WorldWideScience

Sample records for market rent comments

  1. 76 FR 12985 - Request for Comments on Trend Factor Methodology Used in the Calculation of Fair Market Rents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... Trend Factor Methodology Used in the Calculation of Fair Market Rents AGENCY: Office of the Assistant... used to calculate the trend factor component of the Fair Market Rent estimates. SUMMARY: Section 8(c)(1... comment regarding the manner in which HUD calculates the trend factor used in the Fair Market Rent (FMR...

  2. Small Area Fair Market Rent

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Due to the increasing demand for more localized rents for a variety of purposes, HUD is making Small Area FMRs for all metropolitan areas available. Small Area FMRs...

  3. Product market integration, rents and wage inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Sørensen, Allan

    "protection" and "specialization" rents. In particular, wage inequality among similar workers (residual wage inequality) may be U-shaped, at first decreasing and then increasing in the process of product market integration. Consequently, there may be gains in both the efficiency and the equity dimension until......Globalization in the form of product market integration affects labour markets and produces winners and losers. While there are aggregate gains, it is in general ambiguous how inequality is affected. We explore this issue in a Ricardian model and show that it depends on the balance between...

  4. 24 CFR 888.115 - Fair market rents for existing housing: Manner of publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fair market rents for existing..., SECTION 202 DIRECT LOAN PROGRAM, SECTION 202 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY PROGRAM AND SECTION 811... MARKET RENTS AND CONTRACT RENT ANNUAL ADJUSTMENT FACTORS Fair Market Rents § 888.115 Fair market rents...

  5. Neural Networks Modelling of Municipal Real Estate Market Rent Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muczyński Andrzej

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research on the application of neural networks modelling of municipal real estate market rent rates. The test procedure was based on selected networks trained on the local real estate market data and transformation of the detected dependencies – through established models – to estimate the potential market rent rates of municipal premises. On this basis, the assessment of the adequacy of the actual market rent rates of municipal properties was made. Empirical research was conducted on the local real estate market of the city of Olsztyn in Poland. In order to describe the phenomenon of market rent rates formation an unidirectional three-layer network and a network of radial base was selected. Analyses showed a relatively low degree of convergence of the actual municipal rent rents with potential market rent rates. This degree was strongly varied depending on the type of business ran on the property and its’ social and economic impact. The applied research methodology and the obtained results can be used in order to rationalize municipal property management, including the activation of rental policy.

  6. Fair Market Rents (Fair Market Rents For The Section 8 Housing Assistance Payments Program) - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This dataset and map service provides information on Fair Market Rents (FMRs). FMRs are primarily used to determine payment standard amounts for the Housing Choice...

  7. 36 CFR 18.5 - May property be leased without receiving fair market value rent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... without receiving fair market value rent? 18.5 Section 18.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... leased without receiving fair market value rent? Property may be leased under this part only if the lease requires payment of rent to the government equal to or higher than the property's fair market value rent...

  8. 77 FR 69651 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program for Small Area Fair Market Rent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... the Housing Choice Voucher Program for Small Area Fair Market Rent Demonstration Program Participants... Authorities (PHAs) participating in the Small Area FMR Demonstration. SUMMARY: Section 8(c)(1) of the United... Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Program for those PHAs selected to participate in the Small Area FMR...

  9. International Product Market Integration, Rents and Wage Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan

    including product market rents and the possibility that jobs may be relocated across national labour markets. Possibilities and threats, however, will not in general be uniformly distributed across firms and therefore groups in the labour market. These issues are explored in a Ricardian trade model......International product market integration enhances both export possibilities through easier access to foreign markets, but also the import threat arising from foreign firms penetrating into the domestic market. These mechanisms affect wage formation and employment creation through many channels...... with imperfect competition, heterogeneity in the labour market, and decentralized wage-bargaining. The Paper analyses how product market integration affects wage formation, and identifies characteristics of winners and losers in the integration process....

  10. Fair Market Rents For The Section 8 Housing Assistance Payments Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Fair Market Rents (FMRs) are primarily used to determine payment standard amounts for the Housing Choice Voucher program, to determine initial renewal rents for some...

  11. Toward a Theory of Entrepreneurial Rents: a Simulation of the Market Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyhani, M; Levesque, M.; Madhok, A.

    2015-01-01

    While strategy theory relies heavily on equilibrium theories of economic rents such as Ricardian and monopoly rents, we do not yet have a comprehensive theory of disequilibrium or entrepreneurial rents. We use cooperative game theory to structure computer simulations of the market process in which

  12. 75 FR 46958 - Proposed Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ..., Washington, DC 20410- 0001. Communications should refer to the above docket number and title and should.... Public Inspection of Comments. All comments and communications submitted to HUD will be available... FMRs, HUD tests these rent changes for statistical significance \\3\\ [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TN04AU10...

  13. The meaning of competition between social and market rented housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lennartz, C.; Haffner, M.E.A.; Oxley, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    When policy makers claim that rented housing has to become more competitive, there is no consensus on what competition in this context actually means. The same holds true for scientific housing research: Theories that have utilized the economic concept of competition tend to rely on implicit

  14. Rent distribution effect of a price reduction in the Dutch gas transport market. A scenario analysis of regulatory policy, market form and rent allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Witteloostuijn, A.; Brakman, S.; Van Marrewijk, C.

    2005-09-01

    As part of the larger energy market deregulation program, the Dutch Office of Energy Regulation (DTe) has developed the habit to force the Dutch gas transport enterprise (Gas Transport Services GTS) to lower its prices. In this report, we simulate the welfare effects of a five per cent transport price reduction. DTe's key argument is that lower gas transport prices will benefit the end-user. Indeed, that might well be the case. However, at least three observations complicate matters substantially: Observation 1: government ownership. GTS is government -owned, and the dominant shipper (Gasunie Trade and Supply) is partly so (50 %). Hence, lost revenues from the gas transport business will all emerge at the debit side of the government's budget, and part of the shippers' rent returns in the government's pockets. Observation 2: imperfect competition. Firms enter into the competitive game to make profits. Shippers are not different. So, apart from in the extreme case of perfect competition (or, more generally, perfect contestability), part of the rents will end up in the pockets of the shippers, rather than the endconsumers. Observation 3: rent export. The Netherlands are not an isolated island in the European gas ocean. Not only is the majority of gas transported in the Netherlands exported to foreign end-users, but apart from that have foreign owners a large stake in Dutch shippers. As a result, given the fact that the Dutch industry is not autarktic, part of the rents will always be distributed, or will always 'leak' away, to foreign consumers and shippers (or their shareholders). These three observations together have three important implications. First, state ownership implies that much rent allocation is simply a matter of circulating money from one government sub-budget to the other (Observation 1). Second, given that the industry is imperfectly competitive, part of the rents will not be passed on to the endconsumers (Observation 2). Third, it is unavoidable

  15. Chicago's water market: Dynamics of demand, prices and scarcity rents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipe, V.C.; Bhagwat, S.B.

    2002-01-01

    Chicago and its suburbs are experiencing an increasing demand for water from a growing population and economy and may experience water scarcity in the near future. The Chicago metropolitan area has nearly depleted its groundwater resources to a point where interstate conflicts with Wisconsin could accompany an increased reliance on those sources. Further, the withdrawals from Lake Michigan is limited by the Supreme Court decree. The growing demand and indications of possible scarcity suggest a need to reexamine the pricing policies and the dynamics of demand. The study analyses the demand for water and develops estimates of scarcity rents for water in Chicago. The price and income elasticities computed at the means are -0.002 and 0.0002 respectively. The estimated scarcity rents ranges from $0.98 to $1.17 per thousand gallons. The results indicate that the current prices do not fully account for the scarcity rents and suggest a current rate with in the range $1.53 to $1.72 per thousand gallons.

  16. 24 CFR 888.111 - Fair market rents for existing housing: Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fair market rents for existing... DIRECT LOAN PROGRAM, SECTION 202 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY PROGRAM AND SECTION 811 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PAYMENTS PROGRAM-FAIR MARKET...

  17. 24 CFR 888.113 - Fair market rents for existing housing: Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fair market rents for existing... DIRECT LOAN PROGRAM, SECTION 202 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY PROGRAM AND SECTION 811 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PAYMENTS PROGRAM-FAIR MARKET...

  18. HOME Rent Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — In accordance with 24 CFR Part 92.252, HUD provides maximum HOME rent limits. The maximum HOME rents are the lesser of: The fair market rent for existing housing for...

  19. 75 FR 27808 - Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher Program-Demonstration Project of Small Area Fair Market Rents in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... Voucher Program--Demonstration Project of Small Area Fair Market Rents in Certain Metropolitan Areas for.... ACTION: Notice of Demonstration Project of Small Area Fair Market Rents (FMRs) in Selected Metropolitan... topics related to small area FMRs, including how these small areas should be defined. Small area FMRs...

  20. 76 FR 33333 - Use of Small Area Fair Market Rents for Project Base Vouchers in the Dallas TX Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5525-N-01] Use of Small Area Fair Market Rents for Project Base Vouchers in the Dallas TX Metropolitan Area AGENCY: Office of the Assistant... Small Area Fair Market Rents (SAFMRs) for Project-Based Vouchers (PBVs) located in the Dallas, TX...

  1. Gas pricing in a liberalized European market; will the rent be taxed away?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, O.G.

    1997-01-01

    The European gas market will become 'more liberal'. Depending on in which segments competition is intensified and public interference takes place, prices in the gas chain will be affected. Rent may be redistributed among firms and prices will become more volatile. If supply overshoots demand for a long period, average consumer prices may also be pushed down. Rent may also end up as tax revenues for public authorities. This article argues that an active use of gas taxes as an instrument to derive public revenues increases the probability of a politically led liberalization process. The effect of these economic and political forces and actions may, however, be less new gas to the market. (author)

  2. 50th Percentile Rent Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Rent estimates at the 50th percentile (or median) are calculated for all Fair Market Rent areas. Fair Market Rents (FMRs) are primarily used to determine payment...

  3. The failure of introducing market institution in a rent sector into an economy in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, C.; Finon, D.

    2003-07-01

    Privatisation is at the heart of the structural reforms for economies in transition. In theory, the main aim of privatisation is to change the structures of corporate governance in order to improve the efficiency of the enterprises and to assure their long-term future in a competitive environment. The adoption of formal market institutions would be sufficient to secure the new property rights, in particular because the new holders of the rights to control assets would have a great incentive to encourage the definition of new judicial rules that would guarantee their rights of ownership. In Russia that did not happen. The paper discusses the narrowed vision of institutional change, without consideration of the previous environment of formal and informal institutions, and the need to put together the institutional infrastructure that is needed for the market institutions to function. It offers explanations of the 'unexpected' results of the reforms in a capital-intensive natural resource industry, namely the hydrocarbons industry characterized by the opportunity of rent extraction by the exportation. It demonstrates right holders' interest for the weakness of the 'rule of law'. It demonstrates that the incompatibility of these institutions with the initial informal and formal institutions has led to adaptations that are strongly path-dependent, under the need to preserve a minimum of inter-industrial coherence. (authors)

  4. The failure of introducing market institution in a rent sector into an economy in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locatelli, C.; Finon, D

    2003-07-01

    Privatisation is at the heart of the structural reforms for economies in transition. In theory, the main aim of privatisation is to change the structures of corporate governance in order to improve the efficiency of the enterprises and to assure their long-term future in a competitive environment. The adoption of formal market institutions would be sufficient to secure the new property rights, in particular because the new holders of the rights to control assets would have a great incentive to encourage the definition of new judicial rules that would guarantee their rights of ownership. In Russia that did not happen. The paper discusses the narrowed vision of institutional change, without consideration of the previous environment of formal and informal institutions, and the need to put together the institutional infrastructure that is needed for the market institutions to function. It offers explanations of the 'unexpected' results of the reforms in a capital-intensive natural resource industry, namely the hydrocarbons industry characterized by the opportunity of rent extraction by the exportation. It demonstrates right holders' interest for the weakness of the 'rule of law'. It demonstrates that the incompatibility of these institutions with the initial informal and formal institutions has led to adaptations that are strongly path-dependent, under the need to preserve a minimum of inter-industrial coherence. (authors)

  5. Predicting returns and rent growth in the housing market using the rent-to-price ratio: Evidence from the OECD countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard

    We investigate the predictive power of the rent-to-price ratio for future real estate returns and rent growth in 18 OECD countries over the period 1970 to 2011. First, we document that in most countries returns are signi…cantly predictable by the rent-price ratio. An increase (decrease...... dependent on whether returns and rents are measured in nominal or real terms. Finally, there is some evidence of sub-sample instability in the predictive patterns, especially wrt. rent growth predictability. The predictability tests are conducted within a restricted VAR framework based on the dynamic Gordon...

  6. A win-win marginal rent analysis for operator and consumer under battery leasing mode in China electric vehicle market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhe; Ouyang Minggao

    2011-01-01

    Recently battery leasing has been introduced into the market by automobile manufacturers and power suppliers due to its potential to reduce the purchase cost of electric vehicles (EVs). However, the profit prospect of battery leasing is still uncertain. This paper takes the views of both the operators and consumers and calculates the 'win-win' marginal rent, which not only ensures the profitability of operators, but also allows consumers a lower expenditure than using Internal combustion engine vehicles (ICVs) and EVs with embedded batteries. Battery cost, vehicle weight, gasoline and electricity price, and the discount rate have impacts on the rent. Battery cost plays a dominant role and a battery cost >5 Yen /W h fails to enable the survival of battery leasing to all types of EVs. Battery leasing would be more competitive when focusing on heavier EVs. At least one of the three thresholds is required for the existence of rent pricing range for a 1000 kg EV: gasoline retail price >6 Yen /L, electricity price <0.6 Yen /kW h, or the discount rate <7%. Typically, the feasible battery rent range is 0.34-0.38 Yen /W h/year for a 1000 kg EV under the present battery cost 2 Yen /W h and China current gasoline and electricity prices. - Highlights: → Rent pricing for EV battery leasing must obey win-win rule for BLO and consumers. → Rent is affected by battery cost, vehicle weight, energy price and discount rate. → Battery cost plays dominant role for the BLO survival as described in '5-3-2' Law. → Heavier EVs are more suitable for battery leasing when battery cost is high. → The profitability of BLO is sensitive to the price of gasoline and electricity.

  7. Strategy Dynamics through a Demand-Based Lens: The Evolution of Market Boundaries, Resource Rents and Competitive Positions

    OpenAIRE

    Adner, Ron; Zemsky, Peter

    2003-01-01

    We develop a novel approach to the dynamics of business strategy that is grounded in an explicit treatment of consumer choice when technologies improve over time. We address the evolution of market boundaries, resource rents and competitive positions by adapting models of competition with differentiated products. Our model is consistent with the central strategy assertion that competitive interactions are governed by superior value creation and competitive advantage. More importantly, it show...

  8. 77 FR 46447 - Proposed Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ..., 451 Seventh Street SW., Room 10276, Washington, DC 20410-0001. Communications must refer to the above... Inspection of Public Comments. All properly submitted comments and communications submitted to HUD will be... listed immediately following the county name. [[Page 46453

  9. Rent control and unemployment duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael; Rosholm, Michael; Munch, Jakob Roland

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we analyse how rent control affects the duration of individual unemployment. In atheoretical search model we distinguish between two effects of rent control. On one hand, rentcontrol reduces housing mobility and hence mobility in the labour market. On the other hand, tomaintain rent...

  10. 78 FR 47339 - Proposed Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program, Moderate Rehabilitation Single...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... Development, 451 Seventh Street SW., Room 10276, Washington, DC 20410-0001. Communications must refer to the... Inspection of Public Comments. All properly submitted comments and communications submitted to HUD will be... county name. BILLING CODE 4210-67-P [[Page 47345

  11. Welfare distribution effect of a price reduction in the Dutch gas transport market: A scenario analysis of regulatory policy, market form and rent allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Witteloostuijn, Arjen; Van Marrewijk, Charles

    2007-01-01

    As part of the larger energy market deregulation program, the Dutch energy authority - DTe - has developed the habit to force the Dutch gas transport enterprise - Gas Transport Services, or GTS - to lower its prices. DTe's key argument is that lower gas transport prices will benefit the end-user. Indeed, that might well be the case. This policy, in general, is in line with European legislation on the liberalization of the gas market. We model and simulate the (domestic) welfare effects of a 5 percent transport price reduction. From this, we conclude that at least three observations complicate matters substantially. First, GTS is government-owned, and the dominant shipper - Gasunie Trade and Supply (or GasTerra, as it was recoined recently) - is partly so (50%). Second, shippers enter into the competitive game to make profits. Third, not only is the majority of gas transported in the Netherlands exported to foreign end-users, but also foreign owners have a large stake in Dutch shippers. As a result, part of the rents will always be distributed, or will 'leak' away, to foreign consumers and shippers (or their shareholders). These three observations together have three important implications. First, state ownership implies that much rent allocation is simply a matter of circulating money from one government sub-budget to the other. Second, given that the industry is imperfectly competitive, part of the rents will not be passed on to the end-consumers. Third, it is unavoidable that a substantial part of the rents are transferred abroad. A general conclusion for policy-makers is that market liberalization might not bring ex post what they expected ex ante. (author)

  12. Rent Seeking: A Textbook Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecorino, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The author argues that the college textbook market provides a clear example of monopoly seeking as described by Tullock (1967, 1980). This behavior is also known as rent seeking. Because this market is important to students, this example of rent seeking will be of particular interest to them. (Contains 24 notes.)

  13. 24 CFR 882.408 - Initial contract rents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 202 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY PROGRAM AND SECTION 811 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH...-Basic Policies § 882.408 Initial contract rents. (a) Fair Market Rent limitation. The Fair Market Rent Schedule for Moderate Rehabilitation is 120 percent of the Existing Housing Fair Market Rent Schedule...

  14. Revisiting Office Rent Determinants : Development of the Istanbul Office Market in the Last Decade from Perspective of Real Estate Brokerage Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Dilek Pekdemir

    2014-01-01

    Many studies on the office market have been conducted for the last thirty years. Especially variables which are expected to affect office rents were examined for different cities. The extent of variables was used in these studies reflecting variations in locational and/or economical conditions of the different cities.It is aimed to examine the development of the Istanbul office market in the last decade from the perspective of brokerage firms. The perception of brokerage firms on the effectiv...

  15. Market Power Rents and Climate Change Mitigation: A Rationale for Coal Export Taxes?

    OpenAIRE

    Mendelevitch, Roman; Richter, Phillip; Jotzo, Frank

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the introduction of an export tax on steam coal levied by an individual country (Australia), or a group of major exporting countries. The policy motivation would be twofold: generating tax revenues against the background of improved terms-of-trade, while CO2 emissions are reduced. We construct and numerically apply a two-level game consisting of an optimal policy problem at the upper level, and an equilibrium model of the international steam coal market (based on ...

  16. Market Power Rents and Climate Change Mitigation: A Rationale for Coal Taxes?

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp M. Richter; Roman Mendelevitch; Frank Jotzo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the introduction of an export tax on steam coal levied by an individual country (Australia), or a group of major exporting countries. The policy motivation would be twofold: generating tax revenues against the background of improved terms-of-trade, while CO2 emissions are reduced. We construct and numerically apply a two-level game consisting of an optimal policy problem at the upper level, and an equilibrium model of the international steam coal market (based on ...

  17. 24 CFR 983.303 - Reasonable rent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PROJECT-BASED VOUCHER (PBV) PROGRAM Rent to Owner § 983.303 Reasonable rent. (a) Comparability requirement... that affect market rent, such as: (i) The location, quality, size, unit type, and age of the contract... the housing assistance payment based on the comparability analysis may not have any direct or indirect...

  18. 76 FR 30183 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Emergency Comment Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Emergency Comment Request; Section 8 Random Digit Dialing Fair Marketing Rent Surveys AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Marketing Rent Surveys. Description of Information Collection: These surveys provide HUD with a way to...

  19. Rents in a welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes rents in Denmark, a developed welfare state in which the private sector is sharply delimitated and kept efficient by secure property rights and markets including free trade. In the public sector, rents in the form of excess costs that provide benefits are difficult to measure......-governmental organizations have been coopted to serve large welfare expenditure programs that benefit the welfare coalition....

  20. 76 FR 22122 - Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher Program-Demonstration Project of Small Area Fair Market Rents in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... Expensive Neighborhoods Comment: One commenter appeared to oppose the concept of small area FMRs, noting... information on poverty and racial concentration by ZIP Code. HUD Response: HUD must select areas with as many...

  1. 77 FR 61157 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... HMFA. Las Vegas-Paradise, NV MSA New Haven-Meriden, CT HMFA. North Port-Bradenton-Sarasota, FL MSA... areas of New Jersey, Anchorage and several non-metropolitan areas of Alaska, Dallas, TX and Burlington... Projects and Low-Income Housing Tax Credit Projects at Risk If a current HUD Section 8 project uses rents...

  2. 24 CFR 886.110 - Contract rents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY PROGRAM AND SECTION 811 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES... Fair Market Rents for Existing Housing, except that they may be exceeded by: (1) Up to 10 percent if... 75 percent of the published Section 8 Fair Market Rents for New Construction, which limitation may be...

  3. 78 FR 25295 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... or speech impairments may access this number through TTY by calling the toll-free Federal Relay... not toll-free.) SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In response to comments submitted to the FY 2012 and FY... following table supersede the values found in Schedule B that became effective on October 1, 2012, and were...

  4. 77 FR 16205 - National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    .... The Committee is seeking public comments on the potential market impact of the material research and... Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential Market Impact of... National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee, co-chaired by the Departments of Commerce and State, is...

  5. 77 FR 42271 - National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... comments on the potential market impact associated with the two material research and development projects... Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential Market Impact of... National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee, co-chaired by the Departments of Commerce and State, is...

  6. 75 FR 52393 - Proposed Data Collection; Comment Request: New Markets Tax Credit (NMTC) Program-Allocation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Community Development Financial Institutions Fund Proposed Data... Institutions (CDFI) Fund, Department of the Treasury, is soliciting comments concerning the New Markets Tax... comments to Rosa Martinez, Acting NMTC Program Manager, Community Development Financial Institutions Fund...

  7. Rent Control with Rent Discrimination Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, A. Ross; McDonald, John F.

    1997-01-01

    Questions the recently developed arguments (per George Kondor and R. Arnott) that rent controls can increase the quantity of housing supplied. Maintains that tenant favorable regulatory programs constrict profit, mobility, development, and construction. Argues that any subsequent increases in housing are due to price discrimination. (MJP)

  8. Mine rent and the new economic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadan, K. (Federalni Ministerstvo Paliv a Energetiky, Prague (Czechoslovakia))

    1989-09-01

    Reviews historical concept of ground rents with reference to works of Adam Smith and David Ricardo and to 19th century capitalism and Marxism-Leninism. Asks whether mine rents can exist under a socialist system and examines theoretical basis for mine rents, which includes socio-economic aspects, geological conditions, proximity to markets and environmental considerations. Compares mine rents with agricultural land rents and analyzes value of end product (coal) and effect of pricing method on it. Explains pricing system in Czechoslovakia, which involves 3 groupings: coking coal, coke and energy coal (including briquets), the price of each of which is set according to average costs and geological conditions. Surplus revenue (or positive mine rent) only arises therefore at mines where the production costs are lower than fixed trade prices. Discusses in general terms application of new economic system (perestroika) to concept of mine rent and assessment of mine profitability and concludes that method of pricing solid fuels will play a decisive role. 4 refs.

  9. 24 CFR 960.253 - Choice of rent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... section. Except for financial hardship cases as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, the family may... on the market rent charged for comparable units in the private unassisted rental market. It is equal... determine the flat rent, the PHA must consider: (i) The location, quality, size, unit type and age of the...

  10. The Capitalism, Rent and Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor S. Martyanov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available By inertia, which derives from Adam Smith, modern capitalism is described as a free-market competition. This historical model has worked while the market expands and the availability of resources increases. It provided the opportunity to maintain the political order of the welfare state as a form of non-economic egalitarian distribution of resources, which mitigates inequality and class antagonisms generated by market. However, once capitalism has engulfed the whole world, it is more prone to crises: competition intensifies, markets of demand and market outlets do not expand, technological progress creates a growing structural unemployment, economic growth due to the completion of the global village-city transition stagnates, the resources of all the peripheries are almost exhausted. As a result, nationalism and protectionism arise, the polarization between the global center and the periphery increases, and there comes the image of undemocratic and non-egalitarian labor less society on the horizon of the future, with the precariat and the unemployed growing in numbers and demanding large amounts of rent to maintain their livelihoods. Due to this, the market model of capitalism is gradually transforming into a rental one, where the pursuit of profit, the main motivational factor intrinsic to the market, is removed by the pursuit of rent and the redistribution of markets by non-economic ways. In this context, the state becomes the key economic actor, which distributes resources by extra-market means within the hierarchy of rental groups that form the framework of a new structure of the political community.

  11. Welfare distribution effect of a price reduction in the Dutch gas transport market: A scenario analysis of regulatory policy, market form and rent allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Witteloostuijn, van (Arjen); S. Brakman (Steven); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAs part of the larger energy market deregulation program, the Dutch energy authority—DTe—has developed the habit to force the Dutch gas transport enterprise—Gas Transport Services, or GTS—to lower its prices. DTe's key argument is that lower gas transport prices will benefit the

  12. Welfare distribution effect of a price reduction in the Dutch gas transport market: A scenario analysis of regulatory policy, market form and rent allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteloostuijn , van Arjen; Brakman, S.; van Marrewijk, C.

    2007-01-01

    As part of the larger energy market deregulation program, the Dutch energy authority-DTe-has developed the habit to force the Dutch gas transport enterprise-Gas Transport Services, or GTS-to lower its prices. DTe's key argument is that lower gas transport prices will benefit the end-user. Indeed,

  13. 76 FR 35905 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Section 8 Fair Market Rent Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... programs; payment standards for the Rental Voucher program; and any other programs whose regulations... computers to select statistically random samples of telephone numbers to locate certain types of rental...

  14. Energy rent and public policy: an analysis of the Canadian coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunton, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses issues in resource rent through a case study of the Canadian coal industry. A model of the coal industry is constructed to estimate the magnitude of rent and distribution of coal rent between government and industry over the 30-year period from 1970 to 2000. Disaggregation of results by coal sector shows that rent varied widely, with one sector generating substantial rent and other sectors incurring large losses. The pattern of development of the coal sector followed what can be termed a 'rent dissipation cycle' in which the generation of rent in the profitable sector created excessively optimistic expectations that encouraged new entrants to dissipate rent by developing uneconomic capacity. The analysis also shows that the system used to collect rent was ineffective. The public owner collected only one-third of the rent on the profitable mines and collected royalty revenue from the unprofitable mines even though no rent was generated. The case study illustrates that improvements in private sector planning based on a better appreciation of resource market fundamentals, elimination of government subsidies that encourage uneconomic expansion and more effective rent collection are all needed to avoid rent dissipation and increase the benefits of energy development in producing jurisdictions. The study also illustrates that estimates of rent in the resource sector should disaggregate results by sector and make adjustments for market imperfections to accurately assess the magnitude of potential rent

  15. HPC: Rent or Buy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredette, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    "Rent or buy?" is a question people ask about everything from housing to textbooks. It is also a question universities must consider when it comes to high-performance computing (HPC). With the advent of Amazon's Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), Microsoft Windows HPC Server, Rackspace's OpenStack, and other cloud-based services, researchers now have…

  16. 24 CFR 982.507 - Rent to owner: Reasonable rent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Rent and Housing Assistance Payment § 982.507 Rent to owner: Reasonable rent. (a) PHA determination. (1) The PHA may not.... To make this determination, the PHA must consider: (1) The location, quality, size, unit type, and...

  17. 75 FR 2879 - Use of Tobacco Marketing Descriptors to Convey Modified Risk; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... information, research, and ideas on tobacco product marketing descriptors that may be considered similar to...] Use of Tobacco Marketing Descriptors to Convey Modified Risk; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and... authority to regulate the manufacture, marketing, and distribution of tobacco products to protect the public...

  18. Bureaucratic Rents and Life Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Luechinger, Simon; Meier, Stephan; Stutzer, Alois

    2006-01-01

    Institutions affect bureaucrats' possibilities to acquire rents; they determine the degree of accountability and responsiveness of officials and of political control of the bureaucracy and, thereby, the size and distribution of rents in the public sphere. Those rents can involve higher wages, monetary and nonmonetary fringe benefits, and bribes. We propose a direct measure to capture the total of these rents: the difference in subjective well-being between bureaucrats and people working in th...

  19. 24 CFR 886.310 - Initial contract rents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 202 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY PROGRAM AND SECTION 811 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH... and do not exceed 120 percent of the most recently published Section 8 Fair Market Rents for Existing...

  20. Det rent menneskelige

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togeby, Ole

    2006-01-01

    Omtale af Michael Tomasellos teorier om at sproget som det rent menneskelige er baseret på en empati og tillid, som kommer til udtryk i at selv små børn forstår når en anden peger, hvad aber ikke gør. Udgivelsesdato: 12.april 2006......Omtale af Michael Tomasellos teorier om at sproget som det rent menneskelige er baseret på en empati og tillid, som kommer til udtryk i at selv små børn forstår når en anden peger, hvad aber ikke gør. Udgivelsesdato: 12.april 2006...

  1. 41 CFR 102-85.115 - How is the Rent determined?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... owned space provided by GSA is based on market appraisals of fully serviced rental values for the..., and security charges are calculated separately and added to the appraised shell Rent to establish the... addition to the shell Rent, the Rent includes amortization of TI allowances used, real estate taxes...

  2. Do short-term rent platforms affect rents? Evidence from Airbnb in Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Segú, Mariona

    2018-01-01

    Peer-to-peer platforms such as airbnb have recently entered the market thanks to the development of new technologies and their influence on traditional markets remains still understudied. Similarly, the multiplicity of local regulations adopted by big touristic cities in developed countries shows a lack of consensus both on the consequences and on the role of regulation. However, the actual impact of airbnb’s market entry on rents remains still unknown. I assess the causal impact of the begin...

  3. Design of forest rent accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Osadcha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The urgent task for the effective functioning of the national economy is the need to reflect income from the use of forest resources in accounting, which will allow management personnel to prove the effectiveness of environmental protection measures, to assess the amount of expenses taken during restoration and protection of forest resources. The study aims at identifying characteristics of forest rent to determine the amount and its reflection in the accounting for its management. The author understands a forest rent as the income received from the owner of forest resources. The above procedure for determining the amount of forest rent can be used to display it in the accounting. A forest rent is a type of business income, so for its reflection in the accounting it is proposed to open the analytical accounts to account 79 named «Financial results». To determine the amount of forest rent and its reflection in the accounting the author suggests the calculation form of a forest rent. In order to manage the size of a forest rent and expenses incurred to obtain it the author proposes to use the information from the developed report about the forest rent formation. The displaying forest rents in accounting will provide accurate and deep information to the management about the revenue and assets of a company. The rational use of forest resources and accounting reflection of a forest rent will strengthen control over the influence of human activity on natural resources and keep the conception of sustainable development.

  4. Hydroelectric rent and precipitation variability: the case of Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amundsen, E.S.; Tjoetta, Sigve

    1993-01-01

    Norway is about to reorganize its electricity production sector from a predominantly administered one to one which is based on market prices and principles of efficiency. The objective of this paper is to model the energy sector and to measure the size of hydro rent before and after the reorganization. We construct a regionally diversified and integrated equilibrium model of production, transmission and distribution of hydroelectricity. Particular attention is paid to the role of precipitation variability for the size and regional variation of hydro rent. We consider alternative routes for assessing the size of hydro rent in a long-run perspective. (author)

  5. 76 FR 16038 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Prepaid Card Marketing Customer Survey, CS-10-251.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... of social marketing. Social marketing principles and practices apply marketing principles to social... Prepaid Card Marketing Customer Survey, CS-10-251. AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury..., the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Prepaid Card Marketing Customer Survey, CS-10-251 DATES...

  6. RENT CONTROL: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue-Mari Maass

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent case law shows that vulnerable, previously disadvantaged private sector tenants are currently facing eviction orders – and consequential homelessness – on the basis that their leases have expired. In terms of the case law it is evident that once their leases have expired, these households do not have access to alternative accommodation. In terms of the Constitution, this group of marginalised tenants have a constitutional right of access to adequate housing and a right to occupy land with legally secure tenure. The purpose of this article is to critically analyse a number of legislative interventions, and specifically rent control, that were imposed in various jurisdictions in order to provide strengthened tenure protection for tenants. The rationale for this analysis is to determine whether the current South African landlord-tenant regime is able to provide adequate tenure protection for vulnerable tenants and therefore in the process of transforming in line with the Constitution. The legal construction of rent control was adopted in pre-1994 South Africa, England and New York City to provide substantive tenure protection for tenants during housing shortages. These statutory interventions in the different private rental markets were justified on the basis that there was a general need to protect tenants against exploitation by landlords. However, the justification for the persistent imposition of rent control in New York City is different since it protects a minority group of financially weak tenants against homelessness. The English landlord-tenant regime highlights the importance of a well-structured social sector that can provide secure, long-term housing options for low-income households who are struggling to access the private rental sector. Additionally, the English rental housing framework shows that if the social sector is functioning as a "safety net" for low-income households, the private sector would be able to uphold

  7. Are civil-law notaries rent-seeking monopolists or essential market intermediaries? Endogenous development of a property rights institution in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monkkonen, Paavo

    2016-01-01

    As the fourth contribution in the 'Land' section, this paper forms a research 'diptych' with the next paper by Levy. Whereas she focuses on the notarial institution in mid-nineteenth century Mexico, this contribution examines it in a contemporary context. The notary is one of the chief components of property rights protection in civil-law systems, performing various public functions such as writing deeds for real estate property. Yet notaries are considered an 'inefficient' institution by many, due to the perception of rent-seeking behavior enabled by their near-monopoly over validating property rights claims. This study examines notaries in Mexico to unpack the apparent contradiction in the role of notaries in economic development. I use a combination of interviews with notaries and clients, and data on notarial practice and bureaucratic outcomes across the country, to examine notaries' social function. The theoretical lens of endogenous development and institutional functionalism reveals an alternate explanation for their seemingly high-cost services, as well as their role in economic development. Mexican notaries have a dual social function: public representative and private service provider. They perform diverse and essential activities, which in other countries are performed by multiple actors such as real estate agents, escrow offices and title insurance companies. Thus, what is perceived as inefficiency by some can be interpreted as an efficient response to the context in which they operate, and their semi-privatized nature can overcome problems found in other bureaucratic arrangements.

  8. Are civil-law notaries rent-seeking monopolists or essential market intermediaries? Endogenous development of a property rights institution in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monkkonen, Paavo

    2017-01-01

    As the fourth contribution in the ‘Land’ section, this paper forms a research ‘diptych’ with the next paper by Levy. Whereas she focuses on the notarial institution in mid-nineteenth century Mexico, this contribution examines it in a contemporary context. The notary is one of the chief components of property rights protection in civil-law systems, performing various public functions such as writing deeds for real estate property. Yet notaries are considered an ‘inefficient’ institution by many, due to the perception of rent-seeking behavior enabled by their near-monopoly over validating property rights claims. This study examines notaries in Mexico to unpack the apparent contradiction in the role of notaries in economic development. I use a combination of interviews with notaries and clients, and data on notarial practice and bureaucratic outcomes across the country, to examine notaries’ social function. The theoretical lens of endogenous development and institutional functionalism reveals an alternate explanation for their seemingly high-cost services, as well as their role in economic development. Mexican notaries have a dual social function: public representative and private service provider. They perform diverse and essential activities, which in other countries are performed by multiple actors such as real estate agents, escrow offices and title insurance companies. Thus, what is perceived as inefficiency by some can be interpreted as an efficient response to the context in which they operate, and their semi-privatized nature can overcome problems found in other bureaucratic arrangements. PMID:28615798

  9. Scarcity rents and airport charges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouwt, G.; de Wit, W.

    2015-01-01

    This report addresses the responses related to scarcity rents and airport charges. The Commission has asked ITF/SEO to provide evidence on scarcity rents in the London airport system. Different reports submitted in response to the Commission’s consultation make different assumptions on the way

  10. An estimation of the Swiss hydropower rent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banfi, Silvia; Filippini, Massimo; Mueller, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    The electricity generation in Switzerland is mostly based on hydropower (∼58%) and nuclear power (∼38%). The exploitation of water in the hydropower sector can generate significant economic rent. One possibility to capture this rent is through royalties or fees. This system has been used in Switzerland since many decades. However, the actual water fee system is not flexible and does not take into consideration different production costs between the type and location of hydropower plants. Furthermore, storage plants can sell electricity to a higher price than run-of-river plants. A flexible system is needed in a liberalized electricity market, to take into account these different production situations and the fact that prices may vary considerably over time. The main goal of this paper is to calculate the potential economic rent that could be generated in the Swiss hydropower sector under a future liberalized market. Based on the results of the paper, it can be concluded that the introduction of a flexible fee system could improve the competitiveness of the hydropower sector and promote an energy system based on renewable energy sources

  11. 24 CFR 982.509 - Rent to owner: Effect of rent control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Rent and Housing Assistance Payment § 982.509 Rent to owner: Effect of rent control. In addition to the rent reasonableness...

  12. Limits to the introduction of market institutions in a sector of income; Les limites a l'introduction des institutions de marche dans un secteur de rente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locatelli, C.; Finon, D. [Laboratoire d' Economie de la Production et de l' Integration Internationale, Departement Energie et Politiques de l' Environnement (LEPII/EPE), UPMF, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2003-07-01

    This article uses an empirical study to test the validity of the liberal approach of market transition. The example chosen is the reform (privatization) of the Russian hydrocarbons industry. This case has been chosen because it represents an extreme case of inadequateness of the measures preconized by the Washington consensus with respect to the institutional environment. It represents also a typical case of opportunistic adaptation of the behaviour of private and government actors to the rough enforcement of market institutions to a very specific institutional environment. The inadequateness of these institutions with the initial informal institutions has led to adaptations totally dependent of the institutional path with the necessity of preserving a minimum inter-industrial consistency. On the other hand, it seems that the uncertainty about the property rights in general is tightly correlated with the abundance of exploitable and exportable natural resources. (J.S.)

  13. Some Comments on Marketing AIP Information Products and Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Donald W.; Brown, A. M.

    This study was addressed to marketing considerations for the American Institute of Physics (AIP) information products and services. The general system and its operation in a marketing environment, including promotion, channels of distribution and pricing are covered. Particular emphasis is placed on the cost/demand/price relationship for four…

  14. Rents in the European power sector due to carbon trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, Jan Horst; Cruciani, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) has imposed a price on the allowances for CO 2 emissions of electricity companies. Integrating this allowance price into the price of electricity earns a rent for companies who have received these allowances for free. During Phase I, 2005-2007, rents corresponding to the aggregate value of allocated allowances amounted to roughly EUR 13 billion per year. However, due to the specific price-setting mechanism in electricity markets true rents were considerably higher. This is due to the fact that companies also that have not received any allowances gain additional infra-marginal rents to the extent that their variable costs are below the new market price after inclusion of the allowance price. Producers with low carbon emissions and low marginal costs thus also benefit substantially from carbon pricing. This paper develops a methodology to determine the specific interaction of the imposition of such a CO 2 constraint and the price-setting mechanism in the electricity sector under the assumption of marginal cost pricing in a liberalized European electricity market. The article thus provides an empirical estimate of the true total rents of power producers during Phase I of the EU-ETS (2005-2007). The EU ETS generated in Phase I additional rents in excess of EUR 19 billion per year for electricity producers. These transfers are distributed very unevenly between different electricity producers. In a second step, the paper assesses the impact of switching from free allocation to an auctioning of allowances in 2013. We show that such a switch to auctioning will continue to create additional infra-marginal rents for certain producers and will leave the electricity sector as a whole better off than before the introduction of the EU ETS. (author)

  15. 24 CFR 888.320 - One-time Contract Rent determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PROGRAM, SECTION 202 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY PROGRAM AND SECTION 811 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PAYMENTS PROGRAM-FAIR MARKET RENTS AND... Elderly or Handicapped, and Special Allocations Projects § 888.320 One-time Contract Rent determination...

  16. Comment: Reluctance to trade a risky position in oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, M.

    1995-01-01

    The oil industry is re-engineering, restructuring, down-sizing, etc. as part of a draconian effort to reduce costs and enhance profit margins. Benchmarking of corporate results against the competition is in vogue, with a view to challenging performance at every level of management. The bold can do attitude behind today's oil industry revolution in management grinds to a halt when the subject is oil trading. Mention speculation, oil pricing mechanisms, market risk-taking, or derivative instruments, and many in senior management and the corporate boardroom lapse into worried silence. When an oil company finishes restructuring and reconcentrating business direction, setting new investment and performance criteria, it is still left with the huge variable of price. Any corporate management that fails to act aggressively in the trading sector by pursuing the best possible oil price as a buyer or seller isn't living up to its responsibilities to shareholders. This article discusses market retreat, market imperfections, winners and losers, the decision to trade, developing a program and issues currently attracting oil industry attention

  17. Comment fournir des soins infirmiers de qualité aux personnes migrantes de culture différente ?: une revue de littérature étoffée

    OpenAIRE

    Conus, Emilie; Niggli, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Cette revue de littérature étoffée s’insère dans une problématique traitant du contexte migratoire actuel et des répercussions que cela a sur les soins infirmiers. En effet, elle porte sur les compétences infirmières lors de la prise en charge des patients migrants issus de culture différente.

  18. Rents, Power and Governance in Global Value Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis Davis; Raphael Kaplinsky; Mike Morris

    2018-01-01

    This paper addresses the  generation  of  rents  and  the  distribution  of  gains  in  the  global  operations  of  governed Global  Value  Chains  (GVCs)  and  seeks  to  provide  an  architecture  for  analyzing  the  governance  of  GVCs.  It distinguishes between four sets of rent—gifts of nature; innovation rents; exogenously defined rents; and market power—and three spheres of governance—setting the rules -“legislative governance”; implementing the rules -“executive governance”; and mo...

  19. Rent Control: A Comparative Analysis | Maass | Potchefstroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad ... tenants and therefore in the process of transforming in line with the Constitution. ... KEYWORDS: Constitution; landlord-tenant law; rent control; rent regulation; ...

  20. Asymmetric Properties of Office Rent Adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Brounen (Dirk); M.G.J. Jennen (Maarten)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we use an error correction model for understanding the changes in real office rents for a panel of 15 U.S. MSA's over the period 1990-2007. We find that office rents in all cities react positively to a rise in office employment and lagged rent changes, while lagged

  1. 24 CFR 850.153 - Rent control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rent control. 850.153 Section 850... PROGRAM) HOUSING DEVELOPMENT GRANTS Project Management § 850.153 Rent control. A project constructed or substantially rehabilitated with a housing development grant is not subject to State or local rent control...

  2. 24 CFR 888.420 - One-time Contract Rent determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PROGRAM, SECTION 202 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY PROGRAM AND SECTION 811 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PAYMENTS PROGRAM-FAIR MARKET RENTS AND...

  3. The land rent category in mainstream economics and its contemporary applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czyżewski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic globalisation process makes the economic factors rotate faster. As a result the value added is intercepted by market mechanism and transferred to the economically stronger entities. That process concerns especially agriculture. There exists a crucial question whether an agricultural land factor is still capable to generate economic rents which would be the determinants of comparative advantages? On the one hand, D. Ricardo’s land rents are vanishing, H. George’s rents are provoking financial crisis, monetarists assumptions are becoming unsufficient, on the other, the land factor gains new environmental applications and there is still a hope that land rents have its origins in a real value. This paper aims at presenting the evolution of the land rents theory starting from classical economics. The author makes an attempt to answer the question if the land rent theories are still relevant and how land rent category can be implemented in agricul-tural policy of the UE? One formulates a hypothesis that the neoclassical theory of rent usually presented in economic textbooks is insufficient to describe reality reducing the sources of land rent to a low land supply flexibility and treating that as constant variable in economic models.

  4. The carbon rent economics of climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkuhl, Matthias; Brecha, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    By reducing the demand for fossil fuels, climate policy can reduce scarcity rents for fossil resource owners. As mitigation policies ultimately aim to limit emissions, a new scarcity for “space” in the atmosphere to deposit emissions is created. The associated scarcity rent, or climate rent (that is, for example, directly visible in permit prices under an emission trading scheme) can be higher or lower than the original fossil resource rent. In this paper, we analyze analytically and numerically the impact of mitigation targets, resource availability, backstop costs, discount rates and demand parameters on fossil resource rents and the climate rent. We assess whether and how owners of oil, gas and coal can be compensated by a carbon permit grandfathering rule. One important finding is that reducing (cumulative) fossil resource use could actually increase scarcity rents and benefit fossil resource owners under a permit grandfathering rule. For our standard parameter setting overall scarcity rents under climate policy increase slightly. While low discount rates of resource owners imply higher rent losses due to climate policies, new developments of reserves or energy efficiency improvements could more than double scarcity rents under climate policy. Another important implication is that agents receiving the climate rent (regulating institutions or owners of grandfathered permits) could influence the climate target such that rents are maximized, rather than to limit global warming to a socially desirable level. For our basic parameter setting, rents would be maximized at approximately 650 GtC emissions (50% of business-as-usual emissions) implying a virtual certainty of exceeding a 2 °C target and a likelihood of 4 °C warming. - Highlights: • Fossil resource rents form a substantial share of the global GDP. • Fossil resource owners can benefit from climate policy. • Climate targets might be influenced by rent-maximizing aspects

  5. Evaluation of economic rent of hydropower projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, Ram M.; Abeygunawardana, A.M.A.K.

    2009-01-01

    Existing studies have mostly estimated the ex post economic rent of hydropower for the hydroelectric system of a province or a country as a whole and have ignored the site- or project-specific variations in the economic rent of hydropower plants. Further, most of the existing studies have used simplified methods to calculate the rent ex post. This paper presents a rigorous methodology for estimation of site-specific (i.e., project specific) economic rent of hydropower ex ante. It applies the methodology in the case of a hydropower project and analyzes the sensitivity of the rent to variations in some key parameters.

  6. Développement humain, développement durable et « pays en développement » : comment articuler et mesurer les différentes dimensions ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Boidin

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Cet article cherche à préciser la place qu’occupent les différentes dimensions du développement durable au sein de l’analyse économique du développement, et en particulier les dimensions humaine et sociale. Ceci nous amène à considérer les relations complexes entre les différents actifs (santé, éducation, capital social…, marquées par des effets d’irréversibilité qui peuvent remettre en cause la durabilité. Se pose alors la question de la mesure du développement durable prenant en compte ces articulations entre les dimensions. Une grille d’évaluation des mesures synthétiques du développement durable est proposée et appliquée à une sélection d’indicateurs.This article seeks to specify the place of various dimensions of sustainable development within development economics, in particular human and social dimensions. This leads us to consider the complex relations between the various assets (health, education, social capital…, characterized by irreversibility effects which can jeopardize sustainability. It is therefore necessary to find a measure of sustainable development, taking into account these interactions between dimensions. We propose criteria to evaluate synthetic measurements of sustainable development, and apply them to selected indicators.

  7. Landlordism, Rent Regulation and the Labour Party in mid-twentieth century Britain, 1950-64.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Phil

    2018-03-01

    This article examines the politics of private renting in 1950s and early 1960s Britain, through the radical approach taken by Labour Party towards private landlords. Through setting the radical aims of Labour in a mid-twentieth-century context of decrepit housing, rising rents and sluggish public housing programmes, Labour's rationale in arguing for the 'abolition' of the private landlord is more transparent. This article takes a chronological approach, investigating what actions Labour actors took, at local and national level, and what effect this had on the wider housing market. Part one takes a long view of Labour attitudes to the private rented sector. Part two explores the policy of 'municipalization'-the attempt to place rented homes under local authority control. Part three discusses the post-1962 policy shift to state-sponsored 'improvement' of private rented housing, prior to Labour's victory at the 1964 general election. Three key arguments are made: that Labour's radicalism hastened the collapse of the post-war private rented sector; that rental market weaknesses indicated the confused place of renting in the 'tenurial pattern'; and that the proposed 'abolition' of private landlords had a direct effect on slum clearance and the composition of British cities. The conclusion suggests that Labour's pursuit of the private landlord can shed light on the vast urban transformations of the post-war period. It invites greater attention to be paid to the effects that political ideas had on the composition of the twentieth-century British housing market.

  8. Management of business economic growth as function of resource rents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prljić, Stefan; Nikitović, Zorana; Stojanović, Aleksandra Golubović; Cogoljević, Dušan; Pešić, Gordana; Alizamir, Meysam

    2018-02-01

    Economic profit could be influenced by economic rents. However natural resource rents provided different impact on the economic growth or economic profit. The main focus of the study was to evaluate the economic growth as function of natural resource rents. For such a purpose machine learning approach, artificial neural network, was used. The used natural resource rents were coal rents, forest rents, mineral rents, natural gas rents and oil rents. Based on the results it is concluded that the machine learning approach could be used as the tool for the economic growth evaluation as function of natural resource rents. Moreover the more advanced approaches should be incorporated to improve more the forecasting accuracy.

  9. Comment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    1999-01-01

    Comment on: Besley and Seabright (1999) The effects and policy implications of state aid to industry: an economic analysis. Economic Policy 14 (28), 13-53......Comment on: Besley and Seabright (1999) The effects and policy implications of state aid to industry: an economic analysis. Economic Policy 14 (28), 13-53...

  10. Comment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    1999-01-01

    Comment on: Alessandra Casella (1999) Tradable deficit permits: efficient implementation of the Stability Pact in the European Monetary Union. Economic Policy 14 (29), 321-362......Comment on: Alessandra Casella (1999) Tradable deficit permits: efficient implementation of the Stability Pact in the European Monetary Union. Economic Policy 14 (29), 321-362...

  11. Resource rents, power, and political stability

    OpenAIRE

    Kjetil Bjorvatn; Mohammad Reza Farzanegan

    2014-01-01

    We study the association between resource rents and political stability, highlighting the importance of the distribution of political power as a mediating factor. We present a simple theoretical model showing that increased rents are likely to be positively associated with the stability of a powerful incumbent while destabilizing a less powerful incumbent. Our empirical analysis confirms this prediction: Using panel data for more than 120 countries from 1984-2009, our results show that rents ...

  12. Current economic cost, the ARENH (Regulated Access to the Historic (EDF) Nuclear Energy Supplier) price, the differential rent and the scarcity rent of nuclear power: some observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percebois, J.

    2012-01-01

    This article sets out to explain the ARENH mechanism, the regulated price at which the EDF (France's historic monopoly supplier) must sell part of its production to its competitors in the framework of the Nome Act (New Organisation of the Electricity Market). This price by its nature is different from the Current Economic Cost (CEC) of nuclear power, as estimated by France's Government Accounting Office in its report submitted in January 2012. These two approaches revert to the problem of the determination of the scarcity rent of nuclear power in the context of the liberalised European market, in which nuclear power benefits from a 'cost' advantage relative to thermal electricity generated from fossil fuels. Furthermore, scarcity rent is not the same thing as differential rent. Selling a nuclear kWh at the price of a 'gas' kWh at certain times results in a differential rent enabling nuclear generated power to cover fixed costs. One can only speak of scarcity rent for nuclear power when the price at which the kWh is sold allows the recovery of more than is necessary to cover overall costs of nuclear power and it is this scarcity rent and its allocation that is the subject of debate. (author)

  13. The Construction and Realisation of Geographic Brand Rent in New Zealand Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hayward

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the concept of geographic brand rent in production and marketing of New Zealand wine. It is argued that the region of origin for fine wine is not only a recognised feature of its value but that this may be conceived as a form of brand rent and furthermore that it is measurable. The analysis uses both cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches to consider grape and vineyard land prices, as well as interviews with industry informants to explore wine company strategies. Explicit use is made of the value-added chain in order to identify and situate the construction of rents and the positionality of industry actors in respect to these. The analysis highlights the quest to control different forms of brand rent that have led the restructuring of the wine industry. It also exposes countervailing pressures towards economic resilience and market vulnerability facing the fine wine industry.

  14. Radon Infiltration in Rented Accommodation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2017-01-01

    in homes was measured and the Buildings were registered for a series of variables describing upgrades, facilities, building components, Construction characteristics and used materials. In addition, the radon level was measured in the basement in 9 of the buildings. The mean year value of the indoor radon......Indoor radon levels were measured in 221 homes located in 53 buildings, including 28 multi-occupant houses and 25 single-family terraced houses. The homes consisted of rented accommodation located in buildings recorded as being constructed before 2010 and after the year 1850. The radon level...... radon levels exceeding 100 Bq/m3 in homes in multi-occupant houses was found to be very low, but the risk was highest on the ground floor in a building constructed with slab on ground....

  15. Accounting management software intellectual rent companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Osadcha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Економічні науки. – 2015. – № 4 (74. – P. 43–49: Table 4. – Refs.: 22. As a result of the study it has been established that intellectual rent as additional income arises resulting from the usage of intellectual property objects. At present the issue of the accounting reflection of transactions that form intellectual rent remains to be not thoroughly disclosed and requires more depth study for improving the performance of the innovative enterprises as well as for increasing the informativeness of the accounting system. In connection with the above defined organizational and methodical aspects of accounting operations with intellectual rent in assessing the rents of its type, the definition of accounts for the accounting reflection of the order determining the amount of intellectual rent on accounting data. Proposed document that would facilitate the work of accountants for the calculation of the amount of intellectual rent and provide information about the effectiveness of the company. Application of the proposed method of accounting reflect the formation and distribution of intellectual rent allows management personnel to provide the necessary innovative activity of the enterprise information management rent, since it is a type of income of the enterprise.

  16. Evaluating the Buy or Rent Housing Decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joseph M.

    This booklet offers guidelines by which a person can make an informed decision about whether buying or renting a house is the best individual alternative. Advantages and disadvantages of both buying and renting are listed. Cost considerations are discussed and compared along with such considerations as selection of the time to buy and estimation…

  17. Status rent in new developing economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandrova Natal'ja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The status rent and conditions of its appearance are characterized in new developing economy by the position of new political economy. The bases of the general theory of rent were laid by classicists of political economy (F. Cene, A. Smith, J. Anderson, J. Mill, T. Maltus, D. Ricardo, K. Marx. They differentiated the rare rent (natural, absolute rent and differential land rent. Neoclassicists widened the definition of rent understanding it as income from any productive factor not only from land. Mostly, investigators of rent keep to two main postulates. Firstly, it is over profit, the income of special kind connected with using of exclusive, limited or rare goods for some time. Secondly, the rent is owned by the owners of these goods. These statements belonging to the natural rent can be used for the analysis of others, unnatural kinds of rent. The status rent belongs here. Let us analyze the status rent from the position of new political economy. As old political economy the new one also has its object - economic relations in the society and it call for the opening of deep, important processes of economic life. But by contrast with old political economy the new one, firstly, is based on other methodology (institutional economy, the theory of social choice, system approach; secondly, it studies economic relations not as static (the position of different classes, but as dynamic in economic behavior; thirdly, it is not confrontational: economic relations are understood not as antagonistic with non-avoidance of social cataclysm but as conflict-compromising; fourthly, it operates not only with social aggregates (class, country, social group, but it is also directed to a person, his/her freedom of choice in economic behavior; and, finally, fifthly, it overcomes the past careful marking out of other sciences, and, on the contrary, strives for an interdisciplinary approach in the stream of modern institutionalism including the problems of sociology

  18. 24 CFR 982.506 - Negotiating rent to owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Rent and Housing Assistance Payment § 982.506 Negotiating rent to owner. The owner and the family negotiate the rent to owner. At the...

  19. The value of Growth Hacking. Business development manual for Emi-Rent Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Elezovic, Velimir

    2017-01-01

    This thesis was commissioned by Emi-Rent Properties, a real estate company based in Bel-grade, Serbia. The main objective of this thesis is to help determine the value of growth hack-er marketing for the case company’s newly commissioned marketing campaign. Secondary objective of this thesis is to present practical advice on the implementation of a successful marketing campaign with strong international aspects. The thesis will cover major marketing concepts and provide an alternative view by...

  20. Resource rents: The effects of energy taxes and quantity instruments for climate protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenack, Klaus; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Kalkuhl, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Carbon dioxide emissions correspond to fossil resource use. When considering this supply side of climate protection, crucial questions come to fore. It seems likely that owners of fossil resources would object to emission reductions. Moreover, policy instruments such as taxes may not be effective at all: it seems individually rational to leave no fossil resources unused. In this context, it can be expected that economic sectors will react strategically to climate policy, aiming at a re-distribution of rents. To address these questions, we investigate the effectiveness, efficiency, and resource rents for energy taxes, resource taxes, and quantity rationing of emissions. The analysis is based on a game theoretic growth model with explicit factor markets and policy instruments. Market equilibrium depends on a government that acts as a Stackelberg leader with a climate protection goal. We find that resource taxes and quantity rationing achieve this objective efficiently, energy taxation is only second-best. The use of quantity rationing to achieve climate protection generates substantial rents for resource owners. - Highlights: ► Resource taxes and quantity rationing (carbon budgets) are efficient. ► Carbon budgets increase resource rents, while taxes decrease rents. ► Resource owners may support climate protection. ► Climate protection introduces a climate rent.

  1. Petro Rents, Political Institutions, and Hidden Wealth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Juel; Johannesen, Niels; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2017-01-01

    Do political institutions limit rent seeking by politicians? We study the transformation of petroleum rents, almost universally under direct government control, into hidden wealth using unique data on bank deposits in offshore financial centers that specialize in secrecy and asset protection. Our...... rulers is diverted to secret accounts. We find very limited evidence that shocks to other types of income not directly controlled by governments affect hidden wealth....

  2. The impact of energy labels and accessibility on office rents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, Nils; Jennen, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption in the commercial property sector offers an important opportunity for conserving resources. In this study, we evaluate the financial implications of two elements of “sustainability” – energy efficiency and accessibility – in the market for commercial real estate. An empirical analysis of some 1100 leasing transactions in the Netherlands over the 2005–2010 period shows that buildings designated as inefficient (with an EU energy performance certificate D or worse) command rental levels that are some 6.5 percent lower as compared to energy efficient, but otherwise similar buildings (labeled A, B or C). Furthermore, this study shows that office buildings in multi-functional areas, with access to public transport and facilities, achieve rental premiums over mono-functional office districts. For policymakers, the results documented in this paper provide an indication on the effectiveness of the EU energy performance certificate as a market signal in the commercial property sector. The findings documented here are also relevant for investors in European office markets, as the importance of energy efficiency and locational diversification is bound to increase following stricter environmental regulation and changing tenant preferences. - Highlights: ► Built environment plays important role in reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. ► Energy certification of buildings may increase transparency and awareness. ► Tenants pay lower rent for less efficient commercial office buildings. ► Accessibility important determinant of commercial office rents.

  3. Energy conservation in rented buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingberg, T.; Broechner, J.; Forsman, J.; Gaunt, L.; Holgersson, M.

    1984-08-01

    The bulletin is an anthology of nine essays by different authors addressing the issue of energy conservation in buildings, where there exists a landlord/tenant relationship. After an overview of the rental market and the stock of rental buildings different types of rental contracts and energy charges are described.

  4. Destructive competition : oil and rent seeking in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Bjorvatn, Kjetil; Selvik, Kjetil

    2005-01-01

    In countries with poorly developed institutions, rent seeking may impose serious costs for the economy. Our analysis demonstrates how rent seeking distorts the economy through two channels. First, there is the direct cost of the resources wasted in the rent seeking contest. Second, rent seeking distorts firms’ investment decisions, and leads to underinvestment. We conduct a case study of rent seeking in Iran in order to gain a better understanding of the phenomenon. Iran is ...

  5. Rents, Power and Governance in Global Value Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Davis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the  generation  of  rents  and  the  distribution  of  gains  in  the  global  operations  of  governed Global  Value  Chains  (GVCs  and  seeks  to  provide  an  architecture  for  analyzing  the  governance  of  GVCs.  It distinguishes between four sets of rent—gifts of nature; innovation rents; exogenously defined rents; and market power—and three spheres of governance—setting the rules -“legislative governance”; implementing the rules -“executive governance”; and monitoring rules and sanctioning malfeasance -“judicial governance.” The exercise of governance power in GVCs over the generation, protection and appropriation of rents is considered though the lens of four sets of key GVC stakeholders—the corporate sector, civil society organizations, the nation state and supranational institutions. This general analysis is given flesh through three case studies: food-safety standards in GVCs; taxation  policies  and  competition  policies.  In these  sectors,  the  corporate  sector  is  generally  much  more effective in governing rent generation and appropriation in the global operations of GVCs than are the three sets of  non-corporate  stakeholders.  From this  observation  we  offer  a  hypothesis  that  the  capacity  of  non-corporate stakeholders, including national states, to govern GVCs is contingent upon the extent to which this coincides with the interest of the corporate sector. However, as noted, this balance of power between private and non-corporate actors is a contested terrain and dynamic in nature.

  6. THE BUBONIC PLAGUE OF 1349, THE WAGE-TO-RENT RATIO, AND THE ENGLISH PEASANT FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie O. Crofton

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The bubonic plague that swept England in 1349 provides an example of how changes in economic conditions can change norms of social behavior. The death of almost 50 percent of the population altered the returns to labor and land. As the demand for land and the supply of labor declined, rents fell and wages rose. This increased wage-to-rent ratio shifted the structure of the economy from household production to market production. In turn, these changes affected migration, family and community ties, women s labor force participation, family size, inheritance customs, the status of landowning widows, and care for the elderly.

  7. 24 CFR 882.410 - Rent adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PROGRAM) SECTION 8 MODERATE REHABILITATION PROGRAMS Special Procedures for Moderate Rehabilitation-Basic... Annual Adjustment Factor by the base rents. However, if the amounts borrowed to finance the rehabilitation costs or to finance purchase of the property are subject to a variable rate or are otherwise...

  8. Capturing Economic Rents From Resources Through Royalties and Taxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack M. Mintz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Oil price fluctuations, concerns over the division of resource revenues, and unconventional oil and gas developments are forcing governments to confront the same issue: how to design optimal royalty and corporate tax systems that bring in a publicly acceptable share of revenues without discouraging private investment. This paper surveys tax and royalty systems across six countries, as well as four US states and five Canadian provinces, offering concise analyses of their strengths and shortcomings to describe the best and simplest approaches to both. As in a public-private partnership, government owns the resources and allows private agents to maximize the rents resources generate. An optimal royalty system will thus be rent-based, ensuring that both owner and agent obtain maximally competitive returns so that each has incentives to continue the partnership. Such a system will also be simple, making compliance easy, manipulation difficult, and risks affordable. And it will be stable, instilling in the private sector the confidence needed to invest for the long term. As for corporate income taxes, they should be neutral across business activities, and applied at equal effective rates on economic income, to avoid distorting market forces through subsidies or needless complexity. A clean rent-based tax that allows all costs incurred by producers to be expensed or carried over, along with a corporate income tax system shorn of many of the preferences that negatively affect business activity, should be the way forward for any government looking to update their fiscal regimes for the 21st century.

  9. Gas power production, surplus concepts and the transformation of hydro-electric rent into resource rent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amundsen, Eirik S.

    1997-01-01

    The paper considers the effects of introducing large scale gas power production capacity into an electricity sector based on hydropower. In this process the economic rent is transmitted from the hydro power sector to the resource rent in the gas power sector, but is along the way intermingled with ordinary producer surplus and quasi-rent stemming from increasing cost conditions in the production infrastructure and capacity constraints. The net effect on total rent generated depends on development in demand, demand elasticities, costs saved from delaying hydropower projects and the existence of producer surplus in gas power generation. The paper closes with a discussion of possible tax base changes following from the introduction of a thermal power system based on natural gas

  10. Rent-seeking behaviors in property development: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Suhaila; Aziz, Abdul Rashid Abdul

    2017-11-01

    This paper reviews the literature on rent-seeking behaviors in property development, and discusses three major areas: (1) definition and concept of rent-seeking; (2) factors for the rent-seeking behavior appeared; and (3) the impact of rent-seeking behaviors, particularly on property development. In general, there is no exact word that can define what rent-seeking is. It is found that from the reviewed studies that a few researches have adopted search tasks to predict rent-seeking behavior effects in the economy and the respective economic performance. Based on the findings of the review, rent-seeking behavior increases social cost and this might lead to problems such as corruption. This paper paves the way for future studies in examining rent-seeking behaviors in the Malaysian property development, especially for targeted actions to be taken to alleviate upward pressure on home prices.

  11. Forest Rent as an Object of Economic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisichko Andriyana M.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at researching the concept of forest rent as an object of economic analysis. The essence of the concept of «forest rent» has been researched. It has been defined that the forest rent is the object of management of the forest complex of Ukraine as a whole and forest enterprises in particular. Rent for special use of forest resources is the object of interest om the part of both the State and the corporate sector, because its value depends on the cost of timber for industry and households. Works of scholars on classification of rents were studied. It has been determined that the rent for specialized use of forest resources is a special kind of natural rent. The structure of constituents in the system of rent relations in the forest sector has been defined in accordance with provisions of the tax code of Ukraine.

  12. 27 CFR 6.35 - Renting display space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Renting display space. 6.35 Section 6.35 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Renting display space. The renting of display space by an industry member at a retail establishment...

  13. 27 CFR 6.56 - Renting display space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Renting display space. 6.56 Section 6.56 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Distribution Service § 6.56 Renting display space. A promotion whereby an industry member rents display space...

  14. 24 CFR 983.353 - Tenant rent; payment to owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PROJECT-BASED VOUCHER (PBV) PROGRAM Payment to Owner § 983.353 Tenant rent; payment to... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tenant rent; payment to owner. 983... owner. (b) Tenant payment to owner. (1) The family is responsible for paying the tenant rent (total...

  15. Must producers earn a resource rent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    In petroleum producing countries it has been a prevailing opinion that a resource rent should be earned by petroleum producers due to the commodities' non-renewable nature. An important element in this logic is that the supply of oil and natural gas is limited to relatively few places in the world. As the resources are exploited, the remaining reserves are reduced. What is extracted today cannot be extracted tomorrow. Rationing of the scarce resource takes place through pricing mechanisms. Due to the scarcity the consumers must pay a higher price than the marginal production costs, so that the amounts supplied and demanded become equal. Most producers of oil and gas and not just the ones that produce the cheapest, have therefore until now earned an economic rent

  16. RENT AS A SUPER-PROFIT, AS INCOME FROM ACTIVITIES SUCH AS LEASING AND HOW CORRUPTION-PREMIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarov V. F.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the phenomenon called «rent». In the research authors have obtained scientific knowledge in three directions. The first new scientific result is based on the fundamental scientific fact: «All products in the competitive market are sold at a price equilibrium. Therefore, if the seller can sell goods cheaper than the equilibrium price, they extract rents as super-profits: entrepreneur or monopoly rents (including natural, mining, as well as patent, license, author». Note that the term «entrepreneur rent» was introduced into scientific discourse for the first time in this article. The second new scientific result is based on the fundamental scientific fact: «the right of ownership includes three powers: the right of ownership, the right of use, the right of disposal». The right of possession and temporary use can be sold separately, which allows to extract the lease rent. Important fact is that rental contracts as rents (between a landlord and a tenant employ the concept of «time»! Note that such an understanding of rent is formalized in the Civil Code. The third new scientific result is based on the fundamental scientific fact: «any administrative (governmental service can be carried out: (a strictly according to instructions, or (b initiatively, inventively, with a focus on the customer, especially if it is accompanied by a personal benefit of the service provider. The difference between formal and creative execution of duties constitutes «an increase» (discretion to the result of the administrative acts. Corrupt official can sell this “increase”, extracting discretionary (corrupt rent». The article presents the formulations of the scientific facts mentioned above, the concept of «rent» formulations, relevant to these facts, as well as studies, formulas, illustrations of the identified theoretical ideas and practical examples of their manifestations.

  17. 75 FR 28004 - Credit Reforms in Organized Wholesale Electric Markets; Notice Establishing Date for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... Proposed Rulemaking on Credit Reforms in Organized Wholesale Electric Markets.\\1\\ Specifically, the... counterparty to transactions in their markets \\1\\ Credit Reforms in Organized Wholesale Electric Markets, 130... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. RM10-13-000] Credit Reforms...

  18. Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    schools and colleges are exploring electronic learning through the internet and virtual labs (see Steve Mellema's use of IT in his Lecture for the 21st Century). We aim to provide useful material for everybody at and in between the extremes. But some words of caution, sounded by Robertson in Stirling: today we might find that our classes are motivated and interested when we use computers, but how long will the excitement last? If every lesson faces children with computer screens will they soon get bored and demotivated? Individual learning, through worksheets, was a great success when it was developed in the 70s, but when every lesson faced a child with yet another worksheet, students were turned off. It became known as 'death by a thousand worksheets'. Let's not abuse computers in the same way. Physics for the beach and the igloo Physics is about being cool, as we are always trying to tell our students! In this 'summer' issue we have two papers which allow us to demonstrate this practically. I should also like to remind readers that Physics Education is available online (www.iop.org/Journals/pe) in addition to the paper version. The electronic version has the advantages of hotlinks to websites, search facilities and the ability to download teaching materials. My guess is that we haven't begun to explore the possibilities of the electronic journal as a teaching resource for teachers. If it can be stored electronically, we can include it as a multimedia clip pictures, worksheets, spreadsheets, videos, sounds... But there are also many advantages of paper—convenience and permanence being just two. Physics Education is a worthwhile publication and it feels like that in your hand. Having a journal like this, to put in my bag, or stack on my bookshelf, still feels good to me. And judging by readers' comments, you agree. IOPP will, no doubt, support both formats for a long time to come. So, this summer, enjoy the format you are reading, read Physics Education on screen or on

  19. 75 FR 48686 - Tops Markets LLC; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Orders to Aid Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... competition between Tops and Penn Traffic, by increasing the likelihood that Tops will unilaterally exercise... not include any sensitive health information, such as medical records or other individually identifiable health information. In addition, comments should not include any ``[t]rade secret or any...

  20. Investing exhaustible resource rents and the path of consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, K.; Hartwick, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This study presented a brief analysis of the concept of maintaining capital intact in an economy with 2 capital goods: one produced, and one an exhaustible oil stock. Oil stock supplies a vital input flow to the economy every day. The authors characterized dollar-valued national wealth and income. The magnitude of net investment has become pivotal in measuring the sustainability of an economy. This study linked the investment of exhaustible resource rents to growth in a model with energy consumption varying through time, as in a model of optimal savings. Dollar-valued net national product was set out for the economy with the essential, but wasting oil stock. The study applied the principle of maintaining capital intact and locally unchanging consumption. The percentage change in net investment or genuine savings, relative to the market rate of interest, determines whether current consumption is rising, constant, or declining. In the case of utility discount rates, it was observed that at a point of locally unchanging consumption, the net investment equals the prevailing market rate of interest, and the level of net investment is negative. The consumption increases when the percentage change in net investment is lower than the market rate of interest, and the reverse is true when consumption decreases. The connection between zero net investment and constant consumption was clarified. The sign of current net investment was found to be a good indicator of the direction of national wealth and income. 15 refs

  1. Fuzziness, democracy, control and collective decision-choice system a theory on political economy of rent-seeking and profit-harvesting

    CERN Document Server

    Dompere, Kofi Kissi

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents an analysis of the problems and solutions of the market mockery of the democratic collective decision-choice system with imperfect information structure composed of defective and deceptive structures using methods of fuzzy rationality. The book is devoted to the political economy of rent-seeking, rent-protection and rent-harvesting to enhance profits under democratic collective decision-choice systems. The toolbox used in the monograph consists of methods of fuzzy decision, approximate reasoning, negotiation games and fuzzy mathematics. The monograph further discusses the rent-seeking phenomenon in the Schumpeterian and Marxian political economies where the rent-seeking activities transform the qualitative character of the general capitalism into oligarchic socialism and making the democratic collective decision-choice system as an ideology rather than social calculus for resolving conflicts in preferences in the collective decision-choice space without violence.    

  2. Identifying Critical Factors Influencing the Rents of Public Rental Housing Delivery by PPPs: The Case of Nanjing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfeng Yuan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The occupancy rate of Public Rental Housing (PRH in China is relatively low due to the unreasonable rents. At the same time, the development of PRH using Public Private Partnerships (PPPs increases the complexity of the rents. Therefore, the critical factors influencing the rents of PRH delivery by PPPs should be identified. Based on the comprehensive literature, this article identified a conceptual model for the factors influencing the rents of PRH delivery by PPPs in China, composed of 14 factors grouped in three factor packages, and discussed the relationships among three factor packages. A survey based on Nanjing was conducted to assess the relative significance of 14 factors. According to the results, six critical factors were identified: construction costs, household income, floor area and structure, transportation, market rents in the same district and public facilities. In addition, the proposed conceptual model had a good fit. The results also supported two hypothetical relationships among three factor packages: (1 the increase of the affordability of the target tenants had a positive effect on the increase of profits of private sectors; and (2 the increase of the affordability of the target tenants had a positive effect on the increase of level of the characteristics of PRH units. For future research, six critical factors and the relationships among three factor packages can be used to determine the reasonable rents for PRH delivery by PPPs in China.

  3. Some comments on Hurst exponent and the long memory processes on capital markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Granero, M. A.; Trinidad Segovia, J. E.; García Pérez, J.

    2008-09-01

    The analysis of long memory processes in capital markets has been one of the topics in finance, since the existence of the market memory could implicate the rejection of an efficient market hypothesis. The study of these processes in finance is realized through Hurst exponent and the most classical method applied is R/S analysis. In this paper we will discuss the efficiency of this methodology as well as some of its more important modifications to detect the long memory. We also propose the application of a classical geometrical method with short modifications and we compare both approaches.

  4. The CPI for rents: a case of understated inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Theodore M. Crone; Leonard I. Nakamura; Richard Voith

    2006-01-01

    Until the end of 1977, the method used in the U.S. consumer price index (CPI) to measure rent inflation tended to omit rent increases when units had a change of tenants or were vacant. Since such units typically had more rapid increases in rents than average units, this response bias biased inflation estimates downward. Beginning in 1978, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) implemented a series of methodological changes that reduced response bias but substantial bias remained until 1985. We ...

  5. Loss aversion and rent-seeking: An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Xiaojing

    2008-01-01

    We report an experiment designed to evaluate the impact of loss aversion on rent-seeking contests. We find, as theoretically predicted, a negative relationship between rent-seeking expenditures and loss aversion. However, for any degree of loss aversion, levels of rent-seeking expenditure are higher than predicted. Moreover, we find that the effect of loss aversion becomes weaker with repetition of the contest.

  6. The Features of Rent Relationships in Conditions of Innovative Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patlatoy Oleksandr Ye.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with studying the economic content of the categories of «rent» and «quasi-rent», classification of their main forms arising in terms of relationships in the science and innovation sphere, and analyzing the specificity of formation of these incomes in conditions of contemporary innovation economy. The content of the category of «rent» as a form of income arising from the relationship of at least three entities has been revised; in the case of a scientific-innovation rent, it is the holder of a patent or a license holder, an industrial capitalist or an employee who creates a new or improved product; in some cases, the fourth entity of rent may be a hired researcher. In this relationship, the additional income earned by entrepreneurs in the event of commercial success has been defined as technological (innovation quasi-rent, which can change inversely proportional to the scientific-innovation rent. It has been proved that countries with innovation economies, acting as the main recipients of scientific-innovation rents, may concede to the technological quasi-rent of the less developed countries, in particular, to China.

  7. Water rent: essence, sources of formation and accounting reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Osadcha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is the urgent necessity of the transition to a higher level of economic relations in the system of environmental management in the present conditions of economy of the country. As a result, the issues like formation of information support for water rent management, determining the ways of its calculation, distribution as well as usage of water rents require urgent solutions. The study focuses on the essence of water rent and forming organizational and methodological provisions of its accounting reflection to ensure sustainable ecological and economic development of the enterprise. As a result of research the classification of water rent, that affects reflection of such rent in accounting has been formed. It is established that the amount of water rent for accounting reflection can be defined as the difference between actual and normal profit of enterprise-water users. A number of analytical accounts of first and second order as well as the typical correspondence of accounts for accounting reflection of water rent have been suggested. The information from the Report on the formation of water rent that contains data on the sources of payback of expenses incurred for the maintenance of water bodies and the impact of ecological condition of water body on the size of water rent has been suggested to be used in order to manage the size of water rent and expenses incurred to obtain it. Thus, determining the amount of water rent will allow management personnel to adjust the activity of the company in accordance with the strategic objectives of the company’s development regarding the profitability and compliance with the concept of sustainable development.

  8. Election cycles in natural resource rents : Empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    We examine whether governments' natural resource rents are affected by upcoming elections and if so, whether the incumbent uses these additional rents for re-election purposes. Estimates of a dynamic panel model for about 60 countries for 1975-2011 suggest that elections increase natural resource

  9. Election cycles in natural resource rents: Empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, Jeroen; Haan, de Jakob

    2016-01-01

    We examine whether governments' natural resource rents are affected by upcoming elections and if so, whether the incumbent uses these additional rents for re-election purposes. Estimates of a dynamic panel model for about 60 countries for 1975-2011 suggest that elections increase natural resource

  10. Game theoretic aspects of crowd renting | Nwobi-Okoye | Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Politicians and businessmen use various strategies to outwit their opponents. One such strategy is crowd renting, a powerful virtual strategy. A mathematical model developed by Nwobi-Okoye using game theory is used to show that crowd renting would always be the equilibrium strategy in strategic interactions involving ...

  11. Office Rents Not Cost Effective, Assumptions and Calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempelmans Plat, H.; Witting, S.

    2002-01-01

    Office rents are not sufficient to compensate for the costs of the continuation of the exploitation process in the long run. Together with the book profit at the moment of sale, the rent may be sufficient merely to give a reasonable return on the historical investment. Viewing the exploitation

  12. The consumers' rent vs. buy decision in the rentailer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knox, G.A.H.; Eliashberg, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the perspective and business model of the rentailer — a retail outlet that rents and sells new and used home video titles. This requires predicting the consumer's decision to rent or buy a particular title, segmenting its customer base, and pricing new and used titles. We

  13. Effects of daylight-saving time changes on stock market volatility: a comment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstra, Mark J; Kramer, Lisa A; Levi, Maurice D

    2010-12-01

    In a recent article in this journal, Berument, Dogan, and Onar (2010) challenged the existence of the previously documented daylight-saving effect. Kamstra, Kramer, and Levi's original finding (2000) was that average stock market returns on Mondays following time changes are economically and statistically significantly lower than typical Monday returns. Kamstra, et al. hypothesized that the effect may arise due to heightened anxiety or risk aversion on the part of market participants after they experience a 1-hr. disruption in their sleep habits, in accordance with prior findings in the psychology literature linking sleep desynchronosis with anxiety. Berument, et al. replicated the original findings using ordinary least squares estimation, but when they modeled the mean of returns using a method prone to producing biased estimates, they obtained puzzling results. The analysis here, based on standard, unbiased modeling techniques, shows that the daylight-saving effect remains intact in the U.S.

  14. Response to DOE's call for comments on its discussion paper on wholesale and retail market design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pound, T.

    2005-01-01

    The options available to the Government of Alberta concerning retail electricity policy were reviewed by the Office of the Utilities Consumer Advocate. The Council claims that the deregulation of Alberta's electricity market has been a success because competition has added new generation and removed inefficient generation from service. However, the Council is concerned that the transition to competitive retail electricity market can impose additional costs and risks on small consumers. Therefore, it proposes that electricity be bought on a central basis for small consumers using a suitable mix of 3 to 5 year hedges; that competitive and regulated retailers be given full access to a centrally purchased hedge supply; that regulated retailers be offered a small customer service margin price incentive per kWh over the hedged energy rate; and that the regulated rate option be reviewed in 4 years. 1 fig

  15. Imputation of Housing Rents for Owners Using Models With Heckman Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat Hulliger

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The direct income of owners and tenants of dwellings is not comparable since the owners have a hidden income from the investment in their dwelling. This hidden income is considered a part of the disposable income of owners. It may be predicted with the help of a linear model of the rent. Since such a model must be developed and estimated for tenants with observed market rents a selection bias may occur. The selection bias can be minimised through a Heckman correction. The paper applies the Heckman correction to data from the Swiss Statistics on Income and Living Conditions. The Heckman method is adapted to the survey context, the modeling process including the choice of covariates is explained and the effect of the prediction using the model is discussed.

  16. Rents in property rights creation and implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žarković Jelena

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The institution of property rights is increasingly being recognized as an essential building block of an economically prosperous society. The question that remains unanswered however, is how do we develop effective property rights institutions? The literature dealing with the development of property rights tends to be, in general, overly optimistic since there is a tendency to view the design of property rights institutions as optimizing decisions to economize on transaction costs and to facilitate new economic activities. On the other hand, since property rights define the distribution of wealth and political power in a society changes in property rights structures are likely to be influenced by more than pure efficiency considerations. Therefore, in order to achieve a balanced analysis of the evolution of property rights institutions our article introduces the state in the whole process. Following the propositions of the interest group theory of government we show an important relationship between rent seeking and state involvement in property rights creation. The state with a coercive power to establish and enforce property rights can also use that power, through the process of economic regulation, to redistribute property rights to politically influential interest groups. Herein lies the state failure in property rights creation.

  17. Marketing trends impede conceptual integration in psychology courses: Comment on Gurung et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Charles S

    2017-01-01

    A recent American Psychologist article on teaching (Gurung et al., 2016) stressed the importance of fostering integration across topic areas. A current trend in publishing and marketing of textbooks is creating pressure that makes this goal harder to implement. The trend is offering custom tailoring of online texts by adopters, letting instructors assign some sections and make other sections unavailable to students. To permit this option, textbook publishers now insist that authors not cross-reference anywhere, so that no instructor will face the possibility of a student looking for material that has not been assigned and thus does not exist. Ironically, this pressure from publishers actively impedes conceptual integration in our textbooks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. ABOUT DISTRIBUTION OF NATURAL RENTS IN MODERN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.B. Morozov

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Authors analyses available position of more full distribution of natural rents from obtaining business to State for decision many socio-economic problem in scientific and journalistic literature. With position of civil law they reveal fact that present-day appropriation of State minerals which become property of extracting enterprises show the legal nonsense. This fact is contradict current legislation. Instead of function point of view about forms of rent withdrawal from income obtaining enterprises authoress thinking that the most lawful and fair way of receipt natural rent by State like owner of minerals is contractor’s agreement on extraction minerals.

  19. Business Plan for the rent of the house

    OpenAIRE

    Řezáčová, Radka

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to create a business plan focused on the rent of the house which might be built in Ostrava-Vitkovice. It analyses 2 renting possibilities-flats for senior residents or rooms for tourists. The aim of the work is to find out if it makes sense to built that house. The work compares both renting options and evaluate the most viable and effective one. In the introduction there are described methodics which are used and discussed subsequently in the practical part. In the ...

  20. 24 CFR 884.109 - Rent adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY PROGRAM AND SECTION 811 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES... will be determined by HUD at least annually; interim revisions may be made as market conditions warrant...

  1. Adjustment in property space markets: taking long-term leases and transaction costs seriously

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Englund, P.; Gunnelin, Å.; Hendershott, P.H.; Söderberg, B.

    2008-01-01

    Markets for property space adjust only gradually because tenants and landlords are constrained by long-term leases and transaction and information costs. Not only do rents adjust slowly, but space occupancy, which depends on historical rents, often differs from demand at current rent. This creates

  2. Can rent adjustment clauses reduce the income risk of farms?

    OpenAIRE

    Hotopp, Henning; Mußhoff, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Risk management is gaining importance in agriculture. In addition to traditional instruments, new risk management instruments are increasingly being proposed. These proposals include the rent adjustment clauses (RACs), which seem to be an unusual instrument at first sight. In contrast with conventional instruments, RACs intentionally allow fixed-cost ‘rent payments’ to fluctuate. We investigate the whole-farm risk reduction potential of different types of RACs via a historical simulation....

  3. Social norms on rent seeking and preferences for redistribution

    OpenAIRE

    Sabatini, Fabio; Sarracino, Francesco; Yamamura, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    Empirical studies have shown that preferences for redistribution are sig- nificantly correlated with expectations of future mobility and the belief that society offers equal opportunities. We add to previous research by inves- tigating the role of individual and social norms on rent seeking. We find that the individual propensity for stigmatizing rent seeking significantly and positively affects preferences for redistribution. On the other hand, living in an area where most citizens do not st...

  4. Industry wage differentials, rent sharing and gender: three empirical essays

    OpenAIRE

    Tojerow, Ilan

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the industry wage differentials, rent-sharing and the gender wage gap. I empirically investigate: i) the interaction between inter-industry wage differentials and the gender wage gap in six European countries, ii) how rent sharing interacts with the gender wage gap in the Belgian private sector and iii) the existence of inter-industry wage differentials in Belgium, through the unobserved ability hypothesis.The first chapter is devoted to the analysis of the interaction ...

  5. 75 FR 60854 - 2010 Special 301 Out of Cycle Review of Notorious Markets: Request for Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... result of that discussion, USTR has concluded that it can further publicize and potentially expand on the... infringing materials; any positive progress made. Any comments that include quantitative loss claims should... English. All comments should be sent electronically via http://www.regulations.gov , docket number USTR...

  6. Leaving home and entering the housing market.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clark, W.A.V.; Mulder, C.H.

    2000-01-01

    We use a multinomial choice model of owning a home, owning a trailer, or renting to examine the housing-market entry of young adults in the USA after they have left the parental home. We also model the choice between renting independently and sharing with roommates. We show that the likelihood of

  7. ARE THE EUROPEAN UNION CAP’S SUBSIDIES A POLITICAL RENT? AN ATTEMPT AT METHODOLOGY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czyżewski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the “induced innovation model of agricultural development” there exist mechanisms for this sector’s participation in contributing to economic development, as well as in sharing its benefits. Nonetheless, inefficiencies of the market that distort market signals, constitute a barrier of the latter process. Therefore, the so-called “surplus drainage” from agriculture takes place. The authors claim that it is possible to objectively measure a “surplus drainage” from agriculture as a result of market failure. Assuming that rural areas generate public goods (i.e. a landscape, a biodiversity, rural culture and tradition, unique food quality, food safety, food security speculative land investors have lower willingness to contribute to its creation, than family farms. This is why agrarian policy levies more duties on them (institutional barriers and favours farmers. The mentioned premises imply that the CAP’s subsidies should not be perceived as political rents according to its classical definition. Only a part of subsidies left after subtracting a value of “surplus drainage” and a compensation of public goods has a hallmark of the rent. A valuation of these values is an important scientific challenge.

  8. Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  9. 78 FR 57924 - 2013 Special 301 Out-Of-Cycle Review of Notorious Markets: Request For Public Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... identifying potential Internet and physical notorious markets that exist outside the United States and that may be included in the 2013 Notorious Markets List. In 2010, USTR began publishing the notorious... notorious markets (``Notorious Markets List'') results in the publication of examples of Internet and...

  10. Standards of Housing for Rent Built by Municipal Social Building Society in Bialystok (Poland) during 1996 - 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokajuk, Andrzej

    2017-10-01

    The period of economic transformation in Poland started from 1989 and resulted in significant changes on the housing market. Flats became goods and process of privatizing of the housing market took place in last decade of the 20th century. It became clear, that it was necessary to create the system of housing for the people who cannot afford to buy the flat on free market. Such solutions were implemented in 1996 and since then affordable housing associations started coming into existence - organizations building flats for rent, supported by city and government budget. Large complex of such housing for rent was built in Bialystok, the major city of northeastern Poland, and it is regarded as one of the biggest in the country. The purpose of the study is characteristics of the contemporary social housing for rent in Bialystok, as good example of that kind of housing realized in Poland. The author uses a kind of parametrical method and analysis some aspects of housing environment: the urban concepts of housing developments, architectural ideas, standards of flats, and also solutions of parking places, road systems and access to basic services, including recreational areas. He gets factors of housing standards as a final result.

  11. LIFE STYLE OF RENTED LAND OWNERS IN UBUD SUBDISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Gde Putra Pemayun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This present study was intended to analyze the Life Style of the Rented Land Owners at Ubud Subdistrict. The problems of the study are formulated as follows: (1 what is the characteristic of the rented land owners at Ubud Subdistrict like? (2 How has the process of life style of the rented land owners at Ubud Subdistrict  taken place? And (3 what is the implication of the life style of the rented land owners on their lives? Qualitative method was employed in the study. The data were processed using observation, interview and documentary techniques. The workability of the law regulating the demand for land at Ubud Subdistrict motivated the land owners to rent out their land to investors. Apart from that, the internal dimension, which is made up of the economical capital, was the most important element as it could activate small, medium and big enterprises. Another aspect was image which was reflected through perception, cognition, motivation, and attitude of individuals as consumers. As an illustration, they built luxurious houses and showed off luxurious cars to show the image that they were new wealthy people. On the other hand, there was external dimension, namely, the highly rapid development of tourism, which could positively and negatively contribute to the life style of the people living at Ubud Subdistrict. Such an implication could not be avoided. The other aspect was consumerism; the consumers were around the symbol and sign. Mass media were the miracles of the object liturgy; pleasure was defined as the realization of freedom, and the human body was the main object of consumers. The last aspect was the government’s policy which determined that Ubud Subdistrict was a tourist destination. As a result, the local people had the opportunity to rent out their land which was used to expand the industry of tourism and to activate the other economic enterprises.

  12. 76 FR 58854 - 2011 Special 301 Out-of-Cycle Review of Notorious Markets: Request for Public Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... February 2011. The 2010 Notorious Markets List identified 34 markets, including both physical and virtual... home page. Stanford K. McCoy, Assistant U.S. Trade Representative for Intellectual Property and...

  13. Congestion rents and FTR evaluations in mixed-pool-bilateral systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Minghai; Gross, George

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation of key metrics for congestion management, including the congestion rents and the financial transmission rights (FTR) payoffs, requires the efficient allocation of transmission services and the calculation of appropriate locational marginal prices (LMPs). This requirement is particularly acute when there are bilateral transactions coexisting with the centralized pool markets. We propose a new formulation for this purpose, which captures explicitly the contribution of the bilateral transactions to the social welfare. The proposed formulation effectively integrates the pool market and the bilateral transactions on a consistent basis and results in the more efficient allocation of the transmission resources than the conventional tool. We assess analytically the capabilities of the proposed formulation and solution and quantify the improvements in the evaluations over those done using the conventional approach. Such improvements are also illustrated using simulation results on a wide range of test systems including the IEEE 118-bus network. (author)

  14. 77 FR 2031 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Market Research To Broaden and Deepen U.S...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... (Census), and Export-Import Bank (Ex-Im) have formed a project team to conduct market segmentation research and analysis. The market segmentation is a systematic approach for identifying clusters of... Request; Market Research To Broaden and Deepen U.S. Exporter Base AGENCY: International Trade...

  15. 75 FR 65643 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Survey of Market Absorption of New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... at [email protected] or to Robert R. Callis, U.S. Census Bureau, Social, Economic and Housing... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5382-N-16] Notice of Proposed... subject proposal. DATES: Comments Due Date: December 27, 2010. ADDRESSES: Interested persons are invited...

  16. Balti kalleim lao- ning tootmispindade rent on Riias / Kristo Kiviorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiviorg, Kristo

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 21. sept. lk. 12. Tootmis- ja laopindade rent Baltimaades ja Soomes. Vt. samas: Tallinnas lao- ning tootmispinnad poolaastaga kallinenud kuni 37%; Helsingis on kõige rohkem tõusnud C-kvaliteediklassi pinnad; Tartu piirkonnas enamik saadaolevaid pindu keskmises või halvas seisukorras

  17. Bribing potential entrants in a rent-seeking contest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonbeek, L.

    We consider a two-stage model of a Tullock rent-seeking contest where one new potential entrant makes his appearance. In the first stage each other player can contribute to bribe this new player to commit not to enter the contest. In the second stage we have the actual contest either with or without

  18. Resource rent taxes and sustainable development: A Mongolian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thampapillai, Dodo J.; Hansen, Jan; Bolat, Aigerim

    2014-01-01

    Economies rich in mineral resources, need to evaluate the merits of investing rents earned from resource extraction in other income generating activities to sustain the flow of income. It is hence important to estimate and assess the potential uses of the resource rent tax (RRT). This paper illustrates how the reinvestment of the RRT and other government revenue from mining can reduce the depreciation of the mine. This illustration is made with reference to a coal deposit in the Tavan-Tolgoi region of Mongolia. The paper also illustrates impact of mining on the macroeconomic performance of Mongolia. Standard macroeconomic frameworks that ignore the depreciation of mineral assets overstate economic performance. The paper also reviews the political issues and constraints that surround the implementation of the RRT. One option canvassed here is the granting of qualified custodial rights of the RRT to the mining firm. Such qualified rights are pertinent given that the RRT is legally the income owed to the State and investments in ventures such as human capital development can yield returns as high as 10% per annum. This study illustrates that even an investment option yielding an annual 3% return can make a significant difference. - Highlights: • We estimate resource rents owed to the state from energy resource extraction. • We show that mining revenues are over-stated when the depreciation of mineral assets are ignored. • We show that the investment of resource rents offers avenues for sustaining the flow of income. • We argue that the state can grant custody of the rents to mining firms for the management of investments

  19. 24 CFR 982.520 - Regular tenancy: Special adjustment of rent to owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Rent and Housing Assistance Payment § 982.520 Regular tenancy: Special adjustment of rent to owner. (a...

  20. Le marketing d'un pays : Label Suède

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Erik; Gustavsson, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Résumé L’objet de ce mémoire est d’analyser la composition du label « Suède » et si c'est possible d'utiliser les méthodes de marketing traditionnel quand un pays est commercialisé. Nous centrons l‘attention sur l’office suédois du tourisme et des voyages qui est responsable pour le marketing de la Suède comme destination touristique. Comment travaillent-ils pour commercialiser la Suède en général et particulièrement vers la France? Nous avons commencé par étudier des différentes théories du ...

  1. 24 CFR 982.519 - Regular tenancy: Annual adjustment of rent to owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Rent and Housing Assistance Payment § 982.519 Regular tenancy: Annual adjustment of rent to owner. (a... rent to owner will only be increased for housing assistance payments covering months commencing on the...

  2. Why Chinese Consumers Prefer Housing Ownership to Renting Before Marriage: An investigation of Chinese young consumers' rent-versus-buy housing decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Mingjie

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the influential factors of Chinese young consumers’ rent-versus-buy housing decisions before marriage, and thus to explain why most Chinese consumers prefer housing ownership to renting or even regard an own-occupied housing as a prerequisite of marriage. The research was based on rich literatures concerning rent-versus-buy housing decisions and consumer decision making theory. A qualitative approach was adopted to conduct the research to gain in-depth insight o...

  3. MODEL OF SPATIAL EVALUATION FOR TOURISM ECO-RENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Fredotović

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is extremely interacted with the environment. Taking into account that tourism uses the space and related resources, it seems right to pay for the damages caused to the environment. This is the basis of the tourist spatial eco rent. The paper evaluates the space and resources used by tourism as the basis for the introduction of the tourism eco-rent in the area of Makarska Riviera, a traditional tourism destination. It is divided into three main spatial units: urban areas, bathing zone (beaches, Biokovo Park of Nature. According to natural and geographical reasoning, a number of zones with different spatial values within each spatial unit has been identified. Each unit, i.e. zone was evaluated according to various criteria relevant to the evaluation of space for tourism and tourism development purposes. Having ranked zones within each unit, using the multiriteria ranking method PROMETHEE II, comparative analysis of the obtained results was carried out as well.

  4. BLUE GOLD: HYDRO-ELECTRIC RENT IN CANADA

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Jenkins; RICHARD ZUKER

    1984-01-01

    In this study, an attempt is made to develop estimates of the value of economic rent from production of hydro-electricity. These estimates are made for the year 1979, which is the latest period for which a comprehensive set of data was available at the time this work was undertaken. The estimates are developed for the hydro-electricity generated (or used) by electric utilities in four provinces: Quebec (including Churchill Falls), Ontario, Manitoba and British Columbia. These electric systems...

  5. Optimal Licensing Contracts with Adverse Selection and Informational Rents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela MARINESCU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we analyse a model for determining the optimal licensing contract in both situations of symmetric and asymmetric information between the license’s owner and the potential buyer. Next we present another way of solving the corresponding adverse selection model, using the informational rents as variables. This approach is different from that of Macho-Stadler and Perez-Castrillo.

  6. Rent sharing as a driver of the glass ceiling effect

    OpenAIRE

    Matano, Alessia; Naticchioni, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we show that rent sharing plays a role in accounting for the glass ceiling effect. We make use of a unique employer-employee panel database for Italy from 1996 to 2003, which allows controlling for observed individual and firm heterogeneity and for collective bargaining. Moreover, by means of IV quantile fixed effects estimates we can cope with unobserved heterogeneity and endogeneity. We then go on to discuss the possible related explanations.

  7. [Expert consensus post-marketing evaluation scheme to detect immunotoxicity of Chinese medicine in clinical populations (draft version for comments)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan-Ming; Zhao, Yu-Bin; Jiang, Jun-Jie; Chang, Yan-Peng; Zhang, Wen; Shen, Hao; Lu, Peng-Fei

    2013-09-01

    Through consensus, establish a post-marketing scheme and the technical processes to evaluate Chinese medicine's immunotoxicity on a population, as well as its beneficial influences on the immune system. Provide regulations on the collection, storage and transportation of serum samples. This article applies to the post-marketing scientific evaluation of the immunotoxicity of parenterally administered, and for other ways of taking Chinese medicine.

  8. Increasing natural resource rents from Farmland: A curse or a blessing for the rural poor?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Anna

    2015-01-01

    as a diffuse resource with low economic value, this categorization may no longer be appropriate, because demand for land is currently on the rise, and may continue to increase in the future. This study presents and discusses recent theoretical and empirical approaches to analyzing the effects of high......-value agricultural land on rent seeking and rent distribution. Results suggest that the potential for small scale farmers to organize and obtain political power determines the extent of rent seeking and rent distribution, and that while more democratic institutions may increase the share of rents going...

  9. Like, comment, share and all that jazz : social media as communication and marketing tool case: Social media marketing approaches used by MaiJazz music festival

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaskovic, Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Master's thesis in International hotel and tourism management Social networks have become an integral part of everyday life for many. With an increasing number of companies using social media to communicate and build relationships with their customers, social media might be considered as the newest element of the marketing mix. The thesis’ objective is to explore the use of social media communication tools used by the jazz music festival, MaiJazz, in Stavanger, to define key...

  10. Jeremy Rifkin, La troisième révolution industrielle. Comment le pouvoir latéral va transformer l’énergie, l’économie et le monde, Paris, Les Liens qui Libèrent, 2012, 414p.

    OpenAIRE

    Noé, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Certes, Jeremy Rifkin n’est pas aidé. « Prophète » pour les uns, « gourou » selon d’autres : difficile de croire que les qualificatifs qui lui sont ainsi destinés, parfois avec les meilleures intentions, ne soient pas, en d’autres milieux, empreints de connotations dépréciatives, fleurant bon la promotion de soi, le marketing médiatique et, pourquoi ne pas le dire, un certain charlatanisme. Il est vrai, Rifkin ne s’aide pas lui-même. Vraiment, a-t-on besoin d’anecdotes du genre : « La chancel...

  11. Wages in Labour Market Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kryńska Elżbieta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Already classical economists took interest in the role of wages and wage formation mechanisms, as well as in their influence on other components of the labour market. This article aims to systematise contemporary approaches to wages as one of the labour market components that have been developed within major economic theories. The systemization will serve as a basis for identifying main interactions between wages and other labour market components, such as labour supply and demand and labour market disequilibrium. The article presents major concepts formulated within neo-classical and Keynesian theories, labour market segmentation theories, efficiency wage theory, rent-sharing and rent-extraction theories, theory of job search, and search-and-matching models. One of the conclusions arising from the discussion is that the evolution of contemporary labour markets is a challenge for researchers seeking wage formation models adequately describing the real-life circumstances.

  12. 77 FR 48583 - 2012 Special 301 Out-of-Cycle Review of Notorious Markets: Request for Public Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... from the public. SUMMARY: In 2010, the Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR) began... examples of Internet and physical markets that have been the subject of enforcement action or that may... counterfeiting. USTR is hereby requesting written submissions from the public identifying potential Internet and...

  13. Agricultural rent-seeking in developing countries: an empirical investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Anna

    2014-01-01

    or rural development? This article finds empirical support for a proposed theory which suggests that the extent of agricultural rent-seeking, in the form of large-scale land acquisitions, is determined by the relative political power of an elite and a farmer group. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.......Recent increases in demand for agricultural land has fuelled academic, as well as public, interest in the potential effects of high value agricultural land, particularly in developing countries. The dominating question seems to be: will increasing demand for agricultural land imply land grabbing...

  14. Différent Transfusional Regulatory Systems in the World

    OpenAIRE

    SLBHENGE, Zivanai

    2013-01-01

    L'objectif de ce projet est de comparer et contraster les différents systèmes réglementaires de transfusion sanguine dans le monde. Avec une demande toujours croissante sur des approvisionnements en sang dans le monde entier, il y - a un immense besoin d'assurer des produits sûrs et suffisants d'apport de sang. Cependant le cadre juridique pour un système de sang exprime la politique nationale de sang et décrit des mécanismes régissant la collection, le traitement et la transfusio...

  15. PV potential and potential PV rent in European regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Chr.; Thorn, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The paper provides a GIS based model for assessing the potentials of photovoltaic electricity in Europe by NUTS 2 regions. The location specific energy potential per PV-­‐panel area is estimated based on observations of solar irradiation, conversion efficiency, levelised costs and the social value...... of PV-­‐electricity. Combined with the potential density of PV-­‐panel area based on land cover and environental restrictions, the PV energy potential and the potential PV ressource rent is calculated. These calculations enbable the model to estimate the regional patterns at NUTS 2 level...

  16. Rent-seeking and timber rights allocation in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kirsten; Hansen, Christian Pilegaard

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes types, processes and importance of rent-seeking in the allocation of timber rights in Ghana. It is based on an analysis of 30 interviews with large-, medium- and small-scale timber firms, as well as government officials and timber industry organizations in Ghana. The paper...... documents that timber rights allocation is associated with both bureaucratic and political corruption. The latter comes in two forms. First, the findings suggest that well-established relationships exist between politicians and senior bureaucrats on the one side and large-scale timber firms on the other...

  17. Energy efficiency in U.S. residential rental housing: Adoption rates and impact on rent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jongho; Seo, Youngme; Cetin, Kristen S.; Singh, Jasmeet

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Rental units listings collected and analyzed for 10 U.S. cities. •Energy efficient features included in 5.3–21.6% of rental units in each city. •The most common efficient features are lighting and appliance upgrades. •Propensity score matching and conditional mean comparison methods used. •Generally, energy efficient features increases the units’ rent, overall from 6% to 14%. -- Abstract: For 118 million residential housing units in the U.S., there is currently a gap between the potential energy savings that can be achieved through the use of existing energy efficiency technologies, and the actual level of energy savings realized, particularly for the 37% of housing units that are considered residential rental properties. Additional quantifiable benefits are needed beyond energy savings to help further motivate residential property owners to invest in energy efficiency upgrades. This research focuses on assessing the adoption of energy efficient upgrades in U.S. residential housing and the impact on rental prices. Ten U.S. cities are chosen for analysis; these cities vary in size across multiple climate zones, and represent a diverse set of housing market conditions. Data was collected for over 159,000 rental property listings, their characteristics, and their energy efficiency measures listed in rental housing postings across each city. Following an extensive data quality control process, over thirty different types energy efficient features were identified. The level of adoption was determined for each city, ranging from 5.3% to 21.6%. Efficient lighting and appliances were among the most common, with many features doubling as energy efficient and other desirable aesthetic or comfort improvements. Then using propensity score matching and conditional mean comparison methods, the relative impact on rent charged in each city was calculated, which ranged from a 6% to 14.1% increase in rent for properties with energy efficient features

  18. Resource Rents, Democracy and Corruption: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Rabah Arezki; Thorvaldur Gylfason

    2011-01-01

    We examine the effect of the interaction between resource rents and democracy on corruption for a panel of 29 Sub-Saharan countries during the period from 1985 to 2007. We find that higher resource rents lead to more corruption and that the effect is significantly stronger in less democratic countries. Surprisingly, we also find that higher resource rents lead to fewer internal conflicts and that less democratic countries face not a higher but a lower likelihood of conflicts following an incr...

  19. The political economy of a tradable GHG permit market in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markussen, P.; Tinggaard Svendsen, G.; Vesterdal, M.

    2002-01-01

    The EU has committed itself to meet an 8% greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction target level following the Kyoto agreement. Therefore, the EU Commission has just proposed a new directive establishing a framework for GHG emissions trading within the European Union. This proposal is to outcome a policy process started by the EU Commission and its Green Paper from March 2000. The main industrial stake holders all had the opportunity to comment on the Green Paper and from their directive proposal. Here, we find that the dominant interest groups indeed influenced the final design of an EU GHG market. This industrial rent-seeking most prominently lead to a grand fathered permit allocation rule like the one found in the US tradable permit systems. (au)

  20. The political economy of a tradable GHG permit market in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markussen, P; Tinggaard Svendsen, G; Vesterdal, M

    2002-07-01

    The EU has committed itself to meet an 8% greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction target level following the Kyoto agreement. Therefore, the EU Commission has just proposed a new directive establishing a framework for GHG emissions trading within the European Union. This proposal is to outcome a policy process started by the EU Commission and its Green Paper from March 2000. The main industrial stake holders all had the opportunity to comment on the Green Paper and from their directive proposal. Here, we find that the dominant interest groups indeed influenced the final design of an EU GHG market. This industrial rent-seeking most prominently lead to a grand fathered permit allocation rule like the one found in the US tradable permit systems. (au)

  1. 75 FR 10059 - Money Market Fund Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... contain adverse effects on the capital markets and other money market funds. In addition, throughout the... acquisition of second tier securities by money market funds might have a negative effect on those issuers of...; Treasury Strategies Comment Letter. Commenters asserted that eliminating money market funds' ability to...

  2. Dynamic international oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van der Linde, C.

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic International Oil Market Developments and Structure 1860-1990 discusses the logic of changing market structures of the international oil industry. The market structures have, in the course of time, oscillated between competition and oligopoly, as the oil market expanded, matured, stagnated, and expanded again. This book provides a dynamic interpretation of the intensifying struggle among producer, and consumer governments, and oil companies, over the distribution of economic rents and profits. In particular, it shows the shifting fortunes of the governments and companies as they try to control the recurring capacity constraints between the upstream and downstream sectors, generated by the instability of the oil market. The first part of the book examines market conditions and developments between 1860 and 1990; the second part analyzes market structures after 1945

  3. Comments on the paper ''Market forces and planning by regulation: conflicts and complementarities'' by Rodney Stevensopn and Dennis Ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voll, S P [New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission, Concord, NH (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The conflict between reliance on competitive markets and insistence on least-cost integrated planning highlights a fundamental difference in ideology, approach to regulation and assessment of the nature of the regulated industries that has developed between federal agencies and the state commissions in the USA in the last decade. While the conflict exists in the gas and telephone industries, and indeed would manifest itself in any industry subject to regulation at both the federal and state level, it is most apparent in the regulated electricity industry. The federal agencies (for electricity regulation the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC)) view the state commissions as hopelessly old-fashioned in their attachment to traditional bureaucratic regulation; state regulators can argue that FERC has an unrealistic assessment of the nature of the electricity industry and an unfortunate indifference to the fate of captive ratepayers. (author)

  4. Africa's Elites Ways of Commodifying Politics to Valorise Economic Rent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo

    2011-01-01

    This paper starts with incredulity first. Whilst doing some research for this paper, I came across members of the top political elite from Zaire to Nigeria often taken as 'kleptocrat extraordinaire' to be also in the forefront in denoucing rennt-seeking and corruption with an equal extraordinaire...... on this dlemma in order to address how rent-seeking cleansing can be attempted to align the elites as part of the solution rather than the problem of African economic and political development.......' flair and completeness at the same time.Some might ignore their stance as cynical and self-servingg and move on to other concerns. Others might condemn the fadulent behaviour, add what one can expect anyway from such immoral and unethical characters and pass on to other things.... This paper reflects...

  5. 26 CFR 1.856-4 - Rents from real property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... similar class (such as luxury apartment buildings) are customarily provided with the service. The... many geographic marketing areas. Where it is customary, in a particular geographic marketing area, to...

  6. Rent Sharing and Gender Discrimination in Collegiate Athletics

    OpenAIRE

    Lackner, Mario; Zulehner, Christine

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the effect of market power on the share of females in top management positions using data from a market in which some firms have market power due to an institutionalized cartel. We investigate collegiate athletics and interpret coaches as top-level managers or chief executive officers (CEOs). The causal link between market power and female employment is established by exploiting the existence of the Bowl Championship Series (BCS) as an exogenous shock. Our results sh...

  7. 24 CFR 982.521 - Rent to owner in subsidized project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Rent and Housing Assistance Payment § 982.521 Rent to owner in subsidized project. (a) Applicability to subsidized project. This section applies to a program tenancy in any of the following types of federally subsidized project...

  8. 24 CFR 982.622 - Manufactured home space rental: Rent to owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Special Housing Types Manufactured Home Space Rental § 982.622 Manufactured home space rental: Rent to owner. (a) What is included. (1) Rent to owner for rental of a manufactured home space includes payment...

  9. 24 CFR 982.617 - Shared housing: Rent and voucher housing assistance payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Special Housing Types Shared Housing § 982.617 Shared housing: Rent and voucher housing assistance payment... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shared housing: Rent and voucher housing assistance payment. 982.617 Section 982.617 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to...

  10. 24 CFR 982.613 - Group home: Rent and voucher housing assistance payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Special Housing Types Group Home § 982.613 Group home: Rent and voucher housing assistance payment. (a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Group home: Rent and voucher housing assistance payment. 982.613 Section 982.613 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to...

  11. 24 CFR 1000.126 - May a recipient charge flat or income-adjusted rents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a recipient charge flat or income-adjusted rents? 1000.126 Section 1000.126 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... § 1000.126 May a recipient charge flat or income-adjusted rents? Yes, providing the rental or homebuyer...

  12. Influence of Transaction costs and real options on firms' own-or-rent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on secondary data on 79 companies in Mekelle, Ethiopia, this paper investigates the influence of transaction cost and real option factors on firms' own or rent decision for building resources. Empirical results suggest that both transaction cost and option factors have significant influence on firms' own or rent decision.

  13. Comparing micro-evidence on rent sharing from two different econometric models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobbelaere, Sabien; Mairesse, Jacques

    The extent to which employers share rents with their employees is typically assessed by estimating the responsiveness of workers’ wages on firms’ ability to pay. This paper compares rent-sharing estimates using such a wage determination regression with estimates based on a productivity regression

  14. The Effects of Rent Restructuring on Social Housing in English Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the impact of central government's rent restructuring policy on social housing in rural areas in England. It examines the effect that restructuring will have on the rents set by social landlords in a set of case study areas then considers some of the likely impacts on affordability and on new investment in rural social…

  15. 76 FR 39117 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Transformation Initiative Rent Reform Demonstration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... Information Collection: Transformation Initiative Rent Reform Demonstration Small Grants AGENCY: Office of... information: Title of Proposal: Notice of Funding Availability for the Transformation Initiative Rent Reform...-96011. Members of the affected public: Institutions of higher education accredited by a national or...

  16. 78 FR 4158 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request Rent Reform Demonstration (Task Order 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... Total burden hours respondents respondent hours) Informed Consent Form (ICF)... 4,000 1 Up to 15 minutes..., including through the use of appropriate automated collection techniques or other forms of information.... Data will be gathered through a variety of methods including informational interviews, direct...

  17. Is There Rent Sharing in Italy? Evidence from Employer-Employee Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Matano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a unique employer-employee panel database, we investigate the extent of rent sharing in Italy from 1996 to 2003. We derive the following findings. First, after controlling for the national bargaining level, there is robust evidence of rent sharing at firm level. Second, by means of fixed effects estimates we show that the sorting of high-ability workers into high-profit firms appears to play a substantial role, since it captures a significant amount of cross sectional estimates of rent sharing. Third, in accordance to the related literature the endogeneity of profits causes a severe underestimation of rent sharing. Our final IV estimate of the elasticity of wages with respect to profits per employee amounts to 6%, with a "Lester" range of 24%. Moreover, we point out that the impact of rent sharing is not homogeneous across several dimensions (gender, occupation, sector and macroarea.

  18. Marketing marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Karel Jan van Alsem

    2013-01-01

    In deze installatierede betoogt Karel Jan Alsem dat marketing een grotere strategische rol in organisaties zou moeten krijgen. Want marketing is bij uitstek de verbinding tussen klantwensen en het DNA van een organisatie. Doordat merken gemiddeld voor mensen niet heel belangrijk zijn, is goede

  19. 76 FR 14840 - Extension of Comment Period: EPA's Plan for Retrospective Review Under Executive Order 13563

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    .... Integration and Innovation Submit a comment on ``Improving Regulations: Integration and Innovation'' at docket.... Economic Conditions/Market Submit a comment about ``Improving Regulations: Economic Conditions/Market'' at...

  20. 76 FR 3679 - Market Test of Marketing Mail Made Easy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. MT2011-3; Order No. 649] Market Test of Marketing Mail... recently-filed Postal Service proposal to conduct a 2-year market test involving the sale of Marketing Mail..., 2011. ADDRESSES: Submit comments electronically via the Commission's Filing Online system at http://www...

  1. Radon in Rented Accommodation and Variables Determining Its Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2017-01-01

    Indoor radon levels were measured in 221 homes in rented accommodation. In addition, buildings were registered for a series of variables describing building characteristics and used materials. The mean year value of the indoor radon level was 30.7 (1~250) Bq/m3. The indoor radon level exceeded 100...... Bq/m3 in 5.9% of the homes. Of the investigated variables, only homes in single-family terraced houses, were statistically significant. Approx. 75% of homes exceeding 100 Bq/m3 indoor radon level had levels between 100 and 200 Bq/m3 and 25% had indoor radon levels exceeding 200 Bq/m3. Significant...... differences in indoor radon levels were found in homes located in multi-occupant houses. Additionally, the risk of indoor radon levels exceeding 100 Bq/m3 in homes in multi-occupant houses was found to be very low, but the risk was the highest on the ground floor in a building constructed with slab on ground....

  2. Taxation of nuclear rents: Benefits, drawbacks, and alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morbee, J.; Himpens, P.; Proost, S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the taxation of nuclear energy using a stylized model of the electricity sector, with one dominant nuclear producer and a competitive fringe of non-nuclear plants. First, we find that the optimal nuclear tax is different depending on the time horizon: the optimal short-run tax has the same order of magnitude as the nuclear taxes imposed in Belgium and Germany, while in the long run the optimal tax may be negative, i.e. a subsidy. Second, government credibility is important: when a government cannot credibly commit, the mere possibility of a short-run tax could severely harm incentives for future investments in lifetime-extending refurbishment or new plants. Third, when there is natural scarcity in nuclear potential, other policies like inviting multiple competitive bidders for lifetime extension franchises or for investments in new plants, may be more efficient ways to increase government revenue. - Highlights: • Taxation of nuclear rents is studied using a dominant firm–competitive fringe model. • The optimal tax can be large in the short run, but possibly negative in the long run. • When a government cannot credibly commit, the tax harms investment incentives. • Other policies like auctioning of nuclear franchises can be more efficient than taxes. • The analytical results are numerically illustrated for the case of Belgium.

  3. Impact of rent-seeking on productivity in Chinese coal mine safety supervision: A simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hong; Feng, Qun; Zhu, Dandan; Han, Shuai; Long, Ruyin

    2016-01-01

    During the “golden decade” (2001–2011) of the coal industry in China, rent-seeking increased in coal mine safety supervision alongside significant improvements in coal mine safety status and increased economic benefits in the coal industry. To explore this internal relationship, we developed a Matlab simulation system and simulated the impact of rent-seeking from each level of the supervision department on coal mine productivity in different scenarios. The results showed the following. (1) Rent-seeking had no significant influence on the average level of material productivity but it had an adverse effect on the average level of mental productivity. Due to the effects of rent-seeking, productivity tended to exhibit unstable and destructive fluctuations, and rent-seeking had the dual effect of promoting and restraining productivity in a wide range with a high frequency. (2) In the supervision scenario, supervision by the high-level department was efficient, and productivity was promoted more by the national and provincial supervision department. (3) In the rent-seeking scenario, each level of the department had an intensity threshold above which coal mine accidents occurred. We also propose suggestions that focuses on the improved supervision of Chinese coal mine safety in three areas based on the “new normal” safety concept. - Highlights: •We discussed rent-seeking behavior in Chinese coal mine safety supervision. •We explored the characteristics of coal mine productivity. •We investigated the impact of rent-seeking on coal mine productivity in three scenarios. •We found rent-seeking led to great fluctuations in productivity with a dual effect. •We proposed a model strategy for Chinese coal mine safety supervision in three areas.

  4. Interpretative commenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasikaran, Samuel

    2008-08-01

    * Clinical laboratories should be able to offer interpretation of the results they produce. * At a minimum, contact details for interpretative advice should be available on laboratory reports.Interpretative comments may be verbal or written and printed. * Printed comments on reports should be offered judiciously, only where they would add value; no comment preferred to inappropriate or dangerous comment. * Interpretation should be based on locally agreed or nationally recognised clinical guidelines where available. * Standard tied comments ("canned" comments) can have some limited use.Individualised narrative comments may be particularly useful in the case of tests that are new, complex or unfamiliar to the requesting clinicians and where clinical details are available. * Interpretative commenting should only be provided by appropriately trained and credentialed personnel. * Audit of comments and continued professional development of personnel providing them are important for quality assurance.

  5. 78 FR 73192 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... the relationship continues. Staff's estimates assume that the affiliate marketing opt-out will be... collection requirements in its Affiliate Marketing Rule (or ``Rule''), which applies to certain motor vehicle... Marketing Disclosure Rule, PRA Comment: FTC File No. P0105411'' on your comment, and file your comment...

  6. Comment les différences entre consommateurs francophones et néerlandophones sont-elles perçues et prises en compte par les professionnels du marketing en Belgique, dans le domaine du B2C ?

    OpenAIRE

    Willems, Robin

    2015-01-01

    L'objectif du mémoire est de comprendre comment les différences entre les consommateurs francophones et néerlandophones de Belgique sont perçues et prises en compte par les professionnels du marketing dans le domaine du B2C. La méthodologie d'étude consiste premièrement en une revue de la littérature sur les thèmes du marketing multiculturel et des différences entre francophones et néerlandophones de Belgique. Sur base de cette revue de littérature et d'interviews, des hypothèses de recherche...

  7. Actual Condition of Paddy Field Levee Maintenance by Various Farm Households including Large-scale Farming in the Developed Land Renting Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Yasuyo

    The survey of interview, resource acquisition, photographic operation, and questionnaire were carried out in the “n” Community in the “y” District in Hakusan City in Ishikawa Prefecture to investigate the actual condition of paddy field levee maintenance in the area where land-renting market was proceeding, large-scale farming was dominant, and the problems of geographically scattered farm-land existed. In the study zone, 1) an agricultural production legal person rent-cultivated some of the paddy fields and maintained the levees, 2) another agricultural production legal person rent-cultivated some of the soy bean fields for crop changeover and land owners maintained the levees. The results indicated that sufficient maintenance was executed on the levees of the paddy fields cultivated by the agricultural production legal person, the soy bean fields for crop changeover, and the paddy fields cultivated by the land owners. Each reason is considered to be the managerial strategy, the economic incentive, the mutual monitoring and cross-regulatory mechanism, etc.

  8. Rent extraction by large shareholders: evidence using dividend policy in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanousek, Jan; Bena, Jan

    -, č. 556 (2006), s. 1-38 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/06/1293 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : rent extraction * large shareholders * dividend policy Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  9. The Commercial Office Market and the Markup for Full Service Leases

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan A. Wiley; Yu Liu; Dongshin Kim; Tom Springer

    2014-01-01

    Because landlords assume all of the operating expense risk, rents for gross leases exceed those for net leases. The markup, or spread, for gross leases varies between properties and across markets. Specifically, the markup is expected to increase with the cost of real estate services at the property, and to be influenced by market conditions. A matching procedure is applied to measure the services markup as the percentage difference between the actual rent on a gross lease relative to the act...

  10. Modeling strategic investment decisions in spatial markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenczik, Stefan; Malischek, Raimund

    2014-01-01

    Markets for natural resources and commodities are often oligopolistic. In these markets, production capacities are key for strategic interaction between the oligopolists. We analyze how different market structures influence oligopolistic capacity investments and thereby affect supply, prices and rents in spatial natural resource markets using mathematical programing models. The models comprise an investment period and a supply period in which players compete in quantities. We compare three models, one perfect competition and two Cournot models, in which the product is either traded through long-term contracts or on spot markets in the supply period. Tractability and practicality of the approach are demonstrated in an application to the international metallurgical coal market. Results may vary substantially between the different models. The metallurgical coal market has recently made progress in moving away from long-term contracts and more towards spot market-based trade. Based on our results, we conclude that this regime switch is likely to raise consumer rents but lower producer rents. The total welfare differs only negligibly.

  11. Modeling strategic investment decisions in spatial markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenczik, Stefan; Malischek, Raimund [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.; Trueby, Johannes [International Energy Agency, 75 - Paris (France)

    2014-04-15

    Markets for natural resources and commodities are often oligopolistic. In these markets, production capacities are key for strategic interaction between the oligopolists. We analyze how different market structures influence oligopolistic capacity investments and thereby affect supply, prices and rents in spatial natural resource markets using mathematical programing models. The models comprise an investment period and a supply period in which players compete in quantities. We compare three models, one perfect competition and two Cournot models, in which the product is either traded through long-term contracts or on spot markets in the supply period. Tractability and practicality of the approach are demonstrated in an application to the international metallurgical coal market. Results may vary substantially between the different models. The metallurgical coal market has recently made progress in moving away from long-term contracts and more towards spot market-based trade. Based on our results, we conclude that this regime switch is likely to raise consumer rents but lower producer rents. The total welfare differs only negligibly.

  12. Classroom Games: Rent-Seeking and the Inefficiency of Non-market Allocations

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob K. Goeree; Charles A. Holt

    1999-01-01

    Economics is often taught at a level of abstraction that can hinder some students from gaining basic intuition. However, lecture and textbook presentations can be complemented with classroom exercises in which students make decisions and interact. The approach can increase interest in and decrease skepticism about economic theory. This feature offers short descriptions of classroom exercises for a variety of economics courses, with something of an emphasis on the more popular undergraduate co...

  13. 76 FR 52057 - Proposed Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... that could have serious programmatic implications, particularly for Section 8 project-based and tax.... Grand Rapids-Wyoming, MI HMFA New Haven-Meriden, CT HMFA. Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE... surrounding the timing of the publication of income limits could worsen and owners of Low Income Housing Tax...

  14. Openness of Economy, Foreign Investment Inflows and the Phenomenon of Rent Seeking Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Toqueer Akhter

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rent seeking behavior has been amongst noticeable obstacles in path of economic growth and development for developing communities. Due to this the study aims at testing the hypothesis that the Rent seeking behavior among bureaucracy is being influenced by the openness of economy as well as inflows of foreign investment significantly. Model estimations imply that reforms may have an insignificant impact upon impact upon curtailing the rent seeking behavior among bureaucracy in a time series setting therefore this research will use two statistical econometric models to show the effect of corruption on the foreign direct inflow received in Pakistan. In order to pretest the impact of all the mentioned variables on rent seeking behavior generalized least square was used because its results were unbiased, consistent and the problem of Serial correlation was solved by using it. In order to quantify rent seeking behavior among bureaucracy different aspects of misuse of public offices appearing in form of petty and grand corruption were used using the variables informal sector, tax evasion, judicial outlay, G.D.P and F.D.I as percentage of G.D.P. All of the variables had proper signs aligned with the theory and all of the variables appeared to be significant except judicial outlay proving that the judiciary has been incompetent and ineffective. The robust regression showed all the same signs except in it every variable was appearing to be significant. Rent seeking corruption has been highly affecting Pakistan in adverse ways and this paper will show how many factors like judiciary is not playing effective role in limiting corruption and also how the economy is being affected by rent seeking behavior.

  15. Environmental challenges and opportunities of the evolving North American electricity market : Government comments on Environmental Challenges and Opportunities of the evolving North American electricity market: Secretariat report to Council under article 13 of the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation : Canada, Mexico, United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    Canada, Mexico, and the United States commented in turn on the issues related to the integration of the North American electricity market. Canada indicated that the report was based on on specific sets of data, analyses, and several assumptions. It provides a starting point for further discussions as information and analyses are further improved. Four categories of issues were identified: transboundary airshed management, innovative economic instruments, energy efficiency and renewable energy, and information planning and transboundary cumulative impact assessment. Some of those areas are already the subject of improved cooperation. Mexico mentioned that the major problem was one of pollution in geographically shared but jurisdictionally divided regions. This situation could lead to preferences in the selection of locations for power generation plants, as environmental rules differ. The suggestions made in the report do not always reflect the approaches being discussed in Mexico. Some specific comments about the various working papers were offered. The United States stated that the report provides a solid foundation for further discussions on the topic. The United States also indicated that further qualification, analysis, and/or discussion is required on some important issues. It felt that the future growth, continental-scale integration, and environmental impacts related to the electricity sector had been overestimated. More comprehensive comparisons between the three countries would benefit the entire process. More specific comments were included

  16. Vibrations et relaxations dans les molécules biologiques. Apports de la diffusion incohérente inélastique de neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotti, J.-M.

    2005-11-01

    Le présent document ne se veut pas un article de revue mais plutôt un élément d'initiation à une technique encore marginale en Biologie. Le lecteur est supposé être un non spécialiste de la diffusion de neutrons poursuivant une thématique à connotation biologique ou biophysique mettant en jeu des phénomènes dynamiques. En raison de la forte section de diffusion incohérente de l'atome d'hydrogène et de l'abondance de cet élément dans les protéines, la diffusion incohérente inélastique de neutrons est une technique irremplaçable pour sonder la dynamique interne des macromolécules biologiques. Après un rappel succinct des éléments théoriques de base, nous décrivons le fonctionnement de différents types de spectromètres inélastiques par temps de vol sur source continue ou pulsée et discutons leurs mérites respectifs. Les deux alternatives utilisées pour décrire la dynamique des protéines sont abordées: (i)l'une en termes de physique statistique, issue de la physique des verres, (ii) la seconde est une interprétation mécanistique. Nous montrons dans ce cas, comment mettre à profit les complémentarités de domaines en vecteur de diffusion et de résolution en énergie de différents spectromètres inélastiques de neutrons (temps de vol, backscattering et spin-écho) pour accéder, à l'aide d'un modèle physique simple, à la dynamique des protéines sur une échelle de temps allant d'une fraction de picoseconde à quelques nanosecondes.

  17. Rent-seeking mechanism for safety supervision in the Chinese coal industry based on a tripartite game model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hong; Feng, Qun; Cao, Jing

    2014-01-01

    There are extensive governmental rent-seeking activities in safety supervision of the Chinese coal industry. The rents come from industry safety barriers, low resource taxes, and privilege policies for coalmining enterprises. The rent-seeking mechanism was analyzed using a model comprising dynamic games with incomplete information. The equilibrium results indicate that the probability of national supervision is influenced by penalties and bribery: there is negative correlation with penalties and positive correlation with bribery. The rent-seeking probability of a governmental safety supervision department is influenced by several factors, and positively correlates with the cost of national supervision. The probability of bribery of coalmining enterprises is influenced by several factors, and positively correlates with wages of governmental departments and a reasonable rent-seeking range. Reversed rent-seeking reduces the probability of bribery, but it's not worth recommending. Some recommendations are proposed. - Highlights: • We analyze rent-seeking mechanism for safety supervision in the coal industry. • A dynamic game with incomplete information for Chinese coal industry is built. • Reversed rent-seeking is proposed as a new rent-seeking form. • We analyze the selection probability of the three participants. • We give some policies about how to enhance safety supervision

  18. 76 FR 47183 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... parties may file a comment online or on paper, by following the instructions in the Request for Comment... No. P084401'' on your comment, and file your comment online at https://ftcpublic.commentworks.com/ftc... Funeral Rule should be addressed to Craig Tregillus, Attorney, Division of Marketing Practices, Bureau of...

  19. 78 FR 70046 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... parties may file a comment online or on paper, by following the instructions in the Request for Comment... Gans, Attorney, Division of Marketing Practices, Bureau of Consumer Protection, Federal Trade...) = $480,189 Request for Comment You can file a comment online or on paper. For the Commission to consider...

  20. 78 FR 38041 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... parties may file a comment online or on paper, by following the instructions in the Request for Comment... your comment and file your comment online at https://ftcpublic.commentworks.com/ftc/tsrrulepra2 by...: Craig Tregillus, Attorney, Division of Marketing Practices, Bureau of Consumer Protection, Federal Trade...

  1. Rent taxation and its intertemporal effects in a small open economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köthenbürger, Marko; Poutvaara, Panu

    2009-01-01

    Previous literature concludes that replacing wage taxation by taxes on a fixed factor or its rents benefits future generations. However, the effects of such steady-state gains on the transition generations have been left open. In this paper, we show that taxation of rents may also increase utilit...... of the current generation provided tax revenues are earmarked to reduce wage taxes. In particular, a shift in the tax mix may yield an intergenerational Pareto-improvement when the initially prevailing tax mix is sufficiently skewed toward wage taxation....

  2. Rent-seeking and grandfathering: The case of GHG trade in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2002-01-01

    reduction. Our main question is whether the final choice of allocation rule can be explained by potential industrial net winners involved in the policy making process. We answer this question by using rent-seeking theory and by analysing the Green Paper hearing replies from the main industrial groups....... In other words, we want to explain and observe how rent-seeking (or lobbyism) affects the design of environmental regulation and energy policy in favour of well-organized industrial interest groups. We argue that some firms are likely to reap a net gain from being regulated by a grandfathered emission...

  3. El capitalismo rentístico Elementos cuantitativos de la economía venezolana

    OpenAIRE

    Baptista, Asrúbal

    2005-01-01

    Desde 1920, la economía venezolana descansa sobre una estructura cuyo principal determinante es la renta del petróleo. Cabe así hablar, para darle un nombre propio, de capitalismo rentístico. Con el apoyo primario de una definición operativa de la renta petrolera que permite la introducción de un nuevo concepto contable, el producto interno bruto no rentístico, aquí se buscar darle su caracterización cuantitativa en términos de ciertos indicadores especialmente relevantes, a saber: la relació...

  4. The Effect of a Sports Stadium on Housing Rents: An Application of Geographically Weighted Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Agudelo Torres

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have determined that real estate prices vary in continuous ways as a function of spatial characteristics.  In this study we examine whether geographically weighted regression (GWR provides different estimates of price effects around a sports stadium than more traditional regression techniques.  We find that an application of GWR with hedonic prices finds that the stadium has a negative external effect on housing rents that extends outward 560 meters, in contrast to the positive external effect on housing rents found using a conventional estimation technique.

  5. DISCUSSANT'S COMMENTS FOR AMERICAN AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS ASSOCIATION ANNUAL MEETING, SELECTED PAPERS SESSION SP-2BB: "FOOD DEMAND, FOOD POLICY, AND FOOD MARKET ISSUES"

    OpenAIRE

    Jonk, Yvonne

    1998-01-01

    These papers investigate issues in food demand, food processing, and food markets. Policy issues are examined, both in the context of the food stamp program in the domestic market and the industrial policy options in the food sector in emerging Central European economies. The Effect of an Electronic Benefit Transfer (EBT) System on Food Expenditure of Food Stamp Recipients: Evidence from the Maryland Statewide Implementation, J. William Levedahl. Incorporating Nutrients in Food Demand Analysi...

  6. A new scramble for land or an unprecedented opportunity for the rural poor? Distributional consequences of increasing land rents in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Anna; Henningsen, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    Price induced increases in land rents trigger an increasing incentive for rent- seeking behavior. To analyse distributional and welfare eects of increasing land rents in developing countries, we develop a game theoretic model where a large and heterogeneous group of farmers competes with a small...... and wealthy elite. The results indicate that only relatively small rent increases benet the farmers more than the elite. Moreover, political institutions have an ambiguous eect on farmers' rent share, and may even reduce overall welfare, because they induce wasteful expenditure on rent-seeking....

  7. Fighting for rents: agricultural windfall gains and social change in land-abundant developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Anna

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a global increase in demand for agricultural commodities and land has contributed to increasing agricultural prices. This trend can be expected to continue in the future, and may result in significantly higher land rents. This paper investigates the potential distributional effec...

  8. Boosting solar investment with limited subsidies: Rent management and policy learning in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altenburg, Tilman; Engelmeier, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    In order to avoid irreversible damage to global ecosystems, new ‘green’ technologies are needed, some of which are nowhere near commercial maturity. In these cases, governments may create temporary rents to make investments ‘artificially’ attractive, but the creation of such rents involves risks of faulty allocation and political capture. This article first highlights the importance of managing rents effectively in promoting ‘green’ technologies; it then shows how India's National Solar Mission has been remarkably effective in triggering solar investments and managing the necessary subsidies, e.g. through a process of competitive reverse bidding for tariffs. Policy design and implementation also reflect considerable experimentation and learning. Some risks remain, especially regarding the enforceability of renewable energy quotas at the level of Indian states. - Highlights: • India's National Solar Mission effectively triggered solar investments. • Reverse bidding substantially decreased policy costs. • Sequenced implementation allowed for policy learning. • India's solar policy is a good example of green rent management

  9. How to make the clean development mechanism sustainable-The potential of rent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    The clean development mechanism (CDM) should foster sustainable development and greenhouse gas emission reductions. The design of the CDM and first experience suggest that it may not achieve these goals. Developing countries hosting CDM projects may lose cheap emission reduction possibilities for their own future use, and sustainable development and technology transfer may not take place. On the other hand, the CDM has the potential to generate considerable rents if permit prices are high or costs low. To account for equity and distributional issues, a deliberate decision on how to distribute these rents could be taken and the potential failure of the CDM in meeting its goals calls for some further regulation. I suggest to combine these two issues and to extract the rents by a profit tax. Ideally, the tax revenues could contribute to national sustainable development strategies, to offset external costs imposed by CDM projects and to extract part of the resource rent they may generate. The international character of the CDM could offer a frame for internationally coordinated tax design. This would hedge against a potential race to the bottom

  10. 24 CFR 983.304 - Other subsidy: effect on rent to owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PROJECT-BASED VOUCHER (PBV) PROGRAM Rent to Owner § 983.304 Other subsidy: effect on...) Subsidized projects. (1) This paragraph (c) applies to any contract units in any of the following types of... non-insured Section 236 project that continues to receive Interest Reduction Payment following a...

  11. Did rent deregulation alter tenure choice decisions in the Czech Republic?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsharakyan, Ashot; Zemčík, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2016), s. 335-360 ISSN 0967-0750 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : Czech Republic * rent regulation and deregulation * real estate prices Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.479, year: 2016

  12. Did rent deregulation alter tenure choice decisions in the Czech Republic?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsharakyan, Ashot; Zemčík, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2016), s. 335-360 ISSN 0967-0750 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP404/12/1446 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : Czech Republic * rent regulation and deregulation * real estate prices Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.479, year: 2016

  13. The welfare costs of rent-seeking: a methodologically individualist and subjectivist revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Makovi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Gordon Tullock is acknowledged for being the first to recognize the true costs of rent-seeking as including not only the Harberger triangle but also the Tullock rectangle. This rectangle does not constitute merely a lossless transfer of wealth, but it causes a misallocation of resources as rent-seekers invest resources in lobbying. However, a close reading of Tullock’s writings shows that his arguments are formulated in a holistic fashion, speaking of what is efficient or inefficient for society. Rent-seeking is inefficient because it reduces societal welfare. But according to a methodologically individualist and subjectivist economics, such a claim is invalid. We must distinguish between positive economic fact and normative moral philosophy. We call for a reconstruction of utility and welfare economics based on methodological individualism and subjectivism with implications for the theories of monopoly and competition: practices which Neoclassical perfect-competition theory considers to be evidence of rent-seeking should instead be deemed as indications of genuine competition Political economy should be concerned with ascertaining which institutions will best enable individuals to pursue their individually subjective ends – or else economists should be explicit about their normative preferences and political philosophies.

  14. Comparing micro-evidence on rent sharing from three different approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobbelaere, S.; Mairesse, J.

    2015-01-01

    Empirical labor economists have resorted to estimating the responsiveness of workers' wages on firms' ability to pay to assess the extent to which employers share rents with their employees. This paper compares this labor economics approach with two other approaches that rely on standard micro

  15. The Effects of Tax Competition when Politicians Create Rents to Buy Political Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggert, Wolfgang; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    We set up a probabilistic voting model to explore the hypothesis that tax competition improves public sector efficiency and social welfare. In the absence of tax base mobility, distortions in the political process induce vote-maximising politicians to create rents to public sector employees...

  16. The effects of tax competition when politicians create rents to buy political support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggert, Wolfgang; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    2008-01-01

    We set up a probabilistic voting model to explore the hypothesis that tax competition improves public sector efficiency and social welfare. In the absence of tax base mobility, distortions in the political process induce vote-maximising politicians to create rents to public sector employees...

  17. 41 CFR 102-85.145 - When are customer agencies responsible for Rent charges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; or (2) All other space: Either GSA's space charges for 4 months plus the cost of tenant improvements or GSA's actual costs, whichever is less. ... PROPERTY 85-PRICING POLICY FOR OCCUPANCY IN GSA SPACE Rent Charges § 102-85.145 When are customer agencies...

  18. Rent extraction by large shareholders: evidence using dividend policy in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bena, Jan; Hanousek, Jan

    -, č. 291 (2006), s. 1-45 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/06/1293 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : rent extraction * large shareholders * corporate governance Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp291.pdf

  19. Effet de la composition de différents substrats culturaux sur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 janv. 2014 ... Effet de la substrats culturaux sur paramètres de croissance ... des graines, mais ce substrat a donné des performances acceptables sur la croissance longitudinale des ..... élevés en conteneurs sur différents types de.

  20. The role of policy in supporting the private rented sector : International comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oxley, M.; Brown, T.; Haffner, M.; Hoekstra, J.

    2011-01-01

    The size of the private rented housing sector (PRS) varies markedly between coun-tries. The paper explores the role of policy in supporting the PRS with emphasis on the evidence from France, Germany, the UK and the USA. The definition and meas-urement of the size of the sector in each country is

  1. Using the private rented sector as a form of social housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oxley, M.; Brown, T.; Haffner, M.; Hoekstra, J.; Lishman, R.

    2011-01-01

    The paper considers the role of the private rented sector in supplying housing that can be defined as social housing. It will do this by considering policy initiatives in Germany, France, the USA and England that use privately owned housing to meet social needs. The operation of these initiatives

  2. Etude des différents systèmes d'embouteillage du vin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. HAUBS

    1971-09-01

    Afin d'établir une classification des machines d'embouteillage, on peut, comme dans toutes les tentatives de ce genre, utiliser différents critères. De prime abord, le plus important nous semble être de distinguer entre les tireuses à niveau constant et les tireuses volumétriques

  3. Comment on Brent Beal's and Heather Olson Beal's "Rethinking the Market Metaphor: School Choice, the Common Good, and the National Football League"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    In their article "Rethinking the Market Metaphor: School Choice, the Common Good, and the National Football League," Brent D. Beal and Heather K. Olson Beal (this issue) promise to update some of the arguments made by Jeffrey R. Henig (1994) and add an interesting twist by proposing the National Football League (NFL) as a possible…

  4. 75 FR 9275 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... INFORMATION: Title: New Markets Tax Credit (NMTC) Allocation Tracking System. OMB Number: 1559-0024. Abstract... and recipients of tax credit authority allocations through New Markets Tax Credit (NMTC). The specific... comments should be received on or before April 30, 2010 to be assured of consideration. ADDRESSES: Direct...

  5. 76 FR 28726 - Grain Market News Reports; Request for Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... Service [Doc. No. AMS-LS-11-0035] Grain Market News Reports; Request for Extension of a Currently Approved... grain market news reports. DATES: Comments must be received by July 18, 2011. ADDRESSES: Comments should... Lynch, Chief, Livestock and Grain Market News Branch, Livestock and Seed Program, Agricultural Marketing...

  6. Score Mining Rents in Terms of Investment Attractiveness of Peat Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Gennady; Yablonev, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    In this article, as determinants in the system factors underlying the investment attractiveness of the peat industry is considered a rental factor, which predetermines the significant differences and peculiarities of the investment climate in the mining business and, in particular, in the sphere of peat mining. In contrast to modern studies treated the essence and role of rents in the economic mechanism, is proposed for a new approach to solving the problems of its formation. Our approach differs in that it, firstly, adequate rental relations, objectively in extractive industries, secondly, provides consensus in the interests of the owner of peat deposits and entrepreneurs, businesses in these deposits and, thus, thirdly, contributes to the creation of a favourable investment climate in the peat extraction industry. In practical terms, in accordance with the proposed approach, we have proposed specific allocation algorithm of mining rents from the profits of peat extraction enterprises.

  7. It's the rents, stupid! The political economy of the resource curse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolstad, Ivar; Wiig, Arne

    2009-01-01

    A number of studies suggest that natural resources can have a negative impact on the developing prospects of countries. Empirical results suggest that political economy models of patronage and rent-seeking are central to understanding why such a resource curse arises. In other words, the resource curse is created by certain resource rents leading to dysfunctional behaviour. This article introduces the term impartiality enhancing institutions to structure policy debates by distinguishing conditions under which negative effects of resources can be mitigated. Moreover, it is argued that viewing institutions as an equilibrium outcome has implications for the analysis of institutional change. Policy initiatives that do not promote the impartiality of institutions, nor attend to the underlying interests and incentives keeping a bad institutional equilibrium in place, will not help lift the resource curse.

  8. Impact of a simultaneous reduction in fishing subsidies and introduction of efficient management of rents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merayo, Eugenia; Waldo, Staffan; Nielsen, Max

    2018-01-01

    of the largest fishing nations within the EU. A static bio-economic model is used to analyze the effect of simultaneous elimination of subsidies and introduction of an economically efficient management system for the Northwest Spanish fleet. It is concluded that improvements in management would bring substantial......Subsidies to the fishing sector have long been criticized for fueling over-fishing, and a reduction in subsidies is currently on the agenda in the negotiations within the World Trade Organization (WTO). This article analyzes the role of subsidies and other management measures for Spain, one...... rents to the industry, up to €164 million, irrespective of subsidy level, but also a reduction in fishing effort of almost 60%. Under a management scheme that maximizes economic rents, elimination of subsidies in the fishery would increase social welfare, induced by a decrease in the equilibrium fishing...

  9. The NBA’s Maximum Player Salary and the Distribution of Player Rents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M. Hastings

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The NBA’s 1999 Collective Bargaining Agreement (CBA included provisions capping individual player pay in addition to team payrolls. This study examines the effect the NBA’s maximum player salary on player rents by comparing player pay from the 1997–1998 and 2003–2004 seasons while controlling for player productivity and other factors related to player pay. The results indicate a large increase in the pay received by teams’ second highest and, to a lesser extent, third highest paid players. We interpret this result as evidence that the adoption of the maximum player salary shifted rents from stars to complementary players. We also show that the 1999 CBA’s rookie contract provisions reduced salaries of early career players.

  10. It's the rents, stupid. The political economy of the resource curse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolstad, Ivar; Wiig, Arne [Chr. Michelsen Institute, P.O. Box 6033 Postterminalen, N-5892 Bergen (Norway)

    2009-12-15

    A number of studies suggest that natural resources can have a negative impact on the developing prospects of countries. Empirical results suggest that political economy models of patronage and rent-seeking are central to understanding why such a resource curse arises. In other words, the resource curse is created by certain resource rents leading to dysfunctional behaviour. This article introduces the term impartiality enhancing institutions to structure policy debates by distinguishing conditions under which negative effects of resources can be mitigated. Moreover, it is argued that viewing institutions as an equilibrium outcome has implications for the analysis of institutional change. Policy initiatives that do not promote the impartiality of institutions, nor attend to the underlying interests and incentives keeping a bad institutional equilibrium in place, will not help lift the resource curse. (author)

  11. DETERMINANT OF HOUSING RENTS IN URBAN ALBANIA: AN EMPIRICAL HEDONIC PRICE APPLICATION WITH NSA SURVEY DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kahveci

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As an immobile, durable and heterogonous good, each housing unit has a bundle of different characteristics. Hedonic price method, which depends on the consumer theory of the classical economics, implies that each characteristic of heterogeneous goods provides a different level of satisfaction or utility to the consumer, being widely accepted as a toolkit for estimating effects of these characteristics on prices and rents. HPM expresses housing prices as the function of structural characteristics, location characteristics, and neighborhood characteristics. Theory and empirical applications of the HPM, which have been used for more than 40 years in developed countries, due to the lack of suitable data related literature is limited in Albania. The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between housing rents and housing characteristics in urban Albania with micro database of Living Conditions and Income Survey 2012.

  12. OPERATIONAL CIRCULAR No. 4 (REV. 1) – USE OF VEHICLES BELONGING TO OR RENTED BY CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Operational Circular No. 4 (Rev. 1) entitled “Use of vehicles belonging to or rented by CERN”, approved by the Director-general following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 15 February 2012, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department: https://hr-docs.web.cern.ch/hr-docs/opcirc/opcirc.asp It cancels and replaces Operational Circular No. 4 entitled “Conditions for use by members of the CERN personnel of vehicles belonging to or rented by CERN” of April 2003. This new version enables, in particular, to include CERN contractors and their personnel, to harmonize the structure of the circular with other circulars and to simplify the procedures by permitting electronics forms. Department Head Office HR Department

  13. Rent pricing decision support mathematical model for finance leases under effective risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabbani Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, leasing has become an increasingly important and popular method for equipment acquisition. But, because of the rent pricing difficulties and some risks that affect the lessor and lessee's decision making, there are many people that still tend to buy equipment instead of lease it. In this paper we explore how risk can affect the leasing issue support mathematical model. For this purpose, we consider three types of risk; Credit risk, Transaction risk and Risk based pricing. In particular, our focus was on how to make decision about rent pricing in a leasing problem with different customers, various quality levels and different pricing methods. Finally, the mathematical model has been solved by Genetic Algorithm that is a search heuristic to optimize the problem. This algorithm was coded in MATLAB® R2012a to provide the best set of results.

  14. Permanentnost primitivne akumulacije, ali o privatni lastnini, komodifikaciji in povratku rente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Prodnik

    2011-06-01

    , is analysed. And these starting points provide a suitable foundation for understanding historical and current processes of the expropriation of the common and the transformation of commonly held fields into various forms of commodities which can be exchanged and sold on the market. It is the consequences of these processes for the common – both on the »practical« (i.e. expropriation and »theoretical« levels (an ever greater inability to reflect on the common – beyond the public and the private – that form the backdrop as well as the fundamental guiding principal of this text. In the last part, the discussed dilemmas are applied to the phenomenon of the rise of the rent, which has become crucial for understanding the functioning of postfordist capitalism and new forms of (fictitious commodities

  15. Rent extraction by large shareholders: evidence using dividend policy in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bena, J.; Hanousek, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 58, 3-4 (2008), s. 106-130 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/06/1293; GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : rent extraction * large shareholders * dividend policy Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.275, year: 2008 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1125_str_106_130--bena-hanousek.pdf

  16. Celestial marriage and earthly rents: interests and the prohibition of polygamy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G M; Tollison, R D

    1998-01-01

    Just prior to the Civil War, the US government set out on a relentless campaign to eliminate polygamy within the Mormon Church. This paper offers evidence that the political restrictions on the practice of polygamy were the result of rent seeking by potential beneficiaries of such laws (the Edmonds Act of 1882). Polygamy created benefits for women, but reduced the welfare of most men, in a time period when only adult males had the franchise.

  17. Viewpoint – Rent-Seeking in Agricultural Water Management: An Intentionally Neglected Core Dimension?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Huppert

    2013-06-01

    The author, drawing on thirty-five years of experience in the field of agricultural water management and on cases from research and from development cooperation, puts forward his personal viewpoint on this matter. He contends that local as well as international professionals on different levels in the water sector are caught in multifaceted conflicts between formal objectives and hidden interests – and often tend to resort to rent-seeking behaviour themselves.

  18. Morality and Values in Support of Universal Healthcare Must be Enshrined in Law; Comment on “Morality and Markets in the NHS”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson M Pollock

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a commentary on Gilbert and colleagues’ (1 paper on morality and markets in the National Health Service (NHS. Morality and values are not ephemeral qualities and universal healthcare is not simply an aspiration; it has to be enshrined in law. The creation of the UK NHS in 1948 was underpinned by core legal duties which required a system of public funding and delivery to follow. The moral values of the citizens in support of social solidarity were thus transformed into a political and legal contract for citizens. The NHS still survives in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland but the coalition government abolished it in England in 2012, reducing the NHS to a funding stream, a logo and a set of market regulators. This paper describes and explains the Health and Social Care (HSC Act 2012 in England and how the NHS is withering away and health services are being remodeled along US Health Maintenance Organization (HMO lines. There was nothing moral about this extraordinary act of savagery and violence against the public in England, and against common values and widely held beliefs in public ownership funding and provision of universal healthcare. The public health consequences will be catastrophic which is why after the election on May seventh a new Bill is required to Reinstate the NHS and the Secretary of State’s legal duty to provide listed health services throughout England.

  19. How to improve marketing and customer relationship management of the cottage holiday business RapoJärviLoma, the target market being the residents of St. Petersburg and Moscow?

    OpenAIRE

    Niemi, Noora

    2011-01-01

    This study was created for a small family business operating under agricultural industry. The business operating by trade name RapoJärviLoma has been renting holiday cottages / holiday apartments in Kymenlaakso, Valkeala area from 2004. The recession of 2009 decreased the number of visits coming from Russia to Finland. The cottage holiday renting business working under agricultural industry didn’t have a marketing plan or a framework for customer relationship management. The objective of ...

  20. 41 CFR 102-85.160 - How does a customer agency know how much to budget for Rent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROPERTY 85-PRICING POLICY FOR OCCUPANCY IN GSA SPACE Rent Charges § 102-85.160 How does a customer agency... pricing due to changes in scope of proposed projects or repair and/or replacement of building components ...

  1. ANALISIS SEWA MENYEWA PARALEL PADA PERUSAHAAN RENT CAR CV. HARKAT DALAM PERSPEKTIF EKONOMI ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsuardi Samsuardi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at determining the parallel process of car rental agreement between Harkat Rent Car Company and the owner of the car, and between the company and its customers in an Islamic economics perspective. This study also aims to analyze the risk coverage of the leased car. The data for this study was gathered through interviews, observation and documentation studies. The collected data was then analyzed using descriptive analysis method. Results showed that the process of car leasing begin when customer rented a car from CV. Harkat which was owned by its partner. The company provided a shared price for car owners according to a mutual agreement and applied only for a certain period. Furthermore, the partner has to allocate 20 percent of the income for the company. In addition, the company also required the partner to cover for maintenance costs, insurance, equipment, and spare parts. In the context of Islamic economics, the practice of leasing parallel conducted by the company was not fully Shariah compliance due to practice a lease above a lease and using two contracts in one transaction. =========================================== Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perjanjian sewa menyewa mobil secara paralel antara Perusahaan Rent Car CV. Harkat dengan pemilik mobil dan dengan konsumennya dalam perspektif ekonomi Islam. Penelitian ini juga bertujuan untuk menanganalisis pertanggungan resiko terhadap mobil yang dijadikan objek sewa menyewa tersebut sewa menyewa mobil di Perusahaan Rent Car CV. Data untuk penelitian ini bersumber dari wawancara, obesrvasi dan studi dokumentasi. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah deskriptif analisis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa CV. Harkat menyewakan mobil milik mitra kerjanya (pemilik mobil kepada pelanggan yang membutuhkan sewa mobil untuk keperluannya. Pemilik usaha memberikan harga kongsi kepada pemilik mobil sesuai dengan kesepakatan bersama dan untuk jangka waktu

  2. 76 FR 67440 - Market Access Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION Market Access Agreement AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION: Notice of Draft Second Amended and Restated Market Access Agreement; request for comments. SUMMARY: The... Market Access Agreement (the ``Restated MAA'') is entered into among AgFirst Farm Credit Bank, AgriBank...

  3. How Brazil Transferred Billions to Foreign Coffee Importers: The International Coffee Agreement, Rent Seeking and Export Tax Rebates

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, Lovell S.

    2003-01-01

    Rent seeking is well known, but empirical evidence of its effects is relatively rare. This paper analyzes how the domestic and international rent seeking caused Brazil to provide coffee export tax rebates that transferred foreign exchange to coffee importers. Although Brazil was the world's largest exporter, it began to pay export tax rebates to selected coffee importers in 1965 and, by 1988, had paid rebates totaling $8 billion. Brazil explained these rebates as a mechanism to price disc...

  4. An American Plague: Pro-Market Believers in Health Policy Comment on “On Health Policy and Management (HPAM: Mind the Theory-Policypractice Gap”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean de Kervasdoué

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Although American health policy debates address similar problems to other developed nations, it has factual and ideological specificities. I agree with Chinitz and Rodwin on the dominance of micro-economics thinking. However, I am not certain that learning from management theory or modifying medical education will be powerful enough to change the system. The vested interests of the stakeholders are too powerful, the more so when they are supported by economists who ideologically reinforce them and by neglecting the fact that the basic premises of market ideology are false when applied to medical care. There is enough empirical evidence to support that but, apparently, these facts do not dent these beliefs.

  5. A FEW COMMENTS ON TRENDS IN CONTEMPORARY NORWEGIAN FICTION AND ITS PRESENCE IN THE POLISH BOOK MARKET IN THE YEARS 1995–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Tunkiel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available After 1995, and especially since 2004, there has been an increase in the number of Norwegian fiction books published in Poland. The first part of the paper presents detailed statistical data for this trend and analyses it shortly. The second part is an attempt to introduce the most important trends in contemporary Norwegian literature and indicate how these are reflected in the offer in the Polish book market. The increased popularity of Norwegian fiction in Poland may be a result of the readers’ preferences, but on the other hand also of the general interest in Norway and, not less importantly, the availability of subsidies for literary translations. The books published in Poland in 1995–2010 reflect very well the most characteristic trends in contemporary Norwegian literature. One can find among them examples of both minimalism (including naivism and encyclopaedism, while the most typical subject areas include family relations, existential problems and religion. Biographies and autobiographies that recently have been a crucial and much-discussed group of literary production in Norway are less represented. The phenomenon of popular literature – the new heyday of the romantic novel series as well as the fashion for Scandinavian crime fiction – is also noteworthy. In addition, some valuable Norwegian books for children and youth were translated into Polish and published in the period. On the whole, it should be emphasised that the situation of Norwegian fiction in Poland is very good; it is undoubtedly one of the best represented minor European literatures in the Polish market.

  6. Sustainable purchase. Impact on the Dutch real estate market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, N.

    2009-08-01

    The effect of the sustainable procurement policy of the Dutch government is starting to become visible in the market. There is a distinct movement towards making the existing stock more sustainable. Investors are responding to the changing demand. This is the outcome of a study commissioned by SenterNovem with respect to the impact of sustainable procurement on the office building market. The Dutch government envisages 100% sustainable procurement in 2010. This also includes renting and purchasing office buildings. [nl

  7. Durability of capital goods: taxes and market structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raviv, A [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh; Zemel, E

    1977-04-01

    This paper examines the durability of capital goods produced under different market structures when tax considerations are included. Since investment tax credit and depreciation allowances are realized by the owner of the durable good, the durability of products produced by an industry which sells its output differs from that of an industry which rents. For each of these two commercial forms, both monopolistic and competitive market structure are considered. Potential gains from different forms of regulation are discussed.

  8. The real estate markets: Players, Institutions ans Territories

    OpenAIRE

    Theurillat Thierry; Rérat Patrick; Crevosier Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Revealing the parties the processes and the institutions and consequently both the diversity and contingency of the real estate markets the existing increasing literature emphasises the contem porary numerous links and interdependencies between real estate land value planning and town planning policy and even the financial system. This paper is an attempt to understand all the real estate markets from the most peripheral ones where the urban rent is the lowest to the most dense city cent...

  9. The Real Estate Markets : Players, Institutions and Territories

    OpenAIRE

    Theurillat, Thierry; Rérat, Patrick; Crevoisier, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Revealing the parties, the processes and the institutions and, consequently, both the diversity and contingency of the real estate markets, the existing increasing literature emphasises the contemporary numerous links and interdependencies between real estate, land value, planning and town planning policy and even the financial system. This paper is an attempt to understand all the real estate markets, from the most peripheral ones, where the urban rent is the lowest, to the most dense city c...

  10. Quantitative analytical hierarchy process to marketing store location selection

    OpenAIRE

    Harwati; Utami Intan

    2018-01-01

    The selection of Store to market the product is belong to Multi Criteria Decision Making problem. The criteria used have conflict of interest with each other to produce an optimal location. This research uses four important criteria to select new location of marketing store appropriate with the references: distance to location, competition level with competitor, number of potential customer, and location rent cost. Quantitative data is used to determine the optimum location with AHP method. Q...

  11. 76 FR 59716 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Transformation Initiative: Rent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5480-N-95] Notice of Submission of... build upon a larger social experiment funded by HUD. The funds will be made available in the form of...: Interested persons are invited to submit comments regarding this proposal. Comments should refer to the...

  12. 76 FR 5250 - Departmental Offices; Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ...: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Department of the Treasury, as part of its continuing... soliciting comments concerning Extension of Foreign Currency Form FC-1 (OMB No. 1505-0012) Weekly Consolidated Foreign Currency Report of Major Market Participants, Extension of Form FC-2 (OMB No. 1505-0010...

  13. Anterior versus posterior, and rim-rent rotator cuff tears: prevalence and MR sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuite, M.J.; Turnbull, J.R.; Orwin, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the relative distribution of the locations of rotator cuff tears, and the sensitivity of anterior versus posterior tears on MR images. Patients and methods. We identified 110 consecutive patients who had a shoulder MR and either a partial-thickness or a small full-thickness rotator cuff tear diagnosed at arthroscopy. MR sensitivity and patient age were compared between patients with tears in the anterior and posterior halves of the cuff. In addition, in patients with partial tears less than 2 cm in diameter, an age comparison between those with tears in the critical zone and those with articular surface tears adjacent to the bony insertion (rim-rent tear) was performed. Results. The tear was centered in the anterior half of the rotator cuff in 79% of the patients younger than 36 years old, and in 89% of the patients 36 years old and over. The average age of the patients with tears in the anterior half (44 years) was not significantly different from the average age of those with posterior tears (40 years). The sensitivity of MR for anterior tears was 0.69, and for posterior tears it was 0.56. Five of the nine rim-rent tears (0.56) were interpreted correctly on the original MR report; two of the other tears were misinterpreted as intratendinous fluid but were diagnosable in retrospect. Conclusion. Even in patients less than 36 years old, most partial and small full-thickness rotator cuff tears are centered in the anterior half of the supraspinatus. Although our figure for MR sensitivity for these tears is lower than in recent articles, we found no significant difference between the sensitivity of MR for diagnosing posterior tears versus tears in the anterior half of the supraspinatus tendon. Rim-rent tears can be mistaken for intratendinous signal, and should be carefully looked for in younger patients with shoulder pain. (orig.)

  14. Rent control and other aspects of tenancy law in Sweden, Denmark and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norberg, Per; Juul-Sandberg, Jakob

    In the Nordic EU member states legislation on landlord’s and tenant’s rights is defined from a socio-economic aspect. The three countries share a common legal »core« which originates from common contract law principles. Tenancy law regulation is different in major areas – especially rent regulation....... In other areas the regulation is quite alike and the results are most often a result of trying to keep the balance between the tenant’s rights to dispose over a home contrary to the landlord’s rights as a property owner. This paper will explore some different aspects of tenancy law regulation – especially...

  15. Urban Concentration and Spatial Allocation of Rents from natural resources. A Zipf's Curve Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaz Ponce Dentinho

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at demonstrating how countries' dependency on natural resources plays a crucial role in urban concentration. The Zipf's Curve Elasticity is estimated for a group of countries and related to a set of indicators of unilateral transferences. Results show that in comparison to others, countries with higher urban concentration explained by higher Zipf's Curve Elasticity have a higher percentage of income coming from natural resources and education expenditures whereas public spending in health and outflow of Foreign Direct Investment seem to have spatial redistribution effects. Summing up, there are signs that the spatial allocation of property rights over natural resources and related rents influences urban concentration.

  16. Anterior versus posterior, and rim-rent rotator cuff tears: prevalence and MR sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuite, M J; Turnbull, J R; Orwin, J F [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1998-05-01

    Purpose. To determine the relative distribution of the locations of rotator cuff tears, and the sensitivity of anterior versus posterior tears on MR images. Patients and methods. We identified 110 consecutive patients who had a shoulder MR and either a partial-thickness or a small full-thickness rotator cuff tear diagnosed at arthroscopy. From the arthroscopy videotapes, we classified the tears as centered in the anterior or posterior half of the cuff, and as either in the critical zone or adjacent to the bony insertion. The original MR interpretation was compared with the arthroscopic findings. MR sensitivity and patient age were compared between patients with tears in the anterior and posterior halves of the cuff. In addition, in patients with partial tears less than 2 cm in diameter, an age comparison between those with tears in the critical zone and those with articular surface tears adjacent to the bony insertion (rim-rent tear) was performed. Results. The tear was centered in the anterior half of the rotator cuff in 79% of the patients younger than 36 years old, and in 89% of the patients 36 years old and over. The average age of the patients with tears in the anterior half (44 years) was not significantly different from the average age of those with posterior tears (40 years)(P=0.23). The sensitivity of MR for anterior tears was 0.69, and for posterior tears it was 0.56 (P=0.17). The average age of the 9 patients with rim-rent tears was 31 years, while that of the 28 patients with similarly-sized partial tears not involving the insertion was 40 years old (P=0.048). Five of the nine rim-rent tears (0.56) were interpreted correctly on the original MR report; two of the other tears were misinterpreted as intratendinous fluid but were diagnosable in retrospect. Conclusion. Even in patients less than 36 years old, most partial and small full-thickness rotator cuff tears are centered in the anterior half of the supraspinatus. Although our figure for MR sensitivity

  17. An assessment of the influence of bioenergy and marketed land amenity values on land uses in the midwestern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk-Won Choi; Brent Sohngen; Ralph. Alig

    2011-01-01

    There is substantial concern that bioenergy policies could swamp other considerations, such as environmental values, and lead to large-scale conversions of land from forest to crops. This study examines how bioenergy and marketed environmental rents for forestland potentially influence land use in the Midwestern US. We hypothesize that current land uses reflect market...

  18. Financial transmission rights meet Cournot: How TCCs curb market power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoft, S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the problem of market power when generators face a demand curve limited by a transmission constraint. After demonstrating that the problem's importance originates in an inherent ambiguity in Cournot-Nash theory, the author reviews Oren's argument that generators in this situation capture all congestion rents. In the one-line case, this argument depends on an untested hypothesis while in the three-line case, the Nash equilibrium was misidentified. Finally, the argument that financial transmission rights (and TCCs in particular) will have zero market value is refuted by modeling the possibility of their purchase by generators. This allows transmission owners, who initially own the TCCs, to capture some of the congestion rent. In fact when total capacity exceeds line capacity by more than the capacity of the largest generator, TCCs should attain their perfectly competitive value, thereby curbing the market power of generators

  19. Do hospital chief executive officers extract rents from Certificate of Need laws?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, Traci L; Santerre, Rexford E

    2011-01-01

    Prior research suggests that Certificate of Need (CON) laws reduce competition in the hospital services industry. As a result, this study empirically investigates if not-for-profit hospital chief executive officers (CEOs) are able to extract rents from CON laws in the form of higher compensation. A sample of 256 not-for-profit hospital CEOs in states with and without CON laws and data for 2007 are used in the empirical analysis. The study considers the endogenous nature of a CON law and allows such a law to indirectly affect CEO compensation through its impact on the number of hospitals and beds. The multiple regression results indicate that special and public interests both motivate the decision of a state to maintain a CON law. CON laws are shown to reduce the number of beds at the typical hospital by 12 percent, on average, and the number of hospitals per 100,000 persons by 48 percent. These reductions ultimately lead urban hospital CEOs in states with CON laws to extract economic rents of $91,000 annually.

  20. Resource rent taxation and benchmarking-A new perspective for the Swiss hydropower sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banfi, Silvia; Filippini, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    The electricity generation in Switzerland is mainly based on hydropower (55% of total production). The exploitation of water in the hydropower sector can generate significant so-called resource rents. These are defined by the surplus return above the value of capital, labor, materials, and energy used to exploit hydropower. In Switzerland, hydropower producers pay to the State a fixed fee per kW gross capacity. With this system the substantial differences in costs, revenues and in the production characteristics of the hydropower plants are not taken into account. In this context, the following paper has two main goals: (1) to discuss the introduction in the Swiss hydropower sector of a new payment system based on a resource rent tax; (2) To propose a combination of a RRT system with a benchmarking analysis of the production cost obtained through the estimation of a stochastic frontier variable cost function. We estimate a true random effects stochastic frontier variable cost function using panel data in order to overcome the asymmetric information problem. In addition, using the information on cost efficiency of the single companies, we show how to introduce in the RRT scheme a benchmark system which gives incentives to minimize the production costs.

  1. Marketing Sustainable Retail Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Ilić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary benefits of sustainable retail over the long run has to be the marketing gain from having something other competitors do not: lower operating costs, a more socially responsible public profile, ease of gaining planning approval for new projects, better access to certain investment pools, higher rents (in the case of developers, ease of recruiting and retaining key people. Each of these benefits needs marketing and public relations support; each benefits from a clear and consistent corporate message that promotes sustainable retail. To date, there are very few retailers or developers who have championed sustainability long enough, consistently enough and with enough actual demonstration of changes in standard operations to gain the benefits of green marketing, but the very paucity of examples serves to underscore the point: the green marketing space is wide open for large retailers and developers. What would be the marketing steps that a company could take to benefit from its “sustainability focus?” The key to any marketing program is to differentiate a company’s actions from those of competitors and to do it along lines that its various stakeholders care about. This practice of differentiation is often expressed as “finding a difference that makes a difference, to someone who makes difference to you.” For retail developers, the first differentiator should be to attract more and better tenants to all of their centers, tenants who value lower operating costs and the developer’s program of sustainable development and corporate social responsibility.

  2. THE RISE AND DECLINE OF RENT-SEEKING ACTIVITY IN THE BRAZILIAN COFFEE SECTOR: LESSONS FROM THE IMPOSITION AND REMOVAL OF COFFEE EXPORT QUOTAS

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, Lovell S.

    2004-01-01

    Brazil, the world's largest coffee exporter, encouraged efforts in the 1960s to form the International Coffee Agreement (ICA), which restricted total coffee exports via country export quotas. The quotas led to significant domestic quota rents in producing countries. This paper analyzes the effects of rent seeking in Brazil. The Brazilian Institute of Coffee (IBC), which was responsible for coffee policy, was the focus of rent seeking. The paper models the policy instruments used by the IB...

  3. Structural Changes in the Korean Housing Market before and after Macroeconomic Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghyun Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify structural changes in the Korean housing market for evaluating the sustainability of the Korean housing market and to derive important implications to seek housing business strategies and public policies. Two time periods were analyzed: April 2001–December 2007 and January 2008–December 2014 to identify the impact after the global financial crisis of 2008. The market was divided into transaction, chonsei, and monthly rent. The correlations were analyzed using a vector error correction model (VECM. A key result was that during the economic depression, demand for chonsei did not flow to the transaction market; this phenomenon affected the overall recovery of the housing market. The supply of chonsei today is rapidly decreasing with the depression in the transaction. Increases in chonsei prices are expected to continue along with the possibility that demand for chonsei will flow into the transaction or monthly rent market. Based on recent trends, the chonsei market, once main stream, will gradually weaken, and the Korean housing market will reorganize into transactions and monthly rent. This structural change may turn the Korean housing market into a target for long-term investments.

  4. The opening up to competition of European electricity markets: genesis and perspectives of an ambitious project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellion, Antoine

    2007-01-01

    This article first describes the European dynamic of the construction of electricity markets. It outlines the economic and competitive logics which are the base of the liberalisation of electricity markets, and do not aim at suppressing a public service. This encompasses the search for an optimal market as economic aim, and an incentive to the opening by community law. It describes the implementation of the liberalisation process with a harmonisation at the European scale, and still different and partitioned markets. It outlines that the expected price decrease did not occur. The electricity pricing is presented as a complex process, and the sustained increase of production costs is outlined. It also outlined that this market has strengthened structural imperfections: a scarcity rent largely accessible to market powers, a strong trend to short term investment behaviour. On the other hand, environmental efficiency has a positive assessment. The next part proposes an overview of possible actions for the development and regulation of European markets: a network to be expanded and densified with better performance and a more competitive market for the benefit of the consumer, a scarcity rent which requires a market framing, a new orientation for the use of this rent. The coordination of electricity production is outlined as a necessary element for a European energy policy

  5. 78 FR 44922 - Vegetable and Specialty Crop Marketing Orders; Notice of Request for Extension and Revision of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... Approved Information Collection AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice and request... assured of consideration. Additional Information or Comments: Contact Andrew Hatch, Supervisory Marketing....regulations.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Vegetable and Specialty Crop Marketing Orders. OMB Number...

  6. PV market update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maycock, P.D.

    2005-01-01

    The article comments on the massive increase in sales of photovoltaic cells in 2004, largely due to the growth of subsidised grid-connected markets in California, Germany and Japan. Details of the various companies producing photovoltaics, production figures, and world ranking are given together with photovoltaic production in Europe. Even so, the world production of photovoltaics was only the equivalent of two large gas turbines. The various types of photovoltaic cells are discussed and data, according to cell type, are given for world production. Costs, prices and government subsidies are discussed. A forecast of the world photovoltaics market, according to potential application, is given to the year 2010

  7. Sustainable Rent-Based Closed-Loop Supply Chain for Fashion Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Hua Hu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The textile and clothing industry generates much pollution and consumes a large amount of resources. Improper uses and disposal of clothing products make the problems much more severe. Fast fashion products shorten the valid lifecycle and generate more waste than regular clothing products. Considering the features of fashion products, a system of a rent-based closed-loop supply chain is developed to improve the sustainability of fashion products. The supply chain processes (fashion design and manufacturing, laundry, logistics and disposal, the operations management issues (inventory management, closed-loop logistics, human-clothing matching, booking system and the rental pricing and the sustainability promotion aspects (customization, responsive system, culture and policy aspects are investigated by devising sustainable strategies. The rationalities of the developed system and strategies are reviewed and elucidated in detail. The results may contribute to building sustainable closed-loop fashion supply chains, the related information systems and operational and managerial mechanisms.

  8. How to spend it: Resource wealth and the distribution of resource rents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Natural resource revenues differ from other government revenues both in their time profile, and in their political and legal status: they are volatile and exhaustible, and belong to all citizens of the country in which they are located. This paper discusses the theory of natural resource revenues and examines expenditure practices in a range of resource-rich countries. It considers both the distributional impact and the efficiency of expenditure policies, focusing on the extent to which they succeed in providing all citizens with their share of the benefits due to natural resources. - Highlights: ► We examine the relationship between resource rents and government resource revenues. ► We discuss the intertemporal management of resource revenues in theory and in practice. ► We critically examine existing policies for distributing resource revenues to populations.

  9. Reducing appropriable quasi rents to combat the hold-up problem in contract agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karantininis, Kostas; Graversen, Jesper Tranbjerg

    2005-01-01

    , when building the broiler house, to prepare a viable future change in production from broilers to pigs. This will increase the bargaining power to farmers and may result in higher producer prices. Based on the general model of the hold-up problem with co-specific investments (Koss & Eaton, 1997......This paper examines the problem of hold-up in the agri-food sector. Production contracts offered to future Danish Broiler producers give rise to specific investments and appropriable quasi rents. Farmers are vulnerable to opportunistic behaviour by poultry processors which materializes in lower...... prices and results in lower investments. One obvious alternative to producing broilers is to produce pigs; since the pork industry is very well developed with the pork slaughter and processing being mainly (more than 90 %) run by two producer-owned cooperatives. Then it might be possible for the farmer...

  10. 75 FR 61253 - Final Fair Market Rents for Fiscal Year 2011 for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    .... Any questions related to use of FMRs or voucher payment standards should be directed to the respective... Housing Choice Voucher program, the FMR is the basis for determining the ``payment standard amount'' used... for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single Room Occupancy Program...

  11. 75 FR 11553 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... provided on the same website noted above. Any questions related to use of FMRs or voucher payment standards... the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single Room Occupancy Program for... County, ND. Both areas were having significant problems administering the Housing Choice Voucher program...

  12. 76 FR 60967 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ..., Houston-Baytown-Sugar Land, TX CT HMFA. HMFA. New Haven-Meriden, CT HMFA North Port-Bradenton-Sarasota, FL... than four bedrooms are calculated by adding 15 percent to the four- bedroom FMR for each extra bedroom...-bedroom FMR for each extra bedroom. For example, the FMR for a five-bedroom unit is 1.15 times the four...

  13. 78 FR 61667 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... Metro FMR Area 2016 Area. Las Vegas-Paradise, NV MSA 2015 New Haven-Meriden, CT HUD Metro FMR 2016 Area...) in the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit program is outside of the scope of this notice. However, HUD...

  14. Marketing data, models and decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedel, M; Kamakura, W; Bockenholt, U

    Our comments about the paper by Leeflang and Wittink [Internat. J. Res. Marketing, 17 (2000) 105] comprise of two components: first, we address two issues on which we disagree with Leeflang and Wittink: soft versus hard data, and individual-level versus segment-level models. Secondly, we supplement

  15. Of markets and men: comments on Chang

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, M.

    2011-01-01

    The discussion about the role of institutions in economic development should revolve around the relative performance of institutions and not around the alleged superiority of one system over the other.

  16. 24 CFR 248.121 - Annual authorized return and aggregate preservation rents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for the project, assuming a market rate of interest and customary terms; (3) Debt service on the... rehabilitation loan for the project, assuming a market rate of interest and customary terms; (3) Debt service on... local governments and assuming market rate interest rates. ...

  17. Introductory Comments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Sujecka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introductory Comments The fifth yearly volume of the Colloquia Humanistica comprises a thematic section on Nation, Natsiya, Ethnie. The subject it discusses has thus far received little attention as a research problem in the Slavia Orthodoxa, the Slavia Romana, the Balkans but also in Central and Eastern Europe.   Uwagi wstępne Piąty numer rocznika "Colloquia Humanistica" przedstawia dział tematyczny, poświęcony kategoriom narodu, nacji i etni. Temat ten, w takiej perspektywie, którą proponujemy, nie spotkał się dotąd z należytym namysłem badawczym w sferze Slavia Otrhodoxa, Slavia Romana i na Bałkanach, jak też w Europie Środkowo-Wschodniej.

  18. Testing neoclassical competitive market theory in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, John A

    2002-11-26

    This study presents results from a pilot field experiment that tests predictions of competitive market theory. A major advantage of this particular field experimental design is that my laboratory is the marketplace: subjects are engaged in buying, selling, and trading activities whether I run an exchange experiment or am a passive observer. In this sense, I am gathering data in a natural environment while still maintaining the necessary control to execute a clean comparison between treatments. The main results of the study fall into two categories. First, the competitive model predicts reasonably well in some market treatments: the expected price and quantity levels are approximated in many market rounds. Second, the data suggest that market composition is important: buyer and seller experience levels impact not only the distribution of rents but also the overall level of rents captured. An unexpected result in this regard is that average market efficiency is lowest in markets that match experienced buyers and experienced sellers and highest when experienced buyers engage in bargaining with inexperienced sellers. Together, these results suggest that both market experience and market composition play an important role in the equilibrium discovery process.

  19. 78 FR 64907 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... comments to OMB via email to: [email protected] or fax (202) 395-5806 and to Departmental... a currently valid OMB control number. Agricultural Marketing Service Title: Fruit and Vegetable... Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946 (7 U.S.C. 1621) directs and authorizes the collection of information and...

  20. 26 CFR 1.992-4 - Coordination with personal holding company provisions in case of certain produced film rents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coordination with personal holding company provisions in case of certain produced film rents. 1.992-4 Section 1.992-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Domestic International...

  1. 41 CFR 102-85.15 - What are the basic policies for charging Rent for space and services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 2%) on the cost of the prospective capital investment. Each specific use of Return on Investment... customer agency. Once the ROI methodology is employed to establish Rent for a capital investment, the ROI...-owned buildings, a return on investment pricing approach if an appraisal-determined rental value does...

  2. Marketing; Il marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscigna, M [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    The report discusses marketing strategies oriented to the organizations and analyzes its critical factors, which determine the success of the organization activity. [Italian] Il rapporto analizza i caratteri delle strategie del marketing orientato all'impresa. Vengono infine analizzati i fattori critici che determinano il successo o l'insuccesso delle scelte aziendali.

  3. Marketing; Il marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscigna, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    The report discusses marketing strategies oriented to the organizations and analyzes its critical factors, which determine the success of the organization activity. [Italian] Il rapporto analizza i caratteri delle strategie del marketing orientato all'impresa. Vengono infine analizzati i fattori critici che determinano il successo o l'insuccesso delle scelte aziendali.

  4. Livestock Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futrell, Gene; And Others

    This marketing unit focuses on the seasonal and cyclical patterns of livestock markets. Cash marketing, forward contracting, hedging in the futures markets, and the options markets are examined. Examples illustrate how each marketing tool may be useful in gaining a profit on livestock and cutting risk exposure. The unit is organized in the…

  5. Housing market volatility in the OECD area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard

    2014-01-01

    Vector-autoregressive models are used to decompose housing returns in 18 OECD countries into cash flow (rent) news and discount rate (return) news over the period 1970-2011. For the jajority of countries news about future returns is the main driver, and both real interest rates and risk-premia play...... an important role in accounting for housing market volatility. Bivariate cross-country correlations and principal components analyses indicate that part of the return movements have a common factor among the majority of countries. We explain the results in terms of global changes in credit constraints...

  6. Effect of castration on performance and profitability of finishing cattle in rent feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Aurélio Lopes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of castration on performance and profitability of finishing beef cattle in feedlot was evaluated and compared to no-castrated animals. Data came from a rent feedlot of beef cattle, conducted from August to November of 2005. Half of 50 animals, randomly chosen, were castrated by knife 18 days before the beginning of feedlot. Averages of initial body weight for castrated and no-castrated animals were 341kg and 347kg, while for final body weight were 437kg and 463kg, respectively. Were considered as expenses arroba value of thin cattle (R$50.00, and R$2.85 daily expenses per animal paid by cattle owner to “boitel”; and were considered as earnings sale of fat cattle at R$56.14 and R$54.14/arroba, respectively for castrated and no-castrated animals. For profitability analysis, CU$TO BOVINO CORTE software was utilized. Was tested the mean differences between castrated and intact groups by Student t test of average daily weight gains (GMPD and total weight gain (GMPT. Was acceptable the minimum level of confidence of 95%. Statistical analysis was performed in SPSS 17.0 program. Effect of castration negatively influenced animals´ performance, evaluated by weight gain, and, consequently profitability of the system, evaluated by net margin. Earnings from sale of additional arrobas of no-castrated animals were enough to compensate penalization practiced by packinghouses for these animals.

  7. THE ROLE OF THE ECONOMIC RENTS IN THE POLITICAL TRANSFORMATION OF TURKEY AFTER THE 1980S*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugra Kalkan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is claimed in this article that one of the main aims of the “bureaucratic tutelage” system in Turkey is to control the distribution of the economic rents created by the import-substituting industrialization. Thus, economic statism and the bureaucratic control over elected politicians were compatible with each other until economic liberalization in 1980. Even a limited economic liberalization created great opportunities for the politicians to weaken the power of the bureaucratic elites, particularly military officers. Thus, there is a strong relationship between economic liberalization and democratization in Turkey after 1980. However, even though, bureaucratic tutelage is regressed, Turkey is still far from having a transparent government and efficient public organizations. The conventional explanations are not adequate to grasp the intermingled relations between economic and political institutionalization in Turkey. Therefore, public choice may help to understand the role of the economic motivations of the political actors/elites in the context of shaping the political institutions. The political actors are seen as utility maximizers within the limits of institutional rules and practices, and the institutional change is explained with the help of changing interests and power relations of these actors. Enlarging economic liberties have gradually forced bureaucratic tutelage system to dissolve. For sure, dissolving the bureaucratic tutelage system is not a perfect or an intended process but examining this process from Turgut Ozal to Tayyip Erdogan gives us a theoretical framework to understand the political transformation of Turkey in the era of an open economy.

  8. Structural change in Europe's gas markets: three scenarios for the development of the European gas market to 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, A.; Bowitz, E.; Roland, K.

    2000-01-01

    Against the background of the European Union's Gas Directive, and the emergence of new players and markets in Europe's gas sector, this paper explores how company actions could shape the future for the gas industry. Starting with an examination of company strategies this paper develops three scenarios for the future: a 'Gradual Transformation' scenario where a single European gas market develops that is essentially oligopolistic in nature; a 'Vertical Integration' scenario, where upstream and downstream gas companies merge to form a vertically integrated gas supplier; and a 'Pull the Plug' scenario, where the current market structure decomposes into a competitive market. These scenarios are examined in terms of their impact on gas prices, demand and the distribution of gas rent along the supply chain. The paper highlights the fact that the EU's gas Directive is not sufficient for the introduction of competition into Europe's gas markets, but that company actions will be the key determinant, and they may favour alternative market structures. (Author)

  9. Introductory Comments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Sujecka

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introductory Comments The sixth issue (not just in the Thematic Section is devoted to the borders of civilization in our memory, in culture, in art, in literature, in the arrangement of political objectives. Both their demarcation and their crossing is a matter of the objectives we can and want to set ourselves in the context of the order that exists and into which we try to fit, transforming it or levelling. The value of this survey of  “images of borders” is its setting in such varied material, owing to which the theoretical speculations gain a representative illustration and, at the same time, a guarantee of being rooted, even if it is only a “contact zone”.   Wprowadzenie Szósty numer (nie tylko sekcja tematyczna jest poświęcony kwestii granic cywilizacji w naszej pamięci, kulturze, sztuce, literaturze, w definiowaniu celów politycznych. Zarówno ich wyznaczanie, jak i przekraczanie, jest kwestią celów, jakie możemy i chcemy postawić sobie w kontekście istniejącego ładu, w który staramy się wpisać, przekształcając go lub dostosowując się do niego. Wartością niniejszego przeglądu "obrazów granic" jest przedstawienie ich poprzez tak zróżnicowany materiał, dzięki czemu rozważania teoretyczne zyskują reprezentatywną ilustrację, a zarazem gwarancję zakorzenienia, nawet jeśli będzie to tylko "sfera kontaktu".

  10. 76 FR 11196 - Antidumping Methodologies in Proceedings Involving Non-Market Economies: Valuing the Factor of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Antidumping Methodologies in Proceedings Involving Non-Market Economies: Valuing the Factor of Production: Labor; Correction to Request for Comment...-Market Economies: Valuing the Factor of Production: Labor; Request for Comment, 76 FR 9544 (February 18...

  11. Economic Rents and Legitimacy: Incorporating Elements of Organizational Analysis Institutional Theory to the Field of Business Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Lima de Queiroz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Are sources of economic rent, as defined by the prevalent business strategy paradigm, sufficient to attain and maintain superior returns? The perspective developed within the conceptual framework of the Institutional Theory may offer managers a contribution towards understanding the strategy process and its potentialities,particularly by stressing the leading role played by legitimacy, the influence of many institutional spheres, the isomorphic pressures, ceremonial behavior and decoupling, among other elements, that mainstream business strategy fails to address directly, but which may have a significant effect on firm performance. We advance thatthese elements must be accounted for in the pursuit and acquisition of economic rents, even if the ability to articulate them purposefully is constrained by rationality, agency conditions and the manager's social embeddedness.

  12. 76 FR 34080 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Temporary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ...] Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Temporary Marketing... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Temporary Marketing Permit Applications--21 CFR 130.17... submitted recent requests for temporary marketing permits. Based on this information, we estimate that there...

  13. 78 FR 56771 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Information Collection Renewal; Comment Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... Activities: Information Collection Renewal; Comment Request; Affiliate Marketing AGENCIES: Office of the... information received from an affiliate to make a solicitation for marketing purposes to the consumer, unless... solicitation for marketing purposes to consumers. If a person receives certain consumer eligibility information...

  14. 75 FR 60511 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... certain information received from an affiliate to make a solicitation for marketing purposes to a consumer... marketing purposes or opt out. Financial institutions will use the consumers' opt out responses to determine... number. The OCC is soliciting comment concerning an information collection titled, ``Affiliate Marketing...

  15. 75 FR 42824 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... certain information received from an affiliate to make a solicitation for marketing purposes to a consumer... marketing purposes or opt out. Financial institutions will use the consumers' opt out responses to determine... number. The OCC is soliciting comment concerning an information collection titled, ``Affiliate Marketing...

  16. Green Auctions and Reduction of Information Rents in Payments for Environmental Services: An Experimental Investigation in Sunan County, Northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaohong; Xu, Zhongmin

    2015-01-01

    Reducing information rents is an important task for government agencies wishing to purchase maximal environmental services with limited budgets. This paper reports on several green auction options for reducing information rents and improving the performance of the “Grain for Green” Payments for environmental services (PES) program implemented in northwestern China. In r experimental auctions and investigations, door-to-door interviews were conducted and bidding envelopes and survey questionnaires were used to determine the offers and the foregone profits of the participants. Three scenarios are analyzed in this paper: a uniform price auction, a discriminatory price auction, and an opportunity-cost system. The results show that compared to the uniform price auction system, the other auction systems can increase the cost-effectiveness of conservation contracting. Competitive bidding can reveal true opportunity costs and can reduce information rents extracted from the government by farmers using private information. The demographics and average bids of these auction types were also analyzed. “Perfect information” in the opportunity-cost offer system has the best performance but is very hard to implement in reality. The results of this research show that the auction is a valuable tool for purchasing conservation contracts in northwestern China, but that in the future, the performance of these auctions should be studied with relaxed model assumptions. PMID:25793263

  17. Land rental market, off-farm employment and agricultural production in Southeast China: A plot-level case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, S.; Heerink, N.; Ruben, R.; Qu, F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper performs a plot-level analysis of the impact of land rental market participation and off-farm employment on land investment, input use, and rice yields for 215 plots cultivated by 52 households in three villages in Northeast Jiangxi Province. Our findings show that households that rent

  18. Market, Regulation, Market, Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian; Galland, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    barriers to trade in Europe, realized the free movement of products by organizing progressively several orders of markets and regulation. Based on historical and institutional documents, on technical publications, and on interviews, this article relates how the European Commission and the Member States had......This paper focuses on the European Regulatory system which was settled both for opening the Single Market for products and ensuring the consumers' safety. It claims that the New Approach and Standardization, and the Global Approach to conformity assessment, which suppressed the last technical...... alternatively recourse to markets and to regulations, at the three main levels of the New Approach Directives implementation. The article focuses also more specifically on the Medical Devices sector, not only because this New Approach sector has long been controversial in Europe, and has recently been concerned...

  19. Quantitative analytical hierarchy process to marketing store location selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harwati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The selection of Store to market the product is belong to Multi Criteria Decision Making problem. The criteria used have conflict of interest with each other to produce an optimal location. This research uses four important criteria to select new location of marketing store appropriate with the references: distance to location, competition level with competitor, number of potential customer, and location rent cost. Quantitative data is used to determine the optimum location with AHP method. Quantitative data are preferred to avoid inconsistency when using expert opinion. The AHP result optimum location among three alternatives places.

  20. 24 CFR 888.203 - Use of contract rent automatic annual adjustment factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DIRECT LOAN PROGRAM, SECTION 202 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY PROGRAM AND SECTION 811 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PAYMENTS PROGRAM-FAIR MARKET...

  1. 24 CFR 1000.124 - What maximum and minimum rent or homebuyer payment can a recipient charge a low-income rental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... assisted with NAHASDA grant amounts? 1000.124 Section 1000.124 Housing and Urban Development Regulations... Activities § 1000.124 What maximum and minimum rent or homebuyer payment can a recipient charge a low-income...

  2. Housing as a Social Determinant of Health: Exploring the Relationship between Rent Burden and Risk Behaviors for Single Room Occupancy Building Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Elizabeth A; Mitchell, Christopher G

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of health determinants research recognizes that housing and health are intimately linked. This study explores the relationship between rent burden (the ratio of rent to income) and health risk behaviors among a sample of single room occupancy (SRO) building residents. Cross-sectional data were gathered from a sample of 162 residents living in privately owned, for-profit SROs in Chicago. Findings indicated that participants who had full rental subsidies and thus were designated in a no-rent-burden category were more likely to engage in risk behaviors including illicit drug use, having multiple sexual partners, and having sex without a condom, in comparison to participants with moderate or high-rent burdens. These findings suggest that interventions to increase housing stability and affordability and bolster reliable income sources (in addition to rental subsidies) may be key in reducing risk behaviors and improving health for vulnerably housed populations such as SRO residents.

  3. Asset prices and rents in a GE model with imperfect competition

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre Lafourcade

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyses the general equilibrium effects on asset valuation and capital accumulation of an exogenous drop in the rate of return required by investors in a model of production with imperfectly competitive product markets. The model improves substantially on the standard perfectly competitive neo-classical framework, by dissociating the behavior of marginal and average q. It tracks more closely current observed data on the ratio of stock-market value to the economy's capital base, wh...

  4. 75 FR 10798 - Richard J. Stanton; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order to Aid Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... involves respondent's marketing and distribution of a variety of online seal certification marks (``website... contact information for individuals from the public comments it receives before placing those comments on... related products or services. Part VI mandates that respondent file an initial compliance report with the...

  5. 77 FR 9198 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Request-Study of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... administer farmers' market SNAP incentives. The interview is designed to gather qualitative data to better... other forms of information technology. Comments may be sent to: Steven Carlson, Office of Research and... electronically. All written comments will be open for public inspection at the Office of Research and Analysis...

  6. Inbound marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Popek, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    In my work I focus on Inbound Marketing, which represents a new perspective on marketing, that has not been given the attention it deserves. It is a combination of existing and proven marketing methods that are used to obtain new customers with minimal marketing costs to the organization. The first section of my work is devoted to defining the concept of Inbound Marketing definitions and explanations. Furthermore, I present a list of instruments used in Inbound Marketing, and showcase the def...

  7. 75 FR 63540 - Request for Public Comment, Morgantown Municipal Airport, Morgantown, WV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... Plan. Fair Market Value has been determined based upon an appraisal of the Property. DATES: Comments..., the land will change to a non-aeronautical use and will be transferred to the West Virginia Army...

  8. 78 FR 9391 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... represents approximately 1.2% of the overall market. \\5\\ The Vision Council, Consumer Barometer, 2 (Sept... include any sensitive health information, like medical records or other individually identifiable health... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment...

  9. 76 FR 79646 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Request-Nutrition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... among nutrition assistance program clients. Among these are steps to support access to fresh fruits and... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food And Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Request--Nutrition Assistance in Farmers' Markets: Understanding the Shopping...

  10. 77 FR 51020 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... empowerment and consumer protection. The comment supported the Bureau's proposal to formalize processes for... monitoring of local markets for risks to consumers. Affected Public: State, Local, or Tribal Governments... BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for...

  11. Hershey’s Entry to the Australian Market with a New Brand: An Accounting and Marketing Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Cevdet Kızıl; Valorie Eddy; Laura Clary; Katrina Crowell

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the entry of Hershey’s Chocolates Company tothe Australian market with a new brand. For this purpose, background information and key performance indicators about the firm are presented. Also target customers and market summary, market demographics and target customer profile of the firm are mentioned in the context of situational analysis. Then,Hershey’s entry to the Australian market with a new product is proposed by providing and commenting on SWOT analysis, competition...

  12. Sustainable Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the

  13. Soil erosion and mitigation measures on rented and owned fields in Uruguay: the impact of transgenic soya and foreign investors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caon, Lucrezia; Kessler, Aad; Keesstra, Saskia; Cruze, Rick

    2014-05-01

    Governments, companies and individuals with financial capital to invest, are worldwide buying or renting land in developing or third world countries. Uruguay is a developing country whose economy is mainly based on agriculture. Since 2000 many foreigners started to invest in the Uruguayan agricultural sector and to practice intensive large-scale agriculture. The significant presence of foreigners in the country is proven by the fact that almost 360 000 ha out of the 500 000 ha forming the study area were managed by foreigners in 2012. Nowadays farmers have abandoned the traditional crop rotation plan that included pasture to produce grain for export, and transgenic soya (soya RR) became the main crop planted by both foreigners and locals. Besides the high soil erosion rates related to having soya as main crop, planting soya implies the use of glyphosate, a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide leading to important environmental impacts. It is commonly said that foreigners investing in poor countries are exploiting the local natural resources aiming to get the highest possible profit from them. Is this a valid assumption in Uruguay? The purpose of this study was to compare the land management style of foreign and local farmers and to relate it to the soil erosion occurring in the study area. The land tenure (rented or owned fields) and the type of farmer interviewed ("individual farmer" equivalent to L.L.C. or "anonymous society" equivalent to P.L.C.) were taken into consideration during the analysis. Based on what stated by the farmers interviewed, the soil erosion simulations considered the seven most popular crop rotation plans on rented and owned fields, three ideals crop rotation plans, the application of no mitigation measures, and the construction of terraces and conservation buffers. Depending on the crop rotation plan, soils characterized by slope gradients higher than 2 resulted in soil erosion rates higher than the 7 ton/ha/year allowed by law. The highest

  14. TRICARE Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-21

    definitive. It stated that: Marketing is much more than advertising or promotion materials. Marketing is a foundation for building a business strategy ; it...objectives, and strategies for marketing TRICARE. However, the Director provided the plan for information; none of the recipients of the plan were...overarching goal and extensively in the marketing strategies section. Specifically, the Marketing Plan states that strategies employed to accomplish

  15. Hospital marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation.

  16. Internet marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Zelený, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In the bachelor thesis are introduced theoretical concepts of the Internet and marketing, accented the need of marketing mix along with its specifics of the internet environment. Next is interpreted which tools can be used for marketing of firms and which marketing instruments are to be deployed. Final chapter illustrates socio-demographics of Czech internet users along with media market allocation from the perspective of all media as well as in the segment of the Internet.

  17. Money Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Marvin Goodfriend

    2011-01-01

    Money markets offer monetary services and short-term finance in the capital market with the credit support of institutional sponsors. Investors finance money market instruments at low interest because their salability on short notice confers an implicit monetary services yield. Low interest attracts borrowers to money markets. The fragile equilibrium depends on collective confidence in the credit quality of instruments supplied to the market. Federal Reserve monetary and credit policies have ...

  18. Ethics in the marketing of medical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Stephen R

    2004-09-01

    This paper deals with the ethics of marketing medical services by physicians, medical groups, hospitals and other mainstream medical caregivers in the United States. It does not deal with pharmaceutical marketing, since that raises a number of special issues, some of them legal and some having to do with the unique culture of pharmaceutical marketing, which really ought to be dealt with separately. Nor does it touch on the little-explored field of marketing alternative and complementary medicine. It begins with a general description of what is included in "the marketing process." It then briefly tours some of the difficulties faced by those who would market medical services ethically, and ends with some comments on the relevance of professionalism to ethical marketing.

  19. Natural gas supply strategies for European energy market actors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girault, Vincent

    2007-06-01

    The liberalization of the European energy markets leads to the diversification of supplies. Hence, we analyse the natural gas importation problem in a power producer point of view. Upstream and downstream natural gas markets are concentrated. In this oligopoly context, our topic is to focus on strategies which modify natural gas sourcing price. This by studying the surplus sharing on the natural gas chain. A European firm can bundle gas and electricity outputs to increase its market share. Therefore, a bundling strategy of a power producer in competition with a natural gas reseller on the final European energy market increases upstream natural gas price. Bundling also acts as a raising rival cost strategy and reduces the rivals' profit. Profits opportunities incite natural gas producers to enter the final market. Vertical integration between a natural gas producer and a European gas reseller is a way, for producers, to catch end consumer surplus. Vertical integration results in the foreclosure of the power producer on the upstream natural gas market. To be active on the natural gas market, the power producer could supply bundles. But, this strategy reallocates the rent. The integrated firm on natural gas gets the rent of electricity market in expenses of the power producer. Then, a solution for the power producer is to supply gas and electricity as complements. Then, we consider a case where vertical integration is not allowed. Input price discrimination by a monopolist leads to a lower natural gas price for the actor which diversifies its supplying sources. Furthermore, a bundling strategy increases the gap between the price proposed to the firm which also diversify its output and the firm which is fully dependent from the producer to supply natural gas on final market. (author)

  20. The electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    After a first part proposing predictions for electricity production and consumption for 2016, for the turnovers of electricity suppliers and producers, an indication of important recent important events regarding enterprises belonging to the sector, and a dashboard of the sector activity, an annual report proposes a detailed overview of trends and of the competition context for the electricity market. It identifies the main market opportunities for electricity suppliers, identifies eight determining factors for the sector activity, gives an overview of the sector context evolution between 2004 and 2014 (temperatures, rainfalls, manufacturing industry production, housing and office building stock, projected housing and office building). It analyses the evolution of the sector activity by presenting and commenting various activity indicators and financial performance of electricity producers. It analyses the sector economic structure: evolution of the economic fabric, presentation of various structural characteristics (cross-border exchanges, production capacities per energy source, nuclear plant fleet, thermal plant fleet, location, electricity supply market). It proposes a presentation of the various actors and of their respective market shares, and presentations of groups, electricity suppliers, and electricity producers. It indicates highlights and presents various rankings of the main enterprises in 2014

  1. World oil market simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a recursive simulation model of the world oil market - the World Oil Market Simulation Model (WOMS). The objective was to construct a computationally simple model which provides a transparent view of the workings of the oil market. In the event WOMS has a number of features which distinguish it from other published models: the effect of exchange rate movements is incorporated in the supply and demand functions; both demand and supply functions are dynamic; the non-OPEC supply functions account for the geological as well as the economic aspects of supply; oil prices can be determined either by OPEC setting prices (as normally included in this type of model) or by OPEC setting volumes and market forces determining the price; and consistency checks on consumers' and producers' behaviour are incorporated to confirm the plausibility of model projections. The paper commences with an outline of the model structure followed by an examination of the choice of the appropriate data. The main sections of the paper discuss the estimation of the demand and non-OPEC supply functions. Finally the modelling of OPEC's behaviour is addressed. Comparisons are made throughout with other published work. As the model was estimated using data covering 1960 to 1985, brief comments are also made comparing the events of 1986 with model determined values. (author)

  2. A Causal Mechanism of Policy Innovation: The Reform of Colombia’s Oil-Rents Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayron Paz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes policy innovation in Colombia, through the adoption of a new centralized oil-rent management system in 2011, after 20 years of decentralized policies. Using a policy-design framework, we identify a causal mechanism linking the opening of a policy window to policy change as a combination of the emergence of a new policy network, the adoption of a new policy paradigm and the selection of a new instruments mix. Drawing on Bayesian statistics, the 11 tests conducted on the causal mechanism show the importance of State resources of information, authority, treasury and organization to assess the outcome of policy change.

  3. Proposed standby gasoline rationing plan: public comments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    Under the proposed plan, DOE would allocate ration rights (rights to purchase gasoline) to owners of registered vehicles. All vehicles in a given class would receive the same entitlement. Essential services would receive supplemental allotments of ration rights as pririty firms. Once every 3 months, ration checks would be mailed out to all vehicle registrants, allotting them a certain amount of ration rights. These checks would then be cashed at Coupon Issuance Points, where the bearer would receive ration coupons to be used at gasoline stations. Large users of gasoline could deposit their allotment checks in accounts at ration banks. Coupons or checks would be freely exchangeable in a white market. A certain percentage of the gasoline supply would be set aside in reserve for use in national emergencies. When the plan was published in the Federal Register, public comments were requested. DOE also solicited comments from private citizens, public interest groups, business and industry, state and local governments. A total of 1126 responses were reveived and these are analyzed in this paper. The second part of the report describes how the comments were classified, and gives a statistical breakdown of the major responses. The last section is a discussion and analysis of theissue raised by commenting agencies, firms, associations, and individuals. (MCW)

  4. Marketing fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, W H

    2001-01-01

    This chapter outlines current marketing practice from a managerial perspective. The role of marketing within an organization is discussed in relation to efficiency and adaptation to changing environments. Fundamental terms and concepts are presented in an applied context. The implementation of marketing plans is organized around the four P's of marketing: product (or service), promotion (including advertising), place of delivery, and pricing. These are the tools with which marketers seek to better serve their clients and form the basis for competing with other organizations. Basic concepts of strategic relationship management are outlined. Lastly, alternate viewpoints on the role of advertising in healthcare markets are examined.

  5. Politisk marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Disciplinen politisk marketing er udbredt i mange vestlige lande. Imidlertid er kendskabet til politisk marketing i Danmark bemærkelsesværdigt lavt. I det lys er denne bog Politisk Marketing: Personer, Partier & Praksis den første bog i Danmark, som -ud fra marketing- indkredser de sidste mange års...... brudflader i dansk politik. Gennem ti bidrag fra forskere og praktikere udskraber forfatterne et DNA for feltet politisk marketing. Kort sagt kan du i denne bog finde svarene på: Hvad er politisk marketing? Hvordan har det udviklet sig? Og hvilke konsekvenser har dette fænomen for vælgere, partier og...

  6. To market, to market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieberman, J.I.

    1992-01-01

    Senator Lieberman and three fellow members of Congress introduced the CO 2 Offset Policy Efficiency Act (COPE), which incorporates the use of marketable permits to reduce CO 2 emissions. For COPE to be fully effective, however, several key criteria must be met: (1) establishing initial baselines will be critical to ensure that emission reductions are credited properly; (2) accurate plant-by-plant monitoring must be in place to ensure that claimed reductions have actually occurred; (3) the program must include a strong enforcement provision to prevent evasion and to punish violators with substantial automatic fines. COPE imposes a sanction equal to roughly four times the estimated cost of offsets; the sanctions would be paid before enforcement proceedings commence. The urgency and complexity of global warming requires us to break with the past and develop new ways of delaying with pollution, Senator Lieberman feels by giving the market a chance to work on behalf of the environment, the sale of emission allowance will reduce CO 2 emissions in the most-efficient cost-effective way possible

  7. 77 FR 3227 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... and clearance under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13. Comments regarding (a... year experience, weather occurrences and projections, market demand, new farming techniques and... supply current data on a program year basis by the final reporting date established for their country to...

  8. 78 FR 22036 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... fair market value of the underlying property before and after the donation and (2) the conservation... qualified conservation contributions (Sec. 1.170A-14). DATES: Written comments should be received on or... INFORMATION: Title: Qualified Conservation Contributions. OMB Number: 1545-0763. Regulation Project Number: TD...

  9. 75 FR 79334 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... Perception and Awareness Survey'' and the ``U.S. Commercial Service Customer Satisfaction Survey'') to: (1) Assess our marketing and promotional activities; and (2) measure clients' overall satisfaction with the... (or via the Internet at [email protected] ). Written comments and recommendations for the proposed...

  10. 75 FR 60507 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Regulation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ..., or a property transfer (or transfer of the right to use property) a fair market value. Current... opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork... Service, room 6129, 1111 Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20224. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  11. [Impact of rural land market on farm household's behavior of soil & water conservation and its regional difference: A case study of Xingguo, Shangrao, and Yujiang County in Jiangxi province ecologically vulnerable districts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Tai-Yang; Huang, Xian-jin

    2006-02-01

    The paper analyzed the farm households' decision-making progress of soil & water conservation and its two-stage conceptual model. It also discussed the impacts of rural land market on the farm households' behavior of soil & water conservation. Given that, the article established models for the relations between the land market and soil & water conservation, and the models' parameters were estimated with Heckman's two-stage approach by using the farm household questionnaires in Xingguo, Shangrao and Yujiang counties of Jiangxi province. The paper analyzed the impact o f rural land market on farm household's behavior of soil & water conservation and its regional difference with the result of model estimation. The results show that the perception of soil & water loss and the tax & fee on the farm land have significant influence upon the soil and water conservation from the view of the population; however, because of different social and economic condition, and soil & water loss, there are differences of the influence among the three sample counties. These differences go as follows in detail: In Xingguo County, the rent-in land area and its cost have remarkable effect on the farm households' soil & water conservation behavior; In Yujiang County, the rent-in land area, rent-in cost and rent-out land area remarkably influence the farm households' behavior of soil and water conservation, with the influence of the rent-in land area being greater than Xingguo County; In Shangrao County, only rent-out land area has significant influence on the behaviors of soil & water conservation; In all samples, Xingguo County and Yujiang County samples, the rent-out income has no significant influence on the farm household's decision-making behavior soil and water conservation. Finally, the paper put forward some suggestions on how to bring the soil & water loss under control and use land resource in sustainable ways.

  12. Using the market at a cost: How the introduction of green certificates in Sweden lead to market inefficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundqvist, Thomas; Nilsson, Mats

    2005-01-01

    The paper examines the transactions costs in the Swedish electricity retail market arising as a result of the implementation of a green certificate system. Since transaction costs cannot be measured directly, we analyze the margin between what the retailers pay for the certificates and what they charge the end-users for the certificate service. Our results show the necessity to put either market or regulatory pressure on the retailers. There are strong indications that the retailers have used the green certificate market to extract oligopoly rents. We propose that the competitive pressure on the retailers should be strengthened by, for example, shifting the quota obligation to the retailers and/or by including the pricing of the certificate-service in the end-user price of electricity. Furthermore, we restate the obvious fact that the number of policy instruments implemented in a particular market matters insofar that each and every policy will create transaction costs. (Author)

  13. Market research on biogas valorizations and methanization. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    This market research aims at giving an overview of the existing methanization installations and of their dynamics in France, at assessing biogas production and use, at analyzing the methanization market, and at defining development perspectives for this sector by 2020. Based on a survey of methanization installations, on interviews with many actors of this sector, and on a seminar organized on this topic, this report presents and comments market data for biogas valorization and methanization in different sectors: household, agricultural, and industrial and waste water processing plants. It comments evolution trends by 2020 for these sectors, and the role that the emerging sector of centralized methanization could have in the years to come

  14. Market vs. policy failures. How governments affect electricity markets and what they should do

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jus, Darko

    2013-11-06

    This dissertation analyzes four key aspects related to the development of renewable energy. Firstly, in the presence of a climate change externality, a first-best allocation on the electricity market generally cannot be achieved with a renewable energy subsidy, thus highlighting its imperfectness in replacing a correct pricing of carbon dioxide emissions (Chapter 2). Secondly, supposing the existence of an emission trading system, this dissertation investigates the effects of additionally supporting renewable energy. Surprisingly, when considering a one-country model, the market participant who loses rents due to the introduction of a levy-financing subsidy scheme, such as the case of Germany, proves to be the fossil electricity producers rather than the electricity consumers (Chapter 3). Thirdly, considering a more realistic two-country framework, it becomes more likely that domestic electricity consumers have to accept a higher electricity price, while rents are shifted to foreign electricity consumers as a consequence of unilateral renewable energy support (Chapter 4). Fourthly, this dissertation studies reasons for employing technology-specific feed-in tariffs, and in contrast to usual intuition, finds them to be (static) efficiency improving when policy has committed to achieving a strong renewable energy target (Chapter 5).

  15. Market vs. policy failures. How governments affect electricity markets and what they should do

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jus, Darko

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes four key aspects related to the development of renewable energy. Firstly, in the presence of a climate change externality, a first-best allocation on the electricity market generally cannot be achieved with a renewable energy subsidy, thus highlighting its imperfectness in replacing a correct pricing of carbon dioxide emissions (Chapter 2). Secondly, supposing the existence of an emission trading system, this dissertation investigates the effects of additionally supporting renewable energy. Surprisingly, when considering a one-country model, the market participant who loses rents due to the introduction of a levy-financing subsidy scheme, such as the case of Germany, proves to be the fossil electricity producers rather than the electricity consumers (Chapter 3). Thirdly, considering a more realistic two-country framework, it becomes more likely that domestic electricity consumers have to accept a higher electricity price, while rents are shifted to foreign electricity consumers as a consequence of unilateral renewable energy support (Chapter 4). Fourthly, this dissertation studies reasons for employing technology-specific feed-in tariffs, and in contrast to usual intuition, finds them to be (static) efficiency improving when policy has committed to achieving a strong renewable energy target (Chapter 5).

  16. SPORT MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Omer Špirtović; Danilo Aćimović; Ahmet Međedović; Zoran Bogdanović

    2010-01-01

    Word „marketing“ comes from AngloSaxon linguistic domain and implies in a narrow sense the market. Under marketing, we consider certain process, which should create and solve relations of exchange between manufacturers on one side, and consumers on the other. Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primaly an eco...

  17. Mobile marketing

    OpenAIRE

    KLEČKOVÁ, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to provide a comprehensive overview of the mobile marketing and analyze selected campaigns of Czech mobile marketing in comparison to world successful campaigns. The research contained studying of available literature about the theme to gain general knowledge about the issue. The theoretical part of the thesis contains predominantly various definitions of mobile marketing and its tools, advantages of these tools and some information about Mobile Marketing Assoc...

  18. Marketing Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Andrýsková, Hana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to examine current marketing efforts of AARON - the leading seller of digital cameras. I will analyze current marketing tools and suggest improvements in efficiency and effectiveness of these tools. Marketing strategy is a method of managing and coordinating efforts in marketing field so that the goals can be reached. The aim is to increase sales, turnover, revenues, profits, drive out competition and also to build up a corporate image and corporate culture. I will a...

  19. Marketing 101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Karla A.

    1997-01-01

    A marketing model for camps includes a mix of services, presentation, and communication elements that promote the virtues of camp, convince potential campers and their families of the benefits of camp, and successfully distinguish the camp from others. Includes resources related to marketing strategies, theme merchandise, and market trends…

  20. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The hottest financial market topic of the moment could be the subprime loan crisis in the United States. The crisis has stormed the U.S. stock market, dragging it to its biggest falls in a single trading day. Other markets, such as Japan’s, were also vul

  1. Auto Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    <正> Editor’s notes: As China’s WTO entry is drawing near, Chinese people are witnessing the marketing activities of foreign automakers in China: establishing new firms and promoting new vehicles, etc. In face of the enormous Chinese market, foreign automakers are busy in establishing their brand images, fostering consumption population in order to take more market shares in the future.

  2. Service marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić-Hodović Vesna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of postindustrial society and services revolution created numerous changes in size of consumer demand, consumer reaction and priorities. Continuous change on the side of demand and offer must follow changes in marketing orientation. Leader in that change is services marketing which by knowing services range and all the changes builds a new concept called Relationship Marketing.

  3. THE MARKET VALUE OF THE REAL ESTATE IN A SIGNIFICANT DEVALUATION OF THE NATIONAL CURRENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VORONIN V. A.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. The current state of the real estate market is characterized by high inflation and a significant devaluation of national currency. In markets with mixed prices impact of devaluation and inflation against the foreign currency have most complex nature and usually leads to slower growth in prices in local currency and partial de-dollarization of the market. Provided that the value of the real estate market is denominated in local and foreign currency, it is necessary to solve the problem of correspondence between these prices. With this condition must be satisfied that the market prices in local currency correspond to the state of the real estate market on the valuation date. Purpose. Development of the method, which should take into account the particular valuation procedures in determining the market value of the local currency in terms of the existence of high inflation and a significant devaluation. The study of this problem, especially for the markets of emerging economics, is an urgent and important task of applied economic analysis and, in particular, the theory and practice of evaluation as part of this analysis. Conclusion. To achieve this goal have been developed and used techniques and methods of applied economic analysis and, in particular, the theory and practice of evaluation as part of this analysis. Satisfactory agreement obtained values and the market rent rate, which are responsible of the real estate market in a significant devaluation of local currency, confirm the position that the correction in market conditions ("discount on the offer price" and "market conditions" must be done in determining the market value so and the market rent rate.

  4. China’s bullet trains facilitate market integration and mitigate the cost of megacity growth

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Siqi; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2013-01-01

    Megacity growth in the developing world is fueled by a desire to access their large local labor markets. Growing megacities suffer from high levels of traffic congestion and pollution, which degrade local quality of life. Transportation technology that allows individuals to access the megacity without living within its boundaries offers potentially large social benefits, because individuals can enjoy the benefits of urban agglomeration while not paying megacity real estate rents and suffering...

  5. Marketing maloobchodu

    OpenAIRE

    Demuth, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is about the situation of retail marketing in Czech republic, with a special focus on in-store marketing instruments and activities. The goal of this work is to evaluate the application of these marketing instruments in a specific retail store. This chosen store is supermarket Billa. The first part of the thesis is offering theoretical base for in-store marketing activities and also presents the history of retail marketing in Czech republic. The second part is focusing on the situ...

  6. MARKETING CHANNELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Marketing channel is a set of entities and institutions, completion of distribution and marketing activities, attend the efficient and effective networking of producers and consumers. Marketing channels include the total flows of goods, money and information taking place between the institutions in the system of marketing, establishing a connection between them. The functions of the exchange, the physical supply and service activities, inherent in the system of marketing and trade. They represent paths which products and services are moving after the production, which will ultimately end up buying and eating by the user.

  7. Capacity Markets and Market Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, Hoff

    2006-01-01

    The good news is that market stability can be achieved through a combination of longer-term contracts, auctions for far enough in the future to permit new entry, a capacity management system, and a demand curve. The bad news is that if and when stable capacity markets are designed, the markets may seem to be relatively close to where we started - with integrated resource planning. Market ideologues will find this anathema. (author)

  8. Market formation and market selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Raalte, C.L.J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The organization of markets is an important field of inquiry in modern economic theory. This monograph analyzes models which consider the formation and selection of markets. In these models, markets are organized by middlemen and used by traders. In Part I of the monograph, coalitions of middlemen

  9. Market Survey Turkey. Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    The present market survey presents the Turkish power market and derives business opportunities and prospects for Dutch trade and industry. This market survey has been carried out for the following four, from time to time overlapping, sectors that have been identified by EVD as potential opportunities for Dutch small and medium-sized enterprises (SME): renewable energy, energy efficiency, electricity generation, electricity distribution

  10. World market of marketing research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuels John

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The value of the total world market market research in the year 2001 was US$15,890 million, a 2.8% increase on the previous year. This is the first of several articles to be published in Research World on the results from ESOMAR's latest annual study on the market research sector worldwide

  11. The electricity market in transition: a decoding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, Mathilde; Schwarz, Virginie; Chapon, Antoine; Fouquet, Doerte; Joos, Marine; Jedliczka, Marc; Siess, Damien

    2015-01-01

    A set of article proposes a discussion of the main challenges for energy transition for the architecture of the European electricity market, an interview of the responsible of the energy department within the French ministry of ecology (she addresses the issues of market, electricity system, renewable energies), a discussion of the first lessons learned from the integration of renewable energies in the electricity market, a comment on hazardous evolutions for independent producers, a discussion of the pilot stage for bidding in Germany, a discussion of false ideas and true challenges in the relationship between demand management and integration, a comment on the evolution towards a complete reform of the support system for renewable energies, and a discussion of the perspectives beyond 40 per cent of renewable energies in the French electricity mix

  12. Response to Commentators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasello Michael

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a reply to the comments by Henrike Moll, Glenda Satne, Ladislav Koreň and Michael Schmitz on Michael Tomasello, A Natural History of Human Thinking (Harvard University Press, 2014.

  13. Extracting the resource rent from the CDM projects: Can the Chinese Government do better?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xuemei

    2010-01-01

    The revenue generated from a CDM project in China will be shared by the government and the project owner, and is also subject to the corporate income tax. This paper studies the impacts of the revenue sharing policy and income tax on the CDM market. The economic model presented in this paper shows that higher-cost CDM projects will be more affected by the CDM policies than lower-cost projects. In addition, the majority of CERs will be generated from lower-cost projects. This kind of distribution of CERs across different types of CDM projects, which is in line with the current picture of the CDM market in China, is not consistent with the goal of sustainable development. A simulation shows that a type-by-type tax/fee scheme would be more effective in assisting sustainable development than the current CDM policies. The study also suggests the government use negative tax/fee with the type-by-type scheme to subsidize the CDM projects that generate large sustainability benefits but would otherwise not be developed due to high costs. If all of the revenue from the CDM is recycled, it is estimated that CERs generation will increase by 98.28 MtC, mainly from the CDM projects that have substantial sustainability benefits for the host country.

  14. 77 FR 70746 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-592); Comment Request; Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... information collection, Standards of Conduct for Transmission Provider; and Marketing Affiliates of Interstate... transportation information, which allows them to compete with marketing affiliates on a more equal basis. 18 CFR... Information Collection Activities (FERC-592); Comment Request; Extension AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory...

  15. 77 FR 48504 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Economic Value of Puerto Rico's Coral Reef...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Economic Value of Puerto Rico's Coral Reef Ecosystems for Recreation-Tourism... the market and non-market economic values of Puerto Rico's coral reef ecosystems. Estimates will be... Puerto Rico's coral reef ecosystems. The required information is to conduct focus groups to help in...

  16. 78 FR 3393 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Senior Farmers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ...: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--Senior Farmers' Market Nutrition Program (SFMNP) AGENCY: Food and... information collection. This is a renewal of the currently approved collection for the Senior Farmers' Market... Division at 703-305-2746 or [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Senior Farmers...

  17. 76 FR 9695 - Proposed Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Extension of Comment Period...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1214 [Document No. AMS-FV-10... of Comment Period on Proposed Establishment of a Program AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA... Internet at http://www.regulations.gov or to the Research and Promotion Branch, Fruit and Vegetable...

  18. Examining the Academic/Practitioner Divide in Marketing Research

    OpenAIRE

    Baines, Paul R.; Brennan, Ross; Gill, Mark; Mortimore, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to comment on the differences in perceptions that exist between academic and professional marketing researchers, as creators of new marketing knowledge, and explore how academics and practitioners can work together better on areas of mutual interest or separately on areas where their interests do not coincide. Design/methodology/approach - The approach is via two focus groups, one with researchers in marketing from universities and one ...

  19. 78 FR 60998 - Proposed Collection: Information Collection Surrounding the Sale and Issue of Marketable Book...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... Collection Surrounding the Sale and Issue of Marketable Book-Entry Securities ACTION: Notice and request for... Department of the Treasury is soliciting comments concerning the Sale and Issue of Marketable Book-Entry... Marketable Book-Entry Securities. OMB Number: 1535-0112. Abstract: The information is requested to ensure...

  20. 78 FR 20898 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Notice of Intent to Renew Collection: Market Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... prevention of market manipulation. DATES: Comments must be submitted on or before June 7, 2013. ADDRESSES... positions held or introduced by futures commission merchants, members of contract markets, introducing... is designed to assist the Commission in prevention of market manipulation and is promulgated pursuant...

  1. 76 FR 32880 - Encouraging New Markets Tax Credit Non-Real Estate Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... Encouraging New Markets Tax Credit Non-Real Estate Investments AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS... markets tax credit. Specifically, this document invites comments from the public on how the new markets tax credit program may be amended to encourage non-real estate investments. The regulations will...

  2. Les pressions écologiques réglementaires : comment les entreprises tunisiennes les gèrent-elles ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Turki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Les entreprises sont de plus en plus appelées aujourd’hui à prendre en considération les aspects environnementaux dans leur gestion. Elles sont la cible des pressions environnementales dont la principale source est les pouvoirs publics. Ainsi, le présent papier se propose d’étudier la nature de la relation entre les entreprises et les pouvoirs publics en matière de protection de l’environnement. Afin d’atteindre cet objectif, une étude de cas est effectuée sur 8 entreprises tunisiennes dont deux sont certifiées par la norme ISO 14001. Les résultats montrent que toutes les entreprises ont fait l’objet d’inspections périodiques et de pénalités de la part des pouvoirs publics qui constituent la principale et parfois l’unique source de pression environnementale dans le contexte tunisien. Ces entreprises trouvent que les normes législatives environnementales sont difficiles à atteindre. Aussi, les résultats identifient deux types de relations entre les entreprises et les pouvoirs publics : coopérative et conflictuelle. De même, l’étude de cas montre que les pressions environnementales ont diminué suite aux actions environnementales effectuées mais demeurent toujours présentes.Companies are today more and more called to consider the ecological aspects in their management. They are the target of the ecological pressures the main source of which is public authorities. So, the present paper suggests studying the nature of the relation between companies and public authorities in environmental protection. To reach this objective, a case study is made on 8 Tunisian companies among which two are certified to the standard ISO 14001. The results show that public authorities (constitute the most and sometimes the only source of ecological pressure in the Tunisian context. These pressures show themselves by overhauls and penalties. These companies find that the environmental legislative standards are difficult to achieve. So, the results identify two types of relation between companies and public authorities: cooperative and conflicting. Also, the case study shows that the ecological pressures decreased further to the ecological initiatives.

  3. Demand response in Indian electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, Md Zakaria; Maere d'Aertrycke, Gauthier de; Smeers, Yves

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines a methodology for implementing cost of service regulation in retail market for electricity in India when wholesale market is liberalised and operates through an hourly spot market. As in a developing country context political considerations make tariff levels more important than supply security, satisfying the earmarked level of demand takes a back seat. Retail market regulators are often forced by politicians to keep the retail tariff at suboptimal level. This imposes budget constraint on distribution companies to procure electricity that it requires to meet the earmarked level of demand. This is the way demand response is introduced in the system and has its impact on spot market prices. We model such a situation of not being able to serve the earmarked demand as disutility to the regulator which has to be minimised and we compute associated equilibrium. This results in systematic mechanism for cutting loads. We find that even a small cut in ability of the distribution companies to procure electricity from the spot market has profound impact on the prices in the spot market. - Highlights: ► Modelling the impact of retail tariff in different states on spot prices of electricity in India. ► Retail tariffs are usually fixed below appropriate levels by states due to political reasons. ► Due to revenue constraint distribution utility withdraws demand from spot market in peak hours. ► This adversely affects the scarcity rent of generators and subsequently future investment. ► We show possibility of strategic behaviour among state level regulators in setting retail tariff.

  4. Regulating Market Entry of Low-Cost Private Schools in Sub-Saharan Africa : Towards a Theory of Private Education Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, Donald R.; Cooper, Rachel; Lusk-Stover, Oni

    2018-01-01

    This study provides a comparative assessment of policies governing private schools in twenty countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Findings suggest that current regulatory systems are failing to adequately address the negative externalities and failures of private schooling markets. Insufficient capacity on the part of governments is a contributor to uneven policy implementation and creates opportunities for rent-seeking and corruption. Onerous market entry regulations offer constraints on the gro...

  5. Annual survey of the natural gas market: 2010 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welter-Nicol, Cecile

    2011-12-01

    This document presents and briefly comments the main data of the natural gas market in France in 2010: gas production (only 2 pc of supplies), gas transit evolutions since 2007 (entry points receiving gas from various origins and export points to Spain and Switzerland), outlines the increase of imports from Norway, comments gas storage capacities, the evolution of gas distribution in France, the evolution of gas consumption, and gas sales in the different French regions and to different kinds of customers or industries

  6. Marketization Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Lindholst, Andrej Christian

    2016-01-01

    out; Benchmarking and yardstick competition; and Public-Private collaboration. On the basis of the review of the seven articles, it is found that all elements in all marketization models are firmly embedded but also under dynamic change within public service delivery systems. The review also......Purpose: The purpose of this introduction article to the IJPSM special issue on marketization is to clarify the conceptual foundations of marketization as a phenomenon within the public sector and to gauge current marketization trends on the basis of the seven articles in the special issue. Design....../methodology/approach: Conceptual clarification and cross-cutting review of seven articles analysing marketization in six countries in three policy areas at the level of local government. Findings: Four ideal-type models are deduced: Quasi-markets, involving both provider competition and free choice for users; Classic contracting...

  7. Marketing automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TODOR Raluca Dania

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The automation of the marketing process seems to be nowadays, the only solution to face the major changes brought by the fast evolution of technology and the continuous increase in supply and demand. In order to achieve the desired marketing results, businessis have to employ digital marketing and communication services. These services are efficient and measurable thanks to the marketing technology used to track, score and implement each campaign. Due to the technical progress, the marketing fragmentation, demand for customized products and services on one side and the need to achieve constructive dialogue with the customers, immediate and flexible response and the necessity to measure the investments and the results on the other side, the classical marketing approached had changed continue to improve substantially.

  8. SPORT MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Špirtović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Word „marketing“ comes from AngloSaxon linguistic domain and implies in a narrow sense the market. Under marketing, we consider certain process, which should create and solve relations of exchange between manufacturers on one side, and consumers on the other. Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primaly an economical process of connecting produktion (sport organizations with sportsmen and coaches and consumption (sport and other public. Sport marketing is the reality in sport today, and cannot be observed as fashionabless of capitalistic production. Today is almost impossible for sport organization to make business without its business part called sport marketing if it wants to survive in sport arena.

  9. Sport Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Ekmekci, Ridvan; Ekmekçi, Aytul Yeter

    2009-01-01

    Abstract  Marketing which is entered to almost our whole life, now more than goods and services, became an important  concept of ideas, persons, institutions, events, and facilities. As a main activities of business co. marketing has an important place in sports industry. Recently, the development of special sport marketing strategies and the presentation of sport goods and services to consumers are gaining importance. Efforts of increasing income of sport clubs, because of sport organization...

  10. Viral Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Sorina Raula Gîrboveanu; Silvia Puiu

    2008-01-01

    With consumers showing increasing resistance to traditional forms of advertising such as TV or newspaper ads, marketers have turned to alternate strategies, including viral marketing. Viral marketing exploits existing social networks by encouraging customers to share product information with their friends.In our study we are able to directly observe the effectiveness of person to person word of mouth advertising for hundreds of thousands of products for the first time

  11. Online marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Zrůst, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to evaluate pay per click marketing as suitable marketing tool for promotion and distribution of a given product. The paper describes basic vocabulary related to PPC advertising, common metrics, tools used by online marketers, and logic of running PPC campaigns. The paper also tries to quantify impact of Internet on economies. The second part applies the theory to analysis of consumers' conversion path while searching online in common search engines where PPC marketi...

  12. Affiliate marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Ureš, Michal

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor's thesis focuses on the topic of online affiliate marketing from the perspective of an internet entrepreneur. In the first, theoretical part, it characterizes the affiliate marketing, describes different, significant affiliate solutions in the Czech market and opportunities for their implementations. In the second, practical part, it concentrates mainly on an affiliate program of a company called GameLeader, s.r.o. It analyses expectations of the business from the implementation...

  13. Power marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sioshansi, F.P.; Altman, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    One of the most significant developments in the US electric power industry in recent years has been the phenomenal growth of power marketing. What was barely a blimp on the radar screen in 1992 has turned out to be a jumbo jet. This article explains what is power marketing who are power marketers, what role play these players and what will be their longer-term impact on the traditional industry [it

  14. Marketing plan

    OpenAIRE

    Jantunen, Essi; Hellman, Annika

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor’s thesis was to draw up an efficient marketing plan for Pohjolan Vihreä Polku Oy, which offers meeting and nature activity services. The company was in a process of conversion and needed a structured marketing plan. The objectives of the company were perceived through severe research. The main purposes of the marketing plan were to raise the visibility of the company and increase its clientele. The proposed marketing actions are also to be used to improve the company’...

  15. Developing markets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueiredo, Bernardo; Chelekis, Jessica; DeBerry-Spence, Benet

    2015-01-01

    acknowledging complex, systemic interdependencies between markets, marketing, and society. Based on a critical review of the meaning of development and an interrogation of various developmental discourses, the authors develop a conceptual framework that brings together issues of development, wellbeing......, and social inequalities. We suggest that these issues are better understooda nd addressed when examined via grounded investigations of the role of markets in shaping the management of resources, consumer agency, power inequalities and ethics. The use of markets as units of analysis may lead to further cross...

  16. Review Symposium. "Working in America: A Blueprint for the New Labor Market," by Paul Osterman, Thomas A. Kochan, Richard Locke, and Michael J. Piore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Harry C., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    A panel comments on the book, Working in America, and implications for the U.S. labor market, including declining traditional internal labor markets, the need for private versus public policy interventions, international labor policy, and value-based policy. Commentators include David Neumark, Peter Cappelli, Sanford M. Jacoby, Rebecca M. Blank,…

  17. 41 CFR 102-85.190 - Can GSA Rent be adjusted when standard levels of service are performed by other customer agencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... when standard levels of service are performed by other customer agencies? 102-85.190 Section 102-85.190... perform or contract for such services must be obtained in advance by the customer agency from the... of Service § 102-85.190 Can GSA Rent be adjusted when standard levels of service are performed by...

  18. 30 CFR 285.508 - What rent payments must I pay on ROW grants or RUE grants associated with renewable energy projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RUE grants associated with renewable energy projects? 285.508 Section 285.508 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF... § 285.508 What rent payments must I pay on ROW grants or RUE grants associated with renewable energy...

  19. Capacity competition in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crampes, Claude; Creti, Anna

    2005-01-01

    The article analyzed a two-stage game where capacity constrained electricity generators first choose how much capacity they make available and then compete in a uniform-rice auction. It is studied how capacity withholding can be used strategically to enforce market power and how uniform auctions in the price game change the results of capacity constrained competition models. The uniform auction procedure gives strong incentives to capacity restriction. At equilibrium, however, power shortage never occurs. Though auctions in electricity markets have already been studied by several economists, yet an important feature of spot trading is the capacity availability decision. In fact, for technical reasons, such as equipment maintenance or failures, the installed capacity may not work at maximum operating level and the spot market rules oblige generators to announce which plants they are willing to use and simultaneously their offer prices. Beside technical reasons, the so-called 'capacity declarations' also offer a strategic instrument for firms: by restricting capacity, operators can benefit from scarcity rents. Assessing whether generators withhold capacity is an intriguing issue for real electricity markets, though proving it is a difficult task. Several theoretical papers show that generators are able to keep wholesale prices high as compared to their generation costs. In our model, a generator is not obliged to declare all installed capacity as available, but decides on the amount of MW of electricity that is available. Hence the available capacity is an endogenous variable while the installed one is exogenous. The distinction between installed capacities and 'available' capacities allows to explain clearly whether generators exert market power by declaring unavailable some production units. Although we find multiple sub game perfect equilibria that cannot be eliminated by Pareto-dominance, all the outcomes are characterized by market price at the highest

  20. Sexual Markets or Black Markets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes-Green, Christian

    2014-01-01

    sex with sugar-daddies, called sponsors or patrons, who provide for them in exchange for sex while male peers often become street vendors, street artists or petty criminals engaged in the so-called ‘black’ markets of theft, sale of counterfeits, and circulation of stolen goods, alcohol and drugs. As I...... show, these gendered markets are highly entangled and interdependent, and as I argue, male and female markets use many of the same technologies, sources and circuits of exchange...

  1. Inter-trading permanent emissions credits and rented temporary carbon emissions offsets. Some issues and alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedjo, Roger A.; Marland, Gregg

    2003-01-01

    Permit trading among polluting parties is now firmly established as a policy tool in a range of environmental policy areas. The Kyoto Protocol accepts the principle that sequestration of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere can be used to offset emissions of carbon from fossil fuel combustion and outlines mechanisms. Although the lack of guaranteed permanence of biological offsets is often viewed as a defect, this paper argues that the absence of guaranteed permanence need not be a fundamental problem. We view carbon emissions as a liability issue. One purpose of an emissions credit system is to provide the emitter with a means to satisfy the carbon liability associated with her firm's (or country's) release of carbon into the atmosphere. We have developed and here expand on a rental approach, in which sequestered carbon is explicitly treated as temporary: the emitter temporarily satisfies his liability by temporarily 'parking' his liability, for a fee, in a terrestrial carbon reservoir, or 'sink,' such as a forest or agricultural soil. Finally, the paper relates the value of permanent and temporary sequestration and argues that both instruments are tradable and have a high degree of substitutability that allows them to interact in markets

  2. Students' Responses to Teacher Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Thomas C.

    1972-01-01

    In an investigation of the effects of praise, negative comment and no comment on expository compositions of eleventh grade students, author hypothesized that praise might increase motivation more than criticism or no comment. He suggests an experiment to test this phypothesis. (NL)

  3. Marketing Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilke, Ricky

    2012-01-01

    Book review of: Christian Homburg, Sabine Kuester, Harley Krohmer, Marketing Management – A Contemporary Perspective, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009......Book review of: Christian Homburg, Sabine Kuester, Harley Krohmer, Marketing Management – A Contemporary Perspective, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009...

  4. Market shifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forst, Michael

    2013-11-01

    After years of oversupply and artificially low module pricing, market analysts believe that the solar industry will begin to stabilize by 2017. While the market activities are shifting from Europe to the Asia Pacific region and the United States, the solar shakeout continues to be in full swing including solar cell and module manufacturing. (orig.)

  5. Marketing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancil, Ronald A., Sr.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the Marketing Education program at West Haven (CT) High School in West Haven, Connecticut, that promotes skills for life and attributes, enhances the academic program, and develops leaders out of ordinary students through an interactive curriculum. The three components of West Haven's marketing and management program are (1)…

  6. Art Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Arora (Payal); F.R.R. Vermeylen (Filip)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe advent of digitization has had a profound impact on the art market and its institutions. In this chapter, we focus on the market for visual arts as it finds its expression in (among other) paintings, prints, drawings, photographs, sculpture and the like. These artistic disciplines

  7. Direct marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čičić Muris

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct Marketing (DM is usually treated as unworthy activity, with actions at the edge of legality and activities minded cheating. Despite obvious problems regarding ethics and privacy threat, DM with its size, importance and role in a concept of integrated marketing communication deserves respect and sufficient analysis and review

  8. Tourism Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document contains teacher materials for a 6-unit, 1-year distributive education course in marketing tourism offered in grades 11 and 12 in North Carolina. Although in general the material presented concerns marketing tourism anywhere, some of it is specifically related to tourism within North Carolina. A purpose statement explains the…

  9. Observatory of electricity and gas markets, data from the 3. quarter 2004 to the 1. quarter 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-04-01

    This document gathers those published for each quarter since the 3. quarter 2004 and until the 1. quarter 2013. Each of them proposes and comments figures and tables of data regarding the electricity retail market (customer segments, evolution, price on the retail market), the electricity gross market (French market activity and European comparison, prices on the French market and European comparison, import and export volumes, market evolution), the gas retail market (customer segments, evolution, switch rate of providers, price, bill evolution...) and the gas gross market (price formation in France and in Europe, gross market activity in France, highlights)

  10. Border markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this issue of Articulo – Journal of Urban Research is to examine the characteristics of border markets in a comparative perspective. In this introductory paper, I first discuss what makes African border markets different from other markets, and examine several factors that explain...... their unequal economic development: the presence of a trade community, the combination of trading and productive activities, and the relative porosity of borders. In a second part, I examine how border markets on the U.S.-Mexico border must simultaneously guarantee the security of the state while favoring...... regional trade. The last part of the paper argues that more policy attention should be paid to border markets which, despite being at the margin of states, are a vital component of their economy. Fifty years after most West African states became independent and just as NAFTA turns 20, it is high time...

  11. Crossover marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, D.S.

    1998-01-01

    The impact of a deregulated energy market on customers in Ontario was discussed. In particular, the way in which Sunoco will deal with energy convergence and how Sunoco plans to generate interest among residential consumers in a deregulated and competitive energy market was described. Integrated energy solutions that offer customers value-added heating, ventilating and air conditioning products and services, inclusive of equipment sales, installation, repair, rental, leasing, financing, warranty, insurance and maintenance is the ultimate goal of Sunoco. The major retail issues in the energy market such as licensing of marketers, customer mobility, transfer of utility assets to affiliates, Ontario Hydro's market power in electrical generation, distribution of stranded debt charges, and a timetable for deregulation were also addressed. figs

  12. Marketing is Dead! Long Live Marketing!

    OpenAIRE

    Marjanova Jovanov, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    The contents of the lectures included: Why marketing? Citizen, Consumer, Customer (Behavior) Who is the Father of Marketing? Some Antecedents of Marketing When Did Marketing Start? The Contributors of Marketing Where Did Marketing Start? Job Positions in Today’s Marketing Organization The Role of the Chief Marketing Officer Four Different CEO Views of Marketing Reality – Truth – Challenge (Why Can’t We Make It?) The Strong and Steady Progress of Marketi...

  13. Gas market is today strategical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darricarrere, Y.L.

    2006-01-01

    The energy market, and in particular the gas market, is today seething with excitement. In France, in Europe and in the rest of the world, the energy stakes are in the center of preoccupations. This article is an interview of Y.L. Darricarrere, general director of the gas and electricity division of Total group, who explains his opinions about the opening of European and French energy markets, presents the ambitions of Total group on these markets, and comments some recent events of the European energy scene: concentration between gas and electric utilities, the Suez and Gaz de France (GdF) project of merger, the risks linked with the coming in of national companies from producing countries, like Gazprom and Sonatrach, on the European market, the restriction of access of foreign companies to hydrocarbon reserves in Russia and Latin America (come back of the 'energy nationalism'), Total's policy for anticipating the increase of the world energy demand and the depletion of fossil fuel reserves. (J.S.)

  14. Mobile Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Luengo Cascudo, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    El principal objetivo de este proyecto es explicar y entender la importancia del Mobile Marketing como nueva herramienta de negocio en el Marketing empresarial. Para ello, el primer objetivo es entender los dos factores que para mí son la clave de su importancia: la evolución del entorno tecnológico y el cambio en los hábitos del consumidor. Debido a la novedad de esta nueva forma de Marketing y al hecho de que está en constante definición, es básico exponer de la forma más cla...

  15. Mobile Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    竹安, 数博; Takeyasu, Kazuhiro

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with one of the modern trends in marketing communication, which is mobile marketing. Towards the end of 2008, several projects which use mobile phones for target marketing communication were launched. Commercial SMS´s are sent on the base of agreement or registration of the consumers on special websites, for example hellomobil.cz. The benefit for the consumers is the bonus which can have more forms - not only sending money to the account, free SMS´s/MMS´s and minutes but al...

  16. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    TO THE POINT:The government vows to control the real estate market after a year of robust growth.To diversify financial investment tools,the regulatory authorities approved the launch of stock index futures,and short selling and margin trading to allow investors to hedge against risks.China overtakes the United States to become the world’s biggest auto market in2009.The country is also expected to become the largest consumer market in the world by2020.Google threatens to halt its China operations if it cannot reach a censorship agreement with the government.

  17. Uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubini, L.A.; Asem, M.A.D.

    1990-01-01

    The historical development of the uranium market is present in two periods: The initial period 1947-1970 and from 1970 onwards, with the establishment of a commercial market. The world uranium requirements are derived from the corresponding forecast of nuclear generating capacity, with, particular emphasis to the brazilian requirements. The forecast of uranium production until the year 2000 is presented considering existing inventories and the already committed demand. The balance between production and requirements is analysed. Finally the types of contracts currently being used and the development of uranium prices in the world market are considered. (author)

  18. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China vows to keep a stringent handle on the industrial overcapacity that is draining life from the economic revival. China Mobile pushes forward OPhone and its operating system in an aggressive push into the 3G market. As its tight grip over the market slips, the wireless titan cannot wait to regain lost ground. China’s manufacturing sector continues to pick up steam as evidenced by the climbing PMI. Soaring prices of pork and eggs reignite fears over inflation. The buoyant real estate market appears to be nearing a turning point as sales cool down.

  19. The role of local governments in traditional market revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prastyawan, A.; Isbandono, P.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the discussion the role of local government in traditional market revitalization. It is obvious that traditional market contributes economically into a certain region. However, the existence of the traditional market is decreasing since there are modern markets that are fully facilitated by the government. In order to increase the economic standard of the traders, the government and the legislative revitalized the improper traditional market, without the participation of the society and the stakeholders. Government’s intention to revitalize the market is to increase local revenue. While the Legislative Council considered politically motivated by profit, rent-seeking. Restrictions on the aspirations of the traders in the revitalization cause resistance to the government. The traders wished to be recognized as part of the stakeholder. In the future, the market revitalization activities should involve the traders as the main actors who have received services from the government. Government as policy makers should consider as it partners in developing business traders and increase local revenues.

  20. The economics of international coal markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, Moritz

    2012-07-13

    In the scope of four related essays this thesis analyses the Chinese domestic coal sector and coal trade policies and their respective impact on international steam coal trade economics. In particular, the thesis investigates the role of domestic transport infrastructure investment policies as well as Chinese coal export and import controls and the potential exertion of market power through such trade instruments. For this purpose, several spatial equilibrium models have been developed that enable simulation runs to compare different policy scenarios. These models also permit ex-post analyses to empirically test hypotheses of non-competitive market conduct of individual players under the assumption of Cournot behaviour. These model-based analyses yield, among others, the following findings: If coal is converted into electricity early in the Chinese energy supply chain, worldwide marginal costs of supply are substantially lower than if coal is transported via railway. This can reduce China's dependence on international imports significantly. Allocation of welfare changes, particularly in favour of Chinese consumers while rents of international producers decrease. If not only seaborne trade but also interactions and feedbacks between domestic coal markets and international trade markets are accounted for, trade volumes and prices of a China - Indonesia duopoly fit the real market outcome best in 2008. Real Chinese export quotas have been consistent with simulated exports under a Cournot-Nash strategy. Uncertainties with regard to future Chinese coal demand and coal sector policies generate significant costs for international investors and lead to a spatial and temporal reallocation of mining and infrastructure investments. The potential exertion of Chinese demand side market power would further reduce the overall investment activity of exporters.

  1. The economics of international coal markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, Moritz

    2012-01-01

    In the scope of four related essays this thesis analyses the Chinese domestic coal sector and coal trade policies and their respective impact on international steam coal trade economics. In particular, the thesis investigates the role of domestic transport infrastructure investment policies as well as Chinese coal export and import controls and the potential exertion of market power through such trade instruments. For this purpose, several spatial equilibrium models have been developed that enable simulation runs to compare different policy scenarios. These models also permit ex-post analyses to empirically test hypotheses of non-competitive market conduct of individual players under the assumption of Cournot behaviour. These model-based analyses yield, among others, the following findings: If coal is converted into electricity early in the Chinese energy supply chain, worldwide marginal costs of supply are substantially lower than if coal is transported via railway. This can reduce China's dependence on international imports significantly. Allocation of welfare changes, particularly in favour of Chinese consumers while rents of international producers decrease. If not only seaborne trade but also interactions and feedbacks between domestic coal markets and international trade markets are accounted for, trade volumes and prices of a China - Indonesia duopoly fit the real market outcome best in 2008. Real Chinese export quotas have been consistent with simulated exports under a Cournot-Nash strategy. Uncertainties with regard to future Chinese coal demand and coal sector policies generate significant costs for international investors and lead to a spatial and temporal reallocation of mining and infrastructure investments. The potential exertion of Chinese demand side market power would further reduce the overall investment activity of exporters.

  2. Housing market volatility in the OECD area: Evidence from VAR based return decompositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard

    . For the majority of countries news about future returns is the main driver, and both real interest rates and risk premia play an important role in accounting for housing market volatility. Bivariate cross-country correlations and principal components analyses indicate that part of the return movements have......Vector-autoregressive models are used to decompose housing returns in 18 OECD countries into cash ‡ow (rent) news and discount rate (return) news. Only for two countries - Germany and Ireland - do changing expectations of future rents play a dominating role in explaining housing return volatility...... a common factor among the majority of countries. However, in a minority of countries (Germany, Japan, and the Netherlands) return movements have been basically unrelated to return movements in other countries....

  3. Mobile marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Gause, Matěj

    2012-01-01

    The goal of bachelor's thesis on the theme "Mobile marketing" is to outline its development and why is this new phenomen so important for all modern companies around the world. The work is not about simple description of mobile marketing media but it vividly informs about the latest trends and news from the world of mobile apps and games. It presents the most successful mobile apps which registered more than billion downloads and from their unique characteristics it unveils great potential of...

  4. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China’s manufacturing activities keep slowing down.The"big four"state-owned commercial banks have reaped juicy profits,though capital adequacy remains a concern.In striking contrast,the steelmakers are struggling to make ends meet as costs inflation erodes profit margins.The consumer market booms as usual during the May Day holiday.The search engine Baidu benefits from torrid traffic growth and a diversified market strategy.

  5. Entrepreneurial Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Marc

    2004-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is one of the youngest disciplines in the area of business administration. Hence, there is a special need for literature that can be used in teaching and that can serve as a basis for research. This article reviews five textbooks and three research-oriented books on entrepreneurial marketing, which is regarded as one of the key areas of entrepreneurship. As the review shows, there is no textbook that covers all relevant aspects of entrepreneurial marketing in sufficient bread...

  6. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The manufacturing industry shows signs of recovery as reflected by a rebounding PMI. The initial public offerings market withers due to less than favorable stock markets. Chinese shipbuilders reel from decreasing orders as external demands falter. The mobile payment industry bursts with vitality, though the security issue remains an acute concern. Foreign banks in China lag behind their local competitors in terms of profitability owing to limited ability to attract deposits.

  7. 1647 comments.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    ask for fax line). Cell: +2772 40 59 561. E-mail: frank.winde@gmx.de. Comments on: “Gold tailings as a source of waterborne uranium contamination of streams – The Koekemoerspruit as a case study” published in Water SA 30 (2) 219-240.

  8. Market scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Nova Scotia's Energy Strategy is aimed at opening the electricity market to wholesale competition, allowing eligible wholesale customers (such as municipal distribution utilities) to buy their electricity from competitive sources. The Nova Scotia Electricity Marketplace Governance Committee (EMGC) is concerned that this will not promote long-term competition because these eligible customers form only a very small fraction (1.6 per cent) of the total electricity demand in the province. This report examines the possible extensions of competition beyond the minimum specified in the Energy Strategy. It also identifies approaches that the EMGC may consider, including other potential levels of competition and their associated issues. The report discussed the issue of implementing wholesale competition as it relates to unbundling of the transmission tariff from the cost of energy supply and from the cost of distribution in retail marketing. The stages of expanding the market scope were also described with reference to large industrial customers, medium industrial and large commercial customers, and small commercial and residential customers. The report states that it is unlikely that the transition to an open access transmission market will need to be reversed, as it is likely to be an essential component of any further development. The EMGC feels it could minimize future transition costs and promote future evolution of competition by recommending for an institutional and market structure that is compatible with a broader competitive market

  9. Comments on the Brattle Report on Energy Mergers. A Report for Nuon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, P.; Gammons, S.; Smith, P.

    2006-08-01

    NERA Economic Consulting has been asked by the Dutch energy company Nuon to review the report Factors Affecting Geographic Market Definition and Merger Control for the Dutch Electricity Sector' (June 2006), authored by the Brattle Group, and issued in the context of the consultation by the Netherlands competition authority (NMa) on mergers on the energy markets in the Netherlands and a possible North-West European market. The consultancy was asked to focus primarily on the criteria that the Brattle Report proposes for assessing energy mergers. They do not comment on aspects of market definition, and instead proceed, in broad terms, on the assumption of the market definitions contained in the Brattle Report. Section 2 provides comments that relate to horizontal issues in electricity wholesale/generation. Section 3 discusses horizontal issues in electricity retail. Section 4 provides an analysis of vertical issues that might arise

  10. Ukraine Agricultural Land Market Formation Preconditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgen Dankevych

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical land relations reforming principles were reviewed.Land relations in agriculture transformation process was studied. The land use features were detected and agricultural land use efficiency analysis was conducted.Ukraine land market formation research problems results have been shown. It was established that private land ownership institution ambiguous attitude, rent relations deformation, lack of the property rights ensure mechanism inhibit the land market development. Sociological research of Ukrainian Polesie region to determine the prerequisites for agricultural land marketformation preconditions has been conducted. 787 respondents from Zhytomyr, Rivne and Volyn regions were interviewed. Land shares owners age structure, their distribution by education level, their employment, land shares owners and agricultural enterprises executives to the agricultural land sale moratorium cancellation attitudes, land purchase financial resources, directions of Ukrainian Polissya region land shares use, shares owners land issues level of awareness have been determined during the research. Was substantiated that agricultural land market turnover includes not only land sale moratorium cancellation but also the adoption of the legislative framework and the appropriate infrastructure development, one of the key elements of which is land relations regulation specialized state agency – State Land Bank.

  11. A black market for upvotes and likes

    OpenAIRE

    Héder, Mihály

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This research investigates controversial online marketing techniques that involve buying hundreds or even thousands of upvotes, likes, comments, etc. Methodology: Observation and categorization of 7,426 campaigns posted on the crowdsourcing platform microworkers.com over a 365 day (i.e., yearlong) period were conducted. Hypotheses about the mechanics and effectiveness of these campaigns were established and evaluated. Findings: The campaigns contained a combined 1,856,316 microtasks,...

  12. Appearance and substance: World petroleum market review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronchi, M.

    1992-01-01

    This review of supply and demand trends in the world petroleum market includes comments on the influence of the Brent quotations, political unrest in the Middle East and OPEC's reaction to the carbon tax proposed during the Rio Earth's Summit on global environmental protection. Overall, the analysis suggests increases in surplus, following a 15 month period of stagnant demand, with increases in Asiatic countries balanced by decreases in the Eastern Bloc nations currently periencing difficulties with their transition economies

  13. Valuing Ecosystem Services with Fishery Rents: A Lumped-Parameter Approach to Hypoxia in the Neuse River Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry B. Crowder

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Valuing ecosystem services with microeconomic underpinnings presents challenges because these services typically constitute nonmarket values and contribute to human welfare indirectly through a series of ecological pathways that are dynamic, nonlinear, and difficult to quantify and link to appropriate economic spatial and temporal scales. This paper develops and demonstrates a method to value a portion of ecosystem services when a commercial fishery is dependent on the quality of estuarine habitat. Using a lumped-parameter, dynamic open access bioeconomic model that is spatially explicit and includes predator-prey interactions, this paper quantifies part of the value of improved ecosystem function in the Neuse River Estuary when nutrient pollution is reduced. Specifically, it traces the effects of nitrogen loading on the North Carolina commercial blue crab fishery by modeling the response of primary production and the subsequent impact on hypoxia (low dissolved oxygen. Hypoxia, in turn, affects blue crabs and their preferred prey. The discounted present value fishery rent increase from a 30% reduction in nitrogen loadings in the Neuse is $2.56 million, though this welfare estimate is fairly sensitive to some parameter values. Surprisingly, this number is not sensitive to initial conditions.

  14. 76 FR 47180 - Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program-Eastern Division-2021 Power Marketing Initiative Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... marketing plan principles. The comment period for the proposed 2021 PMI ended on May 4, 2011. Western... customers the opportunity to review current marketing plan principles and provide informal input to Western... Division--2021 Power Marketing Initiative Proposal AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE. ACTION...

  15. 78 FR 52129 - Cotton Classification and Market News Service: Notice of Request for an Extension and Revision of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service [AMS-CN-13-0045] Cotton Classification... Information Collection AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice and request for comments... announces the Agricultural Marketing Service's (AMS) intention to request approval from the Office of...

  16. Institutional contexts of market power in the electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foer, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    Market power is widely recognized as one of the principal issues that must be dealt with if the electricity industry is to make the transition from regulation to competition. In this article, the author provides a legal and economic introduction to what the antitrust community means by market power and offers a primer on why market power is so central an issue in the electricity industry. Finally and most importantly, he offers comments on the institutional contexts of market power, exploring a process which he calls Shermanization that helps explain the institutional aspect of moving from regulation to competition and holds implications for where oversight should reside during this complex transition

  17. Traditional marketing vs. Internet marketing. A comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Varfan, Mona; Shima, Alfa

    2008-01-01

    Title: Traditional marketing vs. Internet marketing: A comparison Problem: Marketing is an important strategy for businesses and it contains numerous effective tools. Traditional marketing has been in use for many years and nowadays Internet has brought new ways of doing business for companies and that has affected marketing. What are the main differences between Internet marketing and traditional marketing? Which one of the two approaches contains the most used and effective marketing tools ...

  18. Market Development of Video Games : Video game markets and marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Pu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    This diploma work focus on analysing the markets and marketing of video game industry. After the research of this study, I found out that console game markets are growing dramatically in the recent years. On the other hand, PC game markets (excluding online game markets) are growing slowly due to the problem of illegal copies. So my study will then focus on the development of console game markets and marketing. A new concept called Three Parties is introduced in chapter 5 to help ...

  19. Does the market maker stabilize the market?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, M.; Chiarella, C.; He, X.Z.; Wang, D.

    2009-01-01

    The market maker plays an important role in price formation, but his/her behavior and stabilizing impact on the market are relatively unclear, in particular in speculative markets. This paper develops a financial market model that examines the impact on market stability of the market maker, who acts

  20. Solution to marketing; Marketing solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Y.; Fukushima, T.; Kanezuka, A. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-05-10

    Fuji Electric in cooperation with Citation Japan Co., Ltd. and Asahi Arthur Andersen Limited has developed the 'marketing analysis support system' which supports the integrated analysis of evaluation factors of various dimensions and efficient commodity development and demand estimation in the enterprise. With this system, more precise marketing analysis and estimation are made possible by analyzing a commodity into evaluation factors from psychological and physical points of view and further making various multivariate analyses. (author)

  1. Rent Seeking, Institution Reform and Corporate Value:Evidence from“Eight Rules and Six Bans”%寻租、制度变革与公司价值--基于“八项规定六项禁令”的实证检验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜恩点

    2016-01-01

    Based on trading fees and institutional change theory, this paper uses the publication of“Eight Rules and Six Bans”as an exogenous event and deeply examines the effect of rent-seeking behavior on corporate value at corporate micro level. Then it further discusses the effects of property rights and regulation behavior on the relationship between rent-seeking behavior and corporate value in China as an emerging market. It empirically finds that after the announcement of “Eight Rules and Six Bans”, there are significantly positive returns in the market as a whole. In addition, more rent-seeking behavior before the announcement of“Eight Rules and Six Bans” leads to the more significant role of “Eight Rules and Six Bans” in the increase in corporate value. Further analysis shows that the increase in corporate value in private companies is more significant, and the one in state-owned companies is not significant; the increase in corporate value in regulated industries is more significant and the one in non-regulated industries is not obvious. It indicates that rent-seeking behavior harms corporate value, especially in private companies and companies in regulated industries. Institution reform can help to reduce rent seeking and trading fees, and improve corporate value and thereby economic development. It is of great guidance significance to further deepening the reform and the understanding of the role of institutions and their changes.%文章基于交易费用和制度变迁理论,利用“八项规定六项禁令”公布这一外生事件,从公司微观层面深入研究寻租行为对公司价值的影响,并进一步讨论在中国新兴市场中寻租行为和公司价值之间的关系如何受到不同产权性质和管制行为的影响。文章实证发现,当“八项规定六项禁令”公布后,市场整体存在显著正的收益。企业“八项规定六项禁令”公布之前的寻租活动越多,“八项规定六项禁

  2. Investing in European market real property through reits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamuscin, A.

    2010-03-01

    For institutional and private investors, investing in real estate represents an attractive form of the consignment of their money. Real estate provides a regular source of income in the form of the rent from or interest on the credit provided. At the same time, real estate is a good investment instrument, because it provides diversified contributions and security against inflation for investors. In their efforts to diversify risk, investors are expressing growing interest in investing in the whole European Union. The success of Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) in the U.S. also opened the door for investing in this market for small investors, which is the reason for the development of this type of investment company in the European arena. One problem concerning the development of European real estate investment funds is the unsolved issue of the harmonization of the legislation and regulatory safety measures, which would enable the creation of a common market for new investment products in Europe.

  3. Comment diffuser les savoirs à travers les Alpes ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Pfefferkorn

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available CIPRA’s Future in the Alps Project aims at showcasing examples of successful implementation and successful projects in the Alps, and making available to others the extensive pool of experience and practical knowledge that lies in these projects. But how to transfer knowledge in an area of some 14 million inhabitants with several linguistic and cultural regions in which thousands of projects are carried out each year, that all kinds of players who work and life in completely different contexts are able to learn and benefit from one another? How do you go about something like that?Le projet « Avenir dans les Alpes » de la CIPRA (Commission Internationale pour la Protection des Alpes a pour objectif de présenter des exemples de réalisations et de projets réussis dans les Alpes, et de mettre à disposition du public l’ensemble de l’expérience et des connaissances pratiques acquises dans le cadre de ces projets. Cependant, comment transférer les savoirs dans une zone comptant quelque 14 millions d’habitants, composée de plusieurs régions linguistiques et culturelles dans lesquelles des milliers de projets sont menés à bien chaque année, et dont tous les acteurs, qui travaillent et vivent dans des contextes complètement différents, sont capables d’apprendre et de tirer profit les uns des autres ? Comment aborder ce genre de cas ?

  4. Marketing insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiemer, Carolin; Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Jespersen, Kristjan

    2018-01-01

    In entering Western markets, edible insects are typically framed as the ‘solution’ to a number of challenges caused by unsustainable global food systems, such as climate change and global health issues. In addition, some media outlets also frame insects as the next ‘superfood’. Superfood is a mar......In entering Western markets, edible insects are typically framed as the ‘solution’ to a number of challenges caused by unsustainable global food systems, such as climate change and global health issues. In addition, some media outlets also frame insects as the next ‘superfood’. Superfood...... is a marketing term for nutrient-packed foods, which are successfully promoted to Western consumers with the promises of health, well-being and beauty. However, the increase in the demand in the West is argued to cause negative social, environmental, economic and cultural consequences – externalities – felt...

  5. Prediction Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Christian Franz; Ivens, Bjørn Sven; Ohneberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, Prediction Markets gained growing interest as a forecasting tool among researchers as well as practitioners, which resulted in an increasing number of publications. In order to track the latest development of research, comprising the extent and focus of research, this article...... provides a comprehensive review and classification of the literature related to the topic of Prediction Markets. Overall, 316 relevant articles, published in the timeframe from 2007 through 2013, were identified and assigned to a herein presented classification scheme, differentiating between descriptive...... works, articles of theoretical nature, application-oriented studies and articles dealing with the topic of law and policy. The analysis of the research results reveals that more than half of the literature pool deals with the application and actual function tests of Prediction Markets. The results...

  6. MARKETING CULTURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gómez Ramírez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la definición de "Marketing" Cultural y la adaptación y beneficios del "marketing" tradicional respecto al conjunto de manifestaciones artísticas de las diversas industrias involucradas en el sector cultural o artístico; asimismo, se desagregan los conceptos básicos que lo componen como factor de éxito en dichas empresas. Se hace uso de la exposición de casos específicos para ilustrar la articulación de estos dos conceptos aparentemente contrapuestos, cultura y "marketing", y registra algunas reflexiones para que el lector se involucre en la construcción del concepto aquí presentado.

  7. Postmodernist marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Radenković-Šošić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The traits of postmodernist communication with consumers are based on the transmission of postmodernist concepts in the area of marketing and communication with consumers. The paper offers an overview of the basic semiological points of interpretation of commercial messages, especially the semiotic square pioneered by Jean-Marie Floch, as well as offering an analysis of commercial messages according to the most prominent traits of postmodernist marketing: creating the effect of hyperreality, fragmentary communication, and displacement of reality, bringing opposites together and accepting difference. The results of the analysis confirm the hypothesized high level of congruence of certain postmodernist traits of marketing with messages which emphasize the ludist and utopian values of products.

  8. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    After four days of breathtaking plunges, the Chinese stock market recovered to a period of steady growth thanks to encouragement from various government departments. The Chinese central bank will probably raise the interest rate in June after food prices increased dramatically in May. More good news for foreign banks. Early this month, the central bank allowed foreign banks to trade gold on the Chinese gold market and they are now able to issue bankcards in the country. Lenovo Group, China’s leading PC producer, is dedicated to exploring the rural market to boost its competitiveness. China Mobile will seek bidders to offer cell-phone handsets, a package worth 4-6 billion yuan.

  9. Market Sociality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Christian; Lange, Ann-Christina

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a critical systematic discussion of Shiller’s writings from the late 1970s to the present, as well as an examination of the social-psychological assumptions on which his work is built. We argue that Shiller’s work displays a tension between mimetic and anti-mimetic tendencies......, i.e. between understanding financial markets as captured by fads and fashions (mimesis), and at the same time understanding such markets on the basis of a notion of homo economicus (an essentially anti-mimetic figure). Identifying that tension not only sheds novel light on Shiller’s work, but also...... allows us to critically discuss Mirowski’s negative appraisal of Shiller’s behavioural finance programme. Further, we argue that the mimetic/anti-mimetic tension in Shiller’s work can equally be identified in a broader range of theories about financial markets, and that attending to it therefore opens up...

  10. 75 FR 11213 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... impact of the modest price increases upon the net fees paid by a particular market participant will... securities that it trades, and its usage of Mid-Point Pegged Orders. NASDAQ notes that it operates in a... the following methods: Electronic Comments Use the Commission's Internet comment form ( http://www.sec...

  11. Market Trials of Irradiated Spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charoen, Saovapong; Eemsiri, Jaruratana; Sajjabut, Surasak

    2009-07-01

    Full text: The objectives of the experiment were to disseminate irradiated retail foods to the domestic publics and to test consumer acceptance on irradiated ground chilli and ground pepper. Market trials of irradiated ground chilli and ground pepper were carried out at 2 local markets and 4 in Bangkok and Nontaburi in 2005-2007. Before the start of the experiment, processing room, gamma irradiation room and labels of the products were approved by Food and Drug Administration, Thailand. 50 grams of irradiated products were packaged in plastic bags for the market trials. 688 and 738 bags of ground chilli and ground pepper were sold, respectively. Questionnaires distributed with the products were commented by 59 consumers and statistically analyzed by experimental data pass program. 88.1 and 91.4 percents of the consumers were satisfied with the quality and the price, respectively. 79.7% of the consumers chose to buy irradiated ground chilli and ground pepper because they believed that the quality of irradiated products were better than that of non-irradiated ones. 91.5% of the consumers would certainly buy irradiated chilli and pepper again. Through these market trials, it was found that all of the products were sold out and the majority of the consumers who returned the questionnaires was satisfied with the irradiated ground chilli and ground pepper and also had good attitude toward irradiated foods

  12. Mineral Taxation Policies in Developing Countries: An Application of Resource Rent Tax (L'imposition des ressources dans les pays en développement: application du concept de taxe sur la rente minière) (Políticas de impuestos a los minerales en los países en desarrollo: Aplicación del impuesto a la renta de recursos)

    OpenAIRE

    Keith F. Palmer

    1980-01-01

    The central problem of mineral taxation policy in developing countries is to establish a stable fiscal framework that, under conditions of uncertainty, both obtains a high share of mineral rent for the resource-owning country and ensures for the investor the prospect of a return on his investment commensurate with his risk. The main concern of the paper is to propose a practical fiscal framework, based on the resource rent tax concept, that meets these objectives. The resource rent tax is a p...

  13. The potential for electricity market restructuring in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, C.R.; Leach, A.

    2007-01-01

    Throughout the world, electricity market liberalization has taken place or is currently underway. However, in Canada, the province of Quebec has undertaken limited restructuring measures. Considerable debate as to the potential for further market restructuring has been ongoing. This article discussed the potential for future electricity market restructuring in Quebec where competition in electricity supply has resulted in 3 categories of supply distribution, including a block of energy and power known as the heritage pool. This article considered the political economy of the abolishment if the heritage pool requirement, which caps wholesale prices. The article presented a statistical overview of Quebec's electricity market and discussed the regulatory environment. It also identified the potential for market restructuring and the establishment of a competitive wholesale market. It was concluded that Quebecers could significantly benefit from any restructuring initiative that involved the elimination of the Heritage Pool requirement if the extra rents were properly redistributed and that production sector restructuring would be difficult. 37 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  14. Total value of the customer and targeted marketing strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Ryals , L.

    2002-01-01

    The literature shows some recent calls for an end to 'unaccountable' marketing (Rust et al., 2001; Sheth and Sharma, 2001) and the use of customer lifetime value as an appropriate marketing metric (Rust et al., 2001). Some commentators recommend the application of shareholder value measures to the valuation of customer relationships (Uyemara, 1997; Mariotti, 1996). The thesis evaluates the application of shareholder value measures to the valuation of customers. Shareholder valu...

  15. Towards quality in marketing: a small firm context

    OpenAIRE

    O'Shea, Josephine Ann

    1994-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the small firm sector is vital to the well being, both social and economic, of most countries. Fostering and developing indigenous small firms has been a consistent industrial policy goal of successive Irish governments. For many years, informed commentators have stressed the need for strategic market planning and customer orientation if a company is to survive in a vigorously competitive market place. However, specific studies on the Irish small firm sector have...

  16. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Manufacturing activities continue to lose steam as the purchasing managers index drops for the third consecutive month. The U.S.retail giant Best Buy trims its China presence after struggling to survive amidcut-throat competition. But an increasing number of U.S. companies are still expanding into China to cash in on the vibrant market. The aluminum behemoth Chalco jumps back into the black due to growing prices of thelight metal. China’s leading portal website Sina makes a push into the online shopping market by acquiring a stake in an online apparel retailer.

  17. Marketing relacional

    OpenAIRE

    Lahuerta Cuartero, Ainara

    2015-01-01

    El Marketing Relacional es una herramienta de marketing a través del cual las empresas tratan de fidelizar a sus clientes mediante determinados programas de fidelización. Se deben tener en cuenta una serie de aspectos a la hora de llevas a cabo esta herramienta como por ejemplo, la imagen de marca, la comunicación o la credibilidad de la empresa. Renfe es una empresa que se preocupa por la satisfacción de los clientes y por ello pone a disposición de estos multitud de ventajas (descuentos, pr...

  18. EMERGING MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHEORGHE CARALICEA-MĂRCULESCU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The emerging markets are winning the currency war, because at this very moment its the battle of global financial institutions , as to who is more vulnerable and more exposed to the debt crisis and have their hands in more risky assets. US and Euro with their intertwining the financial stuff of the nation, the banks and the corporations are in a deep mess. One goes down, takes the other ones too. Right now , they all are struggling and getting beaten up , while the emerging markets are quiet and not really expressing their stands on the current situation except are reacting by all only putting their own houses in order.

  19. Marketing percolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, J.; Libai, B.; Solomon, S.; Jan, N.; Stauffer, D.

    2000-09-01

    A percolation model is presented, with computer simulations for illustrations, to show how the sales of a new product may penetrate the consumer market. We review the traditional approach in the marketing literature, which is based on differential or difference equations similar to the logistic equation (Bass, Manage. Sci. 15 (1969) 215). This mean-field approach is contrasted with the discrete percolation on a lattice, with simulations of "social percolation" (Solomon et al., Physica A 277 (2000) 239) in two to five dimensions giving power laws instead of exponential growth, and strong fluctuations right at the percolation threshold.

  20. Mobil marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Engelová, Kateřina

    2006-01-01

    Mobil marketing - reklama a podpora prodeje prostřednictvím mobilních telefonů. Technologické a kulturní předpoklady vzniku tohoto odvětví. Mobil marketing a marketingový mix, možnosti synergie. Nástroje mobil marketingu - reklamní SMS a MMS, lokační služby, soutěže, ankety a hlasování, věrnostní systémy, mobilní obsah. Subjekty mobil marketingu. M-komerce. Využití pro podnikové aplikace.

  1. Digital Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Jerry Wind; Vijay Mahajan

    2002-01-01

    The digital revolution has shaken marketing to its core with consumers being offered greater price transparency and often even the chance to dictate the price. What does pricing mean in a world in which customers propose their own prices (as at priceline.com) or buyers and sellers haggle independently in auctions (as at e-Bay)? The most significant changes in the digital marketing show the emergence of 'cyber consumers', the cyber business-to-business world and the changing reality of an incr...

  2. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    TO THE POINT: China’s foreign trade records monthly drop again, with February’s deficit reaching $7.3 billion. The feverish auto market is calming down, with February sales dropping 33.1 percent from a month ago. Chinese thermal power generators are facing serious head- winds as the coal price increases. Ernst & Young’s report shows China racing ahead of other countries in renewable energy investments. The U.S. coupon website Groupon.com extends its reach into China, but its prospects remain uncertain. Digital advertiser Focus Media is faring well thanks to a booming advertising market in China.

  3. Advisory report on licence requirements for the marketing of natural gas and electricity to residential and small commercial consumers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-06

    The proposed Ontario Energy Board Act, 1998 which forms part of Bill 35, would make it possible for the Board to make regulations prescribing license requirements and conditions for sellers of natural gas and electricity to residential and small commercial users. Interested stakeholders were invited to provide their input on the proposed Act. A total of 23 parties responded by submitting their comments to the Ontario Energy Board. This document presents the concerns of several parties regarding various provisions of the proposed regulatory regime affecting energy marketing. Comments on the definition of `low volume customer`, on classes of gas marketers, need and requirements for gas marketer`s licence, the form and posting of security bonds by prospective gas marketers, exemptions from licensing, conditions of licensing, code of conduct for energy marketers, disclosure of customer information, were some of the proposed provisions that elicited comments.

  4. Opinion Summarizationof CustomerComments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Miao; Wu, Guoshi

    Web 2.0 technologies have enabled more and more customers to freely comment on different kinds of entities, such as sellers, products and services. The large scale of information poses the need and challenge of automatic summarization. In many cases, each of the user-generated short comments implies the opinions which rate the target entity. In this paper, we aim to mine and to summarize all the customer comments of a product. The algorithm proposed in this researchis more reliable on opinion identification because it is unsupervised and the accuracy of the result improves as the number of comments increases. Our research is performed in four steps: (1) mining the frequent aspects of a product that have been commented on by customers; (2) mining the infrequent aspects of a product which have been commented by customers (3) identifying opinion words in each comment and deciding whether each opinion word is positive, negative or neutral; (4) summarizing the comments. This paper proposes several novel techniques to perform these tasks. Our experimental results using comments of a number of products sold online demonstrate the effectiveness of the techniques.

  5. Comments on Unruh's Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Stapp, Henry P.

    1998-01-01

    Unruh has commented upon my recent proof that certain predictions of quantum theory are incompatible with the assertion that no influence of any kind acts backward in time in any Lorentz frame. Unruh fails to make a necessary distinction between statements that assert the existence of values, and statements that assert the existence merely of correlations between possible values. Consequently his argument fails to show that my proof involves a tacit or hidden reality assumption that is alien ...

  6. Annual survey on the natural gas market: 2008 main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    This document presents and briefly comments the main data of the natural gas market in France in 2008: gas production, gas transit (entry points receiving gas from various origins and export points to Spain and Switzerland), gas storage, gas distribution, gas sales in the different French regions and to different kinds of customers or industries

  7. The Value of Surprising Findings for Research on Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    JS Armstrong

    2004-01-01

    In the work of Armstrong (Journal of Business Research, 2002), I examined empirical research on the scientific process and related these to marketing science. The findings of some studies were surprising. In this reply, I address surprising findings and other issues raised by commentators.

  8. Marketing deportivo

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Montaña, Nelson Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    El marketing deportivo en nuestro país y sus repercusiones en el mundo, es una clara herramienta para el desarrollo del mercadeo, y muestra las tendencias mundiales que ejemplifican de alguna forma el desarrollo de la industria deportiva como también el apoyo a sponsorizacion en los deportes

  9. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU YUE

    2010-01-01

    @@ Online Ad Boom According to a report delivered by iResearch Consulting Group, a market researcher that specializes in Web-related studies, the Chinese online advertisement value in 2009 soared 21.2 percent year on year to reach 20.61 billion yuan($3 billion).

  10. Chemical Looping Combustion with Different Types of Liquid Fuels Combustion en boucle chimique avec différentes charges liquides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoteit A.

    2011-02-01

    travail est d’étudier la faisabilité de la combustion partielle ou totale des charges liquides dans les conditions du CLC au contact d’un matériau porteur d’oxygène. Un petit réacteur en lit fluidisé opérant en batch a été développé pour permettre alternativement le contact du matériau porteur d’oxygène avec une charge liquide ou de l’air. Le réacteur de 20 mm de diamètre est rempli de 45 g de particules de NiAl0.44O1.67. Environ 1-2 g de charge liquide est injecté par pulse dans le lit à des températures allant jusqu’à 950˚C. Différentes charges liquides ont été étudiées, du dodécane au fioul lourd n˚2. Les résultats montrent que pendant la période de réduction du matériau porteur d’oxygène, il est possible de convertir tous les hydrocarbures injectés. À l’issue de cette phase, il ne subsiste pas de dépôt de coke à la surface des particules. En fonction de la quantité d’oxygène disponible dans le lit, on effectue une combustion totale ou partielle des hydrocarbures injectés. Des résultats similaires sont obtenus pour les différents hydrocarbures testés, malgré leurs propriétés a priori très différentes.

  11. 76 FR 51308 - Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... retail food stores of products for sale at a stated price. You can file a comment online or on paper. For... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 424 Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices..., and regulatory and economic impact of the FTC's rule for ``Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing...

  12. 77 FR 61895 - Electricity Market Transparency Provisions of Section 220 of the Federal Power Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... Determination 105 b. Resale of Financial Transmission Rights in 109 Secondary Markets i. NOPR 109 ii. Comments... by non-public utilities, with non-public utilities accounting for 60 and 70 percent of wholesale... that the Commission's market-based rate program is based on a theory of regulation through competition...

  13. Commentary on Andrew Coulson's "Comparing Public, Private, and Market Schools: The International Evidence"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Gary; Coulson, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors comment on Andrew Coulson's "Comparing Public, Private, and Market Schools: The International Evidence." The authors believe that Coulson's paper is a very interesting review of the literature on the ability of market-produced education to outperform government-produced education. Coulson's response on this commentary…

  14. Market Power in Laboratory Emission Permit Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godby, R.

    2002-01-01

    Many proposals suggesting the use of markets to control pollution assume markets will be competitive. When markets do not exhibit competitive characteristics, however, should they still be expected to result in efficiency improvement relative to traditional approaches? This paper employs experimental economic methods to examine the effect of market structure on the use of marketable emissions permits. Results indicate that in a market with one dominant firm and a number of fringe firms, strategic manipulation occurs repeatedly in the laboratory as predicted by market power models, undermining the allocative and dynamic efficiency benefits such markets offer. When firms compete in a downstream product market dominated by the same single firm, market efficiency can actually be reduced with the implementation of permit markets. Final market efficiencies reflect initial endowments and are influenced by competitive conditions elsewhere in the economy, indicating that policy-makers should carefully consider whether markets are appropriate in such circumstances

  15. From physical marketing to web marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constantinides, Efthymios

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the criticism of the 4P marketing mix framework as the basis of traditional and virtual marketing planning. Argues that the customary marketing management approach, based on the popular marketing mix 4Ps paradigm, is inadequate in the case of virtual marketing. Identifies two main

  16. Marketing Optimization for B2B Market

    OpenAIRE

    Kaynova Tatyana V.

    2012-01-01

    The article presents market definition B2B, the necessity to optimize marketing B2B market, provides a system for B2B-marketing and developed stages of its formation. On this basis it was identified key factors of customer loyalty and are the stages of development of loyalty programs for customers market B2B.

  17. Utilizing of marketing research for marketing communication

    OpenAIRE

    Bielová, Zuzana

    2008-01-01

    The subject of bachelor's thesis "Utilizing of marketing research for marketing communication" is analyze problematic of marketing communications in sector of educational services. The aims are potential clients of education. I will try to make out import of marketing research for marketing communication of the company.

  18. Marketing Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  19. Entrepreneurship and marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Sidorchuk, Roman

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the relationship marketing and entrepreneurship. Marketing considered as an integral part of entrepreneurship. Commit role in relationship marketing and entrepreneurship innovation. The role of marketing in the search for potential market demand of innovation as the scope of latent or unmet needs of customers. Shown the lack of marketing in today's special marketing tools for entrepreneurs.

  20. Evaluating the impacts of farmers' behaviors on a hypothetical agricultural water market based on double auction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Erhu; Cai, Ximing; Brozović, Nicholas; Minsker, Barbara

    2017-05-01

    Agricultural water markets are considered effective instruments to mitigate the impacts of water scarcity and to increase crop production. However, previous studies have limited understanding of how farmers' behaviors affect the performance of water markets. This study develops an agent-based model to explicitly incorporate farmers' behaviors, namely irrigation behavior (represented by farmers' sensitivity to soil water deficit λ) and bidding behavior (represented by farmers' rent seeking μ and learning rate β), in a hypothetical water market based on a double auction. The model is applied to the Guadalupe River Basin in Texas to simulate a hypothetical agricultural water market under various hydrological conditions. It is found that the joint impacts of the behavioral parameters on the water market are strong and complex. In particular, among the three behavioral parameters, λ affects the water market potential and its impacts on the performance of the water market are significant under most scenarios. The impacts of μ or β on the performance of the water market depend on the other two parameters. The water market could significantly increase crop production only when the following conditions are satisfied: (1) λ is small and (2) μ is small and/or β is large. The first condition requires efficient irrigation scheduling, and the second requires well-developed water market institutions that provide incentives to bid true valuation of water permits.

  1. Market Structure and Market Access

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Francois; Ian Wooton

    2008-01-01

    The authors examine an issue at the nexus of domestic competition policy and international trade, the interaction between goods trade and market power in domestic trade and distribution sectors. Theory suggests a set of linkages between service-sector competition and goods trade supported by econometrics involving imports of 22 OECD countries compared with 69 exporters. Competition in serv...

  2. The effect of provider control of Blue Shield plans on health care markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, R J; DeBrock, L M

    1985-07-01

    Blue Shield plans often are granted regulatory advantages by the states in which they operate. Run efficiently, such not-for-profit firms should use these lower costs to eliminate their less advantaged rivals, the commercial insurers. However, these higher-cost commercial providers have been able to offer insurance coverage at prices competitive with the Blues, as evidenced by the fact that Blue plans have, on average, less than 50 percent market share. Similar prices with lower overall costs implies that economic rents are being earned, rents which a not-for-profit firm cannot distribute to owners. In this paper we argue that when there are competing goals among the groups controlling the Blue Shield plans, the different possible "uses" of the regulatory advantage become endogenously determined, necessitating the use of simultaneous equation estimation. Testing this model we find the major effect of doctor-control of Blue Shield plans is to raise doctors' fees while lowering the amount of rents captured by both consumers and administrators.

  3. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The drought in southwest China casts an ominous shadow over the prospects of many listed power and chemical companies suffering from the disaster.Taiwan’s economy is expected to draw strength from a shopping spree by mainland businessmen starting in April.In an effort to take heat out of the burning hot real estate sector,China is forcing 78 centrally administered state-owned enterprises out of the property market.Air China gains control of Shenzhen Airlines in a move to enhance its market presence in Guangdong Province.China Unicom reports slim profits due to rising 3G network spending.Alibaba.com,the country’s largest e-commerce website,taps the booming small and medium-sized enterprise sector of Brazil.

  4. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    According to November economic figures, the Chinese economy is on track for recovery on all fronts. The logistics industry recoups its strength, though woes on the trade front require more time to fully recover. By partly withdrawing tax incentives for prospective real estate and auto buyers, China aims to calm the bubbling markets. Auto behemoth General Motors forges a joint venture with Shanghai Automotive Industry Corp. Group to maneuver into the emerging Indian auto market. Canadian handset maker RIM launches a version of the BlackBerry that supports the TD network of China Mobile for millions of individual users in China. Siemens makes a push into green business in China with a 2-billion-yuan ($293 million) sale.

  5. Risk Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Boutang , Jérôme; De Lara , Michel

    2016-01-01

    In a modern world increasingly perceived as uncertain, the mere purchase of a household cleaning product, or a seemingly harmless bottle of milk, conveys interrogations about potential hazards, from environmental to health impacts. The main purpose of this article is to suggest that risk could be considered as one of the major dimensions of choice for a wide range of concerns and markets, alongside aspiration/satisfaction, and tackled efficiently by mobilizing the recent findings of cognitive...

  6. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    TO THE POINT: The Chinese central bank raised the interest rate for the fifth time this year but this had little impact on the property and stock mar- kets. Foreign direct investment and fixed asset investment saw moderate increases in the first eight months, partly because of the government’s tightening policies. Gold futures will be traded on the market. Online traders are now required to acquire business licenses from regulative bodies.

  7. Auto Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    <正> Editor’s notes: the "online investigation of the updated condition of auto market in China", organized by BAGAE together with 7 websites, ended recently. The participants were from 32 provinces, cities and autonomous regions throughout China. Diplomas of the 4,657 participants were generally high, of which college or/over accounted for 80.7%; the participants were mainly middle-aged and young people in which 92.1% were below 40 years old.

  8. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By expanding yuan settlement in cross-border trade andallowing cross-border direct investment in the yuan, China aims to pushforward the internationalization of its currency. House prices are still holding up inChina, but property developers are under increasing pressures. China’s goldmarket bursts with vitality as investors seek safety amid soaringinflation. The automaker BYD faces serious headwinds due to a plunge insales. The telecom giant China Mobile faces slower growth in its customerbase due to cutthroat market competition.

  9. Analysis And Comments On The Consultative Document: International Framework For Liquidity Risk Measurement, Standards And Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques Prefontaine; Jean Desrochers; Lise Godbout

    2010-01-01

    The market turmoil that began in mid-2007 re-emphasized the importance of liquidity to the functioning of financial markets and the banking sector. In December 2009, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) of the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) released a consultative document entitled: “International Framework for Liquidity Risk Measurement, Standards and Monitoring”. Interested parties were invited to provide written comments by April 16th 2010. Given our interest in prom...

  10. Academic Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Daniela ZECA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Academic Marketing is an investment in a future dominated by The Forth Industrial Revolution and Globalization and not an expense. This aspect will basically alter our way to teach and to learn. In its dimensions, arguably changes will be like anything we has seen before. We try to assess how will be all unfold but, anyway, academic field response at this challenge should be integrated and comprehensive, involving all stakeholders both public and private sectors, because these changes herald upheaval of whole organizations. The educational service is a special one, delivered today but with effects in the future, the future of the individual, the future of generation, the future of nations. The educational service policy adapted to the requirements of time, brings to the front the opportunity of academic marketing. To analyze demand in a professional way, to measure trends and correlated university programs with the forecast demand for jobs, it is the subject. In the case of academic education, we are talking also about cost, distribution and promotion policies, but being a special service we also discuss about ethic boundaries. This work is an open chapter focusing studies on academic megamarketing, the work keeping up with the pace of change, students enrolment mobility, overtakes job market, and an imposed win-win-win formula, applied for students, local community and academic field.

  11. Modelling and analysis of global coal markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueby, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Steam Coal Market? The essay demonstrates the ways in which different Chinese bulk energy transport strategies affect the future steam coal market in China and in the rest of the world. Increasing Chinese energy demand will require additional energy to be transported from the supply to the demand regions. If domestic transport costs escalate, Chinese coal consumers could increasingly import coal. We analyse two settings: one in which coal is increasingly transported by rail and one in which coal energy is transported as electricity. A key finding is that if coal were converted into electricity early in the supply chain, worldwide marginal costs off coal supply would be lower than if coal were hauled by train. Furthermore, China's dependence on imports is significantly reduced in this context. Allocation of welfare changes particularly in favour of Chinese consumers while rents of international producers decrease.

  12. Modelling and analysis of global coal markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueby, Johannes

    2013-01-17

    Steam Coal Market? The essay demonstrates the ways in which different Chinese bulk energy transport strategies affect the future steam coal market in China and in the rest of the world. Increasing Chinese energy demand will require additional energy to be transported from the supply to the demand regions. If domestic transport costs escalate, Chinese coal consumers could increasingly import coal. We analyse two settings: one in which coal is increasingly transported by rail and one in which coal energy is transported as electricity. A key finding is that if coal were converted into electricity early in the supply chain, worldwide marginal costs off coal supply would be lower than if coal were hauled by train. Furthermore, China's dependence on imports is significantly reduced in this context. Allocation of welfare changes particularly in favour of Chinese consumers while rents of international producers decrease.

  13. From physical marketing to web marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Constantinides, Efthymios

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the criticism of the 4P marketing mix framework as the basis of traditional and virtual marketing planning. Argues that the customary marketing management approach, based on the popular marketing mix 4Ps paradigm, is inadequate in the case of virtual marketing. Identifies two main limitations of the marketing mix when applied in online environments namely the role of the Ps in a virtual commercial setting and the lack of any strategic elements in the model. Identifies the critical fac...

  14. Does Online Marketing Truly Replace Traditional Marketing?

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawan, Emilia Margareth

    2013-01-01

    This review explains the way how online marketing has been replacing traditional marketing in terms of marketing mix. This replacement might happen, because online marketing can give advantages, i.e., offering on-time delivery, increasing effectiveness of two way interactions between buyer and seller, and creating online communities (Szmigin, et al, 2005). The transition of atoms to bits format reflects that tangible products in traditional marketing is being digitalized. The marketing strate...

  15. « Au fracas de la foudre, les animaux intelligents s'éveillèrent »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès Bouvier

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Félix Pouchet, dans son Hétérogénie, ou Traité de la génération spontanée qu’il publie en 1859, défend, contre Pasteur et Milne-Edwards, l’idée d’une « force génésique » inhérente à la matière qui aurait présidé à la création et qui continuerait de s’exercer dans la formation et la transformation des espèces. Le livre fait partie des lectures de Flaubert pendant la période de rédaction de Salammbô. Le 5 août 1860, il écrit dans une lettre à madame Jules Sandeau : « J’entremêle mes lectures puniques (qui ne sont pas légères d’autres facéties graves. Je me livre maintenant au volumineux bouquin de mon ami le docteur Pouchet sur les générations spontanées. » C’est la nature de cet entrelacement que nous proposons d’interroger, à travers l’étude génétique d’un passage du chapitre III de Salammbô où Flaubert récrit la cosmogonie phénicienne à la lumière du spontanéisme moderne.Félix Pouchet, in Heterogeny or Spontaneous generation Treatise (1859, argues, against Pasteur and Milne-Edwards, for the existence of a « genesical force » inside matter at the beginning of the universe, still active in the formation and transformation of species. Flaubert read Pouchet’s book when he was writing Salammbô. On August 5th 1860, he wrote to madame Jules Sandeau : « I mingle my Punic readings (which are not light with other serious jokes. I now dedicate myself to my friend doctor Pouchet’s bulky book on spontaneous generations. » This interlacing of archaeology and science is precisely what I will examine in my paper, through the genetic study of a passage of Salammbô (chapter III where Flaubert rewrites the Phoenician cosmogony in the light of modern spontaneism.

  16. Ethics and Economics: A Comment on Narvaez's "Revitalizing Human Virtue by Restoring Organic Morality"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnameier, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    This paper comments on Darcia Narvaez's Kohlberg Memorial Lecture (EJ1111256), published in this issue, with respect to her contrasting ethics and economics, or morality and market. My basic claim is that ethics and economics, properly understood, are just two sides of the same coin. One main point is that all morality solves cooperation problems…

  17. 76 FR 65755 - Proposed Submission of Information Collection for OMB Review; Comment Request; Survey of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ...; Comment Request; Survey of Nonparticipating Single Premium Group Annuity Rates AGENCY: Pension Benefit... for pricing annuity contracts. The American Council of Life Insurers conducts this survey for PBGC... markets. To determine these interest rates, PBGC gathers pricing data from insurance companies that are...

  18. 75 FR 53968 - Reverb Communications, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... final the agreement's proposed order. This matter involves the public relations, marketing, and sales... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION [File No. 092 3199] Reverb Communications, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Proposed Consent Agreement...

  19. 77 FR 49428 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection, Comment Request: Further...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... solicits comments on the recordkeeping requirement that is embedded in the final interpretation's reporting... of the Federal Reserve System (``Board''), jointly adopted new rules and interpretations under the... market positions of any person and trade secrets or names of customers.'' \\4\\ The Commission is also...

  20. 77 FR 18826 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Financial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... financial information to the sponsors of marketing applications. Under Sec. 54.4(a) (21 CFR 54.4(a... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-0280] Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Financial Disclosure by...