WorldWideScience

Sample records for market share duopoly

  1. Market Share Delegation in a Bertrand Duopoly: Synchronisation and Multistability

    Luciano Fanti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tackles the issue of local and global analyses of a duopoly game with price competition and market share delegation. The dynamics of the economy is characterised by a differentiable two-dimensional discrete time system. The paper stresses the importance of complementarity between products as a source of synchronisation in the long term, in contrast to the case of their substitutability. This means that when products are complements, players may coordinate their behaviour even if initial conditions are different. In addition, there exist multiple attractors so that even starting with similar conditions may end up generating very different dynamic patterns.

  2. Local and global dynamics in a duopoly with price competition and market share delegation

    Fanti, Luciano; Gori, Luca; Mammana, Cristiana; Michetti, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at studying a nonlinear dynamic duopoly model with price competition and horizontal product differentiation augmented with managerial firms, where managers behave according to market share delegation contracts. Ownership and management are then separate and managers are paid through adequate incentives in order to achieve a competitive advantage in the market. In this context, we show that complexity arises, related both to the structure of the attractors of the system and the structure of their basins, as multistability occurs. The study is conducted by combining analytical and numerical techniques, and aims at showing that slight different initial conditions may cause very different long-term outcomes

  3. Complexity study on the Cournot-Bertrand mixed duopoly game model with market share preference

    Ma, Junhai; Sun, Lijian; Hou, Shunqi; Zhan, Xueli

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a Cournot-Bertrand duopoly model with market share preference is established. Assume that there is a degree of product difference between the two firms, where one firm takes the price as a decision variable and the other takes the quantity. Both firms are bounded rational, with linear cost functions and demand functions. The stability of the equilibrium points is analyzed, and the effects of some parameters (α, β, d and v1) on the model stability are studied. Basins of attraction are investigated and the evolution process is shown with the increase in the output adjustment speed. The simulation results show that instability will lead to the increase in the average utility of the firm that determines the quantity and reduce the average utility of the firm that determines price.

  4. How effective is advertising in duopoly markets?

    Sznajd-Weron, K.; Weron, R.

    2003-06-01

    A simple Ising spin model which can describe the mechanism of advertising in a duopoly market is proposed. In contrast to other agent-based models, the influence does not flow inward from the surrounding neighbors to the center site, but spreads outward from the center to the neighbors. The model thus describes the spread of opinions among customers. It is shown via standard Monte Carlo simulations that very simple rules and inclusion of an external field-an advertising campaign-lead to phase transitions.

  5. Duopoly price competition on markets with agricultural products

    Marie Prášilová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A situation, in which two firms compete, is in the economic theory described by duopoly models. Market equilibrium on the duopoly market is formed in a reciprocal adjustment process of market prices and materialized market opportunities. The goal of the analysis is to find out whether the agricultural products market is significantly influenced by appearance of duopolies, what form they have and if they can fundamentally influence the price level of food. That food chain stores endeavour to mutually adapt food product prices is generally known; it is set especially by the inelastic demand for the mentioned goods on the side of consumers, i.e., by the need to demand basic food. Duopoly reactions to price competition in food chain stores are particularly strong in the case of commodities of milk and tomatoes, where the reactions and approximation of prices can be clearly seen. Based on statistical research it is obvious that the reactions are most reflected on sales of the food chain stores Billa and Albert. To identify specific reactions of price duopoly at retail chains the ANOVA statistical method was used. The firm’s duopoly behaviour as such on the food market need not be a subject for applying punishment from the antimonopoly bureau, if it does not have the cartel agreement character. An example can be the identical potato prices inquiry in the supermarkets of food chain stores.

  6. Disclosure Regulation in Duopoly Markets: Proprietary Costs and Social Welfare

    Suijs, J.P.M.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    The argument of proprietary costs is commonly used by firms to object against proposed disclosure regulations. The goal of this paper is to improve our understanding of the welfare consequences of disclosure in duopoly markets and to identify market settings where proprietary costs are a viable

  7. Disclosure regulation in duopoly markets : Proprietary costs and social welfare

    Suijs, J.P.M.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    The argument of proprietary costs is commonly used by firms to object against proposed disclosure regulations. The goal of this paper is to improve our understanding of the welfare consequences of disclosure in duopoly markets and to identify market settings where proprietary costs are a viable

  8. Exploring Duopoly Markets with Conjectural Variations

    Julien, Ludovic A.; Musy, Olivier; Saïdi, Aurélien W.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors investigate competitive firm behaviors in a two-firm environment assuming linear cost and demand functions. By introducing conjectural variations, they capture the different market structures as specific configurations of a more general model. Conjectural variations are based on the assumption that each firm believes…

  9. Bandwidth allocation and pricing problem for a duopoly market

    You Peng-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This research discusses the Internet service provider (ISP bandwidth allocation and pricing problems for a duopoly bandwidth market with two competitive ISPs. According to the contracts between Internet subscribers and ISPs, Internet subscribers can enjoy their services up to their contracted bandwidth limits. However, in reality, many subscribers may experience the facts that their on-line requests are denied or their connection speeds are far below their contracted speed limits. One of the reasons is that ISPs accept too many subscribers as their subscribers. To avoid this problem, ISPs can set limits for their subscribers to enhance their service qualities. This paper develops constrained nonlinear programming to deal with this problem for two competitive ISPs. The condition for reaching the equilibrium between the two competitive firms is derived. The market equilibrium price and bandwidth resource allocations are derived as closed form solutions.

  10. Price Leadership and Unequal Market Sharing

    Dijkstra, Peter T.

    2014-01-01

    We consider experimental markets of repeated homogeneous price-setting duopolies. We investigate the effect on collusion of sequential versus simultaneous price setting. We also examine the effect on collusion of changes in the size of each subject's market share in case both subjects set the same price. Our results show that sequential price setting compared with simultaneous price setting facilitates collusion, if subjects have equal market shares or if the follower has the larger market sh...

  11. Price Leadership and Unequal Market Sharing : Collusion in Experimental Markets

    Dijkstra, Peter T.

    2014-01-01

    We consider experimental markets of repeated homogeneous price-setting duopolies. We investigate the effect on collusion of sequential versus simultaneous price setting. We also examine the effect on collusion of changes in the size of each subject's market share in case both subjects set the same

  12. A note on strategic delegation : The market share case

    Jansen, Thijs; van Lier, Arie; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen

    We consider a two-stage market share delegation game with two competing firms. Each owner delegates the production decision to a manager. Each manager's remuneration is a weighted sum of profits and market share. The market share delegation game results in higher duopoly profits than the sales

  13. Duopoly Market Analysis within One-Shot Decision Framework with Asymmetric Possibilistic Information

    Peijun Guo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a newly emerging duopoly market with a short life cycle is analyzed. The partially known information of market is characterized by the possibility distribution of the parameter in the demand function. Since the life cycle of the new product is short, how many products should be produced by two rival firms is a typical one-shot decision problem. Within the one-shot decision framework, the possibilistic Cournot equilibrium is obtained for the optimal production level of each firm in a duopoly market with asymmetrical possibilistic information. The analysis results show that the proposed approaches are reasonable for one-shot decision problems, which are extensively encountered in business and economics.

  14. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions: a duopoly market pricing competition and cooperation under the carbon emissions cap.

    Jian, Ming; He, Hua; Ma, Changsong; Wu, Yan; Yang, Hao

    2017-05-17

    This article studies the price competition and cooperation in a duopoly that is subjected to carbon emissions cap. The study assumes that in a departure from the classical Bertrand game, there is still a market for both firms' goods regardless of the product price, even though production capacity is limited by carbon emissions regulation. Through the decentralized decision making of both firms under perfect information, the results are unstable. The firm with the lower maximum production capacity under carbon emissions regulation and the firm with the higher maximum production capacity both seek market price cooperation. By designing an internal carbon credits trading mechanism, we can ensure that the production capacity of the firm with the higher maximum production capacity under carbon emissions regulation reaches price equilibrium. Also, the negotiation power of the duopoly would affect the price equilibrium.

  15. Complex dynamics and chaos control of duopoly Bertrand model in Chinese air-conditioning market

    Yi, Qi Guo; Zeng, Xiang Jin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •A dynamic duopoly Bertrand model with bounded rationality and quadratic cost function. •In Chinese air-conditioning market the boundary equilibrium point is locally stable. •The Lyapunov dimension of the chaos attractor is 1.9585. •The adjustment speeds may cause a market structure to behave chaotically. •The chaotic behavior can be controlled by decreasing the degree of substitutability. -- Abstract: A dynamic duopoly Bertrand model with quadratic cost function which is closer to reality and different from previous researches is discussed. The model is applied into air-conditioning market where the boundary equilibrium point is locally stable. Numerical simulations illustrate that the stability of Nash equilibrium strongly depends on the speed of adjustment of bounded rational player. The adjustment speeds and the degree of substitutability may undermine the stability of the equilibrium and cause a market structure to behave chaotically. The Lyapunov dimension of the chaos attractor is 1.9585 under some conditions. The stabilization of the chaotic behavior can be obtained by reducing the degree of substitutability. The results have an important theoretical and practical significance to Chinese air-conditioning market

  16. Quality choice in a health care market: a mixed duopoly approach.

    Sanjo, Yasuo

    2009-05-01

    We investigate a health care market with uncertainty in a mixed duopoly, where a partially privatized public hospital competes against a private hospital in terms of quality choice. We use a simple Hotelling-type spatial competition model by incorporating mean-variance analysis and the framework of partial privatization. We show how the variance in the quality perceived by patients affects the true quality of medical care provided by hospitals. In addition, we show that a case exists in which the quality of the partially privatized hospital becomes higher than that of the private hospital when the patient's preference for quality is relatively high.

  17. Modelling a duopoly market of the day-to-day goods

    Sherstennykov Yuriy V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Management of competitiveness of a production enterprise is directly connected with issues of formation of competitive strategies, which requires a thorough analysis of those components of the enterprise activity, which could become the basis of formation and strengthening of stable competitive advantages. The existing models do not take into account the market infrastructure and, that is why, not quite suitable for being used in the practical activity of a firm in a competitive market. The article develops dynamic models of quantitative and pricing duopolies, which describe activity of firms, which deal with production, storing and selling day-to-day goods. The models allow taking into account interdependence of the current state of the market and current production facilities of enterprises. The proposed models give a possibility of a purposeful selection of strategic behaviour of duopolists. The conducted analysis of strategies of competitive firms revealed significant influence of market characteristics upon results of economic activity of firms.

  18. Export Taxes under Bertrand Duopoly

    David Collie; Roger Clarke

    2006-01-01

    This article analyses export taxes in a Bertrand duopoly with product differentiation, where a home and a foreign firm both export to a third-country market. It is shown that the maximum-revenue export tax always exceeds the optimum-welfare export tax. In a Nash equilibrium in export taxes, the country with the low cost firm imposes the largest export tax. The results under Bertrand duopoly are compared with those under Cournot duopoly. It is shown that the absolute value of the export subsid...

  19. Study on the complexity pricing game and coordination of the duopoly air conditioner market with disturbance demand

    Ma, Junhai; Xie, Lei

    2016-03-01

    The paper focuses on the dynamic pricing game of the duopoly air conditioner market with disturbance in demand and analyzes the influence of disturbance on the dynamic game system. Considering the demand for products, such as air conditioner, varies with different seasons, we assume three cases based on the condition of disturbance, including growth market (Case 1), declining market (Case 2) and completely random market (Case 3). By analyzing these three cases and making comparison among them, the paper shows that the growth market is more sensitive to the changing parameters such as the adjustment variable and the competitive factor than the declining market. It is more difficult to keep the system stable in a growth market. Although the demand is completely random, the dynamic system can reach a stable state, on condition that the adjustment variable is small enough. The results also indicate that the bullwhip effect between the order quantity and the actual demand is weakened gradually along with the price adjustment.

  20. Generic and Brand Advertising Strategies in a Dynamic Duopoly

    Frank M. Bass; Anand Krishnamoorthy; Ashutosh Prasad; Suresh P. Sethi

    2005-01-01

    To increase the sales of their products through advertising, firms must integrate their brand-advertising strategy for capturing market share from competitors and their generic-advertising strategy for increasing primary demand for the category. This paper examines whether, when, and how much brand advertising versus generic advertising should be done. Using differential game theory, optimal advertising decisions are obtained for a dynamic duopoly with symmetric or asymmetric competitors. We ...

  1. Privatization and subsidization in a leadership duopoly

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we consider a competition in both mixed and privatized markets, in which the firms set prices in a sequential way. We study the effects of optimal production subsidies in both mixed and privatized duopoly.

  2. A Duopoly Manufacturers’ Game Model Considering Green Technology Investment under a Cap-and-Trade System

    Yi Zheng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the duopoly manufacturers’ decision-making considering green technology investment and under a cap-and-trade system. It was assumed there were two manufacturers producing products which were substitutable for one another. On the basis of this assumption, the optimal production capacity, price, and green technology investment of the duopoly manufacturers under a cap-and-trade system were obtained. The increase or decrease of the optimal production quantity of the duopoly manufacturers under a cap-and-trade system was decided by their green technology level. The increase of the optimal price as well as the increase or decrease of the maximum expected profits were decided by the initial carbon emission quota granted by the government. Our research indicates that the carbon emission of unit product is inversely proportional to the market share of an enterprise and becomes an important index to measure the core competitiveness of an enterprise.

  3. Modeling Dynamic Effects of the Marketing Mix on Market Shares

    D. Fok (Dennis); R. Paap (Richard); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractTo comprehend the competitive structure of a market, it is important to understand the short-run and long-run effects of the marketing mix on market shares. A useful model to link market shares with marketing-mix variables, like price and promotion, is the market share attraction model.

  4. GLOBALIZATION IMPACT ON UKRAINIAN MARKET OF SHARES

    O. Zotsenko

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the impact of globalization on the Ukrainian market of shares. Main trends of globalization of world share market are analyzed. The study highlights key elements of the operating share markets of the world leading countries. The research investigates main factors that affect on the level of national market of shares. The findings trace out a number of problems that hinder and distort the role of the Ukrainian share market in capital allocation.

  5. Strategic Market Entry Factors and Market Share Achievement in Japan

    Adrian B Ryans

    1988-01-01

    In developing entry marketing strategies for new product markets companies might be advised to target product markets where significant market shares are likely to be achieved. The literature on market share change is reviewed to identify situational and marketing strategy factors associated with market share achievement. Certain hypotheses suggested by this and related literatures were then tested using a database of products introduced into the Japanese market. The results of this analysis ...

  6. Testing for Unit Roots in Market Shares

    Franses, P.H.B.F.; Srinivasan, S.; Boswijk, H.P.

    2001-01-01

    A unique characteristic of marketing data sets is the logical consistency requirement in market share models that market shares are bounded by 0 and 1, and they sum to unity. To take account of this logical consistency requirement, we propose to test for unit roots in individual market share series

  7. Differentiated Duopoly Revisited

    Onozaki, Tamotsu

    2012-01-01

    The present paper explores what happens in the analytical results of a duopoly model with product differentiation when heterogeneity of production cost is introduced. It is shown that there is a possibility that the price strategy is dominant over the quantity strategy even if goods are substitutes.

  8. Competition and innovation in a technology setting software duopoly

    Bitzer, Jürgen; Schröder, Philipp

    2003-01-01

    the assumption that software producers compete in technology rather than price or quantities. The model includes the presence of technological progress and menu costs of adjusting existing software, i.e. innovation. It is found that: (i) moving from monopoly to duopoly does increase the technology level set......Recently the software industry has experienced fundamental changes in market structure through the entry of open source competitors, e.g. Linux's entry into the operating systems market. In a simple model we examine the effects of such a change in market structure from monopoly to duopoly under...... by firms in the software industry; (ii) a duopoly adjusts more readily to global technological progress than a monopolist. Furthermore, results are presented comparing open source versus for-profit firms in terms of technology levels and innovation....

  9. Active Market Share: measuring competitiveness in retail energy markets

    Loomis, D.; Malm, E.

    1999-01-01

    As retail electric and gas markets deregulate, market share measurement becomes critical for marketers, regulators, and incumbent utilities. Yet traditional market share measures miss important features of these network industries. In this paper we model provider choice in network industries and develop two alternate market share measures - The Active Market Share (AMS) and the New Mover Market Share (NMMS), that are based on 'active demand'. These measures are shown to provide more accurate real-time measures of market activity. The NMMS is a special case of the AMS which is easy to measure empirically. Numerical simulations are used to provide comparisons between each measure over time. Both the AMS and NMMS will be important tools for anyone interested in measuring the competitiveness of deregulating markets. (author)

  10. Electricity capacity expansion in a Cournot duopoly

    Brondbo, Helene K.; Storebo, Axel; Fleten, Stein Erik

    2017-01-01

    This paper adopts a real options approach to analyze marginal investments in power markets with heterogeneous technologies and time-varying demand. We compare the investment behavior of two firms in a Cournot duopoly to a central planner's when two categories of power plants are available; base a...... that this results in welfare losses above 10 %, and significantly larger reduction in the consumer surplus. Further, we examine the effect of analyzing power markets without time-varying demand and find that this underestimates investments in peak load capacity....

  11. Environmental policies in an international mixed duopoly

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of environmental and trade policies in an international mixed duopoly serving two markets. We suppose that the firm in the home country is a welfare-maximizing public firm, while the firm in the foreign country is its own profit-maximizing private firm. We find that the environmental tax can be a strategic instrument for the home government to distribute production from the foreign private firm to the home public firm. An additional effect of the home environmental tax is the reduction of the foreign private firm's output for local consumption, thereby expanding the foreign market for the home public firm.

  12. Advertising and consumer search in a duopoly model

    Janssen, Maarten C. W.; Non, Marielle C.

    We consider a duopoly in a homogenous goods market where part of the consumers are ex ante uninformed about prices. Information can come through two different channels: advertising and sequential consumer search. We arrive at the following results. First, there is no monotone relationship between

  13. Advertising and Consumer Search in a Duopoly Model

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); M.C. Non (Marielle)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWe consider a duopoly in a homogenous goods market where part of the consumers are ex ante uninformed about prices. Information can come through two different channels: advertising and sequential consumer search. The model is similar to that of Robert and Stahl (1993) with two major (and

  14. A continuous time Cournot duopoly with delays

    Gori, Luca; Guerrini, Luca; Sodini, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    This paper extends the classical repeated duopoly model with quantity-setting firms of Bischi et al. (1998) by assuming that production of goods is subject to some gestation lags but exchanges take place continuously in the market. The model is expressed in the form of differential equations with discrete delays. By using some recent mathematical techniques and numerical experiments, results show some dynamic phenomena that cannot be observed when delays are absent. In addition, depending on the extent of time delays and inertia, synchronisation failure can arise even in the event of homogeneous firms.

  15. Markets Share Models for EVs

    Jensen, Thomas Christian; Christensen, Linda

    for the transport sector is announced to be a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 20% in 2020 compared to 2005. It is the plan to obtain part of this reduction through the EU targets of 10% renewable energy by 2020 in surface transport and a requirement for EU car producers to lower average CO2 emissions from...... to the end of 2015. More ambitious greenhouse gas reductions are announced and EV’s may contrib-ute to such targets. However, no specific target has been set for the share of electric vehicles. In order to investigate the potential role of electric vehicles (EVs), DTU transport has construct-ed a small car...

  16. Regression Models for Market-Shares

    Birch, Kristina; Olsen, Jørgen Kai; Tjur, Tue

    2005-01-01

    On the background of a data set of weekly sales and prices for three brands of coffee, this paper discusses various regression models and their relation to the multiplicative competitive-interaction model (the MCI model, see Cooper 1988, 1993) for market-shares. Emphasis is put on the interpretat......On the background of a data set of weekly sales and prices for three brands of coffee, this paper discusses various regression models and their relation to the multiplicative competitive-interaction model (the MCI model, see Cooper 1988, 1993) for market-shares. Emphasis is put...... on the interpretation of the parameters in relation to models for the total sales based on discrete choice models.Key words and phrases. MCI model, discrete choice model, market-shares, price elasitcity, regression model....

  17. GWDC Expands High-End Market Share

    2008-01-01

    @@ It is a decision of great significance for GWDC to expand high-end market share in order to realize its transformation of development strategy and improve its development quality. As an important step of GWDC to explore high-end market, Oman PDO Project marks the first time that the Chinese petroleum engineering service team cooperates with the transnational petroleum corporations ranking first three in the world.

  18. Costly location in Hotelling duopoly

    Hinloopen, J.; Martin, S.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a cost of location into Hotelling’s (1929) spatial duopoly. We derive the general conditions on the cost-of-location function under which a pure strategy price-location Nash equilibrium exists. With linear transportation cost and a suitably specified cost of location that rises toward

  19. Costly location in Hotelling duopoly

    Hinloopen, J.; Martin, S.

    We introduce a cost of location into Hotelling's (1929) spatial duopoly model. We derive the general conditions on the cost-of-location function under which a pure strategy price-location Nash equilibrium exists. With linear transportation cost and a suitably specified cost of location that rises

  20. Successive duopoly under moral hazard: Will incentive contracts persist?

    Marta Fernández-Olmos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The central purpose of this paper is to examine the incentive contract as an equilibrium phenomenon. We analyse a model of vertical differentiation in which we deal with the strategic role of the competitor’s decisions in a successive duopoly. Is it better for a processor to offer an incentive contract to an upstream producer or the spot market? We determine the equilibrium of a game in which the processors simultaneously decide whether to offer an incentive contract or to continue at the spot market to acquire their input. Our results show that under successive duopoly, offering an incentive contract constitutes the unique equilibrium solution, which highlights the incentive contract persistence.

  1. Existence of equilibria in quantum Bertrand-Edgeworth duopoly game

    Sekiguchi, Yohei; Sakahara, Kiri; Sato, Takashi

    2012-12-01

    Both classical and quantum version of two models of price competition in duopoly market, the one is realistic and the other is idealized, are investigated. The pure strategy Nash equilibria of the realistic model exists under stricter condition than that of the idealized one in the classical form game. This is the problem known as Edgeworth paradox in economics. In the quantum form game, however, the former converges to the latter as the measure of entanglement goes to infinity.

  2. Impact of global investment processes on ukrainian share market

    O.К. Zotsenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the effects of financial and investment processes on the Ukrainian share market. The research analyzed and estimated investment climate in Ukraine. The study highlights a comparison of the domestic share market with share markets of other countries. In terms of share capitalization of listed companies in the GDP determined that equity is the most developed in the USA and UK. Largest share markets with highest capitalization rate characterized. The regional distribution of the share market capitalization by continents are shown. The study of the dynamics of Ukrainian and global share indexes revealed that the Ukrainian share market indexes show a constant volatility and unpredictability. Correlation Ukrainian stock indexes with indexes in Europe, Russia and America is very weak, which is a very negative trend of the stock market of Ukraine. The key problems and risks of the domestic investments are defined which are consequences of downturn in the Ukrainian share market.

  3. Welfare Comparison of Leader-Follower Models in a Mixed Duopoly

    Aiyuan Tao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the standard leader-follower duopoly models with otherwise symmetric firms, the market outcome and total welfare are the same whichever firm is the leader. This paper studies and compares total welfare in a sequential-move mixed duopoly when either the public firm or the private firm acts as the leader. It is found that the fact that which firm is the leader affects total welfare and that whether firms compete in quantity or price also affects the optimal choice of market leader.

  4. Misleading Advertising in Duopoly

    Keisuke Hattori; Keisaku Higashida

    2011-01-01

    This paper builds a model of strategic misleading advertising in duopolistic markets with horizontal product differentiation and advertising externality between firms. We investigate the effects of regulating misinformation on market competition, behaviour of firms, and social welfare. We show that the degree of advertising externality and the magnitude of advertising costs are crucial for determining the welfare effects of several regulations, including prohibiting misleading advertising, ed...

  5. Environmental and international tariffs in a mixed duopoly

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we study the effects of environmental and trade policies in an international mixed duopoly serving two markets, in which the public firm maximizes the sum of consumer surplus and its profit. We also analyse the effects of privatization. The model has two stages. In the first stage, governments choose environmental taxes and import tariffs, simultaneously. Then, the firms engage in a Cournot competition, choosing output levels for the domestic market and to export. We compare the results obtained in the three different ways of moving on the decision make of the firms.

  6. The Foreign Investment Risks of Chinese B Share Market

    JIANG, MINCHANG

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate and analyse the risks existing in Chinese B share market for foreign investment. Based on the brief history of B share market as well as background information such as characteristics of Chinese stock exchange, several areas of risks are identified as: macroeconomic risks, stock volatility and return including cross-impacts among market segmentations and different countries’ markets, financial market and currency risks, and finally the poli...

  7. Model of Market Share Affected by Social Media Reputation

    Ishii, Akira; Kawahata, Yasuko; Goto, Ujo

    Proposal of market theory to put the effect of social media into account is presented in this paper. The standard market share model in economics is employed as a market theory and the effect of social media is considered quantitatively using the mathematical model for hit phenomena. Using this model, we can estimate the effect of social media in market share as a simple market model simulation using our proposed method.

  8. Chaos Control on a Duopoly Game with Homogeneous Strategy

    Manying Bai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the dynamics of a nonlinear discrete-time duopoly game, where the players have homogenous knowledge on the market demand and decide their outputs based on adaptive expectation. The Nash equilibrium and its local stability are investigated. The numerical simulation results show that the model may exhibit chaotic phenomena. Quasiperiodicity is also found by setting the parameters at specific values. The system can be stabilized to a stable state by using delayed feedback control method. The discussion of control strategy shows that the effect of both firms taking control method is better than that of single firm taking control method.

  9. Price discovery in dual-class shares across multiple markets

    Fernandes, Marcelo; Scherrer, Cristina

    We extend the standard price discovery analysis to estimate the information share of dual-class shares across domestic and foreign markets. By examining both common and preferred shares, we aim to extract information not only about the fundamental value of the firm, but also about the dual...... the innovations, the standard information share measure depends heavily on the ordering we attribute to prices in the system. To remain agnostic about which are the leading share class and market, one could for instance compute some weighted average information share across all possible orderings...... or trading platform conveys more information about shocks in the fundamental price. As such, our procedure yields a single measure of information share, which is invariant to the ordering of the variables in the system. Simulations of a simple market microstructure model show that our information share...

  10. Impulse-response analysis of the market share attraction model

    D. Fok (Dennis); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a simulation-based technique to calculate impulse-response functions and their confidence intervals in a market share attraction model [MCI]. As an MCI model implies a reduced form model for the logs of relative market shares, simulation techniques have to be used to obtain

  11. Market Share, R&D Cooperation, and EU Competition Policy

    Richard Rubble; Bruno Versaevel

    2009-01-01

    Working Paper GATE 2009-10; Current EU policy exempts horizontal R&D agreements from antitrust con- cerns when the combined market shares of participants are low enough. This paper argues that existing theory does not support limiting the exemption to low market shares. This is done by introducing a set of non-innovating outside firms to the standard framework to assess what link might exist between the market share of innovating firms and the product market benefits of cooperation. With R&D out...

  12. Sharing wind power forecasts in electricity markets: A numerical analysis

    Exizidis, Lazaros; Kazempour, S. Jalal; Pinson, Pierre; Greve, Zacharie de; Vallée, François

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Information sharing among different agents can be beneficial for electricity markets. • System cost decreases by sharing wind power forecasts between different agents. • Market power of wind producer may increase by sharing forecasts with market operator. • Extensive out-of-sample analysis is employed to draw reliable conclusions. - Abstract: In an electricity pool with significant share of wind power, all generators including conventional and wind power units are generally scheduled in a day-ahead market based on wind power forecasts. Then, a real-time market is cleared given the updated wind power forecast and fixed day-ahead decisions to adjust power imbalances. This sequential market-clearing process may cope with serious operational challenges such as severe power shortage in real-time due to erroneous wind power forecasts in day-ahead market. To overcome such situations, several solutions can be considered such as adding flexible resources to the system. In this paper, we address another potential solution based on information sharing in which market players share their own wind power forecasts with others in day-ahead market. This solution may improve the functioning of sequential market-clearing process through making more informed day-ahead schedules, which reduces the need for balancing resources in real-time operation. This paper numerically evaluates the potential value of sharing forecasts for the whole system in terms of system cost reduction. Besides, its impact on each market player’s profit is analyzed. The framework of this study is based on a stochastic two-stage market setup and complementarity modeling, which allows us to gain further insights into information sharing impacts.

  13. Sharing wind power forecasts in electricity markets: A numerical analysis

    Exizidis, Lazaros; Pinson, Pierre; Kazempour, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    In an electricity pool with significant share of wind power, all generators including conventional and wind power units are generally scheduled in a day-ahead market based on wind power forecasts. Then, a real-time market is cleared given the updated wind power forecast and fixed day......-ahead decisions to adjust power imbalances. This sequential market-clearing process may cope with serious operational challenges such as severe power shortage in real-time due to erroneous wind power forecasts in day-ahead market. To overcome such situations, several solutions can be considered such as adding...... flexible resources to the system. In this paper, we address another potential solution based on information sharing in which market players share their own wind power forecasts with others in day-ahead market. This solution may improve the functioning of sequential market-clearing process through making...

  14. Smartphone's Operating Systems and market share

    Ferreras Andreu, Javier

    2011-01-01

    During the last decades, mobile phone’s market has changed people’s communication ways. Several technological improvements have been reached mainly in the last fifteen years, making possible to add new features to mobile phones. As devices became more popular and included new services, a market grew around them. The following pages contain a market analysis from the different members of the mobile phone’s industry: manufacturers, operating system companies, operators, developers and custom...

  15. A fuzzy set preference model for market share analysis

    Turksen, I. B.; Willson, Ian A.

    1992-01-01

    Consumer preference models are widely used in new product design, marketing management, pricing, and market segmentation. The success of new products depends on accurate market share prediction and design decisions based on consumer preferences. The vague linguistic nature of consumer preferences and product attributes, combined with the substantial differences between individuals, creates a formidable challenge to marketing models. The most widely used methodology is conjoint analysis. Conjoint models, as currently implemented, represent linguistic preferences as ratio or interval-scaled numbers, use only numeric product attributes, and require aggregation of individuals for estimation purposes. It is not surprising that these models are costly to implement, are inflexible, and have a predictive validity that is not substantially better than chance. This affects the accuracy of market share estimates. A fuzzy set preference model can easily represent linguistic variables either in consumer preferences or product attributes with minimal measurement requirements (ordinal scales), while still estimating overall preferences suitable for market share prediction. This approach results in flexible individual-level conjoint models which can provide more accurate market share estimates from a smaller number of more meaningful consumer ratings. Fuzzy sets can be incorporated within existing preference model structures, such as a linear combination, using the techniques developed for conjoint analysis and market share estimation. The purpose of this article is to develop and fully test a fuzzy set preference model which can represent linguistic variables in individual-level models implemented in parallel with existing conjoint models. The potential improvements in market share prediction and predictive validity can substantially improve management decisions about what to make (product design), for whom to make it (market segmentation), and how much to make (market share

  16. The rapid fall of Gasunie's market share

    Kok, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Based on financial data, published in the 1999 annual report, a brief overview is given of the consequences of the liberalization of the market for natural gas in Europe for the Dutch natural gas trading company Gasunie

  17. Economic Integration and Quality Standards in a Duopoly Model with Horizontal and Vertical Product Differentiation

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Hansen, Jørgen Drud

    This paper examines the effects of trade barriers on quality levels in a duopoly model for two countries with one producer in each country. The products are both vertically and horizontally differentiated. In absence of quality regulation, the two producers determine prices and quality levels...... standards are also ambiguous depending on the parameters of the model. Keywords: Vertical product differentiation; horizontal product differentiation; market integration; duopoly; minimum quality standard. JEL: F12, F13, F14....... product. On the unregulated markets, integration increases welfare in both countries if they are almost of similar size. However, if the countries are very asymmetrical with respect to size, market integration may harm welfare in the large country. Welfare effects by introduction of minimum quality...

  18. The Effect of Charter School Legislation on Market Share

    Simona Kúscová

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Many proponents of school choice use the claim of the market’s capability to enhance efficiency and improve performance to call for its expansion. But no markets are perfectly competitive, and the local market for public goods is filled with institutional arrangements that make it differ from the neoclassical ideal. In this paper, we look at a particular institution—the provisions of charter school legislation—and assess how it affects the ability of charter schools to gain market share. Using data from the 36 states that had passed charter legislation by 2000, and controlling for a variety of other factors, we estimate a model of the effects of various provisions in the charter laws on charter school market share. We find that two such provisions, one concerning the sponsorship of charters and another their funding sources, appear to have a strong effect on the market share of charter schools.

  19. Analytic solutions of nonlinear Cournot duopoly game

    Akio Matsumoto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct a Cournot duopoly model with production externality in which reaction functions are unimodal. We consider the case of a Cournot model which has a stable equilibrium point. Then we show the existence of analytic solutions of the model. Moreover, we seek general solutions of the model in the form of nonlinear second-order difference equation.

  20. Motorola’s Market Share Mission

    2008-01-01

    The American cell phone maker is out to win back Chinese consumers by introducing more handsets tailored to the market Mobile phone maker Motorola Inc.said on April 24 that it lost more money in the first quarter, because global sales in its key mobile unit fell 39 percent.The news came despite the fact that worldwide cellular

  1. Mathematical Formulation of Relationship between Applied Marketing Effort and Potential Ability of Determining Market Share

    Mokhtar M. Metwally

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to formulate the mathematical relationship between firms potential ability and their applied efforts to attract the body of unattached customers. A method is devised in this paper by which management techniques imposed by a particular firm can evaluate its market share. This paper demonstrates the relationship between the applied marketing effort of management and the potential ability of the firm in determining its market share. This paper also investigates the effect of a number of simultaneous marketing impulses on the movement of the body of unattached customers and hence on the size of the market share.

  2. Econometric Analysis of the Market Share Attraction Model

    D. Fok (Dennis); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); R. Paap (Richard)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractMarket share attraction models are useful tools for analyzing competitive structures. The models can be used to infer cross-effects of marketing-mix variables, but also the own effects can be adequately estimated while conditioning on competitive reactions. Important features of

  3. Promotional Strategy Impacts on Organizational Market Share and Profitability

    Adesoga Dada Adefulu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examined promotional strategy impacts on market share and profitability in Coca-Cola and 7up companies in Lagos State, Nigeria. Survey research method was adopted. The study population was the staff in marketing positions in the selected companies. Questionnaire was administered on the samples from Coca-Cola and 7UP companies. The statistical tool employed was the univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA to determine the statistical significance and the extent to which promotional strategy brings about variation in market share and profitability in the selected companies The study revealed the need for a better understanding of the organizational factors that determine the commitment of organizational resources to drive the achievement of marketing goals. In addition, promotional strategy measured by advertising, publicity and sales promotion affected market share and profitability at different percentage rates while Personal selling did not .The study concluded that promotional strategy suitable to a business caused variations in market share and profitability. Managers concerned about maintaining competitive edge in the market may find it appropriate to begin by examining promotional strategy adoption. Suggestions are also made for further research and study limitations are denoted. Researchers are encouraged to devote efforts to identifying what variables may modify the nature of relationship?

  4. Two-period resource duopoly with endogenous intertemporal capacity constraints

    Berk, Istemi

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the strategic firm behavior within the context of a two-period resource duopoly model in which firms face endogenous intertemporal capacity constraints. Firms are allowed to invest in capacity in between two periods in order to increase their initial endowment of exhaustible resource stocks. Using this setup, we nd that the equilibrium price weakly decreases over time. Moreover, asymmetric distribution of initial resource stocks leads to a significant change in equilibrium outcome, provided that firms do not have the same cost structure in capacity additions. It is also verified that if only one company is capable of investment in capacity, the market moves to a more concentrated structure in the second period.

  5. Two-period resource duopoly with endogenous intertemporal capacity constraints

    Berk, Istemi

    2014-07-15

    This paper analyzes the strategic firm behavior within the context of a two-period resource duopoly model in which firms face endogenous intertemporal capacity constraints. Firms are allowed to invest in capacity in between two periods in order to increase their initial endowment of exhaustible resource stocks. Using this setup, we nd that the equilibrium price weakly decreases over time. Moreover, asymmetric distribution of initial resource stocks leads to a significant change in equilibrium outcome, provided that firms do not have the same cost structure in capacity additions. It is also verified that if only one company is capable of investment in capacity, the market moves to a more concentrated structure in the second period.

  6. Promotional Strategy Impacts on Organizational Market Share and Profitability

    Adesoga Dada Adefulu

    2015-01-01

    The paper examined promotional strategy impacts on market share and profitability in Coca-Cola and 7up companies in Lagos State, Nigeria. Survey research method was adopted. The study population was the staff in marketing positions in the selected companies. Questionnaire was administered on the samples from Coca-Cola and 7UP companies. The statistical tool employed was the univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine the statistical significance and the extent to which...

  7. An analysis of market shares on the Danish alcohol market using unobserved components

    Milhøj, Anders

    2009-01-01

    The Danish alcohol market has three types of alcohol: Beer, Wine and Spirits. The market share of wine has doubled over a 25 year period, while the market share of beer has been declining and the market share of spirits is generally low and fluctuating. In recent years the trending behavior has...... however changed, most likely because of changes in taxation on spirits. In the paper these market shares are analyzed by unobserved components models using Proc Ucm as models with time varying trends etc. are well suited for this type of data. In Denmark the relative prices for the three types of alcohol...... have changed radically because of changes in the taxation and hence the relative prices provide good independent variables in regressions. In SAS version 9.2 Proc Ucm has been extended with a Randomreg statement, that allows for the varying regression coefficients. One result is that the effect...

  8. Nonlinear Cournot duopoly with implementation delays

    Matsumoto, Akio; Szidarovszky, Ferenc

    2015-01-01

    We study the effects of two delays on the local as well as on global stability of nonlinear Cournot duopoly dynamics. The two major findings are an analytical construction of the stability switching curve on which stability is lost and the numerical confirmation of the birth of aperiodic global dynamics when the stationary state is locally unstable. The delays matters and can generate various dynamics ranging from simple to complicated dynamics.

  9. Quantum Bertrand duopoly of incomplete information

    Qin Gan; Chen Xi; Sun Min; Du Jiangfeng

    2005-01-01

    We study Bertrand's duopoly of incomplete information. It is found that the effect of quantum entanglement on the outcome of the game is dramatically changed by the uncertainty of information. In contrast with the case of complete information where the outcome increases with entanglement, when information is incomplete the outcome is maximized at some finite entanglement. As a consequence, information and entanglement are both crucial factors that determine the properties of a quantum oligopoly

  10. Price discovery in dual-class shares across multiple markets

    Fernandes, Marcelo; Scherrer, Cristina

    2018-01-01

    data to study price discovery in dual-class Brazilian stocks and their ADRs. We find that the foreign market is at least as informative as the home market and that shocks in the dual-class premium entail a permanent effect in normal times, but transitory in periods of financial distress......This paper proposes a new measure of price discovery that uses the spectral decomposition. The methodology is especially important in the context of large price systems, such as interest rate parities with spot and futures contracts or dual-class shares in multiple markets. We employ high frequency...

  11. Controlling shareholders and market timing in share issuance

    Urzua Infante, F.; Larrain, B.

    2013-01-01

    We examine market timing in the equity issuance of firms controlled by large shareholders using a hand-collected data set of controlling shareholders' ownership stakes in Chile between 1990 and 2009. When a firm issues shares, the controlling shareholder can either maintain or change his ownership

  12. An empirical analysis on the effects of marketing communications on market share adjustment

    Somayeh Hozouri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there has been growing competition between two primary sources of mobile service providers including Hamrah Aval and Irancell in Iran. The competition is so tight that both service providers have spent significant amount of money on marketing planning. Therefore, it is necessary to find important factors influencing on better marketing planning. This paper presents an investigation to analyze the effects of marketing communications on market share adjustment. The proposed study of this paper has used principle component analysis and it has detected four factors environment issues, marketing organization, market development and relationship oriented.

  13. Defining the relevant market in the sharing economy

    Francesco Russo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the establishment of commercial sharing economy services like Uber, Blablacar, Lyft, Airbnb, TaskRabbit, etc., the debate about the sharing economy and its effects on competition has generated lively discussions, which have too often dangerously departed from a debate based on objective (market observation to evolve into a quarrel among the supporters and opponents of the online platforms. Undoubtedly, the peculiar features of these new firms’ business models create frictions with the traditional regulatory environment, which currently appears to be incapable of framing them into models and schemes typical of a previous economic phase, such as, for example, one-sided markets, no externalities, and competition mainly on price. Nevertheless, setting aside the more or less impromptu debate about the “social goodness” of these firms, we argue that competition enforcers should look at their effective market power. In fact, as the basic principles of competition law teach us, only when those firms have (more or less legitimate significant market power, will they be subject to special responsibilities and to stringent restrictions and obligations. Toward this aim, it is first necessary to define the relevant market. And, immediately afterwards, to delimit firms’ market position. This, in turn, should help to assess their compliance with the competition rules and the obligations that they are – or rather that they should be – subjected to. This exercise is not an easy one because the traditional regulatory concepts and definitions do not seem to reflect the competition dynamics that characterise the new markets on which we are reflecting. In this paper we focus on a number of challenges that are posed by the sharing economy businesses, suggesting that they could be solved with the traditional competition instruments, although adapted to the peculiar features of the markets that are at stake. These include, among others, multi

  14. THE LEGAL STATUS OF THE SHARES TRADED ON RASDAQ MARKET

    Cristian GHEORGHE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available RASDAQ Market was launched in Romania in 1996, appeared as a mirroring of the well-established American market NASDAQ (which stood for National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations. The role designated for RASDAQ was as platform for valuing papers issued in the privatization program in Romania (mass privatization process - MPP. In fact the participating companies to MPP had the legal obligation, under first Romanian Capital Market Law, No 52/1194, to be listed on a stock exchange. Although it attended a US regulatory model, RASDAQ had to adapt to European rules with the accession of Romania to the European Union. The relevant EU rules (i.e., Directive 2004/39/EC on markets in financial instruments – MiFID, about to be replaced by Directive 2014/65/EU – MiFID II provide for only two types of trading systems, i.e. regulated markets and multilateral trading facilities (MTF, while the RASDAQ Market securities fall under none of these two trading systems regulated by MiFID1. After an entire decade of uncertainty concerning the status of the RASDAQ, Romanian legislator settled the situation of shares traded on this market. This regulation means the end for RASDAQ. Law No. 151/2014 provides that the RASDAQ Market is to be closed within twelve months as of the effective date of such law (October 27, 2014. To this end companies listed on the RASDAQ Market will have to opt for listing on a regulated market or on a MTF or for becoming private companies. Such option rests on the hands of shareholders. Going private asks for shareholders’ rights protection so Romanian Financial Supervisory Authority (FSA provides a procedure implementing the right to withdraw from the company of the dissenting shareholders and for computing compensation for their shares (FSA Regulation No. 17/2014.

  15. Market-sharing approach to the world nuclear sales problem

    Ribicoff, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    The recent decisions by West Germany and France to sell nuclear fuel facilities to Brazil and Pakistan, respectively, mark the first sharp divergence by major industrial nations from long-established U.S. nonproliferation policy. Thus far, the U.S. has been ineffective in seeking to persuade Germany and France not to proceed with them. This indicates a serious weakness in the execution of American nonproliferation policy, which if left uncorrected, could result in the rapid spread of nuclear weapons material and capability around the world. It is clear that complex problems are raised by the concept of market-sharing. A principal advocate, Dr. Lawrence Scheinman from ERDA, says that traditional arguments against market-sharing do not qualify as reasons against the concept. He does identify three basic arguments against market-sharing, which the author discusses in this article, namely: (1) reactor market-sharing is contrary to U.S. anti-cartel policy and in violation of antitrust laws; (2) other nuclear supplier countries would reject a market-sharing arrangement; and (3) the recipient countries of the Third World would view it as a nuclear cartel and refuse to do business with it. The author advocates that at the very least, the U.S. should enter the next round of supplier negotiations prepared to propose multinational arrangements for closing the commercial nuclear fuel cycle and for making all weapons-grade material generated by the fuel cycle unavailable to any nation on a sovereign basis. The U.S. should also make clear that it would view with the gravest concern the continuation of the present export policies of West Germany and France

  16. Duopoly competition for rational addicts

    SF Koch

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an examination of an oligopoly market for addictive commodities, specifically cigarettes. The model is characterized by overlapping generations of consumers and differentiated products. A price equilibrium, which is both stationary and symmetric, is characterized. The model accounts for many of the features within the South African tobacco market. Although excise taxes rose in South Africa, and the actual price in the market rose by more than the increase in the excise tax, the model shows that the increase in the price beyond the excise tax was caused by factors other than the change in the tax rate. The model also points to potential empirical problems associated with estimating cigarette market outcomes, due to the fact that the combination of market structure and addiction may greatly impact the assumed exogeneity of the prices used in the analysis.

  17. The role of new product development on export market share

    Naser Azad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There is an ongoing change on customers’ needs on selecting customers’ needs, which may influence requirements on designing products and services as well as export sale and company’s market shares in domestic and international market. In the present study, through descriptive approach with qualitative method and case study, we investigate important key factors influencing on new product development and products’ successive factors at overseas nutritional market. In addition by presenting a new model in accordance with the present condition of the organization we explore the closest product development model and affective factors influencing them. The study investigates 36 factors and extracts six important ones, which influence product development including intelligent information, process research and development, strategy introduced, participation strategy, market survey and differentiation strategy.

  18. Modeling Market Shares of Competing (e)Care Providers

    van Ooteghem, Jan; Tesch, Tom; Verbrugge, Sofie; Ackaert, Ann; Colle, Didier; Pickavet, Mario; Demeester, Piet

    In order to address the increasing costs of providing care to the growing group of elderly, efficiency gains through eCare solutions seem an obvious solution. Unfortunately not many techno-economic business models to evaluate the return of these investments are available. The construction of a business case for care for the elderly as they move through different levels of dependency and the effect of introducing an eCare service, is the intended application of the model. The simulation model presented in this paper allows for modeling evolution of market shares of competing care providers. Four tiers are defined, based on the dependency level of the elderly, for which the market shares are determined. The model takes into account available capacity of the different care providers, in- and outflow distribution between tiers and churn between providers within tiers.

  19. Economic Integration and Quality Standards in a Duopoly Model with Horizontal and Vertical Product Differentiation

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of trade barriers on quality levels in a duopoly model for two countries with one producer in each country. The products are both vertically and horizontally differentiated. In absence of quality regulation, the two producers determine prices and quality levels...... product. On the unregulated markets, integration increases welfare in both countries if they are almost of similar size. However, if the countries are very asymmetrical with respect to size, market integration may harm welfare in the large country. Welfare effects by introduction of minimum quality...

  20. A nonlinear Cournot duopoly with advertising

    Gori, Luca; Sodini, Mauro; Fanti, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at studying local and global dynamics in a nonlinear duopoly with quantity-setting firms and non-cooperative advertising investments that affect the degree of (horizontally) differentiated products. It concentrates on persuasive advertising in a model where each firm has limited information and uses a behavioural rule to set the quantity for the subsequent period. By using some mathematical techniques and numerical simulations, our results show the existence of weak (à la Milnor) attractors, multistability and chaotic dynamics. In the long term, firms may continuously shift from states in which they invest in advertising to states in which advertising investment is absent.

  1. Quantum Stackelberg Duopoly Game in Depolarizing Channel

    Zhu Xia; Kuang Leman

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the quantum Stackelberg duopoly (QSD) game in the noise environment with the depolarizing channel expressed by the Kraus-operator representation. It is found that the presence of the damping in the depolarizing channel always leads to the decrease of the quantities of the moves and payoffs of the two players in the QSD game. It is indicated that under certain conditions the first-mover advantage in the QSD game can be weakened due to the presence of the damping in the depolarizing channel.

  2. Quantum Bertrand duopoly with differentiated products

    Lo, C.F.; Kiang, D.

    2004-01-01

    We apply Li et al.'s 'minimal' quantization rules [Phys. Lett. A 306 (2002) 73] to investigate the quantum version of the Bertrand duopoly with differentiated products. In particular, we have examined how the quantum entanglement affects the outcome of the classical game. It is found that while negative entanglement diminishes the profit of each firm below the classical limit, positive entanglement enhances the profit monotonically, reaching a maximum in the limit of maximal entanglement. As a consequence, the frustrating dilemma-like situation is completely resolved in the quantum version of the game

  3. Commercial sector gas cooling technology frontier and market share analysis

    Pine, G.D.; Mac Donald, J.M.; McLain, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a method, developed for the Gas Research Institute of the United States, that can assist planning for commercial sector natural gas cooling systems R and D. These systems are higher in first cost than conventional electric chillers. Yet, engine-driven chiller designs exist which are currently competitive in U.S. markets typified by high electricity or demand charges. Section II describes a scenario analysis approach used to develop and test the method. Section III defines the technology frontier, a conceptual tool for identifying new designs with sales potential. Section IV describes a discrete choice method for predicting market shares of technologies with sales potential. Section V shows how the method predicts operating parameter, cost, and/or performance goals for technologies without current sales potential (or for enhancing a frontier technology's sales potential). Section VI concludes with an illustrative example for the Chicago office building retrofit market

  4. Forecasting the Electricity Demand and Market Shares in Retail Electricity Market Based on System Dynamics and Markov Chain

    Qingyou Yan; Chao Qin; Mingjian Nie; Le Yang

    2018-01-01

    Due to the deregulation of retail electricity market, consumers can choose retail electric suppliers freely, and market entities are facing fierce competition because of the increasing number of new entrants. Under these circumstances, forecasting the changes in all market entities, when market share stabilized, is important for suppliers making marketing decisions. In this paper, a market share forecasting model was established based on Markov chain, and a system dynamics model was construct...

  5. License and entry strategies for an outside innovator in duopoly with combination of royalty and fixed fee under vertical differentiation

    Hattori, Masahiko; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2017-01-01

    We consider a choice of options for an innovating firm in duopoly under vertical differentiation to enter the market with or without licensing its technology for producing a higher quality good to the incumbent firm using a combination of a royalty per output and a fixed license fee, or to license its technology without entry. With general distribution function of consumers' taste parameter and cost function we will show that when the innovating firm licenses its technology to the incumbent f...

  6. Negative royalty in duopoly and definition of license fee: general demand and cost functions

    Hattori, Masahiko; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2017-01-01

    We examine the relationship between the definition of license fee and a possibility of negative royalty in a duopoly with an outside innovator which has an option to enter the market and imposes a combination of a royalty per output and a fixed fee under general demand and cost functions. We consider two scenarios about determination of license fee. One is a scenario which does not assume entry of the innovator, and the other is a scenario which takes a possibility of entry of the innovator i...

  7. Market power and output-based refunding of environmental policy revenues

    Fischer, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    Output-based refunding of environmental policy revenues combines a tax on emissions with a production subsidy, typically in a revenue-neutral fashion. With imperfect competition, subsidies can alleviate output underprovision. However, when market shares are significant, endogenous refunding reduces abatement incentives and the marginal net tax or subsidy. If market shares differ, marginal abatement costs will not be equalized, and production is shifted among participants. In an asymmetric Cournot duopoly, endogenous refunding leads to higher output, emissions, and overall costs compared with a fixed rebate program targeting the same emissions intensity. These results hold whether emissions rates are determined simultaneously with output or strategically in a two-stage model. (author)

  8. Does the market share of generic medicines influence the price level?: a European analysis.

    Dylst, Pieter; Simoens, Steven

    2011-10-01

    After the expiry of patents for originator medicines, generic medicines can enter the market, and price competition may occur. This process generates savings to the healthcare payer and to patients, but knowledge about the factors affecting price competition in the pharmaceutical market following patent expiry is still limited. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the market share of generic medicines and the change of the medicine price level in European off-patent markets. Data on medicine volumes and values for 35 active substances were purchased from IMS Health. Ex-manufacturer prices were used, and the analysis was limited to medicines in immediate-release, oral, solid dosage forms. Countries included were Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the UK, which constitute a mix of countries with low and high generic medicines market shares. Data were available from June 2002 until March 2007. Market volume has risen in both high and low generic market share countries (+29.27% and +27.40%, respectively), but the cause of the rise is different for the two markets. In low generic market share countries, the rise was caused by the increased use of generic medicines, while in high market share countries, the rise was driven by the increased use of generic medicines and a shift of use from originator to generic medicines. Market value was substantially decreased in high generic market share countries (-26.6%), while the decrease in low generic market share countries was limited (-0.06%). In high generic market share countries, medicine prices dropped by -43.18% versus -21.56% in low market share countries. The extent to which price competition from generic medicines leads to price reductions appears to vary according to the market share of generic medicines. High generic market share countries have seen a larger decrease in medicine prices than low market share countries.

  9. A dynamic marketing model with best reply and inertia

    Bischi, Gian Italo; Cerboni Baiardi, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider a nonlinear discrete-time dynamic model proposed by Farris et al. (2005) as a market share attraction model with two firms that decide marketing efforts over time according to best reply strategies with naïve expectations. The model also considers an adaptive adjustment toward best reply, a form of inertia or anchoring attitude, and we investigate the effects of heterogeneities among firms. A rich scenario of local and global bifurcations is obtained even with just two competing firms, and a comparison is proposed with apparently similar duopoly models based on repeated best reply dynamics with naïve expectations and adaptive adjustment.

  10. Determining firms׳ utility functions and competitive roles from data on market shares using Lotka–Volterra models

    A. Marasco

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we include data on historical and estimated market shares of two markets. In particular, we include annual data on the market shares of the Japanese beer market (1963–2000 and biannual data on the market shares of the mobile phones market in Greece (1998–2007. In addition, we estimate monthly data on market shares for both markets. We show how this data can be used to derive firms’ utility functions and their competitive roles.

  11. Determining firms' utility functions and competitive roles from data on market shares using Lotka-Volterra models

    A. Marasco; A. Picucci; A. Romano (Alessandro)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn this article, we include data on historical and estimated market shares of two markets. In particular, we include annual data on the market shares of the Japanese beer market (1963-2000) and biannual data on the market shares of the mobile phones market in Greece (1998-2007). In

  12. Capital Market Integration and Consumption Risk Sharing over the Long Run

    Rangvid, Jesper; Santa-Clara, Pedro; Schmeling, Maik

    integration. We also calculate the welfare costs of imperfect capital market integration and risk sharing and find that these costs vary a lot over time. Finally, we show that consumption risk sharing is higher during times of crises, i.e. at times when marginal utility is high and risk sharing is most......We empirically investigate time variation in capital market integration and consumption risk sharing using data for 16 countries from 1875 to 2012. We show that there has been considerable variation over time in the degrees of capital market integration and consumption risk sharing and that higher...... capital market integration forecasts more consumption risk sharing in the future. This finding is robust is to controlling for trade openness and exchange rate volatilities. Hence, financial integration seems to drive consumption risk sharing whereas we find no evidence that risk sharing forecasts market...

  13. Restructuring Electricity Markets when Demand is Uncertain

    Boom, Anette; Buehler, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    We examine the effects of reorganizing electricity markets on capacity investments, retail prices and welfare when demand is uncertain. We study the following market configurations: (i) integrated monopoly, (ii) integrated duopoly with wholesale trade, and (iii) separated duopoly with wholesale...... trade. Assuming that wholesale prices can react to changes in retail prices (but not vice versa), we find that generators install sufficient capacity to serve retail demand in each market configuration, thus avoiding blackouts. Furthermore, aggregate capacity levels and retail prices...

  14. The oil market towards 2030 - can OPEC combine high oil price with high market share

    Aune, Finn Roar; Glomsroed, Solveig; Lindholt, Lars; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we examine within a partial equilibrium model for the oil market whether OPEC can combine high oil prices with a high market share. The oil market model explicitly accounts for reserves, development and production in 4 field categories across 13 regions. Oil companies may invest in new field development or alternatively on improved oil recovery in the decline phase of fields in production. Non-OPEC production is profit-driven, whereas OPEC meets the residual call for OPEC oil at a pre-specified oil price, while maintaining a surplus capacity. The model is run over a range of exogenous oil prices from 15 to 60 $ per barrel. Sustained high oil prices stimulate Non-OPEC production, but its remaining reserves gradually diminish despite new discoveries. Oil demand is only slightly affected by higher prices. Thus, OPEC is able to keep and eventually increase its current market share beyond 2010 even with oil prices around $30 per barrel. In fact, the model simulations indicate that an oil price around $40 is profitable for OPEC, even in the long term. Sensitivity analyses show that the most profitable price level for OPEC is generally above $35 per barrel. Even with several factors working jointly in OPEC's disfavour, the oil price seems to stick to the 30 $ level. Thus, for OPEC there is a trade-off between high prices and high market share in the short to medium term, but not in the long term. For OECD countries, on the other hand, there is a clear trade-off between low oil prices and low import dependence. (Author)

  15. Determinants of market prices of shares on the capital market of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Alihodžić Almir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stock markets are efficient if the prices at any time reflect all publicly available information. Share prices should be adjusted at those points when investors try to take advantage of the new information that was not subject to accounting recognition. The main goal of this paper will be to determine whether the financial statements of a selected group of companies listed on the Sarajevo and Banja Luka Stock Exchange represent a good basis and reflect the market price or simply follow the legal obligations and requirements by regulatory agencies. The paper is based on the regression analysis of dependent and independent variables in the period from 2011 to 2015. The dependent variable will be the closing trading price on the stock exchanges, whereas the independent variables will be: the market price and earnings (PE ratio, earnings per share (EPS, net profit after tax (NP, return on equity (ROE, the market and book value (PB ratio, and the total turnover on the stock exchanges (TR.

  16. Capital Market Integration and Consumption Risk Sharing over the Long Run

    Rangvid, Jesper; Santa-Clara, Pedro; Schmeling, Maik

    2016-01-01

    capital market integration forecasts more consumption risk sharing in the future. This finding is robust to controlling for trade openness and exchange rate volatility as alternative drivers of risk sharing. Finally, we calculate the welfare costs of imperfect consumption risk sharing and find......We empirically investigate time variation in capital market integration and consumption risk sharing using data for 16 countries from 1875 to 2012. We show that there has been considerable variation over time in the degrees of capital market integration and consumption risk sharing and that higher...

  17. The market share of non-US uranium producers under different US embargo scenarios

    Franks, W.A.

    1988-01-01

    The imposition of US restrictions on the use of foreign uranium has a potentially far reaching impact. This analysis examines various US import restriction scenarios and their impact on the market both inside and outside the USA. Specifically, the market share that the non-US producers would lose is estimated for a 50% embargo, a 62.5% embargo, and a 100% embargo, with and without the grandfathering of US utilities' foreign contracts. These results are then compared to what the market share would have been in a free market. The increase in the US market share is also briefly discussed. (author)

  18. Measuring market share of petrol stations using conditional probability approach

    Sharif, Shamshuritawati; Lwee, Xue Yin

    2017-05-01

    Oil and gas production is the strength of Malaysia's growth over past decades. It is one of the most strategic economic branches in the world. Since the oil industry is essential for the economic growth of a country, only a few undertakings have been achieved to establish. It is a very risky business. Therefore the dealer must have some information in hand before setting up a new business plan. Understanding the current business situation is an important strategy to avoid risky ventures. In this study, the aim is to deliver a very simple but essential way to identify the market share based on customer's choice factors. This approach is presented to encourage the non-statisticians to use it easily in helping their business performance. From this study, the most important factors differ from one station to another station. The results show that the factors of customer's choice for BHPetrol, Caltex, PETRON, PETRONAS and SHELL are site location, service quality, service quality, size of the petrol station, and brand image, respectively.

  19. Impact of Open-Market Share Repurchases on Long-Term Stock Returns

    Mohamed Albaity; Diana Syafiza Said

    2016-01-01

    After the Asian financial crisis in 1997, firms listed on Bursa Malaysia were allowed to repurchase their shares on the open market. The number of companies engaged in share buyback is increasing and has become a tool to stabilize price by signaling undervaluation of the share. However, studies on share buyback in Malaysia are limited to the price performance surrounding the buyback events. This study aims to fill this gap by examining long-run price performance after the actual share buyback...

  20. 77 FR 6549 - Acquisition of Items for Which Federal Prison Industries Has a Significant Market Share

    2012-02-08

    ... Federal Prison Industries Has a Significant Market Share AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: DoD is issuing this notification to set forth an up-to-date list of product categories for which the Federal Prison Industries' share of the DoD market is greater than five percent. DATES...

  1. 77 FR 8843 - Acquisition of Items for Which Federal Prison Industries Has a Significant Market Share

    2012-02-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System Acquisition of Items for Which Federal Prison Industries Has a Significant Market Share AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION... product categories for which the Federal Prison Industries' share of the DoD market is greater than five...

  2. 17 CFR 160.12 - Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes.

    2010-04-01

    ....12 Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes. (a) General prohibition on... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes. 160.12 Section 160.12 Commodity and Securities Exchanges...

  3. Endogeneous price leadership in a duopoly: equal products, unequal technology

    Dastidar, K.G.; Furth, D.

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper we study endogenous price leadership in the context of a homogeneous product Bertrand duopoly model in which the firms have different, strictly convex cost functions. In such a framework it is well known that a simultaneous move price choice game does not have an equilibrium in

  4. The impact of advertising in a duopoly model

    Schoonbeek, Lambert; Kooreman, Peter

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the impact of advertising in a simple static differentiated duopoly model. First, we consider the Nash equilibrium of the situation in which the duopolistic firms compete simultaneously with two instruments, i.e. the prices and the advertising expenditures. Second, we examine the Nash

  5. A Duopoly Experiment on Cooperative and Noncooperative R&D

    Suetens, S.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper an experimental environment to test theoretical predictions concerning R&D behavior of firms in duopoly with allowance for R&D spillovers is created. The design and hypotheses of the experiment are based on the well-known model of d Aspremont and Jacquemin in which R&D behavior of

  6. A Conceptual Model of Knowledge Sharing and Market Orientation in the Tourism Sector

    Chien M. Yeh; Han N. Hu; Shu H. Tsai

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Marketing scholars have emphasized the importance of market orientation. While a number of studies discover the positive influence of market orientation on a variety of organizations phenomena, the understanding of factors that facilitate market orientation is limited. This study develops a conceptual model in which knowledge sharing is proposed to be the antecedent to three perspectives of market orientation-customer orientation, competitor orientation ...

  7. Shared Solar. Current Landscape, Market Potential, and the Impact of Federal Securities Regulation

    Feldman, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brockway, Anna M. [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Ulrich, Elaine [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-07

    This report provides a high-level overview of the current U.S. shared solar landscape, the impact that a given shared solar program’s structure has on requiring federal securities oversight, as well as an estimate of market potential for U.S. shared solar deployment.

  8. Shared Solar. Current Landscape, Market Potential, and the Impact of Federal Securities Regulation

    Feldman, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brockway, Anna M. [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Ulrich, Elaine [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report provides a high-level overview of the current U.S. shared solar landscape and the impact that a given shared solar program’s structure has on requiring federal securities oversight, as well as an estimate of market potential for U.S. shared solar deployment.

  9. [What determines the market shares of the health funds in Israeli localities?].

    Shmueli, Amir; Engelcin-Nissan, Esti

    2011-08-01

    Four health funds operate nationally in Israel, but their local market shares vary dramatically across localities. To identify the main localities' characteristics which affect the size of the market shares of the various health funds. A total of 60 Localities with more than 20,000 inhabitants were chosen. The following Localities' characteristics were retrieved for the year 2004: the market shares of the four health funds, average income, standardized mortality ratio (SMR), periphery index, the age structure, the distance from the nearest general hospital, the share of Arab population, and size. Four market share equations were estimated using SURE (seemingly unrelated regressions estimation), allowing for inter-equation correlations. The results show that the market shares of the different health funds are affected by different factors. Clalit Health Services' (CHS) share increases with the distance from Tel Aviv and SMR, and decreases with the level of mean income and the distance from the nearest CHS hospital. Leumit's market share increases only with the distance from a CHS's hospital. The market share of Maccabi Healthcare Services is higher in central localities, Jewish localities, small cities and further away from a non-CHS hospital. Meuhedet's market share is higher in big cities, rich and healthy localities, and in Localities which are further away from CHS's hospitals. These findings indicate that the presence of the health funds in different Localities varies according to the Localities' characteristics. There appears to be a market segmentation and "specialization" of certain health funds in specific populations, and of the other health funds in the rest of the population.

  10. The Revealed Competitiveness of Major Ports in the East Asian Region: An Additive Market Share Analysis

    Tae Seung Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the single cargo market, the ordinary market share analysis method has been the representative tool for revealed competitiveness analysis. This paper develops and employs an applied market share index called the additive market share (AMS. Data are collected from 15 major container ports for the 1998-2013 period. In comparison to the results of an ordinary market share analysis, the highest AMS is observed for the Bohai Rim port cluster from 2008, not for the Yangtze River cluster or the Pearl River cluster. There are substitutable relationships between Yangtze River and non-Chinese ports and between Pearl River and Bohai Rim ports from 2001. Finally, there is an internal competition at Pearl River and Yangtze River ports, whereas Bohai Rim and non-Chinese ports show internally complementary relationships.

  11. O EFEITO DA DISTRIBUIÇÃO SOBRE O MARKET SHARE EM DIFERENTES CANAIS

    Leandro Angotti Guissoni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the advances in studies on the effects of distribution channel strategies, the relation between distribution and market share is still a little explored topic, especially in emerging markets. For that reason, this paper’s core proposal is to investigate the relation between distribution and market share variables in the Brazilian market, specifically in the beverage sector, comparing two important types of consumer market channels: big and small supermarkets. For such, an empirical study was conducted based on a database with more than 180 stock keeping units (SKUs sold by three manufacturers in the southeast of Brazil. By means of statistical analyses, the results indicate a convex and growing relation among the variables studied. In other words, there is an inflection point at which market share growth is more accentuated because of distribution. Furthermore, the curves that describe these variables show different effects when comparing big and small supermarkets.

  12. Determinants of Market Share of For-Profit Hospitals: An Empirical Examination

    Seungchul Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates the effects of a prospective payment system on the growth of for-profit hospitals. The empirical results show that the proportion of patient care paid for by Medicare managed care has a positive, statistically significant relationship with the market share of for-profit hospitals. Medicare managed care reimburses health care providers prospectively, and a larger portion of prospective reimbursements is received by for-profit hospitals, whose market share consequently increases. In addition, the proportion of patients with Medi-Cal and third party managed care has a positive, statistically significant relationship with the market share of for-profit hospitals.

  13. Flight to Liquidity on the Tokyo Stock Exchange during the 2008 Share Market Crashes

    Maeda, Brooke Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the existence of the flight-to-liquidity phenomenon for shares which are traded on the Tokyo Stock Exchange during share market crashes. Using data from the First section of the Tokyo Stock Exchange, the existence of a flight-to-liquidity during the 2008 share market crashes is clearly documented. The Tokyo Stock Exchange differs from other major exchanges as price limit rules restrict the daily price movements of shares. It provides a unique setting to test if a flight-to...

  14. Growth in HMO share of the Medicare market, 1989-1994.

    Welch, W P

    1996-01-01

    Between 1989 and 1994 the health maintenance organization (HMO) share of the Medicare market grew rapidly. It is still heavily concentrated geographically, however. The most influential factor in this growth is HMO penetration into an area's general health care market. Medicare payment rates and prior Medicare HMO penetration also have an impact, but their effects are much weaker. Thus, payment rate reform is likely to have only a modest impact on Medicare HMO growth in the short term. In the longer term, the HMO share of the Medicare market will continue to grow, because HMO penetration in the general health care market is growing rapidly.

  15. Market-driven spectrum sharing in cognitive radio

    Yi, Changyan

    2016-01-01

    This brief focuses on the current research on mechanism design for dynamic spectrum sharing in cognitive radio (CR) networks. Along with a review of CR architectures and characteristics, this brief presents the motivations, significances and unique challenges of implementing algorithmic mechanism design for encouraging both primary spectrum owners and secondary spectrum users to participate in dynamic spectrum sharing. The brief then focuses on recent advances in mechanism design in CR networks. With an emphasis on dealing with the uncertain spectrum availabilities, mechanisms based on spectrum recall, two-stage spectrum sharing and online spectrum allocation are introduced with the support of theoretic analyses and numerical illustrations. The brief concludes with a discussion of potential research directions and interests, which will motivate further studies on mechanism design for wireless communications. This brief is concise and approachable for researchers, professionals and advanced-level students in w...

  16. Impact of Open-Market Share Repurchases on Long-Term Stock Returns

    Mohamed Albaity

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available After the Asian financial crisis in 1997, firms listed on Bursa Malaysia were allowed to repurchase their shares on the open market. The number of companies engaged in share buyback is increasing and has become a tool to stabilize price by signaling undervaluation of the share. However, studies on share buyback in Malaysia are limited to the price performance surrounding the buyback events. This study aims to fill this gap by examining long-run price performance after the actual share buyback event over a sampling period of 2 years from 2009 to 2010 for Malaysian firms listed on FTSE Bursa Malaysia. There is no evidence to conclude that there exist long-term abnormal returns using the calendar-time portfolio approach that support the inefficient market hypothesis. On the contrary, buy-and-hold method was found to be significant supporting that the Malaysian stock market is semi-strong efficient.

  17. Takeover Deterrent Effect of On-market Share Buyback in Australia

    Dong Hai Trieu Doan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether Australian firms use on-market share buybacks to deter unwanted takeover risk. We found a statistically significant and positive relationship between a firm’s ex-ante takeover probability and its on-market share buyback activities. Our result is robust to alternative modelling techniques, namelyTOBIT and Censored Quantile Regressions. This paper found evidence that in a dividend imputation credit taxation system the yield of share buyback is positively related to dividend payments. However, on-market share buyback activity is closely related to temporary cash flows rather than to permanent operating cash flows. This might indicate that, besides dividend payments, Australian firms take advantage of the financial flexibility that comes with share buybacks to redistribute nonpermanent cash flows to their shareholders.

  18. Analysis of Changes in Market Shares of Commercial Banks Operating in Turkey Using Computational Intelligence Algorithms

    Amasyali, M. Fatih; Demırhan, Ayse; Bal, Mert

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to model the change in market share of 30 domestic and foreign banks, which have been operating between the years 1990 and 2009 in Turkey by taking into consideration 20 financial ratios of those banks. Due to the fragile structure of the banking sector in Turkey, this study plays an important role for determining the changes in market share of banks and taking the necessary measures promptly. For this reason, computational intelligence methods have been used in the study. Acc...

  19. Empirical Analysis of Closed-Loop Duopoly Advertising Strategies

    Gary M. Erickson

    1992-01-01

    Closed-loop (perfect) equilibria in a Lanchester duopoly differential game of advertising competition are used as the basis for empirical investigation. Two systems of simultaneous nonlinear equations are formed, one from a general Lanchester model and one from a constrained model. Two empirical applications are conducted. In one involving Coca-Cola and Pepsi-Cola, a formal statistical testing procedure is used to detect whether closed-loop equilibrium advertising strategies are used by the c...

  20. Ambulatory surgery center market share and rates of outpatient surgery in the elderly.

    Hollenbeck, Brent K; Hollingsworth, John M; Dunn, Rodney L; Zaojun Ye; Birkmeyer, John D

    2010-12-01

    Relative to outpatient surgery in hospital settings, ambulatory surgery centers (ASCs) are more efficient and associated with a lower cost per case. However, these facilities may also spur higher overall procedure utilization and thus lead to greater overall health care costs. The authors used the State Ambulatory Surgery Database from the State of Florida to identify Medicare-aged patients undergoing 4 common ambulatory procedures in 2006, including knee arthroscopy, cystoscopy, cataract removal, and colonoscopy. Hospital service areas (HSAs) were characterized according to ASC market share, that is, the proportion of residents undergoing outpatient surgery in these facilities. The authors then examined relationships between ASC market share and rates of each procedure. Age-adjusted rates of ambulatory surgery ranged from 190.5 cases per 1000 to 320.8 cases per 1000 in HSAs with low and high ASC market shares, respectively (P market share. The greatest difference, both in relative and absolute terms, was observed for patients undergoing cystoscopy. In areas of high ASC market share, the age-adjusted rate of cystoscopy was nearly 3-fold higher than in areas with low ASC market share (34.5 vs 11.9 per 1000 population; P elderly. Whether ASCs are meeting unmet clinical demand or spurring overutilization is not clear.

  1. Information Sharing and Information Acqusition in Credit Markets

    Karapetyan, A.; Stacescu, B.

    2009-01-01

    Since information asymmetries have been identified as an important source of bank profits, it may seem that the establishment of information sharing arrangements such as credit registers and bureaus will lead to lower investment in acquiring information. However, banks base their decisions on both

  2. 16 CFR 313.12 - Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes.

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limits on sharing account number information... REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Limits on Disclosures § 313.12 Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes. (a) General prohibition on...

  3. 12 CFR 216.12 - Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limits on sharing account number information... GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION (REGULATION P) Limits on Disclosures § 216.12 Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes. (a) General...

  4. 12 CFR 573.12 - Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limits on sharing account number information..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Limits on Disclosures § 573.12 Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes. (a) General prohibition on disclosure of...

  5. 12 CFR 40.12 - Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limits on sharing account number information... OF THE TREASURY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Limits on Disclosures § 40.12 Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes. (a) General prohibition on disclosure of...

  6. 12 CFR 332.12 - Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limits on sharing account number information... REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Limits on Disclosures § 332.12 Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes. (a) General prohibition on...

  7. 12 CFR 716.12 - Limits on sharing of account number information for marketing purposes.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limits on sharing of account number information... REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Limits on Disclosures § 716.12 Limits on sharing of account number information for marketing purposes. (a) General prohibition on...

  8. Modelling (B, S-Markets, Subject to Aggressive Buying of Shares

    Elina A. Pilosyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to modeling (B, S-market with a finite number of aggressive buyers of shares, a theoretical study of such models of markets, have developed an algorithm to calculate the hedging of portfolios of various financial obligations

  9. Evolution of market shares with repeated purchases and heterogeneous network externalities

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); E. Mendys

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate how market shares change when a new, superior technology exhibiting network externalities is introduced in a market initially dominated by an old technology. This is done under the assumption that consumers are heterogeneous in their valuation of technology quality and

  10. 17 CFR 248.12 - Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes.

    2010-04-01

    ... account number information for marketing purposes. (a) General prohibition on disclosure of account... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes. 248.12 Section 248.12 Commodity and Securities Exchanges...

  11. Research on Liquidity Risk Evaluation of Chinese A-Shares Market Based on Extension Theory

    Bai-Qing, Sun; Peng-Xiang, Liu; Lin, Zhang; Yan-Ge, Li

    This research defines the liquidity risk of stock market in matter-element theory and affair-element theory, establishes the indicator system of the forewarning for liquidity risks,designs the model and the process of early warning using the extension set method, extension dependent function and the comprehensive evaluation model. And the paper studies empirically A-shares market through the data of 1A0001, which prove that the model can better describe liquidity risk of China’s A-share market. At last, it gives the corresponding policy recommendations.

  12. ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF MARKET STABILITY FACTORS ON THE CHANGES IN SHARE PRICE

    Виктор Геннадьевич Семенов

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available According to fundamental analysis, share price tends to its intrinsic value. An appreciably large body of research has been devoted to foreign stock markets; meanwhile, the Russian stock market has been studied insufficiently. The hypothesis of fundamental analysis of the Russian stock market was tested in this paper. The effect of market stability factors (P/E; P/B; P/CF; P/D on changes in share prices was studied. The data from the financial reports on IFRS – GAAP and the data on share prices of 54 companies over the period of 2003–2013 were used. The results give grounds for claiming that the postulates of fundamental analysis cannot be used for the Russian stock market: the market stability factors do not correlate with the changes in share prices. Next, the possible reasons for this speculative behavior of the Russian stock market were considered. The methods for analyzing the reports and the financial and economic situation in order to determine the company value were proposed in this paper.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-5

  13. AN ESTIMATION OF CONNECTION BETWEEN INDICATORS OF BRAND AWARENESS/PENETRATION AND MARKET SHARE

    Grebennikov V. F.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In marketing practice usually are used various indicators for the description of «brand health». Between which and brand market share possibly exist the statistically significant connection. If such connection is found, it is possible data recovery about a market share when it is absent or is incomplete. In the article application for this regression analysis on the basis of actual data on several local markets is described. The results show that such connection exists for all studied indicators. But force of it significantly differs that leads to a conclusion about priority of use for data recovery part of indicators, and refusal of application of others. Also it is necessary to pay attention to existence of specifics of commodity group and the market which significantly influence by sight and regression equation accuracy.

  14. The French nuclear team ready to conquer new market shares

    Levy, J.B.; Varin, P.; Verwaerde, D.

    2016-01-01

    In order to reinforce their partnership, EDF, CEA and AREVA have founded the France Nuclear Platform (FNP). FNP is a tripartite body that will allow EDF, CEA and AREVA to build a consistent common position to respond to the worldwide demand in terms of nuclear reactors, fuel cycle or spent fuel processing. Potential clients and particularly first-time buyers want to buy far more than nuclear reactors, they want to buy the whole experience of the most important nuclear operator in the world which is a guarantee of success, safety and security. In order to stay ahead of the competition, the French nuclear industry can rely on high quality standards, a policy of innovation and a well-developed safety culture. Today's promising markets for nuclear energy are concentrated in Asia: in China a growth rate of 60% over the next 15 years is expected for nuclear power, in India projects for the construction of several EPR are ongoing. (A.C.)

  15. The marketing and economic implications of the manipulation of share prices: Nigeria stock exchange experience

    Ajayi Ezekiel Oluwole

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the marketing and economic effects of the manipulation of share prices in the Nigerian Stock Exchange. The survey research design was adopted. Data collected was analyzed using the regression analysis. Student t- test was used to test the two hypotheses formulated at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed that capital market infractions such as fraudulent disposal of investor assets, illegal fund management and the wonder bank syndrome, others are insider dealings, corporate accounting fraud and share price manipulations affects the capital market and the economy .The study concluded that share prices manipulation actually influences the marketing and economic values of the shares being manipulated. It was recommended that the Nigerian government must put in place strong regulatory measures and punish the entire offender that has been found guilty. It was also recommended that for the market to rebound, stockbrokers that accessed margin facility from banks should be provided with certain percentage of their contributions to the loan as cushion to help them move on with their business.

  16. Global bifurcations in a piecewise-smooth Cournot duopoly game

    Tramontana, Fabio; Gardini, Laura; Puu, Toenu

    2010-01-01

    The object of the work is to perform the global analysis of the Cournot duopoly model with isoelastic demand function and unit costs, presented in Puu . The bifurcation of the unique Cournot fixed point is established, which is a resonant case of the Neimark-Sacker bifurcation. New properties associated with the introduction of horizontal branches are evidenced. These properties differ significantly when the constant value is zero or positive and small. The good behavior of the case with positive constant is proved, leading always to positive trajectories. Also when the Cournot fixed point is unstable, stable cycles of any period may exist.

  17. Chaotic dynamics in nonlinear duopoly Stackelberg game with heterogeneous players

    Xiao, Yue; Peng, Yu; Lu, Qian; Wu, Xue

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a nonlinear duopoly Stackelberg game of competition on output is concerned. In consideration of the effects of difference between plan products and actual products, the two heterogeneous players always adopt suitable strategies which can improve their benefits most. In general, status of each firm is unequal. As the firms take strategies sequentially and produce simultaneously, complex behaviors are brought about. Numerical simulation presents period doubling bifurcation, maximal Lyapunov exponent and chaos. Moreover, an appropriate method of chaos controlling is applied and fractal dimension is analyzed as well.

  18. The marketing and economic implications of the manipulation of share prices: Nigeria stock exchange experience

    Ajayi Ezekiel Oluwole; Omolekan Olushola Joshua

    2012-01-01

    This paper examined the marketing and economic effects of the manipulation of share prices in the Nigerian Stock Exchange. The survey research design was adopted. Data collected was analyzed using the regression analysis. Student t- test was used to test the two hypotheses formulated at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed that capital market infractions such as fraudulent disposal of investor assets, illegal fund management and the wonder bank syndrome, others are i...

  19. Nonlinear Dynamics in a Cournot Duopoly with Different Attitudes towards Strategic Uncertainty

    Luciano Fanti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the dynamics of a duopoly with quantity-setting firms and different attitudes towards strategic uncertainty. By following the recent literature on decision making under uncertainty, where the Choquet expected utility theory is adopted to allow firms to plan their strategies, we investigate the effects of the interaction between pessimistic and optimistic firms on economic dynamics described by a two-dimensional map. In particular, the study of the local and global behaviour of the map is performed under three assumptions: (1 both firms have complete information on the market demand and adjust production over time depending on past behaviours (static expectations—“best reply” dynamics; (2 both firms have incomplete information and production is adjusted over time by following a mechanism based on marginal profits; and (3 one firm has incomplete information on the market demand and production decisions are based on the behaviour of marginal profits, and the rival has complete information on the market demand and static expectations. In cases 2 and 3 it is shown that complex dynamics and coexistence of attractors may arise. The analysis is carried forward through numerical simulations and the critical lines technique.

  20. Market Reactions to Actual Open-Market Share Repurchases - A non-US empirical study

    Thinggaard, Frank

    2002-01-01

    with less attention by financial analysts and thus presumably with more general information asymmetry between management and the market. However, contrary to US evidence variables intended to capture intangible assets, idle cash, and prior period profitability are not significant in explaining the market...

  1. Renewable energy burden sharing. REBUS. Effects of burden sharing and certificate trade on the renewable electricity market in Europe

    Voogt, M.H.; Uyterlinde, M.A.; De Noord, M.; Skytte, K.; Nielsen, L.H.; Leonardi, M.; Whiteley, M.H.; Chapman, M.

    2001-05-01

    Creation of an internal market for renewable electricity will involve a political negotiation process, similar to previous European Union (EU) greenhouse gas negotiations. The Energy Ministers in the EU have agreed upon an overall target of 22% of electricity supply from Renewable Energy Sources (RES-E) and a distribution of targets over the individual Member States. The REBUS project provides insights in the effects of implementing targets for renewable electricity generation at EU Member State level and the impact of introducing burden sharing systems within the EU, such as a Tradable Green Certificate (TGC) system. Member States can participate in such burden sharing systems to reduce the costs of achieving RES-E targets. The project concentrated on the development of the REBUS model, which quantifies the impact of trade (in green certificates, quotas or targets), the specification of cost potential curves for renewable electricity options in each of the 15 EU Member States and the implementation of different rules to setting targets at individual Member State level. In addition, utilities and consumer organisations were interviewed on their requirements and expectations for an international burden sharing scheme. 49 refs

  2. Digging deeper: How do different types of organic consumers influence the increasing organic market share?

    Andersen, Laura Mørch; Lund, Thomas Bøker

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – This article aims to investigate how sub-markets with different degrees of maturity develop during a period of general organic growth, and how different consumer segments behave on these sub-markets. Design/methodology/approach – This paper uses actual purchasing behaviour of six consumer...... segments with different attitudes towards food in general, and organic production and products in particular. The data is from the Danish market for organic foods, which is one of the most mature markets in the world. Findings – The segmentation splits consumers into a positive and a non-positive half......, each half consisting of three different segments. The estimations show that the development in general organic consumption varies between segments, and that their behaviour varies between sub-markets. The positive half of the population has driven the overall growth in organic budget share...

  3. Overcoming the drawbacks of a Revenue Sharing Contract in a marketing channel through a coop program

    De Giovanni, P.; Roselli, M.

    2012-01-01

    In a marketing channel governed by goodwill dynamics, players adjust their pricing and advertising strategies when shifting from a wholesale price contract (WPC) to a revenue sharing contract (RSC). We demonstrate that this shift is not payoff-Pareto-improving when the retailer, who is the player

  4. Assessing Consequences of Component Sharing across Brands in the Vertical Product Line in the Automotive Market

    Verhoef, P.C.; Pauwels, K.; Tuk, M.A.

    Component sharing may look great in the boardroom but not in the showroom. Indeed, savings on research and development and production costs could be offset by a plunge in customer brand attractiveness. The central objective of this paper is to investigate consumer and market responses toward

  5. Integrating market share models with network optimizing models for strategic planning in an oil pipeline company

    Smith, L.D.; Moses, S.W.

    1991-01-01

    Mathematical models of market share are constructed to describe the distribution of petroleum products from pipeline terminals, water terminals and refineries in the midcontinental United States. Network distribution models are developed to analyse the constraints and economics of alternative distribution systems. This paper describes how the two types of models were integrated for strategic planning in an oil pipeline company

  6. 78 FR 16479 - Acquisition of Items for Which Federal Prison Industries Has a Significant Market Share

    2013-03-15

    ... Federal Prison Industries Has a Significant Market Share AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: DoD is publishing the annual list of product categories for which the Federal Prison... requirements for purchases from Federal Prison Industries, Inc. (FPI) by requiring DoD to publish an annual...

  7. The application of the CAPM model on selected shares on the Croatian capital market

    Zrinka Tolušić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Capital Asset Pricing Model is a model that describes the relationship between risk, expected return and valuation of securities. The theoretical and practical value of this model has proved unquestionable, but under ideal circumstances. The theory has been utilized by numerous researchers and it confirms the linear relationship between risk and return under the CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model model showing that greater exposure to risk provides higher returns. However, empirical research showed there were numerous factors that CAPM model did not take into account since it is based on assumptions which exist in reality, but are invisible. Therefore, it is very interesting to study the application of the CAPM model on selected shares on the Croatian capital market and analyze the possibilities of its application in discovering the misvalued shares. Share price changes on the Croatian capital market suggest there are some unknown factors that also influence share valuation. There is no doubt that the fundamental analysis of shares is not sufficient for evaluating the real share value in light of various invisible elements and all available information available which affect their value as well.

  8. Dynamic Pricing Based on Strategic Consumers and Substitutes in a Duopoly Setting

    Gongbing Bi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the rational strategic consumers, we construct a dynamic game to build a two-period dynamic pricing model for two brands of substitutes which are sold by duopoly. The solution concept of the dynamic game is Nash equilibrium. In our model, consumers have been clearly segmented into several consumption classes, according to their expected value of the products. The two competing firms enter a pricing game and finally reach the state of Nash equilibrium. In addition, decision-making process with only myopic consumers existing in the market is analyzed. To make the paper more practical and realistic, the condition, in which the myopic and strategic consumers both exist in the market, is also considered and studied. In order to help the readers understand better and make it intuitively more clearly, a numerical example is given to describe the influence of the main parameters to the optimal prices. The result indicates that, to maintain the firms’ respective optimal profits, the prices of the products should be adjusted appropriately with the changes of product differentiation coefficient.

  9. Strategies for Increasing the Market Share of Recycled Products—A Games Theory Approach

    Batzias, Dimitris F.; Pollalis, Yannis A.

    2009-08-01

    A methodological framework (including 28 activity stages and 10 decision nodes) has been designed under the form of an algorithmic procedure for the development of strategies for increasing the market share of recycled products within a games theory context. A case example is presented referring to a paper market, where a recycling company (RC) is in competition with a virgin-raw-material-using company (VC). The strategies of the VC, for increasing its market share, are the strengthening of (and advertisement based on) the high quality (VC1), the high reliability (VC2), the combination quality and reliability, putting emphasis on the first component (VC3), the combination quality and reliability, putting emphasis on the second component (VC4). The strategies of the RC, for increasing its market share, are proper advertisement based on the low price of produced recycled paper satisfying minimum quality requirements (RC1), the combination of low price with sensitization of the public as regards environmental and materials-saving issues, putting emphasis on the first component (RC2), the same combination, putting emphasis on the second component (RC3). Analysis of all possible situations for the case example under examination is also presented.

  10. Increasing market share through consumer marketing: a case study in obstetrics.

    Kingsley, V H

    1986-05-01

    Consumers are becoming ever more selective in their choice of health care providers. Hospitals that are aware of local preferences and how to reach and influence consumers will gain a competitive advantage. Outlined in this article are consumer marketing techniques that can be utilized for all product lines. The concept is applied here as a case study in obstetrics.

  11. Choose profit over market share: Profit-oriented competitive strategies in contested markets

    Bilstein Frank

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available If there was ever an eye-opening moment for us concerning the topic of competitive strategy, then it was this: In the summer of 2003 we presented the CEO of a world-renowned public company with a sophisticated strategy that would secure its path towards profitable growth. She waited with growing impatience for the end of the presentation to crush six months of work with one sentence: "That's all very well and good. But I want to destroy my competitors!" Our objections undoubtedly earned a place in the company's history, but ultimately we failed. Three years have passed since then - three years in which the company has drastically reduced its formerly attractive margins in numerous important markets. And despite strong attacks, the company has not succeeded in ousting even one competitor from its relevant markets.

  12. The Stability of Interbank Market Network: A Perspective on Contagion and Risk Sharing

    Chi Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important part of the financial system, interbank market provides banks with liquidity and credit lending and also is the main channel for risk contagion. In this paper, we test the existence of systematic risk contagion within the Chinese interbank market. By building the networks of the Chinese interbank market for each year and using the measure of mutual information, we quantitatively detect the changes of interbank market networks and observe that the correlations between banks become increasingly tighter in recent years. With the bilateral risk exposure among Chinese listed commercial banks, we find that the possibility of systemic risk contagion in Chinese interbank market is fairly small. But of great concern on each individual bank, the matter is different. Our simulation shows that the failures of three special banks (i.e., Agricultural Bank of China and Bank of China and Industrial and Commercial Bank of China most likely lead to systemic risk contagion. Furthermore, we test the antirisk ability of the Chinese interbank market from the perspective of risk sharing and discover that the interbank market is stable when the loss scale is lower than forty percent of banks’ total core capital.

  13. Shared Solar: Current Landscape, Market Potential, and the Impact of Federal Securities Regulation; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    None

    2015-05-27

    This presentation provides a high-level overview of the current U.S. shared solar landscape, the impact that a given shared solar program's structure has on requiring federal securities oversight, as well as an estimate of market potential for U.S. shared solar deployment.

  14. The survey and criterion of the compass rose in Chinese A-share market

    Tian, Wenzhao; Wang, Yanxiang; Huo, Zhao; Li, Yilin

    2018-02-01

    The compass rose is one of the few "recurring patterns" found in financial markets. In this paper, the compass rose in Chinese A-share market is comprehensively investigated. It is newly discovered that among the 1331 A-shares, which had been listed for more than 15 years by the end of 2015, only about 20 show the compass rose. The outcome of the analysis shows that there exists a threshold of the ratio of the data points on main rays to all data points. Only when this ratio is above the threshold, the compass rose appears. The reasons why such a threshold exists, and its interrelationship with the data frequency and the tick/volatility ratio are analyzed.

  15. Tax Incentive, Public Share Proportion, and Firm Performance: Evidence from Indonesian Capital Market

    Vierly Ananta Upa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian government has changed the taxation law in 2007. The regulation revealed thatcompanies listed on capital market can obtain reduced income tax rate by 5 percent. Decrease inincome tax rates is granted to domestic corporate taxpayers listed on capital market that have publicownership over 40 percent of the total paid shares and the shares owned by at least 300 parties. Thepurpose of this research is to analyze the effectiveness of government regulation (PP No. 81 of 2007.This research used companies listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX which have right offeringin 2009-2010 as a sample. Sample selection is performed based on purposive sampling method. Theresult indicates that government regulation related to tax incentives, which was aimed to increasethe proportion of public ownership, is still less effective. In addition, this study also showed that theproportion of public ownership has no significant effect on firm performance

  16. The shift in US oil demand and its impact on OPEC's market share

    Jabir, I.

    2001-01-01

    Tremendous political pressure is being exerted on the US government by different political parties to diversify its sources of foreign oil supplies by switching from the reliance on OPEC's oil to that originating from non-OPEC nations. Without a doubt, such a shift would adversely impact the market share of some OPEC members, particularly Saudi Arabia, Venezuela and Nigeria. These countries should therefore consider seriously the negative impact of this scenario and consequently formulate individual or joint production policies aiming at protecting their oil market share. To help OPEC achieve this objective, there is a need to estimate the demand function of US oil imports. This paper proffers an estimate of such a function, taking into account, among other variables, the impact of US Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR)

  17. Audit Firm Size and Market Price Per Share of Quoted Companies in Nigeria

    Augustine O. Okolie

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the influence which audit firm size exerts on the market value per share of companies in Nigeria. Based on a sample of 342 companies – year observations from the NSE and applying audit firm size as a measure, comprehensive multivariate analyses were conducted on archival data covering 2006 – 2011. The result showed that audit firm size exerts significant relationship and significantly influences market price per share of the companies in the sample. It is suggested that companies in Nigeria should improve their earnings quality only through sales growth and cost control strategies and present distinct reports on earnings quality. Furthermore, company auditors should issue Integrated Audit Quality Assurance Reports based on earnings quality assessment, statutorily backed by earnings monitoring of companies in Nigeria while regulatory agencies should issue authoritative codes of best practice in Nigeria.

  18. Analysis of Nonlinear Duopoly Game: A Cooperative Case

    S. S. Askar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We make further attempts to investigate equilibrium stability of a nonlinear Cournot duopoly game. Our studies in this paper focus on the cooperation that may be obtained among duopolistic firms. Discrete time scales under the assumption of unknown inverse demand function and linear cost are used to build our models in the proposed games. We introduce and study here an adjustment dynamic strategy beside the so-called tit-for-tat strategy. For each model, the stability analysis of the fixed point is analyzed. Numerical simulations are carried out to show the complex behavior of the proposed models and to point out the impact of the models’ parameters on the cooperation.

  19. Privatization and Optimum-Welfare in an International Cournot Duopoly

    Fernanda A. Ferreira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will analyse the relationship between privatization of a public firm and tax revenue for the domestic government in an international competition, with import tariffs. We consider a duopoly model where a domestic public firmand a foreign private firmcompete in the domesticmarket, asCournot players. Furthermore, the domestic government imposes a tariff to regulate an imported good, and may have a higher preference for tariff revenue than for social welfare. We compute the outputs at equilibrium and we show that privatization (i will increase the profits of both domestic and foreign firms; (ii will increase the tariff imposed to the imported good; and (iii will decrease the domestic welfare. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a rise in the government’s preference for tariff revenues raises the social welfare in both mixed and private models.

  20. Nonlinear dynamics in a Cournot duopoly with relative profit delegation

    Fanti, Luciano; Gori, Luca; Sodini, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the dynamics of a nonlinear Cournot duopoly with managerial delegation and homogeneous players. We assume that the owners of both firms hire a manager and delegate output decisions to him or her. Each manager receives a fixed salary plus a bonus based on relative (profit) performance. Managers of both firms may collude or compete. In cases of both collusion and a low degree of competition, we find that synchronised dynamics take place. However, when the degree of competition is high, the dynamics may undergo symmetry-breaking bifurcations, which can cause significant global phenomena. Specifically, there is on–off intermittency and blow-out bifurcations for several parameter values. In addition, several attractors may coexist. The global behaviour of the noninvertible map is investigated through studying a transverse Lyapunov exponent and the folding action of the critical curves of the map. These phenomena are impossible under profit maximisation.

  1. A study on relationship between market share and cash flow policy

    Somayeh Sadeghi Moghaddam; Fateme Zabihi

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between cash flow and market share on selected firms from Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2007-2011. Using regression analysis, the study has detected a positive and meaningful relationship between cash flow on one side and three other investment opportunities, firm size and operating cash flow. In addition, there is a negative and meaningful relationship between leverage and cash flow. However, the study does not ...

  2. A Comparative Analysis of Social Media Marketing by Transportation Network Companies in the Sharing Economy

    Heymans, Alice

    2017-01-01

    The sharing economy is a new business model rapidly expanding. In transportation, many people use innovative services proposed by ride-hailing mobile applications. These technological platforms, operated by networking companies, rely extensively on social media to promote their services, and reach new customers (riders) and providers (drivers). This dissertation focuses on e-marketing communication. It makes a comparative analysis of the information published on several social media (Facebook...

  3. Distributed ledger technology in the capital market : Shared versus private information in a permissioned blockchain

    Piccolo, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    This master thesis explores how blockchain technologies can be utilized within the financial sector with focus on how to store both private and public information on the blockchain. The capital market is looking into ways of cutting down administrative work through streamlining the financial process by using blockchain technologies. Public key encryption together with hash functions and a consensus mechanism make up the basis for creating a shared trustless database system. The thesis was con...

  4. Beta Coefficient and Market Share: Downloading and Processing Data from DIALOG to LOTUS 1-2-3.

    Popovich, Charles J.

    This article briefly describes the topics "beta coefficient"--a measurement of the price volatility of a company's stock in relationship to the overall stock market--and "market share"--an average measurement for the overall stock market based on a specified group of stocks. It then selectively recommends a database (file) on…

  5. Analysis of a Dynamical Cournot Duopoly Game with Distributed Time Delay

    SÎrghi Nicoleta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyze the dynamic model of the Cournot duopoly game with bounded rationality associated to two firms. We consider the cost function of the first firm as nonlinear and for the second firm as linear. The players do not have a complete knowledge of the market and they follow a bounded rationality adjustment process based on the estimation of the marginal profit. Also, the distributed time delay is introduced, because the decisions at the current time depend on the average past decisions. The mathematical model is described by a distributed delay differential system with two nonlinear equations. The study for the local stability of the Nash equilibrium point is carried out in the case of two types of kernels: weak (exponential and Dirac. A change in local stability of the equilibrium point, from stable to unstable, implies a Hopf bifurcation. The delays are considered as bifurcation parameters. In some conditions of the parameters of the model, we have proved that a family of periodic solutions bifurcates from the equilibrium point when the bifurcation parameter passes through a critical value. Numerical simulations are performed to illustrate the effectiveness of our results. Finally, conclusions and future researches are provided.

  6. Federal R and D Reductions, Market Share, and Aerospace Information Usage

    Rocker, JoAnne; Roncaglia, George

    2000-01-01

    Reductions in federally funded research have a rippling effect over the entire aerospace industry. The decline in federal R&D spending in aerospace in recent years coincides with declines in U.S. aerospace market share, One of the lesser-understood factors in the declining U.S. market share may be the differing ways and intensity with which the U.S. and its competitors approach another trend, the increasing availability of large amounts of aerospace research information on the World Wide Web. The U.S. has been a pioneer in making research information available in electronic form, and the international community has long been a heavy consumer of that information. In essence, the U.S. contributes to the research efforts of its competitors, thus contributing to foreign aerospace consortiums efforts to gain market share in the aerospace industry, This may be a cautionary note to the U.S. aerospace industry to consider the use of R&D output in its own development and strategy because the foreign competition is using the U.S. scientific and technical literature.

  7. Reducing the market impact of large shares of intermittent energy in Denmark

    Jacobsen, Henrik; Zvingilaite, Erika

    2010-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of renewable and intermittent energy sources in the electricity system is creating new challenges for the interaction of the system. In Denmark, high renewable shares have been achieved without great difficulty, mainly due to the flexibility of the nearby Nordic hydro......-power dominated system. Further increases in the share of renewable energy sources require that additional options are considered to facilitate integration with the lowest possible cost. With large shares of intermittent energy, the impact can be observed on wholesale prices, giving both lower prices and higher...... and the attractiveness of additional interconnection capacity. This paper also analyses options for increasing the flexibility of heat generation involving large and decentralized CHP plants and heat generation based on electricity. The incentives that the market provides for shifting demand and using electricity...

  8. Battle for market share: World oil market projections, 1995-2010

    Considine, J.I.; Reinsch, A.E.

    1995-09-01

    A world-wide market assessment and scenario analyses were described. They were said to suggest a more bearish outlook for crude oil prices relative to last years projections. The price of WTI was projected to weaken over the 1996-1998 period due to rising non-OPEC production, gradual reintegration of Iraqi exports, a lack of unified accommodation by the rest of OPEC for incremental Iraqi volumes, and demand growth insufficient to absorb the additional production at current prices. Crude prices could be expected to lie in the $15.50-$17.50 (US) per barrel range from 1996 to 1998, and in the $14.50-$20.50 per barrel range during the first decade of the 21. century. Long-term price risk was expected to be weighted to the down side. The reasoning behind these predictions was explained in detail. 24 figs., 83 tabs., 70 refs

  9. Stepping stones to significant market shares for renewables. The European forum for market players and decision makers in the renewable energy industry

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This invitation to a two-day European Forum for market players and decision makers in the renewable energy business lists the presentations made at the conference in 2007. The programme included contributions in the following areas: Policies and market deployment initiatives, market trends and experience - from support schemes to market experience, opportunities in a changing framework in Switzerland, instruments and infrastructure requirements - how to make the market work and supply and demand aspects of a growing market. The conference examined how renewable forms of energy can gain significant market shares and reach a quota of 50% renewables in 50 years. The first session examined policies and market deployment initiatives, the second market trends and experiences, the third opportunities for Switzerland in a changing framework. The second day featured sessions on instruments and infrastructure requirements as well as on supply and demand aspects in a growing market. The conference was complemented with four workshops.

  10. Stepping stones to significant market shares for renewables. The European forum for market players and decision makers in the renewable energy industry

    2007-01-01

    This invitation to a two-day European Forum for market players and decision makers in the renewable energy business lists the presentations made at the conference in 2007. The programme included contributions in the following areas: Policies and market deployment initiatives, market trends and experience - from support schemes to market experience, opportunities in a changing framework in Switzerland, instruments and infrastructure requirements - how to make the market work and supply and demand aspects of a growing market. The conference examined how renewable forms of energy can gain significant market shares and reach a quota of 50% renewables in 50 years. The first session examined policies and market deployment initiatives, the second market trends and experiences, the third opportunities for Switzerland in a changing framework. The second day featured sessions on instruments and infrastructure requirements as well as on supply and demand aspects in a growing market. The conference was complemented with four workshops.

  11. Price discrimination in two-sided markets

    Kai Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of a price discrimination strategy is an important tool in competition. It can hurt firms and benefit consumers in a one-sided market. However, in two-sided markets, its primary goal is to attract more agents or increase profits. Here, the performance of a second-degree price discrimination strategy in the context of duopoly two-sided platforms is analysed. Two exogenous variables, which include the discount rate and the price discrimination threshold, are used in order to examine whether the price discrimination strategy could help two-sided platforms achieve their objective, which is to maximise their market value. Three cases are considered, and we demonstrate that the price discrimination strategy cannot attract more agents and at the same time increase the profits; a lower price discrimination threshold cannot ensure larger markets shares; a higher discount rate is detrimental to the profit of a platform. However, this is good for its market shares. Moreover, discriminative pricing increases the competition.

  12. The impact of the number of retail outlets on the market share of consumer goods' retail brands

    Vlahović Marko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the research results of effects of retail brands of consumer goods on the market share they have in Serbia. In particular, the research includes the impact of the retail format on the growth or decrease in market share. The data were obtained from market retailing research of consumer goods on the Internet and the research carried out by the GFK agency. The study used a statistical method of data processing by the method of descriptive statistics. The survey showed that the Serbian retail market is still underdeveloped, and that the strongest impact on the market share of retail chain stores of consumer goods has the size of the retail network, as well as a strong dominance of traditional trade in comparison to organized one. The retail market in Serbia has a long period of consolidation forthcoming and also taking over such a status that organized trades or TOP 10 retail chains have already had in the most developed countries. The market share of TOP 10 retail chains in Serbia is now at the level slightly bigger than 30%, while those in developed market economies have a market share moving up to 75%.

  13. Determinants of success in Shared Savings Programs: An analysis of ACO and market characteristics.

    Ouayogodé, Mariétou H; Colla, Carrie H; Lewis, Valerie A

    2017-03-01

    Medicare's Accountable Care Organization (ACO) programs introduced shared savings to traditional Medicare, which allow providers who reduce health care costs for their patients to retain a percentage of the savings they generate. To examine ACO and market factors associated with superior financial performance in Medicare ACO programs. We obtained financial performance data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS); we derived market-level characteristics from Medicare claims; and we collected ACO characteristics from the National Survey of ACOs for 215 ACOs. We examined the association between ACO financial performance and ACO provider composition, leadership structure, beneficiary characteristics, risk bearing experience, quality and process improvement capabilities, physician performance management, market competition, CMS-assigned financial benchmark, and ACO contract start date. We examined two outcomes from Medicare ACOs' first performance year: savings per Medicare beneficiary and earning shared savings payments (a dichotomous variable). When modeling the ACO ability to save and earn shared savings payments, we estimated positive regression coefficients for a greater proportion of primary care providers in the ACO, more practicing physicians on the governing board, physician leadership, active engagement in reducing hospital re-admissions, a greater proportion of disabled Medicare beneficiaries assigned to the ACO, financial incentives offered to physicians, a larger financial benchmark, and greater ACO market penetration. No characteristic of organizational structure was significantly associated with both outcomes of savings per beneficiary and likelihood of achieving shared savings. ACO prior experience with risk-bearing contracts was positively correlated with savings and significantly increased the likelihood of receiving shared savings payments. In the first year, performance is quite heterogeneous, yet organizational structure does not

  14. Factors Affecting Relative Changes in U.S. Snack Foods Exports Among Countries: A Constant Market Share Analysis

    Myles, Albert E.; Allen, Albert J.

    2010-01-01

    This study used Constant Market Share (CMS) analysis to examine the competitiveness of U.S. snack food exports in terms of their revealed market shares and market potentials. The CMS analysis suggested that almost 99 percent of the gains in snack food exports were due to growth in world demand and 1.52 percent to the composition of snack food products between 2004 and 2008. Unfortunately, competitiveness of the world snack food market reduced U.S. exports by 1.52 percent during this same period.

  15. Insider trading under trading ban regulation in China’s A-share market

    Chafen Zhu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of China’s 2008 trading ban regulation on the insider trading of large shareholders in China’s A-share market. It finds no evidence of insider trading during the ban period (one month before the announcement of a financial report, due to high regulation risk. However, the ban only constrains the profitability of insider trades during the ban period, while trades outside it remain highly profitable. Informed insider trading before the ban period is 2.83 times more profitable than uninformed trading. The regulation has changed insider trading patterns, but has been ineffective in preventing insider trading by large shareholders due to rigid administrative supervision and a lack of civil litigation and flexible market monitoring. This study enhances understanding of large shareholders’ trading behavior and has important implications for regulators.

  16. The Impact of Mergers and Acquisitions on the Market Value of Shares of Erste Bank Group

    Popovici Andreea Nicoleta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mergers and acquisitions are ways used by banks to improve their profitability and to obtain other advantages. The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of mergers and acquisitions on the performance of the bidder bank. For this study, I have chosen to research the impact of acquisitions and mergers of Erste Group during 2000-2011, considering the target bank is in Central and Eastern Europe. Using the event study methodology, the result of the study shows that a merger or an acquisition does not improve the value market of the shares of the bidder bank.

  17. Analysis of Spain´s competitiveness in the European tomato market: An application of the Constant Market Share method

    Capobianco-Uriarte, M.; Aparicio, J.; Pablo-Valenciano, J. de

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the competitiveness of Spanish tomato export compared with its major competitors in the European Union market countries (EU28). The methodological framework is implemented through Constant Market Share to analyze variations in exports, allowing the portion attributable to competitiveness and segregation into general or specific competitiveness to be quantified. This analysis was carried out with the 2005-2009 and 2010-2014 periods to see if there had been a recovery from the global financial and economic crisis of 2007 in the Spanish tomato trade. Before the global economic and financial crisis, Spain had a positive structural effect of exports which contributed significantly to the growth of tomato sales to the EU, but had a negative change in the volume of exports to the EU28, mainly due to the negative effect of the competitiveness component. According to the segregation effect of competitiveness, a marked general negative competitive effect was evident, that cannot be offset by the positive effect of specific competitiveness. Since 2010, Spain has experienced a positive change in the volume of its tomato exports to the EU28, the competitiveness component also being positive, due to positive investment of the component of general competitiveness and whose greatest contribution was the positive effect of specific competitiveness. Within the group of competitors, Spain is the only country supplying tomatoes to the EU28 that has experienced a positive change in volume when comparing business performance of 2010-2014 vs 2005-2009.

  18. Analysis of Spain´s competitiveness in the European tomato market: An application of the Constant Market Share method

    Mercedes Capobianco-Uriarte

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the competitiveness of Spanish tomato export compared with its major competitors in the European Union market countries (EU28. The methodological framework is implemented through Constant Market Share to analyze variations in exports, allowing the portion attributable to competitiveness and segregation into general or specific competitiveness to be quantified. This analysis was carried out with the 2005-2009 and 2010-2014 periods to see if there had been a recovery from the global financial and economic crisis of 2007 in the Spanish tomato trade. Before the global economic and financial crisis, Spain had a positive structural effect of exports which contributed significantly to the growth of tomato sales to the EU, but had a negative change in the volume of exports to the EU28, mainly due to the negative effect of the competitiveness component. According to the segregation effect of competitiveness, a marked general negative competitive effect was evident, that cannot be offset by the positive effect of specific competitiveness. Since 2010, Spain has experienced a positive change in the volume of its tomato exports to the EU28, the competitiveness component also being positive, due to positive investment of the component of general competitiveness and whose greatest contribution was the positive effect of specific competitiveness. Within the group of competitors, Spain is the only country supplying tomatoes to the EU28 that has experienced a positive change in volume when comparing business performance of 2010-2014 vs 2005-2009.

  19. Analysis of Spain´s competitiveness in the European tomato market: An application of the Constant Market Share method

    Capobianco-Uriarte, M.; Aparicio, J.; Pablo-Valenciano, J. de

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the competitiveness of Spanish tomato export compared with its major competitors in the European Union market countries (EU28). The methodological framework is implemented through Constant Market Share to analyze variations in exports, allowing the portion attributable to competitiveness and segregation into general or specific competitiveness to be quantified. This analysis was carried out with the 2005-2009 and 2010-2014 periods to see if there had been a recovery from the global financial and economic crisis of 2007 in the Spanish tomato trade. Before the global economic and financial crisis, Spain had a positive structural effect of exports which contributed significantly to the growth of tomato sales to the EU, but had a negative change in the volume of exports to the EU28, mainly due to the negative effect of the competitiveness component. According to the segregation effect of competitiveness, a marked general negative competitive effect was evident, that cannot be offset by the positive effect of specific competitiveness. Since 2010, Spain has experienced a positive change in the volume of its tomato exports to the EU28, the competitiveness component also being positive, due to positive investment of the component of general competitiveness and whose greatest contribution was the positive effect of specific competitiveness. Within the group of competitors, Spain is the only country supplying tomatoes to the EU28 that has experienced a positive change in volume when comparing business performance of 2010-2014 vs 2005-2009.

  20. Quantum Stackelberg duopoly in the presence of correlated noise

    Khan, Salman; Ramzan, M; Khan, M Khalid

    2010-01-01

    We study the influence of entanglement and correlated noise using correlated amplitude damping, depolarizing and phase damping channels on the quantum Stackelberg duopoly. Our investigations show that under the influence of an amplitude damping channel a critical point exists for an unentangled initial state at which firms get equal payoffs. The game becomes a follower advantage game when the channel is highly decohered. Two critical points corresponding to two values of the entanglement angle are found in the presence of correlated noise. Within the range of these limits of the entanglement angle, the game is a follower advantage game. In the case of a depolarizing channel, the payoffs of the two firms are strongly influenced by the memory parameter. The presence of quantum memory ensures the existence of the Nash equilibrium for the entire range of decoherence and entanglement parameters for both the channels. A local maximum in the payoffs is observed which vanishes as the channel correlation increases. Moreover, under the influence of the depolarizing channel, the game is always a leader advantage game. Furthermore, it is seen that the phase damping channel does not affect the outcome of the game.

  1. Bifurcation analysis in the diffusive Lotka-Volterra system: An application to market economy

    Wijeratne, A.W.; Yi Fengqi; Wei Junjie

    2009-01-01

    A diffusive Lotka-Volterra system is formulated in this paper that represents the dynamics of market share at duopoly. A case in Sri Lankan mobile telecom market was considered that conceptualized the model in interest. Detailed Hopf bifurcation, transcritical and pitchfork bifurcation analysis were performed. The distribution of roots of the characteristic equation suggests that a stable coexistence equilibrium can be achieved by increasing the innovation while minimizing competition by each competitor while regulating existing policies and introducing new ones for product differentiation and value addition. The avenue is open for future research that may use real time information in order to formulate mathematically sound tools for decision making in competitive business environments.

  2. Bifurcation analysis in the diffusive Lotka-Volterra system: An application to market economy

    Wijeratne, A.W. [Department of Mathematics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Department of Agri-Business Management, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka, Belihuloya 70140 (Sri Lanka); Yi Fengqi [Department of Mathematics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wei Junjie [Department of Mathematics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)], E-mail: weijj@hit.edu.cn

    2009-04-30

    A diffusive Lotka-Volterra system is formulated in this paper that represents the dynamics of market share at duopoly. A case in Sri Lankan mobile telecom market was considered that conceptualized the model in interest. Detailed Hopf bifurcation, transcritical and pitchfork bifurcation analysis were performed. The distribution of roots of the characteristic equation suggests that a stable coexistence equilibrium can be achieved by increasing the innovation while minimizing competition by each competitor while regulating existing policies and introducing new ones for product differentiation and value addition. The avenue is open for future research that may use real time information in order to formulate mathematically sound tools for decision making in competitive business environments.

  3. The Brazilian exports of labor-intensive goods in the 2000s: An analysis using the Constant Market Share Method

    Flávio Benevett Fligenspan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analyzing international trade in labor-intensive sectors in the 2000s, with a special reference to the Brazilian case. Therefore, we use the constant market share analysis to compare several countries’ export performance. It was observed that Asian countries emerged strengthened from this period. Brazil had a mediocre performance, losing market-share in global markets. Moreover, competition from Asian economies and even from the small Central American countries, such as Guatemala and El Salvador, has undermined the penetration of Brazilian exports in its major trade partners, which are North America and South America.

  4. Reducing the market impact of large shares of intermittent energy in Denmark

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Zvingilaite, Erika

    2010-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of renewable and intermittent energy sources in the electricity system is creating new challenges for the interaction of the system. In Denmark, high renewable shares have been achieved without great difficulty, mainly due to the flexibility of the nearby Nordic hydro-power dominated system. Further increases in the share of renewable energy sources require that additional options are considered to facilitate integration with the lowest possible cost. With large shares of intermittent energy, the impact can be observed on wholesale prices, giving both lower prices and higher volatility. A lack of wind that causes high prices is rarely seen because long periods without wind are uncommon. Therefore we focus on the low price effects and the increased value of flexible demand options. On the supply side, there is an increase in the value of other flexible generation technologies and the attractiveness of additional interconnection capacity. This paper also analyses options for increasing the flexibility of heat generation involving large and decentralized CHP plants and heat generation based on electricity. The incentives that the market provides for shifting demand and using electricity for heat production are discussed based on the variability of prices observed from 2006 to 2008.

  5. Informative Advertising in Concentrated, Differentiated Markets

    Hamilton, Stephen F.

    2004-01-01

    I examine the welfare implications of informative advertising in a differentiated product duopoly market. The analysis reconciles the apparently conflicting results in previous studies that find advertising to be undersupplied in homogeneous product markets and in differentiated markets with a limited number of firms, but oversupplied in differentiated markets with a large number of firms. In equilibrium, purely informative advertising is always overprovided when the degree of product differe...

  6. Spin-off and market share in the Indonesian Islamic banking industry: a difference in difference analysis

    Al Arif M. Nur Rianto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available According to The Act No. 21 of 2008 concerning Islamic Banking in Indonesia, the conventional banks are obligated to spun-off their Islamic business units after achieving a certain set of requirements. The spin-off requirements are: (i reach 50% market share asset of its parents; or (ii 15 years after the implementation of the Islamic Banking Act. This study emphasizes the impact of Islamic banks' spin-off on market share. The method used in this study is a difference in difference analysis. This technique is a quasi-experiment separate into two groups, such as the treatment groups (four spin-offs' banks and control group (two fullfledged Islamic banks. This study used quarterly data from 2005 until 2016. The results show that, first, there is a difference in the Islamic banks' market share between pre- and post-spinoff. Second, there is a difference in the market share of spin-offs' banks between pre- and postspin- off. Third, there are there external factors that can affect the Islamic banks' market share, i.e., inflation rate, interest rate, and economic growth rate. The paper is a useful source of information that may provide relevant guidelines in helping the future development of spin-off activity in Islamic banking industry. The finding could be helpful for policymakers to create a supporting strategy to accelerate the development of Islamic banking industry. This result also could be of use for Islamic banking industries in other countries.

  7. On the effects of emission standards as a non-tariff barrier to trade in the case of a foreign Bertrand duopoly: A note

    Toshimitsu, Tsuyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Employing a model of an environmentally differentiated product market, we analyze how an emission regulation as non-tariff barriers to trade affects imports, the environment, and welfare in the case of a foreign Bertrand duopoly. Related to this issue, we reconsider the result of Moraga-Gonzalez and Padron-Fumero [Moraga-Gonzalez, J.L., Padron-Fumero, N., 2002. Environmental policy in a green market. Environmental and Resource Economics 22, 419-447] that a strict emission standard on a dirtier product degrades the environment and reduces the net social surplus associated with the valuation of environmental damage, if the marginal social valuation of environmental damage is larger. On the other hand, we show that a strict emission standard on a cleaner product always improves the environment and the net social surplus associated with the valuation of environmental damage. (author)

  8. Informative advertising and consumer search in a differentiated-products duopoly

    Celik, Levent

    -, Č. 332 (2007), s. 1-17 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : consumer search * duopoly * ínformative advertising Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge.cuni.cz/pdf/wp/Wp332.pdf

  9. On the effects of an industry-wide cost change in a Stackelberg duopoly

    Toolsema-Veldman, Linda; Schoonbeek, L

    Consider a homogeneous Stackelberg leader-follower duopoly with quantity competition, in which both firms face the same industry-wide marginal costs. This paper investigates the comparative static effects of a change in these marginal costs. We show that an increase of the costs will lead to a

  10. The duopoly policy in the Brazilian model of telecommunications reform

    César Mattos

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the important characteristics of the Brazilian Model of Telecommunications Reform (BMTR was the adoption of a duopoly policy, constraining the entry of new players in the wire segment in the transitional phase until free competition in 2002. This policy was also used in the reform experience of the United Kingdom in telecommunications in the 80's. The theoretical explanations behind this kind of policy are not strong enough to justify the duopoly policy in telecommunications. The most plausible idea rests on the prominent role conferred to privatization revenues in the design of the reform as a means of helping the efforts to consolidate price stabilization in the country. We introduce a model with the trade-offs between competition, duplication of fixed costs and privatization revenues. Despite the importance of fixed costs in the objective function of the regulator, we show that the privatization revenue target is the aspect, which justifies the imposition of entry constraints. The British experience shows that the sacrifice of this kind of policy regarding efficiency in the long run can be substantial.Uma das características mais importantes do Modelo Brasileiro de Reforma das Telecomunicações foi a adoção de uma política de duopólio, restringindo a entrada de novas empresas no segmento de telefonia fixa durante a fase de transição até a livre concorrência a ser adotada a partir de 2002. Essa política foi também utilizada na experiência de reforma das telecomunicações ocorrida no Reino Unido na década de 80. As explicações teóricas para justificar a adoção deste tipo de política não são satisfatórias o suficiente para justificar a política de duopólio como prescrição de política nas telecomunicações. A idéia mais plausível se baseia no papel proeminente conferido às receitas de privatização no desenho da reforma como forma de auxiliar os esforços de consolidação da estabilização de preços no

  11. The Effect of Attractiveness on Food Sharing Preferences in Human Mating Markets

    Michael Stirrat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study explored how physical attractiveness affects food sharing by studying payment preferences for hypothetical romantic dinner dates (a hypothetical mating market. We analyzed payment preferences, self-rated attractiveness, and rated attractiveness for hypothetical dates in 416 participants. We hypothesized that (1 men would be more likely to prefer to pay than would women, (2 attractive individuals of both sexes would be less willing to pay, and (3 preferences to enter an exchange would be influenced by the attractiveness of prospective partners such that (3a men would prefer to pay for attractive women, and (3b women would prefer to be paid for by attractive men. All hypotheses were supported by our results. Individuals with higher self-rated attractiveness were more likely to prefer that their date would pay for the meal, and we found clear sex differences in how the attractiveness of potential dates affected payment preferences. Male participants preferred to pay for dates that had higher facial attractiveness, while female participants preferred that attractive men would pay. Individuals show condition dependent financial preferences consistent with the provisioning hypothesis in this mating market that are adaptive to evaluations of their own quality and that of prospective partners.

  12. Use of Internet audience measurement data to gauge market share for online health information services.

    Wood, Fred B; Benson, Dennis; LaCroix, Eve-Marie; Siegel, Elliot R; Fariss, Susan

    2005-07-01

    The transition to a largely Internet and Web-based environment for dissemination of health information has changed the health information landscape and the framework for evaluation of such activities. A multidimensional evaluative approach is needed. This paper discusses one important dimension of Web evaluation-usage data. In particular, we discuss the collection and analysis of external data on website usage in order to develop a better understanding of the health information (and related US government information) market space, and to estimate the market share or relative levels of usage for National Library of Medicine (NLM) and National Institutes of Health (NIH) websites compared to other health information providers. The primary method presented is Internet audience measurement based on Web usage by external panels of users and assembled by private vendors-in this case, comScore. A secondary method discussed is Web usage based on Web log software data. The principle metrics for both methods are unique visitors and total pages downloaded per month. NLM websites (primarily MedlinePlus and PubMed) account for 55% to 80% of total NIH website usage depending on the metric used. In turn, NIH.gov top-level domain usage (inclusive of NLM) ranks second only behind WebMD in the US domestic home health information market and ranks first on a global basis. NIH.gov consistently ranks among the top three or four US government top-level domains based on global Web usage. On a site-specific basis, the top health information websites in terms of global usage appear to be WebMD, MSN Health, PubMed, Yahoo! Health, AOL Health, and MedlinePlus. Based on MedlinePlus Web log data and external Internet audience measurement data, the three most heavily used cancer-centric websites appear to be www.cancer.gov (National Cancer Institute), www.cancer.org (American Cancer Society), and www.breastcancer.org (non-profit organization). Internet audience measurement has proven useful to NLM

  13. The mediating effect of financial performance on the relationship between intellectual capital & market share: Evidence from Tehran stock exchange

    Seyed Mohamad Fahimi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual capital has an important role in this knowledge based economy era. The purpose of this study is to examine the mediating effect of financial performance on the relationship between intellectual capital and market share in the listed Companies in the Tehran Stock Exchange in this study to assess the intellectual capital, the rate of value-added intellectual capital that developed by Pulic (1998 is used. The sample included 99 companies listed in the Tehran Stock Exchange, for a period of five years from 2011 to 2015. The research findings show a significant positive relationship between intellectual capital and market share. Also the results show that there is no mediating effect of financial performance in the relationship between intellectual capital and market share

  14. Does market integration buffer risk, erode traditional sharing practices and increase inequality? A test among Bolivian forager-farmers.

    Gurven, Michael; Jaeggi, Adrian V; von Rueden, Chris; Hooper, Paul L; Kaplan, Hillard

    2015-08-01

    Sharing and exchange are common practices for minimizing food insecurity in rural populations. The advent of markets and monetization in egalitarian indigenous populations presents an alternative means of managing risk, with the potential impact of eroding traditional networks. We test whether market involvement buffers several types of risk and reduces traditional sharing behavior among Tsimane Amerindians of the Bolivian Amazon. Results vary based on type of market integration and scale of analysis (household vs. village), consistent with the notion that local culture and ecology shape risk management strategies. Greater wealth and income were unassociated with the reliance on others for food, or on reciprocity, but wealth was associated with a greater proportion of food given to others (i.e., giving intensity) and a greater number of sharing partners (i.e., sharing breadth). Across villages, greater mean income was negatively associated with reciprocity, but economic inequality was positively associated with giving intensity and sharing breadth. Incipient market integration does not necessarily replace traditional buffering strategies but instead can often enhance social capital.

  15. Hybrid Electricity Markets with Long-Term Risk-Sharing Arrangements: Adapting Market Design to Security of Supply and decarbonization Objectives

    ROQUES, Fabien; FINON, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    The re-emergence of policy interventionism in electricity markets raises questions as to how market design can best be adapted to meeting the investment challenge associated with security of supply (SoS) and decarbonization objectives. This paper takes an institutionalist approach in terms of modularity of the market design, and reviews the standard historical approach towards competitive markets, in order to analyse the roles and interactions of the initial and additional market 'modules'. We argue that a number of additional modules is required to achieve long-term policy objectives, such as decarbonization and security of supply (SoS). But, in turn, they destabilise the initial modules of the market design, in particular by the entries of renewables. We review the international experience with hybrid market design and draw a number of policy recommendations at to best practices, as well as suggesting ways in which the initial market modules can be improved to prevent inconsistencies with the new modules. The move towards a hybrid market regime, which relies on a combination of planning, long-term risk sharing arrangements and improved markets entrenched in a function of short-term coordination, appears to be unavoidable where decarbonization policies are adopted. (authors)

  16. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BRAND LOYALTY AND MARKET SHARE AMONG DURABLE AND NON-DURABLE PRODUCTS

    Ovidiu I. MOISESCU; Andrej BERTONCELJ

    2010-01-01

    Marketing specialists widely accept that brand loyalty, as core component of brand equity, can leverage several positive effects on brand commercial performance and on other dimensions of brand equity, loyalty being both an input and an output from this perspective. Starting from the supposition that higher brand loyalty can generate higher market share, the paper investigates the relationship between the two, considering repurchase and recommend intentions as main measurements of loyalty. An...

  17. 77 FR 66651 - Salient Advisors, L.P. and MarketShares ETF Trust; Notice of Application

    2012-11-06

    ... Advisors, L.P. and MarketShares ETF Trust; Notice of Application October 31, 2012 AGENCY: Securities and... ETF Trust (the ``Trust''). Summary of Application: Applicants request an order that permits: (a... statutory trust. The Trust will initially offer one series, the Salient MLP and Energy Infrastructure ETF...

  18. Budget Impact of Increasing Market Share of Patient Self-Testing and Patient Self-Management in Anticoagulation

    Stevanović, Jelena; Postma, Maarten J.; Le, Hoa H.

    Background: Patient self-testing (PST) and/or patient self-management (PSM) might provide better coagulation care than monitoring at specialized anticoagulation centers. Yet, it remains an underused strategy in the Netherlands. Methods: Budget-impact analyses of current and new market-share

  19. Share2Quit: Online Social Network Peer Marketing of Tobacco Cessation Systems.

    Sadasivam, Rajani S; Cutrona, Sarah L; Luger, Tana M; Volz, Erik; Kinney, Rebecca; Rao, Sowmya R; Allison, Jeroan J; Houston, Thomas K

    2017-03-01

    Although technology-assisted tobacco interventions (TATIs) are effective, they are underused due to recruitment challenges. We tested whether we could successfully recruit smokers to a TATI using peer marketing through a social network (Facebook). We recruited smokers on Facebook using online advertisements. These recruited smokers (seeds) and subsequent waves of smokers (peer recruits) were provided the Share2Quit peer recruitment Facebook app and other tools. Smokers were incentivized for up to seven successful peer recruitments and had 30 days to recruit from date of registration. Successful peer recruitment was defined as a peer recruited smoker completing the registration on the TATI following a referral. Our primary questions were (1) whether smokers would recruit other smokers and (2) whether peer recruitment would extend the reach of the intervention to harder-to-reach groups, including those not ready to quit and minority smokers. Overall, 759 smokers were recruited (seeds: 190; peer recruits: 569). Fifteen percent (n = 117) of smokers successfully recruited their peers (seeds: 24.7%; peer recruits: 7.7%) leading to four recruitment waves. Compared to seeds, peer recruits were less likely to be ready to quit (peer recruits 74.2% vs. seeds 95.1%), more likely to be male (67.1% vs. 32.9%), and more likely to be African American (23.8% vs. 10.8%) (p marketing quadrupled our engaged smokers and enriched the sample with not-ready-to-quit and African American smokers. Peer recruitment is promising, and our study uncovered several important challenges for future research. This study demonstrates the successful recruitment of smokers to a TATI using a Facebook-based peer marketing strategy. Smokers on Facebook were willing and able to recruit other smokers to a TATI, yielding a large and diverse population of smokers. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For

  20. MARKETING OBJECTIVES OF RETAILERS WITH DIFFERENTIATED GOODS: AN EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVE

    Tiaojun XIAO; Gang YU

    2006-01-01

    In the real world, revenue maximization behavior may prevail in various markets. To understand this phenomenon, we develop a two-population model with two-vertically integrated channels. Every channel consists of one manufacturer and many (a sufficiently large number of) retailers that sell products in different markets by adopting pure marketing objective strategies: profit maximization and revenue maximization. We study the marketing objective behaviors in the quantity-setting duopoly and the price-setting duopoly situations respectively from an indirect evolutionary point of view. In the quantity-setting duopoly situation, we find that whether the equilibrium is an evolutionarily stable strategy depends on the type of strategic interaction (substitutes or complements), relative unit cost, market scale, etc. We extend it to the case with continuous preferences. We argue that revenue maximization may be an evolutionarily stable strategy and profit maximization strategy may be unstable. Under proper conditions, revenue maximization behavior can coexist with profit maximization behavior. In the price-setting duopoly situation with linear demand functions, we find that profit maximization is always an evolutionarily stable strategy and revenue maximization behavior will gradually become extinct. The extended model has a similar result but the retailers may compromise the two pure strategies.

  1. Where Did They Go? Market Share Trends of Business Student Enrollment at Public, Not-for-Profit, and For-Profit Institutions from 1996 to 2008

    Fox Garrity, Bonnie Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    The author presents the trends in market share of business student enrollment at public, not-for-profit, and for-profit 4-year-and-above institutions from 1996 to 2008. Although each sector of the institutions has experienced growth in overall enrollments, the relative market share of public and not-for-profit institutions has dropped, whereas the…

  2. Technology transfer in a horizontally differentiated product-market

    Mukherjee, A.; Balasubramanian, N.

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers technology transfer in a Cournot-duopoly market where the firms produce horizontally differentiated products. It turns out that without the threat of imitation from the licensee, the licenser always transfers its best technology. However, the patent licensing contract consists

  3. Market share scenarios for Gen-DIII and gen-IV reactors in Europe

    Roelofs, F.; Heek, A. V.; Durpel, L. V. D.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear energy is back on the agenda worldwide in order to meet growing energy demand and especially the growth in electricity demand. Many objectives direct to an increased use of nuclear energy, i.e. minimising energy costs, reducing climate change effects and others. In the light of the potential renewed growth of nuclear energy, the public demands a clear view on what nuclear energy may contribute towards meeting these objectives and especially how nuclear energy may address some socio-political obstructions with respect to economics, radioactive waste, safety and proliferation of fissile materials. To address these questions, the future nuclear reactor park mix in Europe has been analysed applying an integrated dynamic process modelling technique. Various market share scenarios for nuclear energy are derived including sub-variants with regard to the intra-nuclear options. In the analyses, it is assumed that different types of new reactors may be built, taking into account the introduction date of considered Gen-Ill (i.e. EPR) and Gen-IV (i.e. SCWR, HTR, FR) reactors, and the economic evaluation of the complete fuel cycle. The assessment was undertaken using the DANESS code (Dynamic Analysis of Nuclear Energy System Strategies). The analyses show that given the considered realistic nuclear energy demand and given a limited number of available Gen-III and Gen-IV reactor types, the future European nuclear park will exist of combinations of Gen-III and Gen-IV reactors. This mix will always consist of a set of reactor types each having its specific strengths. The analyses also highlight the triggers influencing the choice between different nuclear energy deployment scenarios. (authors)

  4. Does the Change in the Company's Name Affect the Share Price? The Case Study of the Polish Capital Market

    Roman Asyngier

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - The paper was aimed to find out if abnormal returns occur before and after changes in the names of companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. Design/methodology/approach - Due to the fact that this was an early stage of the research, an appropriate methodology was used in the research which took into account indexes of relative force of quotations of some selected companies in relation to the wide Warsaw Stock Exchange WIG index. Findings - The research findings proved the existence of positive abnormal returns before the name changes and negative trends after the name changes in companies in the long term. Comparing the average volume of share trading before and after the name changes in companies, no positive effect was noticed in this scope. Research implications/limitations - The clear and unambiguous results appear to be significant for investors while taking investment decisions. Therefore, the conclusions from the findings of the pilot research need to be confirmed and verified in further studies on the problem, with the use of a more advanced methods. Originality/value/contribution - The paper represents one of the few empirical studies on the impact of the name changes of listed companies on the share prices in relation to the emerging markets, and the first ones concerning the Polish share market. The findings of the study may give grounds to discuss and identify practical causes of market behaviors as a result of changes in companies' names.(original abstract

  5. A theory of price-fixing/market-sharing rings as applied to OPEC behavior since march 1982

    Kazushi Uemura

    1992-01-01

    In the past, OPEC has been analyzed as a cartel, but usually without a formal theoretical framework. Don Patinkin's cartel model was occasionally used, but was turned down for being 'too strict' to explain OPEC behavior. One of the most serious short-comings of Patinkin's model is its prediction that high-cost producers would first shut down for the survival of a cartel. In OPEC agreements, it has been seen many times that Saudi Arabia (a low-cost producer) reduced its production for the survival of the cartel. A new and promising cartel theory, A theory of price-fixing/market-sharing rings, has been introduced ('CMT model'). In this paper, it is going to use CMT model's structure and model OPEC's major price-fixing/market-sharing agreements and a period without such an agreement since March, 1982 when OPEC, for the first time in its history, reached a price-fixing/market-sharing agreement. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Future Market Share of Space Solar Electric Power Under Open Competition

    Smith, S. J.; Mahasenan, N.; Clarke, J. F.; Edmonds, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper assesses the value of Space Solar Power deployed under market competition with a full suite of alternative energy technologies over the 21st century. Our approach is to analyze the future energy system under a number of different scenarios that span a wide range of possible future demographic, socio-economic, and technological developments. Scenarios both with, and without, carbon dioxide concentration stabilization policies are considered. We use the comprehensive set of scenarios created for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (Nakicenovic and Swart 2000). The focus of our analysis will be the cost of electric generation. Cost is particularly important when considering electric generation since the type of generation is, from a practical point of view, largely irrelevant to the end-user. This means that different electricity generation technologies must compete on the basis of price. It is important to note, however, that even a technology that is more expensive than average can contribute to the overall generation mix due to geographical and economic heterogeneity (Clarke and Edmonds 1993). This type of competition is a central assumption of the modeling approach used here. Our analysis suggests that, under conditions of full competition of all available technologies, Space Solar Power at 7 cents per kW-hr could comprise 5-10% of global electric generation by the end of the century, with a global total generation of 10,000 TW-hr. The generation share of Space Solar Power is limited due to competition with lower-cost nuclear, biomass, and terrestrial solar PV and wind. The imposition of a carbon constraint does not significantly increase the total amount of power generated by Space Solar Power in cases where a full range of advanced electric generation technologies are also available. Potential constraints on the availability of these other electric generation options can increase the amount of

  7. Strategic analysis of PKM Duda SA. on Polish meat market with the application of BCG growth-share matrix

    Anna Zielińska-Chmielewska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper was to examine the market position of one leading meat processing enterprise PKM Duda SA. on the domestic meat market. The assessment of the activity portfolio on its three strategic units was undertaken with the usage of BCG matrix. The PKM Duda SA. was chosen for the study because: a processes more than 20 tons of slaughter per week, b is located in the country of origin, c exists on Warsaw Stock Exchange Market, d preserves continuity of its database in Monitor Polski „B”. The analysis proved that all three examined strategic units have different market shares and operate on markets of a different acceleration. The highest income rate brings the meat processing unit (B, the lowest slaughter unit (A. The market position of PKM Duda SA. can be improved when a retail trade unit (B moves away from question marks into stars. Although BCG matrix draws a fast and a complex strategic situation, is not free from disadvantages. That is the reason why further, also portfolio, analysis should be im-plemented.

  8. Corporate Finance and the San Francisco Mining Share Market, 1860-1877

    Oskar, Glenda

    2013-01-01

    Throughout history, capital markets have been central to innovation and the development of new industries, job creation, low unemployment, wealth accumulation, reducing income inequality, improving living standards, and promoting economic growth. In perfect capital markets, firms can easily raise funds for profitable investments. However, market frictions, such as agency costs, liquidity constraints, and asymmetric information, can lead to underinvestment. In this dissertation, I study the fi...

  9. The unexpected stable market share of the bicycle in The Netherlands

    Van Goeverden, C.D.; Van Arem, B.; Godefrooij, T.

    2013-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the share of the bicycle as the main mode in all person trips has been highly constant in the past three decades (about 27%). A constant share is remarkable because a number of developments in this period were unfavourable for bicycle use, like ageing of the population, growing

  10. Delivered Pricing, FOB Pricing, and Collusion in Spatial Markets

    Maria Paz Espinosa

    1992-01-01

    This article examines price discrimination and collusion in spatial markets. The problem is analyzed in the context of a repeated duopoly game. I conclude that the prevailing pricing systems depend on the structural elements of the market. Delivered pricing systems emerge in equilibrium in highly monopolistic and highly competitive industries, while FOB is used in intermediate market structures. The fact driving this result is that delivered pricing policies allow spatial price discrimination...

  11. The evaluation of competitiveness and innovation factors in order to increase market share

    Vukajlović Đurđica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Doing business in modern days is characterized by a large number of suppliers of products and / or services that can meet our needs in the same or similar manner. For this reason, each organization has to constantly monitor the competitiveness of the market, to innovate in order to maintain the existing place on the market or possibly reach new markets. The purpose of conducted research was to assess the factors which are important for achieving a competitive advantage, increasing innovative activities and to identify factors which are crucial for the entry and penetration into new markets, as well as to determine the correlation of these factors with different characteristics of organization (size, level and duration of business. The results have shown that marketing is recognized as the most important factor for achieving a competitive advantage. Innovative activities are usually of imitative character, while consumers and their needs and requirements are largely ignored.

  12. City tourism and the sharing economy – potential effects of online peer-to-peer marketplaces on urban property markets

    Stefan Brauckmann

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the potential effects of the so-called sharing economy on growing city tourism as well as on urban property markets. Design/methodology/approach – Official statistical data and a geo-information system (GIS are used on a small scale in order to identify concentration processes among overnight visitors and the potential concomitant conflicts with other interest groups. Findings – Currently, the effects of the sharing economy on housing markets and city tourism are barely measurable and are limited to a few central locations. However, a growing demand can be discerned in housing-like accommodation concepts which can be operated via booking platforms. As there is likely to be strong future growth in this area, continuous market observation (monitoring is urgently advised. Research limitations/implications – Official statistics only allow an analysis of overnight guests staying with larger accommodation providers. Booking platforms for holiday homes and other temporary accommodation options have such little interest in data transparency that the overall phenomenon of city tourism can be addressed only in part. Practical implications – Associating various data within the GIS enables municipal administrators and urban planners to identify potential sources of conflict within the property markets in good time and effectively counteract these where possible. Social implications – Increases in property prices directly attributable to growing city tourism may lead to the displacement of less financially secure members of the established population as well as businesses. Originality/value – The sharing economy is a relatively new research topic which will become increasingly important in future. The identification of potential sources of conflict due to tourist accommodation has therefore not yet been comprehensively carried out on a small scale.

  13. Nuclear power and the market value of the shares of electric utilities

    Lyons, Joseph T.

    The most basic principle of security valuation is that market prices are determined by investors' expectations of the firm's performance in the future. These expectations are generally understood to be related to the risk that investors will bear by holding the firm's equity. There is considerable evidence that financial statements prepared in accordance with accrual-based accounting standards consistent with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) have information content relevant to the establishment of market prices. In 2001, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Statement of Financial Accounting Standard No. 143, "Accounting for Asset Retirement Obligations," changing the accounting standards that must be used to prepare financial statements. This paper investigates the effect that investment in nuclear power has on the market value of electric utilities and the impact on the securities markets of the significant changes in financial statement presentation mandated by this new standard.

  14. A market-based approach to share water and benefits in transboundary river basins

    Arjoon, Diane; Tilmant, Amaury; Herrmann, Markus

    2016-04-01

    The equitable sharing of benefits in transboundary river basins is necessary to reach a consensus on basin-wide development and management activities. Benefit sharing arrangements must be collaboratively developed to be perceived as efficient, as well as equitable, in order to be considered acceptable to all riparian countries. The current literature falls short of providing practical, institutional arrangements that ensure maximum economic welfare as well as collaboratively developed methods for encouraging the equitable sharing of benefits. In this study we define an institutional arrangement that distributes welfare in a river basin by maximizing the economic benefits of water use and then sharing these benefits in an equitable manner using a method developed through stakeholder involvement. In this methodology (i) a hydro-economic model is used to efficiently allocate scarce water resources to water users in a transboundary basin, (ii) water users are obliged to pay for water, and (iii) the total of these water charges are equitably redistributed as monetary compensation to users. The amount of monetary compensation, for each water user, is determined through the application of a sharing method developed by stakeholder input, based on a stakeholder vision of fairness, using an axiomatic approach. The whole system is overseen by a river basin authority. The methodology is applied to the Eastern Nile River basin as a case study. The technique ensures economic efficiency and may lead to more equitable solutions in the sharing of benefits in transboundary river basins because the definition of the sharing rule is not in question, as would be the case if existing methods, such as game theory, were applied, with their inherent definitions of fairness.

  15. Trends in market share of leading cigarette brands in the USA: national survey on drug use and health 2002-2013.

    Sharma, Anushree; Fix, Brian V; Delnevo, Cristine; Cummings, K Michael; O'Connor, Richard J

    2016-01-29

    The main objective of this study is to examine trends in market share for leading cigarette brands, both before (2002-2008) and after (2009-2013) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation of tobacco products.Design Data come from the annual National Survey on Drug Use and Health from 2002 through 2013. Descriptive statistics, cross tabulations, and logistic regression were employed. Data were weighted to the US population and adjusted for cigarette consumption. Our analysis is restricted to 164,343 current cigarette smokers who were at least 12 years of age or older, had smoked at least one cigarette in the 30 days prior to the survey, and reported a usual cigarette brand at the time of the survey. Over 12 years, 14 brands comprised over 77% of the cigarette market. Marlboro consistently held over 38% of the market. Newport held the second highest market share, and increased from 7.2% in 2002 to 10.9% by 2013. Market share of Pall Mall grew by over 400% (1.7% in 2002 vs 8.9% in 2013), likely aided by the 2009 Federal excise tax increase. No clear associations of changes in market share with the implementation of FDA's regulatory authority over tobacco in 2009 were noted. Tracking market share trends offers clues about brand marketing changing preferences of consumers. Rapidly growing cigarette brands should be monitored to determine if specific marketing practices or design changes are drivers, as these could represent public health concerns. Monitoring trends in cigarette market share could inform regulatory decision-making efforts related to marketing and advertising. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Complex dynamics of the generic and brand advertising strategies in duopoly

    Qi Jie; Ding Yongsheng; Chen Liang

    2008-01-01

    By using the optimal profit adjusting strategies, a dynamic advertising competition model in duopoly is extended from Krishnamurthy's static model. Both generic and brand effects for advertising are considered. This model can create complex bifurcating and chaotic behavior for the generic advertising efforts, which lead to chaotic dynamics for the brand advertising and even for the whole system. The asymptotic properties of the symmetric system and the asymmetric system are also investigated, which reflect interactions between the two firms' advertising strategies and relationships between the brand and the generic advertising expenditures

  17. Complex dynamics of the generic and brand advertising strategies in duopoly

    Qi Jie [College of Information Sciences and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 200051 (China)], E-mail: jieqi@dhu.edu.cn; Ding Yongsheng [College of Information Sciences and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 200051 (China)], E-mail: ysding@dhu.edu.cn; Chen Liang [College of Information Sciences and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 200051 (China)

    2008-04-15

    By using the optimal profit adjusting strategies, a dynamic advertising competition model in duopoly is extended from Krishnamurthy's static model. Both generic and brand effects for advertising are considered. This model can create complex bifurcating and chaotic behavior for the generic advertising efforts, which lead to chaotic dynamics for the brand advertising and even for the whole system. The asymptotic properties of the symmetric system and the asymmetric system are also investigated, which reflect interactions between the two firms' advertising strategies and relationships between the brand and the generic advertising expenditures.

  18. A heterogenous Cournot duopoly with delay dynamics: Hopf bifurcations and stability switching curves

    Pecora, Nicolò; Sodini, Mauro

    2018-05-01

    This article considers a Cournot duopoly model in a continuous-time framework and analyze its dynamic behavior when the competitors are heterogeneous in determining their output decision. Specifically the model is expressed in the form of differential equations with discrete delays. The stability conditions of the unique Nash equilibrium of the system are determined and the emergence of Hopf bifurcations is shown. Applying some recent mathematical techniques (stability switching curves) and performing numerical simulations, the paper confirms how different time delays affect the stability of the economy.

  19. Revenue Share between Layers and Investment Incentive for ISP in the Internet Market

    Unno, Masaru; Xu, Hua

    In this paper, we consider a revenue-sharing and network investment problem between an Internet service provider (ISP) and a content provider (CP) by applying the dynamic agency theory. We formulate the problem as the principal-agent problem where the ISP is the principal and the CP is the agent. The principal-agent problem is transformed to a stochastic optimal control problem in which the objectives of ISP are to find an optimal revenue-sharing strategy and a network investment strategy, and to advise an incentive compatible effort level to the CP. The sufficient conditions for the existence of the optimal revenue-sharing strategy, the optimal investment strategy and the incentive compatible effort to the CP are obtained. A numerical example is solved to show the existence of such strategies. The practical implications of the results obtained in the paper will also be discussed.

  20. Investment timing decisions in a stochastic duopoly model

    Marseguerra, Giovanni [Istituto di Econometria e CRANEC, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: giovanni.marseguerra@unicatt.it; Cortelezzi, Flavia [Dipartimento di Diritto ed Economia delle Persone e delle Imprese, Universita dell' Insubria (Italy)]. E-mail: flavia.cortelezzi@uninsubria.it; Dominioni, Armando [CORE-Catholique de Louvain la Neuve (Belgium)]. E-mail: dominioni@core.ucl.ac.be

    2006-08-15

    We investigate the role of strategic considerations on the optimal timing of investment when firms compete for a new market (e.g., the provision of an innovative product) under demand uncertainty. Within a continuous time model of stochastic oligopoly, we show that strategic considerations are likely to be of limited impact when the new product is radically innovative whilst the fear of a rival's entry may deeply affect firms' decisions whenever innovation is to some extent limited. The welfare analysis shows surprisingly that the desirability of the different market structures considered does not depend on the fixed entry cost.

  1. Investment timing decisions in a stochastic duopoly model

    Marseguerra, Giovanni; Cortelezzi, Flavia; Dominioni, Armando

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the role of strategic considerations on the optimal timing of investment when firms compete for a new market (e.g., the provision of an innovative product) under demand uncertainty. Within a continuous time model of stochastic oligopoly, we show that strategic considerations are likely to be of limited impact when the new product is radically innovative whilst the fear of a rival's entry may deeply affect firms' decisions whenever innovation is to some extent limited. The welfare analysis shows surprisingly that the desirability of the different market structures considered does not depend on the fixed entry cost

  2. Implementing evidence-based practices for youth in an HMO: the roles of external ratings and market share.

    Hamilton, John; Daleiden, Eric; Dopson, Sue

    2011-05-01

    A qualitative study of child clinicians in a non-profit HMO examined implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) for anxiety and oppositional defiant disorders using interviews and focus groups with 33 clinicians (97% of participants), and ethnography of emails and meetings. Analysis showed statistical measures of access and service-key elements of rating organizations' "report cards"- were central in creating "pressure" making transition to EBPs difficult. EBPs were secondary to access and service targets. "Research" and "statistics" were perceived as unrealistic, "literature" as lacking authority. Rating organizations should include outcome and fidelity metrics to align market share pressures with children's health.

  3. Regulatory design for RES-E support mechanisms: Learning curves, market structure, and burden-sharing

    Batlle, C.; Pérez-Arriaga, I.J.; Zambrano-Barragán, P.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing from relevant experiences in power systems around the world, this paper offers a review of existing policy support mechanisms for RES-E, with a detailed analysis of their regulatory implications. While recent studies provide an account of current RES-E support systems, in this paper we focus on some of the impacts these mechanisms have on the overall energy market structure and its performance. Given the rising importance of RES-E in systems everywhere, these impacts should no longer be overlooked. - Highlights: ► This paper offers a critical review of RES-E support mechanisms and their regulatory implications. ► The discussion focuses on how the different schemes impact the performance of the energy markets. ► We propose to redesign of current RES-E mechanisms to optimize incentives and market performance. ► Our recommendation is also to gradually move from price-based mechanisms to auctions.

  4. Cost-Sharing and Drug Pricing Strategies : Introducing Tiered Co-Payments in Reference Price Markets

    Suppliet, Moritz; Herr, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Health insurances curb price insensitive behavior and moral hazard of insureds through different types of cost-sharing, such as tiered co-payments or reference pricing. This paper evaluates the effect of newly introduced price limits below which drugs are exempt from co-payments on the pricing

  5. The Consumer Production Journey: Marketing to Consumers as Co-Producers in the Sharing Economy

    B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractNew digital technologies not only support consumers in better fulfilling their own consumption needs, but also enable them to create greater value for other consumers. These new consumer co- production activities, collectively referred to as the sharing economy, require firms to rethink

  6. Strategic informative advertising in a horizontally differentiated duopoly

    Celik, Levent

    -, č. 359 (2008), s. 1-41 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : informative advertising * tune-ins * television market Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp359.pdf

  7. A multi-scale energy demand model suggests sharing market risks with intelligent energy cooperatives

    G. Methenitis (Georgios); M. Kaisers (Michael); J.A. La Poutré (Han)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we propose a multi-scale model of energy demand that is consistent with observations at a macro scale, in our use-case standard load profiles for (residential) electric loads. We employ the model to study incentives to assume the risk of volatile market prices for

  8. The Provision of Information as Marketing Strategy.

    Eaton, Jonathan; Grossman, Gene M

    1986-01-01

    The authors study the disclosure of information about product characteristics as part of firms' competitive strategy. A model of a differentiated products duopoly is constructed in which firms may choose whether or not t o reveal the attributes of their product to consumers with heterogeneous tastes. The authors analyze the implications of disclosure versus nondisclosure for firms' profits and consumer welfare, and identify the Nash equilibrium marketing st rategies corresponding to different...

  9. Competitive pricing in markets with different overhead costs : Concealment or leakage of cost information?

    Cardinaels, E.; Roodhooft, F.; Warlop, L.; Van Herck, G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper experimentally investigates how leaders and followers in a duopoly set prices for two product markets that have different overhead costs. In a fully crossed two‐by‐two design, we manipulate the participants' private cost report quality as either low or high, representing the extent to

  10. Soverign Rating Events and bank Share Prices in the Italian Market

    S. Caselli; G. Gandolfi; M. Soana

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines the spillover effect of Eurozone sovereign rating changes announced by Standard and Poor’s, Moody’s, and Fitch on domestic bank share prices in the period 2002–2012. This spillover effect appears strongly negative in the case of downgrades, but insignificant for upgrades. Bank losses following sovereign downgrades are greater during the financial crisis of 2008 and in the PIIGS countries (Portugal, Ireland, Italy, Greece, and Spain). Surprisingly, announcement of sovereign ...

  11. Share Market Analysis Using Various Economical Determinants to Predict Decision of Investors

    Ghosh, Arijit; Roy, Samrat; Bandyopadhyay, Gautam; Choudhuri, Kripasindhu

    2010-10-01

    The following paper tries to develop six major hypotheses in Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) in India. The paper tries to proof the hypothesis by collecting data from the fields on six sectors: oil prices, gold price, Cash Reserve Ratio, food price inflation, call money rate and Dollar price. The research uses these data as indicators to identify relationship and level of influence on Share prices of Bombay Stock Exchange by rejecting and accepting the null hypothesis.

  12. Strategic informative advertising in a tv-advertising duopoly

    Nilssen, Tore; Sørgard, Lars

    2000-01-01

    We consider a model of strategic informative advertising where the advertising is done on TV and where the TV channels' advertising prices are endogenously determined. We discuss how these prices, and the advertising firms' advertising efforts, vary with the two key parameters of the model: the degree of product differentiation in the product market and a measure of the relative sizes of the TV channels' viewer bases. We find, in particular, that the larger the size difference among the TV ch...

  13. Decomposing price differentials due to ENERGY STARR labels and energy efficiency features in appliances: proxy for market share tracking?

    Gardner, John; Skumatz, Lisa A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent work using statistical methods to examine the portions of the apparent price differences for a variety of appliances that are attributable to efficiency labels or components of efficient measures. The work stems from research examining progress in market transformation. The goal was to monitor market progress in the premium associated with efficient equipment compared to standard equipment - and potentially track these changes (hopefully, according to logic, declining) over time. However, the incremental cost metric is always confounded by the fact that the 'feature bundle' on appliances and lighting is not consistent ( i.e. , many efficient products are loaded up with other, high-end features). Based on work conducted by the authors some years ago, we adapted statistical models to decompose the price differentials for efficient and standard refrigerators, clothes washers, and dish washers. The authors used site visits and web searches to gather data on appliance prices and features for a set of efficient and standard models. The authors first examined apparent (raw) price differentials between efficient and standard models. Then, using regression techniques to control for differences in features on the measures, the differences attributable to various features - and in particular to energy efficient features and logos - were estimated. The results showed that while the apparent (gross) price differences for efficient measures are high, the percentage and dollar differences decrease dramatically when the price differences statistically attributable to other features of the measure are accounted for. The work illustrates a promising approach for three important applications in program planning and evaluation: tracking market progress within and between states or service territories, using a proxy variable that is less expensive and complicated to measure than direct indicators of sales or market share, identifying appropriate levels for

  14. R&D Expenses and Share Value in The Japanese Stock Market

    Sophie Nivoix

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The growing influence of technology in business activities is driving many firms to devote a greater amount of resources to research and development. It is therefore crucial to understand how the stock market evaluates the benefits of R&D. In this paper, our aim is to investigate whether Japanese investors have rewarded firms that heavily invest in R&D. We first document that R&D expenses have remained fairly stable relative to sales in the past eight years, but with large variations within and between industries. We then show that R&Dfirms have achieved a higher return relative to non-R&D firms. However, our regressions and investment simulations indicate that the relation between R&D intensity and stock returns is not significant, suggesting that the Japanese stock market is semi-strong efficient.

  15. Distributed Market-Based Algorithms for Multi-Agent Planning with Shared Resources

    2013-02-01

    1 Introduction 1 2 Distributed Market-Based Multi-Agent Planning 5 2.1 Problem Formulation...over the deterministic planner, on the “test set” of scenarios with changing economies. . . 50 xi xii Chapter 1 Introduction Multi-agent planning is...representation of the objective (4.2.1). For example, for the supply chain mangement problem, we assumed a sequence of Bernoulli coin flips, which seems

  16. Managed care market share and cesarean section rates in the United States: is there a link?

    Hueston, W J; Sutton, A

    2000-11-01

    After peaking during the early 1980s, cesarean section rates in the United States have been falling for the last decade. At the same time, managed care enrollment has increased dramatically. This study examines whether managed care penetration in local markets is associated with lower cesarean section rates in those geographic area. A cross-sectional comparison of cesarean section rates and health maintenance organization (HMO) market penetration in 61 selected metropolitan areas in the United States was conducted. National birth certificate data for 1996 were used to calculate crude and race-adjusted cesarean section rates for residents in each area. No relationship between overall cesarean section rates in the metropolitan areas and managed care penetration was observed. Subanalyses of racial groups demonstrated the existence of a weak association between managed care penetration and cesarean section rates for white women (21.2% for the highest quartile of HMO penetration, compared with 19.1% for the lowest quartile; P = .03), but not for African-Americans or other minorities. Managed care penetration in a market may have an association with cesarean section rates for white women, but the strength of this relationship is small. Even if managed care delivery systems reduce cesarean section rates in their own populations, this change is likely to have only a small impact on overall cesarean rates. HMO penetration is unlikely to influence national cesarean section rates, nor does it appear to explain state variations in these rates.

  17. Innovative business models within niche tourist markets: shared identity, authenticity and flexibile networks. The case of three italian SMEs

    Federica Montaguti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Innovative business models within niche tourist markets: shared identity, authenticity and flexibile networks. The case of three italian SMEs The evolution of business models is a crucial challenge for tourism companies, which should understand how they can stimulate their creativity and introduce innovation. However for many firms, in particular for SMEs, this process is not so easy to be adopted. Even more difficult it is to understand how the business model should change to be successful in solving what appears to be one of the main problems for SMEs, especially within mature, tourist destinations, i.e. targeting new profitable segments. The paper discusses the main findings of a research project carried out by the authors about changes in the business models of Italian tourism companies, underlining in particular three case-studies of interest in terms of the innovation put in place and that relate to SMEs. The analysis, based on the business model canvas, the value constellation and the storytelling, found out that these three firms are flexible companies that have characteristics emblematic of the knowledge and information economy business models. They successfully answer the needs of specific niches, finding new opportunities within a mature tourism market and famous destinations, thanks to their ability to develop wide flexible networks, where customers are an active part, and thanks to the value proposed to the clients, centred on the idea of a shared identity between the clients and the company’s founders and of an authenticity guaranteed by the life story of the founders themselves.

  18. Factors of Purchase of Bread – Prospect to Regain the Market Share?

    Ladislav Skořepa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to assess the consumers’ buying behaviour and decision-making process when purchasing bread and to propose the ways of how to improve the position of bread in the market. 1601 properly filled questionnaires were used for the analysis. Results are presented under the form of frequencies of answers and statistical tests. The analysis included evaluation of statistical hypotheses about the independence (significance level α = 0.01 using the chi-square goodness of fit test and Pearson coefficient of contingency. The significance level was then compared with the value p-value, for p-value > α, the null hypothesis was not rejected. The most important factors of choosing bread are freshness, appearance habit and price. The importance of the price grows with the increasing age of respondents and decreases with the increasing income of questioned consumers. The importance of the brand, as well as the reference or recommendation from the family and friends slightly strengthens with the increasing income of the consumers. Most of the respondents make no difference between both (yeast and rye leaven technologies of baking bread when making their buying decision. We cannot say, however, the preference to the rye leaven bread grows with the increasing age of respondents to the detriment of the yeast bread or vice versa.

  19. Attitude of Supervisors of Yazd Educational Hospitals towards the Role of Personnel Element on the Market Share of Hospital Services

    Mohammad Zare Zadeh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Quality of services extremely depends on how personnel have contact and interaction with the clients. Moreover, the personnel’s attitudes and their behaviors with the clients significantly affect clients’ perception of quality of services and consequently influence their satisfaction as well as their absorption to the services of an institution. This study intends to investigate the supervisor’s attitude towards the effect of persons or the personal element (as one of the elements of the service marketing mix on choosing the hospital by the patients and their companions. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in the winter of 2012. The study participant involved 35 supervisors in Yazd educational hospitals of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences; Shahid Rahnemoun and Afshar. The research data were gleaned via a researcher-made questionnaire on factors of the marketing mix which its validity and reliability were confirmed. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results: Results revealed that supervisor’s belief in the increasing of market share of a hospital services in public hospitals are consist of: 1-Physical evidence 2- Service or product 3- People or persons 4- Efficiency and quality 5- Process 6- Distribution 7-Promotion or propagation and 8- Price. Therefore, the significance of the personnel role in absorption of a definite patient involves the third element in choosing the hospital by the patients. Conclusion: Based on this study, since the third factor in clients’ (patients, etc. choices of hospital are the personnel and persons who provide services, it is confirmed that in service-based organizations like hospitals, the most important elements of quality of services in retaining and absorbing new clients and surviving the organization are the personnel activities who has been connected with organization clients. Moreover, it is regarded as a vital factor in

  20. Dynamics of a Bertrand duopoly with differentiated products and nonlinear costs: Analysis, comparisons and new evidences

    Brianzoni, Serena; Gori, Luca; Michetti, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies mathematical properties and dynamics of a duopoly with price competition and horizontal product differentiation by introducing quadratic production costs (decreasing returns to scale), thus extending the model with linear costs (constant returns to scale) of Fanti et al. [11]. The economy is described by a two-dimensional non-invertible discrete time dynamic system. The paper first determines fixed points and other invariant sets, showing that synchronized dynamics can occur. Then, stability properties are compared in the cases of quadratic costs and linear costs by considering the degree of product differentiation and the speed of adjustment of prices as key parameters. It is also shown that synchronization takes place if products tend to be relatively complements and stressed similarities and differences between models with quadratic and linear costs. Finally, the paper focuses on the phenomenon of multistability thus underlying new evidences in comparison with the model with linear costs.

  1. Multistability and complex basins in a nonlinear duopoly with price competition and relative profit delegation.

    Fanti, Luciano; Gori, Luca; Mammana, Cristiana; Michetti, Elisabetta

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we investigate the local and global dynamics of a nonlinear duopoly model with price-setting firms and managerial delegation contracts (relative profits). Our study aims at clarifying the effects of the interaction between the degree of product differentiation and the weight of manager's bonus on long-term outcomes in two different states: managers behave more aggressively with the rival (competition) under product complementarity and less aggressively with the rival (cooperation) under product substitutability. We combine analytical tools and numerical techniques to reach interesting results such as synchronisation and on-off intermittency of the state variables (in the case of homogeneous attitude of managers) and the existence of chaotic attractors, complex basins of attraction, and multistability (in the case of heterogeneous attitudes of managers). We also give policy insights.

  2. Multistability and complex basins in a nonlinear duopoly with price competition and relative profit delegation

    Fanti, Luciano; Gori, Luca; Mammana, Cristiana; Michetti, Elisabetta

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we investigate the local and global dynamics of a nonlinear duopoly model with price-setting firms and managerial delegation contracts (relative profits). Our study aims at clarifying the effects of the interaction between the degree of product differentiation and the weight of manager's bonus on long-term outcomes in two different states: managers behave more aggressively with the rival (competition) under product complementarity and less aggressively with the rival (cooperation) under product substitutability. We combine analytical tools and numerical techniques to reach interesting results such as synchronisation and on-off intermittency of the state variables (in the case of homogeneous attitude of managers) and the existence of chaotic attractors, complex basins of attraction, and multistability (in the case of heterogeneous attitudes of managers). We also give policy insights.

  3. An exploratory analysis of cigarette price premium, market share and consumer loyalty in relation to continued consumption versus cessation in a national US panel.

    Lewis, Michael; Wang, Yanwen; Cahn, Zachary; Berg, Carla J

    2015-11-03

    Brand equity and consumer loyalty play a role in continued purchasing behaviour; however, this research has largely focused on non-addictive products without counter-marketing tactics. We examined the impact of brand equity (price premium, market share) and consumer loyalty (switching rates) on smoking cessation (discontinued cigarette purchases for 1 year) among smokers in a consumer panel. In Spring 2015, we analysed 1077 cigarette-purchasing households in the Nielsen Homescan Panel. We analysed cessation in relation to brand equity, consumer loyalty, other purchasing behaviours (nicotine intake, frequency), sociodemographics and tobacco control activities (per state-specific data) over a 6-year period (2004-2009) using Cox proportional hazard modelling. The sample was 13.28% African-American; the average income was $52,334 (SD=31,445). The average price premium and market share of smokers' dominant brands were $1.31 (SD=0.49) and 15.41% (SD=19.15), respectively. The mean brand loyalty level was 0.90 (SD=0.17), indicating high loyalty. In our final model, a higher price premium and market share were associated with lower quit rates (p=0.039); however, an interaction effect suggested that greater market share was not associated with lower cessation rates for African-American smokers (p=0.006). Consumer loyalty was not associated with cessation. Other predictors of lower quit rates included a higher nicotine intake (p=0.006) and baseline purchase frequency (pconsumer relationships. Thus, continued efforts should aim to regulate tobacco marketing efforts in order to disrupt these relationships to promote cessation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. An exploratory analysis of cigarette price premium, market share and consumer loyalty in relation to continued consumption versus cessation in a national US panel

    Lewis, Michael; Wang, Yanwen; Cahn, Zachary; Berg, Carla J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Brand equity and consumer loyalty play a role in continued purchasing behaviour; however, this research has largely focused on non-addictive products without counter-marketing tactics. We examined the impact of brand equity (price premium, market share) and consumer loyalty (switching rates) on smoking cessation (discontinued cigarette purchases for 1 year) among smokers in a consumer panel. Methods In Spring 2015, we analysed 1077 cigarette-purchasing households in the Nielsen Homescan Panel. We analysed cessation in relation to brand equity, consumer loyalty, other purchasing behaviours (nicotine intake, frequency), sociodemographics and tobacco control activities (per state-specific data) over a 6-year period (2004–2009) using Cox proportional hazard modelling. Results The sample was 13.28% African-American; the average income was $52 334 (SD=31 445). The average price premium and market share of smokers’ dominant brands were $1.31 (SD=0.49) and 15.41% (SD=19.15), respectively. The mean brand loyalty level was 0.90 (SD=0.17), indicating high loyalty. In our final model, a higher price premium and market share were associated with lower quit rates (p=0.039); however, an interaction effect suggested that greater market share was not associated with lower cessation rates for African-American smokers (p=0.006). Consumer loyalty was not associated with cessation. Other predictors of lower quit rates included a higher nicotine intake (p=0.006) and baseline purchase frequency (pconsumer relationships. Thus, continued efforts should aim to regulate tobacco marketing efforts in order to disrupt these relationships to promote cessation. PMID:26534732

  5. Evaluation of the potential of PV noise barrier technology for electricity production and market share. Final report

    Goetzberger, A.; Kleiss, G.; Castello, S.; Hille, G.; Reise, C.; Wiemken, E.; Betcke, J.W.H.; Van Dijk, V.A.P.; Pearsall, N.; Hynes, K.; Gaidddon, B.; Nordmann, T.; Froelich, A.

    1999-06-01

    The analysis of existing and planned noise barriers along rails and roads has been carried out by the national partners together with national authorities, which are experts and responsible for the required data. The methodical approach of this study includes the set-up of a grid along longitude and latitudes with 1 by 1 degrees for Germany, Italy, France, United Kingdom and 0.5 by 0.5 degrees for the Netherlands and Switzerland. For each degree the length and orientation of rails and roads, the existing and planned noise barriers are registered and grouped according to their orientations. The solar radiation is based on data of a METEONORM data set. This includes the solar radiation on horizontal orientation as well as various inclination angles for all possible orientations. Moreover, possible shading has been considered. The technical specifications of noise barriers (PVNB) are based on the comprehensive knowledge of TNC GmbH and TNC AG with various plants realised. Technologies have been considered for both state-of-the-art and innovative concepts such as bifacial PVNB. In bifacial PVNB the PV-module is mounted vertically on both sides and is used at the same time as noise reflecting material. Installed PV power and produced electricity have been calculated for: 1. theoretical potential 2. technical potential 3. short-term resp. European extrapolated potential 4. anticipated potential 5. EU-member assessment The result of this study confirms the current activities to implement PV on noise barriers as an important share in the PV market.The report is subdivided into two volumes: Volume 1 contains the main topics and results, and Volume 2 contains additional information on the solar radiation, typical concepts as an excerpt of the various potentials and all country maps with the required explanations. 95 refs

  6. On the (dis)ability of the firm to quantify chains : a marketing prespective on sharing financial rewards

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.

    2005-01-01

    Although the marketing discipline originates from agricultural economics, it currently moves to a new logic that is marked by, among other things, customer value, customer satisfaction, rationships, market orientation and resource-based theories. This article uses this evolving logic in marketing to

  7. The influence of entanglement and decoherence on the quantum Stackelberg duopoly game

    Zhu Xia; Kuang, L-M

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the influence of entanglement and decoherence on the quantum Stackelberg duopoly (QSD) game. It is shown that the first-mover advantage can be weakened or enhanced due to the existence of entanglement for the QSD game without decoherence. The influence of decoherence induced by the amplitude damping and the phase damping are explicitly studied in the formalism of Kraus operator representations. We show that the amplitude damping drastically changes the Nash equilibrium of the QSD game and the profits of the two players while the phase damping does not affect the Nash equilibrium and the profits of the two players. It is found that under certain conditions there exists a 'critical point' of the damping parameter for the amplitude damping environment. At the 'critical point' the two players have the same moves and payoffs. The QSD game can change from the first-mover advantage game into the follower-mover advantage game when the damping parameter varies from the left-hand-side regime of the 'critical point' to the right-hand-side regime

  8. Analysis of Nonlinear Duopoly Games with Product Differentiation: Stability, Global Dynamics, and Control

    S. S. Askar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers have used quadratic utility function to study its influences on economic games with product differentiation. Such games include Cournot, Bertrand, and a mixed-type game called Cournot-Bertrand. Within this paper, a cubic utility function that is derived from a constant elasticity of substitution production function (CES is introduced. This cubic function is more desirable than the quadratic one besides its amenability to efficiency analysis. Based on that utility a two-dimensional Cournot duopoly game with horizontal product differentiation is modeled using a discrete time scale. Two different types of games are studied in this paper. In the first game, firms are updating their output production using the traditional bounded rationality approach. In the second game, firms adopt Puu’s mechanism to update their productions. Puu’s mechanism does not require any information about the profit function; instead it needs both firms to know their production and their profits in the past time periods. In both scenarios, an explicit form for the Nash equilibrium point is obtained under certain conditions. The stability analysis of Nash point is considered. Furthermore, some numerical simulations are carried out to confirm the chaotic behavior of Nash equilibrium point. This analysis includes bifurcation, attractor, maximum Lyapunov exponent, and sensitivity to initial conditions.

  9. Inherent Complexity Research on the Bullwhip Effect in Supply Chains with Two Retailers: The Impact of Three Forecasting Methods Considering Market Share

    Junhai Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An important phenomenon in supply chain management which is known as the bullwhip effect suggests that demand variability increases as one moves up a supply chain. This paper contrasts the bullwhip effect for a two-stage supply chain consisting of one supplier and two retailers under three forecasting methods based on the market share. We can quantify the correlation coefficient between the two retailers clearly, in consideration of market share. The two retailers both employ the order-up-to inventory policy for replenishments. The bullwhip effect is measured, respectively, under the minimum mean squared error (MMSE, moving average (MA, and exponential smoothing (ES forecasting methods. The effect of autoregressive coefficient, lead time, and the market share on a bullwhip effect measure is investigated by using algebraic analysis and numerical simulation. And the comparison of the bullwhip effect under three forecasting methods is conducted. The conclusion suggests that different forecasting methods and various parameters lead to different bullwhip effects. Hence, the corresponding forecasting method should be chosen by the managers under different parameters in practice.

  10. The Effects of Shared Consumption on Product Life Cycles and Advertising Effectiveness : The Case of the Motion Picture Market

    Delre, Sebastiano A.; Broekhuizen, Thijs L.J.; Bijmolt, Tammo H.A.

    2016-01-01

    Consumers frequently consume hedonic products together with other consumers and derive value from this shared experience. This article investigates the impact of shared consumption, a type of social influence that determines the enjoyment of joint experiences, in the context of a typical hedonic

  11. The effect of business cycle fluctuations on private-label share : What has marketing conduct got to do with it?

    Lamey, L.; Deleersnyder, B.; Steenkamp, J.E.B.M.; Dekimpe, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigate whether, and to what extent, marketing conduct varies over the business cycle and how this contributes to the growing popularity of private labels. To address this issue, they examine a unique data set that combines a broad set of seven marketing-mix instruments with

  12. Production sharing agreements

    1994-01-01

    This paper, which was presented at the Production Sharing Agreement seminar, discusses economic rent, negotiations, trends in fiscal system development, and concessionary systems. Production sharing contracts, risk service contracts, joint ventures and the global market are examined. (UK)

  13. Impacts of market liberalisation on the EU gas industry. The Shared Analysis project Energy Policy in Europe and Prospects to 2020. Volume No. 9

    Van Oostvoorn, F.; Boots, M.G.

    1999-10-01

    This final report presents the results of the analyses at relevant trends and features in the EU gas market enabling or limiting more competition. The study focuses in particular on the possible impacts of the implementation of the EU Gas Directive and subsequently of the expected effects of increasing competition and further integration of gas markets in Europe. The study is conducted in the framework of the Shared Analysis project entitled 'Economic Foundations for Energy Policy', coordinated by FhG-ISI and prepared for the European Commission Directorate General for Energy. The report contains an analysis of the recent changes in the structure of gas demand and the supply and its consequences for enhancement of competition in the EU gas market. lt discusses the role of growing gas demand, changing structure of the supply industry and access to the network. Next, the implementation of the EU Gas Directive is discussed. In order to deal with the uncertainty in the results of the implementation process, two extreme institutional scenarios for future development of the liberalisation process in the EU gas markets are formulated. Finally, the consequences of these two gas market liberalisation scenarios are analysed. Note that part of the conclusions of the expected effects of the Directive, i.e. the expected changes in gas prices and market structures, are based on a model analysis. However, it should be clear that at this stage our conclusions presented in this report are still of a tentative nature. Note also that the final report is based on an extensive collection of EU gas market data both on country and company level, which was described in the first interim report entitled 'The natural gas market in the European Union'. A second interim report was drafted with an energy policy interpretation of the analyses of data and developments over the past ten years. Furthermore, at this moment, facts, opinions and available data are rapidly changing in the beginning of

  14. High Generic Drug Prices and Market Competition: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Dave, Chintan V; Kesselheim, Aaron S; Fox, Erin R; Qiu, Peihua; Hartzema, Abraham

    2017-08-01

    Prices for some generic drugs have increased in recent years, adversely affecting patients who rely on them. To determine the association between market competition levels and the change in generic drug prices in the United States. Retrospective cohort study. Prescription claims from commercial health plans between 2008 and 2013. The 5.5 years of data were divided into 11 study periods of 6 months each. The Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI)-calculated by summing the squares of individual manufacturers' market shares, with higher values indicating a less competitive market-and average drug prices were estimated for the generic drugs in each period. The HHI value estimated in the baseline period (first half of 2008) was modeled as a fixed covariate. Models estimated price changes over time by level of competition, adjusting for drug shortages, market size, and dosage forms. From 1.08 billion prescription claims, a cohort of 1120 generic drugs was identified. After adjustment, drugs with quadropoly (HHI value of 2500, indicating relatively high levels of competition), duopoly (HHI value of 5000), near-monopoly (HHI value of 8000), and monopoly (HHI value of 10 000) levels of baseline competition were associated with price changes of -31.7% (95% CI, -34.4% to -28.9%), -11.8% (CI, -18.6% to -4.4%), 20.1% (CI, 5.5% to 36.6%), and 47.4% (CI, 25.4% to 73.2%), respectively, over the study period. Study findings may not be generalizable to drugs that became generic after 2008. Market competition levels were associated with a change in generic drug prices. Such measurements may be helpful in identifying older prescription drugs at higher risk for price change in the future. None.

  15. Supporting the Development and Adoption of Automatic Lameness Detection Systems in Dairy Cattle: Effect of System Cost and Performance on Potential Market Shares.

    Van De Gucht, Tim; Van Weyenberg, Stephanie; Van Nuffel, Annelies; Lauwers, Ludwig; Vangeyte, Jürgen; Saeys, Wouter

    2017-10-08

    Most automatic lameness detection system prototypes have not yet been commercialized, and are hence not yet adopted in practice. Therefore, the objective of this study was to simulate the effect of detection performance (percentage missed lame cows and percentage false alarms) and system cost on the potential market share of three automatic lameness detection systems relative to visual detection: a system attached to the cow, a walkover system, and a camera system. Simulations were done using a utility model derived from survey responses obtained from dairy farmers in Flanders, Belgium. Overall, systems attached to the cow had the largest market potential, but were still not competitive with visual detection. Increasing the detection performance or lowering the system cost led to higher market shares for automatic systems at the expense of visual detection. The willingness to pay for extra performance was €2.57 per % less missed lame cows, €1.65 per % less false alerts, and €12.7 for lame leg indication, respectively. The presented results could be exploited by system designers to determine the effect of adjustments to the technology on a system's potential adoption rate.

  16. Marketing.

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  17. What happened to anti-malarial markets after the Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria pilot? Trends in ACT availability, price and market share from five African countries under continuation of the private sector co-payment mechanism.

    Tougher, Sarah; Hanson, Kara; Goodman, Catherine

    2017-04-25

    The private sector supplies anti-malarial treatment for large proportions of patients in sub-Saharan Africa. Following the large-scale piloting of the Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria (AMFm) from 2010 to 2011, a private sector co-payment mechanism (CPM) provided continuation of private sector subsidies for quality-assured artemisinin combination therapies (QAACT). This article analyses for the first time the extent to which improvements in private sector QAACT supply and distribution observed during the AMFm were maintained or intensified during continuation of the CPM through 2015 in Kenya, Madagascar, Nigeria, Tanzania and Uganda using repeat cross-sectional outlet survey data. QAACT market share in all five countries increased during the AMFm period (p private sector QAACT availability were maintained or improved. In 2014/15, private sector QAACT availability was greater than 70% in Nigeria (84.3%), Kenya (70.5%), Tanzania (83.0%) and Uganda (77.1%), but only 11.2% in Madagascar. QAACT market share was maintained or improved post-AMFm in Nigeria, Tanzania and Uganda, but statistically significant declines were observed in Kenya and Madagascar. In 2014/5, QAACT market share was highest in Kenya and Uganda (48.2 and 47.5%, respectively) followed by Tanzania (39.2%), Nigeria (35.0%), and Madagascar (7.0%). Four of the five countries experienced significant decreases in median QAACT price during the AMFm period. Private sector QAACT prices were maintained or further reduced in Tanzania, Nigeria and Uganda, but prices increased significantly in Kenya and Madagascar. SP prices were consistently lower than those of QAACT in the AMFm period, with the exception of Kenya and Tanzania in 2011, where they were equal. In 2014/5 QAACT remained two to three times more expensive than the most popular non-artemisinin therapy in all countries except Tanzania. Results suggest that a private sector co-payment mechanism for QAACT implemented at national scale for 5 years was

  18. Knowledge sharing through social media: Investigating trends and technologies in a global marketing and advertising research company

    Dina Adamovic

    2012-07-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate trends in knowledge-sharing technologies in Nielsen. Method: The researchers distributed semi-structured questionnaires to a sample of employees in Nielsen’s Television Audience Measurement Department. They also conducted interviews with specific employees in this department to gain a better understanding of employees’ attitudes toward, and perceptions of, the use of social media tools for creating a knowledgesharing culture at Nielsen. The researchers validated the data to see whether it could support the research and used triangulation to create a holistic view of the data they received from the questionnaires. Results: The findings of the study revealed that respondents had a positive attitude to sharing knowledge with one another through using social media tools. However, some respondents thought that technology, in general, was ‘the tree of good and evil’. The survey findings showed that Nielsen did have social media tools. However, not all employees were aware of these tools or were willing to use the tools to share knowledge. This study highlighted the possible advantages of the social media for sharing knowledge and how Nielsen could use the tools more widely. Conclusion: In order for a knowledge sharing culture to thrive at Nielsen, its employees need to engage more with social media tools in their business practices.

  19. A Mathematical Model of Profit-Loss Sharing Scheme of Small Investment for Traditional Market Traders using The Semi-Fuzzy Logic Approach

    Novriana Sumarti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of micro-finance investment using profit-loss sharing scheme are made and implemented to simulated data. Here profits from the venture will be shared in a portion between the investor and the entity running the business. The scheme can be classified as Musharaka type of investment in Sharia economy. The proposed model is theoretically implemented with data from small-scale traders at a local traditional market who have small turnover. They are common target of usurers who lend money with high interest rate and penalties. If the traders are in unfortunate conditions, they are potentially in poorer condition than before committing themselves to the usurer. In the conventional practices of the profit sharing scheme, the investor will get a fixed portion of the trader’s income, which is applied for all kind of small-scale traders. If the traders are diligent and hard worker and have very high turnover, then the investor will gain much more profit whether the contributed capital is small or large. In this paper, the scheme is implemented using Semi-Fuzzy Logic Approach so that the profit-loss sharing scheme can achieve its intended goal, which is to make a profitable investment not only for the investor but also for traders. The approach is not fully using Fuzzy Logic because some variables are still in crisp numbers and the optimization problem is regular in the form of crisp numbers. Based on the existing data, the results show that the optimal profit share is depended on the income of the traders. The higher the income coming from the venture, the lesser the profit share for the investor which is reasonable with the fixed initial contributed capital.

  20. Knowledge sharing through social media: Investigating trends and technologies in a global marketing and advertising research company

    Dina Adamovic

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate social media technology trends in Nielsen – a global information and measurement company – and to establish how these technologies can help the company to create a knowledge-sharing culture.Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate trends in knowledge-sharing technologies in Nielsen.Method: The researchers distributed semi-structured questionnaires to a sample of employees in Nielsen’s Television Audience Measurement Department. They also conducted interviews with specific employees in this department to gain a better understanding of employees’ attitudes toward, and perceptions of, the use of social media tools for creating a knowledgesharing culture at Nielsen. The researchers validated the data to see whether it could support the research and used triangulation to create a holistic view of the data they received from the questionnaires.Results: The findings of the study revealed that respondents had a positive attitude to sharing knowledge with one another through using social media tools. However, some respondents thought that technology, in general, was ‘the tree of good and evil’. The survey findings showed that Nielsen did have social media tools. However, not all employees were aware of these tools or were willing to use the tools to share knowledge. This study highlighted the possible advantages of the social media for sharing knowledge and how Nielsen could use the tools more widely.Conclusion: In order for a knowledge sharing culture to thrive at Nielsen, its employees need to engage more with social media tools in their business practices. 

  1. Testing for Expected Return and Market Price of Risk in Chinese A-B Share Market: A Geometric Brownian Motion and Multivariate GARCH Model Approach

    Zhu, Jie

    There exist dual-listed stocks which are issued by the same company in some stock markets. Although these stocks bare the same firm-specific risk and enjoy identical dividends and voting policies, they are priced differently. Some previous studies show this seeming deviation from the law of one p...

  2. South Korean carbon black business: The market share of the foreign-affiliated firm occupies 60%; Gaishi shea 1kyo 6wari

    NONE

    1998-02-28

    Entering of the foreign capital by the business bribery happens one after another in the South Korean carbon blacks business world. German Gegsa followed the matter that the business of LG chemistry was purchased last November, and rice Colombia, chemicals purchased a business from the brocade Lake petrochemistry, too. Though a domestic manufacturer 4 companies almost monopolized it, share of the foreign capital enterprise which occupies it in the gross domestic product ability by the a series of bribery was beyond 60% in the South Korean carbon blacks market at once. It has South Korea seen with foreign capital two companies with the thing, which strengthens a business in Asia in the position, and foreign capital two companies will put an offensive on the Japanese market. (translated by NEDO)

  3. Does labour market disadvantage help to explain why childhood circumstances are related to quality of life at older ages? Results from SHARE.

    Wahrendorf, Morten; Blane, David

    2015-07-01

    There is robust evidence that childhood circumstances are related to quality of life in older ages, but the role of possible intermediate factors is less explored. In this paper, we examine to what extent associations between deprived childhood circumstances and quality of life at older ages are due to experienced labour market disadvantage during adulthood. Analyses are based on the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), with detailed retrospective information on individual life courses collected among 10,272 retired men and women in 13 European countries (2008-2009). Our assumption is that those who have spent their childhood in deprived circumstances may also have had more labour market disadvantage with negative consequences for quality of life beyond working life. Results demonstrate that advantaged circumstances during childhood are associated with lower levels of labour market disadvantage and higher quality of life in older ages. Furthermore, results of multivariate analyses support the idea that part of the association between childhood circumstances and later quality of life is explained by labour market disadvantage during adulthood.

  4. STP Revision Which Leads to Change on Business Model and Marketing Strategy of BRIGANDINE with the Purpose of Expanding the Market Share

    Ashari, Emir; Aldianto, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Football industry Indonesia is currently on the rise and got a lot of public attention. As a result of increasing interest in the sport, many opportunities have opened up. One is the opportunity to market the complementary product to perform activities of playing football / Futsal such as the Jersey. Brigandine Football is a startup company that creates football/Futsal sportswear. Brigandine was founded in late 2011.There are few issues that brigandine face, the biggest problems is the lack o...

  5. Like, comment, share and all that jazz : social media as communication and marketing tool case: Social media marketing approaches used by MaiJazz music festival

    Tanaskovic, Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Master's thesis in International hotel and tourism management Social networks have become an integral part of everyday life for many. With an increasing number of companies using social media to communicate and build relationships with their customers, social media might be considered as the newest element of the marketing mix. The thesis’ objective is to explore the use of social media communication tools used by the jazz music festival, MaiJazz, in Stavanger, to define key...

  6. Wind up with continuous intra-day electricity markets? The integration of large-share wind power generation in Denmark

    Karanfil, Fatih; Li, Yuanjing

    2015-01-01

    This paper suggests an innovative idea to examine the functionality of an electricity intra-day market by testing causality among its fundamental components. As fluctuations of poorly predicted wind power generation are challenging the stability of the current electricity system, an intra-day market design can play an important role in managing wind forecast errors. Using Danish and Nordic data, it investigates the main drivers of the price difference between the intra-day and day-ahead markets, and causality between wind forecast errors and their counterparts. Our results show that the wind and conventional generation forecast errors significantly cause the intra-day price to differ from the day-ahead price, and that the relative intra-day price decreases with the unexpected amount of wind generation. Cross-border electricity exchanges are found to be important to handle wind forecast errors. Additionally, some zonal differences with respect to both causality and impulse responses are detected. This paper provides the first evidence on the persuasive functioning of the intra-day market in the case of Denmark, whereby intermittent production deviations are effectively reduced, and wind forecast errors are jointly handled through the responses from demand, conventional generation, and intra-day international electricity trade. (authors)

  7. Probabilistic modelling of human exposure to intense sweeteners in Italian teenagers: validation and sensitivity analysis of a probabilistic model including indicators of market share and brand loyalty.

    Arcella, D; Soggiu, M E; Leclercq, C

    2003-10-01

    For the assessment of exposure to food-borne chemicals, the most commonly used methods in the European Union follow a deterministic approach based on conservative assumptions. Over the past few years, to get a more realistic view of exposure to food chemicals, risk managers are getting more interested in the probabilistic approach. Within the EU-funded 'Monte Carlo' project, a stochastic model of exposure to chemical substances from the diet and a computer software program were developed. The aim of this paper was to validate the model with respect to the intake of saccharin from table-top sweeteners and cyclamate from soft drinks by Italian teenagers with the use of the software and to evaluate the impact of the inclusion/exclusion of indicators on market share and brand loyalty through a sensitivity analysis. Data on food consumption and the concentration of sweeteners were collected. A food frequency questionnaire aimed at identifying females who were high consumers of sugar-free soft drinks and/or of table top sweeteners was filled in by 3982 teenagers living in the District of Rome. Moreover, 362 subjects participated in a detailed food survey by recording, at brand level, all foods and beverages ingested over 12 days. Producers were asked to provide the intense sweeteners' concentration of sugar-free products. Results showed that consumer behaviour with respect to brands has an impact on exposure assessments. Only probabilistic models that took into account indicators of market share and brand loyalty met the validation criteria.

  8. ON A COURNOT DUOPOLY GAME WITH DIFFERENTIATED GOODS, HETEROGENEOUS EXPECTATIONS AND A COST FUNCTION INCLUDING EMISSION COSTS

    Georges SARAFOPOULOS

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigate the dynamics of a nonlinear Cournot- type duopoly game with differentiated goods, linear demand and a cost function that includes emission costs. The game is modeled with a system of two difference equations. Existence and stability of equilibria of this system are studied. We show that the model gives more complex chaotic and unpredictable trajectories as a consequence of change in the parameter of horizontal product differentiation and a higher (lower degree of product differentiation (weaker or fiercer competition destabilize (stabilize the economy. The chaotic features are justified numerically via computing Lyapunov numbers and sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Also, we show that in this case there are stable trajectories and a higher (lower degree of product differentiation does not tend to destabilize the economy.

  9. Hospital Market Structure and the Behavior of Not-for-Profit Hospitals: Evidence from Responses to California's Disproportionate Share Program

    Mark Duggan

    2000-01-01

    I exploit a plausibly exogenous change in hospital financial incentives to examine whether the behavior of private not-for-profit hospitals varies with the share of nearby hospitals organized as for-profit firms. My results show that not-for-profit hospitals in for-profit intensive areas are significantly more responsive to an increased incentive to treat low-income patients insured by the Medicaid program than are other not-for-profit providers. The heterogeneity in behavior is not due to di...

  10. Restructuring of Turkey's electricity market and the share of hydropower energy: The case of the Eastern Black Sea Basin

    Uzlu, Ergun; Koemuercue, Murat ihsan; Akpinar, Adem

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the historical development of Turkey's electricity power sector, the efforts for introducing competition in the power industry in Turkey, and the concerns regarding restructuring in Turkey. The contribution of the hydropower energy potential in Turkey to the reconstruction of the electricity structure in Turkey is also investigated. Then, among the 25 hydrological basins in Turkey, the Eastern Black Sea Basin located in the northeast of Turkey, which has great advantages from the view point of small hydropower potential or hydropower potential without storage, is chosen as the case study to carry out some investigations concerning its potential and to analyze the contribution of the private sector (the corporate body) in regard to the development of hydro potential in this basin within the scope of the 4628 Electricity Market Law. With this law, concerning the restructuring of the electricity market, private sector investments in this segment have increased. In total, 1524 hydroelectric power projects with 22 360 MW installed capacity has been implemented until January 22nd, 2009 and this figure is continuously rising. (author)

  11. İlaç Sektöründe Pazar Paylarının Analizi: Yeni Lanchester Stratejisi ve Sistem Dinamikleri(Analysis of Market Shares in Pharmaceutical Industry: New Lanchester Strategy and System Dynamics

    Aşkın ÖZDAĞOĞLU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, many companies have developed different competition strategies with the purpose of reaching their institutional targets. Developing of the competition strategies and reaction to the instantaneous changes according to the market conditions are possible with the detailed and dynamic analysis of the competitors. In this study, how to change the market shares of the pharmaceutical product companies that compete in a certain region, depending upon the sales force have been analyzed. Lanchester’s Laws have been used for the calculations made in order to determine the market shares. All calculations have been integrated in the frame of system dynamic model in the long run analysis of the market shares and forecasting the long term results of the different sales forces. Different scenarios and long term effects have been analyzed for changes of sales forces via this model. The study ended up with obtaining the potential market share changes of the pharmaceutical product in the case study for the long run which would support the marketing activities.

  12. Got ACTs? Availability, price, market share and provider knowledge of anti-malarial medicines in public and private sector outlets in six malaria-endemic countries

    O'Connell Kathryn A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT is the first-line malaria treatment throughout most of the malaria-endemic world. Data on ACT availability, price and market share are needed to provide a firm evidence base from which to assess the current situation concerning quality-assured ACT supply. This paper presents supply side data from ACTwatch outlet surveys in Benin, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, Madagascar, Nigeria, Uganda and Zambia. Methods Between March 2009 and June 2010, nationally representative surveys of outlets providing anti-malarials to consumers were conducted. A census of all outlets with the potential to provide anti-malarials was conducted in clusters sampled randomly. Results 28,263 outlets were censused, 51,158 anti-malarials were audited, and 9,118 providers interviewed. The proportion of public health facilities with at least one first-line quality-assured ACT in stock ranged between 43% and 85%. Among private sector outlets stocking at least one anti-malarial, non-artemisinin therapies, such as chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, were widely available (> 95% of outlets as compared to first-line quality-assured ACT ( Conclusions These standardized, nationally representative results demonstrate the typically low availability, low market share and high prices of ACT, in the private sector where most anti-malarials are accessed, with some exceptions. The results confirm that there is substantial room to improve availability and affordability of ACT treatment in the surveyed countries. The data will also be useful for monitoring the impact of interventions such as the Affordable Medicines Facility for malaria.

  13. Cost-optimal power system extension under flow-based market coupling and high shares of photovoltaics

    Hagspiel, Simeon; Jaegemann, Cosima; Lindenberger, Dietmar [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Energy Economics; Cherevatskiy, Stanislav; Troester, Eckehard; Brown, Tom [Energynautics GmbH, Langen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Electricity market models, implemented as dynamic programming problems, have been applied widely to identify possible pathways towards a cost-optimal and low carbon electricity system. However, the joint optimization of generation and transmission remains challenging, mainly due to the fact that different characteristics and rules apply to commercial and physical exchanges of electricity in meshed networks. This paper presents a methodology that allows to optimize power generation and transmission infrastructures jointly through an iterative approach based on power transfer distribution factors (PTDFs). As PTDFs are linear representations of the physical load flow equations, they can be implemented in a linear programming environment suitable for large scale problems such as the European power system. The algorithm iteratively updates PTDFs when grid infrastructures are modified due to cost-optimal extension and thus yields an optimal solution with a consistent representation of physical load flows. The method is demonstrated on a simplified three-node model where it is found to be stable and convergent. It is then scaled to the European level in order to find the optimal power system infrastructure development under the prescription of strongly decreasing CO{sub 2} emissions in Europe until 2050 with a specific focus on photovoltaic (PV) power. (orig.)

  14. The expansion of nuclear energy in industrialized and developing countries: Reasons, market shares, fissile material supply and waste management

    Schwarz, D.

    1992-01-01

    At present there are more ethical-anthropological reasons than economic ones which speak for an expansion of nuclear energy: Ecological, climatic, peace and resource policy problems which most porbably will be unsolvable by real human beings and expensive methods leaving out nuclear energy. The risks resulting from that exceed by several orders of magnitude the risk which would be involved in the operation of various thousands of modern nuclear power plants. Most of the nuclear power plants are and will be operated today and tomorrow in industrialized countries; however, some of them are running already today in several threshold countries. Therefore the safety of nuclear power plants must be such as to permit their construction anywhere. Together with intensified saving, nuclear energy can solve energy policy problems in all sectors of the energy market predominantly in a non-fossil way, namely by taking over almost the entire power generation, by economical application of power instead of fossil fuels, rendering at the same time a large number of energy services, and supplying process and heating heat. Uranium supply will be solved internationally by prospection and increased uranium exploitation, or by the breeder, at economically reasonable cost. Safe waste management is technically feasible. Lack of acceptance neccessitates at present safe intermediate storage at reasonable cost. When discussing this question the ethical aspect of nuclear energy expansion should be stressed. (orig./UA) [de

  15. Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis of High-Octane Fuels with Various Market Shares and Ethanol Blending Levels

    Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Elgowainy, Amgad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Divita, Vincent [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-07-14

    In this study, we evaluated the impacts of producing HOF with a RON of 100, using a range of ethanol blending levels (E10, E25, and E40), vehicle efficiency gains, and HOF market penetration scenarios (3.4% to 70%), on WTW petroleum use and GHG emissions. In particular, we conducted LP modeling of petroleum refineries to examine the impacts of different HOF production scenarios on petroleum refining energy use and GHG emissions. We compared two cases of HOF vehicle fuel economy gains of 5% and 10% in terms of MPGGE to baseline regular gasoline vehicles. We incorporated three key factors in GREET — (1) refining energy intensities of gasoline components for the various ethanol blending options and market shares, (2) vehicle efficiency gains, and (3) upstream energy use and emissions associated with the production of different crude types and ethanol — to compare the WTW GHG emissions of various HOF/vehicle scenarios with the business-as-usual baseline regular gasoline (87 AKI E10) pathway.

  16. Got ACTs? Availability, price, market share and provider knowledge of anti-malarial medicines in public and private sector outlets in six malaria-endemic countries.

    O'Connell, Kathryn A; Gatakaa, Hellen; Poyer, Stephen; Njogu, Julius; Evance, Illah; Munroe, Erik; Solomon, Tsione; Goodman, Catherine; Hanson, Kara; Zinsou, Cyprien; Akulayi, Louis; Raharinjatovo, Jacky; Arogundade, Ekundayo; Buyungo, Peter; Mpasela, Felton; Adjibabi, Chérifatou Bello; Agbango, Jean Angbalu; Ramarosandratana, Benjamin Fanomezana; Coker, Babajide; Rubahika, Denis; Hamainza, Busiku; Chapman, Steven; Shewchuk, Tanya; Chavasse, Desmond

    2011-10-31

    Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is the first-line malaria treatment throughout most of the malaria-endemic world. Data on ACT availability, price and market share are needed to provide a firm evidence base from which to assess the current situation concerning quality-assured ACT supply. This paper presents supply side data from ACTwatch outlet surveys in Benin, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Madagascar, Nigeria, Uganda and Zambia. Between March 2009 and June 2010, nationally representative surveys of outlets providing anti-malarials to consumers were conducted. A census of all outlets with the potential to provide anti-malarials was conducted in clusters sampled randomly. 28,263 outlets were censused, 51,158 anti-malarials were audited, and 9,118 providers interviewed. The proportion of public health facilities with at least one first-line quality-assured ACT in stock ranged between 43% and 85%. Among private sector outlets stocking at least one anti-malarial, non-artemisinin therapies, such as chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, were widely available (> 95% of outlets) as compared to first-line quality-assured ACT (sector, first-line quality-assured ACT was available for free in all countries except Benin and the DRC (US$1.29 [Inter Quartile Range (IQR): $1.29-$1.29] and $0.52[IQR: $0.00-$1.29] per adult equivalent dose respectively). In the private sector, first-line quality-assured ACT was 5-24 times more expensive than non-artemisinin therapies. The exception was Madagascar where, due to national social marketing of subsidized ACT, the price of first-line quality-assured ACT ($0.14 [IQR: $0.10, $0.57]) was significantly lower than the most popular treatment (chloroquine, $0.36 [IQR: $0.36, $0.36]). Quality-assured ACT accounted for less than 25% of total anti-malarial volumes; private-sector quality-assured ACT volumes represented less than 6% of the total market share. Most anti-malarials were distributed through the private sector

  17. License or entry decision for innovator in international duopoly with convex cost functions

    Hattori, Masahiko; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2017-01-01

    We consider a choice of options for a foreign innovating firm to license its new cost-reducing technology to a domestic incumbent firm or to enter the domestic market with or without license under convex cost functions. With convex cost functions the domestic market and the foreign market are not separated, and the results depend on the relative size of those markets. In a specific case with linear demand and quadratic cost, entry without license strategy is never the optimal strategy for the...

  18. A Marketing Case History Profile

    Weirick, Margaret C.

    1978-01-01

    A current marketing plan from Temple University illustrates many marketing techniques, including those dealing with enrollment objectives, market objectives, demographic characteristics of Temple students, market share analysis, and the marketing plan. Specific guidelines are provided. (LBH)

  19. Auto Market

    2001-01-01

    <正> Editor’s notes: As China’s WTO entry is drawing near, Chinese people are witnessing the marketing activities of foreign automakers in China: establishing new firms and promoting new vehicles, etc. In face of the enormous Chinese market, foreign automakers are busy in establishing their brand images, fostering consumption population in order to take more market shares in the future.

  20. A concorrência entre o Brasil e a China no mercado Sul-africano: uma aplicação do modelo constant-market-share

    Ariane Danielle Baraúna da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O forte crescimento da economia chinesa nos últimos anos foi acompanhado pelo aumento de suas necessidades por recursos naturais para atender a demanda crescente de sua indústria de base. O continente africano tem representado, nesse contexto, uma importante fonte de matérias-primas para a China, dado que este continente se apresenta como uma das últimas regiões com abundância de recursos naturais ainda pouco explorados. A presença chinesa no continente africano tem trazido consigo mudanças quanto à vinculação econômica da região com o Brasil. Diante desse cenário, o presente trabalho realiza uma análise das relações econômicas entre o Brasil e a África do Sul, maior economia da África, que representa dentro do continente africano um importante mercado para as exportações brasileiras. Neste trabalho, será feito uso do modelo constant-market-share, com o objetivo de analisar os ganhos ou perdas da competitividade do Brasil e mensurar o quanto o avanço das exportações chinesas contribuíram para as possíveis perdas do Brasil. Os resultados obtidos permitem concluir que boa parte das perdas de exportações brasileiras na África do Sul é devida aos ganhos de participação da China.

  1. Capacity withholding in wholesale electricity markets: The experience in England and Wales

    Quinn, James Arnold

    This thesis examines the incentives wholesale electricity generators face to withhold generating capacity from centralized electricity spot markets. The first chapter includes a brief history of electricity industry regulation in England and Wales and in the United States, including a description of key institutional features of England and Wales' restructured electricity market. The first chapter also includes a review of the literature on both bid price manipulation and capacity bid manipulation in centralized electricity markets. The second chapter details a theoretical model of wholesale generator behavior in a single price electricity market. A duopoly model is specified under the assumption that demand is non-stochastic. This model assumes that duopoly generators offer to sell electricity at their marginal cost, but can withhold a continuous segment of their capacity from the market. The Nash equilibrium withholding strategy of this model involves each duopoly generator withholding so that it produces the Cournot equilibrium output. A monopoly model along the lines of the duopoly model is specified and simulated under the assumption that demand is stochastic. The optimal strategy depends on the degree of demand uncertainty. When there is a moderate degree of demand uncertainty, the optimal withholding strategy involves production inefficiencies. When there is a high degree of demand uncertainty, the optimal monopoly quantity is greater than the optimal output level when demand is non-stochastic. The third chapter contains an empirical examination of the behavior of generators in the wholesale electricity market in England and Wales in the early 1990's. The wholesale market in England and Wales is analyzed because the industry structure in the early 1990's created a natural experiment, which is described in this chapter, whereby one of the two dominant generators had no incentive to behave non-competitively. This chapter develops a classification methodology

  2. Environmental charges in airline markets

    Carlsson, Fredrik [Goeteborg Univ., Dept. of Economics, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2002-07-01

    Over the last two decades many airline markets have been deregulated, resulting in increased competition and use of different types of networks. At the same time there has been an intense discussion on environmental taxation of airline traffic. It is likely that an optimal environmental charge and the effects of a charge differ between different types of aviation markets. In this paper, we derive optimal flight (environmental) charges for different types of airline markets. The first type of market is a multiproduct monopoly airline operating either a point-to-point network or a hub-and-spoke network. The optimal charge is shown to be similar in construction to an optimal charge for a monopolist. We also compare the environmental impact of the two types of networks. Given no differences in marginal damages between airports we find that an airline will always choose the network with the highest environmental damages. The second type of market we investigate is a multiproduct duopoly, where two airlines compete in both passengers and flights. The formulation of the optimal charge is similar to the optimal charge of a single product oligopoly. However, we also show that it is, because of strategic effects, difficult to determine the effects of the charge on the number of flights. (Author)

  3. Advertising quality and market share

    Πέκκα - Οικονόμου, Βικτωρία; Σολδάτος, Γεράσιμος Θ.

    1999-01-01

    This paper utilizes a signaling-game approach to advertising and concludes that advertising is a means of increasing profits and not an instrument of consumer preferences manipulation. It also concludes that advertised brands should offer to the consumer something original and if not, then offer what more or less the rival do.

  4. The Sharing Economy

    Avital, Michel; Carroll, John M.; Hjalmarsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The sharing economy is spreading rapidly worldwide in a number of industries and markets. The disruptive nature of this phenomenon has drawn mixed responses ranging from active conflict to adoption and assimilation. Yet, in spite of the growing attention to the sharing economy, we still do not know...... much about it. With the abundant enthusiasm about the benefits that the sharing economy can unleash and the weekly reminders about its dark side, further examination is required to determine the potential of the sharing economy while mitigating its undesirable side effects. The panel will join...... the ongoing debate about the sharing economy and contribute to the discourse with insights about how digital technologies are critical in shaping this turbulent ecosystem. Furthermore, we will define an agenda for future research on the sharing economy as it becomes part of the mainstream society as well...

  5. Marginal Cost Pricing in a World without Perfect Competition: Implications for Electricity Markets with High Shares of Low Marginal Cost Resources

    Frew, Bethany A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Clark, Kara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bloom, Aaron P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-02

    A common approach to regulating electricity is through auction-based competitive wholesale markets. The goal of this approach is to provide a reliable supply of power at the lowest reasonable cost to the consumer. This necessitates market structures and operating rules that ensure revenue sufficiency for all generators needed for resource adequacy purposes. Wholesale electricity markets employ marginal-cost pricing to provide cost-effective dispatch such that resources are compensated for their operational costs. However, marginal-cost pricing alone cannot guarantee cost recovery outside of perfect competition, and electricity markets have at least six attributes that preclude them from functioning as perfectly competitive markets. These attributes include market power, externalities, public good attributes, lack of storage, wholesale price caps, and ineffective demand curve. Until (and unless) these failures are ameliorated, some form of corrective action(s) will be necessary to improve market efficiency so that prices can correctly reflect the needed level of system reliability. Many of these options necessarily involve some form of administrative or out-of-market actions, such as scarcity pricing, capacity payments, bilateral or other out-of-market contracts, or some hybrid combination. A key focus with these options is to create a connection between the electricity market and long-term reliability/loss-of-load expectation targets, which are inherently disconnected in the native markets because of the aforementioned market failures. The addition of variable generation resources can exacerbate revenue sufficiency and resource adequacy concerns caused by these underlying market failures. Because variable generation resources have near-zero marginal costs, they effectively suppress energy prices and reduce the capacity factors of conventional generators through the merit-order effect in the simplest case of a convex market; non-convexities can also suppress prices.

  6. Complexity Analysis of a Cournot-Bertrand Duopoly Game Model with Limited Information

    Hongwu Wang

    2013-01-01

    principles of decision-making are bounded rational. One firm chooses output and the other chooses price as decision variable, with the assumption that there is a certain degree of differentiation between the products offered by firms to avoid the whole market being occupied by the one that applies a lower price. The existence of Nash equilibrium point and its local stability of the game are investigated. The complex dynamics, such as bifurcation scenarios and route to chaos, are displayed using parameter basin plots by numerical experiment. The influences of the parameters on the system performance are discussed from the perspective of economics.

  7. Marketing marketing

    dr. Karel Jan van Alsem

    2013-01-01

    In deze installatierede betoogt Karel Jan Alsem dat marketing een grotere strategische rol in organisaties zou moeten krijgen. Want marketing is bij uitstek de verbinding tussen klantwensen en het DNA van een organisatie. Doordat merken gemiddeld voor mensen niet heel belangrijk zijn, is goede

  8. Pricing Shared Appreciation Mortgages

    Zhong, Yina

    2006-01-01

    This paper develops a model for the valuation of shared appreciation mortgage (SAM) and examines the effect of reduction in interest rate on the mortgage duration and share of property appreciation lender charges. The recent rise in SAM availability, as a result of some secondary market financial support and prerequisite standardization, motivates a more careful consideration of the underlying SAM value. The primary difference between the SAM model and the model for general traditional mor...

  9. SharePoint governance

    Ali, Mudassar

    2013-01-01

    Masteroppgave i informasjons- og kommunikasjonsteknologi IKT590 2013 – Universitetet i Agder, Grimstad SharePoint is a web-based business collaboration platform from Microsoft which is very robust and dynamic in nature. The platform has been in the market for more than a decade and has been adapted by large number of organisations in the world. The platform has become larger in scale, richer in features and is improving consistently with every new version. However, SharePoint ...

  10. Análise da competitividade das exportações do complexo soja brasileiro de 1995 a 2006: uma abordagem de market-share Analysis of the exports competitiveness of the complex soy Brazilian from 1995 to 2006: an approach of market-share

    Daniel Arruda Coronel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo objetivou identificar o comportamento das exportações do complexo soja brasileiro de 1995 a 2006, utilizando o modelo de comércio internacional Constant-Market-Share para os períodos 1995 a 1998, 1999 a 2001 e 2002 a 2006. Com base nas inferências feitas pode-se observar que os efeitos competitividade e crescimento do comércio mundial foram os que mais colaboraram para o crescimento das commodities grão, farelo e óleo de soja nos períodos analisados. As inferências deste trabalho foram feitas a partir de dados coletados junto ao Sistema de Análise das Informações de Comércio Exterior (Alice, da Secretaria de Comércio Exterior (Secex, à Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO e à Organização Mundial do Comércio (OMC. Com base nos resultados encontrados pode-se afirmar que Brasil tem uma importância significativa no comércio mundial de soja e apresenta condições edafoclimáticas favoráveis ao aumento da produção.This study has the aim of identifying the behavior of the Brazilian soy complex exports from 1995 to 2006. For this, it was used the model of international commerce Constant-Market-Share from 1995 to 1998, 1999 to 2001 and 2002 to 2006. Based on the interferences done, it was observed that the effects competitiveness and growth of the world-wide commerce collaborated a lot for the commodities growth grain, bran and oil soy in the analyzed periods. The analyses of this paper were done through collected data from the System of Analysis of Information of the Exterior Commerce (Alice, the General Office of Exterior Commerce (Secex, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO and the World-wide Organization of the Commerce (WTO. Based on the considered result, it is possible to infer that Brazil is significantly important in the worldwide commerce of soy and presents favorable soil and climatic conditions to the increase of the production.

  11. Viral Marketing

    Sorina Raula Gîrboveanu; Silvia Puiu

    2008-01-01

    With consumers showing increasing resistance to traditional forms of advertising such as TV or newspaper ads, marketers have turned to alternate strategies, including viral marketing. Viral marketing exploits existing social networks by encouraging customers to share product information with their friends.In our study we are able to directly observe the effectiveness of person to person word of mouth advertising for hundreds of thousands of products for the first time

  12. Effect of the Affordable Medicines Facility--malaria (AMFm) on the availability, price, and market share of quality-assured artemisinin-based combination therapies in seven countries: a before-and-after analysis of outlet survey data.

    Tougher, Sarah; Ye, Yazoume; Amuasi, John H; Kourgueni, Idrissa A; Thomson, Rebecca; Goodman, Catherine; Mann, Andrea G; Ren, Ruilin; Willey, Barbara A; Adegoke, Catherine A; Amin, Abdinasir; Ansong, Daniel; Bruxvoort, Katia; Diallo, Diadier A; Diap, Graciela; Festo, Charles; Johanes, Boniface; Juma, Elizabeth; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Malam, Oumarou; Mberu, Blessing; Ndiaye, Salif; Nguah, Samuel B; Seydou, Moctar; Taylor, Mark; Rueda, Sergio Torres; Wamukoya, Marilyn; Arnold, Fred; Hanson, Kara

    2012-12-01

    Malaria is one of the greatest causes of mortality worldwide. Use of the most effective treatments for malaria remains inadequate for those in need, and there is concern over the emergence of resistance to these treatments. In 2010, the Global Fund launched the Affordable Medicines Facility--malaria (AMFm), a series of national-scale pilot programmes designed to increase the access and use of quality-assured artemisinin based combination therapies (QAACTs) and reduce that of artemisinin monotherapies for treatment of malaria. AMFm involves manufacturer price negotiations, subsidies on the manufacturer price of each treatment purchased, and supporting interventions such as communications campaigns. We present findings on the effect of AMFm on QAACT price, availability, and market share, 6-15 months after the delivery of subsidised ACTs in Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Niger, Nigeria, Uganda, and Tanzania (including Zanzibar). We did nationally representative baseline and endpoint surveys of public and private sector outlets that stock antimalarial treatments. QAACTs were identified on the basis of the Global Fund's quality assurance policy. Changes in availability, price, and market share were assessed against specified success benchmarks for 1 year of AMFm implementation. Key informant interviews and document reviews recorded contextual factors and the implementation process. In all pilots except Niger and Madagascar, there were large increases in QAACT availability (25·8-51·9 percentage points), and market share (15·9-40·3 percentage points), driven mainly by changes in the private for-profit sector. Large falls in median price for QAACTs per adult equivalent dose were seen in the private for-profit sector in six pilots, ranging from US$1·28 to $4·82. The market share of oral artemisinin monotherapies decreased in Nigeria and Zanzibar, the two pilots where it was more than 5% at baseline. Subsidies combined with supporting interventions can be effective in

  13. Decentralized supply chain network design: monopoly, duopoly and oligopoly competitions under uncertainty

    Seyedhosseini, Seyed Mohammad; Fahimi, Kaveh; Makui, Ahmad

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the competitive supply chain network design problem in which n decentralized supply chains simultaneously enter the market with no existing rival chain, shape their networks and set wholesale and retail prices in competitive mode. The customer demand is elastic and price dependent, customer utility function is based on the Hoteling model and the chains produce identical or highly substitutable products. We construct a solution algorithm based on bi-level programming and possibility theory. In the proposed bi-level model, the inner part sets the prices based on simultaneous extra- and Stackleberg intra- chains competitions, and the outer part shapes the networks in cooperative competitions. Finally, we use a real-word study to discuss the effect of the different structures of the competitors on the equilibrium solution. Moreover, sensitivity analyses are conducted and managerial insights are offered.

  14. Exploring the Sharing Economy

    Netter, Sarah

    Despite the growing interest on the part of proponents and opponents - ranging from business, civil society, media, to policy-makers alike - there is still limited knowledge about the working mechanisms of the sharing economy. The thesis is dedicated to explore this understudied phenomenon...... and to provide a more nuanced understanding of the micro- and macro-level tensions that characterize the sharing economy. This thesis consists of four research papers, each using different literature, methodology, and data sets. The first paper investigates how the sharing economy is diffused and is ‘talked......-level tensions experience by sharing platforms by looking at the case of mobile fashion reselling and swapping markets. The final paper combines the perspectives of different sharing economy stakeholders and outlines some of the micro and macro tensions arising in and influencing the organization of these multi...

  15. Shared pledge shared vision

    Boussaha, Ali; Diatta, Christian Sina

    2005-01-01

    The New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) is a pledge by African leaders to eradicate poverty and to promote sustainable growth and development. NEPAD is a 'new framework of interaction with the rest of the world, including the industrialised countries and multilateral organizations.' The agenda is based on regional priorities and development plans and its implementation relies on African ownership and management. As a UN system organisation, the IAEA strongly supports the priorities identified in the Millennium Declaration and the New Partnership for Africa's Development. As a technical agency, the IAEA shares its recognized core competencies and technical expertise in support of NEPAD goals. Efforts aim at strengthening institutional capacity building in nuclear sciences and technology and promoting the sustainable application of nuclear techniques for social and economic development. The IAEA has a membership of 34 African countries. The Agency supports them under its technical cooperation programme through provision of expertise, training opportunities and equipment in priority areas identified by the countries themselves. For many African Member States, meeting basic human needs through the implementation of poverty alleviation strategies remains the top priority on the agenda for national development plans and international cooperation programmes. In the context of sustainable development, special attention is being paid to enlarging the contribution of isotopes and nuclear techniques in major areas of economic and social significance and to promoting regional cooperation in nuclear science and technology related fields. As a partner in development, the Agency has promoted and undertaken programmes to support African countries' efforts to address priority development issues particularly in the areas of health care, food and agriculture and water resources development. The IAEA technical cooperation mechanism includes support to the African Regional

  16. Stochastic modelling of human exposure to food chemicals and nutrients within the "Montecarlo" project: an exploration of the influence of brand loyalty and market share on intake estimates of intense sweeteners from sugar-free soft drinks.

    Leclercq, Catherine; Arcella, Davide; Le Donne, Cinzia; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Sette, Stefania; Soggiu, Maria Eleonora

    2003-04-11

    To get a more realistic view of exposure to food chemicals, risk managers are getting more interested in stochastic modelling as an alternative to deterministic approaches based on conservative assumptions. It allows to take into account all the available information in the concentration of the chemical present in foods and in food consumption patterns. Within the EC-funded "Montecarlo" project, a comprehensive set of mathematical algorithms was developed to take into account all the necessary components for stochastic modelling of a variety of food chemicals, nutrients and ingredients. An appropriate computer software is being developed. Since the concentration of food chemicals may vary among different brands of the same product, consumer behaviour with respect to brands may have an impact on exposure assessments. Numeric experiments were carried out on different ways of incorporating indicators of market share and brand loyalty in the mathematical algorithms developed within the stochastic model of exposure to intense sweeteners from sugar-free beverages. The 95th percentiles of intake were shown to vary according to the inclusion/exclusion of these indicators. The market share should be included in the model especially if the market is not equitably distributed between brands. If brand loyalty data are not available, the model may be run under theoretical scenarios.

  17. To share and be shared

    Winther, Ida Wentzel

    2018-01-01

    to another. To a certain degree, they share their everyday lives, things, places, memories, and past/future, but as the ones who move back and forth, they belong a little less in each place. This article is about children who are shared between their parent, households and siblings. They are shared...

  18. Voluntary Certification of Agricultural Products in Competitive Markets: The Consideration of Boundedly Rational Consumers

    Xujin Pu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Market competition creates strategic incentives for firms to communicate private information about their own product quality through certification. Although voluntary certification has recently gained importance in the agricultural industry, information asymmetry is not always completely addressed. This study analyzes how the relative proportion of boundedly rational consumers in the market influences the effectiveness of voluntary certification mechanisms by using a duopoly game model of high- and low-quality firms. The presented results show that a change in the proportion of boundedly rational consumers leads to different certification behaviors and a different market equilibrium. We also find that the existence of boundedly rational consumers is an important factor in the failure of voluntary certification. Indeed, when the relative proportion of such consumers is very high, voluntary certification is ineffective at improving market efficiency.

  19. 50 CFR 85.40 - Cost sharing.

    2010-10-01

    ... Use/Acceptance of Funds § 85.40 Cost sharing. (a) The Federal share shall not exceed 75% of total... grant objectives and represent the current market value of noncash contributions furnished as part of...

  20. Food Marketing Technology and Contingency Market Valuation

    Garth J. Holloway; Anthony C. Zwart

    1993-01-01

    Marketing activities are introduced into a rational expectations model of the food marketing system. The model is used to evaluate effects of alternative marketing technologies on the distribution of the benefits of contingency markets in agriculture. Benefits depend on two parameters: the cost share of farm inputs and the elasticity of substitution between farm and nonfarm inputs in food marketing. Over a broad spectrum of technologies, consumers are likely to be the net beneficiaries and fa...

  1. 13 CFR 314.5 - Federal Share.

    2010-01-01

    ... marketing costs. (b) The Federal Share excludes that portion of the current fair market value of the..., which are not included in the total Project costs. For example, if the total Project costs are $100...

  2. Shared service centre in customer management. An inevitable conglomerate or an evil of the liberalisation of the European energy market?; Shared Service Center Kundenmanagement. Notwendiges Konglomerat oder Fluch der Liberalisierung des Energiemarktes in Europa?

    Macula, Daniel

    2008-07-01

    The degree to which the German legislature intervenes in the organisational structure of power supply companies is unique worldwide. The purpose of the present study was to examine and describe in detail how these regulatory measures are framed. This scientific inquiry focussed on the planning, implementation and control of shared service centres in power supply companies' customer management. It can already be said that the use of the ''SSC concept'' has led to a more efficient and cost-effective use of customer management among power supply companies and that this contributes to a greater satisfaction on the part of the internal customer. It can be assumed that this concept will gain in popularity, particularly among small-scale power supply companies. These will join forces with partner companies for this purpose in order to streamline processes.

  3. Sharing City

    This magazine offers an insight into the growing commercial innovation, civic movements, and political narratives surrounding sharing economy services, solutions and organisational types. It presents a cross-section of the manifold sharing economy services and solutions that can be found in Denmark....... Moreover, 15 thought leading experts - professionals and academic - have been invited to give their perspective on sharing economy for cities. This magazine touches upon aspects of the sharing economy as mobility, communities, sustainability, business development, mobility, and urban-rural relation....

  4. File sharing

    van Eijk, N.

    2011-01-01

    ‘File sharing’ has become generally accepted on the Internet. Users share files for downloading music, films, games, software etc. In this note, we have a closer look at the definition of file sharing, the legal and policy-based context as well as enforcement issues. The economic and cultural

  5. Shared leadership

    Ulhøi, John Parm; Müller, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. First, this paper comprehensively will review the conceptual and empirical literature to identify such critical underlying mechanisms which enable shared or collective leadership. Second, this article identifies the antecedents and outcomes of shared leadership...... according to the literature review to develop a re-conceptualised and synthesized framework for managing the organizational issues associated with shared leadership on various organizational levels. The paper rectifies this by identifying the critical factors and mechanisms which enable shared leadership...... and its antecedents and outcomes, and to develop a re-conceptualized and synthesized framework of shared leadership. The paper closes with a brief discussion of avenues for future research and implications for managers....

  6. TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS OF MARKET EFFICIENCY THROUGH ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS: A CASE STUDY WITH THE TEN MAJOR IBOVESPA SHARES IN THE FIRST QUARTER OF 2011

    Luiz Henrique Herling

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel market is facing political, economic, social and environmental problems that are fuzzing the future of fossil energy sources and in face of these facts, countries are looking for hybrid and electric vehicles as part of solution in transportation sector due to the fact of electric vehicles use few or no fossil fuel. The objective in this article was to identify options until 2020 to introduce electric vehicle in the urban traffic of São Paulo city and to develop this study the method of literature review in secondary sources was used to present electric vehicle technologies and to identify parameters that were assessed through morphological analysis technique. In morphological analysis, sets of values were defined by the author for these parameters, possible combinations were structured, clearly impractical deployment options before 2020 were discarded and some viable solutions were analyzed in details. These analyses concluded that there are viable options for actual days in São Paulo city, but important requirements regarding technology, politic, market, infrastructure and innovation in products and services still need to be addressed and it is the main reason of electric vehicle remain unnoticed by consumers as an viable option. The challenges are great and the actors who are willing to solve them will find a promising market to explore.

  7. An Extended Duopoly Game.

    Eckalbar, John C.

    2002-01-01

    Illustrates how principles and intermediate microeconomic students can gain an understanding for strategic price setting by playing a relatively large oligopoly game. Explains that the game extends to a continuous price space and outlines appropriate applications. Offers the Mathematica code to instructors so that the assumptions of the game can…

  8. Knowledge Sharing

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    The concept of knowledge management has, indeed, become a buzzword that every single organization is expected to practice and live by. Knowledge management is about managing the organization's knowledge for the common good of the organization -but practicing knowledge management is not as simple...... as that. This article focuses on knowledge sharing as the process seeking to reduce the resources spent on reinventing the wheel.The article introduces the concept of time sensitiveness; i.e. that knowledge is either urgently needed, or not that urgently needed. Furthermore, knowledge sharing...... is considered as either a push or pull system. Four strategies for sharing knowledge - help, post-it, manuals and meeting, and advice are introduced. Each strategy requires different channels for sharing knowledge. An empirical analysis in a production facility highlights how the strategies can be practiced....

  9. Market Segmentation Using Bayesian Model Based Clustering

    Van Hattum, P.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation deals with two basic problems in marketing, that are market segmentation, which is the grouping of persons who share common aspects, and market targeting, which is focusing your marketing efforts on one or more attractive market segments. For the grouping of persons who share

  10. On the substitution of energy sources: Prospective of the natural gas market share in the Brazilian urban transportation and dwelling sectors

    Kamimura, A.; Guerra, S.M.G.; Sauer, I.L.

    2006-01-01

    The substitution process resultant of the competition between two opponents fighting for the same resource or market is pointed out through a dynamic model derived from biomathematics. A brief description of the origin of the method based on coupled non-linear differential equations (NLDE) is presented. Numerical adherence of the proposed model to explain several substitution phenomena which have occurred in the past is examined. The proposed method is particularly suitable for prospective analysis and scenarios assessment. In this sense, two applications of the model to prospect the dynamic substitution process in the Brazilian case are done: firstly, the development of the urban gas pipeline system in substituting for the bottled LPG in the dwelling sector and, secondly, the substitution of the urban Diesel transportation fleet by compressed natural gas (CNG) buses

  11. 媒体产业中的平台质量竞争——基于双边市场的理论视角的研究%Research on Platform Quality Competition in the Media Industry Based on Two-sided Market Theory

    万兴

    2012-01-01

    quality, the audience-side profit rises but the advertiser-side profit falls. For duopolies, the quality difference of media content and advertiser-side network externality eounterbalance each other, having totally opposite functions on both prices and market shares. With the inerease of quality differ- enee between platforms, the gap between high-quality platform and low-quality platform in terms of both audience- side and advertiser-side market shares decreases. The result is different from the result in a one-sided market, where market share are independent of quality difference. With the increase of quality difference between plat- forms, the gap between high-quality platform and low-quality platform in audience-side market prices increases, while the gap in advertise-side market prices deereases. When network externalities increase, the gap between high-quality platform and low-quality platform in terms of both audience-side and advertiser-side market shares de- creases. When network externalities increase, the gap between high-quality platform and low-quality platform in au- dienee-side market prices decreases while the gap in advertise-side market prices inereases. The rise of either plat- form quality difference or network externalities can lead to the increase of profit gap between the high-quality plat- form and the low-quality platform. The sequential entry model is established to investigate the problem of the first-mover advantage. The model has three stages. In the first stage, a media platform enters the market and chooses its quality, which is a long-term decision. In the second stage, the other platform chooses its quality after it observes quality choice by the first mov- er. In the third stage, the two platforms maximize their profits. This paper finds that a latecomer can dispel an in- cumbent by appropriate quality choice. It is the point that the market with cross-network externalities differs from the market with direct network externalities. In th

  12. 投票市场发展、资本要素积累与产业结构升级——基于中国A股市场的实证研究%Stock Market Development, Capital Elements Accumulation and Industrial Structure Upgrading --An Empirical Study Based on China' s A-Share Market

    陈峥嵘; 朱蕾

    2012-01-01

    首先从要素流动角度就股票市场对产业结构优化升级的推动作用提出相关假设,并从中观和微观上实证检验中国A股市场是否存在推动产业结构优化升级的作用机制。实证结果表明,股票市场规模的扩大有效推动了三次产业和工业产业的结构优化升级,市场流动性的高低对产业结构优化升级存在负向效应,而城市化进程的加快及垂直专业化程度的提高可以降低该种负向效应;战略性新兴产业上市公司经营绩效显著,并在创业板市场上最具成长性,而且行业内资本集中度越低、市场风险越高,越能激励行业内企业上市。据此,在扩大股票市场规模、增强市场流动性、上市资源选择、创业板市场建设等方面提出了相应的政策建议。%In this paper we first make a theoretical assumption that capital markets promote the upgrading of industrial structure via mobility of capital. And we investigate the assumption on the case of China's A-share market over the period 1991 - 2010. The result shows that the expansion of market scale effectively promotes the structure upgrading while market liquidity makes negative effects, w of three main industries and industrial internal sector hich can be reduced by the raise of urbanization and vertical specialization. We also find that the strategy emerging industries show significant performance on Ashare market and show more significant growth on GEM (Growth Enterprise Market) than on other markets. Industries with lower capital concentration and higher market risk encourage more companies to be listed. According to this, we proposed suggestions on expanding market scale, enhancing market liquidity, selection of market resource, and construction of the GEM.

  13. Backwards-induction outcome in a quantum game

    Iqbal, A.; Toor, A.H.

    2002-01-01

    In economics, duopoly is a market dominated by two firms large enough to influence the market price. Stackelberg presented a dynamic form of duopoly that is also called the 'leader-follower' model. We give a quantum perspective on the Stackelberg duopoly that gives a backwards-induction outcome same as the Nash equilibrium in the static form of duopoly also known as the Cournot's duopoly. We find the two-qubit quantum pure states required for this purpose

  14. Taking the sweetness out of the 'Share a Coke' marketing campaign: the influence of personalized labelling on elementary school children's bottled drink choices.

    McDarby, F; O'Hora, D; O'Shea, D; Byrne, M

    2018-01-01

    Drink personalization (featuring names on bottle labels) has been used by soft drink companies to make their drinks attractive to children, potentially increasing consumption. To date, no publically available research has evaluated the influence of personalization on children's drink choices. To determine (i) whether personalizing bottled drinks influences children's drink choices; (ii) whether it is comparably effective in promoting healthy and unhealthy drinks and (iii) whether drink choices are affected by self-esteem, body mass index and parental factors. Children aged 8-13 years (N = 404) were randomly assigned to one of three drink labeling conditions: Prime Healthy, Prime Unhealthy and Control. All participants selected one beverage from 12 options, comprising six healthy and unhealthy drinks. Personalizing healthy drinks increased choice of healthy drinks (OR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.24-4.00), and personalizing unhealthy drinks reduced choice of healthy drinks (OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.15-.0.75). Higher self-esteem predicted choosing own-named drinks (OR = 1.08, 95% CI, 1.00-1.18; p = .049). Children's drink choices are influenced by personalizing drink bottles. Tighter regulation of this marketing strategy for soft drinks may reduce children choice of these drinks. Personalization may also be used to encourage children to choose healthy drinks. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  15. Analysis of the feasibility of inclusion of decentralised renewable electricity systems into a mandated market share mechanism for China. Executive summary

    Van der Linden, N.H.; Junfeng, L.; Keyun, D.; Martens, J.W.; Ramani, K.V.; Sicheng, W.; Shutian, W.; Tak, C. van der

    2003-09-01

    The World Bank and the Global Environment Facility provide assistance to the Government of China with the implementation of the renewable energy programme during the 10th and 11th Five Year Plans. To this end, the China Renewable Energy Scale-up Programme (CRESP) was set up. CRESP is managed by the Project Management Office (PMO), which is institutionally placed in the National Development and Planning Commission (NDRC). One of the first activities initiated by CRESP is the development of the institutional framework within which the Mandated Market System (MMS) policy for renewable energy can be introduced. An MMS policy is based on the requirement that a set amount (or proportion) of the electricity supply is produced from renewable energy sources. The obligation is placed at some point in the supply chain, which could range from production, through transmission to supply or consumption. Monitoring procedures are put in place to ensure that the obligation will be met. Environmental considerations are the main reason behind the intention to introduce an MMS in China but the government has also recognised the importance of (renewable) energy to achieving poverty objectives. Decentralised renewable electricity systems (DRES) have special relevance for rural poor communities that are unserved or underserved by centralised fossil fuel networks or utility electricity grids. DRES may offer a promising solution to meet demand for energy services of these communities in remote location, which cannot be reach by the electricity grid. The analysis in this study focused on mini-hydro (less than 10 kW), solar home systems and stand-alone wind turbines. The principal objective of the study is to analyse the feasibility of inclusion of DRES into the proposed MMS for China. Because DRES are often used in remote areas, which are difficult to reach, the costs of verifying these systems are prohibitive if the procedures are not sufficiently simple and efficient. Therefore

  16. Analysis of the feasibility of inclusion of decentralised renewable electricity systems into a mandated market share mechanism for China. Final Report

    Van der Linden, N.H.; Junfeng, L.; Keyun, D.; Martens, J.W.; Ramani, K.V.; Sicheng, W.; Shutian, W.; Tak, C. van der

    2003-10-01

    The World Bank and the Global Environment Facility provide assistance to the Government of China with the implementation of the renewable energy programme during the 10th and 11th Five Year Plans. To this end, the China Renewable Energy Scale-up Programme (CRESP) was set up. CRESP is managed by the Project Management Office (PMO), which is institutionally placed in the National Development and Planning Commission (NDRC). One of the first activities initiated by CRESP is the development of the institutional framework within which the Mandated Market System (MMS) policy for renewable energy can be introduced. An MMS policy is based on the requirement that a set amount (or proportion) of the electricity supply is produced from renewable energy sources. The obligation is placed at some point in the supply chain, which could range from production, through transmission to supply or consumption. Monitoring procedures are put in place to ensure that the obligation will be met. Environmental considerations are the main reason behind the intention to introduce an MMS in China but the government has also recognised the importance of (renewable) energy to achieving poverty objectives. Decentralised renewable electricity systems (DRES) have special relevance for rural poor communities that are unserved or underserved by centralised fossil fuel networks or utility electricity grids. DRES may offer a promising solution to meet demand for energy services of these communities in remote location, which cannot be reach by the electricity grid. The analysis in this study focused on mini-hydro (less than 10 kW), solar home systems and stand-alone wind turbines. The principal objective of the study is to analyse the feasibility of inclusion of DRES into the proposed MMS for China. Because DRES are often used in remote areas, which are difficult to reach, the costs of verifying these systems are prohibitive if the procedures are not sufficiently simple and efficient. Therefore

  17. New product introduction and capacity investment by incumbents: Effects of size on strategy

    Dawid, H.; Kopel, M.; Kort, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze a duopoly where capacity-constrained firms offer an established product and have the option to offer an additional new and differentiated product. We show that the firm with the smaller capacity on the established market has a higher incentive to innovate and reaches a larger market share

  18. The economics of international coal markets

    Paulus, Moritz

    2012-07-13

    In the scope of four related essays this thesis analyses the Chinese domestic coal sector and coal trade policies and their respective impact on international steam coal trade economics. In particular, the thesis investigates the role of domestic transport infrastructure investment policies as well as Chinese coal export and import controls and the potential exertion of market power through such trade instruments. For this purpose, several spatial equilibrium models have been developed that enable simulation runs to compare different policy scenarios. These models also permit ex-post analyses to empirically test hypotheses of non-competitive market conduct of individual players under the assumption of Cournot behaviour. These model-based analyses yield, among others, the following findings: If coal is converted into electricity early in the Chinese energy supply chain, worldwide marginal costs of supply are substantially lower than if coal is transported via railway. This can reduce China's dependence on international imports significantly. Allocation of welfare changes, particularly in favour of Chinese consumers while rents of international producers decrease. If not only seaborne trade but also interactions and feedbacks between domestic coal markets and international trade markets are accounted for, trade volumes and prices of a China - Indonesia duopoly fit the real market outcome best in 2008. Real Chinese export quotas have been consistent with simulated exports under a Cournot-Nash strategy. Uncertainties with regard to future Chinese coal demand and coal sector policies generate significant costs for international investors and lead to a spatial and temporal reallocation of mining and infrastructure investments. The potential exertion of Chinese demand side market power would further reduce the overall investment activity of exporters.

  19. The economics of international coal markets

    Paulus, Moritz

    2012-01-01

    In the scope of four related essays this thesis analyses the Chinese domestic coal sector and coal trade policies and their respective impact on international steam coal trade economics. In particular, the thesis investigates the role of domestic transport infrastructure investment policies as well as Chinese coal export and import controls and the potential exertion of market power through such trade instruments. For this purpose, several spatial equilibrium models have been developed that enable simulation runs to compare different policy scenarios. These models also permit ex-post analyses to empirically test hypotheses of non-competitive market conduct of individual players under the assumption of Cournot behaviour. These model-based analyses yield, among others, the following findings: If coal is converted into electricity early in the Chinese energy supply chain, worldwide marginal costs of supply are substantially lower than if coal is transported via railway. This can reduce China's dependence on international imports significantly. Allocation of welfare changes, particularly in favour of Chinese consumers while rents of international producers decrease. If not only seaborne trade but also interactions and feedbacks between domestic coal markets and international trade markets are accounted for, trade volumes and prices of a China - Indonesia duopoly fit the real market outcome best in 2008. Real Chinese export quotas have been consistent with simulated exports under a Cournot-Nash strategy. Uncertainties with regard to future Chinese coal demand and coal sector policies generate significant costs for international investors and lead to a spatial and temporal reallocation of mining and infrastructure investments. The potential exertion of Chinese demand side market power would further reduce the overall investment activity of exporters.

  20. Relationship Service Marketing and Investment in Financial Market of Iran

    Mehrdad Alipour; Reza Ahmadi; Hamed Abasi Nami

    2012-01-01

    In competitive world, having expertise, knowledge and marketing experience for financial market activities, especially brokerage firms has proven inevitable. This should be accompanied by performing marketing operations along with intermediary roles and carrying on the daily transactions of shares in the Tehran stock exchange market. The current study aims investigating the level of marketing knowledge used in stock exchange market, identifying the reasons behind deficient use of the marketin...

  1. An Investigation of Advertising Strategies Based on Bertrand Model in Duopoly Market%基于Bertrand模型的企业广告投放策略研究

    宁一伟; 吕本富; 孙毅

    2013-01-01

    广告投入水平是企业进行广告竞争战略中的重要决策环节,只有合理的广告投入才能够为企业带来利润的增长.广告投入又分为广告的制作投入和播放投入两部分,因此企业在广告竞争中面临着如何选择最佳的投入策略问题.基于此,构建了生产同一种商品的2家企业,在完全信息静态条件下,广告投放策略选择的博弃模型,并求出其均衡解.通过对相关参数赋值进行模拟分析,分别求出博弈参与双方在广告内容制作投入和广告播放频率投入两方面进行策略选择时的收益矩阵,进而找出企业应对竞争对手广告投放策略发生变化时的最优策略向量,减少广告投入浪费;分析结果还表明企业对产品的广告投放选择策略组合时获得的产品利润高于选择单一策略的利润情况.%The level of advertising investment is an important decision-making process of companies advertising in the competitive strategy,the only reasonable advertising investment to be able to bring profit growth for the enterprise.Generally,Ad spending is divided into the advertising creating inputs and broadcasting inputs two parts,therefore companies are facing how to choose the best investment strategy in the advertising competition.Based on this,we build a two players game model,which under the condition 0f information static.By assignment related parameters,we do some simulation analysis,then get two-players' payoff matrix of the advertising creating inputs and broadcasting inputs.Through matrix operations to identify optimal strategy of the enterprise when competitors' ad strategy changes.Besides,choosing a combination of ad strategy brings more profits than a single strategy.

  2. Information partnerships--shared data, shared scale.

    Konsynski, B R; McFarlan, F W

    1990-01-01

    How can one company gain access to another's resources or customers without merging ownership, management, or plotting a takeover? The answer is found in new information partnerships, enabling diverse companies to develop strategic coalitions through the sharing of data. The key to cooperation is a quantum improvement in the hardware and software supporting relational databases: new computer speeds, cheaper mass-storage devices, the proliferation of fiber-optic networks, and networking architectures. Information partnerships mean that companies can distribute the technological and financial exposure that comes with huge investments. For the customer's part, partnerships inevitably lead to greater simplification on the desktop and more common standards around which vendors have to compete. The most common types of partnership are: joint marketing partnerships, such as American Airline's award of frequent flyer miles to customers who use Citibank's credit card; intraindustry partnerships, such as the insurance value-added network service (which links insurance and casualty companies to independent agents); customer-supplier partnerships, such as Baxter Healthcare's electronic channel to hospitals for medical and other equipment; and IT vendor-driven partnerships, exemplified by ESAB (a European welding supplies and equipment company), whose expansion strategy was premised on a technology platform offered by an IT vendor. Partnerships that succeed have shared vision at the top, reciprocal skills in information technology, concrete plans for an early success, persistence in the development of usable information for all partners, coordination on business policy, and a new and imaginative business architecture.

  3. MARKETING MODELS APPLICATION EXPERIENCE

    A. Yu. Rymanov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Marketing models are used for the assessment of such marketing elements as sales volume, market share, market attractiveness, advertizing costs, product pushing and selling, profit, profitableness. Classification of buying process decision taking models is presented. SWOT- and GAPbased models are best for selling assessments. Lately, there is a tendency to transfer from the assessment on the ba-sis of financial indices to that on the basis of those non-financial. From the marketing viewpoint, most important are long-term company activities and consumer drawingmodels as well as market attractiveness operative models.

  4. Sharing knowledge

    2009-07-01

    The workshop on Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies for Arctic Indigenous Communities is one stage in developing positions and providing input from the perspectives of Arctic Peoples in preparation for the Indigenous Peoples' Global Summit on Climate Change that will take place in April, 2009, in Anchorage, Alaska. The Summit, organized by the Inuit Circumpolar Council with oversight of an International Steering Committee, will bring together hundreds of indigenous Peoples around the world. This Workshop intended to bring together Arctic Indigenous Peoples to deliver and to share information, academic research, case studies based on traditional knowledge and researchers knowledgeable in traditional knowledge and/or policy issues drawn from traditional knowledge. The following themes were discussed: 1) Traditional knowledge research and education; 2) Laws and lawmaking; 3) Food and health; 4) Organisation; 5) Communications and advocacy. (ln)

  5. Análise da competitividade das exportações brasileiras de mel natural, segundo o modelo constant market share e o índice de vantagem comparativa revelada

    Maristela Franchetti de Paula

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os indicadores de competitividade no comércio exterior do produto mel natural, entre 2000 e 2011. Em 2000, o Brasil iniciou a inserção desse produto no mercado internacional, ganhando rápida projeção como país exportador. No entanto, ainda ocupa posição intermediária entre os principais exportadores mundiais. O problema analisado neste estudo está relacionado com a competitividade desse produto, no mercado, a partir de indicadores econômicos. Os procedimentos metodológicos utilizados para verificar a competitividade foram o modelo constant market share e o índice de vantagem comparativa revelada (IVCR. Constatou-se que o quantum e o valor exportado apresentam tendência de crescimento e de flutuações no mercado internacional. No período estudado, a China e a Argentina destacavam-se como os principais exportadores mundiais de mel natural e o Brasil era o sétimo maior exportador. Conclui-se que o País apresenta competitividade no mercado externo de mel natural e padrões de eficiência e de utilização de recursos semelhantes aos vigentes no mundo, além de potencial para ampliar sua participação, com um produto competitivo e diferenciado.

  6. Marketing the Library.

    Dragon, Andrea C.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the positive action using marketing strategies that libraries must take to capture their share of the post-Proposition 13 tax dollar. Strategies discussed relate to price, product, promotion, and place. (JD)

  7. Australian coal exports - threat to market share

    James, P

    1989-10-01

    Australian coal exports fell 3% for the fiscal year ending June 1989, but at just under 100mt, they make Australia the world's leading coal exporter. Figures for production, consumption and exports are given. Industrial and structural changes within the industry are discussed. It is concluded that the industry and unions must improve structures and communication if potential production and exports are to be achieved. 2 figs.

  8. Increasing state market share through regional positioning

    Muzaffer Uysal; Joseph S. Chen; Daniel R. Williams

    2000-01-01

    State tourism officials need to know more about the nature of in-state and out-of-state visitor characteristics and how actual and potential visitors perceive local destinations. The main objective of this study was to understand Virginia's image as a travel destination versus competitive states in the Mid-Atlantic region of the USA. The regional competitiveness...

  9. Wind's share in global energy markets

    Madsen, B.T.

    1997-01-01

    The question of how great of a contribution wind power can really make to the world's energy needs is discussed. Emphasis up until recently has been mainly on improving wind turbine technology and siting practices as it is these that will provide an answer. The International Energy Agency predicts that world energy demand will increase by 30-50% by 2010. More countries than ever are either using wind power now or are preparing for its use. Wind power continues to improve its price competitiveness. There is enough wind to cover our energy needs many times over, according to some reports twice the world's electricity supply could be met by utilizing just 5-10% of areas identified as having average wind speeds of 5 m/s or greater - ignoring population centers, forests and specially protected areas. But a major limiting factor to utilizing the available wind resource is the established grid systems, which can only base 20% of supply on wind power. It is concluded that wind can contribute significantly to the world's energy needs in the next century and beyond. If wind, which has taken giant leaps in improving its competitiveness over the past 20 hears, can be a major energy contributor by early next century, other renewables such as solar and biomass might also evolve to become major contributors too. If so, renewables, including hydro, could conceivably cover 50% of our energy needs by the middle of the next century. Much will depend on decision-makers at the centers of power. For Europe and certain other areas of the world, policies governing cross-border trade of electricity as well as the framework for environmental protection related to energy production will determine the final outcome

  10. License and entry strategies for an outside innovator under duopoly with combination of royalty and fixed fee

    Hattori, Masahiko; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2017-01-01

    We consider a choice of options for an innovating firm to enter the market with or without licensing its new cost-reducing technology to the incumbent firm using a combination of a royalty per output and a fixed license fee, or to license its technology without entry. With general demand and cost functions we show the following results. When the innovating firm licenses its technology to the incumbent firm without entry, the optimal royalty rate per output for the innovating firm is zero with...

  11. Resource sharing in wireless networks: The SAPHYRE approach

    Jorswieck, E.A.; Badia, L.; Fahldieck, T.; Gesbert, D.; Gustafsson, S.; Haardt, M.; Ho, K.-M.; Karipidis, E.; Kortke, A.; Larsson, E.G.; Mark, H.; Nawrocki, M.; Piesiewicz, R.; Römer, F.; Schubert, M.; Sykora, J.; Trommelen, P.H.; Ende, B.D. van; Zorzi, M.

    2010-01-01

    Physical resource sharing between wireless operators and service providers is necessary in order to support efficient, competitive, and innovative wireless communication markets. By sharing resources, such as spectrum or infrastructure, which are usually exclusively allocated interference is created

  12. Project-matrix models of marketing organization

    Gutić Dragutin; Rudelj Siniša

    2009-01-01

    Unlike theory and practice of corporation organization, in marketing organization numerous forms and contents at its disposal are not reached until this day. It can be well estimated that marketing organization today in most of our companies and in almost all its parts, noticeably gets behind corporation organization. Marketing managers have always been occupied by basic, narrow marketing activities as: sales growth, market analysis, market growth and market share, marketing research, introdu...

  13. NOKIA MOBILE PHONE MARKETING IN CHINA

    He, Yayi

    2012-01-01

    The goal of my thesis is to analyze the Nokia mobile’s sales in the Chinese market, including product type, product competitiveness, market awareness, price difference, market segmentation, market position, and market share. This thesis provides the market research indicating the sales, competitors, Nokia’s market strategy, the environment analysis and a SWOT analysis of Chinese market. The final part of my thesis is the description of the current situation of Nokia in addition to suggestions...

  14. Investigating Food and Beverage Industry Market Structure and Market Power Based on Leo and Bresnahan’s Approach

    M. Nabishahikitash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Food processing industries are one of the major industrial groups in developing countries which play an important role in the economic development of these countries. With the Developed and Developing Food Industry on the other hand, food security and providing food are very important in each country. In an overview, markets are divided into two groups: The first group is a market with perfect competition. And second group is markets with monopoly structure.One of the important features of markets that determine its type is the ability of the firms in the pricing and determiningof the amount of production. If the firms do not have any effect on these two factors, themarket has perfect competition.If the firms have the ability to influence price of productions, this market is non-competitive and a concept called market power emerges.In general, not only market power is the ability of firm in determination of price above the competitive situation, but also it does not let its share of sale to decrease. The existence of collusion in markets can makethem distantfrom perfect competition and make them incomplete. In economics and particularly in industrial organization, market power is the ability of a firm to profitably raise the market price of a good or service over marginal cost. In perfect competitive markets, market participants have no market power. A firm with total market power can raise prices without losing any customers to competitors. Firms that have power to set price are referred to as "price makers" or "price setters", while those without itare sometimes called "price-takers". Significant market power occurs when prices exceed marginal cost and the long run average cost, so the firm makes economic profits. A firm with market power has the ability to individually affect either the total quantity or the prevailing price in the market. Price makers face a downward slopingdemand curve, such that increases in price leads to a

  15. Relationship marketing in the b2b market

    Gligorijević Mirjana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As markets turned more and more competitive, companies had to change their marketing approach. From transactional marketing they are shifting to relationship marketing, trying to increase market share by focusing on their most important customers, implementing the concept of key account management. In this paper we tend to introduce the concept of key account management. In final section of this paper we will analyze effects of implementation of key account management, in terms of potential benefits and cautions. .

  16. The Dutch Grey Market

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Spaenjers, C.

    2008-01-01

    When-issued trading concerns transactions in securities that have not yet been issued. This type of trade often takes place in a so-called 'grey market', in which all contracts are conditional on the issuance of the security. In this paper, we investigate the Dutch grey market for when-issued shares

  17. Shared decision making

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000877.htm Shared decision making To use the sharing features on this page, ... treatment you both support. When to use Shared Decision Making Shared decision making is often used when you ...

  18. Value-Based Marketing: A Dsicussion of Issues and Trends in the Slaughter Cattle Market

    Fausti, Scott W.; Diersen, Matthew A.; Qasmi, Bashir A.; Li, Jing

    2009-01-01

    Pricing and technological innovation are discussed within the context of the beef industry’s value-based marketing initiative. Cash and contract marketing practices for fed cattle are addressed with respect to slaughter volume and pricing methods (live, dressed, and grid). A methodology for estimating grid market share of weekly slaughter volume, based on USDA market reports (2004–2009), is introduced. Weekly grid market shares for the cash and contract markets are derived. Summary statis...

  19. Derivatives in emerging markets

    Dubravko Mihaljek; Frank Packer

    2010-01-01

    Turnover of derivatives has grown more rapidly in emerging markets than in developed countries. Foreign exchange derivatives are the most commonly traded of all risk categories, with increasingly frequent turnover in emerging market currencies and a growing share of cross-border transactions. As the global reach of the financial centres in emerging Asia has expanded, the offshore trading of many emerging market currency derivatives has risen as well. Growth in derivatives turnover is positive...

  20. Measuring marketing effectiveness.

    Gluckman, J; Michaelis, T

    1987-09-01

    The most frequent question about the marketing function in hospitals today is, What are we getting for our money? To answer this, marketing directors must convince the board first of the need for marketing, then of marketing's effectiveness. To measure marketing effectiveness, some basic needs are a staff, equipment, cooperation between departments, utilization data, and a research budget. Some steps to be followed include developing a marketing data base--consisting of demographic projections, demand projections, and market share--testing a marketing strategy through experimentation, documenting the expected results and measurement techniques, and calculating the expected return on investments. In dealing with those "impossible-to-measure" cases, such as a physician who is not advertising but finds that a competitor is, a decision tree can help determine whether to advertise and how much to spend by indicating what the return on investment might be.

  1. Romanian Market Researches in Global Market Context

    Victor Danciu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Market research is a powerful industry, whose value reached 21,5 billion USD in 2004. Market studies expenses are mostly concentrated in Europe (45% and in USA (37%. The market shares of the Top 10 companies were above fifty per cent of the research market’s turnover. As a young, modest market, which is 0,84% of the global expenses value, Romania was the global leader in terms of growth, in 2004. With an asymmetric demand and a relatively concentrated offer, the Romanian research market may have a spectacular development in the future, if the obstacles for the customers and research companies are surpassed. If so, the pressures following the UE’s entry of Romania and the evolution of customers needs and expectations will speed up the growth of the market research.

  2. Romanian Market Researches in Global Market Context

    Victor Danciu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Market research is a powerful industry, whose value reached 21,5 billion USD in 2004. Market studies expenses are mostly concentrated in Europe (45% and in USA (37%. The market shares of the Top 10 companies were above fifty per cent of the research market’s turnover. As a young, modest market, which is 0,84% of the global expenses value, Romania was the global leader in terms of growth, in 2004. With an asymmetric demand and a relatively concentrated offer, the Romanian research market may have a spectacular development in the future, if the obstacles for the customers and research companies are surpassed. If so, the pressures following the UE’s entry of Romania and the evolution of customers needs and expectations will speed up the growth of the market research.

  3. The Digital Age of Mobile Cellular Network in Germany and China :Policies, Technologies and Markets (PartⅠ)

    Mingtao Shi

    2009-01-01

    The German Postal Reform Ⅰ in 1989 introduced competition in the mobile cellular market. German cellular operators, DeTeMobil, Mannesmann, E-Plus and VIAG Interkom, built DI-, D2-, El- and E2-Netze based on GSM standards made in Europe. China Unicom was created in 1994 and China Telecom was separated from MPT in 1995. China Telecom and China Unicorn competed in a duopoly from the mid-1990s onwards and the cellular services provided by them also rely on GSM standards. China Telecom additionally deployed XLT technology (PHS) from the late 1990s onwards. While DeTeMobil and Mannesmarm conquered approximately 80%-90% of the market throughout the 1990s and were the two dominant market players in Germany, China's cellular market was mainly controlled by China Mobile. In Germany, prices related to cellular technology continued the downwards trend as a major result of the process of deregulation, liberalisation and competition. In China, price wars bad led to significant price reductions in the cellular market. Although network operators in both countries strived to deliver differentiated cellular Services, the two national markets in the 1990s were visibly shaped by product homogeneity.

  4. Bank Share Prices and Profitability

    Daniel Daugaard; Tom Valentine

    1993-01-01

    This paper considers the influence of economic conditions and financial markets on Australian bank share prices and profitability. It uses time series analysis to obtain an indication of the effectiveness of banks in managing their exposure to interest rates and exchange rates. The results give rise to some comments on the extent to which banks actively manage their exposure to financial and economic variables. The discussion of risk management activities necessarily raises the question of ho...

  5. Testing times: trends in availability, price, and market share of malaria diagnostics in the public and private healthcare sector across eight sub-Saharan African countries from 2009 to 2015.

    Hanson, Kara; Goodman, Catherine

    2017-05-19

    The World Health Organization guidelines have recommended that all cases of suspected malaria should receive a confirmatory test with microscopy or a malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT), however evidence from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) illustrates that only one-third of children under five with a recent fever received a test. The aim of this study was to evaluate availability, price and market share of microscopy and RDT from 2009/11 to 2014/15 in 8 SSA countries, to better understand barriers to improving access to malaria confirmatory testing in the public and private health sectors. Repeated national cross-sectional quantitative surveys were conducted among a sample of outlets stocking anti-malarial medicines and/or diagnostics. In total, 169,655 outlets were screened. Availability of malaria blood testing among all screened public health facilities increased significantly between the first survey wave in 2009/11 and the most recent in 2014/15 in Benin (36.2, 85.4%, p sector in Zambia (90.9%), Benin (90.3%), Madagascar (84.5%), Katanga (74.3%), mainland Tanzania (73.5%), Uganda (71.8%), Nigeria (68.4%), Kenya (53.2%) and Kinshasa (51.9%). In the anti-malarial stocking private sector, significant increases in availability of diagnostic tests among private for-profit facilities were observed between the first and final survey rounds in Kinshasa (82.1, 94.0%, p sector price of RDT for a child was equal to the price of pre-packaged quality-assured artemisinin-based combination therapy (QAACT) treatment for a two-year old child in some countries, and 1.5-2.5 times higher in others. Median private sector QAACT price for an adult varied from having parity with an RDT for an adult to being up to 2 times more expensive. The exception was in both Kinshasa and Katanga, where the median price of QAACT was less expensive than RDTs. Significant strides have been made in the availability of testing, mainly through the widespread distribution of RDT, and especially in public

  6. Spatial Advertisement Competition: Based on Game Theory

    Zheng-xun Tan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since advertisement is an important strategy of firms to improve market share, this paper highlights duopoly advertisement under the Hotelling model. A model of advertisement under spatial duopoly is established, and corresponding effects of brand values and transportation costs are all captured. This study presents the proportion of sales revenue spending on advertisement. The condition for free-rider in advertisement investment is discussed. Under firms with the identical brand values, if firms' advertisement points to corresponding consumers, price and advertisement investment are all reduced. Therefore, advertisement is discussed under spatial competition in this work.

  7. The Equity Share in New Issues and Aggregate Stock Returns

    Malcolm Baker; Jeffrey Wurgler

    1999-01-01

    The share of equity issues in total new equity and debt issues is a strong predictor of U.S. stock market returns between 1928 and 1997. In particular, firms issue relatively more equity than debt just before periods of low market returns. The equity share in new issues has stable predictive power in both halves of the sample period, and after controlling for other known predictors. We do not find support for efficient market ex

  8. COMMUNICATING WITH TARGET MARKET ENVIRONMENT

    Stanka Djurić; Svetlana Trajković

    2016-01-01

    The generally accepted definition that related to conceptual determination of market communication has not been performed. However, market communication can be defined as a set of activities and natural relationships that companies in various branches of authorities and business activities are established with other business organizations, and in order to establish a successful primary market communication, establishing a larger market share and the effective realization of the final go...

  9. The world enrichment market

    Gunter, L.; McCants, C.; Rutkowski, E.

    1991-01-01

    The enrichment market can be divided into two periods: the near-term market (1991 to 1995) and the long-term market (1995 and beyond). The near-term market is characterized by limited unfilled requirements of 4% per year, to be supplied by national stockpiles and excess inventories. This low-cost material will be drawn down by about 1993, causing a subsequent price rise. As the price rises, primary supplier activity is expected to increase. In the near-term, two contracting activities are apparent: spot; and intermediate-term. The current spot market is expected to last until available low cost inventories are drawn down. Recently, in attempts to gain market share, suppliers have offered attractively priced intermediate-term (3 year) contracts for 1996 to 1998. While a small spot market will continue after 1995, it is anticipated that utilities will prefer a mix of medium- and long-term (5 to 10 year) contracts from primary suppliers for most of their enrichment requirements. As national stockpiles and utility inventories are consumed, low-cost supply available to the spot market is expected to diminish. Consequently, with little low-cost supply available, the only apparent source of material will be from primary suppliers, and the resulting competition over market share is expected to be intense. (author)

  10. Marketing African Leafy Vegetables: Challenges and Opportunities ...

    Marketing African Leafy Vegetables: Challenges and Opportunities in the Kenyan Context. ... The market share of ALVs vis-à-vis other vegetable species, particularly kales, cabbages and ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  11. Finance and marketing: birth of a profitable relationship.

    Frommelt, J J; Scheuerman, J L; Fillmore, J H

    1987-12-01

    As competition increases, the finance and marketing departments must work together to increase market share and improve the bottom line. If financial managers understand the functions of the marketing department, they can create a mutually beneficial and profitable relationship.

  12. Spot market for uranium

    Colhoun, C.

    1982-01-01

    The spot market is always quoted for the price of uranium because little information is available about long-term contracts. A review of the development of spot market prices shows the same price curve swings that occur with all raw materials. Future long-term contracts will probably be lower to reflect spot market prices, which are currently in the real-value range of $30-$35. An upswing in the price of uranium could come in the next few months as utilities begin making purchases and trading from stockpiles. The US, unlike Europe and Japan, has already reached a supply and demand point where the spot market share is increasing. Forecasters cannot project the market price, they can only predict the presence of an oscillating spot or a secondary market. 5 figures

  13. Market segmentation: Venezuelan ADRs

    Urbi Garay

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The control on foreign exchange imposed by Venezuela in 2003 constitute a natural experiment that allows researchers to observe the effects of exchange controls on stock market segmentation. This paper provides empirical evidence that although the Venezuelan capital market as a whole was highly segmented before the controls were imposed, the shares in the firm CANTV were, through their American Depositary Receipts (ADRs, partially integrated with the global market. Following the imposition of the exchange controls this integration was lost. Research also documents the spectacular and apparently contradictory rise experienced by the Caracas Stock Exchange during the serious economic crisis of 2003. It is argued that, as it happened in Argentina in 2002, the rise in share prices occurred because the depreciation of the Bolívar in the parallel currency market increased the local price of the stocks that had associated ADRs, which were negotiated in dollars.

  14. Exploring the marketing challenges faced by assembled computer dealers

    Kallimani, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    There has been a great competition in computer market these days for obtaining higher market share. Computer market consisting of many branded and non branded players have been using various methods for matching the supply and demand in best possible way for attaining market dominance. Branded companies are seen to be investing large amount in aggressive marketing techniques for reaching the customers and obtaining higher market share. Due to this many small companies and non branded computer...

  15. The Digital Age of Mobile Cellular Network in Germany and China: Policies, Technologies and Markets (Part Ⅱ)

    Mingtao Shi

    2009-01-01

    The German Postal Reform Ⅰ in 1989 introduced competition in the mobile cellular market. German cellular operators, DeTeMobil, Mannesmann, E-Plus and VIAG Interkom, built D1-, D2-, El-and E2-Netze based on GSM standards made in Europe. China Unicom was created in 1994 and China Telecom was separated from MPT in 1995. China Telecom and China Unicom competed in a duopoly from the mid-1990s onwards and the cellular services provided by them also rely on GSM standards. China Telecom additionally deployed XLT technology (PHS) from the late 1990s onwards. While DeTeMobil and Mannesmann conquered approximately 80%-90% of the market throughout the 1990s and were the two dominant market players in Germany, China's cellular market was mainly controlled by China Mobile. In Germany, prices related to cellular technology continued the downwards trend as a major result of the process of deregulation, liberalisation and competition. In China, price wars had led to significant price reductions in the cellular market. Although network operators in both countries strived to deliver differentiated cellular services, the two national markets in the 1990s were visibly shaped by product homogeneity.

  16. Global market and consumers

    Rakić Beba

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available All consumers in the world share certain needs and desires. They show however, remarkable diversity in the way they satisfy these needs and desires. Understanding the consumer behavior is difficult enough in the confines of a single country. Can manager understand the consumer behavior in many different world markets? International marketer must learn how to satisfy customers with widely different buying behaviors.

  17. Electricity marketing and retailing

    Hanlon, C.

    2001-01-01

    ECNG Inc. is a full service provider of independent and objective energy advice and management services to industrial, commercial and institutional end-users of all forms of energy. ECNG manages 10 per cent of the Ontario gas market and expects a 10 per cent share of electricity (14 TWh). ECNG has a balanced portfolio with expertise in both petroleum and electricity sectors. The company has also dealt extensively with retailers, marketers, wholesalers and suppliers on issues regarding deregulation

  18. COMMUNICATING WITH TARGET MARKET ENVIRONMENT

    Stanka Djurić

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The generally accepted definition that related to conceptual determination of market communication has not been performed. However, market communication can be defined as a set of activities and natural relationships that companies in various branches of authorities and business activities are established with other business organizations, and in order to establish a successful primary market communication, establishing a larger market share and the effective realization of the final goal, and certainly in market conditions that is profit. Activity which the company conducts are reduced to preparatory activities for the establishment of better relations with market operators, defining long-term strategies for successful business communication. The company has contact with their immediate environment, both internal and external. This, external environment emphasizing significantly because it consists of other economic organizations and entities, legal and regulatory bodies and consumers in order to take better starting position, preservation of the existing market share and also or extension thereof.

  19. MARKET WATCH

    2009-01-01

    Price hikes in cooking oil fuel worries over inflation and the dominance of foreign gurus over the country’s grain markets. With an explosion of box office successes, leading Chinese movie studios gear up for share floats to support expansion. Exports in November showed signs of bottoming out as the sector prepares for a more prosperous year in 2010. Despite its reputation as a nation of savers, China’s online consumption is burning hot as consumers enjoy the comfort of shopping from home. The aviation industry basks in the glow of the strong economic recovery as airlines transport a soaring number of passengers. Chinese companies press ahead with outbound mergers and acquisitions while overseas strategic investors remained relatively inactive in China.

  20. Effective managed care marketing strategies for evolving markets.

    Conlon, M K

    1997-11-01

    In a world of increased competition and changing consumer expectations, one of the keys to a fiscally sound health plan is having a dynamic marketing strategy that takes into account the shifting attitudes of consumers as managed care markets mature. The primary goal of any health plan marketing strategy should be the acquisition and retention of members. Providing cost-efficient and convenient service for enrollees, offering low or no deductibles, having convenient office locations, and minimizing paper-work are important elements of such a marketing strategy. Factors such as brand awareness and the perceived image of a health plan also are important considerations in acquiring and retaining market share. The relative importance of these consumer satisfaction criteria change as a managed care market evolves and matures. Financial and marketing managers, thus, should ascertain their market's stage of development and respond with appropriate marketing strategies.

  1. Marketing; Il marketing

    Muscigna, M [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    The report discusses marketing strategies oriented to the organizations and analyzes its critical factors, which determine the success of the organization activity. [Italian] Il rapporto analizza i caratteri delle strategie del marketing orientato all'impresa. Vengono infine analizzati i fattori critici che determinano il successo o l'insuccesso delle scelte aziendali.

  2. Marketing; Il marketing

    Muscigna, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    The report discusses marketing strategies oriented to the organizations and analyzes its critical factors, which determine the success of the organization activity. [Italian] Il rapporto analizza i caratteri delle strategie del marketing orientato all'impresa. Vengono infine analizzati i fattori critici che determinano il successo o l'insuccesso delle scelte aziendali.

  3. Market analysis. Renewable fuels

    2014-01-01

    The Agency for Renewable Resources (FNR) had on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture created a study on the market development of renewable resources in Germany and published this in the year of 2006. The aim of that study was to identify of actual status and market performance of the individual market segments of the material and energetic use as a basis for policy recommendations for accelerated and long term successful market launch and market share expansion of renewable raw materials. On behalf of the FNR, a market analysis of mid-2011 was carried out until the beginning of 2013, the results of which are hereby resubmitted. This market analysis covers all markets of material and energetic use in the global context, taking account of possible competing uses. A market segmentation, which was based on the product classification of the Federal Statistical Office, formed the basis of the analysis. A total of ten markets have been defined, seven material and three energetic use. [de

  4. Sharing best practice in partnerships

    Mosgaard, Mette; Remmen, Arne; Pedersen, Claus Stig

    In this paper, the promotion of sustainable products through the sharing of best practices in product chains is examined. The general understanding is that the interactions in the supply chain are changing from a traditional focus on the supply of goods “just in time” towards a focus on value...... creation for the different stakeholders and closer collaboration and communication between manufacturers, suppliers, consumers, and retailers. Supply Chain Management can be divided into two main categories with rather different focus areas: ”risk minimization” related to environmental and social impacts...... of and demand for sustainable products – in other words the creation of new markets....

  5. Rent Sharing and Gender Discrimination in Collegiate Athletics

    Lackner, Mario; Zulehner, Christine

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the effect of market power on the share of females in top management positions using data from a market in which some firms have market power due to an institutionalized cartel. We investigate collegiate athletics and interpret coaches as top-level managers or chief executive officers (CEOs). The causal link between market power and female employment is established by exploiting the existence of the Bowl Championship Series (BCS) as an exogenous shock. Our results sh...

  6. Livestock Marketing.

    Futrell, Gene; And Others

    This marketing unit focuses on the seasonal and cyclical patterns of livestock markets. Cash marketing, forward contracting, hedging in the futures markets, and the options markets are examined. Examples illustrate how each marketing tool may be useful in gaining a profit on livestock and cutting risk exposure. The unit is organized in the…

  7. Ownership structure and market power in the nordic power market

    Amundsen, E.S.; Bergman, L.

    1999-01-01

    The opening of Nord Pool in 1996 seriously constrained the power companies' ability to exercise market power within their national borders. Currently there is an integration process going on among the power companies in the Nord Pool area. It manifest itself in terms of take-over and reciprocal acquisition of shares in the power companies - nationally and abroad. This process may undo what the introduction of the common power market achieved in curtailing market power. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effects on market power of increased cross- ownership in the Nordic power market. (au)

  8. Etika Marketing Syariah

    Luqman Nurhisam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Marketing activities (marketing which is the activity of distributing goods and services ranging from producers to the hands of consumers. In this case there are some fundamental questions that encompass marketing activities (marketing; ranging from what is marketed, who is marketing, to how goods and services are marketed through the activities of marketing functions such as purchase, sales, transportation, and so forth. The problem that arises then is, most of the producers/the company with the marketers (marketers who do not consider the moral and ethical aspects of marketing the products they offer, the most important for them is how to make the products they offer acceptable and successful and control the market share. Especially if the marketer is pressed by the target company that must be achieved and the bonus will be obtained, then to achieve the target, not infrequently a marketer doing various ways, to the point of crashing the signs and ethics that have been established in religion. This study aims to analyze how the ethical aspect in the concept and practice in marketing (marketing sharia by the company / producer of goods and services. The research method used in this research is descriptive qualitative analysis, using linguistic or language approach that is describe the concept and structure of marketing language as it is. From this study it can be concluded that the majority of scholars allow the concepts and practices in sharia marketing, seen from the process of creation, the process of bidding, as well as the process of change of value (value in sharia marketing there should be no things that conflict with the principles that exist in sharia. As long as it can be guaranteed, and deviation of principles in sharia does not occur in any transaction inside marketing, it can be allowed in syarak. As well as in the ethical aspect has also fulfilled the spiritual elements that are spiritual based, the divinity is sourced from the

  9. Study the complexity and control of the recycling-supply chain of China's color TVs market based on the government subsidy

    Xie, Lei; Ma, Junhai

    2016-09-01

    In these days, as the recycling of household appliances becomes increasingly popular, the recycling network tends to be perfect in television industry. This paper focuses on the game among two recyclers and a processor in a Duopoly market of color TV recycling. We find that if the adjustment coefficients of the decision variables are changed abruptly, the system will fall into chaotic state. In order to avoid hazard of falling into a chaotic state, we adopt the method of delay control, providing the manufacturers with effective measures about chaos control. This paper analyzes the system's reactions to government decision, finding that when the parameters become beneficial for manufacturers, consumers and the environment, the system will fall into chaos and system's regional stability will reduce. Resulting from our analysis, this paper gives advice on the improvement of the environment and enhance in social welfare. Tested through the data we collected, this study is practical in both its theory and its applicability.

  10. Rethinking the Sharing Economy

    Kornberger, Martin; Leixnering, Stephan; Meyer, Renate

    2017-01-01

    Our paper focuses on a non-standard sharing example that harbors the potential to disrupt received wisdom on the sharing economy. While originally entering the field to analyze, broadly from a governance perspective, how the 2015 refugee crisis was handled in Vienna, Austria, we found that the no...... of sharing: economic and moral. Our paper contributes to this Special Issue of the Academy of Management Discoveries by highlighting and explaining the two-fold economic and moral nature of sharing and the organization of sharing between movement and platform....... sharing of resources (i.e., the economic dimension): the sharing of a distinct concern (i.e., the moral dimension of sharing). Our discovery exemplifies such a moral dimension that is rather different from the status quo materialistic treatments focusing on economic transactions and property rights...

  11. Job Sharing in Education.

    Davidson, Wilma; Kline, Susan

    1979-01-01

    The author presents the advantages of job sharing for all school personnel, saying that education is particularly adaptable to this new form of employment. Current job sharing programs in Massachusetts, California, and New Jersey schools are briefly discussed. (SJL)

  12. The battery market

    Deshpande, S.L.

    1991-01-01

    The worldwide battery market is estimated to be $21 billion annually at present. The geographical distribution of this market is shown in this paper. The American (North and South), Western Europe and Africa, and Asian and Australia represent equal markets of $6 billion each. The communist block countries (including Russia and China) are estimated to represent a $3 billion market. Automotive and consumer batteries constitute more than 80% of the world battery market. Industrial batteries make up the rest. Secondary (rechargeable) batteries (automotive, for example) have only 60% share of the world battery consumption. Primary batteries (most toy batteries that are the throw away type) exceed rechargeables by far in units. However, the larger size of rechargeable batteries makes their total value larger despite the small number of units

  13. The Dutch Grey Market

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Spaenjers, C.

    2008-01-01

    When-issued trading concerns transactions in securities that have not yet been issued. This type of trade often takes place in a so-called ‘grey market’, in which all contracts are conditional on the issuance of the security. In this paper, we investigate the Dutch grey market for when-issued shares

  14. Job Sharing in Geography.

    Kay, Jeanne

    1982-01-01

    Job sharing is an employment alternative in which two qualified individuals manage the responsibilities of a single position. Discusses the barriers to and the potential, advantages, disadvantages, pitfalls, and challenges of job sharing. Focuses on job sharing in the geography profession. (Author/JN)

  15. The Sharing Economy

    Reinhold, Stephan; Dolnicar, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Peer-to-peer accommodation networks in general, and Airbnb in specific, are frequently referred to as part of the sharing economy. This chapter provides an overview of key characteristics of the sharing economy, discusses how these characteristics relate to peer-to-peer accommodation, and positions peer-to-peer accommodation networks within the sharing economy.

  16. Satisfaction and 'comparison sharing'

    Amilon, Anna

    2009-01-01

    the probability of satisfaction. Results show that comparison sharing impacts satisfaction for women, and that those women who share more equally than their peers are more likely to be satisfied, whereas comparison sharing has no influence on satisfaction for men. Also, parents are less likely to be satisfied...

  17. Marketing Plan, 1980-81.

    Hoppe, Sherry; Biggers, Paul

    A marketing program for Chattanooga State Technical Community College (CSTCC) is presented as a guide to be used by the college in increasing its share of the traditional college-age market and in expanding the college's target audience to include more non-traditional students. The report first presents a review of the literature concerning…

  18. Privatization and Financial Market Development: Theoretical Issues

    Gabriella Chiesa; Giovanna Nicodano

    2003-01-01

    Stock market capitalization in developed countries grew while massive privatization plans were in progress. It is however possible that stock market development would have occurred anyway. Below we identify features that are specific to share-issue privatizations (SIPs) and should a priori impact on market liquidity and market size. A positive correlation between such features and market development in a cross section of countries would support the claim that certain types of SIPs contribute ...

  19. Analysis of Economic Factors Affecting Stock Market

    Xie, Linyin

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation concentrates on analysis of economic factors affecting Chinese stock market through examining relationship between stock market index and economic factors. Six economic variables are examined: industrial production, money supply 1, money supply 2, exchange rate, long-term government bond yield and real estate total value. Stock market comprises fixed interest stocks and equities shares. In this dissertation, stock market is restricted to equity market. The stock price in thi...

  20. Marketing plan for Snack Books

    Santos, Bernardo Vilaça Ribeiro dos

    2009-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics In 2008 LeYa had the desire to grow in two different ways: gaining market share to competitor firms in the book publishing market; and develop a strategy for market size growth, benefiting from first mover advantage. At that time we were already catalyzing and collecting the benefits of dimension, either by using our enhanced...

  1. Sharing family and household:

    Winther, Ida Wentzel

    Keynote: Family relationships are normatively assumed to be characterized by ‘sharing’, such as living together in the same home, occupying the same place, sharing stuff, blood and biology, spending special and ordinary time together, and consequently creating shared biographical experiences....... In that way, families are thrown into togetherness. At the same time, we see families in varying forms where 'sharing' is lived and contested differently. In Denmark, many children live in nuclear families, and many live in different variations of more than one household. For those who share household...... and family, 'sharing' will be a basic condition. No matter what, they should share life circumstances, more stories, more places and spaces, more households families with both kin and non-kin. This keynote addresses the particular of children’s experiences of living apart and/or living together in sharing...

  2. Market power analysis for the Iranian electricity market

    Asgari, Mohammad Hossein; Monsef, Hassan

    2010-01-01

    The market power problem in Iranian electricity market is addressed in this study. This paper by using various structural indices of market power and reviewing market results analyzes the intensity of competition in Iran's electricity market and examines whether this market is functioning at an appropriate level of efficiency. In this article the most well-known indices of market power are calculated in two approaches for two different scenarios (current situation and future outlook of generation sector's ownership in Iran's power industry). Comparing the results of these scenarios promises more competitive market for the second scenario. Calculating Residual Supply Index for Iran's power market shows despite admissible values of concentration ratios, due to supply scarcity during periods when the demand is close to the total available capacity, some suppliers can exercise market power even with a relatively small market share. The most important price and load indices like weighted average prices and load/price duration curves of Iranian electricity market during March 2007-March 2008 are also analyzed in this paper. These results imply the existence of economic withholding. The main limiting factors of competition and significant implemented countermeasures for market power mitigation in Iran's electricity market are also mentioned.

  3. Not a bad result. German solar producers were able to retain their world market share in 2010; Nicht schlecht geschlagen. Deutsche Solarfirmen konnten im Jahr 2010 ihren Weltmarktanteil in etwa halten

    Krause, Matthias B.; Podewils, Christoph

    2011-01-15

    The German solar industry was quite successful in 2010. More silicon, solar wafers, solar cells, solar modules, and current inverters were produced and sold than in the year before. Expectations for 2011 are good, and many producers intend to enhance their production capacities as this is the only way to keep up. Fast growth, cost reduction, and the development of interesting markets abroad are key elements of success.

  4. Modelling and analysis of global coal markets

    Trueby, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    International Steam Coal Trade. In this paper, we analyse steam coal market equilibria in the years 2006 and 2008 by testing for two possible market structure scenarios: perfect competition and an oligopoly setup with major exporters competing in quantities. The assumed oligopoly scenario cannot explain market equilibria for any year. While we find that the competitive model simulates market equilibria well in 2006, the competitive model is not able to reproduce real market outcomes in 2008. The analysis shows that not all available supply capacity was utilised in 2008. We conclude that either unknown capacity bottlenecks or more sophisticated non-competitive strategies were the cause for the high prices in 2008. Chapter 4 builds upon the findings of the analysis in chapter 3 and adds a more detailed representation of domestic markets. The corresponding essay is titled Nations as Strategic Players in Global Commodity Markets: Evidence from World Coal Trade. In this chapter we explore the hypothesis that export policies and trade patterns of national players in the steam coal market are consistent with non-competitive market behaviour. We test this hypothesis by developing a static equilibrium model which is able to model coal producing nations as strategic players. We explicitly account for integrated seaborne trade and domestic markets. The global steam coal market is simulated under several imperfect market structure setups. We find that trade and prices of a China - Indonesia duopoly fits the real market outcome best and that real Chinese export quotas in 2008 were consistent with simulated exports under a Cournot-Nash strategy. Chapter 5 looks at the long-term effect of Chinese energy system planning decisions. The time horizon is 2006 to 2030. The analysis in this chapter combines a dynamic equilibrium model with the scenario analysis technique. The corresponding essay is titled Coal Lumps vs. Electrons: How Do Chinese Bulk Energy Transport Decisions Affect the Global

  5. Modelling and analysis of global coal markets

    Trueby, Johannes

    2013-01-17

    International Steam Coal Trade. In this paper, we analyse steam coal market equilibria in the years 2006 and 2008 by testing for two possible market structure scenarios: perfect competition and an oligopoly setup with major exporters competing in quantities. The assumed oligopoly scenario cannot explain market equilibria for any year. While we find that the competitive model simulates market equilibria well in 2006, the competitive model is not able to reproduce real market outcomes in 2008. The analysis shows that not all available supply capacity was utilised in 2008. We conclude that either unknown capacity bottlenecks or more sophisticated non-competitive strategies were the cause for the high prices in 2008. Chapter 4 builds upon the findings of the analysis in chapter 3 and adds a more detailed representation of domestic markets. The corresponding essay is titled Nations as Strategic Players in Global Commodity Markets: Evidence from World Coal Trade. In this chapter we explore the hypothesis that export policies and trade patterns of national players in the steam coal market are consistent with non-competitive market behaviour. We test this hypothesis by developing a static equilibrium model which is able to model coal producing nations as strategic players. We explicitly account for integrated seaborne trade and domestic markets. The global steam coal market is simulated under several imperfect market structure setups. We find that trade and prices of a China - Indonesia duopoly fits the real market outcome best and that real Chinese export quotas in 2008 were consistent with simulated exports under a Cournot-Nash strategy. Chapter 5 looks at the long-term effect of Chinese energy system planning decisions. The time horizon is 2006 to 2030. The analysis in this chapter combines a dynamic equilibrium model with the scenario analysis technique. The corresponding essay is titled Coal Lumps vs. Electrons: How Do Chinese Bulk Energy Transport Decisions Affect the Global

  6. An operatorial approach to stock markets

    Bagarello, F

    2006-01-01

    We propose and discuss some toy models of stock markets using the same operatorial approach adopted in quantum mechanics. Our models are suggested by the discrete nature of the number of shares and of the cash which are exchanged in a real market, and by the existence of conserved quantities, like the total number of shares or some linear combination of cash and shares. The same framework as the one used in the description of a gas of interacting bosons is adopted

  7. 75 FR 54591 - Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program

    2010-09-08

    ...] Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program AGENCY... Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program. SUMMARY: This Notice invites the... Agreement with the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) for the Allocation of Organic Certification Cost...

  8. 75 FR 54590 - Notice of 2010 National Organic Certification Cost-Share Program

    2010-09-08

    ...] Notice of 2010 National Organic Certification Cost-Share Program AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service... Certification Cost-Share Funds. The AMS has allocated $22.0 million for this organic certification cost-share... National Organic Certification Cost- Share Program is authorized under 7 U.S.C. 6523, as amended by section...

  9. Introduction to market power issues

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an initial introduction to market power issues in wholesale electric power markets. Market power was described as the ability of sellers to act together to profitably maintain prices above competitive levels for a significant period of time. The two general forms of market power, vertical and horizontal market power, were described with reference to how they may be exercised. The factors that should be considered when evaluating the competitiveness of a market include: (1) market share of suppliers, (2) overall market concentration, (3) elasticity of demand, (4) shape of the industry supply curve, (5) the amount and distribution of excess supply, (6) typical contractual arrangements and the process for establishing prices, and (7) the relative ease to enter the market. It was noted that a narrow market scope allows only wholesale market sector (such as municipal utilities) to access competitive electricity supplies, however, a more expansive definition of market scope would consider the sale of electricity to industrial customers. This would allow more players to enter the Nova Scotia market. The barriers to entry for wholesale electric power markets are: (1) access to the transmission grids and services, (2) sites for new capacity development, (3) major inputs to power generation, (4) transportation of major inputs to generation, and (5) lack of liquidity

  10. On the evaluation of market power and market dominance-The Nordic electricity market

    Hellmer, Stefan; Warell, Linda

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies different concentration and dominance measures using structural indexes used to initially screen the competitive situation in a market. The Nordic and Swedish electricity markets are used as the empirical cases. Market concentration issues in the Nordic electricity market in general and in Sweden in particular have been, at least in initial screenings, approached by the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI). This article uses an alternative measure to HHI, which is based on market shares of the two largest firms in the market. The results shows that only the Swedish wholesale market has a firm that can be regarded as dominant, but only during very short periods. The results from a hypothetical merger between the second and third largest company in the Swedish wholesale market shows that when the dominant position of the largest firm is reduced, by increasing the size of the second largest firm, the threshold value indicates that competition actually will increase (contradicting to the HHI).

  11. Sharing killed the AVMSD star: the impossibility of European audiovisual media regulation in the era of the sharing economy

    Indrek Ibrus

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the challenges that the ‘sharing economy’ presents to the updating of the European Union’s (EU Audiovisual Media Service Directive (AVMSD, part of the broader Digital Single Market (DSM strategy of the EU. It suggests that the convergence of media markets and the emergence of video-sharing platforms may make the existing regulative tradition obsolete. It demonstrates an emergent need for regulatory convergence – AVMSD to create equal terms for all technical forms of content distribution. It then shows how the operational logic of video-sharing platforms undermines the AVMSD logic aimed at creating demand for professionally produced European content – leading potentially to the liberalisation of the EU audiovisual services market. Lastly, it argues that the DSM strategy combined with sharing-related network effects may facilitate the evolution of the oligopolistic structure in the EU audiovisual market, potentially harmful for cultural diversity.

  12. Dynamic quantum secret sharing

    Jia, Heng-Yue; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Gao, Fei; Qin, Su-Juan; Guo, Fen-Zhuo

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter we consider quantum secret sharing (QSS) between a sender and a dynamic agent group, called dynamic quantum secret sharing (DQSS). In the DQSS, the change of the agent group is allowable during the procedure of sharing classical and quantum information. Two DQSS schemes are proposed based on a special kind of entangled state, starlike cluster states. Without redistributing all the shares, the changed agent group can reconstruct the sender's secret by their cooperation. Compared with the previous quantum secret sharing scheme, our schemes are more flexible and suitable for practical applications. -- Highlights: ► We consider quantum secret sharing between a sender and a dynamic agent group, called dynamic quantum secret sharing (DQSS). ► In the DQSS, the change of the agent group is allowable during the procedure of sharing classical and quantum information. ► Two DQSS schemes are proposed based on a special kind of entangled state, starlike cluster states. ► Without redistributing all the shares, the changed agent group can reconstruct the sender's secret by their cooperation. ► Compared with the previous quantum secret sharing scheme, our schemes are more flexible and suitable for practical applications.

  13. Market, Regulation, Market, Regulation

    Frankel, Christian; Galland, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    barriers to trade in Europe, realized the free movement of products by organizing progressively several orders of markets and regulation. Based on historical and institutional documents, on technical publications, and on interviews, this article relates how the European Commission and the Member States had......This paper focuses on the European Regulatory system which was settled both for opening the Single Market for products and ensuring the consumers' safety. It claims that the New Approach and Standardization, and the Global Approach to conformity assessment, which suppressed the last technical...... alternatively recourse to markets and to regulations, at the three main levels of the New Approach Directives implementation. The article focuses also more specifically on the Medical Devices sector, not only because this New Approach sector has long been controversial in Europe, and has recently been concerned...

  14. Predicting the Potential Market for Electric Vehicles

    Jensen, Anders Fjendbo; Cherchi, Elisabetta; Mabit, Stefan Lindhard

    2017-01-01

    diffusion models in marketing research use fairly simple demand models. In this paper we discuss the problem of predicting market shares for new products and suggest a method that combines advanced choice models with a diffusion model to take into account that new products often need time to gain......Forecasting the potential demand for electric vehicles is a challenging task. Because most studies for new technologies rely on stated preference (SP) data, market share predictions will reflect shares in the SP data and not in the real market. Moreover, typical disaggregate demand models...... are suitable to forecast demand in relatively stable markets, but show limitations in the case of innovations. When predicting the market for new products it is crucial to account for the role played by innovation and how it penetrates the new market over time through a diffusion process. However, typical...

  15. Job sharing. Part 1.

    Anderson, K; Forbes, R

    1989-01-01

    This article is the first of a three part series discussing the impact of nurses job sharing at University Hospital, London, Ontario. This first article explores the advantages and disadvantages of job sharing for staff nurses and their supervising nurse manager, as discussed in the literature. The results of a survey conducted on a unit with a large number of job sharing positions, concur with literature findings. The second article will present the evaluation of a pilot project in which two nurses job share a first line managerial position in the Operating Room. The third article will relate the effects of job sharing on women's perceived general well being. Job sharing in all areas, is regarded as a positive experience by both nurse and administrators.

  16. Marketing the Masters of Executive Management Program

    2007-12-01

    market themselves to attract new students ( Kotler , 2003). The format of this chapter continues with an outline of the different strategic phases...Implementation H. Evaluation and Control Source: Developed from (Kerin & Peterson, 2004), ( Kotler , 2003) Figure 1. MEM Marketing Plan...strategically evaluate which market they are actually operating in. According to ( Kotler , 2003), “organizations develop mission statements to share

  17. 49 CFR 1180.7 - Market analyses.

    2010-10-01

    ... company's marketing plan and existing and potential competitive alternatives (inter- as well as intramodal... for inspection by other parties or otherwise supply these data on request, for example, electronically... or marketing goals; interchange data; market share analysis; and/or shipper surveys. It is important...

  18. Probabilistic Infinite Secret Sharing

    Csirmaz, László

    2013-01-01

    The study of probabilistic secret sharing schemes using arbitrary probability spaces and possibly infinite number of participants lets us investigate abstract properties of such schemes. It highlights important properties, explains why certain definitions work better than others, connects this topic to other branches of mathematics, and might yield new design paradigms. A probabilistic secret sharing scheme is a joint probability distribution of the shares and the secret together with a colle...

  19. BBSRC Data Sharing Policy

    Amanda Collis; David McAllister; Michael Ball

    2011-01-01

    BBSRC recognizes the importance of contributing to the growing international efforts in data sharing. BBSRC is committed to getting the best value for the funds we invest and believes that making research data more readily available will reinforce open scientific inquiry and stimulate new investigations and analyses. BBSRC supports the view that data sharing should be led by the scientific community and driven by scientific need. It should also be cost effective and the data shared should be ...

  20. Factors Impacting Knowledge Sharing

    Schulzmann, David; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    The purpose of this paper is to examine various factors affecting knowledge sharing at the R&D center of a Western MNE in China. The paper employs qualitative methodology and is based on the action research and case study research techniques. The findings of the paper advance our understanding...... about factors that affect knowledge sharing. The main emphasis is given to the discussion on how to improve knowledge sharing in global R&D organizations....

  1. Regulating the sharing economy

    Erickson, Kristofer; Sorensen, Inge

    2016-01-01

    In this introductory essay, we explore definitions of the ‘sharing economy’, a concept indicating both social (relational, communitarian) and economic (allocative, profit-seeking) aspects which appear to be in tension. We suggest combining the social and economic logics of the sharing economy to focus on the central features of network enabled, aggregated membership in a pool of offers and demands (for goods, services, creative expressions). This definition of the sharing economy distinguishe...

  2. Phenomenology of experiential sharing

    León, Felipe; Zahavi, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The chapter explores the topic of experiential sharing by drawing on the early contributions of the phenomenologists Alfred Schutz and Gerda Walther. It is argued that both Schutz and Walther support, from complementary perspectives, an approach to experiential sharing that has tended to be overl......The chapter explores the topic of experiential sharing by drawing on the early contributions of the phenomenologists Alfred Schutz and Gerda Walther. It is argued that both Schutz and Walther support, from complementary perspectives, an approach to experiential sharing that has tended...

  3. A Data Sharing Story

    Mercè Crosas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available From the early days of modern science through this century of Big Data, data sharing has enabled some of the greatest advances in science. In the digital age, technology can facilitate more effective and efficient data sharing and preservation practices, and provide incentives for making data easily accessible among researchers. At the Institute for Quantitative Social Science at Harvard University, we have developed an open-source software to share, cite, preserve, discover and analyze data, named the Dataverse Network. We share here the project’s motivation, its growth and successes, and likely evolution.

  4. Share your sweets

    Byrnit, Jill; Høgh-Olesen, Henrik; Makransky, Guido

    2015-01-01

    study to examine the sharing behavior of groups of captive chimpanzees and bonobos when introducing the same type of food (branches) manipulated to be of two different degrees of desirability (with or without syrup). Results showed that, the large majority of food transfers in both species came about...... as sharing in which group members were allowed to co-feed or remove food from the stock of the food possessor, and the introduction of high-value food resulted in more sharing, not less. Food sharing behavior differed between species in that chimpanzees displayed significantly more begging behavior than...

  5. Inbound marketing

    Popek, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    In my work I focus on Inbound Marketing, which represents a new perspective on marketing, that has not been given the attention it deserves. It is a combination of existing and proven marketing methods that are used to obtain new customers with minimal marketing costs to the organization. The first section of my work is devoted to defining the concept of Inbound Marketing definitions and explanations. Furthermore, I present a list of instruments used in Inbound Marketing, and showcase the def...

  6. 7 CFR 762.147 - Servicing shared appreciation agreements.

    2010-01-01

    ... percent of any positive appreciation in the market value of the property securing the loan or line of... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Servicing shared appreciation agreements. 762.147..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED FARM LOANS § 762.147 Servicing shared appreciation...

  7. Environmental factors influencing fluctuation of share prices on ...

    Environmental factors influencing fluctuation of share prices on Nigeria stock exchange market. ... What are these environmental variables that affect the fluctuation of share prices in Nigeria? ... The results show inflation, money supply, total deficits index of industrial production, interest rate and GDP influence stock prices.

  8. Tender frequency and market concentration in balancing power markets

    Knaut, Andreas; Obermueller, Frank; Weiser, Florian

    2017-01-15

    Balancing power markets ensure the short-term balance of supply and demand in electricity markets and their importance may increase with a higher share of fluctuating renewable electricity production. While it is clear that shorter tender frequencies, e.g. daily or hourly, are able to increase the efficiency compared to a weekly procurement, it remains unclear in which respect market concentration will be affected. Against this background, we develop a numerical electricity market model to quantify the possible effects of shorter tender frequencies on costs and market concentration. We find that shorter time spans of procurement are able to lower the costs by up to 15%. While market concentration decreases in many markets, we - surprisingly - identify cases in which shorter time spans lead to higher concentration.

  9. Green Power Marketing - from Niches to Mass Markets

    Wuestenhagen, Rolf

    2000-01-01

    In the process of liberalization of the electricity market the customers are now in a position to participate in the decision on how their electricity is produced. In particular, many consumers have a preference for renewable energies. For the producers, marketing of 'eco-power' is an opportunity to achieve sustainable competitive advantage. However, the market share of these products is still quite small today, and 'eco-power' is usually marketed as an expensive niche product. From the perspective of sustainable development these niches are a necessary but not sufficient step. In this book, ways are discussed which could lead to a mass-market penetration of eco-power products. A theoretical analysis is combined with empirical evidence derived from the eco-power market in Germany, Switzerland, Great Britain and the U.S. as well as with a comparison with other market segments [de

  10. Marketing research of the chocolate market in Macedonia

    Jovanov-Marjanova Tamara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumer market in Macedonia and the chocolate market in particular, are overtaken from many foreign brands. The domestic companies, disregarding their size, are losing market share to the competitors with stronger strategies. This paper shows the existing weaknesses in the current strategies of the domestic companies through case study of the 2 largest confectionery producers in Macedonia on one side, and discovers the consumer behavior and preferences toward FMCG and chocolate through market research and analysis of a purposive statistical sample of 300 consumers on the other. The applied research techniques for the need of the consumer research were questionnaires and in depth interviews with the firms' managers. The analysis clearly indicates that with the adequate market research, i.e. implementation of the market research models and techniques a basis for competitive and successful marketing strategy can be created, not only by large corporations, but by individuals/owners of small and medium sized companies as well.

  11. Tender frequency and market concentration in balancing power markets

    Knaut, Andreas; Obermueller, Frank; Weiser, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Balancing power markets ensure the short-term balance of supply and demand in electricity markets and their importance may increase with a higher share of fluctuating renewable electricity production. While it is clear that shorter tender frequencies, e.g. daily or hourly, are able to increase the efficiency compared to a weekly procurement, it remains unclear in which respect market concentration will be affected. Against this background, we develop a numerical electricity market model to quantify the possible effects of shorter tender frequencies on costs and market concentration. We find that shorter time spans of procurement are able to lower the costs by up to 15%. While market concentration decreases in many markets, we - surprisingly - identify cases in which shorter time spans lead to higher concentration.

  12. Millennials and the Sharing Economy

    Ranzini, Giulia; Newlands, Gemma; Anselmi, Guido

    Report from the EU H2020 Research Project Ps2Share: Participation, Privacy, and Power in the Sharing Economy......Report from the EU H2020 Research Project Ps2Share: Participation, Privacy, and Power in the Sharing Economy...

  13. A multi-regional MARKAL-MACRO model to study an international market of CO{sub 2} emission permits. A detailed analysis of a burden sharing strategy among the Netherlands, Sweden and Switzerland

    Bahn, O.; Barreto, L.; Bueeler, B.; Kypreos, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-11-01

    The development of a multi-regional MARKAL-MACRO (mMM) model and associated solution techniques have been actively continued during the first year (July 1996 - June 1997) of the IEA/ETSAP/Annex VI. This has been a joint research effort between: - the Systems Analysis Section of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), - the Inst. for Operations Research (IFOR) of the Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology at Zurich, - the Logistics Lab. (Logilab) of the Univ. of Geneva, and - the different ETSAP partners that provide the regional MARKAL-MACRO (MM) models. This report intends to give an update on the development of mMM and associated solution techniques, highlighting the progress made since July 1996. It details also first JI study performed with mMM. The mMM model enables one to study an international co-operation to curb jointly carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions through a market of emission permits, and to evaluate the economic implications of co-ordinating abatement policies on the participating regions. Along with emission permits, the regions may exchange other goods. So far, only an aggregate good in monetary unit has been considered. The mMM model integrates regional MM models into a meta-modelling framework. This integration can be done following two equivalent alternatives: mMM can be formulated either with market equilibrium conditions, or with an aggregated utility function and a global excess constraint. In both alternatives, regional MM models have to be extended by coherent budget and/or trade relationships. A first coding of a mMM model with three countries had been done in GAMS. Work has been done to generalise this coding to consider more traded goods and more countries. To solve mMM, two alternative mathematical methods can be used. The first one considers mMM formulated with market equilibrium conditions, and solves it as a variational inequality problem using a cutting plane algorithm. The second one considers mMM formulated with an aggregated utility

  14. A multi-regional MARKAL-MACRO model to study an international market of CO2 emission permits. A detailed analysis of a burden sharing strategy among the Netherlands, Sweden and Switzerland

    Bahn, O.; Barreto, L.; Bueeler, B.; Kypreos, S.

    1997-11-01

    The development of a multi-regional MARKAL-MACRO (mMM) model and associated solution techniques have been actively continued during the first year (July 1996 - June 1997) of the IEA/ETSAP/Annex VI. This has been a joint research effort between: - the Systems Analysis Section of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), - the Inst. for Operations Research (IFOR) of the Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology at Zurich, - the Logistics Lab. (Logilab) of the Univ. of Geneva, and - the different ETSAP partners that provide the regional MARKAL-MACRO (MM) models. This report intends to give an update on the development of mMM and associated solution techniques, highlighting the progress made since July 1996. It details also first JI study performed with mMM. The mMM model enables one to study an international co-operation to curb jointly carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions through a market of emission permits, and to evaluate the economic implications of co-ordinating abatement policies on the participating regions. Along with emission permits, the regions may exchange other goods. So far, only an aggregate good in monetary unit has been considered. The mMM model integrates regional MM models into a meta-modelling framework. This integration can be done following two equivalent alternatives: mMM can be formulated either with market equilibrium conditions, or with an aggregated utility function and a global excess constraint. In both alternatives, regional MM models have to be extended by coherent budget and/or trade relationships. A first coding of a mMM model with three countries had been done in GAMS. Work has been done to generalise this coding to consider more traded goods and more countries. To solve mMM, two alternative mathematical methods can be used. The first one considers mMM formulated with market equilibrium conditions, and solves it as a variational inequality problem using a cutting plane algorithm. The second one considers mMM formulated with an aggregated utility

  15. The impact of modern technology on changing marketing actions in organisations. Marketing 4.0

    Świeczak Witold

    2017-01-01

    The article presents the theory that modern technologies are changing the way in which marketing is organised and that they will transform the prevailing composition of the market, while enterprises should come to terms with the act that having a market share will no longer suffice to maintain the market leader position. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the key challenges generated by technological innovations and to identify the opportunities for marketing in light of the n...

  16. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 2. Quarter 2014

    2014-06-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  17. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 4. Quarter 2013

    2013-12-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  18. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 1. Quarter 2014

    2014-03-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  19. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 1. Quarter 2015

    2015-03-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  20. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 3. Quarter 2015

    2015-09-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  1. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 4. Quarter 2015

    2015-12-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  2. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 1. Quarter 2016

    2016-03-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  3. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 2. Quarter 2015

    2015-06-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  4. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 3. Quarter 2014

    2014-09-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  5. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 3. Quarter 2013

    2013-09-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  6. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 4. Quarter 2014

    2014-12-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  7. Mobile energy sharing futures

    Worgan, Paul; Knibbe, Jarrod; Plasencia, Diego Martinez

    2016-01-01

    We foresee a future where energy in our mobile devices can be shared and redistributed to suit our current task needs. Many of us are beginning to carry multiple mobile devices and we seek to re-evaluate the traditional view of a mobile device as only accepting energy. In our vision, we can...... sharing futures....

  8. 5G Spectrum Sharing

    Nekovee, Maziar; Rudd, Richard

    2017-01-01

    In this paper an overview is given of the current status of 5G industry standards, spectrum allocation and use cases, followed by initial investigations of new opportunities for spectrum sharing in 5G using cognitive radio techniques, considering both licensed and unlicensed scenarios. A particular attention is given to sharing millimeter-wave frequencies, which are of prominent importance for 5G.

  9. NCSU Reactor Sharing Program

    Perez, P.B.

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Reactor Program at North Carolina State University provides the PULSTAR Research Reactor and associated facilities to eligible institutions with support, in part, from the Department of Energy Reactor Sharing Program. Participation in the NCSU Reactor Sharing Program continues to increase steadily with visitors ranging from advance high school physics and chemistry students to Ph.D. level research from neighboring universities

  10. 'An Arena for Sharing'

    la Cour, Karen; Ledderer, Loni; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2015-01-01

    relatives). In-depth interviews were conducted in the participants' homes 1 month after the rehabilitation course. Data were analyzed by a constant comparative method. Results: Residential rehabilitation course was identified to serve as an "arena for sharing," underpinned by 3 dimensions of sharing...

  11. The beef market in the European Union

    Nielsen, Niels Asger

    small with the largest slaughtering company slaughtering only 3% of the total. 9. Relations between industry (slaughterhouses) and farmers tend to be much looser in the beef market than it is in other agricultural markets, eg the milk market. Cattle markets are still quite important although the share......'s share of total meat consumption 3. As a consequence of the consumers' demand for convenient shopping, butcher's share of total beef sales is rapidly decreasing in Europe. 4. Changes in meat consumption have traditionally been explained by relative price and per capita income, but these economic demand...... analyses can explain a rapidly decreasing share of the variation in beef consumption. 5. Studies show that beef consumption tends to increase with age; the heavy users are found among middle-aged men. Beef consumption also increases with income and social class. 6. The most important user-oriented quality...

  12. Impact of pulling down regulatory state barriers on uranium in Australia: Is there a need in order to maintain and increase Australia’s global market share of uranium?

    Ikhlaas Gurrib

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets a prospective framework to study the impact of opening more mines to meet future growing demand on Australia’s economy. The structure is aimed at decomposing investments and exports variables into Uranium exports and Uranium Exploration expenditure and analyse their impacts on each State GSP (Goods State Product and for Australia as a nation. The demand and supply factors affecting the uranium market are defragmented before providing the research methodology and data specifics. Later analysis is expected to have policy implications by serving as a guide to pull down State Regulatory barriers like those imposed currently in Queensland, which is rich with uranium deposits and allow only uranium exploration but no uranium mining. Empirical findings would suggest whether exporting the carbon free energy would add value to Australia’s different competing states and as a whole globalized economy.

  13. Sharing Rare Attitudes Attracts.

    Alves, Hans

    2018-04-01

    People like others who share their attitudes. Online dating platforms as well as other social media platforms regularly rely on the social bonding power of their users' shared attitudes. However, little is known about moderating variables. In the present work, I argue that sharing rare compared with sharing common attitudes should evoke stronger interpersonal attraction among people. In five studies, I tested this prediction for the case of shared interests from different domains. I found converging evidence that people's rare compared with their common interests are especially potent to elicit interpersonal attraction. I discuss the current framework's theoretical implications for impression formation and impression management as well as its practical implications for improving online dating services.

  14. When do they care to share? : How manufacturers make contracted service partners share knowledge

    de Vries, J.; Schepers, J.; van Weele, A.; van der Valk, W.

    2014-01-01

    Manufacturing firms that outsource customer-facing services, risk losing touch with their customers and thereby forfeit valuable market and customer-related knowledge. To maintain informed and competitive, the manufacturer's customer-facing service partners should engage in knowledge sharing and

  15. When do they care to share? : how manufacturers make contracted service partners share knowledge

    Vries, de J.J.A.P.; Schepers, J.J.L.; Weele, van A.J.; Valk, van der W.

    2014-01-01

    Manufacturing firms that outsource customer-facing services, risk losing touch with their customers and thereby forfeit valuable market and customer-related knowledge. To maintain informed and competitive, the manufacturer's customer-facing service partners should engage in knowledge sharing and

  16. Project-matrix models of marketing organization

    Gutić Dragutin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike theory and practice of corporation organization, in marketing organization numerous forms and contents at its disposal are not reached until this day. It can be well estimated that marketing organization today in most of our companies and in almost all its parts, noticeably gets behind corporation organization. Marketing managers have always been occupied by basic, narrow marketing activities as: sales growth, market analysis, market growth and market share, marketing research, introduction of new products, modification of products, promotion, distribution etc. They rarely found it necessary to focus a bit more to different aspects of marketing management, for example: marketing planning and marketing control, marketing organization and leading. This paper deals with aspects of project - matrix marketing organization management. Two-dimensional and more-dimensional models are presented. Among two-dimensional, these models are analyzed: Market management/products management model; Products management/management of product lifecycle phases on market model; Customers management/marketing functions management model; Demand management/marketing functions management model; Market positions management/marketing functions management model. .

  17. Marketing cardiac CT programs.

    Scott, Jason

    2010-01-01

    There are two components of cardiac CT discussed in this article: coronary artery calcium scoring (CACS) and coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA).The distinctive advantages of each CT examination are outlined. In order to ensure a successful cardiac CT program, it is imperative that imaging facilities market their cardiac CT practices effectively in order to gain a competitive advantage in this valuable market share. If patients receive quality care by competent individuals, they are more likely to recommend the facility's cardiac CT program. Satisfied patients will also be more willing to come back for any further testing.

  18. Sustainable Marketing

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the

  19. Organisational Diversity and Knowledge Sharing

    Lauring, Jakob; Jonasson, Charlotte

    productivity and diversity management - that is not engaging in a discussion of how and why there could be potential benefits or difficulties. In this paper we will describe and analyse some of the complications multicultural organisations can experience in regard to knowledge sharing......The last years' focus on diversity management has gone from social responsibility to arguments for the competitive advantages, called the business case. It has been argued that diversity management can increase organisational efficiency, improve on moral, and give better access to new market...... segments. But a substantial critique has recently been launched at the arguments for the business case for diversity, especially in the employment of knowledge synergies. Most studies that support or reject the business case argument have limited their research to establish a link between organisational...

  20. MARKETING STRATEGIES OF SMARTPHONES PRODUCERS

    Markova V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones global market is one of the most dynamically developing markets that can be characterized by high level of competition. The growth of smartphones homogeneity, which is a reduction in difference between technical and functional parameters of smartphones produced by various manufacturers, can be considered the market’s specific feature. The unique situation of high-tech product homogeneity in a fast-growing market is scantily described in specialized literature. The article shows changeability of smartphones global market leaders and explains that the key success factor in such a mature market is marketing. Based on secondary information, marketing strategies of long standing market leader in sales Samsung and overtaking Apple companies are determined as well as strategies of contenders for leadership - Chinese companies Huawei and Lenovo. It is shown on Lenovo case that inexplicit positioning leads to a loss of the growing market share due to offensive marketing strategies of other Chinese companies. The research results broaden the knowledge of methodical potential of marketing strategies in companies’ activities in competitive markets of homogeneous high-tech products.

  1. Chimpanzees share forbidden fruit.

    Kimberley J Hockings

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The sharing of wild plant foods is infrequent in chimpanzees, but in chimpanzee communities that engage in hunting, meat is frequently used as a 'social tool' for nurturing alliances and social bonds. Here we report the only recorded example of regular sharing of plant foods by unrelated, non-provisioned wild chimpanzees, and the contexts in which these sharing behaviours occur. From direct observations, adult chimpanzees at Bossou (Republic of Guinea, West Africa very rarely transferred wild plant foods. In contrast, they shared cultivated plant foods much more frequently (58 out of 59 food sharing events. Sharing primarily consists of adult males allowing reproductively cycling females to take food that they possess. We propose that hypotheses focussing on 'food-for-sex and -grooming' and 'showing-off' strategies plausibly account for observed sharing behaviours. A changing human-dominated landscape presents chimpanzees with fresh challenges, and our observations suggest that crop-raiding provides adult male chimpanzees at Bossou with highly desirable food commodities that may be traded for other currencies.

  2. TRICARE Marketing

    1999-10-21

    definitive. It stated that: Marketing is much more than advertising or promotion materials. Marketing is a foundation for building a business strategy ; it...objectives, and strategies for marketing TRICARE. However, the Director provided the plan for information; none of the recipients of the plan were...overarching goal and extensively in the marketing strategies section. Specifically, the Marketing Plan states that strategies employed to accomplish

  3. Hospital marketing.

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation.

  4. Internet marketing

    Zelený, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In the bachelor thesis are introduced theoretical concepts of the Internet and marketing, accented the need of marketing mix along with its specifics of the internet environment. Next is interpreted which tools can be used for marketing of firms and which marketing instruments are to be deployed. Final chapter illustrates socio-demographics of Czech internet users along with media market allocation from the perspective of all media as well as in the segment of the Internet.

  5. Money Markets

    Marvin Goodfriend

    2011-01-01

    Money markets offer monetary services and short-term finance in the capital market with the credit support of institutional sponsors. Investors finance money market instruments at low interest because their salability on short notice confers an implicit monetary services yield. Low interest attracts borrowers to money markets. The fragile equilibrium depends on collective confidence in the credit quality of instruments supplied to the market. Federal Reserve monetary and credit policies have ...

  6. Evidence of long range dependence in Asian equity markets: the role of liquidity and market restrictions

    Cajueiro, Daniel O.; Tabak, Benjamin M.

    2004-11-01

    In this paper, the efficient market hypothesis is tested for China, Hong Kong and Singapore by means of the long memory dependence approach. We find evidence suggesting that Hong Kong is the most efficient market followed by Chinese A type shares and Singapore and finally by Chinese B type shares, which suggests that liquidity and capital restrictions may play a role in explaining results of market efficiency tests.

  7. Sharing the dance -

    He, Jing; Ravn, Susanne

    2018-01-01

    In his recent works on daily face-to-face encounters, Zahavi claims that the phenomenon of sharing involves reciprocity. Following Zahavi’s line of thought, we wonder what exactly reciprocity amounts to and how the shared experience emerges from the dynamic process of interaction. By turning...... to the highly specialized field of elite sports dance, we aim at exploring the way in which reciprocity unfolds in intensive deliberate practices of movement. In our analysis, we specifically argue that the ongoing dynamics of two separate flows of movement constitute a shared experience of dancing together...

  8. Global resource sharing

    Frederiksen, Linda; Nance, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    Written from a global perspective, this book reviews sharing of library resources on a global scale. With expanded discovery tools and massive digitization projects, the rich and extensive holdings of the world's libraries are more visible now than at any time in the past. Advanced communication and transmission technologies, along with improved international standards, present a means for the sharing of library resources around the globe. Despite these significant improvements, a number of challenges remain. Global Resource Sharing provides librarians and library managers with a comprehensive

  9. Report endorses data sharing

    The potential benefits of sharing data so outweigh its costs that investigators should be required to include plans for sharing data as part of their grant proposals, according to recommendations issued recently by the Committee on National Statistics (CNSTAT) of the National Research Council (NRC).In their report Sharing Research Data, CNSTAT also recommended that “Journals should give more emphasis to reports of secondary analyses and to replications,” provided that the original collections of data receive full credit. In addition, “Journal editors should require authors to provide access to data during the peer review process.”

  10. Facilitating Knowledge Sharing

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    knowledge sharing is to ensure that the exchange is seen as equitable for the parties involved, and by viewing the problems of knowledge sharing as motivational problems situated in different organizational settings, the paper explores how knowledge exchange can be conceptualized as going on in four...... distinct situations of exchange denominated organizational exchange yielding extrinsic rewards, organizational exchange yielding intrinsic rewards, financial exchange, and social exchange. The paper argues that each situation of exchange has distinct assumptions about individual behaviour...... and the intermediaries regulating the exchange, and facilitating knowledge sharing should therefore be viewed as a continuum of practices under the influence of opportunistic behaviour, obedience or organizational citizenship behaviour. Keywords: Knowledge sharing, motivation, organizational settings, situations...

  11. A Sharing Proposition.

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2002-01-01

    Describes how the University of Vermont and St. Michael's College in Burlington, Vermont cooperated to share a single card access system. Discusses the planning, financial, and marketplace advantages of the cooperation. (EV)

  12. Sufficient Flexibility and Capacity in Electricity Markets with Renewables: A Review of Innovative Market Mechanisms

    Sekamane, Jonas Khubute; Katz, Jonas; Skytte, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    This review of the literature collects innovative market mechanisms that tend to get overlooked in the discussion of whether unassisted energy-only markets can ensure sufficient capacity or if capacity remuneration mechanisms are required. The paper complements existing literature reviews...... and pinpoints advantageous research areas relating to the market design of electricity systems with high shares of variable renewable energy...

  13. Customer Retention & Customer Relationship Marketing: Strategi Pemasaran Yang Potensial

    Aprilia, Ariesya

    2004-01-01

    The traditional marketing approach advocates the marketing mix principles and the quest for market share dominance through mass marketing techniques and a focus on new customer acquisition. This approach has guided managers for decades in planning in implementing their marketing strategies. But nowadays, traditional approach has been changed by customer retention. Customer retention, in the traditional marketing approach, is however seen as the 'end' rather than the means to delivering long-t...

  14. Stock Market Prices and the Market for Corporate Control

    Armour, John; Cheffins, Brian Robert

    2016-01-01

    The manner in which hostile takeovers have historically been executed has just begun to receive serious academic attention. Similarly, while the literature on the accuracy and determinants of share prices is voluminous, there has been little systematic historical analysis of when and how modern standards of share price efficiency took shape. This article addresses both subjects in depth to ascertain the extent to which developments in the market for corporate control may have been associated ...

  15. Sharing resources@CERN

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    The library is launching a 'sharing resources@CERN' campaign, aiming to increase the library's utility by including the thousands of books bought by individual groups at CERN. This will improve sharing of information among CERN staff and users. Photo 01: L. to r. Eduardo Aldaz, from the PS division, Corrado Pettenati, Head Librarian, and Isabel Bejar, from the ST division, read their divisional copies of the same book.

  16. Regulating the sharing economy

    Kristofer Erickson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this introductory essay, we explore definitions of the ‘sharing economy’, a concept indicating both social (relational, communitarian and economic (allocative, profit-seeking aspects which appear to be in tension. We suggest combining the social and economic logics of the sharing economy to focus on the central features of network enabled, aggregated membership in a pool of offers and demands (for goods, services, creative expressions. This definition of the sharing economy distinguishes it from other related peer-to-peer and collaborative forms of production. Understanding the social and economic motivations for and implications of participating in the sharing economy is important to its regulation. Each of the papers in this special issue contributes to knowledge by linking the social and economic aspects of sharing economy practices to regulatory norms and mechanisms. We conclude this essay by suggesting future research to further clarify and render intelligible the sharing economy, not as a contradiction in terms but as an empirically observable realm of socio-economic activity.

  17. Word of mouth marketing applications on the internet

    Gülmez, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Word of mouth marketing, also called WOMM in English, is a marketing strategyform via oral or written in which consumers share&spread other people aboutproduct or firm. Word of mouth marketing is an extremely important factor in theconsumer’s final purchase decision in the conscious societies on the internet. Thispaper aims to evaluate word of mouth marketing applications on the internet.

  18. Status of electricity markets and competition in ERRA member countries

    Szoerenyi, G.

    2002-01-01

    The following topics were dealt with: Conditions of effective competition; Regulated third party access in power; Number of plyers (market share) - generation; Number of players at present and/or in future competition - supply; Number of eligible customers; Market structure facilitates efficient competition; Supply market - Surplus installed capacity over demand; Supply market - Import. All available data are tabulated. (R.P.)

  19. Developing a strategic marketing plan for hospitals.

    Dychtwald, K; Zitter, M

    1988-09-01

    The initial stages of developing a strategic marketing plan for hospitals are explored in this excerpt from the book, The Role of the Hospital in an Aging Society: A Blueprint for Action. The elderly have unique perceptual, cognitive, social, and psychological needs and preferences, and a marketing strategy for eldercare services must reflect these factors, as well as the financial role of third-party payers and the decision-making influence of families and physicians. Among the elements the hospital must address when developing a marketing strategy are market selection and segmentation, targeting markets with specific services, pricing, and positioning the hospital for a maximum share of the eldercare market.

  20. Marketing fundamentals.

    Redmond, W H

    2001-01-01

    This chapter outlines current marketing practice from a managerial perspective. The role of marketing within an organization is discussed in relation to efficiency and adaptation to changing environments. Fundamental terms and concepts are presented in an applied context. The implementation of marketing plans is organized around the four P's of marketing: product (or service), promotion (including advertising), place of delivery, and pricing. These are the tools with which marketers seek to better serve their clients and form the basis for competing with other organizations. Basic concepts of strategic relationship management are outlined. Lastly, alternate viewpoints on the role of advertising in healthcare markets are examined.

  1. Politisk marketing

    Disciplinen politisk marketing er udbredt i mange vestlige lande. Imidlertid er kendskabet til politisk marketing i Danmark bemærkelsesværdigt lavt. I det lys er denne bog Politisk Marketing: Personer, Partier & Praksis den første bog i Danmark, som -ud fra marketing- indkredser de sidste mange års...... brudflader i dansk politik. Gennem ti bidrag fra forskere og praktikere udskraber forfatterne et DNA for feltet politisk marketing. Kort sagt kan du i denne bog finde svarene på: Hvad er politisk marketing? Hvordan har det udviklet sig? Og hvilke konsekvenser har dette fænomen for vælgere, partier og...

  2. Letting Your Personal Health Information Be Used and Shared for Research

    ... research study as my okay to share my information for marketing? No. The Privacy Rule does not allow a ... use your authorization to use or share your information for research as an authorization for marketing. What can I do if I think someone ...

  3. To market, to market

    Lieberman, J.I.

    1992-01-01

    Senator Lieberman and three fellow members of Congress introduced the CO 2 Offset Policy Efficiency Act (COPE), which incorporates the use of marketable permits to reduce CO 2 emissions. For COPE to be fully effective, however, several key criteria must be met: (1) establishing initial baselines will be critical to ensure that emission reductions are credited properly; (2) accurate plant-by-plant monitoring must be in place to ensure that claimed reductions have actually occurred; (3) the program must include a strong enforcement provision to prevent evasion and to punish violators with substantial automatic fines. COPE imposes a sanction equal to roughly four times the estimated cost of offsets; the sanctions would be paid before enforcement proceedings commence. The urgency and complexity of global warming requires us to break with the past and develop new ways of delaying with pollution, Senator Lieberman feels by giving the market a chance to work on behalf of the environment, the sale of emission allowance will reduce CO 2 emissions in the most-efficient cost-effective way possible

  4. Market based generation: A promising market management option

    Siddiqi, R.

    1992-01-01

    It is proposed to ease the tension between demand management and supply side management at electric utilities through the introduction of a concept called market management. Market management provides a framework for developing and evaluating the attractiveness of new products and services such as dispersed generation hardware, implementation services, and complementary pricing structures. A market management strategy is the definition of market segments, creating products for those segments, evaluation of the profitability of the product-segment combinations, commitment of resources to those segments, and development of product and marketing plans for those segments. A brief analysis of backup generation is presented as an example of market management. In this example, the customer that is backed up shares some portion of the capital and maintenance costs of the backup unit through priority service rates; the utility and customers that are not backed up can obtain the use of the generating resource but pay only a portion of its costs. Backup generation programs have been found to provide utilities with the ability to meet peak load requirements more cheaply than by investing in peaking capacity. Other benefits for utilities include protection of market share, more efficient rates, and a new source of revenues. With the advances in the technology of small-scale generation, utilities can examine bundling various pricing options with market based generation to offer alternative value-added service options to customer segments with demand characteristics that make these technologies attractive. 3 figs

  5. Targeted marketing and public health.

    Grier, Sonya A; Kumanyika, Shiriki

    2010-01-01

    Targeted marketing techniques, which identify consumers who share common needs or characteristics and position products or services to appeal to and reach these consumers, are now the core of all marketing and facilitate its effectiveness. However, targeted marketing, particularly of products with proven or potential adverse effects (e.g., tobacco, alcohol, entertainment violence, or unhealthful foods) to consumer segments defined as vulnerable raises complex concerns for public health. It is critical that practitioners, academics, and policy makers in marketing, public health, and other fields recognize and understand targeted marketing as a specific contextual influence on the health of children and adolescents and, for different reasons, ethnic minority populations and other populations who may benefit from public health protections. For beneficial products, such understanding can foster more socially productive targeting. For potentially harmful products, understanding the nature and scope of targeted marketing influences will support identification and implementation of corrective policies.

  6. Wages in Labour Market Theories

    Kryńska Elżbieta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Already classical economists took interest in the role of wages and wage formation mechanisms, as well as in their influence on other components of the labour market. This article aims to systematise contemporary approaches to wages as one of the labour market components that have been developed within major economic theories. The systemization will serve as a basis for identifying main interactions between wages and other labour market components, such as labour supply and demand and labour market disequilibrium. The article presents major concepts formulated within neo-classical and Keynesian theories, labour market segmentation theories, efficiency wage theory, rent-sharing and rent-extraction theories, theory of job search, and search-and-matching models. One of the conclusions arising from the discussion is that the evolution of contemporary labour markets is a challenge for researchers seeking wage formation models adequately describing the real-life circumstances.

  7. Catch shares slow the race to fish

    Birkenbach, Anna M.; Kaczan, David J.; Smith, Martin D.

    2017-04-01

    In fisheries, the tragedy of the commons manifests as a competitive race to fish that compresses fishing seasons, resulting in ecological damage, economic waste, and occupational hazards. Catch shares are hypothesized to halt the race by securing each individual’s right to a portion of the total catch, but there is evidence for this from selected examples only. Here we systematically analyse natural experiments to test whether catch shares reduce racing in 39 US fisheries. We compare each fishery treated with catch shares to an individually matched control before and after the policy change. We estimate an average policy treatment effect in a pooled model and in a meta-analysis that combines separate estimates for each treatment-control pair. Consistent with the theory that market-based management ends the race to fish, we find strong evidence that catch shares extend fishing seasons. This evidence informs the current debate over expanding the use of market-based regulation to other fisheries.

  8. Integral marketing auditing: Basic features

    Rakić Mira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Instead of emphasize the "primacy of planning" in management process marketing control should be viewed as an activity that counterbalances marketing planning and strategy, and not as a "post hoc" adjunct to the planning function. Rather, it is a separate marketing function, which by continuously checking on the validity of plans, provides time and flexibility to an organization. Therefore, in this view, marketing planning and control are counterbalances processes which are performed simultaneously. The essence of feedback control is a measurement of the actual and desired states after action has been taken, and a subsequent correction of activities. In feedforward control the activities are corrected by predicting whether current activities would lead to desired states. The single most important reason why feedforward control is different from feedback control is that its use of information is prognostic. While feedback control tries to solve problems that have occurred, feedforward control tries to discover problems waiting to occur. It is also important to distinguish between financial non-financial and multiple control. Financial control of marketing activities involves control of sales revenue, profitability and return on marketing investment (ROMI. Non-financial control of marketing activities consists of control market share, customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, brand equity and customer equity. Key components of multiple control marketing activities are control of efficiency, effectiveness and marketing audit. Marketing performance measures have moved in three consistent directions over the years: from financial to non-financial output measures, from output to input measures and from undimensional to multidimensional measures.

  9. Green Certificates and Market Power on the Nordic Power Market

    Bergman, Lars; Amundsen, Eirik S

    2007-06-01

    the power industry. Moreover, by having access to a large share of the best sites for generation of 'green' electricity a 'small' power producer may be able to exercise market power in the electricity market by exercising market power in the TGC market. In order to elucidate the interplay between the electricity and TGC markets a simple analytical model is presented. Then a numerical version of the model, depicting the Nordic electricity market and the Norwegian-Swedish market for TGCs is used to quantify the impact of TGC market power under various assumptions about the distribution of the essential resources for 'green' electricity production.

  10. Successful Regional Pellets Market Development

    Oehlinger, Christine

    2006-01-01

    In Upper Austria, renewable energy sources (RES) provide over 30 % of the primary energy consumption (of which 14 % is biomass). That high market penetration was achieved by a clear energy strategy including an energy action plan. The O.Oe. Energiesparverband, the energy agency of Upper Austria, is responsible for the implementation of the measures included in the action plan. Establishing a new market in a short term period is possible and the Upper Austrian example of biomass market development gives a clear signal that a positive change can be brought about: oil-heating installations in new homes decreased from 36 % in 1999 to less than 1 % in the year 2005; and the share of renewable energy heating installations in new-built homes increased in the same time period from 32 % to 70 %. The ambitious goal of doubling the share of modern biomass heating systems until 2010 was defined for future market development

  11. Creative market development : marketing on a shoestring

    McLeod, D.

    2004-01-01

    The initiatives that led to the development, construction and financing of Toronto's wind turbine by the Toronto Renewable Energy Co-op (TREC) were outlined in this PowerPoint presentation. The initiative for this first urban-based turbine in North America stemmed from a lack of green power in Ontario's energy market and a strong push from the public for more green power. TREC researched a variety of potential wind tower sites in Toronto and submitted a pre-feasibility report. The construction of the wind turbine involved a joint venture between WindShare and Toronto Hydro Energy Services. The basic principals behind co-operative financing were reviewed along with the challenges of marketing the project

  12. Marketing u prometu

    Rudolf Sabolović

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available New Views of Marketing in Passenger Railway Traffic in the Light of More Vigorous Orientation of the Croatian Railways on to Market-Aspected Operations Marketing in traffic has its specific features detennined by the characteristics of the users of service and the service itself The reported share of the railways in passenger transport in the year 1955 was approximately 80%. Since then, it has reported a stable decrease to reach bare 10% in the year 1980. In the decade of 1981 do 1990, first a slight increase in the number of passengers and then an abrupt drop and final stabilization of the share of the railways up to about 20% was listed. In an effort to increase the number of passengers the railways must employ new modem methods of marketing activity. At the same time it must create technical and technological prerequisites in order to become attractive again for the potential passengers. This calls for indispensable investments in rolling stock, advertising and promotion campaigns, and particularly in skilled manpower.

  13. MCTS Microsoft SharePoint 2010 Configuration Study Guide Exam 70-667

    Pyles, James

    2010-01-01

    A Sybex study guide for the new SharePoint Server 2010 Configuration examSharePoint holds 55 percent of the collaboration and content management market, with many more companies indicating they plan to join the fold. IT professionals interested in enhancing their marketability with the new Microsoft Certified Technology Specialist: Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 Configuring exam will find this guide may be their only alternative to costly classroom training.Microsoft SharePoint claims over half the market for collaboration and content management software; IT professionals will boost their ma

  14. Is the stock market efficient?

    Malkiel, B G

    1989-03-10

    A stock market is said to be efficient if it accurately reflects all relevant information in determining security prices. Critics have asserted that share prices are far too volatile to be explained by changes in objective economic events-the October 1987 crash being a case in point. Although the evidence is not unambiguous, reports of the death of the efficient market hypothesis appear premature.

  15. SPORT MARKETING

    Omer Špirtović; Danilo Aćimović; Ahmet Međedović; Zoran Bogdanović

    2010-01-01

    Word „marketing“ comes from AngloSaxon linguistic domain and implies in a narrow sense the market. Under marketing, we consider certain process, which should create and solve relations of exchange between manufacturers on one side, and consumers on the other. Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primaly an eco...

  16. Mobile marketing

    KLEČKOVÁ, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to provide a comprehensive overview of the mobile marketing and analyze selected campaigns of Czech mobile marketing in comparison to world successful campaigns. The research contained studying of available literature about the theme to gain general knowledge about the issue. The theoretical part of the thesis contains predominantly various definitions of mobile marketing and its tools, advantages of these tools and some information about Mobile Marketing Assoc...

  17. Marketing Strategy

    Andrýsková, Hana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to examine current marketing efforts of AARON - the leading seller of digital cameras. I will analyze current marketing tools and suggest improvements in efficiency and effectiveness of these tools. Marketing strategy is a method of managing and coordinating efforts in marketing field so that the goals can be reached. The aim is to increase sales, turnover, revenues, profits, drive out competition and also to build up a corporate image and corporate culture. I will a...

  18. Labia Majora Share

    Hanjing Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Defects involving specialised areas with characteristic anatomical features, such as the nipple, upper eyelid, and lip, benefit greatly from the use of sharing procedures. The vulva, a complex 3-dimensional structure, can also be reconstructed through a sharing procedure drawing upon the contralateral vulva. In this report, we present the interesting case of a patient with chronic, massive, localised lymphedema of her left labia majora that was resected in 2011. Five years later, she presented with squamous cell carcinoma over the left vulva region, which is rarely associated with chronic lymphedema. To the best of our knowledge, our management of the radical vulvectomy defect with a labia majora sharing procedure is novel and has not been previously described. The labia major flap presented in this report is a shared flap; that is, a transposition flap based on the dorsal clitoral artery, which has consistent vascular anatomy, making this flap durable and reliable. This procedure epitomises the principle of replacing like with like, does not interfere with leg movement or patient positioning, has minimal donor site morbidity, and preserves other locoregional flap options for future reconstruction. One limitation is the need for a lax contralateral vulva. This labia majora sharing procedure is a viable option in carefully selected patients.

  19. Marketing 101.

    Henderson, Karla A.

    1997-01-01

    A marketing model for camps includes a mix of services, presentation, and communication elements that promote the virtues of camp, convince potential campers and their families of the benefits of camp, and successfully distinguish the camp from others. Includes resources related to marketing strategies, theme merchandise, and market trends…

  20. MARKET WATCH

    2007-01-01

    The hottest financial market topic of the moment could be the subprime loan crisis in the United States. The crisis has stormed the U.S. stock market, dragging it to its biggest falls in a single trading day. Other markets, such as Japan’s, were also vul

  1. Service marketing

    Babić-Hodović Vesna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of postindustrial society and services revolution created numerous changes in size of consumer demand, consumer reaction and priorities. Continuous change on the side of demand and offer must follow changes in marketing orientation. Leader in that change is services marketing which by knowing services range and all the changes builds a new concept called Relationship Marketing.

  2. Collaborate, compete and share

    Pugliese, Emanuele; Castellano, Claudio; Marsili, Matteo; Pietronero, Luciano

    2009-02-01

    We introduce and study a model of an interacting population of agents who collaborate in groups which compete for limited resources. Groups are formed by random matching agents and their worth is determined by the sum of the efforts deployed by agents in group formation. Agents, on their side, have to share their effort between contributing to their group’s chances to outcompete other groups and resource sharing among partners, when the group is successful. A simple implementation of this strategic interaction gives rise to static and evolutionary properties with a very rich phenomenology. A robust emerging feature is the separation of the population between agents who invest mainly in the success of their group and agents who concentrate in getting the largest share of their group’s profits.

  3. Urban sharing culture

    Fjalland, Emmy Laura Perez

    of the structures of the networked urban mobilities and holds the potentials to change the future mobilities. References Bauman, Zygmunt. 2000. Liquid Modernity. Cambridge: Polity. Beck, Ulrich. 1992. Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity (Published in Association with Theory, Culture & Society). London: SAGE......In urban areas sharing cultures, services and economies are rising. People share, rent and recycle their homes, cars, bikes, rides, tools, cloths, working space, knowhow and so on. The sharing culture can be understood as mobilities (Kesselring and Vogl 2013) of goods, values and ideas reshaping...... problems and side effects from concentration of consumption and contamination; and due to the shift from ownership to access it change our basic social cultural norms (Sayer 2005; Sayer 2011) about the ‘good’ life and social status (Freudendal-Pedersen 2007), commons and individuality, responsibility...

  4. Information Sharing and Channel Construction of Supply Chain under Asymmetric Demand Information

    Wu, Guangdong; Kong, Qingshan; Shi, Jian-gang; Karimi, Hamid Reza; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Information sharing and marketing channel building have become an important problem of supply chain management theory and practice. The research of information sharing focused on traditional channel of supply chain between upstream and downstream enterprises; however, the research ignores the behavior of information sharing with potential entrants and composite structure characteristics about traditional marketing channel with the direct channel. This paper uses the model to research the eff...

  5. Marketing maloobchodu

    Demuth, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is about the situation of retail marketing in Czech republic, with a special focus on in-store marketing instruments and activities. The goal of this work is to evaluate the application of these marketing instruments in a specific retail store. This chosen store is supermarket Billa. The first part of the thesis is offering theoretical base for in-store marketing activities and also presents the history of retail marketing in Czech republic. The second part is focusing on the situ...

  6. MARKETING CHANNELS

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Marketing channel is a set of entities and institutions, completion of distribution and marketing activities, attend the efficient and effective networking of producers and consumers. Marketing channels include the total flows of goods, money and information taking place between the institutions in the system of marketing, establishing a connection between them. The functions of the exchange, the physical supply and service activities, inherent in the system of marketing and trade. They represent paths which products and services are moving after the production, which will ultimately end up buying and eating by the user.

  7. 76 FR 54999 - Notice of 2011 National Organic Certification Cost-Share Program

    2011-09-06

    ...] Notice of 2011 National Organic Certification Cost-Share Program AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service... for the National Organic Certification Cost- Share Program. SUMMARY: This Notice invites all States of...) for the allocation of National Organic Certification Cost-Share Funds. Beginning in Fiscal Year 2008...

  8. Capacity Markets and Market Stability

    Stauffer, Hoff

    2006-01-01

    The good news is that market stability can be achieved through a combination of longer-term contracts, auctions for far enough in the future to permit new entry, a capacity management system, and a demand curve. The bad news is that if and when stable capacity markets are designed, the markets may seem to be relatively close to where we started - with integrated resource planning. Market ideologues will find this anathema. (author)

  9. Market formation and market selection

    van Raalte, C.L.J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The organization of markets is an important field of inquiry in modern economic theory. This monograph analyzes models which consider the formation and selection of markets. In these models, markets are organized by middlemen and used by traders. In Part I of the monograph, coalitions of middlemen

  10. Market Survey Turkey. Electricity Market

    2008-12-01

    The present market survey presents the Turkish power market and derives business opportunities and prospects for Dutch trade and industry. This market survey has been carried out for the following four, from time to time overlapping, sectors that have been identified by EVD as potential opportunities for Dutch small and medium-sized enterprises (SME): renewable energy, energy efficiency, electricity generation, electricity distribution

  11. World market of marketing research

    Samuels John

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The value of the total world market market research in the year 2001 was US$15,890 million, a 2.8% increase on the previous year. This is the first of several articles to be published in Research World on the results from ESOMAR's latest annual study on the market research sector worldwide

  12. DOES MARKETING RELATE TO FINANCE? – “MARKETING IS FINANCE?” THEORETICAL PERCEPTION

    Elvira Fetahu

    2014-01-01

    As market develops and grows continuously and internationalizes, the confusion among companies increases regarding their orientation of the business. They find it each day more difficult to grab new shares in the market, to capture and gain new customers, to hold their clientele, to increase continuously their customers’ satisfaction, to position properly in the market and to face competition, as well as to answer to the spontaneity of the market evolution.  This tells for an increasing role ...

  13. The market for process control instrumentation in France. Foreign market survey report

    1977-04-01

    The market research was undertaken to study the present and potential US share of the market in France for process control instrumentation; to examine growth trends in French end-user industries over the next few years; to identify specific product categories that offer the most promising export potential for US companies; and to provide basic data which will assist US suppliers in determining current and potential sales and marketing opportunities. The trade promotional and marketing techniques were also reviewed

  14. UK retail marketing survey 94

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This document draws together data on the United Kingdom (UK) petroleum market up to the end of 1993. Lists include suppliers of petrol to the UK market listed by brand name, a regional breakdown of petrol and derv outlets, UK outlets which retail derv. Average retail prices for motor spirit and derv per litre are given as are sites fitted with Vapour Recovery equipment. Other tables shown indicate various companies' share of the market in terms of the percentage of petrol sites, including supermarkets. The volumes of motor spirit and derv delivered to retail and commercial customers between 1984 and 1993 is also given. (UK)

  15. The oil markets: A vision

    Miras Salamanca, P.

    2007-01-01

    Although oil markets show high levels of volatility, governments and institutions are much more concern with the problem of security of supply. Fundamental drivers of these markets vary from global questions (such as the balance between world supply and demand or the geopolitical situation), to national and local issues (regulation, industry structure and the cost chain in a given market). Global factors account for the lions share of the final price. Therefore, price variations of oil products tend to be similar in different environment. However, regulators and competition watchdogs should put special attention to supervise smaller areas, where specific problems could occur. (Author)

  16. Information Sharing and Knowledge Sharing as Communicative Activities

    Savolainen, Reijo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This paper elaborates the picture of information sharing and knowledge sharing as forms of communicative activity. Method: A conceptual analysis was made to find out how researchers have approached information sharing and knowledge sharing from the perspectives of transmission and ritual. The findings are based on the analysis of one…

  17. Shared Care in Diabetes?

    Bødker, Keld

    2006-01-01

    The Danish National Board of Health has recently released a report that is intended to mark the start of a new project to establish it support for shared care in diabetes. In this paper I raise a number of concerns where lack of attention towards participation from prospective users constitute...

  18. Sharing (and) familiarities

    Rasmussen, Jon Dag; Winther, Ida Wentzel; Davies, Hayley

    but not exclusive to lifestories/biographies, travels, times, spaces and material items, bodies and intimate knowledge of one another, surnames - in the subjective lives of family members? Sociology has traditionally been preoccupied with notions and logics of sharing in homely contexts (e.g. Simmel’s work...

  19. The Sharing Economy

    Hamari, Juho; Sjöklint, Mimmi; Ukkonen, Antti

    2016-01-01

    Information and communications technologies (ICTs) have enabled the rise of so-called “Collaborative Consumption” (CC): the peer-to-peer-based activity of obtaining, giving, or sharing the access to goods and services, coordinated through community-based online services. CC has been expected to a...

  20. Shared goals and development

    Blomberg, Olle

    2015-01-01

    undemanding for children to engage in, and therefore has the potential to play a part in fostering their understanding of other minds. Part of the functional role of shared goals is to enable agents to choose means that are appropriate to realising a goal with others rather than individually. By offering...