroEnergy International, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In general, Photovoltaic systems are built to last and require little maintenance. However, field studies have revealed a high number of system failures, which are linked to a lack of quality assurance. This paper depicts problems that occur with solar home systems (SHS) disseminated on a market-based approach. The research methodology is based on three pillars: A literature review covers documented projects around the world dealing with solar home system dissemination. Expert practitioners drawn together in a workshop have shared valuable experiences, while a trip to rural Tanzania has been carried out to collect personal insights from the field. To facilitate continuous sharing of challenges between different stakeholders, common quality issues are grouped into four categories according to their cause: component quality, system integration, business model and framework conditions. While the solar component and the user are often initially blamed for system failure, it shows that difficulties arise at various levels of the SHS life cycle - this paper highlights focus problems within each stage. As a root, three underlying challenges are suggested: maladjusted systems, inadequate installations and a disorganized after-sales service. A possible instrument to assure better quality in this context is the enforcement of standards also in market-based SHS sales. Microfinance institutions are assumed as an important partner, because only clients with a functioning system are willing to repay the linked loan. As most of these institutions lack technical knowledge, they can only become an agent for their clients' wish for customer protection, if an independent facility certifies the system's functionality. The given recommendation is that a sustainable approach for solar home system dissemination should not attempt to increase the affordability by developing cheaper products but by fostering income-generating activities, which facilitate paying for good quality

  19. The World of Virtual Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Eiselt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACTSpecial collections of the National and University Library (NUK hide a lot of items of precious value. The Slovenian cultural heritage is stored on paper or on other media as a part of the library’s Manuscripts, Incunabula and Rare Books Collection, Old Prints Collection, Maps and Pictorial Collection, Music Collection, Ephemera Collection, Serials Collection, and Slovenian Diaspora Publications Collection. Only a small part of the treasures is temporary revealed to the public on special exhibitions. The idea of virtual exhibitions of library treasures was born in 2005. The library aimed to exhibit precious items of special collections of high historical or artistic value. In 2008 the first two virtual exhibitions were created in-house offering access to the rich collections of old postcards of Ljubljana at the beginning of 20th century kept in the Maps and Pictorial Collection of NUK. They were soon followed by other virtual exhibitions. At the beginning they were organised in the same way as physical exhibitions, afterwards different programs were used for creation of special effects (for ex. 3D wall. About two years ago it was decided that the creation of virtual exhibitions will be simplified. Files of digitised and borndigital library materials in jpg format are imported to MS PowerPoint 2010. Each jpg file is now formatted by adding a frame, a description … to the slides which are saved as jpg files. The last step is the import of jpg files into Cooliris application used for NUK web exhibitions. In the paper the virtual exhibition design and creation, the technical point of view and criteria for the selection of exhibition content are explained following the example of the virtual exhibitions the Old Postcards of Ljubljana, Photo Ateliers in Slovenia, a collection of photographs Four Seasons by Fran Krašovec and photos of Post-Earthquake Ljubljana in 1895.

  20. Optimal Placement Algorithms for Virtual Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Bellur, Umesh; Rao, Chetan S; SD, Madhu Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Cloud computing provides a computing platform for the users to meet their demands in an efficient, cost-effective way. Virtualization technologies are used in the clouds to aid the efficient usage of hardware. Virtual machines (VMs) are utilized to satisfy the user needs and are placed on physical machines (PMs) of the cloud for effective usage of hardware resources and electricity in the cloud. Optimizing the number of PMs used helps in cutting down the power consumption by a substantial amo...

  1. Development of a multi-physic, multi-time virtual proto-typing module. Application to power converters; Developpement d'un module de prototypage virtuel multiphysique, multidomaine et multitemps. Application aux convertisseurs de puissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menanteau, L.

    2004-10-15

    This works concerns the development of a virtual proto-typing tool for electro-thermo-mechanical simulation of power converters. The programming of this code, written in an object-oriented language, includes a dual Schur Domain Decomposition Method. The solving of problems including floating sub-domains can be performed in steady-state whereas man can couple implicit and explicit integration schemes. These integration schemes can have different time steps. Moreover, the code includes parts of programme which permit the parallelization of calculus and so the optimisation of the times of resolution. The benchmarks which are presented validate the method and show its substantial gains in time of calculus. The last part of this work concerns the study of an industrial benchmark concerning the power converters used in railway transport: it concerns the electro-thermal simulation of a semiconductor chip in steady state and in transient. This sample allows to compare different strategies of tearing in sub-domains and to couple different time steps on the same structure. (author)

  2. Virtual Trackballs Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Henriksen, Knud; Sporring, Jon; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2004-01-01

    Udgivelsesdato: March/April Rotation of three-dimensional objects by a two-dimensional mouse is a typical task in computer-aided design, operation simulations, and desktop virtual reality. The most commonly used rotation technique is a virtual trackball surrounding the object and operated by the mouse pointer. This article reviews and provides a mathematical foundation for virtual trackballs. The first, but still popular, virtual trackball was described by Chen et al. [CHECK END OF SENTENC...

  3. Virtual currencies- Real opportunities?

    OpenAIRE

    Selldahl, Sara

    2013-01-01

    The European Central Bank defines virtual currencies as ”unregulated, digital money, which is issued and usually controlled by its developers, and used and accepted among the members of a specific virtual community.” (European Central Bank, 2012, p. 5) The interest in virtual currencies has increased immensely over the last few years as they become increasingly prevalent in our society across many different industries. Up until now, the field of virtual currencies has been mainly uncharted ...

  4. Virtual reality exposure therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Rothbaum, BO; Hodges, L; Kooper, R

    1997-01-01

    It has been proposed that virtual reality (VR) exposure may be an alternative to standard in vivo exposure. Virtual reality integrates real-time computer graphics, body tracking devices, visual displays, and other sensory input devices to immerse a participant in a computer- generated virtual environment. Virtual reality exposure is potentially an efficient and cost-effective treatment of anxiety disorders. VR exposure therapy reduced the fear of heights in the first control...

  5. Interactive Virtual Cinematography

    OpenAIRE

    Burelli, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    A virtual camera represents the point-of-view of the player through which sheperceives the game world and gets feedback on her actions. Thus, the virtualcamera plays a vital role in 3D computer games and aects player experienceand enjoyability in games. Interactive virtual cinematography is the process ofvisualising the content of a virtual environment by positioning and animatingthe virtual camera in the context of interactive applications such as a computergame.Camera placement and animatio...

  6. The impact of market-based 'reform' on cultural values in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, L L

    1999-12-01

    The many issues managed care poses for providers and health networks are crystallized in the moral problems occasioned by its shifting of the financial risks of care from insurer to provider. The issues occasioned by market-based reform include: the problems presented by clashes between public expectations and payer restrictions; the corporatization of health service delivery and the cultural shift from humanitarian endeavor to business enterprise the depersonalization of treatment as time and money constraints stretch resources, and the culture rewards efficient "business-like" behavior the underfunding of care for the poor and uninsured, even as these populations grow the restructuring of care and reengineering of healthcare roles as the emphasis shifts from quality of care to conservation of resources rapid mergers of both health plans and institutional providers with all the inherent turmoil as rules change, services are eliminated, and support services are minimized to save money the unhealthy competition inherent in market-based reform that posits profit taking and market share as the measures of successful performance the undermining of the professional ethic of advocacy the use of incentives that pander to greed and self-interest. The costs of sophisticated technologies and the ongoing care of increasingly fragile patients have pulled many other elements into what previously were considered "privileged" professional interactions. The fact that very few citizens indeed could pay out-of-pocket for the treatment and ongoing care they might need led to social involvement (few people remember that both widespread health insurance and public programs are relatively recent phenomena--only about 30 years old). However, whether in tax dollars or insurance premiums, other people's money is being spent on the patient's care. Clearly, those "other people" never intended to give either the patient or the professional open-ended access to their collective pocketbooks

  7. Cooperation in environmental protection. The economics of green trade, market-based instruments and community involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roettgers, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (United Nations, 2000) and, by extension, such efforts as the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Kyoto Protocol (Kyoto Protocol, 1997), present mankind with a challenge that can only be overcome through cooperation. Cooperative policies are necessary from the highest level, i.e. international policies and treaties, to regional and national agreements, down to the local level, where policies are actually enacted. To close some gaps in the understanding of applicable policy instruments, this dissertation looks at a few key topics of environmental protection with implications for market-based instruments. The five different research areas are (1) EU bioenergy trade, (2) Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), (3) comparison of the effectiveness of product certification, ecosystem certification and offset mechanisms in wetland ecosystems, (4) international market-based instruments for African protected areas and (5) local stakeholder decision making in rural ecosystems of developing countries. Bioenergy consumption, production and trade have been increasing worldwide in the recent decade, mostly due to demand from EU countries and the USA. Taking the example of the EU, it is questionable if these trade flows are caused mainly by EU trade rules or targeted bioenergy policies. A sector-specific analysis taking industry patterns into consideration is necessary to evaluate the impact of these two policy areas on trade flows. A common way to analyze trade flows is the gravity model, which is employed here. This dissertation finds out why that is by using a gravity model to analyze flows of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) between host and financier countries. The special roles of foreign direct investments (FDI), official development aid (ODA) and trade are scrutinized closely in this context. Findings show that FDI, ODA and trade have a positive influence on project attraction, even when holding determinants of these factors constant

  8. Cooperation in environmental protection. The economics of green trade, market-based instruments and community involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roettgers, Dirk

    2013-12-18

    The Millennium Development Goals (United Nations, 2000) and, by extension, such efforts as the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Kyoto Protocol (Kyoto Protocol, 1997), present mankind with a challenge that can only be overcome through cooperation. Cooperative policies are necessary from the highest level, i.e. international policies and treaties, to regional and national agreements, down to the local level, where policies are actually enacted. To close some gaps in the understanding of applicable policy instruments, this dissertation looks at a few key topics of environmental protection with implications for market-based instruments. The five different research areas are (1) EU bioenergy trade, (2) Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), (3) comparison of the effectiveness of product certification, ecosystem certification and offset mechanisms in wetland ecosystems, (4) international market-based instruments for African protected areas and (5) local stakeholder decision making in rural ecosystems of developing countries. Bioenergy consumption, production and trade have been increasing worldwide in the recent decade, mostly due to demand from EU countries and the USA. Taking the example of the EU, it is questionable if these trade flows are caused mainly by EU trade rules or targeted bioenergy policies. A sector-specific analysis taking industry patterns into consideration is necessary to evaluate the impact of these two policy areas on trade flows. A common way to analyze trade flows is the gravity model, which is employed here. This dissertation finds out why that is by using a gravity model to analyze flows of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) between host and financier countries. The special roles of foreign direct investments (FDI), official development aid (ODA) and trade are scrutinized closely in this context. Findings show that FDI, ODA and trade have a positive influence on project attraction, even when holding determinants of these factors constant

  9. Theft of Virtual Property — Towards Security Requirements for Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Anja

    The article is focused to introduce the topic of information technology security for Virtual Worlds to a security experts’ audience. Virtual Worlds are Web 2.0 applications where the users cruise through the world with their individually shaped avatars to find either amusement, challenges or the next best business deal. People do invest a lot of time but beyond they invest in buying virtual assets like fantasy witcheries, wepaons, armour, houses, clothes,...etc with the power of real world money. Although it is called “virtual” (which is often put on the same level as “not existent”) there is a real value behind it. In November 2007 dutch police arrested a seventeen years old teenager who was suspicted to have stolen virtual items in a Virtual World called Habbo Hotel [Reuters07]. In order to successfully provide security mechanisms into Virtual Worlds it is necessarry to fully understand the domain for which the security mechansims are defined. As Virtual Worlds must be clasified into the domain of Social Software the article starts with an overview of how to understand Web 2.0 and gives a short introduction to Virtual Worlds. The article then provides a consideration of assets of Virtual Worlds participants, describes how these assets can be threatened and gives an overview of appopriate security requirements and completes with an outlook of possible countermeasures.

  10. Using virtual machine monitors to overcome the challenges of monitoring and managing virtualized cloud infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamiah, Mervat Adib; Brohi, Sarfraz Nawaz; Chuprat, Suriayati

    2012-01-01

    Virtualization is one of the hottest research topics nowadays. Several academic researchers and developers from IT industry are designing approaches for solving security and manageability issues of Virtual Machines (VMs) residing on virtualized cloud infrastructures. Moving the application from a physical to a virtual platform increases the efficiency, flexibility and reduces management cost as well as effort. Cloud computing is adopting the paradigm of virtualization, using this technique, memory, CPU and computational power is provided to clients' VMs by utilizing the underlying physical hardware. Beside these advantages there are few challenges faced by adopting virtualization such as management of VMs and network traffic, unexpected additional cost and resource allocation. Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM) or hypervisor is the tool used by cloud providers to manage the VMs on cloud. There are several heterogeneous hypervisors provided by various vendors that include VMware, Hyper-V, Xen and Kernel Virtual Machine (KVM). Considering the challenge of VM management, this paper describes several techniques to monitor and manage virtualized cloud infrastructures.

  11. Virtual Reality: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Jorge

    1994-01-01

    Highlights of this overview of virtual reality include optics; interface devices; virtual worlds; potential applications, including medicine and archaeology; problems, including costs; current research and development; future possibilities; and a listing of vendors and suppliers of virtual reality products. (Contains 11 references.) (LRW)

  12. The Virtuality Continuum Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Traum, D.; Zhai, Sh.; Kellogg, W.

    2005-01-01

    We survey the themes and the aims of a workshop devoted to the state-of-the-art virtuality continuum. In this continuum, ranging from fully virtual to real physical environments, allowing for mixed, augmented and desktop virtual reality, several perspectives can be taken. Originally, the emphasis

  13. Virtual Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Sally

    2003-01-01

    As the need to access information increases, school librarians must create virtual libraries. Linked to reliable reference resources, the virtual library extends the physical collection and library hours and lets students learn to use Web-based resources in a protected learning environment. The growing number of virtual schools increases the need…

  14. Efficient operating system level virtualization techniques for cloud resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansu, R.; Samiksha; Anju, S.; Singh, K. John

    2017-11-01

    Cloud computing is an advancing technology which provides the servcies of Infrastructure, Platform and Software. Virtualization and Computer utility are the keys of Cloud computing. The numbers of cloud users are increasing day by day. So it is the need of the hour to make resources available on demand to satisfy user requirements. The technique in which resources namely storage, processing power, memory and network or I/O are abstracted is known as Virtualization. For executing the operating systems various virtualization techniques are available. They are: Full System Virtualization and Para Virtualization. In Full Virtualization, the whole architecture of hardware is duplicated virtually. No modifications are required in Guest OS as the OS deals with the VM hypervisor directly. In Para Virtualization, modifications of OS is required to run in parallel with other OS. For the Guest OS to access the hardware, the host OS must provide a Virtual Machine Interface. OS virtualization has many advantages such as migrating applications transparently, consolidation of server, online maintenance of OS and providing security. This paper briefs both the virtualization techniques and discusses the issues in OS level virtualization.

  15. Application of auctions as a pricing mechanism for the interchange of electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, D.L.; Coppinger, S.S.; Sheble, G.B.

    1995-01-01

    The expected move to a market-based electric power industry will significantly change electric utility operations. These changes will fundamentally alter the pricing of electric power. How this pricing will be accomplished is a key issue. Traditionally, embedded cost based methods have been used. Recently, spot-pricing has received attention as a possible approach in a market-based electric power environment. Another market-based approach is the use of auctions. This paper will present the application of a sequential sealed-bid and sealed-offer auction to the pricing of electric power by using linear programming

  16. Demonstration of Market-Based Real-Time Electricity Pricing on a Congested Feeder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Emil Mahler; Pinson, Pierre; le Ray, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Congestion management can delay grid reinforcements needed due to the growth of distributed technologies like photovoltaics and electric vehicles. This paper presents a method of congestion management for low voltage feeders using indirect control from the smart grid demonstration EcoGrid EU, where...... prices to 1900 houses, with a virtual feeder of 28 houses receiving congestion pricing. Simulations are used to calculate the cost from using this congestion management method, while demonstration results indicate that congestion can be managed successfully....

  17. Germany's energy transition. A market-based instrument for the promotion of renewables; Marktwirtschaftliche Energiewende. Ein Wettbewerbsrahmen fuer die Stromversorgung mit alternativen Technologien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frondel, Manuel; Schmidt, Christoph M.; Moore, Nils aus dem [Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (RWI), Essen (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    If the German energy transition is to succeed, environmental soundness should not be the only criterion on the agenda with respect to the restructuring of the energy system. It is rather the security of electricity supply and likewise the social sustainability during the transformation process that has to be ensured. The primary question is how to fulfill this challenge in the light of the legal obligation of a complete nuclear power phase-out in the most cost-effective way. The looming avalanche of costs triggered by record-breaking highs of the expanding solar power systems, promoted under the German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG), should have made it clear that cost efficiency has only played a minor role so far. According to this study, (real) additional costs for all solar power systems, which had been installed between 2000 and the end of 2011 in Germany, sum up to about 100 billion Euros (prices as of 2011). Since these resources are withdrawn from other societal uses, it is essential that costs for the energy transition in general and in particular the consumers' costs due to an increased share in renewable energies have to be minimized. For this reason, a new, more cost-efficient and market-oriented promotion/funding system is needed to replace the current system based on the EEG. As suggested by the Monopoly Commission (Monopolkommission 2011), the German Council of Economic Experts (SVR 2011) and recently by acatech, Germany's National Academy of Science and Engineering (acatech 2012), a market-based promotion system with quantity control in the form of quotas for ''green'' energy would be a more efficient system. If from 2013 onwards, the future expansion of renewable energies would be fostered by a national quota-based system instead of the EEG, the expansion could be more cost-effective, according to calculations of this study. If, for example, the future price for green electricity certificates exclusively

  18. Simulacra and virtualization technologies in information society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim A. Emelin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper virtualization and simulation technologies in the context of higher mental functions in information society are observed. The category of “simulacrum” considered within the representative model (Plato and unrepresentative model (Deleuze, Baudrillard is considered as a key factor for the theoretical analysis of virtual reality. Virtual reality is described as a space of simulacra, special signs that, unlike signs-copies do not fix any similarity, but fix dissimilarity with reference reality generating a sequence of simulations. A problem of subjectivity is highlighted, containing the merger of the subject and simulacrum in virtual reality. Thus, staying in a real world physically, the subject transits into a virtual world mentally. There it is endowed by a new virtual body, that has nothing in common with the subject’s corporeality. There are traps for technological simulacra related to the development of phantom reality and to the possibilities of combining virtual and true reality. Nowadays, technologies are becoming such power that is capable if erasing the border between a signifier and the signified. “Virtual” events play the leading role in information space. However, they generate real consequences, again acquiring real reflections and making an endless chain of switches between the real and the virtual events. As an example of destructive simulation, the use of virtual technologies for conducting military actions or for creating and promoting news events in mass media is given. It is stated that have become an inseparable part of cultural and historical reality of information society. It is indistinguishability of virtual and real entity that is defined as a reason of transformational processes of not only the identity but also of higher mental functions.

  19. Perception of Virtual Audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, Mathieu; Scherer, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of evidence shows that virtual audiences are a valuable tool in the treatment of social anxiety, and recent works show that it also a useful in public-speaking training programs. However, little research has focused on how such audiences are perceived and on how the behavior of virtual audiences can be manipulated to create various types of stimuli. The authors used a crowdsourcing methodology to create a virtual audience nonverbal behavior model and, with it, created a dataset of videos with virtual audiences containing varying behaviors. Using this dataset, they investigated how virtual audiences are perceived and which factors affect this perception.

  20. Exploitation of the Virtual Worlds in Tourism and Tourism Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zejda Pavel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Academics perceive a great potential of virtual worlds in various areas, including tourism and education. Efforts adapting the virtual worlds in practice are, however, still marginal. There is no clear definition of the virtual world. Therefore the author of this article attempts to provide one. The paper also focuses on the barriers of a wider exploitation of the virtual worlds and discusses the principles that might help to increase their potential in tourism area. One of the principles – gamification – favours a wider adaptation of the virtual worlds in tourism. Applying gamification principles provides visitors with some unique experiences while serving as a powerful marketing tool for institutions. The benefits of implementing tourism education activities based on cooperative principles set in an immersive environment of the virtual worlds are depicted afterwards. Finally, this paper includes successful case studies, which show advantages and drawbacks of some approaches in exploiting the virtual worlds in tourism and tourism education.

  1. Sustainability of market-based community distribution of Sprinkles in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchdev, Parminder S; Shah, Ami; Jefferds, Maria Elena D; Eleveld, Alie; Patel, Minal; Stein, Aryeh D; Macdonald, Barbara; Ruth, Laird

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the sustainability of market-based community distribution of micronutrient powders (Sprinkles(®), Hexagon Nutrition, Mumbai, India.) among pre-school children in Kenya, we conducted in August 2010 a follow-up survey, 18 months after study-related marketing and household monitoring ended. We surveyed 849 children aged 6-35 months randomly selected from 60 study villages. Nutritional biomarkers were measured by fingerstick; demographic characteristics, Sprinkles purchases and use were assessed through household questionnaires. We compared Sprinkles use, marketing efforts and biomarker levels with the data from surveys conducted in March 2007, March 2008 and March 2009. We used logistic regression to evaluate associations between marketing activities and Sprinkles use in the 2010 survey. At the 2010 follow-up, 21.9% of children used Sprinkles in the previous 7 days, compared with 64.9% in 2008 (P Factors associated with recent Sprinkles use in 2010 included young age [6-23 months vs. 24-35 months, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.5, P = 0.02], lowest 2 quintiles of socio-economic status (aOR = 1.7, P = 0.004), household attendance at trainings or launches (aOR = 2.8, P marketing activities. Continued promotion and monitoring of Sprinkles usage may be important components to sustain the programme. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Evaluating the impacts of farmers' behaviors on a hypothetical agricultural water market based on double auction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Erhu; Cai, Ximing; Brozović, Nicholas; Minsker, Barbara

    2017-05-01

    Agricultural water markets are considered effective instruments to mitigate the impacts of water scarcity and to increase crop production. However, previous studies have limited understanding of how farmers' behaviors affect the performance of water markets. This study develops an agent-based model to explicitly incorporate farmers' behaviors, namely irrigation behavior (represented by farmers' sensitivity to soil water deficit λ) and bidding behavior (represented by farmers' rent seeking μ and learning rate β), in a hypothetical water market based on a double auction. The model is applied to the Guadalupe River Basin in Texas to simulate a hypothetical agricultural water market under various hydrological conditions. It is found that the joint impacts of the behavioral parameters on the water market are strong and complex. In particular, among the three behavioral parameters, λ affects the water market potential and its impacts on the performance of the water market are significant under most scenarios. The impacts of μ or β on the performance of the water market depend on the other two parameters. The water market could significantly increase crop production only when the following conditions are satisfied: (1) λ is small and (2) μ is small and/or β is large. The first condition requires efficient irrigation scheduling, and the second requires well-developed water market institutions that provide incentives to bid true valuation of water permits.

  3. A study of the spreading scheme for viral marketing based on a complex network model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianmei; Yao, Canzhong; Ma, Weicheng; Chen, Guanrong

    2010-02-01

    Buzzword-based viral marketing, known also as digital word-of-mouth marketing, is a marketing mode attached to some carriers on the Internet, which can rapidly copy marketing information at a low cost. Viral marketing actually uses a pre-existing social network where, however, the scale of the pre-existing network is believed to be so large and so random, so that its theoretical analysis is intractable and unmanageable. There are very few reports in the literature on how to design a spreading scheme for viral marketing on real social networks according to the traditional marketing theory or the relatively new network marketing theory. Complex network theory provides a new model for the study of large-scale complex systems, using the latest developments of graph theory and computing techniques. From this perspective, the present paper extends the complex network theory and modeling into the research of general viral marketing and develops a specific spreading scheme for viral marking and an approach to design the scheme based on a real complex network on the QQ instant messaging system. This approach is shown to be rather universal and can be further extended to the design of various spreading schemes for viral marketing based on different instant messaging systems.

  4. Measuring the benefits of using market based approaches to provide water and sanitation in humanitarian contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Simpson, S; Parkinson, J; Katsou, E

    2018-06-15

    The use of cash transfers and market based programming (CT/MBP) to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of emergency responses is gaining prominence in the humanitarian sector. However, there is a lack of existing indicators and methodologies to monitor activities designed to strengthen water and sanitation (WaSH) markets. Gender and vulnerability markers to measure the impact of such activities on different stakeholders is also missing. This study identifies parameters to monitor, evaluate and determine the added value of utilising CT/MBP to achieve WaSH objectives in humanitarian response. The results of the work revealed that CT/MBP can be used to support household, community and market level interventions to effectively reduce transmission of faeco-oral diseases. Efficiency, effectiveness, sustainability, appropriateness and equity were identified as useful parameters which correlated to widely accepted frameworks against which to evaluate humanitarian action. The parameters were found to be directly applicable to the case of increasing demand and supply of point of use water treatment technology for a) disaster resilience activities, and b) post-crisis response. The need for peer review of the parameters and indicators and pilot measurement in humanitarian contexts was recognised. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Simulation of sovereign CDS market based on interaction between market participant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Bonggyun; Kim, Kyungwon

    2017-08-01

    A research for distributional property of financial asset is the subject of intense interest not only for financial theory but also for practitioner. Such respect is no exception to CDS market. The CDS market, which began to receive attention since the global financial debacle, is not well researched despite of the importance of research necessity. This research introduces creation of CDS market and use Ising system utilizing occurrence characteristics (to shift risk) as an important factor. Therefore the results of this paper would be of great assistance to both financial theory and practice. From this study, not only distributional property of the CDS market but also various statistics like multifractal characteristics could promote understanding about the market. A salient point in this study is that countries are mainly clustering into 2 groups and it might be because of market situation and geographical characteristics of each country. This paper suggested 2 simulation parameters representing this market based on understanding such CDS market situation. The estimated parameters are suitable for high and low risk event of CDS market respectively and these two parameters are complementary and can cover not only basic statistics but also multifractal properties of most countries. Therefore these estimated parameters can be used in researches preparing for a certain event (high or low risk). Finally this research will serve as a momentum double-checking indirectly the performance of Ising system based on these results.

  6. [Review of the book What about me? : The struggle for identity in a market-based society, Paul Verhaeghe, 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nienass, Benjamin; Trautmann, Stefan

    In his book What about me? The struggle for identity in a market-based society, clinical psychologist and psychotherapist Paul Verhaeghe tries to elucidate the link between neo-liberal society, identity, and mental health. Verhaeghe starts from the observation that our identity is shaped by the

  7. 78 FR 8511 - RPA Energy, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-826-000] RPA Energy, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of RPA Energy, Inc...

  8. 77 FR 38048 - Blue Sky East, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2068-000] Blue Sky East, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Blue Sky East...

  9. 78 FR 66353 - EAM Nelson Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-2349-000] EAM Nelson Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of EAM Nelson...

  10. 78 FR 4143 - Energy Storage Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-752-000] Energy Storage... Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Energy Storage Holdings, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule...

  11. 77 FR 67811 - Porter-Walker LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-327-000] Porter-Walker LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Porter-Walker...

  12. 77 FR 19010 - Zone J Tolling Co., LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1301-000] Zone J Tolling Co., LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Zone J...

  13. 77 FR 36529 - Apple Group LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-4657-001] Apple Group LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Apple Group LLC...

  14. 76 FR 37110 - ORNI 39 LLC;Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-3808-000] ORNI 39 LLC;Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of ORNI 39 LLC's application for...

  15. 78 FR 36768 - Electron Hydro, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1646-000] Electron Hydro, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Electron...

  16. 77 FR 66975 - Black Bear SO, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-203-000] Black Bear SO, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Black Bear SO...

  17. 77 FR 47624 - Tall Bear Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2374-000] Tall Bear Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Tall Bear...

  18. 77 FR 36528 - K Road Modesto Solar LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1995-000] K Road Modesto Solar LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of K Road...

  19. 78 FR 34373 - Campo Verde Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1541-000] Campo Verde Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Campo Verde...

  20. 77 FR 53197 - Brandon Shores LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2510-000] Brandon Shores LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Brandon...

  1. 78 FR 34372 - TGP Energy Management, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1586-000] TGP Energy Management, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of TGP Energy...

  2. Yes in my backyard : market based mechanisms for forest conservation and climate change mitigation in La Primavera, México

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balderas Torres, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    This work makes a multidisciplinary analysis of the potential of market-based mechanisms in the provision of forest carbon services based on local demand in the context of climate change mitigation. The analysis contrasts, from the perspective of an emerging economy (Mexico), the possibilities of

  3. Market-based mechanisms for biodiversity conservation: a review of existing schemes and an outline for a global mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarado Quesada, I.; Hein, L.G.; Weikard, H.P.

    2014-01-01

    Continuous decline of biodiversity over the past decades suggests that efforts to decrease biodiversity loss have been insufficient. One option to deal with this problem is the use of market-based mechanisms for biodiversity conservation. Several studies have analysed such mechanisms individually,

  4. 77 FR 45599 - CED Rock Springs, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Revised Market-Based Rate Tariff Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket Nos. ER02-2546-000; ER02-2546-001] CED Rock Springs, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Revised Market- Based Rate Tariff Filing...-referenced proceeding of CED Rock Springs, Inc.'s tariff revision filing, noting that such filing includes a...

  5. Energy Flexometer : an effective implementation of internet of things for market-based demand response in an energy management system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babar, M.S.; Grela, J.; Ozadowicz, A.; Nguyen, P.H.; Hanzelka, Z.; Kamphuis, I.G.

    2017-01-01

    Market-based control mechanism (MCM) needs the IoT environment to fully explore flexibility potential from the end-users to offer to involved actors of the smart energy system. On the other hand, many IoT based energy management systems are already available to a market. This paper presents an

  6. 77 FR 6109 - Mariposa Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-896-000] Mariposa Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Mariposa...

  7. 76 FR 63614 - Agua Caliente Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-21-000] Agua Caliente Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Agua...

  8. 77 FR 71189 - AES Beaver Valley, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-442-000] AES Beaver Valley, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of AES Beaver...

  9. 76 FR 19351 - Stream Energy Maryland, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-3188-000] Stream Energy Maryland, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding Stream Energy...

  10. 76 FR 69267 - Stream Energy Columbia, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [ Docket No. ER12-224-000] Stream Energy Columbia, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Stream...

  11. 77 FR 45349 - Stream Energy New York, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2301-000] Stream Energy New York, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Stream...

  12. 75 FR 80487 - Paradise Solar Urban Renewal, L.L.C.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2365-000] Paradise...-referenced proceeding of Paradise Solar Urban Renewal, L.L.C.'s application for market-based rate authority... electronic submission of protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http...

  13. 77 FR 28594 - Bethel Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1739-000] Bethel Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Bethel Wind...

  14. 77 FR 28593 - Rippey Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1740-000] Rippey Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Rippey Wind...

  15. 76 FR 9346 - Sun City Project LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2857-000] Sun City Project LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Sun City...

  16. 75 FR 57762 - MATEP Limited Partnership; MATEP LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ...-000] MATEP Limited Partnership; MATEP LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing... the above-referenced proceeding of MATEP Limited Partnership and MATEP LLC's application for market... liability. Any person desiring to intervene or to protest should file with the Federal Energy Regulatory...

  17. 78 FR 29131 - Solar Star California XX, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1442-000] Solar Star California XX, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Solar Star...

  18. 77 FR 66976 - Star Energy Partners LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [ Docket No. ER13-281-000] Star Energy Partners LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Star Energy...

  19. 78 FR 29130 - Solar Star California XIX, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1441-000] Solar Star California XIX, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Solar Star...

  20. 75 FR 71427 - Domtar Paper Company, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2020-000] Domtar Paper... proceeding, of Domtar Paper Company, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying... of protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov...